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Sample records for understand abstract concepts

  1. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  2. Abstract concepts in grounded cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakens, D.

    2010-01-01

    When people think about highly abstract concepts, they draw upon concrete experiences to structure their thoughts. For example, black knights in fairytales are evil, and knights in shining armor are good. The sensory experiences black and white are used to represent the abstract concepts of good and

  3. Embodied cognition, abstract concepts, and body manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka eDijkstra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches on cognition hold that concrete concepts are grounded in concrete experiences. There is no consensus, however, as to whether this is equally true for abstract concepts. In this review we discuss how the body might be involved in understanding abstract concepts through metaphor activation. Substantial research has been conducted on the activation of common orientational metaphors with bodily manipulations, such as ‘power is up’ and ‘more is up’ representations. We will focus on the political metaphor that has a more complex association between the concept and the concrete domain. However, the outcomes of studies on this political metaphor have not always been consistent, possibly because the experimental manipulation was not implicit enough. The inclusion of new technological devices in this area of research, such as the Wii Balance Board, seems promising in order to assess the groundedness of abstract conceptual spatial metaphors in an implicit manner. This may aid further research to effectively demonstrate the interrelatedness between the body and more abstract representations.

  4. Grounding abstractness: Abstract concepts and the activation of the mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth. While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  5. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  6. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  7. Understanding the Agribusiness Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper S.

    Designed to aid in learning the main ideas of the agribusiness concept, this document answers the following questions, treating each answer in a separate explanatory section: (1) What is the meaning of the terms "agriculture" and "agribusiness"? (2) What is the relationship of agriculture and agribusiness? (3) What is involved in tracing an…

  8. Embodied cognition, abstract concepts, and the benefits of new technology for implicit body manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dijkstra (Katinka); A. Eerland (Anita); J. Zijlmans (Josjan); L.S. Post (Lysanne)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractCurrent approaches on cognition hold that concrete concepts are grounded in concrete experiences. There is no consensus, however, as to whether this is equally true for abstract concepts. In this review we discuss how the body might be involved in understanding abstract concepts through

  9. Embodied cognition, abstract concepts, and the benefits of new technology for implicit body manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.; Eerland, A.; Zijlmans, J.; Post, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Current approaches on cognition hold that concrete concepts are grounded in concrete experiences. There is no consensus, however, as to whether this is equally true for abstract concepts. In this review we discuss how the body might be involved in understanding abstract concepts through metaphor

  10. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Laura; Mazzuca, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier) on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012), the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience, abstract concepts activate linguistic and social information more than concrete ones. Specifically, the Words As Social Tools (WAT) proposal predicts that the simulation of their meaning leads to an activation of the mouth (Borghi and Binkofski, 2014; Borghi and Zarcone, 2016). Since the pacifier affects facial mimicry forcing mouth muscles into a static position, we hypothesize its possible interference on acquisition/consolidation of abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional concepts, which are mainly conveyed during social and linguistic interactions, than of concrete concepts. Fifty-nine first grade children, with a history of different frequency of pacifier use, provided oral definitions of the meaning of abstract not-emotional, abstract emotional, and concrete words. Main effect of concept type emerged, with higher accuracy in defining concrete and abstract emotional concepts with respect to abstract not-emotional concepts, independently from pacifier use. Accuracy in definitions was not influenced by the use of pacifier, but correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses suggest that the use of pacifier differently modulates the conceptual relations elicited by abstract emotional and abstract not-emotional. While the majority of the children produced a similar pattern of conceptual relations, analyses on the few (6) children who overused the pacifier (for more than 3 years) showed that they tend to distinguish less clearly between concrete and

  11. Pacifier Overuse and Conceptual Relations of Abstract and Emotional Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Barca, Laura; Mazzuca, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of the extensive use of an oral device since infancy (pacifier) on the acquisition of concrete, abstract, and emotional concepts. While recent evidence showed a negative relation between pacifier use and children's emotional competence (Niedenthal et al., 2012), the possible interaction between use of pacifier and processing of emotional and abstract language has not been investigated. According to recent theories, while all concepts are grounded in sensorimotor...

  12. Effects of Variation and Prior Knowledge on Abstract Concept Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning abstract concepts through concrete examples may promote learning at the cost of inhibiting transfer. The present study investigated one approach to solving this problem: systematically varying superficial features of the examples. Participants learned to solve problems involving a mathematical concept by studying either superficially…

  13. Ausubel's understanding of concept development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of relatively new cognitivistic learning and cognition theories - the theory by American psychologist David Ausubel. We consider this theory to be very usable for teaching beginners or for cognition process. It is of utmost importance that first or elementary concepts concerning natural and social phenomena a pupil aquires need to be accurate, understandable and properly connected in a cause-effect sequence of conceptual systems so that items of knowledge aquired can be stable and usable. For correct understanding of Ausubel's claims concerning processes and procedures involved in the acquisition of elementary concepts, which is central to this investigation, it is necessary to address problems and questions concerning the following: the process of aquisition or construction of first concepts; how to base verbal learning; how is subsuming achieved, that is connecting of new and previously acquired concepts; what is the relation of this theory with other cognitivistic theories of learning, and, finally, what are critical views or evalutions which can make this theory truly productive in relation to teaching.

  14. Abstract Concepts and Pictures of Real-World Situations Activate One Another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Ken; Nedjadrasul, Daniel; Pau, Raymond; Lo, Bethany Pui-Hei; King, Lisa

    2018-03-02

    concepts typically are defined in terms of lacking physical or perceptual referents. We argue instead that they are not devoid of perceptual information because knowledge of real-world situations is an important component of learning and using many abstract concepts. Although the relationship between perceptual information and abstract concepts is less straightforward than for concrete concepts, situation-based perceptual knowledge is part of many abstract concepts. In Experiment 1, participants made lexical decisions to abstract words that were preceded by related and unrelated pictures of situations. For example, share was preceded by a picture of two girls sharing a cob of corn. When pictures were presented for 500 ms, latencies did not differ. However, when pictures were presented for 1,000 ms, decision latencies were significantly shorter for abstract words preceded by related versus unrelated pictures. Because the abstract concepts corresponded to the pictured situation as a whole, rather than a single concrete object or entity, the necessary relational processing takes time. In Experiment 2, on each trial, an abstract word was presented for 250 ms, immediately followed by a picture. Participants indicated whether or not the picture showed a normal situation. Decision latencies were significantly shorter for pictures preceded by related versus unrelated abstract words. Our experiments provide evidence that knowledge of events and situations is important for learning and using at least some types of abstract concepts. That is, abstract concepts are grounded in situations, but in a more complex manner than for concrete concepts. Although people's understanding of abstract concepts certainly includes knowledge gained from language describing situations and events for which those concepts are relevant, sensory and motor information experienced during real-life events is important as well. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Abstract spatial concept priming dynamically influences real-world actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Tower-Richardi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Experienced regularities in our perceptions and actions play important roles in grounding abstract concepts such as social status, time, and emotion. Might we similarly ground abstract spatial concepts in more experienced-based domains? The present experiment explores this possibility by implicitly priming abstract spatial terms (north, south, east, west and then measuring participants’ hand movement trajectories while they respond to a body-referenced spatial target (up, down, left, right in a verbal (Exp. 1 or spatial (Exp. 2 format. Results from two experiments demonstrate temporally-dynamic and prime-biased movement trajectories when the primes are incongruent with the targets (e.g., north – left, west – up. That is, priming abstract coordinate directions influences subsequent actions in response to concrete target directions. These findings provide the first evidence that abstract concepts of world-centered coordinate axes are implicitly understood in the context of concrete body-referenced axes; critically, this abstract-concrete relationship manifests in motor movements, and may have implications for spatial memory organization.

  16. Non-Determinism: An Abstract Concept in Computer Science Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Non-determinism is one of the most important, yet abstract, recurring concepts of Computer Science. It plays an important role in Computer Science areas such as formal language theory, computability theory, distributed computing, and operating systems. We conducted a series of studies on the perception of non-determinism. In the current research,…

  17. Abstract reasoning in autism: a dissociation between concept formation and concept identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshew, Nancy J; Meyer, Jessica; Goldstein, Gerald

    2002-07-01

    The concept identification and concept formation aspects of abstract reasoning were examined in 90 nonmentally retarded individuals with autism and 107 normal controls. It was hypothesized that pronounced deficits would be found on concept formation tests, whereas performance on concept identification tests would be relatively intact. There was a significant difference between individuals with autism and individuals from a matched control group on all abstract reasoning tasks, but, with the exception of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (R. K. Heaton et al., 1993), differences on concept identification tests were not clinically significant. Factor analyses showed that concept formation and concept identification tasks loaded on separate factors in the autism group but not in the control group. Stepwise discriminant function analyses revealed that 2 tests of concept formation correctly classified 78.4% of cases, whereas concept identification tasks did not pass the tolerance test.

  18. Moral concepts set decision strategies to abstract values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Caspers

    Full Text Available Persons have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual conflict situations were investigated suggest an important role of prefrontal and cingulate brain regions. General preferences, however, reflect a superordinate moral concept independent of actual situations as proposed in psychological and socioeconomic research. Here, the specific brain response would be influenced by abstract value systems and moral concepts. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such responses are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI with a forced-choice paradigm on word pairs representing abstract values, we show that the brain handles such decisions depending on the person's superordinate moral concept. Persons with a predominant collectivistic (altruistic value system applied a "balancing and weighing" strategy, recruiting brain regions of rostral inferior and intraparietal, and midcingulate and frontal cortex. Conversely, subjects with mainly individualistic (egocentric value preferences applied a "fight-and-flight" strategy by recruiting the left amygdala. Finally, if subjects experience a value conflict when rejecting an alternative congruent to their own predominant value preference, comparable brain regions are activated as found in actual moral dilemma situations, i.e., midcingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results demonstrate that superordinate moral concepts influence the strategy and the neural mechanisms in decision processes, independent of actual situations, showing that decisions are based on general neural principles. These findings provide a novel perspective to future sociological and economic research as well as to the analysis of social relations by focusing on abstract value systems as triggers of specific brain responses.

  19. Making Sense of Abstract Algebra: Exploring Secondary Teachers' Understandings of Inverse Functions in Relation to Its Group Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on semi-structured, task-based interviews to explore secondary teachers' (N = 7) understandings of inverse functions in relation to abstract algebra. In particular, a concept map task is used to understand the degree to which participants, having recently taken an abstract algebra course, situated inverse functions within its…

  20. Embodied cognition, abstract concepts, and the benefits of new technology for implicit body manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Eerland, Anita; Zijlmans, Josjan; Post, Lysanne S.

    2014-01-01

    Current approaches on cognition hold that concrete concepts are grounded in concrete experiences. There is no consensus, however, as to whether this is equally true for abstract concepts. In this review we discuss how the body might be involved in understanding abstract concepts through metaphor activation. Substantial research has been conducted on the activation of common orientational metaphors with bodily manipulations, such as “power is up” and “more is up” representations. We will focus on the political metaphor that has a more complex association between the concept and the concrete domain. However, the outcomes of studies on this political metaphor have not always been consistent, possibly because the experimental manipulation was not implicit enough. The inclusion of new technological devices in this area of research, such as the Wii Balance Board, seems promising in order to assess the groundedness of abstract conceptual spatial metaphors in an implicit manner. This may aid further research to effectively demonstrate the interrelatedness between the body and more abstract representations. PMID:25191282

  1. Abstraction of complex concepts with a refined partial-area taxonomy of SNOMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Halper, Michael; Wei, Duo; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James

    2012-01-01

    An algorithmically-derived abstraction network, called the partial-area taxonomy, for a SNOMED hierarchy has led to the identification of concepts considered complex. The designation “complex” is arrived at automatically on the basis of structural analyses of overlap among the constituent concept groups of the partial-area taxonomy. Such complex concepts, called overlapping concepts, constitute a tangled portion of a hierarchy and can be obstacles to users trying to gain an understanding of the hierarchy’s content. A new methodology for partitioning the entire collection of overlapping concepts into singly-rooted groups, that are more manageable to work with and comprehend, is presented. Different kinds of overlapping concepts with varying degrees of complexity are identified. This leads to an abstract model of the overlapping concepts called the disjoint partial-area taxonomy, which serves as a vehicle for enhanced, high-level display. The methodology is demonstrated with an application to SNOMED’s Specimen hierarchy. Overall, the resulting disjoint partial-area taxonomy offers a refined view of the hierarchy’s structural organization and conceptual content that can aid users, such as maintenance personnel, working with SNOMED. The utility of the disjoint partial-area taxonomy as the basis for a SNOMED auditing regimen is presented in a companion paper. PMID:21878396

  2. Public understanding of radiation protection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 clearly showed that communication with the public was one of the areas where there was a strong need for improvement, particularly concerning the nature and extent of the information provided by national authorities. The countermeasures adopted by public health authorities also raised difficulties in terms of public understanding and acceptance due, in part, to the perception of discrepancies in national, regional or local response to the accident, but also to a more basic lack of comprehension of the complex radiation protection considerations involved. In an attempt to help improve the situation, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health decided to organise a Workshop on public communication in the event of a nuclear accident, centered on radiation protection issues. The purpose of this Workshop was to analyse appropriate methods and language to be used when explaining to the public the scientific concepts underlying radiation risks and radiation protection, and the technical rationale for the choice of protective actions in an emergency. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

  3. Assessing Elementary Understanding of Multiplication Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie Z.; Smith, Marvin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic concepts of multiplication and provides some evidence that the traditional third-grade curriculum and instruction emphasizing memorization of multiplication facts produces much less understanding of the basic concepts of multiplication than a standards-based curriculum and instruction emphasizing construction of…

  4. The Neural Development of an Abstract Concept of Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Libertus, Melissa E.; Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    As literate adults, we appreciate numerical values as abstract entities that can be represented by a numeral, a word, a number of lines on a scorecard, or a sequence of chimes from a clock. This abstract, notation-independent appreciation of numbers develops gradually over the first several years of life. Here, using functional magnetic resonance…

  5. Using Real Life Examples to Teach Abstract Statistical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvududu, Nyaradzo; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides real life examples that can be used to explain statistical concepts. It does not attempt to be exhaustive, but rather, provide a few examples for selected concepts based on what students should know after taking a statistics course. (Contains 2 tables.)

  6. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University Health Services. Ahmadu Bella University, Zaria, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Phywieo-chemical methods were used to analyse the commonly used lcualt samples bought from Zaria and Kano local markets. Blood-leadaoncentrations in ltuali ...

  7. Understanding catchment behaviour through model concept improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenicia, F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to model development based on the concept of iterative model improvement, which is a process where by trial and error different hypotheses of catchment behaviour are progressively tested, and the understanding of the system proceeds through a combined process of

  8. Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite the swift spread of social network concepts and their applications and the rising use of network analysis in social science, there is no book that provides a thorough general introduction for the serious reader. "Understanding Social Networks" fills that gap by explaining the big ideas that underlie the social network phenomenon.…

  9. The Concept of African Pianism Emmanuel Boamah1 Abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Pianism is a style of piano music which employs techniques and styles used in ... A composition can therefore be based on African traditional vocal music or instrumental music. The concept also deals with the keyboard music of African art ..... structural aspects of the diversified musical genres of our continent which.

  10. Exploring Concepts from Abstract Algebra Using Variations of Generalized Woven Figure Eights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tara; Knoll, Eva; Landry, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Students often struggle with concepts from abstract algebra. Typical classes incorporate few ways to make the concepts concrete. Using a set of woven paper artifacts, this paper proposes a way to visualize and explore concepts (symmetries, groups, permutations, subgroups, etc.). The set of artifacts used to illustrate these concepts is derived…

  11. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Abstract. Aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts from the leaves of Ficus religiosa, Thespesia populnea and Hibiscus tiliaceus were completely screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. The chloroform extract of F. religiosa possessed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity with a zone of inhibition of 10 to 21 ...

  12. Abstract,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract·. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of overso~ing legumes on ~a~gela~d pe'rtormance in. Shinyanga'region, Tanzania. Four leguminous species namely Centrosema pubescence, Clito-':iii ternatea,. cMacroptilium atropurpureum and Stylosanthes hamata were Qversown in. a"natural ran,geland in a.

  13. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    Abstract. For well over three hundred years, the monsoon has been considered to be a gigantic land-sea breeze driven by the land-ocean contrast in surface temperature. In this paper, this hypothesis ..... primary driver of the monsoon in many papers and most textbooks (e.g. Lau and Li, 1984,. Webster 1987a, Meehl 1994, ...

  14. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Email: jameskigera@yahoo.co.uk. ABSTRACT. Background: Implant orthopaedic surgery is associated with a risk of post operative Surgical Site. Infection (SSI). This can have devastating consequences in the case of arthroplasty. Due to the less than ideal circumstances under which surgery is conducted in Africa, there are ...

  15. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WORKERS ON THEIR JOB PERFORMANCE IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA. NGOZI OKEREKE AND no. ONU. ABSTRACT. The study focused on the. efl'ect of socioeconomic characteristics of field extension workers on their job performance in.1mo state agricultural development programme, Nigeria. Data was collected with the ...

  16. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    Abstract. Many mathematical models of stochastic dynamical systems were based on the assumption that the drift and volatility coefficients were linear function of the solution. In this work, we arrive at the drift and the volatility by observing the dynamics of change in the selected stocks in a sufficiently small interval t∆ .

  17. Are Abstract and Concrete Concepts Organized Differently? Evidence from the Blocked Translation Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2013-01-01

    Using the blocked-translation paradigm with healthy participants, we examined Crutch and Warrington's hypothesis that concrete and abstract concepts are organized by distinct principles: concrete concepts by semantic similarities and abstract ones by associations. In three experiments we constructed two types of experimental blocking (similar…

  18. Designing an image retrieval interface for abstract concepts within the domain of journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Besseling (Ron)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractResearch has shown that users have difficulties finding images which illustrate abstract concepts. We carried out a user study that confirms the finding that the selection of search terms is perceived difficult and that users find the subjectivity of abstract concepts problematic. In

  19. The Role of Games and Simulations to Teach Abstract Concepts of Anarchy, Cooperation, and Conflict in World Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Games and simulations are increasingly used in courses on international politics. This study explores the hypothesis that games are better than simulations (as well as only reading and lectures) in introducing students to abstract concepts integral to an understanding of world politics. The study compares a two-level Prisoner's Dilemma game…

  20. Naming a Lego world. The role of language in the acquisition of abstract concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Carmen; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a) whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b) whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c) whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand, independently from

  1. Naming a Lego world. The role of language in the acquisition of abstract concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Granito

    Full Text Available While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand

  2. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abstract abstract

    2016-07-01

    conclusion, our results showed that LEO and MeSA treatments could be safe and used to prevent infection of strawberry during storage, although LEO was more effective than MeSA treatments. Concentration of 500 μl L-1 of LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA could control fungal infection of fruits during storage. Also, LEO and MeSA treatments can extend shelf life for over the minimum period required to transit strawberries to foreign markets and without affecting quality, adversely. However, future studies are necessary to fully understand the mechanisms by which LEO and MeSA treatments may act as a fungicide and increase their postharvest life.

  3. Neural reuse leads to associative connections between concrete (physical) and abstract (social) concepts and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimeng; Bargh, John A

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with neural reuse theory, empirical tests of the related "scaffolding" principle of abstract concept development show that higher-level concepts "reuse" and are built upon fundamental motives such as survival, safety, and consumption. This produces mutual influence between the two levels, with far-ranging impacts from consumer behavior to political attitudes.

  4. Learning abstract visual concepts via probabilistic program induction in a Language of Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overlan, Matthew C; Jacobs, Robert A; Piantadosi, Steven T

    2017-11-01

    The ability to learn abstract concepts is a powerful component of human cognition. It has been argued that variable binding is the key element enabling this ability, but the computational aspects of variable binding remain poorly understood. Here, we address this shortcoming by formalizing the Hierarchical Language of Thought (HLOT) model of rule learning. Given a set of data items, the model uses Bayesian inference to infer a probability distribution over stochastic programs that implement variable binding. Because the model makes use of symbolic variables as well as Bayesian inference and programs with stochastic primitives, it combines many of the advantages of both symbolic and statistical approaches to cognitive modeling. To evaluate the model, we conducted an experiment in which human subjects viewed training items and then judged which test items belong to the same concept as the training items. We found that the HLOT model provides a close match to human generalization patterns, significantly outperforming two variants of the Generalized Context Model, one variant based on string similarity and the other based on visual similarity using features from a deep convolutional neural network. Additional results suggest that variable binding happens automatically, implying that binding operations do not add complexity to peoples' hypothesized rules. Overall, this work demonstrates that a cognitive model combining symbolic variables with Bayesian inference and stochastic program primitives provides a new perspective for understanding people's patterns of generalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep Understanding of Electromagnetism Using Crosscutting Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Poorter, John; De Lange, Jan; Devoldere, Lies; Van Landeghem, Jouri; Strubbe, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    Crosscutting concepts like patterns and models are fundamental parts in both the American framework of science education (from the AAAS) and our proposals for a new science education framework in Flanders. These concepts deepen the insight of both students and teachers. They help students to ask relevant questions during an inquiry and they give…

  6. Auditing complex concepts of SNOMED using a refined hierarchical abstraction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Halper, Michael; Wei, Duo; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Spackman, Kent A; Case, James T; Hripcsak, George

    2012-02-01

    Auditors of a large terminology, such as SNOMED CT, face a daunting challenge. To aid them in their efforts, it is essential to devise techniques that can automatically identify concepts warranting special attention. "Complex" concepts, which by their very nature are more difficult to model, fall neatly into this category. A special kind of grouping, called a partial-area, is utilized in the characterization of complex concepts. In particular, the complex concepts that are the focus of this work are those appearing in intersections of multiple partial-areas and are thus referred to as overlapping concepts. In a companion paper, an automatic methodology for identifying and partitioning the entire collection of overlapping concepts into disjoint, singly-rooted groups, that are more manageable to work with and comprehend, has been presented. The partitioning methodology formed the foundation for the development of an abstraction network for the overlapping concepts called a disjoint partial-area taxonomy. This new disjoint partial-area taxonomy offers a collection of semantically uniform partial-areas and is exploited herein as the basis for a novel auditing methodology. The review of the overlapping concepts is done in a top-down order within semantically uniform groups. These groups are themselves reviewed in a top-down order, which proceeds from the less complex to the more complex overlapping concepts. The results of applying the methodology to SNOMED's Specimen hierarchy are presented. Hypotheses regarding error ratios for overlapping concepts and between different kinds of overlapping concepts are formulated. Two phases of auditing the Specimen hierarchy for two releases of SNOMED are reported on. With the use of the double bootstrap and Fisher's exact test (two-tailed), the auditing of concepts and especially roots of overlapping partial-areas is shown to yield a statistically significant higher proportion of errors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Auditing Complex Concepts of SNOMED using a Refined Hierarchical Abstraction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Halper, Michael; Wei, Duo; Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Xu, Junchuan; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Spackman, Kent A.; Case, James T.; Hripcsak, George

    2012-01-01

    Auditors of a large terminology, such as SNOMED CT, face a daunting challenge. To aid them in their efforts, it is essential to devise techniques that can automatically identify concepts warranting special attention. “Complex” concepts, which by their very nature are more difficult to model, fall neatly into this category. A special kind of grouping, called a partial-area, is utilized in the characterization of complex concepts. In particular, the complex concepts that are the focus of this work are those appearing in intersections of multiple partial-areas and are thus referred to as overlapping concepts. In a companion paper, an automatic methodology for identifying and partitioning the entire collection of overlapping concepts into disjoint, singly-rooted groups, that are more manageable to work with and comprehend, has been presented. The partitioning methodology formed the foundation for the development of an abstraction network for the overlapping concepts called a disjoint partial-area taxonomy. This new disjoint partial-area taxonomy offers a collection of semantically uniform partial-areas and is exploited herein as the basis for a novel auditing methodology. The review of the overlapping concepts is done in a top-down order within semantically uniform groups. These groups are themselves reviewed in a top-down order, which proceeds from the less complex to the more complex overlapping concepts. The results of applying the methodology to SNOMED’s Specimen hierarchy are presented. Hypotheses regarding error ratios for overlapping concepts and between different kinds of overlapping concepts are formulated. Two phases of auditing the Specimen hierarchy for two releases of SNOMED are reported on. With the use of the double bootstrap and Fisher’s exact test (two-tailed), the auditing of concepts and especially roots of overlapping partial-areas is shown to yield a statistically significant higher proportion of errors. PMID:21907827

  8. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Ok; Lee, Joohi; Moon, Sung Seek

    2009-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the effects of death education on children and their understanding of death. The participants of this study were eighty 5- and 6-year-olds who were enrolled in a suburban kindergarten in Korea. To examine the level of children's understanding of death, researchers interviewed each child in both the control and…

  9. Understanding Number Sequences Leads to Understanding Mathematics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnak, Robert; Schmerold, Katrina Lea; Robinson, Melissa Fetterer; Gadzichowski, K. Marinka; Bock, Allison M.; O'Brien, Sarah Eva; Kidd, Julie K.; Gallington, Deb A.

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-six first grade students in an urban school system were tested in October and May on reading, mathematics, and their understanding of sequences of letters and numbers. A time lag analysis was subsequently conducted. In such analyses, cross-correlations between the first measurement of one variable and the second measurement of another are…

  10. ``Who Thinks Abstractly?'': Quantum Theory and the Architecture of Physical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2011-03-01

    Beginning with its introduction by W. Heisenberg, quantum mechanics was often seen as an overly abstract theory, mathematically and physically, vis-à-vis classical physics or relativity. This perception was amplified by the fact that, while the quantum-mechanical formalism provided effective predictive algorithms for the probabilistic predictions concerning quantum experiments, it appeared unable to describe, even by way idealization, quantum processes themselves in space and time, in the way classical mechanics or relativity did. The aim of the present paper is to reconsider the nature of mathematical and physical abstraction in modern physics by offering an analysis of the concept of "physical fact" and of the concept of "physical concept," in part by following G. W. F. Hegel's and G. Deleuze's arguments concerning the nature of conceptual thinking. In classical physics, relativity, and quantum physics alike, I argue, physical concepts are defined by the following main features—1) their multi-component multiplicity; 2) their essential relations to problems; 3) and the interactions between physical, mathematical, and philosophical components within each concept. It is the particular character of these interactions in quantum mechanics, as defined by its essentially predictive (rather than descriptive) nature, that distinguishes it from classical physics and relativity.

  11. Understanding on concepts of force of Thai freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usawinchai, Chokchai

    The central concept of Newtonian mechanics is force. Without this concept, the students would find the rest of mechanics very difficult to master. Based on this hypothesis, the understandings and misconceptions of Newtonian mechanics were investigated. Three hundred eighteen Thai freshmen participated in this study. The freshmen were divided into two groups according to their high school locations, Bangkok and other cities of Thailand. The Force Concept Inventory was used to probe the freshmen's understandings and misconceptions. The SPSS and EXCEL programs were used to analyze the data. The translation of the FCI into Thai and its subsequent validation is considered to be a significant contribution to physics education research. The analyses indicated freshmen had the best understanding on concepts of Newton's first and third laws and the least on Newton's second law. Several Misconceptions on Newtonian force concepts were found, similar to their USA counterparts. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of freshmen on understanding of Newtonian force concepts.

  12. Temporal Dynamics of Task Switching and Abstract-Concept Learning in Pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alexander Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined whether pigeons could learn to use abstract concepts as the basis for conditionally switching behavior as a function of time. Using a mid-session reversal task, experienced pigeons were trained to switch from matching-to-sample (MTS to non-matching-to-sample (NMTS conditional discriminations within a session. One group had prior training with MTS, while the other had prior training with NMTS. Over training, stimulus set size was progressively doubled from 3 to 6 to 12 stimuli to promote abstract concept development. Prior experience had an effect on the initial learning at each of the set sizes but by the end of training there were no group differences, as both groups showed similar within-session linear matching functions. After acquiring the 12-item set, abstract-concept learning was tested by placing novel stimuli at the beginning and end of a test session. Prior matching and non-matching experience affected transfer behavior. The matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both the matching and non-matching portion of the sessions using a matching rule. The non-matching experienced group transferred to novel stimuli in both portions of the session using a non-matching rule. The representations used as the basis for mid-session reversal of the conditional discrimination behaviors and subsequent transfer behavior appears to have different temporal sources. The implications for the flexibility and organization of complex behaviors are considered.

  13. Learning Abstract Physical Concepts from Experience: Design and Use of an RC Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Alfredo; Ordenes, Jorge; de la Fuente, Milton

    2018-05-01

    Science learning for undergraduate students requires grasping a great number of theoretical concepts in a rather short time. In our experience, this is especially difficult when students are required to simultaneously use abstract concepts, mathematical reasoning, and graphical analysis, such as occurs when learning about RC circuits. We present a simple experimental model in this work that allows students to easily design, build, and analyze RC circuits, thus providing an opportunity to test personal ideas, build graphical descriptions, and explore the meaning of the respective mathematical models, ultimately gaining a better grasp of the concepts involved. The result suggests that the simple setup indeed helps untrained students to visualize the essential points of this kind of circuit.

  14. Understanding statistical concepts using S-PLUS

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacker, Randall E

    2001-01-01

    Written as a supplemental text for an introductory or intermediate statistics course, this book is organized along the lines of many popular statistics texts. The chapters provide a good conceptual understanding of basic statistics and include exercises that use S-PLUS simulation programs. Each chapter lists a set of objectives and a summary.The book offers a rich insight into how probability has shaped statistical procedures in the behavioral sciences, as well as a brief history behind the creation of various statistics. Computational skills are kept to a minimum by including S-PLUS programs

  15. Understanding augmented reality concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is not a technology. Augmented reality is a medium. Likewise, a book on augmented reality that only addresses the technology that is required to support the medium of augmented reality falls far short of providing the background that is needed to produce, or critically consume augmented reality applications. One reads a book. One watches a movie. One experiences augmented reality. Understanding Augmented Reality addresses the elements that are required to create compelling augmented reality experiences. The technology that supports

  16. Textquest: document clustering of Medline abstracts for concept discovery in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, I; Enright, A J; Ouzounis, C A

    2001-01-01

    We present an algorithm for large-scale document clustering of biological text, obtained from Medline abstracts. The algorithm is based on statistical treatment of terms, stemming, the idea of a 'go-list', unsupervised machine learning and graph layout optimization. The method is flexible and robust, controlled by a small number of parameter values. Experiments show that the resulting document clusters are meaningful as assessed by cluster-specific terms. Despite the statistical nature of the approach, with minimal semantic analysis, the terms provide a shallow description of the document corpus and support concept discovery.

  17. Roles of Animation Tools in Understanding Programming Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Andres; Joy, Mike; Sutinen, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Computer generated animations are resources used to explain how programs are executed in order to clarify the relevant programming concepts. However, whilst trying to understand new programming concepts it is not clear how and when students benefit from an animation if they are using the tool on their own. To clarify the role of an animation tool…

  18. Future Science Teachers' Understandings of Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, Iztok; Vidic, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of diffusion and osmosis cross the disciplinary boundaries of physics, chemistry and biology. They are important for understanding how biological systems function. Since future (pre-service) science teachers in Slovenia encounter both concepts at physics, chemistry and biology courses during their studies, we assessed the first-,…

  19. Assessing Understanding of the Energy Concept in Different Science Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas across all science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for assessing students' understanding of the energy concept within and across different science disciplines. To achieve this goal, the Inter-Disciplinary Energy concept Assessment (IDEA) was…

  20. The impact of negative emotions on self-concept abstraction depends on accessible information processing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Linda M; Rovenpor, Daniel R; Lair, Elicia C

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014). The current work extends this theoretical perspective by investigating the impact of discrete negative emotions on the self-concept. By experimentally manipulating information processing styles and discrete negative emotions that vary in appraisals of certainty, we demonstrate that the impact of discrete negative emotions on the spontaneous self-concept depends on accessible processing styles. When global processing was accessible, individuals in angry (negative, high certainty) states generated more abstract statements about themselves than individuals in either sad (Experiment 1) or fearful (Experiment 2; negative, low certainty) states. When local processing was made accessible, however, the opposite pattern emerged, whereby individuals in angry states generated fewer abstract statements than individuals in sad or fearful states. Together these studies provide new insights into the mechanisms through which discrete emotions influence cognition. In contrast to theories assuming a dedicated link between emotions and processing styles, these results suggest that discrete emotions provide feedback about accessible ways of thinking, and are consistent with recent evidence suggesting that the impact of affect on cognition is highly context-dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. How Do Students Acquire an Understanding of Logarithmic Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueeny, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The use of logarithms, an important tool for calculus and beyond, has been reduced to symbol manipulation without understanding in most entry-level college algebra courses. The primary aim of this research, therefore, was to investigate college students' understanding of logarithmic concepts through the use of a series of instructional tasks…

  2. Understanding concepts of place in recreation research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda. E. Kruger; Troy E. Hall; Maria C. Stiefel

    2008-01-01

    Over a 3-day weekend in the spring of 2004 a group of scientists interested in extending understanding of place as applied in recreation research and management convened a working session in Portland, Oregon. The purpose of the gathering was to clarify their understanding of place-related concepts, approaches to the study of people-place relations, and the application...

  3. Threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the scientific case for current climate change is compelling, the consequences of climate change have largely failed to permeate through to individuals. This lack of public awareness of the science and the potential impacts could be considered a key obstacle to action. The possible reasons for such limited success centre on the issue that climate change is a complex subject, and that a wide ranging academic, political and social research literature on the science and wider implications of climate change has failed to communicate the key issues in an accessible way. These failures to adequately communicate both the science and the social science of climate change at a number of levels results in ';communication gaps' that act as fundamental barriers to both understanding and engagement with the issue. Meyer and Land (2003) suggest that learners can find certain ideas and concepts within a discipline difficult to understand and these act as a barrier to deeper understanding of a subject. To move beyond these threshold concepts, they suggest that the expert needs to support the learner through a range of learning experiences that allows the development of learning strategies particular to the individual. Meyer and Land's research into these threshold concepts has been situated within Economics, but has been suggested to be more widely applicable though there has been no attempt to either define or evaluate threshold concepts to climate change science. By identifying whether common threshold concepts exist specifically in climate science for cohorts of either formal or informal learners, scientists will be better able to support the public in understanding these concepts by changing how the knowledge is communicated to help overcome these barriers to learning. This paper reports on the findings of a study that examined the role of threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science in a UK University and considers its implications for wider

  4. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    This research works within the framework of constructivist learning (based on constructivist epistemology) and examines learning as an activity of construction, and it posits that knowledge acquisition (and learning) are transformative through self-involvement in some subject matter. Thus it leads...... and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education...

  5. Understanding of action-related and abstract verbs in comparison: a behavioral and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; De Stefani, Elisa; Sestito, Mariateresa; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Does the comprehension of both action-related and abstract verbs rely on motor simulation? In a behavioral experiment, in which a semantic task was used, response times to hand-action-related verbs were briefer than those to abstract verbs and both decreased with repetition of presentation. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment, single-pulse stimulation was randomly delivered over hand motor area of the left primary motor cortex to measure cortical-spinal excitability at 300 or 500 ms after verb presentation. Two blocks of trials were run. In each block, the same verbs were randomly presented. In the first block, stimulation induced an increase in motor evoked potentials only when TMS was applied 300 ms after action-related verb presentation. In the second block, no modulation of motor cortex was found according to type of verb and stimulation-delay. These results confirm that motor simulation can be used to understand action rather than abstract verbs. Moreover, they suggest that with repetition, the semantic processing for action verbs does not require activation of primary motor cortex anymore.

  6. Understanding the concept of nationally appropriate mitigation action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.; Desgain, D.

    2013-05-15

    This publication is intended to enable national policy makers and other stakeholders, such as the private sector and technical experts, to acquaint themselves with the concept of NAMA. It aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) concept and enhance the understanding of NAMAs by explaining the underlying decisions of the Conference of the Parties in layman's terms. The first chapter describes how the concept of NAMA emerged in the context of the negotiations on climate change. The chapter gives an overview of how the concepts of NAMA and related MRV and financing issues have evolved through the different COPs. The second chapter clarifies the understanding of NAMAs in the context of the global temperature goal, and moves on to discuss the legal nature and scope of NAMAs. The chapter subsequently analyses the diversity of NAMAs submitted by developing countries to the UNFCCC, and ends by proposing a structure for formal submission of a NAMA. The third chapter specifically addresses the concept of measurement, reporting and verification (MRV), and describes the implications for countries implementing the MRV requirements. The last chapter discusses institutional arrangements, under the Convention, for providing financing to develop and implement NAMAs. The chapter also briefly discusses the different financial sources for implementing NAMAs, and concludes by explaining the concept of incremental cost in this specific context. (Author)

  7. Medical students' understanding of the concept of a soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Helen; Barrett, Anthony; Nicholson, Helen D

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a soul has been discussed throughout religious, philosophical, and scientific circles, yet no definitive description exists. Recent interviews with medical students during the production of a documentary film identified that many believed in the concept of a soul. This study explores students' understanding of the concept of a soul. The 2011 cohort of second-year medical students at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand were invited to participate in an online survey with a free text response asking students to describe their understanding of the soul. The descriptions of the soul included the soul as a "spirit" or "life force" and some described the soul as giving a person their "values" and "personality." Students discussed the location of a soul with most stating that the soul was not attached to the body, but others mentioned the heart or the brain as the seat of the soul. A common theme related to the mortality of the soul emerged, with most believing that the soul left the body at death. Some students' concept of a soul was related to their religious beliefs, while others who did not believe in the concept of a soul described it as a "myth" used to bring comfort at the time of death. Medical students have varied opinions on the concept and importance of the soul. It is important to recognize the diversity of views when exploring the process of death and spirituality with medical students. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. A Formal Semantics for Concept Understanding relying on Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    In this research, Description Logics (DLs) will be employed for logical description, logical characterisation, logical modelling and ontological description of concept understanding in terminological systems. It’s strongly believed that using a formal descriptive logic could support us in reveali...

  9. An understanding of environmental concepts and issues among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and understanding of Grade 10-12 students about selected environmental concepts and issues such as population, ozone layer, green house effect, and acid rain. Another aim of this study is to find out whether there is any difference between the knowledge and ...

  10. OCRA, a Mobile Learning Prototype for Understanding Chemistry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariman, Tenku Putri Norishah; Talib, Othman

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the effects of an interactive multimedia mobile learning application on students' understanding of chemistry concepts. The Organic Chemistry Reaction Application (OCRA), a mobile learning prototype with touch screen commands, was applied in this research. Through interactive multimedia techniques, students can create and…

  11. The Different Benefits from Different Gestures in Understanding a Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seokmin; Hallman, Gregory L.; Son, Lisa K.; Black, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Explanations are typically accompanied by hand gestures. While research has shown that gestures can help learners understand a particular concept, different learning effects in different types of gesture have been less understood. To address the issues above, the current study focused on whether different types of gestures lead to different levels…

  12. Rural women's understanding of the concept of menopause in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study indicated that the rural women in Mutale community had the common traditional understanding of the concept menopause, that blood is gone, old age, it was God' nature of doing things and that cessation of menstruation was a normal and natural transition. They could not attach cessation of ...

  13. an understanding of environmental concepts and issues among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental knowledge, attitudes and concern are also conflicting. As there is disagreement about the direction of relationships between different variables, therefore, there is a need to investigate the understanding of environmental concepts and issues among Grade 10-12 students from rural and urban schools.

  14. Improving students’ understanding of mathematical concept using maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, Y. L.; Paradesa, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to improve students’ understanding of mathematical concept ability through implementation of using Maple in learning and expository learning. This study used a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The sample on this study was 61 students in the second semester of Mathematics Education of Universitas PGRI Palembang, South Sumatera in academic year 2016/2017. The sample was divided into two classes, one class as the experiment class who using Maple in learning and the other class as a control class who received expository learning. Data were collective through the test of mathematical initial ability and mathematical concept understanding ability. Data were analyzed by t-test and two ways ANOVA. The results of this study showed (1) the improvement of students’ mathematical concept understanding ability who using Maple in learning is better than those who using expository learning; (2) there is no interaction between learning model and students’ mathematical initial ability toward the improvement of students’ understanding of mathematical concept ability.

  15. Investigating High School Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the year 12 students' (N = 56) understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts after instruction using two conceptual tests, the "Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 1" ("CECT-1") consisting of nine two-tier multiple-choice items and the "Chemical Equilibrium Conceptual Test 2"…

  16. Understandability of Goal Concepts by Requirements Engineering Experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsman, W.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2014-01-01

    ARMOR is a graphical language for modeling business goals and enterprise architectures. In previous work we have identified problems with understandability of goal-oriented concepts for practicing enterprise architects. In this paper we replicate the earlier quasi-experiments with experts in

  17. Understanding the Dialectical Relations Between Everyday Concepts and Scientific Concepts Within Play-Based Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2009-03-01

    In recent times there has been an enormous interest in Vygotsky’s writing on conceptual development, particularly his insights on the differences between everyday and scientific thinking. In drawing upon cultural-historical theory, this paper seeks to examine the relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts within playful contexts, such as preschools, with a view to better understanding how very young children develop conceptual understandings in science. This paper presents an overview of a study which sought to map the transformation and appropriation of scientific concepts within two early childhood settings. Approximately ten weeks of data gathering took place, with video recordings, field notes, photographic documentation, and child and teacher interviews for recording child concept formation within these naturalistic settings. The findings indicate that when teacher programs are more oriented towards concepts rather than materials, children’s play is focused on conceptual connections. Importantly, the study showed that: It was possible to map the multiple and dynamic levels or stratas of thinking that a child or group of children may exhibit within play-based contexts; An analysis of ‘unorganised heaps’ and ‘complexive thinking’ evident in conceptually or materially oriented play-based programs can be determined; the dialectical relations between everyday concepts and scientific concepts in play-based programs can be understood; and greater understanding about the nature of concept formation in situated playful contexts have been possible.

  18. Emergence, concept, and understanding of Pan-River-Basin (PRB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concept of Pan-River-Basin (PRB for water resource management is proposed with a discussion on the emergence, concept, and application of PRB. The formation and application of PRB is also discussed, including perspectives on the river contribution rates, harmonious levels of watershed systems, and water resource availability in PRB system. Understanding PRB is helpful for reconsidering river development and categorizing river studies by the influences from human projects. The sustainable development of water resources and the harmonization between humans and rivers also requires PRB.

  19. The Concept of Embodied Knowledge for Understanding Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito; Fujinami, Tsutomu

    Our goal in this paper is to understand, in the light of intuition and emotion, the problem-finding and value judgments by organisational members that are part of organisational knowledge creation. In doing so, we emphasise the importance of embodied knowledge of organisations as an explanatory concept. We propose ways of approaching intuition and sense of value as these are posited as objects of research. Approaches from the first, second, and third-person viewpoints result in a deeper grasp of embodied knowledge of organisations. Important in organisational knowledge creation is embodied knowledge of organisations, which has a bearing on problem-finding before any problem-solving or decision making takes place, and on value judgments about the importance of problems that have been found. This article proposes the concept of embodied knowledge, and, by introducing it, gives a profound understanding of that facet of organisational knowledge creation characterised by tacit knowledge held by organisational individuals.

  20. Elementary pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding of dissolving: a Vygotskian concept development perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Pamela; Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2015-09-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate and identify the nature and the interrelatedness of pre-service teachers' misconceptions and scientific concepts for explaining dissolving before, during, and after a 5E learning cycle lesson on dissolving, the intervention. Sample, design, and methods: Guided by Vygotsky's theory of concept development, the study focused specifically on the spontaneous, and spontaneous pseudo-concepts held by the 61 elementary pre-service teachers during a 15-week science methods course. Data included concept maps, interview transcripts, written artifacts, drawings, and narratives, and were thematically analyzed to classify concepts and interrelatedness. Results: Results of the study showed that spontaneous pseudo-concepts (1) dominated pre-service teachers' understandings about dissolving throughout the study, and (2) were simply associated with scientific concepts during and after the intervention. Conclusion: Collectively, the results indicated that the pre-service teachers' did not acquire a unified system of knowledge about dissolving that could be characterized as abstract, generalizable, and hierarchical. Implications include the need for (1) familiarity with pre-service teachers' prior knowledge about science content; (2) a variety of formative assessments to assess their misconceptions; (3) emphasizing the importance of dialectical method for concept development during instruction; and (4) skillful content instructors.

  1. Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

  2. Financial Understanding: A Phenomenographic Access to Students’ Concepts of Credits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Speer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial education has become a more popular part of general education in schools. Different social and economic backgrounds as well as experiences influence the students’ conceptualization of the same financial phenomenon. Therefore, phenomenography is an appropriate research strategy for investigating students’ deeper understanding of financial core concepts. Our research concentrates on ‘credit’ as a central phenomenon. Thirteen focus groups made up of secondary school students and university students in Germany discussed varying examples of taking out a loan. Systematizing students’ conceptualizations, the outcome space consists of four main categories: attitudes, needs, credit terms and calculation. On a deeper level we found further subcategories. The results of our explorative study can guide a chronology of teaching different concepts as well as further research.

  3. Understanding the Concept of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Sudhir; Desgain, Denis DR

    discusses institutional arrangements, under the Convention, for providing financing to develop and implement NAMAs. The chapter also briefly discusses the different financial sources for implementing NAMAs, and concludes by explaining the concept of incremental cost in this specific context....... and related MRV and financing issues have evolved through the different COPs. The second chapter clarifies the understanding of NAMAs in the context of the global temperature goal, and moves on to discuss the legal nature and scope of NAMAs. The chapter subsequently analyses the diversity of NAMAs submitted...

  4. Speaking two "Languages" in America: A semantic space analysis of how presidential candidates and their supporters represent abstract political concepts differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Schloss, Benjamin; Follmer, D Jake

    2017-10-01

    In this article we report a computational semantic analysis of the presidential candidates' speeches in the two major political parties in the USA. In Study One, we modeled the political semantic spaces as a function of party, candidate, and time of election, and findings revealed patterns of differences in the semantic representation of key political concepts and the changing landscapes in which the presidential candidates align or misalign with their parties in terms of the representation and organization of politically central concepts. Our models further showed that the 2016 US presidential nominees had distinct conceptual representations from those of previous election years, and these patterns did not necessarily align with their respective political parties' average representation of the key political concepts. In Study Two, structural equation modeling demonstrated that reported political engagement among voters differentially predicted reported likelihoods of voting for Clinton versus Trump in the 2016 presidential election. Study Three indicated that Republicans and Democrats showed distinct, systematic word association patterns for the same concepts/terms, which could be reliably distinguished using machine learning methods. These studies suggest that given an individual's political beliefs, we can make reliable predictions about how they understand words, and given how an individual understands those same words, we can also predict an individual's political beliefs. Our study provides a bridge between semantic space models and abstract representations of political concepts on the one hand, and the representations of political concepts and citizens' voting behavior on the other.

  5. Organic matter linked radionuclide transport in Boom clay - Phenomenological understanding and abstraction to PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.; Liu, D.J.; Salah, S.; Van Laer, L.; Wang, L.; Weetjens, E.; Govaerts, J.; Marivoet, J.; Brassinnes, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the frame of the Belgian research program on long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive wastes coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, plastic clays (i.e., Boom Clay and Ypresian clays) are investigated for their potential to host a deep geological disposal repository for radioactive waste because of, among others, their ability to significantly retard radionuclide releases to the biosphere. The Boom Clay is characterised by the presence of a relatively high amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, humic substances) which show a strong interaction with a suite of radionuclides (RN) like lanthanides, actinides and transition metals. This interaction with DOM leads in general to an increased mobility of the radionuclide as the OM can act as a colloidal carrier for the radionuclide. Therefore, the quantification and the understanding of the underlying processes are needed for the demonstration of confidence in the host formation to act as a suitable barrier. However, this is not an easy task, given the multitude of processes involved: complexation/colloid formation, sorption, kinetics, filtration, -. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the research work that leads to a straightforward reactive transport model capturing fairly well the experimental observations. The model can be considered as an intermediate model providing a good basis for further safety abstraction on the one hand and the way to a more detailed phenomenological understanding on the other hand. The research is focussed on the underlying processes that govern speciation, sorption and transport. These underlying processes are investigated in a bottom-up approach, from simple systems to more complex systems. Interpretation is done using thermodynamic based models. Whereas the contribution of Bruggeman et al. focusses mainly on (batch) sorption studies (of trivalent RN), this presentation will provide more details on the

  6. A Study of Understanding: Alchemy, Abstraction, and Circulating Reference in Tertiary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Brett W.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding is widely touted to be of paramount importance for education. This is especially true in science education research and development where understanding is heralded as one of the cornerstones of reform. Teachers are expected to teach for understanding and students are expected to learn with understanding. This dissertation is an…

  7. Mining Concept Maps to Understand University Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin Soung; Cho, Moon-Heum

    2012-01-01

    Concept maps, visual representations of knowledge, are used in an educational context as a way to represent students' knowledge, and identify mental models of students; however there is a limitation of using concept mapping due to its difficulty to evaluate the concept maps. A concept map has a complex structure which is composed of concepts and…

  8. An Abstract Interaction Concept for Designing Interaction Behaviour of Service Compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirgahayu, T.; Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Mertins, Kai; Ruggaber, Rainer; Popplewell, Keith; Xu, Xiaofei

    2008-01-01

    In a service composition, interaction behaviour specifies an information exchange protocol that must be complied with in order to guarantee interoperability between services. Interaction behaviour can be designed using a top-down design approach utilising high abstraction levels to control its

  9. The Risky Path to a Followership Identity: From Abstract Concept to Situated Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Nielsen, Mie Femø

    2017-01-01

    . The findings reveal the risks of misidentifying the task at hand, of being too authoritative, and of claiming too much knowledge. Also, our analyses highlight that leader and follower roles remain abstract in workplace interactions and, instead, people focus more on negotiated, task-oriented, practical...

  10. The Representation of Concrete and Abstract Concepts: Categorical versus Associative Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jingyi; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 word-translation experiments, we examined the different representational frameworks theory (Crutch & Warrington, 2005; 2010) that concrete words are represented primarily by category, whereas abstract words are represented by association. In our experiments, Chinese-English bilingual speakers were presented with an auditory Chinese word…

  11. Cryogenic treatment of steel: from concept to metallurgical understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Subjecting steel to cryogenic treatment to improve its properties was conceived in the 30ies of the previous century. The proof of concept that properties, in particular wear resistance, can indeed be improved importantly, was reported in the next decades. Despite many investigations......, the metallurgical understanding of the microstructural changes involved in cryogenic treatment of steel has remained poor. It is believed that the improvement in wear resistance is promoted by an enhanced precipitation of carbides during tempering, but no explanation has been given as to how this enhanced...... precipitation can be obtained. In the last six years, the authors have applied in situ magnetometry, synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and dilatometry to enlighten the phase transitions occurring in steels at cryogenic temperatures and to point out the connection between different treatment parameters...

  12. Understanding and Applying the Concept of Value Creation in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David B; Durand, Daniel J; Siegal, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    The concept of value in radiology has been strongly advocated in recent years as a means of advancing patient care and decreasing waste. This article explores the concept of value creation in radiology and offers a framework for how radiology practices can create value according to the needs of their referring clinicians. Value only exists in the eyes of a customer. We propose that the primary purpose of diagnostic radiology is to answer clinical questions using medical imaging to help guide management of patient care. Because they are the direct recipient of this service, we propose that referring clinicians are the direct customers of a radiology practice and patients are indirect customers. Radiology practices create value as they understand and fulfill their referring clinicians' needs. To narrow those needs to actionable categories, we propose a framework consisting of four major dimensions: (1) how quickly the clinical question needs to be answered, (2) the degree of specialization required to answer the question, (3) how often the referring clinician uses imaging, and (4) the breadth of imaging that the referring clinician uses. We further identify three major settings in which referring clinicians utilize radiological services: (1) emergent or urgent care, (2) primary care, and (3) specialty care. Practices best meet these needs as they engage with their referring clinicians, create a shared vision, work together as a cohesive team, structure the organization to meet referring clinicians' needs, build the tools, and continually improve in ways that help referring clinicians care for patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Children's understanding of area concepts: development, curriculum and educational achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Trevor G; Parkinson, Kellie

    2010-01-01

    As one part of a series of studies undertaken to investigate the contribution of developmental attributes of learners to school learning, a representative sample of forty-two students (age from 5 years and 3 months to 13 years and 1 month) was randomly selected from a total student population of 142 students at a small private primary school in northern Australia. Those children's understandings of area concepts taught during the primary school years were assessed by their performance in two testing situations. The first consisted of a written classroom test of ability to solve area problems with items drawn directly from school texts, school examinations and other relevant curriculum documents. The second, which focused more directly on each child's cognitive development, was an individual interview for each child in which four "area" tasks such as the Meadows and Farmhouse Experiment taken from Chapter 11 of The Child's Conception of Geometry (Piaget, Inhelder and Szeminska, 1960, pp. 261-301) were administered. Analysis using the Rasch Partial Credit Model provided a finely detailed quantitative description of the developmental and learning progressions revealed in the data. It is evident that the school mathematics curriculum does not satisfactorily match the learner's developmental sequence at some key points. Moreover, the children's ability to conserve area on the Piagetian tasks, rather than other learner characteristics, such as age and school grade seems to be a precursor for complete success on the mathematical test of area. The discussion focuses on the assessment of developmental (and other) characteristics of school-aged learners and suggests how curriculum and school organization might better capitalize on such information in the design and sequencing of learning experiences for school children. Some features unique to the Rasch family of measurement models are held to have special significance in elucidating the development/attainment nexus.

  14. Concept Mapping as a Tool to Develop and Measure Students' Understanding in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sema; Erdimez, Omer; Zimmerman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Concept maps measured a student's understanding of the complexity of concepts, and interrelationships. Novak and Gowin (1984) claimed that the continuous use of concept maps increased the complexity and interconnectedness of students' understanding of relationships between concepts in a particular science domain. This study has two purposes; the…

  15. Mapping Conceptual Understanding of Algebraic Concepts: An Exploratory Investigation Involving Grade 8 Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haiyue; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual understanding is a major aim of mathematics education, and concept map has been used in non-mathematics research to uncover the relations among concepts held by students. This article presents the results of using concept map to assess conceptual understanding of basic algebraic concepts held by a group of 48 grade 8 Chinese students.…

  16. Understanding the biological concept "bird": A kindergarten case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Dilek

    The purpose of this qualitative, multiple case study of 14 students in a metropolitan public school in the Deep South was to find out, during a period of three months, what these kindergarten-aged children knew about birds, whether this knowledge represented current scientific thought, if such science instruction meaningfully affected their prior knowledge, and if so, what the factors during instruction that seemed to influence their understanding of the concept of bird were. The research was conducted in three phases; preinstruction interviews, instruction, and postinstruction interviews. The theoretical framework for this research was based on the Human Constructivism theory of learning (Mintzes, Wandersee and Novak, 1997). Instructional materials consisted of carefully chosen books (both fiction and non-fiction), guest speakers, field trips, a live bird in the classroom, students' observation journals, teacher-made classification and sorting activities, and picture-based concept maps. The findings suggest that young children's knowledge of birds was limited chiefly to birds' anatomical and morphological characteristics, with repeated references being made by the children to human characteristics. There was a positive, significant difference in young children's pre- and postinstruction scientific knowledge of birds. Although performance varied from child to child after instruction, most children were able to identify some common birds by name. Just one child resisted conceptual change. Kindergarten children's basic knowledge of bird behavior was limited to flight and eating. Although the children had more conceptual knowledge at the end, understanding still appeared to be shallow. The children did develop their skill in observing markedly. It also became evident that these kindergarten children needed more (a) experience in asking questions, (b) practice in techniques of visual representation, and (c) language development in order to be able to explain what they

  17. From grasp to language: embodied concepts and the challenge of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the macaque monkey and the discovery of a homologous "mirror system for grasping" in Broca's area in the human brain has revived the gestural origins theory of the evolution of the human capability for language, enriching it with the suggestion that mirror neurons provide the neurological core for this evolution. However, this notion of "mirror neuron support for the transition from grasp to language" has been worked out in very different ways in the Mirror System Hypothesis model [Arbib, M.A., 2005a. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: an evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28, 105-167; Rizzolatti, G., Arbib, M.A., 1998. Language within our grasp. Trends in Neuroscience 21(5), 188-194] and the Embodied Concept model [Gallese, V., Lakoff, G., 2005. The brain's concepts: the role of the sensory-motor system in reason and language. Cognitive Neuropsychology 22, 455-479]. The present paper provides a critique of the latter to enrich analysis of the former, developing the role of schema theory [Arbib, M.A., 1981. Perceptual structures and distributed motor control. In: Brooks, V.B. (Ed.), Handbook of Physiology--The Nervous System II. Motor Control. American Physiological Society, pp. 1449-1480].

  18. A social network approach to understanding science communication among fire professionals (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright; Andrea Thode; Anne Mottek-Lucas; Jacklynn Fallon; Megan Matonis

    2012-01-01

    Studies of science communication and use in the fire management community suggest manager's access research via informal information networks and that these networks vary by both agency and position. We used a phone survey followed by traditional statistical analyses to understand the informal social networks of fire professionals in two western regions of the...

  19. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material

    OpenAIRE

    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto

    2017-01-01

    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  20. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2018-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...

  1. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Understanding of the Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzum, Tugba; Ertekin, Erhan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze what kind of conceptions prospective mathematics teachers (PMTs) have about the base concept (BC). One-hundred and thirty-nine PMTs participated in the study. In this qualitative research, data were obtained through open-ended questions, the semi-structured interviews and pictures of geometric figures drawn…

  2. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jonathan D H

    2008-01-01

    Taking a slightly different approach from similar texts, Introduction to Abstract Algebra presents abstract algebra as the main tool underlying discrete mathematics and the digital world. It helps students fully understand groups, rings, semigroups, and monoids by rigorously building concepts from first principles. A Quick Introduction to Algebra The first three chapters of the book show how functional composition, cycle notation for permutations, and matrix notation for linear functions provide techniques for practical computation. The author also uses equivalence relations to introduc

  3. The home concept in poetic texts: new ways of understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С А Радзиевская

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of the HOME concept in American poetic texts and on the description of the model of its content. Linguocognitive mechanisms of the formation of the images of home are revealed.

  4. Students’ Understanding of the Concept of Democracy and Implications for Teacher Education in Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Elise Hesby Mathé

    2016-04-01

    be actively encouraged and maintained also in successful democracies. Little is known, however, about how students understand and explain democracy as a subject-specific concept. Such knowledge may be valuable for social studies teachers and teacher educators to fulfil the purpose of the social studies curriculum. The present article investigates 16-year-old students’ understanding of the concept of democracy. In social studies, the concept of democracy is essential not only for disciplinary understanding and discourse, but also for students’ out-of-school democratic participation. To investigate students’ understanding of this concept, semi-structured group interviews were conducted with a total of 23 students at three different Norwegian upper secondary schools. A central finding is that students primarily expressed a liberal understanding of democracy focusing on voting in elections as the main political activity. Students also demonstrated more or less limited or elaborate understanding. In addition to presenting and discussing students’ understandings of the concept of democracy, this article considers implications for teacher education in social studies. One implication is that teacher educators need to engage actively in discussing and defining core concepts with their students. This is related to supporting student teachers’ professional development and in turn developing adolescents’ opportunities for democratic participation. Such a dual focus can provide a knowledge base to help student teachers in their professional development in their first years as practicing teachers.Keywords: democracy, concepts, understanding, teacher education, social studies, democratic theory

  5. Peeling the Onion: Student Teacher's Conceptions of Literary Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Maj Asplund; Fulop, Marta; Marton, Ference

    2001-01-01

    Studied the theories student teachers held about literary understanding through interviews with 25 Hungarian and 8 Swedish student teachers. Categories of theories captured a substantial portion of the variation in how literary understanding can be seen. Three central aspects of human understanding, variation, discernment, and simultaneity, could…

  6. Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students' Understanding of Core Algebraic Concepts: Equal Sign and Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, Pamela; Stephens, Ana C.; Knuth, Eric J.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports results from a study focused on teachers' knowledge of students' understanding of core algebraic concepts. In particular, the study examined middle school mathematics teachers' knowledge of students' understanding of the equal sign and variable, and students' success applying their understanding of these concepts. Interview…

  7. Understanding situation awareness in nursing work: a hybrid concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitterding, Mary Cathryn; Broome, Marion E; Everett, Linda Q; Ebright, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Eighty percent of medical error are attributed to human factors. Human factors experts suggest the least explored factor in patient errors is attention, specifically, situation awareness. The purpose of this article was to analyze the concept of situation awareness using a hybrid concept analysis. The experience of situation awareness among nurses was elicited during the fieldwork phase through semistructured interviews. Content and relational analyses yielded 9 themes: perception, comprehension, projection, knowledge and expertise, cognitive overload, interruption management, task management, instantaneous learning, and cognitive stacking. A conceptual definition of situation awareness emerged along with recommendations for application in nursing.

  8. Understanding Virtual Epidemics: Children's Folk Conceptions of a Computer Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.

    2008-01-01

    Our work investigates the annual outbreak of Whypox, a virtual epidemic in Whyville.net, a virtual world with over 1.2 million registered players ages 8-16. We examined online and classroom participants' understanding of a computer virus using surveys and design activities. Our analyses reveal that students have a mostly naive understanding of a…

  9. Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition1234

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, David R; Gross, Myron D; Tapsell, Linda C

    2009-01-01

    Research and practice in nutrition relate to food and its constituents, often as supplements. In food, however, the biological constituents are coordinated. We propose that “thinking food first”' results in more effective nutrition research and policy. The concept of food synergy provides the necessary theoretical underpinning. The evidence for health benefit appears stronger when put together in a synergistic dietary pattern than for individual foods or food constituents. A review of dietary...

  10. A system dynamics approach to understanding the One Health concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Xie

    Full Text Available There have been many terms used to describe the One Health concept, including movement, strategy, framework, agenda, approach, among others. However, the inter-relationships of the disciplines engaged in the One Health concept have not been well described. To identify and better elucidate the internal feedback mechanisms of One Health, we employed a system dynamics approach. First, a systematic literature review was conducted via searches in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and ProQuest with the search terms: 'One Health' and (concept* or approach*. In addition, we used the HistCite® tool to add significant articles on One Health to the library. Then, of the 2368 articles identified, 19 were selected for evaluating the inter-relationships of disciplines engaged in One Health. Herein, we report a visually rich, theoretical model regarding interactions of various disciplines and complex problem descriptors engaged in One Health problem solving. This report provides a conceptual framework for future descriptions of the interdisciplinary engagements involved in One Health.

  11. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations.

  12. Towards Understanding EFL Teachers’ Conceptions of Research: Findings From Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Luis Banegas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the conceptions of research held by English as a foreign language teachers in Argentina. Quantitative data from 622 participants from an online questionnaire were followed by qualitative data from online interviews with 40 of those participants. Results show that the teachers conceptualised research through conventional notions closer to a quantitative paradigm. They felt research was not part of their job, and a lack of time was the main reason for not engaging in/with research. Teacher development, agency, empowerment, and autonomy could be sought by engaging teachers with forms of research which are meaningful to them, such as action research.

  13. The Role of Motion Concepts in Understanding Non-Motion Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatin-Zadeh, Omid; Banaruee, Hassan; Khoshsima, Hooshang; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses a specific type of metaphor in which an abstract non-motion domain is described in terms of a motion event. Abstract non-motion domains are inherently different from concrete motion domains. However, motion domains are used to describe abstract non-motion domains in many metaphors. Three main reasons are suggested for the suitability of motion events in such metaphorical descriptions. Firstly, motion events usually have high degrees of concreteness. Secondly, motion events are highly imageable. Thirdly, components of any motion event can be imagined almost simultaneously within a three-dimensional space. These three characteristics make motion events suitable domains for describing abstract non-motion domains, and facilitate the process of online comprehension throughout language processing. Extending the main point into the field of mathematics, this article discusses the process of transforming abstract mathematical problems into imageable geometric representations within the three-dimensional space. This strategy is widely used by mathematicians to solve highly abstract and complex problems. PMID:29240715

  14. from concept to understanding: a new approach to terminography in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kaans remains predominantly the lan- guage of the public service. But a very small volume of official communication take place by way of Zulu or Xhosa. Although the present and previous governments in the. RSA have taken .... not understand 'logistics' but he has no clue whatsoever concerning the elements comprising.

  15. Biological Principles and Threshold Concepts for Understanding Natural Selection. Implications for Developing Visualizations as a Pedagogic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibell, Lena A. E.; Harms, Ute

    2017-11-01

    Modern evolutionary theory is both a central theory and an integrative framework of the life sciences. This is reflected in the common references to evolution in modern science education curricula and contexts. In fact, evolution is a core idea that is supposed to support biology learning by facilitating the organization of relevant knowledge. In addition, evolution can function as a pivotal link between concepts and highlight similarities in the complexity of biological concepts. However, empirical studies in many countries have for decades identified deficiencies in students' scientific understanding of evolution mainly focusing on natural selection. Clearly, there are major obstacles to learning natural selection, and we argue that to overcome them, it is essential to address explicitly the general abstract concepts that underlie the biological processes, e.g., randomness or probability. Hence, we propose a two-dimensional framework for analyzing and structuring teaching of natural selection. The first—purely biological—dimension embraces the three main principles variation, heredity, and selection structured in nine key concepts that form the core idea of natural selection. The second dimension encompasses four so-called thresholds, i.e., general abstract and/or non-perceptual concepts: randomness, probability, spatial scales, and temporal scales. We claim that both of these dimensions must be continuously considered, in tandem, when teaching evolution in order to allow development of a meaningful understanding of the process. Further, we suggest that making the thresholds tangible with the aid of appropriate kinds of visualizations will facilitate grasping of the threshold concepts, and thus, help learners to overcome the difficulties in understanding the central theory of life.

  16. A Cross-Age Study of Students’ Understanding of Limit and Continuity Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Karatas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study is to reveal concept development and the way limit and continuity concepts are understood by students from different levels of education. For this purpose, a test comprising open-ended questions about verbal, algebraic and graphical representations of concepts was administered to students from different levels of education. When students’ understandings of limit and continuity concepts are compared, the pre-service teachers in their 3rd year of study were found much less successful than other students in algebraic, verbal and graphical representations of limit and continuity concepts. It may be recommended that when designing instructional activities verbal, graphical and algebraic representations should be prioritized to enhance the development of students’ interpretation skills of different representations of functions. Keywords: Mathematics Education. Limit and Continuity Concepts. Cross-Age Study A Compreensão dos Conceitos de Limite e Continuidade: um estudo desenvolvido com alunos em distintos momentos de um curso de formação inicial para professores Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar como os conceitos de limite e continuidade são compreendidos por estudantes em diferentes momentos de formação. Para isso, foi aplicado a esses alunos um teste composto por questões abertas no qual foram privilegiadas as representações verbais, algébricas e geométricas (gráficas de funções. O estudo das compreensões manifestadas nos testes revela que os estudantes, futuros professores, em seu terceiro ano de formação, apresentam maiores problemas que os demais alunos quanto aos conceitos em questão. Disso decorre a recomendação de que, quando elaborando atividades instrucionais, representações verbais, visuais e geométricas (gráficas devem ser priorizadas de modo a viabilizar o desenvolvimento de estratégias interpretativas adequadas que permitam trabalhar com diferentes

  17. The Understanding of "Concept Study" in Teachers' Professional Learning: A Lived Experience of Complexity Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This paper used narrative to present the author's understanding process of "concept study" in teachers' professional learning. The understanding process was advanced by several questions emerging from the preparation of doing "concept study". Thus, the several questions and their solutions became the threads of the narrative.…

  18. Simulation-Based Performance Assessment: An Innovative Approach to Exploring Understanding of Physical Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jessica; Wind, Stefanie; Koval, Jayma; Dagosta, Joseph; Ryan, Mike; Usselman, Marion

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of simulation-based performance assessment (PA) methodology in a recent study of eighth-grade students' understanding of physical science concepts. A set of four simulation-based PA tasks were iteratively developed to assess student understanding of an array of physical science concepts, including net force,…

  19. Students' Understanding of the Function-Derivative Relationship When Learning Economic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Angel; Llinares, Salvador; Valls, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterise students' understanding of the function-derivative relationship when learning economic concepts. To this end, we use a fuzzy metric (Chang 1968) to identify the development of economic concept understanding that is defined by the function-derivative relationship. The results indicate that the understanding…

  20. University Students' Understanding of the Concepts Empirical, Theoretical, Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtonen, Mari

    2015-01-01

    University research education in many disciplines is frequently confronted by problems with students' weak level of understanding of research concepts. A mind map technique was used to investigate how students understand central methodological concepts of empirical, theoretical, qualitative and quantitative. The main hypothesis was that some…

  1. Influence of Particle Theory Conceptions on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding of Osmosis and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHarbi, Nawaf N. S.; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Won, Mihye

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of diffusion, osmosis and particle theory of matter concepts among 192 pre-service science teachers in Saudi Arabia using a 17-item two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test. The data analysis showed that the pre-service teachers' understanding of osmosis and diffusion concepts was mildly correlated with…

  2. Liberal Liability. Understanding Students’ Conceptions of Gender Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Murstedt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that teaching gender theories tends to be an educational challenge and elicits student resistance. However, little is known about students’ learning processes in social science. This study aims to explore these learning processes by drawing on feminist pedagogy and conceptual change theory. The results show that when students are asked to perform analysis from a structural gender perspective, they recurrently introduce other explanatory frameworks based on non-structural understandings. The students’ learning processes involve reformulating questions and making interpretations based on liberal understandings of power, freedom of choice and equality. We argue that this process is due to the hegemonic position of the liberal paradigm as well as to the dominant ideas about science. Clarifying the underlying presumptions of a liberal perspective and a structural perspective may help students to recognise applied premises and enable them to distinguish relevant explanations.

  3. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and understanding was validated through an exploratory factor analysis of participants' responses. As for the questionnaire regarding the students' biology learning self-efficacy (BLSE), an exploratory factor analysis revealed a total of four factors including higher-order cognitive skills (BLSE-HC), everyday application (BLSE-EA), science communication (BLSE-SC), and practical works (BLSE-PW). The results of the cluster analysis according to the participants' conceptions of learning biology indicated that students in the two major clusters either viewed learning biology as understanding or possessed mixed-conceptions of memorizing and understanding. The students in the third cluster mainly focused on memorizing in their learning while the students in the fourth cluster showed less agreement with both conceptions of memorizing and understanding. This study further revealed that the conception of learning as understanding was positively associated with the BLSE of university students with biology-related majors. However, the conception of learning as memorizing may foster students' BLSE only when such a notion co-exists with the conception of learning with understanding.

  4. Using Laboratory Activities Enhanced with Concept Cartoons to Support Progression in Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent…

  5. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

  6. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and…

  7. Test of Understanding of Vectors: A Reliable Multiple-Choice Vector Concept Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended…

  8. Effectiveness of Instruction Based on the Constructivist Approach on Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki; Atasoy, Basri; Geban, Omer

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify misconceptions concerning chemical equilibrium concepts and to investigate the effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 71 10th grade…

  9. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Noticing of Students' Understanding of the Derivative Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Matamoros, Gloria; Fernández, Ceneida; Llinares, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    This research study examines the development of the ability of pre-service teachers to notice signs of students' understanding of the derivative concept. It analyses preservice teachers' interpretations of written solutions to problems involving the derivative concept before and after participating in a teacher training module. The results…

  10. Learning about a Level Physics Students' Understandings of Particle Physics Using Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale piece of research using concept mapping to elicit A level students' understandings of particle physics. Fifty-nine year 12 (16- and 17 year-old) students from two London schools participated. The exercise took place during school physics lessons. Students were instructed how to make a concept map and were…

  11. Increasing the understanding of chemical concepts: The effectiveness of multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bius, Janet H.

    Chemistry is difficult because it has multilevels of knowledge with each level presenting challenges in vocabulary, abstract thinking, and symbolic language. Students have to be able to transfer between levels to understand the concepts and the theoretical models of chemistry. The cognitive theories of constructivism and cognitive-load theory are used to explain the difficulties novice learners have with the subject of chemistry and methods to increase success for students. The relationship between external representations, misconceptions and topics on the success of students are addressed. If students do not know the formalisms associated with chemical diagrams and graphs, the representations will decrease student success. Misconceptions can be formed when new information is interpreted based on pre-existing knowledge that is faulty. Topics with large amount of interacting elements that must be processed simultaneously are considered difficult to understand. New variables were created to measure the number of times a student is exposed to a chemical concept. Each variable was coded according to topic and learning environment, which are the lecture and laboratory components of the course, homework assignments and textbook examples. The exposure variables are used to measure the success rate of students on similar exam questions. Question difficulty scales were adapted for this project from those found in the chemical education literature. The exposure variables were tested on each level of the difficulty scales to determine their effect at decreasing the cognitive demand of these questions. The subjects of this study were freshmen science majors at a large Midwest university. The effects of the difficulty scales and exposure variables were measured for those students whose exam scores were in the upper one-fourth percentile, for students whose test scores were in the middle one-half percentile, and the lower one-fourth percentile are those students that scored the

  12. Profile of Metacognition of Mathematics and Mathematics Education Students in Understanding the Concept of Integral Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misu, La; Ketut Budayasa, I.; Lukito, Agung

    2018-03-01

    This study describes the metacognition profile of mathematics and mathematics education students in understanding the concept of integral calculus. The metacognition profile is a natural and intact description of a person’s cognition that involves his own thinking in terms of using his knowledge, planning and monitoring his thinking process, and evaluating his thinking results when understanding a concept. The purpose of this study was to produce the metacognition profile of mathematics and mathematics education students in understanding the concept of integral calculus. This research method is explorative method with the qualitative approach. The subjects of this study are mathematics and mathematics education students who have studied integral calculus. The results of this study are as follows: (1) the summarizing category, the mathematics and mathematics education students can use metacognition knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of indefinite integrals. While the definite integrals, only mathematics education students use metacognition skills; and (2) the explaining category, mathematics students can use knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of indefinite integrals, while the definite integrals only use metacognition skills. In addition, mathematics education students can use knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of both indefinite and definite integrals.

  13. Investigation of students’ intermediate conceptual understanding levels: the case of direct current electricity concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktan, D Cobanoglu

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual understanding is one of the main topics in science and physics education research. In the majority of conceptual understanding studies, students’ understanding levels were categorized dichotomously, either as alternative or scientific understanding. Although they are invaluable in many ways, namely developing new instructional materials and assessment instruments, students’ alternative understandings alone are not sufficient to describe students’ conceptual understanding in detail. This paper introduces an example of a study in which a method was developed to assess and describe students’ conceptual understanding beyond alternative and scientific understanding levels. In this study, six undergraduate students’ conceptual understanding levels of direct current electricity concepts were assessed and described in detail by using their answers to qualitative problems. In order to do this, conceptual understanding indicators are described based on science and mathematics education literature. The students’ understanding levels were analysed by assertion analysis based on the conceptual understanding indicators. The results indicated that the participants demonstrated three intermediate understanding levels in addition to alternative and scientific understanding. This paper presents the method and its application to direct current electricity concepts. (paper)

  14. Understandability of Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering Concepts for Enterprise Architects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsman, W.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2014-01-01

    ArchiMate is a graphical language for modelling business goals and enterprise architecture. In previous work we identified possible understandability issues with the goal-oriented notations in ArchiMate. [Problem] We investigated how understandable the goal-oriented concepts really were in two

  15. Relational Understanding of the Derivative Concept through Mathematical Modeling: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Zulal; Aydogan Yenmez, Arzu; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three second-year graduate students' awareness and understanding of the relationships among the "big ideas" that underlie the concept of derivative through modeling tasks and Skemp's distinction between relational and instrumental understanding. The modeling tasks consisting of warm-up,…

  16. Mathematical Representation by Students in Building Relational Understanding on Concepts of Area and Perimeter of Rectangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Rahmad Bustanul; Yuwono, Ipung; As'ari, Abdur Rahman; Sisworo; Dwi, Rahmawati

    2016-01-01

    Representation is an important aspect of learners in building a relational understanding of mathematical concepts. But the ability of a mathematical representation of students in building relational understanding is still very limited. The purpose of this research is to description of mathematical representation of students who appear in building…

  17. In-Service Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Magnetism Concepts before and after Non-Traditional Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.; Combs, Rebecca K.; Roland, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetism is a topic frequently studied in elementary schools. Since magnetism is a popular topic and is included in national science education standards, it might be assumed that elementary teachers have a good understanding of this topic and that elementary students develop a good understanding of fundamental magnetism concepts. Unfortunately,…

  18. ANALYSIS LEARNING MODEL OF DISCOVERY AND UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT PRELIMINARY TO PHYSICS LEARNING OUTCOMES SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rosepda Sebayang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims: 1 to determine whether the student learning outcomes using discovery learning is better than conventional learning 2 To determine whether the learning outcomes of students who have a high initial concept understanding better then of low initial concept understanding, and 3 to determine the effect of interaction discovery learning and understanding of the initial concept of the learning outcomes of students. The samples in this study was taken by cluster random sampling two classes where class X PIA 3 as a class experiment with applying discovery learning and class X PIA 2 as a control class by applying conventional learning. The instrument used in this study is a test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple-choice comprehension test initial concept description form. The results of research are: 1 learning outcomes of students who were taught with discovery learning is better than the learning outcomes of students who are taught by conventional learning, 2 student learning outcomes with high initial conceptual understanding better than the learning outcomes of students with low initial conceptual understanding, and 3 there was no interaction between discovery learning and understanding of initial concepts for the student learning outcomes.

  19. Do People Understand Spatial Concepts: The Case of First-Order Primitives

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether people in general understand elementary spatial concepts, and to examine whether or not naive spatial knowledge includes the ability to understand important spatial primitives that are built into geographic theory, spatial databases and geographic information systems (GIS). The extent of such understanding is a partial measure of spatial ability. Accurate indicators or measures of spatial ability can be used to explain different types of spatial...

  20. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics: Concepts of reading, understanding and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Regan

    2012-01-01

    Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics is a popular qualitative research interpretive method aiming to explore the meaning of individual experiences in relation to understanding human interpretation. Gadamer identifies that authentic engagement with reading requires awareness of the inter-subjective nature of understanding in order to promote a reflective engagement with the text. The main concepts of Gadamer’s view of reading and understanding are explored in this paper in relation ...

  1. Understanding musical concepts of tempo and instrument in the third grade of elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Vesna; Vukićević Nataša

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with examining the quality of knowledge, i.e. the levels of internalization of the concepts tempo and instrument taught within the subject Musical Culture in the third grade of elementary school. The quality of knowledge we defined by different levels of understanding the selected concepts. Apart from theoretical considerations of general questions regarding the process of musical education in elementary school, in the available methodology literature the authors do not discus...

  2. Landscape Transformations. A New Paradigm for Understanding and Working with the Synergy of Physical and Abstract Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2013-01-01

    Invited submission in the journal issue ‘Discourse, Conception, Decision’ after awarded the ICAR-CORA Prize in 2012 for my Ph.D. Thesis. The article is an extended summary of findings in the PhD Thesis....

  3. Understanding musical concepts of tempo and instrument in the third grade of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with examining the quality of knowledge, i.e. the levels of internalization of the concepts tempo and instrument taught within the subject Musical Culture in the third grade of elementary school. The quality of knowledge we defined by different levels of understanding the selected concepts. Apart from theoretical considerations of general questions regarding the process of musical education in elementary school, in the available methodology literature the authors do not discuss the problem of concepts development in Musical Culture teaching. Hence, it can be safely said that this paper opens a new research field in the area of methodology of Musical Culture teaching. Additionally, one of the important aims of our work is to stress concrete teaching procedures which can stimulate a more efficient development of musical concepts. The obtained results show that the knowledge of the majority of the third-grade students of the concept tempo (and instrument is on the initial pre-conceptual level, and the level of knowing verbal definitions. According to this, the teaching of Musical Culture in the third grade of elementary school insufficiently recognizes the unique nature of musical acquisition and its developmental dimension, in comparison to other school subjects. The development of scientific concepts in Musical Culture teaching starts with spontaneous musical experiences, but for understanding the concepts, and their efficient application, necessary is the student's thoughtful engagement and processing of sound and pre-conceptual knowledge as well as theoretical knowledge.

  4. The Precalculus Concept Assessment: A Tool for Assessing Students' Reasoning Abilities and Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Marilyn; Oehrtman, Michael; Engelke, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Precalculus Concept Assessment (PCA) instrument, a 25-item multiple-choice exam. The reasoning abilities and understandings central to precalculus and foundational for beginning calculus were identified and characterized in a series of research studies and are articulated in the PCA Taxonomy. These…

  5. High School Students' Proficiency and Confidence Levels in Displaying Their Understanding of Basic Electrolysis Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Ding Teng; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with 330 Form 4 (grade 10) students (aged 15-16 years) who were involved in a course of instruction on electrolysis concepts. The main purposes of this study were (1) to assess high school chemistry students' understanding of 19 major principles of electrolysis using a recently developed 2-tier multiple-choice diagnostic…

  6. A Cross-Age Study of an Understanding of Light and Sight Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Salih; Alev, Nedim; Karal, Isik Saliha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the students' and pre-service teachers' understanding of light, sight and related concepts at different educational levels, from primary to higher education. A cross-sectional approach was used since the participants were of different age and educational level. The sample of this study consisted of 30 eighth…

  7. A Cross-Age Study of Student Understanding of the Concept of Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Susan L.; Marek, Edmund A.

    1992-01-01

    The conceptual views of homeostasis held by students (n=300) in seventh grade life science, tenth grade biology, and college zoology were examined. A biographical questionnaire, the results from two Piagetian-like developmental tasks, and a concept evaluation statement of homeostasis were collected from each student. Understanding of the concept…

  8. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  9. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  10. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  11. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  12. Effect of Conceptual Change Approach on Students' Understanding of Reaction Rate Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change text oriented instruction compared to traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of reaction rate concepts. 45 students from two classes of the same teacher in a public high school participated in this study. Students in the experimental group…

  13. Building Students' Understanding of Quadratic Equation Concept Using Naïve Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrudin, Achmad Dhany; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Darmawijoyo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know how Naïve Geometry method can support students' understanding about the concept of solving quadratic equations. In this article we will discuss one activities of the four activities we developed. This activity focused on how students linking the Naïve Geometry method with the solving of the quadratic…

  14. . . . And Action! Using Science Skits to Evaluate Students' Understanding of Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Kimber; Kur, Judith; Haefner, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article believe that giving students opportunities to talk about and represent science concepts helps them develop deeper, more integrated understandings, while providing teachers with rich, alternative methods of assessment. They provide Science units and instructional approaches that are consistent with science and…

  15. Application of Two-Valued and Fuzzy Logics Teaching in Understanding the Precise and Approximate Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayekolaei, Mehraneh Delaviz; Nor, Norjoharuddeen Bin Mohd; Sohaei, Reza; Berneti, Abdul Karim Maleki; Zerafat, Romina; Saravi, Hanieh Rasouli

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to examine the application of two-valued and fuzzy logics teaching in better understanding the precise approximate concepts of chapter 4 of Sixth grade mathematics. Participants of this study were 30 Sixth grade mathematics students from an elementary school in Sari (a city in the north of Iran) in the academic year of…

  16. Conceptual Understanding of Acids and Bases Concepts and Motivation to Learn Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Geban, Omer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle model oriented instruction (LCMI) on 11th-grade students' conceptual understanding of acids and bases concepts and student motivation to learn chemistry. The study, which lasted for 7 weeks, involved two groups: An experimental group (LCMI) and a control group (the…

  17. The impact of art integration as an intervention to assist learners' visual perception and concept understanding in elementary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilan, Cathy A.

    Art integration as educational reform has been the focus of recent debate. The suggestion has been made that the arts can provide unique learning opportunities in other content areas. To provide empirical evidence for this added value of the arts in learning, this study investigated the efficacy of teaching science concepts in and through the visual arts by implementing an art integrated lesson. The study investigated the impact of an art integration to assist elementary level learners' visual perception so they could more accurately form mental models of the science ideas. The hypothesis suggests that participants in the art intervention who construct a three-dimensional representation of abstract science concepts will gain an increased understanding of those concepts. Specifically, students who work with parallel concepts in art and science to make and manipulate three-dimensional, kinetic models of the sun, earth, and moon will be able to more accurately visualize the relationships between these heavenly bodies. Fifth grade students participated in the study which was integrated into the regular curriculum. Seventy-six randomly selected students comprised the experimental group and participated in the art project. After the completion of traditional textbook and lecture presentation by the classroom teachers, a researcher developed Science Concept Test was administered to all fifth grade students. Statistically significant results indicated that the differences between the groups on the science concept test were due to the integration of the art intervention. These empirical data show significant differences between the group receiving the art intervention and the group receiving traditional classroom instruction, supporting the efficacy of the art integration model. In conclusion, the study supports the literature that suggests the efficacy of art integration partnerships as alternative avenues for presenting and representing knowledge. The study additionally

  18. Concept Communication and Interpretation of Illness: A Holistic Model of Understanding in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    To ensure patient communication in nursing, certain conditions must be met that enable successful exchange of beliefs, thoughts, and other mental states. The conditions that have received most attention in the nursing literature are derived from general communication theories, psychology, and ethical frameworks of interpretation. This article focuses on a condition more directly related to an influential coherence model of concept possession from recent philosophy of mind and language. The basic ideas in this model are (i) that the primary source of understanding of illness experiences is communicative acts that express concepts of illness, and (ii) that the key to understanding patients' concepts of illness is to understand how they depend on patients' lifeworlds. The article argues that (i) and (ii) are especially relevant in caring practice since it has been extensively documented that patients' perspectives on disease and illness are shaped by their subjective horizons. According to coherentism, nurses need to focus holistically on patients' horizons in order to understand the meaning of patients' expressions of meaning. Furthermore, the coherence model implies that fundamental aims of understanding can be achieved only if nurses recognize the interdependence of patients' beliefs and experiences of ill health. The article uses case studies to elucidate how the holistic implications of coherentism can be used as conceptual tools in nursing.

  19. Photoelectric effect experiment for understanding the concept of quantization of radiation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy Gerardine Berrios Saavedra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study forms part of research on the teaching of physics. The question that directed it was: How a proposed classroom, based on the photoelectric effect experiment helps pres-service teachers of physics of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional to expand their understanding of the concept of quantization energy of radiation? The construction of the theoretical framework developed on the one hand, with scientific ideas about the quantization of energy, and moreover, with the educational proposals of teaching for understanding. This pedagogical approach was guided by the investigative gaze of the study methodology based on design, taking as main element the use of learning tools such as the task to Predict, Experiment and Explain (PEE. It was found that these tasks fomented the initial understandings of students about the concept, while they enriched and transformed progressively their models and scientific ideas, promoting aspects of scientific work in developing curiosity, imagination and motivation.

  20. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  1. Anthropophagy: a singular concept to understand Brazilian culture and psychology as specific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Arthur Arruda Leal

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to present the singularity of the concept of anthropophagy in Brazilian culture. This article examines its use in the Modernist Movement of the 1920s and explores the possibilities it creates for thinking about Brazilian culture in nonidentitarian terms. We then use the concept of anthropophagy in a broader, practical sense to understand psychology as a kind of anthropophagical knowledge. We do so because in many ways the discipline of psychology is similar to Brazilian culture in its plurality and complexity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Nelofer

    In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the

  3. The influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning: children's understanding of sheet music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between direct and constructive) influences students' representations regarding sheet music. Sixty students (8-12 years old) from music conservatories: 30 of them took lessons with teachers with a constructive TC and another 30 with teachers shown to have a direct TC. Children were given a musical comprehension task in which they were asked to select and rank the contents they needed to learn. These contents had different levels of processing and complexity: symbolic, analytical, and referential. Three factorial ANOVAs, two-one-way ANOVAs, and four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyse the effects of and the interaction between the independent variables TC and class, both for/on total cards selected, their ranking, and each sub-category (the three processing levels). ANOVAs on the selection and ranking of these contents showed that teachers' conceptions seem to mediate significantly in the way the students understand the music. Students from constructive teachers have more complex and deep understanding of music. They select more elements for learning scores than those from traditional teachers. Teaching conception also influences the way in which children rank those elements. No difference exists between the way 8- and 12-year-olds learn scores. Children's understanding of the scores is more complex than assumed in other studies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Understanding the concept of resolving power in the Fabry-Perot interferometer using a digital simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvells, I; Carnicer, A; Ferre-Borrull, J; MartIn-Badosa, E; Montes-Usategui, M

    2006-01-01

    The resolution concept in connection with the Fabry-Perot interferometer is difficult to understand for undergraduate students enrolled in physical optics courses. The resolution criterion proposed in textbooks for distinguishing equal intensity maxima and the deduction of the resolving power equation is formal and non-intuitive. In this paper, we study the practical meaning of the resolution criterion and resolution power using a computer simulation of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The light source in the program has two monochromatic components, the wavelength difference being tunable by the user. The student can also adjust other physical parameters so as to obtain different simulation results. By analysing the images and graphics of the simulation, the resolving power concept becomes intuitive and understandable

  5. Investigation of student use of Web-based tutorial materials and understanding of chemistry concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, William Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' use of Web-based tutorial materials in general chemistry and these students' understanding of chemistry concepts. The Visualization and Problem Solving Web Site includes tutorial materials for several visual chemistry topics such as VSEPR and coordination chemistry. Students generally valued the web site because of the representations and visualizations it provided, the materials and information available on the web site, and because they felt that they needed help with chemistry. Many students who did not use the web site felt that they did not need help with chemistry and thus did not need this additional source of help. Both web site users and nonusers were generally positive about using the web to learn chemistry. Motivation was also a factor in student decisions to use or not use the materials on the web. To gauge students' understanding of chemistry concepts, students were asked questions about coordination chemistry and drew concept maps during the interviews. Web site users made more incorrect statements during the discussion of coordination chemistry questions, but the student concept maps did not show a great difference in terms of percentages of correct and incorrect links.

  6. Moral distress: a comparative analysis of theoretical understandings and inter-related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützén, Kim; Kvist, Beatrice Ewalds

    2012-03-01

    Research on ethical dilemmas in health care has become increasingly salient during the last two decades resulting in confusion about the concept of moral distress. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview and a comparative analysis of the theoretical understandings of moral distress and related concepts. The focus is on five concepts: moral distress, moral stress, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity and ethical climate. It is suggested that moral distress connects mainly to a psychological perspective; stress of conscience more to a theological-philosophical standpoint; and moral stress mostly to a physiological perspective. Further analysis indicates that these thoughts can be linked to the concepts of moral sensitivity and ethical climate through a relationship to moral agency. Moral agency comprises a moral awareness of moral problems and moral responsibility for others. It is suggested that moral distress may serve as a positive catalyst in exercising moral agency. An interdisciplinary approach in research and practice broadens our understanding of moral distress and its impact on health care personnel and patient care.

  7. Phenomenographic study of basic science understanding-senior medical students' conceptions of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Håkan; Wirell, Staffan; Ledin, Torbjörn; Josephson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Helping students learn to apply their newly learned basic science knowledge to clinical situations is a long-standing challenge for medical educators. This study aims to describe how medical students' knowledge of the basic sciences is construed toward the end of their medical curriculum, focusing on how senior medical students explain the physiology of a given scenario. Methods A group of final-year medical students from two universities was investigated. Interviews were performed and phenomenographic analysis was used to interpret students' understanding of the physiology underlying the onset of fatigue in an individual on an exercise bicycle. Three categories of description depict the qualitatively different ways the students conceptualized fatigue. A first category depicts well integrated physiological and bio-chemical knowledge characterized by equilibrium and causality. The second category contains conceptions of finite amount of substrate and juxtaposition of physiological concepts that are not fully integrated. The third category exhibits a fragmented understanding of disparate sections of knowledge without integration of basic science and clinical knowledge. Distinctive conceptions of fatigue based with varying completeness of students' understanding characterized the three identified categories. The students' conceptions of fatigue were based on varying understanding of how organ systems relate and of the thresholds that determine physiological processes. Medical instruction should focus on making governing steps in biological processes clear and providing opportunity for causal explanations of clinical scenarios containing bio-chemical as well as clinical knowledge. This augments earlier findings by adding descriptions in terms of the subject matter studied about how basic science is applied by students in clinical settings.

  8. Dienes AEM as an alternative mathematics teaching aid to enhance Indonesian students’ understanding of algebra concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, S.; Maarif, S.; Kurniawan, Y.; Raditya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the effect of Dienes AEM (Algebra Experience Materials) on the ability of understanding concept of algebra on the senior high school student in Indonesia. This research is an experimental research with subject of all high school students in Indonesia. The samples taken were high school students in three provinces namely DKI Jakarta Province, West Java Province and Banten Province. From each province was taken senior high school namely SMA N 9 Bekasi West Java, SMA N 94 Jakarta and SMA N 5 Tangerang, Banten. The number of samples in this study was 114 high school students of tenth grade as experimental class and 115 high school students of tenth grade as control class. Learning algebra concept is needed in learning mathematics, besides it is needed especially to educate students to be able to think logically, systematically, critically, analytically, creatively, and cooperation. Therefore in this research will be developed an effective algebra learning by using Dienes AEM. The result of this research is that there is a significant influence on the students’ concept comprehension ability taught by using Dienes AEM learning as an alternative to instill the concept of algebra compared to the students taught by conventional learning. Besides, the students’ learning motivation increases because students can construct the concept of algebra with props.

  9. MO-E-18C-04: Advanced Computer Simulation and Visualization Tools for Enhanced Understanding of Core Medical Physics Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Most medical physics programs emphasize proficiency in routine clinical calculations and QA. The formulaic aspect of these calculations and prescriptive nature of measurement protocols obviate the need to frequently apply basic physical principles, which, therefore, gradually decay away from memory. E.g. few students appreciate the role of electron transport in photon dose, making it difficult to understand key concepts such as dose buildup, electronic disequilibrium effects and Bragg-Gray theory. These conceptual deficiencies manifest when the physicist encounters a new system, requiring knowledge beyond routine activities. Methods: Two interactive computer simulation tools are developed to facilitate deeper learning of physical principles. One is a Monte Carlo code written with a strong educational aspect. The code can “label” regions and interactions to highlight specific aspects of the physics, e.g., certain regions can be designated as “starters” or “crossers,” and any interaction type can be turned on and off. Full 3D tracks with specific portions highlighted further enhance the visualization of radiation transport problems. The second code calculates and displays trajectories of a collection electrons under arbitrary space/time dependent Lorentz force using relativistic kinematics. Results: Using the Monte Carlo code, the student can interactively study photon and electron transport through visualization of dose components, particle tracks, and interaction types. The code can, for instance, be used to study kerma-dose relationship, explore electronic disequilibrium near interfaces, or visualize kernels by using interaction forcing. The electromagnetic simulator enables the student to explore accelerating mechanisms and particle optics in devices such as cyclotrons and linacs. Conclusion: The proposed tools are designed to enhance understanding of abstract concepts by highlighting various aspects of the physics. The simulations serve as

  10. Children's conceptions of physical events: explicit and tacit understanding of horizontal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christine; Taylor Tavares, Joana; Devine, Amy

    2014-06-01

    The conceptual understanding that children display when predicting physical events has been shown to be inferior to the understanding they display when recognizing whether events proceed naturally. This has often been attributed to differences between the explicit engagement with conceptual knowledge required for prediction and the tacit engagement that suffices for recognition, and contrasting theories have been formulated to characterize the differences. Focusing on a theory that emphasizes omission at the explicit level of conceptual elements that are tacitly understood, the paper reports two studies that attempt clarification. The studies are concerned with 6- to 10-year-old children's understanding of, respectively, the direction (141 children) and speed (132 children) of motion in a horizontal direction. Using computer-presented billiards scenarios, the children predicted how balls would move (prediction task) and judged whether or not simulated motion was correct (recognition task). Results indicate that the conceptions underpinning prediction are sometimes interpretable as partial versions of the conceptions underpinning recognition, as the omission hypothesis would imply. However, there are also qualitative differences, which suggest partial dissociation between explicit and tacit understanding. It is suggested that a theoretical perspective that acknowledges this dissociation would provide the optimal framework for future research. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. University students’ understanding of the electromotive force concept in the context of electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; De Cock, Mieke; Bollen, Laurens; Van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present research on university students’ understanding of the concept of electromotive force (emf). The work presented here is a continuation of previous research by Garzón et al (2014 Am. J. Phys. 82 72–6) in which university students’ understanding of emf in the contexts of transient current and direct current circuits was analyzed. In the work we present here the investigation focuses on electromagnetic induction phenomena. Three open-ended questions from a broader questionnaire were analyzed in depth. We used phenomenography to define categories and detect lines of reasoning and difficulties in conceptual understanding. Very few students showed a good understanding of the emf concept in electromagnetic induction circuits or an ability to distinguish it from potential difference. Although the prevalences of the responses in the different categories are different, we find that the difficulties are the same in the three universities. Standard instruction does not allow most students to analyze unfamiliar contexts where the answer requires a systemic explanatory model. (paper)

  12. The understanding of the concept of business in terms of the concepts of GAME/SPORT with the example of business English idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the potential understanding of the concept of BUSINESS in terms of the concepts of GAME and SPORT with the examples of Business English idioms (idiomatic expressions. Namely, in the light of the cognitive linguistics, meaning is considered to be not only a linguistic phenomenon, but a conceptual phenomenon as well. Such vantage point enables a lexico-semantic interpretation of linguistic units from a conceptual perspective, which includes the forming of correspondences between two concepts, with one concept being understood in terms of the other. The analysis includes 24 Business English idioms which stem from the conceptual domain of GAME/SPORT and is aimed at establishing the conceptual mapping (primarily via a cognitive mechanism known as the conceptual metaphor between the above stated source and the target domains, which prove a potential understanding of the concept of BUSINESS on the basis of the concepts of SPORT and GAME.

  13. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

  14. Instructional games: Scientific language use, concept understanding, and attitudinal development of middle school learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Geraldine

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning

  15. [The concept of temperament and its contribution to the understanding of the bipolar spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufaki, I; Polizoidou, V; Fountoulakis, K N

    2017-01-01

    to more complex pictures and might predict poor responseto treatment, violent or suicidal behavior and high comorbidity. Unipolar disorder diagnosis is oftenchanged due to the fact that a manic or mixed episode can occur after several years of treatment failure.In these cases the evaluation of temperament can prove to be effective in distinguishing betweenunipolar and bipolar depression and thus favoring treatment planning. In addition, temperament assessmentchanges the definition of bipolarity by supporting the concept of "bipolar spectrum". This isa factor that can lead to a rise in prevalence of bipolar cases. Furthermore, the evaluation of temperamenthas shifted our understanding of bipolarity towards the concept of the 'bipolar spectrum'. It hasalso led to an increase in the prevalence of bipolar disorder cases, notably bipolar II, and a decrease in unipolar cases. Finally, incorporating the concept of temperament in our understanding of bipolardisorder constitutes a challenging issue, which can lead to better treatment and outcome of patients.

  16. Chronotope disruption as a sensitizing concept for understanding chronic illness narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Tim; Madill, Anna

    2015-04-01

    This article aims to elaborate chronotope disruption--a changed relation to time and space--as a sensitizing concept for understanding chronic illness narratives. Sixteen men and 16 women with Type 2 diabetes were purposefully sampled. Each was interviewed about his or her experience of diabetes self-management using the biographical-narrative interview method. Transcripts were inspected for key moments defined as emotionally laden stories relevant to the purpose of the research. We present dialogically inflected discursive analysis of exemplar extracts. The analysis demonstrates how the concept of chronotope disruption helps identify, and understand, important aspects of patients' chronic illness narratives. First, we investigate how medical advice can conflict with embodied experience and how progressive bodily deterioration can provoke a reevaluation of past illness (self-mis)management. Second, the increasing temporal and spatial intrusion of chronic illness into participants' lives is examined. Finally, we focus on the masquerade of health as an attempt to manage, hide, or deny that one is physically challenged. Chronotope disruption offers a useful sensitizing concept for approaching chronic illness narratives and around which to organize analytical insights and to develop practice. Chronotope analysis fills an important gap in the science through compensating current health sciences' focus on rationality, cognition, and prospective time (prediction) with a patient-oriented focus on emotionality, embodiment, and retrospective time (nostalgia). Chronotope disruption could be used to develop practice by gaining empathic understanding of patients' life-worlds and provides a tool to examine how new technologies change the way in which the chronically ill have "being" in the world. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Chronotope Disruption as a Sensitizing Concept for Understanding Chronic Illness Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to elaborate chronotope disruption —a changed relation to time and space— as a sensitizing concept for understanding chronic illness narratives. Methods: Sixteen men and 16 women with Type 2 diabetes were purposefully sampled. Each was interviewed about his or her experience of diabetes self-management using the biographical-narrative interview method. Transcripts were inspected for key moments defined as emotionally laden stories relevant to the purpose of the research. We present dialogically inflected discursive analysis of exemplar extracts. Results: The analysis demonstrates how the concept of chronotope disruption helps identify, and understand, important aspects of patients’ chronic illness narratives. First, we investigate how medical advice can conflict with embodied experience and how progressive bodily deterioration can provoke a reevaluation of past illness (self-mis)management. Second, the increasing temporal and spatial intrusion of chronic illness into participants’ lives is examined. Finally, we focus on the masquerade of health as an attempt to manage, hide, or deny that one is physically challenged. Conclusions: Chronotope disruption offers a useful sensitizing concept for approaching chronic illness narratives and around which to organize analytical insights and to develop practice. Chronotope analysis fills an important gap in the science through compensating current health sciences’ focus on rationality, cognition, and prospective time (prediction) with a patient-oriented focus on emotionality, embodiment, and retrospective time (nostalgia). Chronotope disruption could be used to develop practice by gaining empathic understanding of patients’ life-worlds and provides a tool to examine how new technologies change the way in which the chronically ill have “being” in the world. PMID:25197985

  18. Dhat syndrome: Evolution of concept, current understanding, and need of an integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dhat syndrome has often been construed as a culture-bound sexual neurosis of the Indian subcontinent. Symptoms similar to that of Dhat syndrome has been described in other cultures across different time periods. The present paper looks at the evolution of the concept of Dhat syndrome in India. The review also takes an overview of the current understanding of this syndrome in terms of nosological status as a distinct entity and its "culture-bound" status. The narrative finally attempts to discuss the integrated approach for the treatment of this disorder.

  19. Fundamental concepts of abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrlich, Gertrude

    2012-01-01

    This undergraduate text presents extensive coverage of set theory, groups, rings, modules, vector spaces, and fields. It offers numerous examples, definitions, theorems, proofs, and practice exercises. 1991 edition.

  20. Understanding God images and God concepts: Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Counted

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent�child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns. The article points out that insecure God images often develop head-to-head with God concepts in a believer�s emotional experience of God. On the other hand, the author describes God concepts as indicators of a religious faith and metaphorical standards for regulating insecure attachment patterns. The goals of this article, however, is to highlight the relationship between God images and God concepts, and to provide a hermeneutical process for interpreting and surviving the God image experience.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Given that most scholars within the discipline of Practical Theology discuss the subject of God images from cultural and theological perspectives, this article has discussed God images from an attachment perspective, which is a popular framework in psychology of religion. This is rare. The study is therefore interdisciplinary in this regards. The article further helps the reader to understand the intrapsychic process of the God image experience, and thus provides us with hermeneutical answers for dealing with the God image experience from methodologies grounded in Practical Theology and pastoral care.

  1. Concrete and abstract visualizations in history learning tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prangsma, M.E.; van Boxtel, C.A.M.; Kanselaar, G.; Kirschner, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: History learning requires that students understand historical phenomena, abstract concepts and the relations between them. Students have problems grasping, using and relating complex historical developments and structures. Aims: A study was conducted to determine the effects of tasks

  2. Understanding of the farmers privilege concept by smallholder farmers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noluthando C. Netnou-Nkoana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Legislation on plant breeders’ rights – the Plant Breeders’ Rights Act, 1976 (Act No. 15 of 1976 – currently is being reviewed by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. This legislation provides for farmers’ privilege, which is one of the exceptions to plant breeders’ rights. It allows farmers to save seed of protected varieties for their own use. Farmers’ privilege, and particularly its impact on smallholder farmers in developing countries, is a widely debated issue. During the public consultation process, several comments proposing amendments to the farmers’ privilege provision were received from various stakeholders. However, no comments were received from the smallholder farmers who may be directly impacted by this provision. This pilot study was undertaken to assess the understanding of the farmers’ privilege concept by smallholder farmers from the historically disadvantaged communities and their current practices with regard to seed saving. The results showed that the majority of the smallholder farmers were not aware of the existence of the legislation on plant breeders’ rights and therefore do not understand the farmers’ privilege concept and its implications. They also did not know whether the varieties they were using were protected by plant breeders’ rights or not. Little information has been published on the impact of plant breeders’ rights in South Africa in general. We hope that this study might inform policy decisions on matters related to plant breeders’ rights and the farmers’ privilege.

  3. A Chinese young adult non-scientist's epistemologies and her understandings of the concept of speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2015-08-01

    Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are native English speakers from Western cultures. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether Hammer and his colleagues' claims concerning learners' epistemologies could be extended to individuals who lack advanced mathematics and science training, have had different cultural and learning experiences, and have grown up speaking and learning in another language. To this end, we interviewed a participant with these characteristics about her understandings of the concept of speed. Our findings show that previous theoretical frameworks can be used to explain the epistemologies of the individual examined in this study. The case suggests that these theories may be relevant regardless of the learner's mathematics and science background, language, educational experience, and cultural background. In the future, more cases should be examined with learners from different academic backgrounds and cultures to further support this finding.

  4. EXAMINING THE STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING LEVEL TOWARDS THE CONCEPTS OF SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özcan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Special theory of relativity is one of the difficult subjects of physics to be understood by the students. The current research designed as a qualitative research aim to determine the pre-service physics teachers’ understanding level and the alternative conceptions about three core concepts of special theory of relativity, such as time dilatation, length contraction and reference frames. The data were collected through semi structured interviews and were analyzed by using content analysis. At the end of the analysis process the understanding level of the students was determined to be “complete understanding”, “incomplete understanding” and “misunderstanding”. In order to achieve this, the students’ conceptual frameworks based on the operational definitions made by the students were determined firstly. The findings obtained in this research indicate that high school teachers as well as university instructors should take special care with some points in the teaching of the subjects related with special theory of relativity. This research might be useful to other studies to be done in the future, especially for investigating the students’ mental models related to special theory of relativity.

  5. Understanding partnership practice in child and family nursing through the concept of practice architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Fowler, Cathrine; Lee, Alison; Rossiter, Chris; Bigsby, Marg

    2013-09-01

    A significant international development agenda in the practice of nurses supporting families with young children focuses on establishing partnerships between professionals and service users. Qualitative data were generated through interviews and focus groups with 22 nurses from three child and family health service organisations, two in Australia and one in New Zealand. The aim was to explore what is needed in order to sustain partnership in practice, and to investigate how the concept of practice architectures can help understand attempts to enhance partnerships between nurses and families. Implementation of the Family Partnership Model (FPM) is taken as a specific point of reference. Analysis highlights a number of tensions between the goals of FPM and practice architectures relating to opportunities for ongoing learning; the role of individual nurses in shaping the practice; relationships with peers and managers; organisational features; and extra-organisational factors. The concept of practice architectures shows how changing practice requires more than developing individual knowledge and skills, and avoids treating individuals and context separately. The value of this framework for understanding change with reference to context rather than just individual's knowledge and skills is demonstrated, particularly with respect to approaches to practice development focused on providing additional training to nurses. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Kaleidoscope of Understanding: Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Climate Change Concepts and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhoe, D.; Bullock, S.; Hayhoe, K.

    2010-12-01

    Teachers are at the forefront of efforts to increase climate literacy; however, even teachers’ understanding can contain significant misconceptions. Probes aimed at capturing these misconceptions have been used with pre-service teachers in several countries. Here, we report on a unique 59-item questionnaire useful as a pre-post diagnostic for teacher training. Topics include Earth’s climate system, long-range climatic changes, recent changes, various gases and types of radiation involved in the greenhouse effect, future impacts of climate change, and mitigation options This questionnaire is unique in three ways: 1. the topics include climate change concepts not usually probed, 2. the questions have a binary-choice format that avoided both the “positive statement bias” of agree-disagree questions and the superfluous distractors of multiple-choice tests, and 3. the questionnaire was piloted with pre-service elementary teachers in Toronto, one of the most multicultural cities in the world. The questionnaire items were written for the Ontario curriculum (K-10); however, they also address almost all of the principles identified in Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. The questionnaire was completed by 89 volunteers from a pool of 280. Most had a substantial knowledge of climate change concepts, with 34 of the 59 questions being answered correctly by more than 60% of the subjects. The item discrimination of most questions was relatively low, however, and only a very few item pairs showed a significant correlation. This suggests that subjects’ knowledge consisted of a “kaleidoscope of understanding,” rather than a coherent picture. Significant misconceptions were also identified, with 18 of the 59 items being answered incorrectly by more than 60% of the subjects. Of these, 11 correspond to misconceptions previously noted, while 7 suggest new misconceptions not yet identified in studies done with students or teachers, such as the

  7. Scaffolded problem-solving, learning approaches and understanding of concepts in an introductory college physics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Constance

    This study was an exploration of students' use of scaffolded problems as part of their homework in an introductory calculus-based physics class. The study included consideration of the possible relationship of students' meaningful and rote learning approaches. The sample was comprised of 48 students who had completed all study instruments. Of this number, 23 did homework assignments that included scaffolded problems that had been divided into multiple steps that simplify, highlight, and organize the knowledge associated with the problem solving process. The other 25 students did non-scaffolded homework assignments. The Mechanics Baseline Test, given at the beginning of the study, measured students' prior knowledge of physics concepts. The Learning Approach Questionnaire, also given at the beginning of the study, measured students' meaningful and rote approaches to learning. Student responses to 6 qualitative physics problems and their selection of concepts associated with 4 quantitative physics problems was a gauge of their understanding of physics concepts. These 10 problems were distributed between 2 classroom examinations given during the study. At the end of the study 4 students who had done scaffolded homework problems and 4 students who had done non-scaffolded homework problems participated in think aloud protocols. They verbalized their thoughts as they attempted to solve 2 physics problems. Characterizations of individual problem solving approaches emerged from the think aloud protocols. An analysis of statistical data showed that students who did scaffolded problems attained significantly greater understanding of physics concepts than students who did non-scaffolded assignments. There were no significant differences by learning approaches, and no significant interactions. This indicates that scaffolded homework problems may benefit students regardless of learning orientation. Think aloud protocols revealed patterns of difference between students who had

  8. Research and Teaching: Correlations between Students' Written Responses to Lecture-Tutorial Questions and Their Understandings of Key Astrophysics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Jeffrey; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the correlations between students' understandings of introductory astronomy concepts and the correctness and coherency of their written responses to targeted Lecture-Tutorial questions.

  9. Teaching and Understanding the Concept of Critical Thinking Skills within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beistle, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and departmental…

  10. [Understanding local concepts of equity to formulate public health policies in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry

    2006-01-01

    Equity is an essential health promotion concept and must be included at the heart of public health policy making. However, equity, which can also be referred to as social justice, is a polysemic and contextual term which definition must stem from the discourse and values of the society where the policies are implemented. Using a case study from Burkina Faso, we try to show that the non-acknowledgement of the local concept of social justice in the policy making process partly explains the resulting policies' relative failure to achieve social justice. Data collection methods vary (individual and group interviews, concept mapping, participant observation, document analyses) and there are qualitative and quantitative analyses. The four groups of actors who generally participate in the policy making process participated in the data collection. With no intention to generalise the results to the entire country, the results show that mass social mobilisation for justice is egalitarian in type. Health or social inequalities are understood by individuals as facts which we cannot act upon, while the inequalities to access care are qualified as unjust, and it is possible to intervene to reduce them if incentive measures to this effect are taken. We also observed a certain social difficulty to conceive sub-groups of population and fierce will to not destabilise social peace, which can be provoked when looking for justice for the impoverished sectors of the population. This research allows better understanding about the emic aspect of equity and seems to confirm the importance of taking into account local values, especially social justice, when determining public policy.

  11. Building Students’ Understanding of Quadratic Equation Concept Using Naïve Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Dhany Fachrudin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know how Naïve Geometry method can support students’ understanding about the concept of solving quadratic equations. In this article we will discuss one activities of the four activities we developed. This activity focused on how students linking the Naïve Geometry method with the solving of the quadratic equation especially on how student bring geometric solution into algebraic form. This research was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Palembang. Design research was chosen as method used in this research that have three main phases. The results of this research showed that manipulating and reshaping the rectangle into square could stimulate students to acquire the idea of solving quadratic equations using completing perfect square method. In the end of the meeting, students are also guided to reinvent the general formula to solve quadratic equations.

  12. The effect of Phet Simulation media for physics teacher candidate understanding on photoelectric effect concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supurwoko Supurwoko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian new Curriculum for senior high school students required student-centered learning. One of the curriculum implementation constraint was the difficulty of providing learning media. PhET simulations media is one of the options that can help implementation of new curriculum on learning. However, the use of this media in Indonesia still needs to be studied comprehensively. The learning was conducted on students of physics education Study Program in sebelas maret university in 2013. The sample consisted of 62 students that was taking quantum physics course. The method that was used in the research was descriptive qualitative.  The method that was used in learning was demonstration’s method that used PhET media and accompanied by a question and answer and groups discussion. The data was collected using multiple choice test and interview through email. We found that any students still did not understand about photoelectric effect concept. They were confused when asked about the thick material and cross section of the targets as related with the regardless of electrons in the photoelectric effect event. Other than that, the concept of the waves as a particle and its relation with the kinetic energy of the electrons was not understood by most students.

  13. Motion sensors in mathematics teaching: learning tools for understanding general math concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Woldron, Hildegard

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating technology tools into the mathematics classroom adds a new dimension to the teaching of mathematics concepts and establishes a whole new approach to mathematics learning. In particular, gathering data in a hands-on and real-time method helps classrooms coming alive. The focus of this paper is on bringing forward important mathematics concepts such as functions and rate of change with the motion detector. Findings from the author's studies suggest that the motion detector can be introduced from a very early age and used to enliven classes at any level. Using real-world data to present the main functions invites an experimental approach to mathematics and encourages students to engage actively in their learning. By emphasizing learning experiences with computer-based motion detectors and aiming to involve students in mathematical representations of real-world phenomena, six learning activities, which were developed in previous research studies, will be presented. Students use motion sensors to collect physical data that are graphed in real time and then manipulate and analyse them. Because data are presented in an immediately understandable graphical form, students are allowed to take an active role in their learning by constructing mathematical knowledge from observation of the physical world. By utilizing a predict-observe-explain format, students learn about slope, determining slope and distance vs. time graphs through motion-filled activities. Furthermore, exploring the meaning of slope, viewed as the rate of change, students acquire competencies for reading, understanding and interpreting kinematics graphs involving a multitude of mathematical representations. Consequently, the students are empowered to efficiently move among tabular, graphical and symbolic representation to analyse patterns and discover the relationships between different representations of motion. In fact, there is a need for further research to explore how mathematics teachers

  14. Integrating Classical with Emerging Concepts for Better Understanding of Salinity Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Kaur

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an important cereal crop responsible for world's food security. The sensitivity of rice plants toward a range of abiotic stresses is a prime challenge for its overall growth and productivity. Among these, salinity is a major stress which results in a significant loss of global rice yield annually. For finding straightforward and strict future solutions in order to assure the food security to growing world population, understanding of the various mechanisms responsible for salt stress tolerance in rice is of paramount importance. In classical studies, identification of salt tolerant cultivars and the genetic markers linked to salt tolerance and breeding approaches have been given emphasis. It further affirmed on the identification of various pathways regulating the complex process of salt stress adaptation. However, only limited success has been achieved in these approaches as salt tolerance is a complex process and is governed by multiple factors. Hence, for better understanding of salt tolerance mechanisms, a comprehensive approach involving physiological, biochemical and molecular studies is much warranted. Modern experimental and genetic resources have provided a momentum in this direction and have provided molecular insights into different salt stress responsive pathways at the signaling and regulatory level. The integrative knowledge of classical and modern research of the understanding of salt stress adaptive pathways can help the researchers for designing effective strategies to fight against salt stress. Hence, the present review is focused on the understanding of the salt stress tolerance mechanisms in rice through the consolidative knowledge of classical and modern concepts. It further highlights the emerging new trends of salt stress adaptive pathways in rice.

  15. Understanding the Mechanism of the Hydrogen Abstraction from Arachidonic Acid Catalyzed by the Human Enzyme 15-Lipoxygenase-2. A Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Free Energy Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardíaz, Reynier; Jambrina, Pablo G; Masgrau, Laura; González-Lafont, Àngels; Rosta, Edina; Lluch, José M

    2016-04-12

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a family of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of several lipid mediators. In the case of human 15-LOX, the 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 isoforms show slightly different reaction regiospecificity and substrate specificity, indicating that substrate binding and recognition may be different, a fact that could be related to their different biological role. Here, we have used long molecular dynamics simulations, QM(DFT)/MM potential energy and free energy calculations (using the newly developed DHAM method), to investigate the binding mode of the arachidonic acid (AA) substrate into 15-LOX-2 and the rate-limiting hydrogen-abstraction reaction 15-LOX-2 catalyzes. Our results strongly indicate that hydrogen abstraction from C13 in 15-LOX-2 is only consistent with the "tail-first" orientation of AA, with its carboxylate group interacting with Arg429, and that only the pro-S H13 hydrogen will be abstracted (being the pro-R H13 and H10 too far from the acceptor oxygen atom). At the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level the potential and free energy barriers for the pro-S H13 abstraction of AA by 15-LOX-2 are 18.0 and 18.6 kcal/mol, respectively. To analyze the kinetics of the hydrogen abstraction process, we determined a Markov model corresponding to the unbiased simulations along the state-discretized reaction coordinate. The calculated rates based on the second largest eigenvalue of the Markov matrices agree well with experimental measurements, and also provide the means to directly determine the pre-exponential factor for the reaction by comparing with the free energy barrier height. Our calculated pre-exponential factor is close to the value of kBT/h. On the other hand, our results suggest that the spin inversion of the complete system (including the O2 molecule) that is required to happen at some point along the full process to lead to the final hydroperoxide product, is likely to take place during the hydrogen transfer, which is a proton coupled electron transfer

  16. Metaphors in Abstract Thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Boot (Inge)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the dissertation was to investigate the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT, Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999).The CMT proposes that abstract concepts are partly structured by concrete concepts through the mechanism of metaphorical mapping. In Chapter 2 we wanted to investigate the

  17. A New Take on John Maynard Smith's Concept of Protein Space for Understanding Molecular Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the public lacks a proper understanding of Darwinian evolution, a problem that can be addressed with new learning and teaching approaches to be implemented both inside the classroom and in less formal settings. Few analogies have been as successful in communicating the basics of molecular evolution as John Maynard Smith’s protein space analogy (1970), in which he compared protein evolution to the transition between the terms WORD and GENE, changing one letter at a time to yield a different, meaningful word (in his example, the preferred path was WORD → WORE → GORE → GONE → GENE). Using freely available computer science tools (Google Books Ngram Viewer), we offer an update to Maynard Smith’s analogy and explain how it might be developed into an exploratory and pedagogical device for understanding the basics of molecular evolution and, more specifically, the adaptive landscape concept. We explain how the device works through several examples and provide resources that might facilitate its use in multiple settings, ranging from public engagement activities to formal instruction in evolution, population genetics, and computational biology. PMID:27736867

  18. Measuring Visual Literacy Skills on Students’ Concept Understanding of Genetic Transfer Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibriana, F.; Pamelasari, S. D.; Aulia, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    Visualization is an important skill for all students majoring in natural sciences. Also, the visual literacy skills (VLS) are essential for Microbiology learning. The lecturer can use the external representations (ERs) to visualize the microorganisms and its microenvironment. One of learning materials which are rather difficult to interpret in microbiology is genetic transfer. In this study, we measure the VLS on students’ concept understanding of genetic transfer material using a simple test. The tests were held before and after the lecture on this topic employing a combination of talking drawing with picture and picture model. The results show that in the beginning, students showed their poor visual literacy. After the lecture, students were able to draw their understanding on the genetic transfer in bacteria. Most students’ visual literacy ability improves in the level of acceptable. In conclusion, the students’ ability was improved in the average amount of conceptual knowledge. This result reveals that some students comprehend in the correct level of ability, meaning that they have a high degree of conceptual (propositional) and visual knowledge.

  19. Exploring prospective secondary science teachers' understandings of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics concepts using computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mustafa

    The primary objective of this case study was to examine prospective secondary science teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics. A computer simulation of basic Mendelian inheritance processes (Catlab) was used in combination with small-group discussions and other instructional scaffolds to enhance prospective science teachers' understandings. The theoretical background for this research is derived from a social constructivist perspective. Structuring scientific inquiry as investigation to develop explanations presents meaningful context for the enhancement of inquiry abilities and understanding of the science content. The context of the study was a teaching and learning course focused on inquiry and technology. Twelve prospective science teachers participated in this study. Multiple data sources included pre- and post-module questionnaires of participants' view of scientific inquiry, pre-posttests of understandings of Mendelian concepts, inquiry project reports, class presentations, process videotapes of participants interacting with the simulation, and semi-structured interviews. Seven selected prospective science teachers participated in in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that while studying important concepts in science, carefully designed inquiry experiences can help prospective science teachers to develop an understanding about the types of questions scientists in that field ask, the methodological and epistemological issues that constrain their pursuit of answers to those questions, and the ways in which they construct and share their explanations. Key findings included prospective teachers' initial limited abilities to create evidence-based arguments, their hesitancy to include inquiry in their future teaching, and the impact of collaboration on thinking. Prior to this experience the prospective teachers held uninformed views of scientific inquiry. After the module, participants demonstrated extended expertise in

  20. BOX MEDIA MODEL THROUGH THE USE OF CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING CONCEPTS IN VOLUME BEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Rohaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research is motivated Cilengkrang Elementary School fifth grade students in the learning of the beam volume is still experiencing difficulties. This happens because the learning process that takes place is conventional. Learning by applying a contextual model chosen researchers by reason students will know if the learning is associated with the real world of students. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Tujuanpenelitianini is to obtain an overview of the planning, implementation and improvement of students' understanding of the results of the application of the concept model of contextual learning in the classroom beam volume V Elementary School Cilengkrang. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Taggart. Based on the implementation of the actions performed by three cycles, as a whole has shown an increase from the initial data, both process and outcomes of learning. So that the application of contextual models can enhance students' understanding of class V SDN Cilengkrang Northern District of Sumedang Sumedang district of the concept of the beam volume.   Keywords: Contextual Model, Mathematics, Mathematics Learning Objectives     Abstrak. Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi siswa kelas V SDN Cilengkrang dalam pembelajaran volume balok masih mengalami kesulitan. Ini terjadi karena proses pembelajaran yang berlangsung bersifat konvensional. Pembelajaran dengan menerapkan model kontekstual dipilih peneliti dengan alasan siswa akan paham jika pembelajaran dikaitkan dengan dunia nyata siswa. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian tindakan kelas dengan rancangan prosedur penelitiannya mengacu pada model spiral Kemmis dan MC. Tujuanpenelitianini yaitu untuk memperoleh

  1. Implications of the Integration of Computing Methodologies into Conventional Marketing Research upon the Quality of Students' Understanding of the Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayman, Umut; Serim, Mehmet Cenk

    2004-01-01

    It has been an ongoing concern among academicians teaching social sciences to develop a better methodology to ease understanding of students. Since verbal emphasis is at the core of the concepts within such disciplines it has been observed that the adequate or desired level of conceptual understanding of the students to transforms the theories…

  2. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test with no…

  3. Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify primary students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include…

  4. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...... machines to singular, non-axiomatic and diagrammatic machines. That is: Machines which constitute becomings. This presentation gives a survey of the development of the concept of abstract machines in the philosophy of Deleuze and Guatari and the function of these abstract machines in the creation of works...... of art. From Difference and Repetition to Anti-Oedipus, the machines are conceived as binary machines based on the exclusive or inclusive use respectively of the three syntheses: conexa, disjuncta and conjuncta. The machines have a twofold embedment: In the desiring-production and in the social...

  5. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research. The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Results Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. Conclusion This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which

  6. Understanding the nutrigenomic definitions and concepts at the food-genome junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, M T Ravi

    2008-12-01

    The marked differences in individual response to dietary factors have led to major controversies in nutrition and puzzled nutrition scientists over the last century. The emerging field of nutrigenomics helps us to understand the basis for some of these differences and also promises us the ability to tailor diet based on individual genetic makeup. Great advances in Human Genome Project, documentation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes and their association with metabolic imbalances have gradually added new tests to the nutrigenomic panel. Studies based on ethnopharmacology and phytotherapy concepts showed that nutrients and botanicals can interact with the genome causing marked changes in gene expression. This has led to the commercial development of nutraceuticals and functional foods that can modify negative health effects of individual genetic profile bringing the field to the "food/genome" junction. Despite the promise of nutrigenomics to personalize diet, there is skepticism whether it can truly bring about meaningful modification of the risk factors connected to chronic diseases, due to the lack of large scale nutrition intervention studies. Several intervention studies currently underway in the United States and abroad (Israel, Spain, and France) will further help validate nutrigenomic concepts. France has already introduced a National Nutrition and Health Program to assess nutritional status and risk of major metabolic diseases. As the field(s) related to nutritional genomics advance in their scope, it is essential that: (a) strict guidelines be followed in the nomenclature and definition of the subdisciplines; and (b) the state/federal regulatory guidelines be updated for diagnostic laboratories, especially for those offering tests directly to the public (without a physician's request) to help protect the consumer.

  7. The social accountability of doctors: a relationship based framework for understanding emergent community concepts of caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Thompson, Lionel P; McInerney, Patricia; Woollard, Bob

    2017-04-12

    Social accountability is defined as the responsibility of institutions to respond to the health priorities of a community. There is an international movement towards the education of health professionals who are accountable to communities. There is little evidence of how communities experience or articulate this accountability. In this grounded theory study eight community based focus group discussions were conducted in rural and urban South Africa to explore community members' perceptions of the social accountability of doctors. The discussions were conducted across one urban and two rural provinces. Group discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial coding was done and three main themes emerged following data analysis: the consultation as a place of love and respect (participants have an expectation of care yet are often engaged with disregard); relationships of people and systems (participants reflect on their health priorities and the links with the social determinants of health) and Ubuntu as engagement of the community (reflected in their expectation of Ubuntu based relationships as well as part of the education system). These themes were related through a framework which integrates three levels of relationship: a central community of reciprocal relationships with the doctor-patient relationship as core; a level in which the systems of health and education interact and together with social determinants of health mediate the insertion of communities into a broader discourse. An ubuntu framing in which the tensions between vulnerability and power interact and reflect rights and responsibility. The space between these concepts is important for social accountability. Social accountability has been a concept better articulated by academics and centralized agencies. Communities bring a richer dimension to social accountability through their understanding of being human and caring. This study also creates the connection between ubuntu and social

  8. BALWOIS: Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, Morell; Todorovik, Olivija; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    BALWOIS 2004 is supported by the European Commission, Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Macedonia, French Embassy in Macedonia and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. BALWOIS Conference is prepared by l'Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD - Montpellier - France) and the Meteorological Association of the Republic of Macedonia (METEO MAK) with the kind support of the Hydro meteorological Services of Macedonia, Hydro biological Institute of Ohrid, National Hydro meteorological Institutes of Albania and Bulgaria, and the Municipality of Ohrid as well. Its international shared waters (rivers, lakes and groundwater tables) make this area an earth of challenges to apply the well known concept of Integrated Water Resources Management in a context of regional climate changes and anthropogenic pressures on environment. The role of a water observation and information system for decision support is to enhance the links between research institutions and operational centres, to help the decision makers and all water actors as well as to disseminate to large public useful information on related water issues. The main objectives of BALWOIS are to encourage scientific exchanges between researchers coming from Balkan institutions and to offer them opportunities to improve their networking at European and global level. Ohrid is one of the most welcoming towns of Republic of Macedonia with a very significant cultural heritage. Nobody would contest that Ohrid Lake - 358 km 2 , several millions years old and surrounded by splendid Macedonian and Albanian mountains - is among the most beautiful lakes of Europe. Together Ohrid and Prespa lakes and their environments offer a large biodiversity with endemic species. The location of the conference on the shore of Ohrid lake is particularly well chosen to work on topics linked with climate change which already affects the balance of the lakes, protection of the biodiversity against increasing

  9. Using Concept Mapping to Improve Poor Readers' Understanding of Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfidi, Eleni; Mikropoulos, Anastasios; Rogdaki, Aspasia

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined whether the use of concept mapping is more effective in teaching expository material in comparison to a traditional, lecture only, approach. Its objective was threefold. First, to determine if multimedia concept mapping produces differential learning outcomes compared to digital text-based concept mapping. Secondly, to…

  10. The Effective Concepts on Students' Understanding of Chemical Reactions and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the basic concepts related to the unit of "Chemical Reactions and Energy" and the sub-concepts underlying for meaningful learning of the unit and to investigate the effectiveness of them on students' learning achievements. For this purpose, the basic concepts of the unit…

  11. Using Metasynthesis to Develop Sensitising Concepts to Understand Torres Strait Islander Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnitta Patricia Mosby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research indicates that more and more Indigenous peoples will be forced to migrate due to climate change. Current responses focus on mitigation and adaptation strategies. One such group, Torres Strait Islander people are already moving for other reasons and existing vulnerabilities compound levels of disadvantage when moving. It will be important to understand Torres Strait Islander people’s experiences of contemporary movements in order to inform policy development and facilitate the process of migration and resettlement as movement increases. A synthesis of existing studies would allow the development of sensitising concepts that could inform future research in the Torres Strait Islander context. This article presents a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies of the experiences of different Indigenous and minority groups at various stages of migration, displacement and resettlement. Articles were selected on contemporary movements (2001-2011 and importantly the inclusion of first person voice. Reciprocal translation was used to synthesise common themes and a core construct. The overarching construct that became apparent from the metasynthesis was ‘continuity of being’ through staying connected to self, family and culture. Three themes emerged: ‘freedom to be’, ‘staying close’ and ‘forming anchor’. These were enacted through people valuing their personal, social, religious and political freedom and recognising the importance of maintaining or forming strong social and family networks. When researching the experiences of Torres Strait Islanders it will be necessary to focus on motivations for moving, and understand the processes for staying connected to kin and homeland in order to achieve the desired outcomes of successful resettlement under conditions of uncertainty.

  12. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229-3039, Cincinnati (United States)

    2004-03-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  13. Ecological Understanding of Concept Blockage in Writing Anxiety Based on Bronfenbrenner' Chronosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nazari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During this qualitative study on writing anxiety among EFL learners which was done as part of a large scale Ph.D dissertation by the authors, most learners complained about conceptual blockage. They claimed they did not know what to write or how to start. We started to ecologically study the causes of the issue from Bronfenbrenner's perspective. We realized that the learners' causes are mostly related to chronosystem than macro-system or microsystem. The participants were 8 novice EFL tobe teachers and 8 expert EFL teachers of Iranian ministry of education who voluntarily took part in a longitudinal study in three academic semesters. They were interviewed, observed and asked to keep journals; we coded all the data using Nvivo10. The finding confirmed Horwits' idea (1986 that the discrepancy between matured thought and immature language skill is one of the causes of concept blockage. Therefore, besides all the ecological elements and the chronosystem interactions, learners should improve their language skills to get rid of conceptual blockage. Finally, in order to understand and interpret the learners' complex behavior in classroom situations, it is better to study ecologically

  14. BUILDING STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING OF QUADRATIC EQUATION CONCEPT USING NAÏVE GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Dhany Fachrudin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know how Naïve Geometry method can support students’ understanding about the concept of solving quadratic equations. In this article we will discuss one activities of the four activities we developed. This activity focused on how students linking the Naïve Geometry method with the solving of the quadratic equation especially on how student bring geometric solution into algebraic form. This research was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Palembang. Design research was chosen as method used in this research that have three main phases. The results of this research showed that manipulating and reshaping the rectangle into square could stimulate students to acquire the idea of solving quadratic equations using completing perfect square method. In the end of the meeting, students are also guided to reinvent the general formula to solve quadratic equations.Keywords: Quadratic Equations, Design Research, Naïve Geometry, PMRI DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.5.2.1502.191-202

  15. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2004-01-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  16. The use of Museum Based Science Centres to Expose Primary School Students in Developing Countries to Abstract and Complex Concepts of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Trust; Sigauke, Esther

    2017-10-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology, and it is regarded as the basis for the next industrial revolution. In developing countries, nanotechnology promises to solve everyday challenges, such as the provision of potable water, reliable energy sources and effective medication. However, there are several challenges in the exploitation of nanotechnology. One of the notable challenges is the lack of adequate knowledge about how materials behave at the nanoscale. As nanotechnology is relatively new, the current generation of scientists have not had the opportunity to learn the fundamentals of the technology at an early stage. Young students who are at the primary school level may follow the same trajectory if they are not exposed to the technology. There is a need to lay a strong foundation by introducing nanoscience and nanotechnology to students at the primary school level. It is during the early stages of child development that students master basic concepts for life long learning. Nevertheless, many primary school children, particularly those in developing countries are missing the chance of learning about nanoscience and nanotechnology because it is regarded as being abstract and complex. In this paper, we argue that despite the complexity of nanoscience and nanotechnology, science centres can be used as one of the platforms for exposing young students to the discipline. We use a case study of a museum-based science centre as an example to illustrate that young students can be exposed to nanoscience and nanotechnology using tactile and hands-on experience. The early engagement of primary school children with nanoscience and nanotechnology is important in raising the next generation of scientists who are firmly grounded in the discipline.

  17. Understanding environmental contributions to autism: Causal concepts and the state of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Krakowiak, Paula

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science. Causal concepts are introduced, including root causes; pitfalls in interpreting time trends as clues to etiologic factors; susceptible time windows for exposure; and implications of a multi-factorial model of ASD. An historical background presents early research into the origins of ASD. The epidemiologic literature from the last fifteen years is briefly but critically reviewed for potential roles of, for example, air pollution, pesticides, plastics, prenatal vitamins, lifestyle and family factors, and maternal obstetric and metabolic conditions during her pregnancy. Three examples from the case-control CHildhood Autism Risks from Genes and the Environment Study are probed to illustrate methodological approaches to central challenges in observational studies: capturing environmental exposure; causal inference when a randomized controlled clinical trial is either unethical or infeasible; and the integration of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences on development. We conclude with reflections on future directions, including exposomics, new technologies, the microbiome, gene-by-environment interaction in the era of -omics, and epigenetics as the interface of those two. As the environment is malleable, this research advances the goal of a productive and fulfilling life for all children, teen-agers and adults. Autism Res 2018, 11: 554-586. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  18. Student understanding development in chemistry concepts through constructivist-informed laboratory and science camp process in secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathommapas, Nookorn

    2018-01-01

    Science Camp for Chemistry Concepts was the project which designed to provide local students with opportunities to apply chemistry concepts and thereby developing their 21st century skills. The three study purposes were 1) to construct and develop chemistry stations for encouraging students' understandings in chemistry concepts based on constructivist-informed laboratory, 2) to compare students' understandings in chemistry concepts before and after using chemistry learning stations, and 3) to study students' satisfactions of using their 21st century skills in science camp activities. The research samples were 67 students who attended the 1-day science camp. They were levels 10 to 11 students in SumsaoPittayakarn School, UdonThani Province, Thailand. Four constructivist-informed laboratory stations of chemistry concepts were designed for each group. Each station consisted of a chemistry scenario, a question, answers in tier 1 and supporting reasons in tier 2, and 4 sets of experimental instruments. Four to five-member subgroups of four student groups parallel participated in laboratory station for an hour in each station. Student activities in each station concluded of individual pretest, group prediction, experimental design, testing out and collection data, interpreting the results, group conclusion, and individual post-test. Data collection was done by station mentors using two-tier multiple choice questions, students' written work and interviews. Data triangulation was used for interpreting and confirming students' understandings of chemistry concepts which divided into five levels, Sound Understanding (SU), Partial Understanding (PU), Specific Misconception (SM), No Understanding (NU) and No Response (NR), before and after collaborating at each station. The study results found the following: 1) four constructivist-laboratory stations were successfully designed and used to investigate student' understandings in chemistry concepts via collaborative workshop of

  19. Physical analogs that help to better understand the modern concepts on continental stretching, hyperextension and rupturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalan, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Three facts helped to establish a revolution in the understanding of how mega-continents stretch, rupture and breakup to form new continents and related passive margins: (1) the penetration of the distal portions of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins by several ODP wells (late 70's/early 80's), with the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumation of lower crust and mantle between typical continental and oceanic domains, (2) field works in the Alps and in the Pyrenees that re-interpreted sedimentary successions and associated "ophiolites" as remnants of old Tethyan passive margins that recorded structural domains similar to those found in Iberia-Newfoundland, and (3) the acquisition of long and ultra-deep reflection seismic sections that could image for the first time sub-crustal levels (25-40 km) in several passive margins around the world. The interpretation of such sections showed that the concepts developed in the Iberia-Newfoundland margins and in the Alps could be applied to a great extent to most passive margins, especially those surrounding the North and South Atlantic Oceans. The new concepts of (i) decoupled deformation (upper brittle X lower ductile) within the proximal domain of the continental crust, (ii) of coupled deformation (hyperextension) in the distal crust and, (iii) of exhumation of deeper levels in the outer domain, with the consequent change in the physical properties of the rising rocks, defined an end-member in the new classification of passive margins, the magma-poor type (as opposed to volcanic passive margins). These concepts, together with the new reflection seismic views of the entire crustal structure of passive margins, forced the re-interpretation of older refraction and potential field data and the re-drawing of long established models. Passive margins are prime targets for petroleum exploration, thus, the great interest raised by this subject in both the academy and in the industry. Interestingly enough, the deformation

  20. Emotional Abuse: How the Concept Sheds Light on the Understanding of Psychological Harassment (in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Harvey

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of emotional abuse in the workplace and applies relevant findings and concepts to psychological harassment as defined in the legislation enacted in Quebec beginning June 1, 2004. It is noted that the terms are highly related by definition and that a clear similarity exists. Accordingly, a prospective look is taken at the challenges involved in the understanding and application of psychological harassment based on seven dimensions commonly studied and referred to in the academic literature on emotional abuse. The conclusion is that the determination of psychological harassment involves a multidimensional consideration of factors and that this gives rise to several challenges in applying the new legislation.Cet article s’intéresse au concept d’abus émotif au travail et à son application à des problèmes de harcèlement psychologique, tel que défini par la législation promulguée au Québec en juin 2004. Les définitions des deux termes sont rapprochées ce qui suggère qu’il s’agit de problèmes similaires. À des fins de prospective, l’article étudie les implications pratiques de l’application au harcèlement psychologique des sept dimensions associées à l’abus émotif dans la littérature scientifique. L’article arrive à la conclusion qu’un diagnostic de harcèlement psychologique requiert la prise en compte de facteurs multidimensionnels, ce qui soulève des difficultés multiples en ce qui a trait à l’application de la législation récente.Este artículo se interesa al concepto de abuso emotivo en el trabajo y a su aplicación a los problemas de acoso psicológico, según la definición que figura en la legislación promulgada en Québec en junio del 2004. Las definiciones de los dos términos son próximas lo que sugiere que se trata de problemas similares. Con fines prospectivos, el artículo estudia las implicaciones prácticas de la aplicación de siete dimensiones asociadas al

  1. Understanding The Impact of Formative Assessment Strategies on First Year University Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Aydeniz; Aybuke Pabuccu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of formative assessment strategies on students’ conceptual understanding in a freshmen college chemistry course in Turkey. Our sample consists of 96 students; 27 males, 69 females. The formative assessment strategies such as reflection on exams, and collective problem solving sessions were used throughout the course. Data were collected through pre and post-test methodology. The findings reveal that the formative assessment strategies used in this study led...

  2. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  3. Profile of Metacognition of Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers in Understanding the Concept of Integral Calculus with Regard Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misu, L.; Budayasa, I. K.; Lukito, A.

    2018-01-01

    This research is to describe metacognition profile of female and male mathematics’ pre-service teachers in understanding the concept of integral calculus. The subjects of this study are one female and 1 male mathematics’ pre-service teachers who have studied integral calculus. This research type is an explorative study with the qualitative approach. The main data collection of this research was obtained by using Interview technique. In addition, there are supporting data which is the result of the written work of research subjects (SP) in understanding the question of integral calculus. The results of this study are as follows: There is a difference in metacognition profiles between male and female mathematics’ pre-service teachers in the understanding concept of integral calculus in the interpreting category, especially the definite integral concept. While in the category of exemplifying, there is no difference in metacognition profile between male and female mathematics’ pre-service teachers either the definite integral concept and the indefinite integral concept.

  4. Article Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Simple learning tools to improve clinical laboratory practical skills training. B Taye, BSc, MPH. Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, ... concerns about the competence of medical laboratory science graduates. ... standardised practical learning guides and assessment checklists would.

  5. Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Cyclic ovarian activity and plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations were assessed for 179 days in 5. (free grazing) and 6 (free grazing + high energy and protein-supplemented) normocyclic donkeys. In addition, plasma p4 and cortisol were measured in blood samples collected at J5·min intervals in the.

  6. Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Abstract. Hemoglobin is a tetrameric protein which is able to dissociate into dimers. The dimers can in turn dissociate into tetramers. It has been found that dimers are more reactive than tetramers. The difference in the reactivity of these two species has been used to determine the tetramer- dimer dissociation constant of ...

  7. The Virtual Solar System Project: Developing Conceptual Understanding of Astronomical Concepts through Building Three-Dimensional Computational Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Thomas; Barnett, Michael; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Virtual Solar System (VSS) course which is one of the first attempts to integrate three-dimensional (3-D) computer modeling as a central component of introductory undergraduate education. Assesses changes in student understanding of astronomy concepts as a result of participating in an experimental introductory astronomy course in…

  8. The Impact of Three-Dimensional Computational Modeling on Student Understanding of Astronomy Concepts: A Qualitative Analysis. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John; Barnett, Michael; MaKinster, James; Keating, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we explore an alternate mode for teaching and learning the dynamic, three-dimensional (3D) relationships that are central to understanding astronomical concepts. To this end, we implemented an innovative undergraduate course in which we used inexpensive computer modeling tools. As the second of a two-paper series, this report…

  9. Addressing Pre-Service Teachers' Understandings and Difficulties with Some Core Concepts in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and…

  10. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

  11. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Understanding State of Matter and Solubility Concepts by Using 5E Learning Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Eren; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle model based instruction and traditionally designed chemistry instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of state of matter and solubility concepts. In this study, 119 tenth grade students from chemistry courses instructed by same teacher from an Anatolian…

  12. Using Concept Maps as Instructional Materials to Foster the Understanding of the Atomic Model and Matter-Energy Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Joana G.; Correia, Paulo R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of concept maps (Cmaps) as instructional materials prepared by teachers, to foster the understanding of chemistry. We choose fireworks as a macroscopic event to teach basic chemical principles related to the Bohr atomic model and matter-energy interaction. During teachers' Cmap navigation, students can experience…

  13. How school leaders and teachers understand the concept of inclusion and how they transform their visions of inclusion into practice

    OpenAIRE

    Svensen, Ann Elin

    2010-01-01

    Master's thesis in Special education This study focuses on how school leaders and teachers at different schools understand the concept of inclusion, and how they transform their visions of inclusion into practice. I have looked at how leadership and pedagogical practice as central activities within an inclusive perspective, contribute to the knowledge of how to create a better school for all students.

  14. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Osama H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  15. Pre-College Deaf Students' Understanding of Fractional Concepts: What We Know and What We Do Not Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Keith; Kurz, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical knowledge and skills are crucial to success in academics and the workplace. The Common Core State Standards emphasizes fraction teaching and learning in elementary school. This mixed-method study explores fraction concept understanding among 14 deaf and hard of hearing participants between the ages of 8 and 16, as quantitatively…

  16. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  17. Wind und Wand : de neoconstructivistische binnendecoratie van Gerhard Wind in de St. Antoniuskirche in Düsseldorf-Oberkassel (1984-1986) : een eigenzinnig abstract-geometrisch concept in theorie en praktijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deinse, Pieter Hendrik Jan van

    2012-01-01

    In 1984 ontving Gerhard Wind de opdracht van het aartsbisdom Keulen voor de binnendecoratie volgens zijn abstract-geometrisch PATIO concept van het kerkinterieur van de St. Antoniuskirche in Düsseldorf-Oberkassel. De vele vragen die dit oproept luiden samengevat: Hoe dient men dit kerkinterieur en

  18. Holistic Mathematics Instruction: Interactive Problem Solving and Real Life Situations Help Learners Understand Math Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambeault, Betty

    1993-01-01

    Holistic math focuses on problem solving with numbers and concepts. Whole math activities for adults include shopping for groceries, eating in restaurants, buying gas, taking medicine, measuring a room, estimating servings, and compiling a family cookbook. (SK)

  19. A concept mapping approach to guide and understand dissemination and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2012-10-01

    Many efforts to implement evidence-based programs do not reach their full potential or fail due to the variety of challenges inherent in dissemination and implementation. This article describes the use of concept mapping-a mixed method strategy-to study implementation of behavioral health innovations and evidence-based practice (EBP). The application of concept mapping to implementation research represents a practical and concise way to identify and quantify factors affecting implementation, develop conceptual models of implementation, target areas to address as part of implementation readiness and active implementation, and foster communication among stakeholders. Concept mapping is described and a case example is provided to illustrate its use in an implementation study. Implications for the use of concept mapping methods in both research and applied settings towards the dissemination and implementation of behavioral health services are discussed.

  20. Energy Concept Understanding of High School Students: A Cross-Grade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoglu, Zeynep Baskan

    2018-01-01

    Energy is a difficult concept to be understood by students of all levels. Thus, the aim of the study is to determine how high school students at different levels perceive the energy and related concepts. In line with this purpose, 173 students in total of which 57 ones of the 9th grade, 94 ones of the 10th grade and 22 ones of the 11th grade…

  1. On the Concept of Force: How Understanding Its History Can Improve Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Some physicists have pointed out that we do not know what force is. The most common definition of force in textbooks has been criticized for more than two centuries. Many studies have shown that the concept of force is a problem for teaching. How to conceive force on the basis of the concepts and criticism of force in the works of Newton, Euler,…

  2. Reconstruction of abstract quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drieschner, M.; Goernitz, T.; von Weizsaecker, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    Understanding quantum theory as a general theory of prediction, we reconstruct abstract quantum theory. Abstract means the general frame of quantum theory, without reference to a three-dimensional position space, to concepts like particle or field, or to special laws of dynamics. Reconstruction is the attempt to do this by formulating simple and plausible postulates on prediction in order to derive the basic concepts of quantum theory from them. Thereby no law of classical physics is presupposed which would then have to be quantized. We briefly discuss the relationship of theory and interpretation in physics and the fundamental role of time as a basic concept for physics. Then a number of assertions are given, formulated as succinctly as possible in order to make them easily quotable and comparable. The assertations are arranged in four groups: heuristic principles, verbal definitions of some terms, three basic postulates, and consequences. The three postulates of separable alternatives, indeterminism, and kinematics are the central points of this work. These brief assertions are commented upon, and their relationship with the interpretation of quantum theory is discussed. Also given are an outlook on the further development into concrete quantum theory and some philosophical reflections

  3. Culture of peace and care for the Planet Earth as predictors of students’ understanding of chemistry concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Okafor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on how culture of peace and care for the planet earth variables predicted public coeducational secondary school students understanding of chemistry concepts in Anambra State of Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. It was a survey and correlational research designs that involved sample of 180 drawn from six schools through a three-stage sampling procedures. Culture of Peace and Care for the Planet Earth Questionnaire (CPCPEQ and Chemistry Understanding Test (CUT were used for data collection. Their validity and reliability were determined using Cronbach alpha and Kuder-Richardson formula 20 which gave indices of r=.71 and r= 0.78 respectively. Linear regression and bivariate correlation analyses as well as One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used in data analysis. The results showed that for culture of peace, tolerance significantly predicted higher chemistry concepts scores while social movement significantly predicted lower concepts scores on chemistry understanding test. On care for the planet earth, adjusting thermostat significantly predicted higher scores while saving water significantly predicted lower scores on chemistry understanding test. The study recommended setting- up of Visionary Chemists for Environment and Peace Culture (VCEPC in all schools that would sensitize students on how to shun hostility, indoctrination and embracing effective methods of waste disposal. It concludes that everybody should go green, plant more trees, and promote mutual understanding, tolerance, peaceful co-existence and friendly environments as fundamental tips of peace culture and care for the planet earth that foster meaningful understanding of chemistry concepts among secondary school students.

  4. Understanding fraction concepts of Indonesian junior high school students: A case of field independent and field dependent students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamonto, K.; Juniati, D.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to describe the students’ understanding of fraction concepts. This research is descriptive with the qualitative approach. The subjects consisted of 1 Field Independent (FI) and 1 Field Dependent (FD) students. Setting subjects based on Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) results and meeting equivalent mathematical ability. Data obtained techniques through Task-based interview. The results show that FI students were represented a complete fractional concept and express the meaning of fractional notation with its own words.The students use of fractional concept such as the idea of dividing equally, fractional equivalents, and the relative size of the fraction to classify fractions based on certain properties, giving fractional examples and non-fractional examples, and comparing fractions. However, FD students represented declarative farctional concepts, had difficulty in giving a good meaning notation, relation between components, classifying fractions and comparing them. FD students are fixated on fraction notation and the visualization of concrete objects. Overall, these results provide a detailed picture of the understanding of fractional concepts that, FI students tend to use coherent analysis, while FD students tended to be fixated on fractional notation and visualization of concrete objects.

  5. Resilience as a concept for understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Francesca; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Kendall, Sally; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-04-01

    This paper was a report of the synthesis of evidence on examining the origins and definitions of the concept of resilience, investigating its application in chronic illness management and exploring its utility as a means of understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Resilience is a concept that is becoming relevant to understanding how individuals and families live with illness, especially long-term conditions. Caregivers of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease must be able to respond to exacerbations of the condition and may themselves experience cognitive imbalances. Yet, resilience as a way of understanding family caregiving of adults with COPD is little explored. Literature review - integrative review. CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar and EBSCO were searched between 1989-2015. The principles of rapid evidence assessment were followed. We identified 376 relevant papers: 20 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in family caregivers of chronic diseases patients but only 12 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in caregivers of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients and have been included in the synthesis. The term resilience in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease caregiving is most often understood using a deficit model of health.

  6. An Assessment of Students' Understanding of Ecosystem Concepts: Conflating Ecological Systems and Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca; Gray, Steven; Demeter, Marylee; Lui, Lei; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching ecological concepts in schools is important in promoting natural science and environmental education for young learners. Developing educational programs is difficult, however, because of complicated ecological processes operating on multiple levels, the unlimited nature of potential system interactions (given the openness of systems), and…

  7. Facilitating Student Understanding of Buffering by an Integration of Mathematics and Chemical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtright, Robert; Emry, Randall; Heaton, Ruth M.; Markwell, John

    2004-01-01

    We describe a simple undergraduate exercise involving the titration of a weak acid by a strong base using a pH meter and a micropipette. Students then use their data and carry out graphical analyses with a spreadsheet. The analyses involve using mathematical concepts such as first-derivative and semi-log plots and provide an opportunity for…

  8. Towards Understanding EFL Teachers' Conceptions of Research: Findings from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the conceptions of research held by English as a foreign language teachers in Argentina. Quantitative data from 622 participants from an online questionnaire were followed by qualitative data from online interviews with 40 of those participants. Results show that the teachers conceptualised research through conventional…

  9. How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Belcher, John

    2005-01-01

    Educational technology supports meaningful learning and enables the presentation of spatial and dynamic images, which portray relationships among complex concepts. The Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) involves media-rich software for simulation and visualization in freshman…

  10. Concepts of Access for People with Learning Difficulties: Towards a Shared Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nind, Melanie; Seale, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article explores both the process and outcomes of a seminar series on the concept of access for people with learning difficulties. The seminar topics chosen to foster dialogue across professional and disciplinary boundaries included access to information, education, employment, the law, health, leisure, community, past histories and future…

  11. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  12. The Effect of the Use of Number Lines Representations on Student Understanding of Basic Function Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James R.

    Researchers and educators are calling for increased use of technology and attention to function concepts in school mathematics. Students often have considerable difficulty gleaning pointwise and global information from Cartesian (R squared) representations of functions, whether they are hand- or machine-produced. Described here is an interactive…

  13. Students' Understandings of Acid Strength: How Meaningful Is Reliability When Measuring Alternative Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; McClary, LaKeisha

    2015-01-01

    Most organic chemistry reactions occur by a mechanism that includes acid-base chemistry, so it is important that students develop and learn to use correct conceptions of acids and acid strength. Recent studies have described undergraduate organic chemistry students' cognitive resources related to the Brønsted-Lowry acid model and the Lewis acid…

  14. High School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts: An Ongoing Challenge for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanhuri, Muhd Ibrahim Muhamad; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a quantitative case study design, the "Acids-Bases Chemistry Achievement Test" ("ABCAT") was developed to evaluate the extent to which students in Malaysian secondary schools achieved the intended curriculum on acid-base concepts. Responses were obtained from 260 Form 5 (Grade 11) students from five schools to initially…

  15. Epigenetic understanding of gene-environment interactions in psychiatric disorders: a new concept of clinical genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Takeo; Miyake, Kunio; Hirasawa, Takae

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Epigenetics is a mechanism that regulates gene expression independently of the underlying DNA sequence, relying instead on the chemical modification of DNA and histone proteins. Although environmental and genetic factors were thought to be independently associated with disorders, several recent lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics bridges these two factors. Epigenetic gene regulation is essential for normal development, thus defects in epigenetics cause various rare congenital ...

  16. Chinese Grade Eight Students' Understanding about the Concept of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2017-01-01

    China is one of the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitters. Chinese students' awareness and understanding about global warming have a significant impact on the future of mankind. This study, as an initial research of this kind in Mainland China, uses clinical interviews to survey 37 grade eight students on their understanding about global…

  17. Addressing pre-service teachers' understandings and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Students' understanding of and difficulties with core elements (time, length, mass and density) were tested using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire (including four questions) and in-depth interviews after the instruction of related modern physics topics. The analyses of the collected data were based on quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results indicate that pre-service teachers at different academic levels have specific and considerable difficulties with proper time, time dilation, proper length, mass and relativistic density concepts. In this paper, the conclusions of the study and implications for physics teaching are discussed.

  18. Addressing pre-service teachers' understandings and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin, E-mail: gamze.sezgin@deu.edu.t [Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education Izmir, 35160 (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers' understanding of and difficulties with some core concepts in the special theory of relativity. The pre-service teachers (n = 185) from the Departments of Physics Education and Elementary Science Education at Dokuz Eylul University (in Turkey) participated. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Students' understanding of and difficulties with core elements (time, length, mass and density) were tested using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire (including four questions) and in-depth interviews after the instruction of related modern physics topics. The analyses of the collected data were based on quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results indicate that pre-service teachers at different academic levels have specific and considerable difficulties with proper time, time dilation, proper length, mass and relativistic density concepts. In this paper, the conclusions of the study and implications for physics teaching are discussed.

  19. Using example generation to explore students' understanding of the concepts of linear dependence/independence in linear algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sinan

    2014-08-01

    Linear algebra is a basic mathematical subject taught in mathematics and science depar-tments of universities. The teaching and learning of this course has always been difficult. This study aims to contribute to the research in linear algebra education, focusing on linear dependence and independence concepts. This was done by introducing student-generated examples regarding the concepts. With the help of these examples, we have analysed students' understanding of linear dependence/independence and determined the effect of the example-generation process on student understanding of linear algebra. In addition, we identified some difficulties that were experienced by students learning the concepts of linear dependence/independence. In this study, APOS (action-process-object-schema) theory is the main tool utilized to explain students' written responses. It was also used with regard to the interview questions that were posed to students with the purpose of identifying possible difficulties with linear dependence/independence and observing the adequacy of the relations that students might form between different elements of the genetic decomposition of linear dependence/independence concepts. The findings of this study confirmed that many students do not have appropriate mental structures at object and schema levels. Moreover, in order to ensure the success of such exercises, students must be encouraged to review and validate their responses to the example requests.

  20. Cloud-based Virtual Reality Integrated Automatic Presentation Script for Understanding Urban Design Concepts in the Consensus Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyi, Zhang; Zhenjiang, Shen; Kai, Wang; Fumihiko, Kobayashi; Xinyi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, designers have used various types of tools, such as public Participation GIS (PP GIS) and Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML), to improve urban design concept understanding in the consensus process. However, these tools were frequently criticized as being too complex for the majority of potential users. Moreover, due to the limitations of data compression, hardware performance, network bandwidth and costs of current virtual reality platforms, the users need to gather in...

  1. TOWARDS AN UNDERSTANDING OF EXPERIENCE CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT IN TOURISM SERVICE DESIGN (RIKON Group)

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Roseline; Lynch, Patrick; Lally, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance placed on the delivery of memorable experiences in the tourism sector, there have been only limited attempts to comprehensively detail how experiences can be successfully conceptualised in practice. Based on a critical literature review of both experience and service concept development theory in conjunction with and the findings from case research, this paper will make a unique contribution to a very significant gap in experience design literature by present...

  2. The influence of learning aids on understanding art concepts in elementary school art education

    OpenAIRE

    Erčulj, Anamarija

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the master’s thesis is to determine the influence of teaching means and materials on both successful learning of different art concepts and the ability to depict motifs by using different art materials. The theoretical part of the master degree describes both the analysis of special teaching means and their adaptation for certain parts of arts and design lessons. The input hypothesis claims that the usage of ICT (such as digital animation, Internet, social networks ...

  3. Revisiting Understanding of The Whistleblowing Concept In The Context of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Nurhidayat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The conduct of this study came in the backdrop of thinking of the need for opening a discussion for a more comprehensive and contextual concept of whistleblowing  for Indonesia from the vantage point of existing theoretical perspectives, regulations and practices. There is a lot of misunderstanding and bias about the concept of whistleblowing in public and private organizations in Indonesia. This study is largely based on previous literature and observation of the implementation of whistleblowing system (WBS in several institutions that the author considered credible enough to be best practices. The study used descriptive qualitative approach and used various reference sources that were drawn from library research. This research has produced several formulations. First, the synonym or equivalent phrase in the Indonesian language for the term whistleblower is Pengungkap dugaan kecurangan, (revealer of alleged fraud and Pengungkap dugaan pelanggaraan (revealer of alleged violation or Pengungkap dugaan perbuatan tidak benar (wrongdoing (revealer of alleged wrongdoing. Secondly, the most appropriate equivalence to the phrase whistleblowing system (WBS in the context of Indonesia is “Sistem Pengungkapan Dugaan Pelanggaran” (alleged violation disclosure system. Third, the object of the report or complaints of whistleblowing (wrongdoing is classifying into seventeen types of behavior that are in turn categorized into seven groups. WBS development and implementation in a number of government and private sector institutions emphasize seven key points. Research findings fill a mainstream research gap on whistleblowing in  Indonesia, which has for long been plagued by misunderstanding  between  WBS and  complaints handling system that is evident in several institutions and  government agencies in Indonesia. The expectation is that research results will make some contribution to government policy making in the realm of whistleblowing system by

  4. Building Capacity in Understanding Foundational Biology Concepts: A K-12 Learning Progression in Genetics Informed by Research on Children's Thinking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmesky, Rowhea

    2013-06-01

    This article describes the substance, structure, and rationale of a learning progression in genetics spanning kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). The learning progression is designed to build a foundation towards understanding protein structure and activity and should be viewed as one possible pathway to understanding concepts of genetics and ultimately protein expression, based on the existing research. The kindergarten through fifth grade segment reflects findings that show children have a rich knowledge base and sophisticated cognitive abilities, and therefore, is designed so that elementary-aged children can learn content in deep and abstract manners, as well as apply scientific explanations appropriate to their knowledge level. The article also details the LP segment facilitating secondary students' understanding by outlining the overlapping conceptual frames which guide student learning from cell structures and functions to cell splitting (both cell division and gamete formation) to genetics as trait transmission, culminating in genetics as protein expression. The learning progression product avoids the use of technical language, which has been identified as a prominent source of student misconceptions in learning cellular biology, and explicit connections between cellular and macroscopic phenomena are encouraged.

  5. Utilizing worldview theory to determine the factors influencing the understanding of evolutionary concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors impacting students' ability to develop understanding of evolutionary theory. A novel approach to worldview theory was employed according to which individuals are seen as having one worldview that is comprised of many perspectives. One's worldview is comprised of numerous worldview assumptions, some of which coalesce to form worldview perspectives. Some assumptions are consistent with a scientific perspective while others are more consistent with a religious perspective. Scientific and religious perspectives were quantified based on participants' agreement with assumptions associated with each perspective. Participants completed a 103-item questionnaire addressing several variables: understanding of evolution, understanding of photosynthesis (non-confounding variable), strength of worldview perspectives and exposure to factors influencing the development of worldview perspectives. Increased exposure to factors influencing the development of a strong scientific worldview perspective was hypothesized to cause an increased understanding of evolution. The dependent variable understanding was measured by scores on two Likert-type measures. A causal-comparative study was conducted with 13 high school biology teachers and 67 high school biology students. To determine causation t-tests compared the mean scores on the variables measured. Extreme-group methods were used and data was analyzed for statistical differences between mean scores. Strong scientific worldview perspectives (t=1.003, p=3.19) and exposure to scientific factors (t=2.373, p=.02) were associated with a higher understanding of evolution. Strong religious worldview perspectives (t=-1.991, p=.05) and exposure to religious factors (t=-1.059, p=.31) were associated with a lower understanding of evolution. The results suggest that scientific worldview perspectives play an important role in increasing understanding of evolution; however, religious worldview

  6. [From classical management to contemporary management: understanding new concepts to empower nursing management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnol, Carla Aparecida

    2002-01-01

    This theoretical work aimed to study Hospital Administration, focusing on Nursing Management. The author points out contemporary administration concepts, and leads us to think over how those new models of management (already in use in some institutions known as pioneers on this area) may have influence on the Nursing Management practice inserted on the context. The author concludes that Nursing is going through a transition moment, breaking paradigms, trying to get over Classical Administration beliefs and searching for flexible, humanized and shared ways to manage Nursing Care.

  7. The EvoDevoCI: A Concept Inventory for Gauging Students' Understanding of Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Kathryn E.; Hiatt, Anna; Davis, Gregory K.; Trujillo, Caleb; French, Donald P.; Terry, Mark; Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science 2011 report "Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education" encourages the teaching of developmental biology as an important part of teaching evolution. Recently, however, we found that biology majors often lack the developmental knowledge needed to understand evolutionary…

  8. A process approach to children's understanding of scientific concepts : A longitudinal case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Steffie; Steenbeek, Henderien; van Dijk, Marijn; van Geert, Paul

    In order to optimally study changes in the complexity of understanding, microgenetic measures are needed, and a coupling of these to longer-term measures. We focus on the interaction dynamics between a 4-year old boy and a researcher while they work on tasks about air pressure in three subsequent

  9. Current as the Key Concept of Taiwanese Students' Understandings of Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Chen, Hsueh-Yu; Chou, Ching-Yang; Lain, Kuen-Der

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the results of a nationwide survey of Taiwanese high schools students' understandings about electric circuits. The study involved two stratified random samples consisting of 7,145 students in Grades 8 and 9, and 2,857 students in Grade 11, accounting for about 2.3% of the total enrolment in the corresponding…

  10. Using Virtual Reality Computer Models to Support Student Understanding of Astronomical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa; Keating, Tom; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how 3-dimensional (3-D) models of the Solar System supported student development of conceptual understandings of various astronomical phenomena that required a change in frame of reference. In the course described in this study, students worked in teams to design and construct 3-D virtual reality computer…

  11. Building an Understanding of Heat Transfer Concepts in Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottis, Katharyn E. K.; Prince, Michael J.; Vigeant, Margot A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the distinctions among heat, energy and temperature can be difficult for students at all levels of instruction, including those in engineering. Misconceptions about heat transfer have been found to persist, even after students successfully complete relevant coursework. New instructional methods are needed to address these…

  12. The Assembling of Schooling: Discussing Concepts and Models for Understanding the Historical Production of Modern Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussel, Ines

    2013-01-01

    Several notions have been proposed to understand the specificity of schooling and its persistence across time and space, despite several attempts to reform it. In this article, the author analyses more closely the notions of the "grammar of schooling", "forme scolaire", and "school organisational culture". These…

  13. Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

  14. Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students' Understanding of Concepts in Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the degree of effectiveness of cooperative learning instruction over a traditional approach on 11th grade students' understanding of electrochemistry. The study involved forty-one 11th grade students from two science classes with the same teacher. To determine students' misconceptions concerning…

  15. Developing a Theoretical Framework for Examining Student Understanding of Fractional Concepts: An Historical Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkerson, Trena L.; Montgomery, Mark; Mechell, Sara; Arterbury, Kristin; Moore, Sherrie

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a group of mathematics educators and researchers met to examine rational numbers and why children have such an issue with them. An extensive review of the literature on fractional understanding was conducted. The ideas in that literature were then consolidated into a theoretical framework for examining fractions. Once that theoretical…

  16. Students' Independent Use of Screencasts and Simulations to Construct Understanding of Solubility Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.; Sweeder, Ryan D.; VandenPlas, Jessica R.

    2017-01-01

    As students increasingly use online chemistry animations and simulations, it is becoming more important to understand how students independently engage with such materials and to develop a set of best practices for students' use of these resources outside of the classroom. Most of the literature examining students' use of animations and…

  17. The Effect of a Conceptual Change Approach on Understanding of Students' Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Basri; Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a conceptual change approach over traditional instruction on tenth-grade students' conceptual achievement in understanding chemical equilibrium. The study was conducted in two classes of the same teacher with participation of a total of 44 tenth-grade students. In this study, a…

  18. Adolescent understanding of DOHaD concepts: a school-based intervention to support knowledge translation and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, J L; Mora, H A; Sloboda, D M; Morton, S M; Vickers, M H; Gluckman, P D

    2012-12-01

    A life-course approach to reduction of risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) suggests that early-life interventions may be more effective than lifestyle modifications in middle age. Knowledge translation to develop understanding of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) within the community offers the potential to encourage informed diet and lifestyle choices supporting reduction of NCD risk in current and future generations. Many women do not make sustained dietary change before or during pregnancy, therefore appropriate nutritional behaviours need to be established prior to adulthood. This makes adolescence an appropriate stage for interventions to establish suitable dietary and lifestyle behaviours. Therefore, we engaged adolescents in a school-based educational intervention, and assessed the value of this in development of understanding of DOHaD concepts to support behaviour change that could lead to NCD risk reduction in the next generation. Modules of course work were written for 11-14 year olds and trialled in nine schools. Matched pre- and post-intervention questionnaire responses from 238 students and 99 parents, and post-intervention interviews evaluated the intervention. Understanding of a link between maternal diet during pregnancy and the health of the foetus in adulthood increased from 46% to 76% following intervention. Post-intervention evidence suggests the programme facilitated discussion of diet, lifestyle and DOHaD concepts in most families. The intervention was effective in improving understanding of DOHaD concepts and in some cases led to appropriate behaviour change. However, the sustainability of these changes remains to be determined through on-going evaluation of attitudes and behaviour within this cohort.

  19. Understanding the Indigenous Chinese Concept of Suzhi (素质) from an HRM Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Greg; Lamond, David; Worm, Verner

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - We examine the indigenous Chinese concept of suzhi (素质) with the aim of furthering the development of Chinese human resource management (HRM) research and practice. Design/methodology/approach - An extensive review of the literature on suzhi, published in the West as well as in China...... and multidimensional frameworks, suzhi criteria may form different gestalts in different organizations and industries. Research limitations/implications - From a sociocultural and historical perspective, HRM research that incorporates a combination of indigenous and indigenized suzhi characteristics may receive better...... acceptance by Chinese individuals, organizations and society. Accordingly, the reconstruction of suzhi into manageable and measurable dimensions can be undertaken for more effective HRM practice in the Chinese context. Originality/value - We advance the extant HRM literature by linking the indigenous suzhi...

  20. Using Metasynthesis to Develop Sensitising Concepts to Understand Torres Strait Islander Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Mosby, Vinnitta Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research indicates that more and more Indigenous peoples will be forced to migrate due to climate change. Current responses focus on mitigation and adaptation strategies. One such group, Torres Strait Islander people are already moving for other reasons and existing vulnerabilities compound levels of disadvantage when moving. It will be important to understand Torres Strait Islander people’s experiences of contemporary movements in order to inform policy development and facilitate th...

  1. Reflective Writing for a Better Understanding of Scientific Concepts in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helou, Joseph; Kalman, Calvin S.

    2018-02-01

    Science teachers can always benefit from efficient tools that help students to engage with the subject and understand it better without significantly adding to the teacher's workload nor requiring too much of class time to manage. Reflective writing is such a low-impact, high-return tool. What follows is an introduction to reflective writing, and more on its usefulness for teachers is given in the last part of this article.

  2. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Everyday conceptions of object fall: explicit and tacit understanding during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christine; Taylor Tavares, Joana; Devine, Amy

    2012-03-01

    Adults make erroneous predictions about object fall despite recognizing when observed displays are correct or incorrect. Prediction requires explicit engagement with conceptual knowledge, whereas recognition can be achieved through tacit processing. Therefore, it has been suggested that the greater challenge imposed by explicit engagement leads to elements of conceptual understanding being omitted from prediction that are included in recognition. Acknowledging that research with children provides a significant context for exploring this "omission hypothesis" further, this article reports two studies with 6- to 10-year-olds, each of which used prediction and recognition tasks. Study 1 (N=137) focused on understanding of direction of fall, and Study 2 (N=133) addressed speed. Although performance on the recognition tasks was generally superior to performance on the prediction tasks, qualitative differences also emerged. These differences argue against interpreting explicit level understanding purely in terms of omission of tacit constructs, and the article outlines alternative models that may account for the data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF E-LAB TO IMPROVE GENERIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT OF PHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Siswanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this sudy are: (1 investigate the effectiveness of E-Lab to improve generic science skills and understanding the concepts oh physics; and (2 investigate the effect of generic science skills towards understanding the concept of students after learning by using the E-Lab. The method used in this study is a pre-experimental design with one group pretest-posttest. Subjects were students of Physics Education in University PGRI Semarang with methode random sampling. The results showed that: (1 learning to use E-Lab effective to increase generic science skills of students; and (2 Generic science skills give positive effect on student conceptual understanding on the material of the photoelectric effect, compton effect, and electron diffraction. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu: (1 menyelidiki efektifitas E-Lab untuk meningkatkan keterampilan generik sains dan pemahaman konsep mahasiswa; dan (2  menyelidiki pengaruh keterampilan generik sains terhadap pemahaman konsep mahasiswa setelah dilakukan pembelajaran dengan menggunakan E-Lab. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pre-experimental dengan desain one group pretest-posttest. Subjek penelitian adalah mahasiswa Program Studi Pendidikan  Fisika  Universitas PGRI Semarang, dengan metode pengambilan sampel penelitian secara random. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahwa: (1 pembelajaran menggunakan E-Lab efektif untuk meningkatkan keterampilan generik sains mahasiswa; dan  (2 Keterampilan generik sains berpengaruh positif terhadap pemahaman konsep mahasiswa pada materi efek fotolistrik, efek compton, dan difraksi elektron. 

  5. Considering Hans-Georg Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a referent for student understanding of nature-of-science concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashford, Jared M.

    The purpose of this study is to examine philosophical hermeneutics as a referent for student understanding of Nature-of-Science (NOS) concepts. Rather than focus on a prescriptive set of canons used in addressing NOS pedagogy in K-12 schools, this study seeks to explicate a descriptive set of principles based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's theory of interpretation that has the potential for developing dispositions necessary for understanding. Central among these are the concepts of fore-structure, prejudice, temporal distance, and history of effect, all of which constitute part of the whole of the hermeneutic circle as envisaged by Gadamer. As such, Gadamer's hermeneutics is contrasted with Cartesian epistemology and its primacy of method, the Enlightenment's prejudice against prejudice, the modernist/progressive tendency to consider all situations as problems to be solved by relegating all forms of knowledge to techne, and the subjective nature of interpretation inherent in a hermeneutics of suspicion. The implication of such a conceptual analysis for NOS pedagogy is that student understanding is considered not so much as a cognitive outcome dependent on a series of mental functions but rather as an ontological characteristic of Dasein (being-human) that situates learning in the interchange between interpreter and text. In addition, the philosophical foundations implicit in addressing student understanding of NOS found in many curricular reform efforts and pedagogical practices in science education are questioned. Gadamer's hermeneutics affords science education a viable philosophical framework within which to consider student understanding of the development of scientific knowledge and the scientific enterprise.

  6. Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joyce Catherine

    Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d

  7. Understanding misunderstandings in invasion science: why experts don’t agree on common concepts and risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Humair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the diverging opinions of academic experts, stakeholders and the public is important for effective conservation management. This is especially so when a consensus is needed for action to minimize future risks but the knowledge upon which to base this action is uncertain or missing. How to manage non-native, invasive species (NIS is an interesting case in point: the issue has long been controversial among stakeholders, but publicly visible, major disagreement among experts is recent.To characterize the multitude of experts’ understanding and valuation of non-native, NIS we performed structured qualitative interviews with 26 academic experts, 13 of whom were invasion biologists and 13 landscape experts. Within both groups, thinking varied widely, not only about basic concepts (e.g., non-native, invasive but also about their valuation of effects of NIS. The divergent opinions among experts, regarding both the overall severity of the problem in Europe and its importance for ecosystem services, contrasted strongly with the apparent consensus that emerges from scientific synthesis articles and policy documents. We postulate that the observed heterogeneity of expert judgments is related to three major factors: (1 diverging conceptual understandings, (2 lack of empirical information and high scientific uncertainties due to complexities and contingencies of invasion processes, and (3 missing deliberation of values. Based on theory from science studies, we interpret the notion of an NIS as a boundary object, i.e., concepts that have a similar but not identical meaning to different groups of experts and stakeholders. This interpretative flexibility of a concept can facilitate interaction across diverse groups but bears the risk of introducing misunderstandings. An alternative to seeking consensus on exact definitions and risk assessments would be for invasive species experts to acknowledge uncertainties and engage transparently with

  8. "Intelligent" design of molecular materials: Understanding the concepts of design in supramolecular synthesis of network solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Brian D.

    This work endeavors to delineate modern paradigms for crystal engineering, i.e. the design and supramolecular synthesis of functional molecular materials. Paradigms predicated on an understanding of the geometry of polygons and polyhedra are developed. The primary focus is on structural determination by single crystal X-ray crystallography, structural interpretation using a suite of graphical visualization and molecular modeling software, and on the importance of proper graphical representation in the presentation and explanation of crystal structures. A detailed analysis of a selected series of crystal structures is presented. The reduction of these molecular networks to schematic representations that illustrate their fundamental connectivity facilitates the understanding of otherwise complex supramolecular solids. Circuit symbols and Schlafli notation are used to describe the network topologies, which enables networks of different composition and metrics to be easily compared. This reveals that molecular orientations in the crystals and networks are commensurate with networks that can be derived from spherical close packed lattices. The development of a logical design strategy for a new class of materials based on our understanding of the chemical composition and topology of these networks is described. The synthesis and crystal structure of a series of new materials generated by exploitation of this design strategy is presented, in addition to a detailed analysis of the topology of these materials and their relationship to a 'parent' structure. In summary, this dissertation demonstrates that molecular polygons can self-assemble at their vertexes to produce molecular architectures and crystal structures that are consistent with long established geometric dogma. The design strategy represents a potentially broad ranging approach to the design of nanoporous structures from a wide range of chemical components that are based on molecular shape rather than chemical

  9. Understanding the concept of a "good death" among bereaved family caregivers of cancer patients in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geok Ling; Woo, Ivan Mun Hong; Goh, Cynthia

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the concept of a good death from the perspectives of both the dying person and the family caregiver, as perceived by bereaved family caregivers of advanced cancer patients. The data were gathered from five focus group discussions and one face-to-face qualitative interview conducted over 8 months among 18 bereaved family caregivers recruited from a local hospice. The transcripts of the focus groups and the interview were entered into NVivo Version 8 and were analyzed using the thematic approach. A good death may be understood as having the biopsychosocial and spiritual aspects of life handled well at the end of life. Five major themes were identified. These were preparation for death, family and social relationships, moments at or near death, comfort and physical care, and spiritual well-being. Differences were also noted in what is important at the end of life between the patients and caregivers. Having a quick death with little suffering was perceived to be good by the patient, but the family caregiver wanted to be able to say a final goodbye to the patient. Patients tend to prefer not to die in their children's presence but the children wished to be present for the final moment. In addition, family caregivers reported it was important for them to be able to give the patients permission to die, to feel recognized for the efforts made, and to have had a fulfilling caregiving experience. Whereas there are global attributes of a good death, our findings suggest that patients and family caregivers may define a good death differently. Therefore, there is a need to respect, address, and reconcile the differences, so that all parties may have a good experience at the end of a person's life.

  10. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairumbi, Geoffrey M; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Mike, English C

    2011-10-03

    The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research.The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which ethical principles are enacted in practice and distil lessons on how best

  11. Using design principles to foster understanding of complex health concepts in consumer informatics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rupananda; Mark, Jessica H; Khan, Sharib; Kukafka, Rita

    2010-11-13

    Consumer health informatics tools can only be effective if patients comprehend their content. Optimal design may foster better patient comprehension and health literacy, which can improve health outcomes. We developed a patient-centric decision aid, Tailored Lifestyle Conversations (TLC), to help patients comprehend behavioral risks and set behavior change priorities for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. The TLC decision aid was developed using a design framework based on Gestalt Principles of Perception. Further iteration was informed by qualitative user feedback. Preliminary analysis showed that the TLC decision aid helped patients understand their risk and supported their decisions on health behavior change. We identified design elements that supported patient comprehension, and other elements that were not effective, to inform iterative revision. This paper describes an effective methodology for the development of consumer health informatics tools that includes grounding in design principles complemented by iterative revision based on user testing and feedback.

  12. THE INDONESIA BEST SUSTAINABILITY REPORT AS A STUDENT’S ACCOUNTING TOOL TO UNDERSTAND CSR CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranto P. Sihombing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guideline Reporting Initiatives has long become the guidance for making sustainability report (SR.  It contains the company’s Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR activities. By using these guidelines, the CSR activities of the company can be focused on and directed to minimize the negative impact. CSR activities will be grouped into three bottom lines of activities that are profit, people and planet. SR analyzed were the ones from companies associated with the exploration of natural resources which are the best in publishing the reports and conducting the CSR programs. The data obtained from questionnaire and interviews of accounting students from environmental and social accounting class in which there are also students from Slovenia, Lithuania and Ukraine. The results of this study found that students can understand easily the meaning of CSR in a comprehensive manner. They know both aspect of disclosure and report of the sustainability report.

  13. Understanding the clinical concept of delusion: from an estranged to an engaged epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipps, Richard G T; Fulford, K W M Bill

    2004-08-01

    Delusion is relatively easy to diagnose but near impossible to define. This paper (I) uses the method of 'philosophical fieldwork' to show that standard approaches use definitions that are both over- and under-inclusive. It argues furthermore that such approaches typically presuppose what is here dubbed an 'estranged' epistemology. This epistemology supposes that our understanding of the world occurs outside of, and consequent on, our experience of it. Instead of this an alternative 'engaged' epistemology is set out. This alternative sees experience itself as the vehicle of our most fundamental comprehending engagement with the world. (II) This, it is argued, makes better sense both of our contact with reality and of the failure of this contact in delusion. (III) The implications of this alternative theorisation for the cognitive psychology of delusion are discussed.

  14. THE PHYSICAL LABORATORY ACTIVITIES WITH PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH TO INCREASE CRITICAL THINKING SKILL AND UNDERSTANDING STUDENT CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Trisnowati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the description of the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills and the concept understanding by implementing the problem-solving approach. This study was in laboratory activities. This study was done in four times meeting. The try out subjects was 31 students of grades X of MAN Yogyakarta III. This research is using the quasi experimental method with the pretest-posttest design. The data were collected by using multiple choices tests with assessment rubric and observation sheets. The data are analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Based on the result, the gain standard value of students’ conceptual understanding and students’ critical thinking skills for grade X who learned through student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called treatment class, are higher than students who learned without student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called control class.

  15. Logical Full Abstraction and PCF

    OpenAIRE

    Longley, John R; Plotkin, Gordon

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the concept of logical full abstraction, generalising the usual equational notion. We consider the language PCF and two extensions with “parallel” operations. The main result is that, for standard interpretations, logical full abstraction is equivalent to equational full abstraction together with universality; the proof involves constructing enumeration operators. We also consider restrictions on logical complexity and on the level of types.

  16. Using the concept of hubots to understand the work entailed in using digital technologies in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Catherine; Turnbull, Joanne

    2017-08-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the human work entailed in the deployment of digital health care technology. It draws on imagined configurations of computers and machines in fiction and social science to think about the relationship between technology and people, and why this makes implementation of digital technology so difficult. The term hubots is employed as a metaphorical device to examine how machines and humans come together to do the work of healthcare. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses the fictional depiction of hubots to reconceptualise the deployment of a particular technology - a computer decision support system (CDSS) used in emergency and urgent care services. Data from two ethnographic studies are reanalysed to explore the deployment of digital technologies in health services. These studies used comparative mixed-methods case study approaches to examine the use of the CDSS in eight different English NHS settings. The data include approximately 900 hours of observation, with 64 semi-structured interviews, 47 focus groups, and surveys of some 700 staff in call centres and urgent care centres. The paper reanalyses these data, deductively, using the metaphor of the hubot as an analytical device. Findings This paper focuses on the interconnected but paradoxical features of both the fictional hubots and the CDSS. Health care call handling using a CDSS has created a new occupation, and enabled the substitution of some clinical labour. However, at the same time, the introduction of the technology has created additional work. There are more tasks, both physical and emotional, and more training activity is required. Thus, the labour has been intensified. Practical implications This paper implies that if we want to realise the promise of digital health care technologies, we need to understand that these technologies substitute for and intensify labour. Originality/value This is a novel analysis using a metaphor drawn from fiction. This

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Concept Map as a Tool To Facilitate the Externalization of Students' Understandings about Global Atmospheric Change in the Interview Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.; Rubba, Peter A.

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different types of post-instruction concept interviews: one that did and one that did not embed a concept mapping process as means of eliciting students' post-instruction conceptual understandings about the nature of, source of, and problems caused by chlorofluorocarbons…

  18. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  19. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  20. The effectiveness of the Constructing Physics Understanding (CPU) pedagogy on middle school students' learning of force and motion concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Nancy L.

    This study explores the effectiveness of the Constructing Physics Understanding (CPU) pedagogy versus traditional instruction for teaching middle school students Newtonian force and motion concepts. Students from 16 seventh grade classrooms (n = 358) were selected for this study based on three criteria: (a) each regular education classroom taught force and motion concepts as required by the district curriculum; (b) each classroom teacher was identified by the school principal as being an exemplary teacher; and (c) the teachers were self-reported as either using a constructivist CPU pedagogy (8 classrooms) or a non-CPU, more traditional pedagogy (8 classrooms). To control for teacher adherence to instructional method (CPU vs. non-CPU), each teacher was randomly observed and rated by three independent raters on the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) instrument. Descriptive statistics showed that the self-reported CPU teachers scored a higher mean in each section of the RTOP indicating that the CPU teachers, as rated by the observers, used a more constructivist approach to teaching force and motion to their students than the non-CPU teachers. Students were pre and post tested on a 20-item force and motion conceptual test covering concepts in motion, Newton's 1st Law, Newton's 2nd Law and Newton's 3rd Law. Hypothesis testing was conducted using a repeated measures ANOVA to further analyze the interaction between teaching method (CPU vs. Non-CPU) and force and motion knowledge gain. Results showed significantly higher gains for the CPU group in total score (p Newton's Third Law questions (p Newton's Third Law. Results for questions on Newton's First and Second Laws showed higher post means in the CPU group; however, the gains were not significant (p > 0.05) indicating very little difference between the CPU and non-CPU groups in students' knowledge gain in these areas.

  1. Interplay between the Hepatitis B Virus and Innate Immunity: From an Understanding to the Development of Therapeutic Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure-Dupuy, Suzanne; Lucifora, Julie; Durantel, David

    2017-04-28

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects hepatocytes, which are the main cell type composing a human liver. However, the liver is enriched with immune cells, particularly innate cells (e.g., myeloid cells, natural killer and natural killer T-cells (NK/NKT), dendritic cells (DCs)), in resting condition. Hence, the study of the interaction between HBV and innate immune cells is instrumental to: (1) better understand the conditions of establishment and maintenance of HBV infections in this secondary lymphoid organ; (2) define the role of these innate immune cells in treatment failure and pathogenesis; and (3) design novel immune-therapeutic concepts based on the activation/restoration of innate cell functions and/or innate effectors. This review will summarize and discuss the current knowledge we have on this interplay between HBV and liver innate immunity.

  2. Abstracts and Abstracting in Knowledge Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Maria; Lancaster, F. W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents various levels of criteria for judging the quality of abstracts and abstracting. Requirements for abstracts to be read by humans are compared with requirements for those to be searched by computer. Concludes that the wide availability of complete text in electronic form does not reduce the value of abstracts for information retrieval.…

  3. Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was

  4. The elusive concept of brain network. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Luiz Pessoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Barry

    2014-09-01

    As the poet John Donne said of man - "No man is an island entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main." - so the neuroscience research community now says of brain areas. This is the topic that Luiz Pessoa expands upon in his thorough review of the paradigm shift that has occurred in much of brain research, especially in cognitive neuroscience [1]. His key point is made explicitly in the Abstract: "I argue that a network perspective should supplement the common strategy of understanding the brain in terms of individual regions." In his review, Pessoa covers a large range of topics, including how the network perspective changes the way in which one views the structure-function relationship between brain and behavior, the importance of context in ascertaining how a brain region functions, and the notion of emergent properties as a network feature. Also discussed is graph theory, one of the important mathematical methods used to analyze and describe network structure and function.

  5. Ferenczi's concept of identification with the aggressor: understanding dissociative structure with interacting victim and abuser self-states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth F

    2014-03-01

    No one has described more passionately than Ferenczi the traumatic induction of dissociative trance with its resulting fragmentation of the personality. Ferenczi introduced the concept and term, identification with the aggressor in his seminal "Confusion of Tongues" paper, in which he described how the abused child becomes transfixed and robbed of his senses. Having been traumatically overwhelmed, the child becomes hypnotically transfixed by the aggressor's wishes and behavior, automatically identifying by mimicry rather than by a purposeful identification with the aggressor's role. To expand upon Ferenczi's observations, identification with the aggressor can be understood as a two-stage process. The first stage is automatic and initiated by trauma, but the second stage is defensive and purposeful. While identification with the aggressor begins as an automatic organismic process, with repeated activation and use, gradually it becomes a defensive process. Broadly, as a dissociative defense, it has two enacted relational parts, the part of the victim and the part of the aggressor. This paper describes the intrapersonal aspects (how aggressor and victim self-states interrelate in the internal world), as well as the interpersonal aspects (how these become enacted in the external). This formulation has relevance to understanding the broad spectrum of the dissociative structure of mind, borderline personality disorder, and dissociative identity disorder.

  6. Abstract algebra an introduction with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Derek JS

    2015-01-01

    This is the second edition of the introduction to abstract algebra. In addition to introducing the main concepts of modern algebra, the book contains numerous applications, which are intended to illustrate the concepts and to convince the reader of the utility and relevance of algebra today. There is ample material here for a two semester course in abstract algebra.

  7. Investigation of selected outcomes of the Dynamic Physics learning environment: Understanding of mechanics concepts and achievement by male and female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, Joan E.

    The study investigated the Dynamic Physics learning environment to determine its effectiveness in promoting understanding of mechanics concepts and achievement as well as the differences between male and female students in understanding of physics concepts and progress in the course. The Dynamic Physics learning environment was chosen for research since it offered an opportunity to study an introductory calculus based physics that incorporated recommendations, goals, and strategies for effective learning outlined in recent reports on physics education. Data were collected using pretests and posttests, course assessments, surveys, students' evaluations, and midterm feedback interviews. The data from the pretest, posttest, and course assessments were analyzed using a difference of means t test (pphysics education studies. Analysis of interviews and evaluations of the course indicated students perceived they were understanding physics concepts in this learning environment and realized this understanding was important background for future courses. Students suggested that connections to real world applications, the format of the course, and collaborative learning were factors that helped them to understand physics concepts by making them more meaningful. Students' responses suggested that teaching strategies used in the course not only helped them to develop understanding, but confidence in their ability to learn physic. The sample of female students had significantly lower average scores in the pretest and posttest compared to male students; however, the sample of female students made the same or higher average gains in conceptual understanding when compared to the male students. Additional findings included that groups with one or more female member earned higher averages in group assessments than all male groups. Female students' perceptions of physics changed during the course; female students indicated an increase in relating personal experiences and real world

  8. On the usefulness of Heidegger's concept of "thrownness" for understanding how people think and act in organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    This paper considers what Heidegger's concept of thrownness can help organisation scholars say about how people think and act in organisations. It presents the concept of thrownness in the context in which it was proposed, the epoch-making Sein und Zeit, and takes a look at how the concept has been...... used, extended and is echoed in the work of scholars interested in how people think and act in organisations. It is also considered what insights the concept of thrownness gives rise to in the context of a concrete research project concerned with food retailers' buying behaviour....

  9. Development and calibration of a concept inventory to measure introductory college astronomy and physics students' understanding of Newtonian gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn Elizabeth

    The topic of Newtonian gravity offers a unique vantage point from which to investigate and encourage conceptual change because it is something with which everyone has daily experience, and because it is taught in two courses that reach a wide variety of students - introductory-level college astronomy ("Astro 101") and physics ("Phys 101"). Informed by the constructivist theory of learning, this study characterizes and measures Astro 101 and Phys 101 students' understanding of Newtonian gravity within four conceptual domains - Directionality, Force Law, Independence of Other Forces, and Threshold. A phenomenographic analysis of Astro 101 student-supplied responses to open-ended questions about gravity results in the characterization of students' alternative mental models and misapplications of the scientific model. These student difficulties inform the development of a multiple-choice assessment instrument, the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory (NGCI). Classical Test Theory (CTT) statistics, student interviews, and expert review show that the NGCI is a reliable and valid tool for assessing both Astro 101 and Phys 101 students' understanding of gravity. Furthermore, the NGCI can provide extensive and robust information about differences between Astro 101 and Phys 101 students and curricula. Comparing and contrasting the Astro 101 and Phys 101 CTT values and student response patterns shows qualitative differences in each of the four conceptual domains. Additionally, performing an Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis of NGCI student response data calibrates item parameters for all Astro 101 and Phys 101 courses and provides Newtonian gravity ability estimates for each student. Physics students show significantly higher pre-instruction and post-instruction IRT abilities than astronomy students, but they show approximately equal gains. To investigate the differential effect of Astro 101 compared to Phys 101 curricula on students' overall post-instruction Newtonian

  10. Adapting the concepts of brain and cognitive reserve to post-stroke cognitive deficits: Implications for understanding neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarova, Roza M

    2017-12-01

    Advanced lesion mapping and connectivity analyses are currently the main tools used to understand the mechanisms underlying post-stroke cognitive deficits. However, the factors contributing to pre-stroke architecture of cognitive networks are often ignored, even though they reportedly play a decisive role in the manifestation of cognitive impairment in neurodegeneration. The present review on post-stroke cognitive deficits therefore adopts the concept of brain and cognitive reserve, which was originally developed to account for the individual differences in the course of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. By focusing on spatial neglect, a typical network disorder, it is discussed how individual susceptibility to stroke lesion might explain the reported discrepancies in lesion anatomy, non-spatial deficits and recovery courses. A detailed analysis of the literature reveals that premorbid brain (age, brain atrophy, previous strokes, leukoaraiosis, genetic factors, etc.) and cognitive reserve (IQ, life experience, education, occupation, premorbid cognitive impairment, etc.) greatly impact the brain's capacity for compensation. Furthermore, the interaction between pre-stroke brain/cognitive reserve and the degree of stroke-induced system impairment (e.g., hypoperfusion, lesion load) determines both the extent of neglect symptoms variability and the course of recovery. Premorbid brain/cognitive reserves should thus be considered to: (i) understand the mechanisms of post-stroke cognitive disorders and sufficiently explain their inter-individual variability; (ii) provide a prognosis for cognitive recovery and hence post-stroke dependency; (iii) identify individual targets for cognitive rehabilitation: in the case of reduced brain/cognitive reserve, neglect might occur even with a confined lesion, and non-spatial training of general attentional capacity should represent the main therapeutic target also for treatment of neglect; this might be true also for non

  11. The Ever-Evolving Concept of the Gene: The Use of RNA/Protein Experimental Techniques to Understand Genome Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cipriano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequence together with advances in sequencing technologies have shifted the paradigm of the genome, as composed of discrete and hereditable coding entities, and have shown the abundance of functional noncoding DNA. This part of the genome, previously dismissed as “junk” DNA, increases proportionally with organismal complexity and contributes to gene regulation beyond the boundaries of known protein-coding genes. Different classes of functionally relevant nonprotein-coding RNAs are transcribed from noncoding DNA sequences. Among them are the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, which are thought to participate in the basal regulation of protein-coding genes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Although knowledge of this field is still limited, the ability of lncRNAs to localize in different cellular compartments, to fold into specific secondary structures and to interact with different molecules (RNA or proteins endows them with multiple regulatory mechanisms. It is becoming evident that lncRNAs may play a crucial role in most biological processes such as the control of development, differentiation and cell growth. This review places the evolution of the concept of the gene in its historical context, from Darwin's hypothetical mechanism of heredity to the post-genomic era. We discuss how the original idea of protein-coding genes as unique determinants of phenotypic traits has been reconsidered in light of the existence of noncoding RNAs. We summarize the technological developments which have been made in the genome-wide identification and study of lncRNAs and emphasize the methodologies that have aided our understanding of the complexity of lncRNA-protein interactions in recent years.

  12. From Abstract Art to Abstracted Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Mikulinsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.

  13. The Effect of Concept Cartoon-Embedded Worksheets on Grade 9 Students' Conceptual Understanding of Newton's Laws of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Sengül; Ergin, Serap

    2017-01-01

    Background: A substantial review study of concept cartoons reports that few studies have indicated their functions. For this reason, the present study illuminates the extent to which concept cartoon-embedded worksheets (through constructivist context) accomplish these functions in conceptual learning. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to…

  14. THE APPLICATION OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING METHOD FOR IMPROVING THE UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICS CONCEPT OF 7TH GRADE STUDENTS SMP NEGERI 2 DEPOK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Bagus Argikas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to: (1 describe the implementation of learning mathematics with Reciprocal Teaching methods that is for improving the concept of learning understanding mathematic in class VIIA SMP Negeri 2 Depok. (2 Knowing the increased understanding of student learning in class VIIA SMP Negeri 2 Depok use Reciprocal Teaching methods. This research constitutes an action in class that is according along the teacher. The data of research was collated by sheet observations and each evaluation of cycles. That is done in two cycles. The first was retrieved the average value of student learning achievement of 70.96%. The second was retrieved achievement of 90.32%. Thus this learning model can increase student learning understanding.   Key word: The understanding of Mathematical Concept, Reciprocal Teaching Method.

  15. Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed

  16. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of 25 papers presented at the congress are given. The abstracts cover various topics including radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunoassay, health physics, radiation protection and nuclear medicine

  17. Implementation of cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach to understanding of mathematical concept student state junior high school in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Dian Mita; Hartono

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine whether there is a difference in the ability of understanding the concept of mathematics between students who use cooperative learning model Student Teams Achievement Division type with Realistic Mathematic Education approach and students who use regular learning in seventh grade SMPN 35 Pekanbaru. This study was quasi experiments with Posttest-only Control Design. The populations in this research were all the seventh grade students in one of state junior high school in Pekanbaru. The samples were a class that is used as the experimental class and one other as the control class. The process of sampling is using purposive sampling technique. Retrieval of data in this study using the documentation, observation sheets, and test. The test use t-test formula to determine whether there is a difference in student's understanding of mathematical concepts. Before the t-test, should be used to test the homogeneity and normality. Based in the analysis of these data with t0 = 2.9 there is a difference in student's understanding of mathematical concepts between experimental and control class. Percentage of students experimental class with score more than 65 was 76.9% and 56.4% of students control class. Thus be concluded, the ability of understanding mathematical concepts students who use the cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach better than students using the regular learning. So that cooperative learning model type STAD with RME approach is well used in learning process.

  18. Artificial Intelligence-Based Student Learning Evaluation: A Concept Map-Based Approach for Analyzing a Student's Understanding of a Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, G. Panka; Gurupur, Varadraj P.; Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Faulkenberry, Eileen D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a tool coined as artificial intelligence-based student learning evaluation tool (AISLE). The main purpose of this tool is to improve the use of artificial intelligence techniques in evaluating a student's understanding of a particular topic of study using concept maps. Here, we calculate the probability distribution of…

  19. Exploring Young Children's Understanding about the Concept of Volume through Engineering Design in a STEM Activity: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Park, Mi-Hwa; Bates, Alan B.

    2018-01-01

    This case study explores young children's understanding and application of the concept of volume through the practices of engineering design in a STEM activity. STEM stands for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. However, engineering stands out as a challenging area to implement. In addition, most early engineering education…

  20. Kindergarten Students' Levels of Understanding Some Science Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes According to Demographic Variables (The Sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Nail; Tosun, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students' levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC) and scientific inquiry processes (SIP) and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the…

  1. Conceptions of Knowledge in Research on Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect: Methodological Positions and Their Consequences for Representations of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Anders; Makitalo, Asa; Saljo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Much of the research on students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming reports poor results. Students are claimed to hold misconceptions and naive beliefs, and the impact of teaching on their conceptions is also low. In the present study, these results are called into question, and it is argued that they may to a large extent…

  2. How Do You Like Your Science, Wet or Dry? How Two Lab Experiences Influence Student Understanding of Science Concepts and Perceptions of Authentic Scientific Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Maureen; Knuth, Randy; Van Horne, Katie; Shouse, Andrew W.; Levias, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how two kinds of authentic research experiences related to smoking behavior--genotyping human DNA (wet lab) and using a database to test hypotheses about factors that affect smoking behavior (dry lab)--influence students' perceptions and understanding of scientific research and related science concepts. The study used pre and…

  3. A Comparative Study of the Effects of a Concept Mapping Enhanced Laboratory Experience on Turkish High School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Coll, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    The research reported here consists of the introduction of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities combined with concept mapping. The purpose of this intervention was to enhance student understanding of acid-base chemistry for tenth grade students' from two classes in a Turkish high school. An additional aim was to enhance…

  4. Comparison between the Understanding Levels of Boys and Girls on the Concepts of Environmental Degradation, Meteorology and Climate Change in Tanzanian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Ernest S.; Komba, Sotco C.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to determine whether there was any significant difference in understanding levels between secondary school boys and girls on the concepts of environmental degradation, meteorology and climate change. Both structured survey and focus group discussions were used to collect information from 480 students, sampled randomly from 12…

  5. Attempt to Understand the Modern State with the Concepts of People, Sovereignty and Democracy for Jefferson and Rousseau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Viana da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research has established the objective of analyzing the concepts of people, sovereignty and democracy, modern state foundations, according to the thought of Rousseau and Jefferson, authors with historical and cultural significance in the formation of the social contract and democracy. Regarding the hypothesis, it is believed that the concepts presented by Rousseau and Jefferson are diverse, due to its historical and geographical formation quite different. For the realization of this article had been used inductive and literature review method. In conclusion, it is understood that the authors have, even with diverse backgrounds, more similarities than differences in exposed concepts.

  6. Self-referent and autopoietic systems: key-concepts for the understanding of the Niklas Luhmann’s theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo Peixoto Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has for general objective to discuss the concept of autopoietic system developed by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela and carried into Luhmann’s theory with some epistemological and methodological encrease. Luhmann’s theory explains the society through using a set of articulated concepts such as system, structure, function, meaning, contingency, communication etc. These concepts sometimes are almost completely changed (re-meaning in respect to the philosophical tradition or in respect any new approaches that are developed in different disciplines of science as in cognitive science, biology, communication and so one.

  7. Representation without background? A critical reading of Wollheim and Greenberg on the representational character of abstract pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Caldarola

    2012-01-01

    Focussing on some claims addressed by Richard Wollheim and Clement Greenberg I investigate how the concepts of depicted figure, background of a pictorial scene and ground of a picture are relevant for an understanding of the relation between figurative and abstract pictures, especially when it comes to consider whether abstract pictures can be said to represent pictorially.

  8. Representation without background? A critical reading of Wollheim and Greenberg on the representational character of abstract pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Caldarola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on some claims addressed by Richard Wollheim and Clement Greenberg I investigate how the concepts of depicted figure, background of a pictorial scene and ground of a picture are relevant for an understanding of the relation between figurative and abstract pictures, especially when it comes to consider whether abstract pictures can be said to represent pictorially.

  9. Examining item content and structure in health status and health outcomes instruments: toward the development of a grammar for better understanding of the concepts being measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Pennifer; Willke, Richard J

    2013-06-01

    Health outcomes instruments assess diverse health concepts. Although item-level concepts are considered fundamental elements, the field lacks structures for evaluating and organizing them for decision making. This article proposes a grammar using item stems, response options, and recall periods to systematically identify item-level concepts. The grammar uses "core concept," "evaluative component," and "recall period" as intuitive terms for communicating with stakeholders. Better characterization of concepts is necessary for classifying instrument content and linking it to treatment benefit. Items in 2 generic and 21 disease-specific instruments were evaluated to develop and illustrate the use of the grammar. Concepts were assigned International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health codes for exploring the value that the grammar and a classification system add to the understanding of content across instruments. The 23 instruments include many core concepts; emotional function is the only concept assessed in all instruments. Concepts in disease-specific instruments show obvious patterns; for example, arthritis instruments focus on physical function. The majority of instruments used the same response options across all items, with five-point scales being the most common. Most instruments used one recall period for all items. Shorter recall periods were used for conditions associated with "flares," such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and "skin disease." Every diagnosis, however, showed variation across instruments in the recall period used. This analysis indicates the proposed grammar's potential for discerning the conceptual content within and between health outcomes instruments and illustrates its value for improving communication between stakeholders and for making decisions related to treatment benefit. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Quantitative Empirical Analysis of the Abstract/Concrete Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Felix; Korhonen, Anna; Bentz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents original evidence that abstract and concrete concepts are organized and represented differently in the mind, based on analyses of thousands of concepts in publicly available data sets and computational resources. First, we show that abstract and concrete concepts have differing patterns of association with other concepts.…

  11. Assessment of primary school students’ level of understanding the concepts of 2nd grade life sciences course based on different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altıntaş Gülşen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of Life Sciences is one of the pivot courses taught in the first three years of primary school. Ensuring children get to know their environment and gain correct information related to their problems by making them investigate their natural and socio-cultural environment as well as providing them with necessary information, skills and behaviors for environmental adaptation are among the main purposes of Life Sciences course. The concepts to be instilled in students in line with these purposes are important. Since concepts are mostly intellectual and non-physical, they can only exist tangibly through examples. This study aims to assess Primary School Students’ Level of Understanding the Concepts of 2nd Grade Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables. 17 concepts included in the 2nd Grade Life Sciences course within the subject of School Excitement were addressed within the study, and students were requested to define and exemplify these concepts. A total of 102 students from five different primary schools of upper-middle and lower socioeconomic classes located in Manisa and Istanbul were included in the study in line with the intentional maximum diversity sample selection. The answers given by students for each concept were categorized and analyzed in terms of liking or disliking home, school, technology and the course of Life Sciences.

  12. Using Example Generation to Explore Students' Understanding of the Concepts of Linear Dependence/Independence in Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Linear algebra is a basic mathematical subject taught in mathematics and science depar-tments of universities. The teaching and learning of this course has always been difficult. This study aims to contribute to the research in linear algebra education, focusing on linear dependence and independence concepts. This was done by introducing…

  13. On the Use of Two Versions of the Force Concept Inventory to Test Conceptual Understanding of Mechanics in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangrath, Phimpho; Pettersson, Sune; Benckert, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated why Laotian students had a low score, when they were tested by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). About 400 first year university students answered the FCI or a Lao version of the FCI (LFCI) with the contexts of some questions changed. The students answered a questionnaire and 34 of the students were interviewed. The…

  14. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  15. Children's Understanding and Knowledge of Conception and Birth: Comparing Children from England, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Sandra L.; Ahlgrim, Carie Jo

    2012-01-01

    The present study replicated research conducted decades earlier (Goldman & Goldman, 1982a; Koch, 197480) on what children in the United States know about conception and birth compared to those in other countries. Specifically, response drawings by 48 six-year-old boys and girls from England, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States were…

  16. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics

  17. UNDERSTANDING AND COMMUNICATING THE CONCEPT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY – A STUDY OF 23 INDIAN COMPANIES IN EASTERN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Enakshi Sengupta; Vijay Kapur

    2016-01-01

    The Companies Act 2013 in India with its mandate for CSR has formally introduced the concept of CSR to the board of Indian companies. The practice of CSR, although bordering on charity giving, is not a new idea to India. The critical situation that India is facing today has been brought about by multiple causes. Corporate bodies are the fundamental cells of modern economic life and should work towards affirming values and forging new patterns of living and better working conditions. Corporate...

  18. Understanding fruit and vegetable consumption in children and adolescents. The contributions of affect, self-concept and habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Viviana; Butler, Laurie T; Traill, W Bruce; Kennedy, Orla B

    2018-01-01

    Affective processes and the role of automaticity are increasingly recognised as critical in determining food choice. This study investigated the association of affective attitude, self-identity and habit with fruit and vegetable (FV) intentions and intake in children. Previous studies have not fully explored their implications for children of different age groups and have not considered their independent contribution as part of a coherent model of behaviour that also controls for other psychosocial and environmental determinants of intake. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews with 362 children, 9-15 years old. Children were asked to report on measures of affective attitude, cognitive attitude, self-concept, social norms and facilitating factors following Triandis' Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (TIB). Three stage least squares was used to estimate the independent association of affective attitude and self-concept with intentions and of intentions and habit with intake. Self-concept had the most prominent role in explaining intentions irrespective of age for both fruit and vegetables. The importance of affective attitude varied by age and with fruit and vegetables, with greater importance for vegetables and for children aged 11-13 years. Cognitive attitude was more relevant than affective attitude for 14 to 15 year-olds' fruit intentions. Intake was more strongly associated with habit than intentions, with stronger associations for 14 to 15 year-olds. The current findings support the importance of self-concept for FV motivations and provide further evidence on the importance of habit to FV intake in young and older children and adolescents. Results also support a targeted usefulness of affective attitude for fruit and vegetable intentions. The discussion considers potential ways in which these constructs can be incorporated into interventions to increase FV intake in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. UNDERSTANDING KIDS/TEENS' CONSTRUCTION OF POLICE AND CRIME CONCEPTS AS A COMMUNITY POLICING APPROACH: SOCIAL GROUNDED THEORY APPLIED

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNDER, MURAT

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest among academicians, researchers and policy-makers in promoting community policing as a modern way to deal with crimes and community problems. Community policing is a philosophy of policing based on the concept that police officers and citizens working together in creative ways to control crimes. The purpose of this research is to get the perspectives of kids/teens regarding crime and police since this segment of society is most vulnerable to crimes. This will...

  20. Effect of Learning Think-Pair-Share Think through the combined pattern Empowerment Question on Metacognitive Skills, Creative Thinking, Understanding Concepts IPA and retention as well as Social Attitudes Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanti Ekoningtyas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Pembelajaran Think-Pair-Share dipadu Pola Pemberdayaan Berpikir melalui Pertanyaan terhadap Keterampilan Metakognitif, Berpikir Kreatif, Pemahaman Konsep IPA dan Retensinya serta Sikap Sosial Siswa Abstract: cooperative learning is a teaching strategy to raise awareness of student thinking, solve problems together by integrating and applying skills and knowledge, empowering metacognitive learning development, a means to teach social skills students need to live and work together. This study aims to determine the effect pattern combined PBMP TPS learning strategy against metacognitive skills, creative thinking skills, understanding of concepts, understanding of the concept of retention, and social attitudes of students. This study used a quasi-experimental approach (quasi experimental to design non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Analysis of data normality test and homogeneity test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. The study population is class VIII SMPN 1 Pasuruan learning year 2012/2013. Samples were selected at random to determine the experimental class and control class. Results of the study are: (1 no influence on the strategy of metacognitive skills, creative thinking skills, understanding of concepts, and social attitudes among the students who were given a learning strategy with the given TPS PBMP multistrategi learning, (2 there is an influence on the retention of understanding of the concept among students TPS given PBMP learning strategy with a given learning multistrategi. The increase occurred in the class and the class multistrategi PBMP TPS. Key Words: TPS, PBMP, metacognitive skills, creative thinking, understanding of concepts, understanding of the concept of retention, social attitudes Abstrak: Strategi pembelajaran kooperatif merupakan pembelajaran untuk menumbuhkan kesadaran berpikir siswa, menyelesaikan masalah secara bersama dengan mengintegrasikan serta mengaplikasikan kemampuan dan pengetahuan

  1. Visual Abstraction and Stylisation of Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isenberg, Tobias

    We explore visual map abstraction for the generation of stylized renderings of 2D map data. We employ techniques that are centred around the concept of shape simplification and graph layout and that allow iterative abstraction of 2D maps. We use data from publicly available sources and show how we

  2. How do health services researchers understand the concept of patient-centeredness? Results from an expert survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholl I

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isabelle Scholl, Jördis M Zill, Martin Härter, Jörg Dirmaier Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany Background: The concept of patient-centeredness has gained in importance over recent decades, including its growing importance on a health policy level. However, many different definitions and frameworks exist. This renders both research and implementation into clinical practice difficult. This study aimed at assessing how German researchers conceptualize patient-centeredness, how they translate the German equivalent into English, and what they consider the most important references on the topic. Methods: All researchers within a German research priority program on patient-centeredness were invited to participate in an online survey with open questions. The data regarding the definitions of patient-centeredness were analyzed using the method of conventional content analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the responses on translations and references. Results: Thirty-eight (28% of 136 invited researchers participated in the study. The definitions given by the participants could be classified into ten categories: patient as a unique person, involvement in decision-making, patient information, essential characteristics of the physician, biopsychosocial perspective, patient empowerment, individualized services, patient-reported outcomes, involvement in health policy and coordination and teamwork. The results for the translation of the German word “Patientenorientierung” into English indicate that uncertainty regarding the appropriate English terminology exists. All participants provided a different reference on patient-centeredness that was important to them. Conclusion: The results show a certain degree of “shared meaning” regarding the concept of patient-centeredness. However, they also indicate a considerable amount of “surplus meaning”, which can be seen as an

  3. SENSE 2010, Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsden, M.D.; Argyriou, D.N.; Inosov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The microscopic origin of unconventional superconductivity continues to attract the attention of the condensed matter community. Whereas rare-earth / actinide-based intermetallic and copper oxide-based high temperature superconductors are studied for more than twenty years, the iron-based superconductors have been in the focus of interest since their recent discovery. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been of particular importance for the understanding of the magnetic and superconducting properties of these compounds. With its 29 talks and 14 posters the workshop provided a forum for the 71 registered participants to review and discuss experimental achievements, recognize the observed synergy and differences as well as discuss theoretical efforts to identify the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter in addition to the coupling mechanisms of the Cooper pairs. The workshop covered different topics relevant for the study of unconventional superconductivity. Magnetization and lattice dynamics such as spin resonances, phonons, magnetic and other excitations as studied by spectroscopic methods were presented. Investigations of (doping, pressure and magnetic field dependent) phase diagrams, electronic states as well as vortex physics by the various diffraction techniques were also addressed. This document gathers only the abstracts of the papers. (authors)

  4. Understanding groundwater - students' pre-conceptions and conceptual change by means of a theory-guided multimedia learning program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterbruner, Ulrike; Hilberg, Sylke; Schiffl, Iris

    2016-06-01

    Education on the subject of groundwater is crucial for sustainability. Nevertheless, international studies with students across different age groups have shown that the basic hydrogeological concept of groundwater defined as water within porous and permeable rocks is not an established everyday notion. Drawing from international research, a multimedia learning program Zwischen Regenwolke und Wasserhahn (between the rain cloud and the tap) was developed, which incorporates specific insights from the fields of conceptual change research, multimedia research, and the model of educational reconstruction. The effectiveness of the learning program was ascertained by means of two studies with Austrian seventh grade pupils as well as teacher-training students from the fields of biology and geography in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the learning program. Using a quasi-experimental research design, the participants' conceptions and knowledge of groundwater were determined in a pre- and post-test. The pupils and students greatly benefitted from working through the learning software independently. Their knowledge of groundwater increased significantly compared to the control group and there was a highly significant increase in the number of scientifically correct notions of groundwater. The acceptance of the program was also generally very high. The results indicate that theory-guided multimedia learning programs can play an important role in the transfer of research results to classroom settings, especially in science education.

  5. Fire and Water combined: Understanding the Relevance of Working Life Studies through a Concept of Practical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijo Räsänen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When I presented the basic ideas of this paper at a conference, a Swedish colleague commented: ‘you manage to combine water and fire.’ I understood his kind comment to mean that he used water and fire as metaphors for practice and theory. The comment puzzled me for a while. Water and fire obviously destroy each other, or at least radically transform each other. Then I realized that humans have actually managed to combine water and fire in several ways. One solution is the kettle. It makes possible to use fire in a controlled way for the human purpose of boiling water. Thus, this paper can be taken as an attempt at offering a kettle-like vehicle for bringing together practicetheoretical concepts and vocational practice. My kettle is a concept of practical activity. I am trying to boil up an answer to the following question: in what senses a study of work can be practically relevant to those who are doing the work being studied?

  6. From Sailing Ships to Subtraction Symbols: Multiple Representations to Support Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Limin

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are tasked with supporting students' learning of abstract mathematical concepts. Students can represent their mathematical understanding in a variety of modes, for example: manipulatives, pictures, diagrams, spoken languages, and written symbols. Although most students easily pick up rudimentary knowledge through the use of concrete…

  7. Research on the Field of Education Policy: Exploring Different Levels of Approach and Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Tello, César

    2016-01-01

    This paper, of theoretical nature, explores the levels of approach and abstraction of research in the field of education policy: description, analysis and understanding. Such categories were developed based on concepts of Bourdieu's theory and on the grounds of epistemological studies focused on education policy and meta-research. This paper…

  8. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  9. The Impact of Three-Dimensional Computational Modeling on Student Understanding of Astronomical Concepts: A Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, John A.; Barnett, Michael; Makinster, James G.; Keating, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The increased availability of computational modeling software has created opportunities for students to engage in scientific inquiry through constructing computer-based models of scientific phenomena. However, despite the growing trend of integrating technology into science curricula, educators need to understand what aspects of these technologies…

  10. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  11. Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n?=?20). This includes analysis of the…

  12. Investigating Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Balance Concepts Utilizing a Clinical Interview Method and a Virtual Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer; Matteson, Shirley; She, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Our study was enacted in university mathematics education classes in the USA with preservice teachers (PSTs). This research focused on PSTs' interview responses that were used to assess their understanding of balance when challenged with tasks involving virtual manipulatives. Siegler's rules were used in analyzing PSTs' responses to…

  13. Children’s understanding of scientific concepts : Combining a micro-developmental approach with a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Steffie

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that the social (teacher) and material environment (task) play an active part in children's learning process and cannot be viewed as a separate, outside-based influence on cognitive development. We illustrate this using a longitudinal study on children's understanding of scientific

  14. Remote sensing change detection tools for natural resource managers: Understanding concepts and tradeoffs in the design of landscape monitoring projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Kennedy; Philip A. Townsend; John E. Gross; Warren B. Cohen; Paul Bolstad; Wang Y. Q.; Phyllis Adams

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing provides a broad view of landscapes and can be consistent through time, making it an important tool for monitoring and managing protected areas. An impediment to broader use of remote sensing science for monitoring has been the need for resource managers to understand the specialized capabilities of an ever-expanding array of image sources and analysis...

  15. The Role of Green Chemistry Activities in Fostering Secondary School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts and Argumentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff Michael; Sinniah, Devananthini

    2016-01-01

    In a world where environmental degradation is taking on alarming levels, understanding, and acting to minimize, the individual environmental impact is an important goal for many science educators. In this study, a green chemistry curriculum--combining chemistry experiments with everyday, environmentally friendly substances with a student-centered…

  16. Understanding the Concept of Information Literacy Students--For Example, the City Library "Don Mihovil Pavlinovic" Imotski

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the understanding of the term information literacy of primary and secondary school students, from the fifth grade of elementary school to the fourth year of high school at the local level, and who are members of the City Library in Imotski. The study examined 98 members of the City Library, through a…

  17. Abstracts from Rambam Research Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraga Blazer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [Extract] This Supplement of Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal presents the abstracts from the Eleventh Rambam Research Day. These abstracts represent the newest basic and clinical research coming out of Rambam Health Care Campus—research that is the oxygen for education and development of today’s generation of physicians. Hence, the research presented on Rambam Research Day is a foundation for future generations to understand patient needs and improve treatment modalities. Bringing research from the bench to the bedside and from the bedside to the community is at the heart of Maimonides’ scholarly and ethical legacy.

  18. Understanding and teaching key concepts and tools of evidence-based medicine: perspectives of a clinician-researcher pharmaceutical physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagianis, Jamie

    2011-12-01

    Clinical practice benefits from research to inform good decision making. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) helps physicians integrate experience and individual expertise with the best evidence. Various philosophical concepts, including "primum non nocere," are balanced to achieve this. The tools of EBM, such as number needed to treat, are easy to calculate and to use. Other valuable tools include number needed to harm, attributable risk, and likelihood of being helped or harmed. It is also important to distinguish between relative risk and absolute risk to avoid drawing the wrong conclusions. With the right teaching techniques to grab attention and encourage active participation, real examples can be used to impart practical skills that the clinician can employ in translating research findings into something that helps the individual patient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Compilation of Theses Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This publication contains unclassified/unrestricted abstracts of classified or restricted theses submitted for the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science...

  20. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating......In this paper we discuss computational abstraction steps as a way to create class abstractions from concrete objects, and from examples. Computational abstraction steps are regarded as symmetric counterparts to computational concretisation steps, which are well-known in terms of function calls...

  1. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts; Nuklearmedizin 2000. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [German] Die vorliegende Zeitschrift enthaelt die Kurzfassungen der 183 auf der Tagung gehaltenen Vortraege sowie der 226 praesentierten Poster, die sich mit den folgenden Themen befassten: Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Onkologie, Paediatrie, Radiopharmazie, Endokrinologie, EDV, Messtechnik, Strahlenschutz, Kardiologie sowie Therapie. (MG)

  2. Enhanced Systemic Understanding of the Information Environment in Complex Crisis Management - Analytical Concept, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    comprises the dimensions of ‗ media literacy ‘ and ‗intercultural communicative competence‘63. Figure 25: Communicative Competence...competence‘ comprises the dimensions of ‗ media literacy ‘ and ‗intercultural communicative competence‘89. Figure: Communicative Competence ‗ Media literacy ‘ aims...at successfully using media and media-related technology: "We have defined media literacy as: ‗the ability to access, understand and create

  3. The Role of the Theory of Communicative Action and its Concepts in Accountancy for the Benefit of the Understanding and Integration of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rueda-Delgado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to revisit some connections drawn from literature and others identified directly, between accountancy and the Theory of Communicative Action –henceforth TCA– as described by Jürgen Habermas, with a view to favouring an extension of the social role of accountancy towards social understanding and integration, and not just to globalisation and economic integration, as it is presented today. The paper, making use of TAC concepts, states that accountancy can be the product of social efforts aimed at creating a dialogue between companies and socio-economic actors. It compares in a critical way various concepts drawn from both volumes of the TAC with notions on the role of accountancy regarding development and neoliberal globalisation.

  4. Role of HSAB concept in understanding biosorptive behaviour of various metal ions employing green biosorbent - Dry Cow Dung Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2016-04-01

    Hard & Soft Acid Base concept, HSAB theory given by Pearson, elucidates the crucial role of HSAB characteristics of both pollutants as well as the aqueous milieu. This theory can also explain the biosorptive behaviour of Dry Cow dung Powder, which helps in governing the success of process. The various metal ionic species exhibit a preference for the ligand binding on the biomass based on its chemical coordination characteristics. A comparative batch equilibration biosorptive assay has been carried out employing radiotracer technique for uptake of Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Hg(II), Sr(II), Cs(I) and Co(II) at optimum biosorption parameters. To study the effect of interference of different salts on the percentage biosorption of metal ions on DCP, different organic as well as inorganic salts with varying proportion of 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg have been studied. The dynamics of the biosorption in terms of the order of the rate constant was studied applying different kinetic models. The best fitting model was Lagergren pseudo second order model. DCP, an eco-friendly humiresin, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid', Fulvic acid and many naturally present functional group such as carboxyl, phenols, quinols, amide etc. of both hard and soft nature, making it 'combo' in nature sorbs both concerned metal ions as well as ligands present in the system. Thus the ligands which were masking the biosorption process of heavy metal ions in this study were treated by mere increase in the dose of DCP, which successfully solves the problem without affecting efficiency of the process. This is exemplified by three very basic interactions happening in multicomponent system i.e. Synergism: Mutual enhancement; Antagonism: Mutual decrement; Non-interaction: Neutral effect. Thus DCP has a great potential in the field of water decontamination, industrial water treatment and in abatement of water pollution. So

  5. Neighbourhood Abstraction in GROOVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; De Lara, J.; Varro, D.

    2011-01-01

    Important classes of graph grammars have infinite state spaces and therefore cannot be verified with traditional model checking techniques. One way to address this problem is to perform graph abstraction, which allows us to generate a finite abstract state space that over-approximates the original

  6. Truthful Monadic Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...

  7. Check Sample Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  8. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled: Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Plasma Physics; Solar-Terrestrial Physics; Astrophysics and Astronomy; Radioastronomy; General Physics; Applied Physics; Industrial Physics

  9. Assessing the effectiveness of the Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit: a curriculum for enhancing farmworkers' understanding of pesticide safety concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Asuaje, Cesar R; Arellano, Consuelo; Cope, W Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Among agricultural workers, migrant and seasonal farmworkers have been recognized as a special risk population because these laborers encounter cultural challenges and linguistic barriers while attempting to maintain their safety and health within their working environments. The crop-specific Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit (Toolkit) is a pesticide safety and health curriculum designed to communicate to farmworkers pesticide hazards commonly found in their working environments and to address Worker Protection Standard (WPS) pesticide training criteria for agricultural workers. The goal of this preliminary study was to test evaluation items for measuring knowledge increases among farmworkers and to assess the effectiveness of the Toolkit in improving farmworkers' knowledge of key WPS and risk communication concepts when the Toolkit lesson was delivered by trained trainers in the field. After receiving training on the curriculum, four participating trainers provided lessons using the Toolkit as part of their regular training responsibilities and orally administered a pre- and post-lesson evaluation instrument to 20 farmworker volunteers who were generally representative of the national farmworker population. Farmworker knowledge of pesticide safety messages significantly (PHealth Toolkit is an effective, research-based pesticide safety and health intervention for the at-risk farmworker population and identifies a testing format appropriate for evaluating the Toolkit and other similar interventions for farmworkers in the field.

  10. Understanding of hysteresis behaviors at the L-H-L transitions in tokamak plasma based on bifurcation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatthong, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla (Thailand); Onjun, T. [School of Manufacturing Systems and Mechanical Engineering, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    The hysteresis behaviour at the L-H-L transitions in tokamak plasma is investigated based on bifurcation concept. The formation of an edge transport barrier (ETB) is modeled via thermal and particle transport equations with the flow shear suppression effect on anomalous transport included. The anomalous transport is modeled based on critical gradients threshold and the flow shear is calculated from the force balance equation, couples the two transport equations leading to a non-linear behaviour. Analytical investigation reveals that the fluxes versus gradients space exhibits bifurcation behaviour with s -curve soft bifurcation type. Apparently, the backward H-L transition occurs at lower values than that of the forward L-H transition, illustrating hysteresis behaviour. The hysteresis properties, i.e. locations of threshold fluxes, gradients and their ratios are analyzed as a function of neoclassical and anomalous transport values and critical gradients. It is found that the minimum heat flux for maintaining H -mode depends on several plasma parameters including the strength of anomalous transport and neoclassical transport. In particular, the hysteresis depth becomes larger when neoclassical transport decreases or anomalous transport increases. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Understanding the contributions of visual stimuli to contextual fear conditioning: A proof-of-concept study using LCD screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Nathen J; Asok, Arun

    2017-01-10

    The precise contribution of visual information to contextual fear learning and discrimination has remained elusive. To better understand this contribution, we coupled the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) fear conditioning paradigm with presentations of distinct visual scenes displayed on 4 LCD screens surrounding a conditioning chamber. Adult male Long-Evans rats received non-reinforced context pre-exposure on Day 1, an immediate 1.5mA foot shock on Day 2, and a non-reinforced context test on Day 3. Rats were pre-exposed to either digital Context (dCtx) A, dCtx B, a distinct Ctx C, or no context on Day 1. Digital context A and B were identical except for the visual image displayed on the LCD screens. Immediate shock and retention testing occurred in dCtx A. Rats pre-exposed dCtx A showed the CPFE with significantly higher levels of freezing compared to controls. Rats pre-exposed to Context B failed to show the CPFE, with freezing that did not highly differ from controls. These results suggest that visual information contributes to contextual fear learning and that visual components of the context can be manipulated via LCD screens. Our approach offers a simple modification to contextual fear conditioning paradigms whereby the visual features of a context can be manipulated to better understand the factors that contribute to contextual fear discrimination and generalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Current concepts on burn wound conversion – a review of recent advances in understanding the secondary progressions of burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salibian, Ara A.; Del Rosario, Angelica Tan; De Almeida Moura Severo, Lucio; Nguyen, Long; Banyard, Derek A.; Toranto, Jason D.; Evans, Gregory R.D.; Widgerow, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Burn wound conversion describes the process by which superficial partial thickness burns convert into deeper burns necessitating surgical intervention. Fully understanding and thus controlling this phenomenon continues to defy burn surgeons. However, potentially guiding burn wound progression so as to obviate the need for surgery while still bringing about healing with limited scarring is the major unmet challenge. Comprehending the pathophysiologic background contributing to deeper progression of these burns is an essential prerequisite to planning any intervention. In this study, a review of articles examining burn wound progression over the last five years was conducted to analyze trends in recent burn progression research, determine changes in understanding of the pathogenesis of burn conversion, and subsequently examine the direction for future research in developing therapies. The majority of recent research focuses on applying therapies from other disease processes to common underlying pathogenic mechanisms in burn conversion. While ischemia, inflammation, and free oxygen radicals continue to demonstrate a critical role in secondary necrosis, novel mechanisms such as autophagy have also been shown to contribute affect significantly burn progression significantly. Further research will have to determine whether multiple mechanisms should be targeted when developing clinical therapies. PMID:26787127

  13. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  14. The concept of transcortical cell assemblies: a key to the understanding of cortical lateralization and interhemispheric interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, F; Mohr, B

    1996-01-01

    According to Hebb, elements of higher cognitive processes, such as concepts, words and mental images, are realized in the brain as cortical cell assemblies, i.e. large and strongly connected neuron populations that form functional units. Neurons belonging to such assemblies may be scattered over wide cortical areas, and some cell assemblies may even comprise neurons of both hemispheres (transcortical assemblies). If full activation (ignition) of an assembly leads to fast circulation of neuronal activity in the assembly, this process should be visible in high-frequency cortical responses. Some evidence will be reviewed that cell assembly ignition indeed leads to changes in high-frequency cortical responses which can be recorded in the EEG and MEG. Within the cell assembly-framework, the question of cortical laterality translates into the question of how neurons of transcortical assemblies are balanced between the hemispheres. This approach allows for different degrees of laterality. Recent evidence is summarized that the degree of laterality indeed differs between language units. For example, the cortical representation of certain words appears to be strongly lateralized to the left hemisphere while those of others are less lateralized. If neurons of both hemispheres are part of one assembly bihemispheric processing should lead to a processing advantage compared to processing in the dominant hemisphere alone. The latter appears to be the case for lexical processing, as revealed by recent behavioral studies. In conclusion, the cell assembly-framework suggests a more fine-grained description of the issue of cortical laterality; it is not appropriate to ask whether "modules" supporting higher cortical functions are located either in the left or right hemisphere. Rather, it appears fruitful to ask how the neurons of transcortical cell assemblies are balanced between the hemispheres.

  15. New concepts of nuclear reactors and fuel cycles: performing agile technometric studies to understand the promises and the current reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.

    2013-01-01

    The progress of previous projects pointed out the need to face some problems of software for detecting emerging research and development trends from databases of scientific publication. Given the lack of efficient computing applications dedicated to this purpose that we consider to be an artifact of great usefulness to better planning R and D programs in institutions, which are obliged to manage and develop, with limited resources and within the realm of complex and multidisciplinary technology fields as is the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector. We performed a review of the currently available software in such a way that we could clearly delineate the opportunity to develop new tools. As a result, we developed a software called Cite snake, which was especially designed to help the detection and study of emerging trends from the analysis of networks of various types extracted from the scientific databases. Using this powerful and stable computational tool, we performed preliminary analyzes of emerging research and development trends in a few thematic fields. The case that concerns this paper is the one devoted to the eld of Generation IV Nuclear Power Generation Systems. We analyzed the productivity of authors, co-authorship networks, co-citation networks, development structure and emerging sub-areas of research. The idea was to nd what reactors and fuel cycles have evolved more over the past ten years, in such a way to compare the what from the most promising concepts selected from the Generation Four Initiative have better evolved to fulfill some of their promises. (author)

  16. Development of the Exam of GeoloGy Standards, EGGS, to Measure Students' Conceptual Understanding of Geology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, S. K.; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Discipline-based geoscience education researchers have considerable need for criterion-referenced, easy-to-administer and easy-to-score, conceptual diagnostic surveys for undergraduates taking introductory science survey courses in order for faculty to better be able to monitor the learning impacts of various interactive teaching approaches. To support ongoing discipline-based science education research to improve teaching and learning across the geosciences, this study establishes the reliability and validity of a 28-item, multiple-choice, pre- and post- Exam of GeoloGy Standards, hereafter simply called EGGS. The content knowledge EGGS addresses is based on 11 consensus concepts derived from a systematic, thematic analysis of the overlapping ideas presented in national science education reform documents including the Next Generation Science Standards, the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy, the Earth Science Literacy Principles, and the NRC National Science Education Standards. Using community agreed upon best-practices for creating, field-testing, and iteratively revising modern multiple-choice test items using classical item analysis techniques, EGGS emphasizes natural student language over technical scientific vocabulary, leverages illustrations over students' reading ability, specifically targets students' misconceptions identified in the scholarly literature, and covers the range of topics most geology educators expect general education students to know at the end of their formal science learning experiences. The current version of EGGS is judged to be valid and reliable with college-level, introductory science survey students based on both standard quantitative and qualitative measures, including extensive clinical interviews with targeted students and systematic expert review.

  17. Nuclear works. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candel, Danielle; Calberg-Challot, Marie; Alexander, Catherine; Bergsman, Anne; Meyer, Morgan; Taebi, Behnam; Kloosterman, Jan Leen; Kelfaoui, Mahdi; Gingras, Yves; Laborie, Leonard; Beltran, Alain; Bouvier, Yves; Raineau, Laurence; Poirot-Delpech, Sophie; Ollivon, Franck; Mueller, Birgit; Lemarchand, Frederick; Rivat, Emmanuel; Mormont, Marc; Aparicio, Luis; Fassert, Christine; Lehtonen, Markku; Billet, Philippe; Girard, Berenice; Fournier, Pierre; Marion, Richard; Lot, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    the conception of a LILW repository (Marc Mormont, Anne Bergmans), The contribution of Social Sciences and Humanities to the scientific program for radioactive waste management of Andra (Luis Aparicio), The public expert and the nuclear catastrophe (Christine Fassert); 5 - Nuclear governance: Did Fukushima put an end to nuclear revival? A post-Fukushima debates analysis in Finnish, French and British media (Markku Lehtonen), Nuclear secrecy at the test of the right to participation (Philippe Billet), Nuclear science, politics and national construction: what remains from Nehru's India in these times of uncertainty? (Berenice Girard); 6 - Working in the nuclear industry. Training and work collectives: Nuclear industry: a workers-less world? (Pierre Fournier), Ambiguity dynamics at NPPs, a pluri-disciplinary approach (Nicolas Lot), Sino-French nuclear engineering curriculums: what kind of innovation configuration? (Richard Marion). This document brings together the French and English abstracts of the different talks

  18. Understanding Liking in Relation to Sensory Characteristics, Consumer Concept Associations, Arousal Potential and "Appropriateness for Use" Using Apple Juice as an Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender L P; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2016-01-01

    apple juice parameters. The basic tastes sweet and sour were key properties and played a central role in liking acquisition. Apple juices having a sweet/sour balance were most liked. The importance of balance in sensory properties was underlined by the fact that consumer liking was related......It is crucial to understand influential parameters for acquisition of consumer liking to ensure succesful product introduction and competativeness in the marketplace. This article aims to study and understand liking in relation to sensory characteristics, consumer concept associations, arousal...... potential and appropriateness for use using apple juices as an application. First, a laboratory panel (n=15: F=10, M=5) determined the sensory profile of the apple juices using the methods Partial Napping and Ultra Flash Profiling based on taste and flavor. Next, consumers (n=196: F=136, M=60) evaluated key...

  19. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  20. Editorial: eHealth literacy: Emergence of a new concept for creating, evaluating and understanding online health resources for the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre W. Kushniruk (ACMI Fellow; CAHS Fellow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of consumers of health information to effectively understand, process and apply health information presented to them is a critical factor in improving health knowledge and developing effective health promotion strategies. Nowhere has this become more apparent than in efforts to apply information technology in the development of a range of systems and applications targeted for use by patients, and the general population. Indeed, success and failure of eHealth initiatives has been shown to depend on consideration of how to effectively design and deploy health information to consumers. Health literacy has become an important area of study that focuses on studying how health information can be understood and applied to improve health. In recent years the concept of eHealth literacy has also emerged, that sits at the intersection of health literacy and information technology literacy. In this special issue, a range of papers are presented that focus on the emerging concept of eHealth literacy. The papers in the special issue focus on basic definitional and conceptual issues as well as methodological approaches to studying health and eHealth literacy. A special focus of the issue is on how these concepts apply and can be adapted for improving health information technologies and applications.

  1. Understanding of Accountancy Graduates on the Relevant Concepts Taught in the Subject Accounting Theory at HEI in Greater Florianópolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Frigo Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the understanding of the undergraduate students in Accountancy about the relevant concepts taught in the discipline Accounting Theory. To reach this goal, a questionnaire was sent to selected institutions or applied in person, obtaining a total of 65 respondents who had already studied Accounting Theory. The results of this research show that students perceive the concepts related to the discipline in a way more linked to standardization and that, for most respondents, the discipline Accounting Theory was considered of fundamental importance and should not be eliminated. In addition, it cannot be affirmed that there is a relationship between the area and the time of action of the respondents and their perceptions regarding the concepts of the discipline. It was also observed that there is little discussion about some subjects, in which some students are totally unaware, like in the case of Agency Theory and Earnings Management, which may indicate a gap in the teaching of the discipline. For future research, the analysis of distance learning is suggested, as well as research that seeks to analyze the existence of this possible gap observed.

  2. Science meeting. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields

  3. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  4. Common concepts in separate domains? Family physicians' ways of understanding teaching patients and trainees, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Berg, Mattias; Scott, Ian; Bates, Joanna

    2015-06-27

    Medical education is increasingly expanding into new community teaching settings and the need for clinical teachers is rising. Many physicians taking on this new role are already skilled patient educators. The purpose of this research was to explore how family physicians conceptualize teaching patients compared to the teaching of trainees. Our aim was to understand if there is any common ground between these two roles in order to support faculty development based on already existing skills. Semi-structured interviews with twenty-five family physician preceptors were conducted in Vancouver, Canada and thematically analyzed. We identified four key areas of overlap between the two fields (being learner-centered; supporting the acquisition, application and integration of knowledge; role modeling and self-disclosure; and facilitating autonomy) and three areas of divergence (aim of teaching and setting the learning objectives; establishing rapport; and providing feedback). Finding common ground between these two teaching roles would support knowledge translation and inquiry between the domains of teaching patients and trainees. It would furthermore open up new avenues for improving training and practice for clinical teachers by better linking faculty development and continuing medical education (CME).

  5. Primary care practitioner and patient understanding of the concepts of multimorbidity and self-management: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Kenning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this article is to offer insight into how professionals and patients understand and experience multimorbidity and how these accounts differ, and how they affect attitudes and engagement with self-management. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 primary healthcare practitioners and 20 patients with at least 2 long-term conditions (including coronary heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and depression. Thematic analysis was used, and themes were identified using an open-coding method. Results: Practitioners associated multimorbidity with complexity and uncertainty in the clinic, leading to emotional strain and ‘heart sink’. Patient accounts differed. Some described multimorbidity as problematic when it exacerbated their symptoms and caused emotional and psychological strain. Others did not perceive multimorbidity as problematic. Self-management was seen by practitioners and patients to be a key element of managing multiple conditions, but drivers for prompting and engaging in self-management differed between patients and practitioners. Conclusion: This study suggests that recommendations for clinical practice for multimorbid patients should take into account the gap in perceptions between practitioner and patients about experiences of multimorbidity. Not least, practice would need to reflect the tension between practitioners’ and patients’ accounts about the role and benefits of self-management in the presence of multimorbidity.

  6. Abstract Storage Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Robert; Maurer, Ueli; Tessaro, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    A quantum storage device differs radically from a conventional physical storage device. Its state can be set to any value in a certain (infinite) state space, but in general every possible read operation yields only partial information about the stored state. The purpose of this paper is to initiate the study of a combinatorial abstraction, called abstract storage device (ASD), which models deterministic storage devices with the property that only partial information about the state can be re...

  7. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  8. Kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts and scientific inquiry processes according to demographic variables (the sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail İlhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC and scientific inquiry processes (SIP and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the kindergarten students’ LUSSC and SIP. This study was conducted according to quantitative research design. The study group consisted of 335 kindergarten students from 20 different rural and urban schools. In the study, the scale for “Turkish Kindergarten Students’ Understandings of Scientific Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes” was used. According to some variables (such as mother’s education level and family structure, there was a statistically significant difference between students’ mean scores for LUSSC and between students’ mean scores for SIP. Within the scope of this study, it was found that among the predictor variables (age, family’s income level, and number of brother/sister were significant predictors for LUSSC, and number of brother/sister was a significant predictor for SIP.

  9. Introducing a New Elementary GLOBE Book on Climate: Supporting Educators and Students in their Understanding of the Concepts Underlying Climate and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Hatheway, B.; Gardiner, L. S.; Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Much of the focus on climate literacy in K-12 occurs in middle and high school, where teachers and students can dig into the science in some depth. It is important, however, to introduce this topic at an early age, building on a child's natural curiosity about the world around them - but without overwhelming them with frightening climate change impacts. In some U.S. school systems, a recent focus on standardized testing has crowded out science instruction in order to bring up literacy scores. To give teachers a resource to maintain some science instruction under these conditions, a series of Elementary GLOBE books have been developed. These fictional stories describe sound science and engineering practices that are essential for students to learn the process of science while expanding literacy skills, strongly encouraged in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The main concepts developed in a new Elementary GLOBE book on climate, titled "What in the World Is Happening to Our Climate?", will be introduced in this presentation. This book complements six other Earth System Science modules within the Elementary GLOBE curriculum and is freely available on the GLOBE website (www.globe.gov/elementaryglobe). The book discusses the concept that climate is changing in different ways and places around the world, and what happens to the climate in one place affects other locations across the globe. Supporting ideas clarify the difference between weather and climate, introduce climate science concepts, reveal the impacts of sea level rise, and help students understand that, while humans are contributing to climate change, they can also participate in solutions that address this challenge. Accompanying teacher's notes and companion classroom activities will be described to help elementary school teachers understand how to approach the subject of climate change with their students.

  10. An introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Derek JS

    2003-01-01

    This is a high level introduction to abstract algebra which is aimed at readers whose interests lie in mathematics and in the information and physical sciences. In addition to introducing the main concepts of modern algebra, the book contains numerous applications, which are intended to illustrate the concepts and to convince the reader of the utility and relevance of algebra today. In particular applications to Polya coloring theory, latin squares, Steiner systems and error correcting codes are described. Another feature of the book is that group theory and ring theory are carried further than is often done at this level. There is ample material here for a two semester course in abstract algebra. The importance of proof is stressed and rigorous proofs of almost all results are given. But care has been taken to lead the reader through the proofs by gentle stages. There are nearly 400 problems, of varying degrees of difficulty, to test the reader''s skill and progress. The book should be suitable for students ...

  11. an aid to mastering fundamental calculus concepts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Effects of computer graphics use on students understanding of calculus concepts. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50:1974. Berger M 1997. A mediating role for the graphic calculator. South African Journal of. Higher Education, 11:158-166. Carr BA & Steyn TM 1998. Master grapher for windows. Cape Town: Oxford.

  12. ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS FOR VALUE CHAINS

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. Janse van Rensburg

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The Porter Value Chain has been widely adopted by the business community as a mechanism to understand and comprehend complexity in business environments, with the ultimate goal of structuring the business to maximize its competitive advantage. Implementing the Value Chain is not easy: a number of organizations can testify to their failure to derive any benefits at all from this concept. To overcome this problem, an approach is presented to assist the organization in ...

  13. Introducing a Culture of Modeling to Enhance Conceptual Understanding in High School Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amanda D.; Head, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Both the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the new AP Chemistry curriculum focus on a deeper understanding of content, as well as application of concepts within science classes. A well accepted research-based method for improving student understanding and the ability to apply many of the abstract concepts presented in chemistry is…

  14. Developing Agreed and Accepted Understandings of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Concepts among Members of an Innovative Spirituality Interest Group in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Timmins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Spirituality Interest Group (SIG was set up in in the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Republic of Ireland (ROI, in March 2013. This paper reports on some of the journey and requirements involved in developing the group. It highlights the essential work of establishing agreed understandings in an objective way in order for the group to move forward with action. These agreed understandings have contributed to the group’s success. Outlining the group’s journey in arriving at agreements may be of use to others considering creating similar groups. One key action taken to determine the suitability of the group’s aims and terms of reference was the distribution of a Survey Monkey to group members (n = 28 in 2014. One early meeting of the group discussed future goals and direction using the responses of this anonymous survey. This paper reports on the results of the survey regarding the establishment of the SIG and the development of a shared understanding of spiritual care among the members. There is consensus in the group that the spiritual care required by clients receiving healthcare ought to be an integrated effort across the healthcare team. However, there is an acceptance that spirituality and spiritual care are not always clearly understood concepts in practice. By developing shared or at least accepted understandings of spirituality and spiritual care, SIG hopes to be able to underpin both research and practice with solid foundational conceptual understanding, and in the process also to meet essential prerequisites for achieving the group’s aims.

  15. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...

  16. Some Call It Stone: Teaching Abstract Sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Rikki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract visual art is not for everybody. Some people find it threatening, uncomfortable, and often, inaccessible. Understandably, this can result in a lack of attention paid to nonrepresentational works of art in the visual arts curriculum. This article describes an experiential, hands-on, field trip that sought to demystify abstract sculpture,…

  17. Monadic abstract interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Devriese, Dominique; Might, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    -insensitive analysis. To achieve this unification, we develop a systematic method for transforming a concrete semantics into a monadically-parameterized abstract machine. Changing the monad changes the behavior of the machine. By changing the monad, we recover a spectrum of machines—from the original concrete...

  18. WWNPQFT-2013 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cessac, B.; Bianchi, E.; Bellon, M.; Fried, H.; Krajewski, T.; Schubert, C.; Barre, J.; Hofmann, R.; Muller, B.; Raffaelli, B.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this Workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non perturbative-like Field Theories, relying in Functional Methods, Renormalization Group, and Dyson-Schwinger Equations. A presentation deals with effective vertices and photon-photon scattering in SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  19. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  20. The Abstraction Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    The main thesis of this book is that abstraction, far from being confined to higher formsof cognition, language and logical reasoning, has actually been a major driving forcethroughout the evolution of creatures with brains. It is manifest in emotive as well as rationalthought. Wending its way th...

  1. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  2. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  3. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  4. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  5. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj...

  6. Abstracts of submitted papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 152 abstracts of presented papers relating to various aspects of personnel dosimetry, the dosimetry of the working and living environment, various types of dosemeters and spectrometers, the use of radionuclides in various industrial fields, the migration of radionuclides on Czechoslovak territory after the Chernobyl accident, theoretical studies of some parameters of ionizing radiation detectors, and their calibration. (M.D.)

  7. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  8. Reflective Abstraction and Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Philip

    Piaget's theory of reflective abstraction can supplement cognitive science models of representation by specifying both the act of construction and the component steps through which knowers pass as they acquire knowledge. But, while approaches suggested by cognitive science supplement Piaget by awakening researchers to the role of auxiliary factors…

  9. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized into the no...

  10. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  11. Abstract Introduction Materials & Methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plzfg

    Abstract. Oral administration to male rats of 200mg kg-1 body weight of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers every day for 60 days did not cause loss of body weight, but decreased significantly the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced ...

  12. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  13. Impredicative concurrent abstract predicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Birkedal, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present impredicative concurrent abstract predicates { iCAP { a program logic for modular reasoning about concurrent, higher- order, reentrant, imperative code. Building on earlier work, iCAP uses protocols to reason about shared mutable state. A key novel feature of iCAP is the ability to dene...

  14. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  15. Circularity and Lambda Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...

  16. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  17. Understanding Students' Conceptions of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    There has recently been significant emphasis placed on environmental education through, for example, the UN's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. Despite this, there is still considerable debate within the literature as to how the aims of environmental education can be achieved within schools. It seems likely that if there is a lack…

  18. Understanding differences in conception and abortion rates among under-20 year olds in Britain and France: Examining the contribution of social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rachel H; Bajos, Nathalie; Slaymaker, Emma; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with sexual activity, contraceptive-use, pregnancy and abortion among young people. Less is known about whether the strength of the association differs for each outcome, between men and women, or cross-nationally. We investigate this using contemporaneous national probability survey data from Britain and France. Data were analysed for 17-29 year-olds in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, n = 5959) undertaken 2010-2012, and the 2010 French Fertility, Contraception and Sexual Dysfunction survey (FECOND, n = 3027). For each country, we estimated the gender-specific prevalence of sex before-16, contraceptive-use, conception before-20, and abortion in the event of conception, and used logistic regression to examine associations between two measures of socioeconomic status-educational-level and parental socioeconomic-group-and each outcome. We tested for interactions between socioeconomic characteristics and country, and socioeconomic characteristics and gender, for each outcome. For each outcome, Britain and France differed with regard to prevalence but associations with socioeconomic characteristics were similar. Respondents of higher educational level, and, less consistently, with parents from higher socioeconomic-groups, were less likely to report sex before-16 (Britain, men: adjusted OR (aOR) 0.5, women: aOR 0.5; France, men: aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5), no contraception at first sex (Britain, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.6; France, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.4), pregnancy before-20 (Britain: aOR 0.3; France: aOR 0.1), and in Britain, a birth rather than an abortion in the event of conception (Britain: aOR 3.1). We found no strong evidence of variation in the magnitude of the associations with socioeconomic characteristics by country or gender. Population level differences in conception and abortion rates between the two countries may partly be driven by the larger proportion

  19. Understanding differences in conception and abortion rates among under-20 year olds in Britain and France: Examining the contribution of social disadvantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H Scott

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with sexual activity, contraceptive-use, pregnancy and abortion among young people. Less is known about whether the strength of the association differs for each outcome, between men and women, or cross-nationally. We investigate this using contemporaneous national probability survey data from Britain and France.Data were analysed for 17-29 year-olds in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, n = 5959 undertaken 2010-2012, and the 2010 French Fertility, Contraception and Sexual Dysfunction survey (FECOND, n = 3027. For each country, we estimated the gender-specific prevalence of sex before-16, contraceptive-use, conception before-20, and abortion in the event of conception, and used logistic regression to examine associations between two measures of socioeconomic status-educational-level and parental socioeconomic-group-and each outcome. We tested for interactions between socioeconomic characteristics and country, and socioeconomic characteristics and gender, for each outcome.For each outcome, Britain and France differed with regard to prevalence but associations with socioeconomic characteristics were similar. Respondents of higher educational level, and, less consistently, with parents from higher socioeconomic-groups, were less likely to report sex before-16 (Britain, men: adjusted OR (aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5; France, men: aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5, no contraception at first sex (Britain, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.6; France, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.4, pregnancy before-20 (Britain: aOR 0.3; France: aOR 0.1, and in Britain, a birth rather than an abortion in the event of conception (Britain: aOR 3.1. We found no strong evidence of variation in the magnitude of the associations with socioeconomic characteristics by country or gender.Population level differences in conception and abortion rates between the two countries may partly be driven by the larger

  20. DEGRO 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-15

    The volume includes abstracts of the Annual DEGRO Meeting 2017 covering lectures and poster sessions with the following issues: lymphoma, biology, physics, radioimmunotherapy, sarcomas and rare tumors, prostate carcinoma, lung tumors, benign lesions and new media, mamma carcinoma, gastrointestinal tumors, quality of life, care science and quality assurance, high-technology methods and palliative situation, head-and-neck tumors, brain tumors, central nervous system metastases, guidelines, radiation sensitivity, radiotherapy, radioimmunotherapy.

  1. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    in emphasis from the three syntheses to mappings and rhizomatic diagrams that cut across semiotics or “blow apart regimes of signs”. The aim here is the absolute deterritorialization. Deleuze has shown how abstract machines operate in the philosophy of Foucault, the literature of Proust and Kafka......, and the painting of Bacon. We will finish our presentation by showing how these machines apply to architecture....

  2. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  3. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  4. WWNPQFT-2011 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, E.; Bender, C.; Culetu, H.; Fried, H.; Grossmann, A.; Hofmann, R.; Le Bellac, M.; Martinetti, P.; Muller, B.; Patras, F.; Raffaeli, B.; Vitting Andersen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The object of this workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non-perturbative field theories. This year the presentations deal with quantum gravity, non-commutative geometry, fat-tailed wave-functions, strongly coupled field theories, space-times two time-like dimensions, and multiplicative renormalization. A presentation is dedicated to the construction of a nucleon-nucleon potential from an analytical, non-perturbative gauge invariant QCD. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  7. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment and languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eScorolli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept. To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC. This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA, participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words.

  8. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment, and languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorolli, Claudia; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Roberto; Riggio, Lucia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C) verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A) noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept). To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA) were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC). This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA), participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words.

  9. Functional Abstraction of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Blom, Henk A.P.; Hermanns, H.

    2006-01-01

    The verification problem for stochastic hybrid systems is quite difficult. One method to verify these systems is stochastic reachability analysis. Concepts of abstractions for stochastic hybrid systems are needed to ease the stochastic reachability analysis. In this paper, we set up different ways

  10. The Reproduction of Rural Spaces through Education: Abstraction of the Rural and the Creation of New Differential Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervone, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the situating of rural communities in the United States within the neoliberal global context. It will focus on Henri Lefebvre's concept of abstract space, as well as additional theories on the ways space is produced and understood. The paper will use these theories to create an understanding of the ways rural communities are…

  11. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  12. Spaces of Abstract Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajda, Ivan; Länger, Helmut

    2013-06-01

    We generalize the concept of a space of numerical events in such a way that this generalization corresponds to arbitrary orthomodular posets whereas spaces of numerical events correspond to orthomodular posets having a full set of states. Moreover, we show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between orthomodular posets and certain posets with sectionally antitone involutions. Finally, we characterize orthomodular lattices among orthomodular posets.

  13. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains the program and abstracts of the conference. The following topics are included: metal vapor molecular lasers, magnetohydrodynamics, rare gas halide and nuclear pumped lasers, transfer mechanisms in arcs, kinetic processes in rare gas halide lasers, arcs and flows, XeF kinetics and lasers, fundamental processes in excimer lasers, electrode effects and vacuum arcs, electron and ion transport, ion interactions and mobilities, glow discharges, diagnostics and afterglows, dissociative recombination, electron ionization and excitation, rare gas excimers and group VI lasers, breakdown, novel laser pumping techniques, electrode-related discharge phenomena, photon interactions, attachment, plasma chemistry and infrared lasers, electron scattering, and reactions of excited species

  14. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  15. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-10

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  16. IPR 2016. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    The volume on the meeting of pediatric radiology includes abstract on the following issues: chest, cardiovascular system, neuroradiology, CT radiation DRs (diagnostic reference levels) and dose reporting guidelines, genitourinary imaging, gastrointestinal radiology, oncology an nuclear medicine, whole body imaging, fetal/neonates imaging, child abuse, oncology and hybrid imaging, value added imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, dose and radiation safety, imaging children - immobilization and distraction techniques, information - education - QI and healthcare policy, ALARA, the knowledge skills and competences for a technologist/radiographer in pediatric radiology, full exploitation of new technological features in pediatric CT, image quality issues in pediatrics, abdominal imaging, interventional radiology, MR contrast agents, tumor - mass imaging, cardiothoracic imaging, ultrasonography.

  17. SPR 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    The conference proceedings SPR 2017 include abstracts on the following issues: gastrointestinal radiography - inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular CTA, general muscoskeletal radiology, muscoskeletal congenital development diseases, general pediatric radiology - chest, muscoskeletal imaging - marrow and infectious disorders, state-of-the-art body MR imaging, practical pediatric sonography, quality and professionalism, CT imaging in congenital heart diseases, radiographic courses, body MT techniques, contrast enhanced ultrasound, machine learning, forensic imaging, the radiation dos conundrum - reconciling imaging, imagining and managing, the practice of radiology, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, PET/MR.

  18. Beyond the abstractions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

      The anniversary of the International Journal of Lifelong Education takes place in the middle of a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc are however abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education...... are set. The ideological discourse of recent policies seems to neglect the fact that history and resources for lifelong learning are different across Europe, and also neglects the multiplicity of adult learners. Instead of refusing the new agendas, however, adult education research should try to dissolve...... learning. Adult education research must fulfil it's potential conversion from normative philosophy to critical and empirical social science....

  19. Parameterized Dataflow (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Duggan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dataflow networks have application in various forms of stream processing, for example for parallel processing of multimedia data. The description of dataflow graphs, including their firing behavior, is typically non-compositional and not amenable to separate compilation. This article considers a dataflow language with a type and effect system that captures the firing behavior of actors. This system allows definitions to abstract over actor firing rates, supporting the definition and safe composition of actor definitions where firing rates are not instantiated until a dataflow graph is launched.

  20. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  1. Development of Early Conceptions in Systems Thinking in an Environmental Context: An Exploratory Study of Preschool Students' Understanding of Stocks & Flows, Behavior Over Time and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmeister, Kristina M.

    Systems thinking allows learners to look at the world as a series of interconnected parts of a whole. A debate exists in early childhood research literature about whether or not children have the capacity to hold systems thinking conceptions due to the complex thought processing needed for systems thinking. Additionally, many researchers question whether children have enough life experience or cognitive schema to participate fully in systems thinking. However, this study's findings indicate that young children do show signs of more complex understanding in systems thinking than what previous literature suggests a young child has the ability to do. This three part research study was conducted in a universal pre-kindergarten (UPK) classroom in a first-ring suburb of a rust-belt city in the Northeastern United States. The study was grounded in a desire to uncover young children's understanding of systems thinking through everyday classroom activities. Twenty students participated in this qualitative study which utilized read-aloud, water play and the interpretation and creation of graphs through associated structured and semi-structured interviews. Data from student's observations and interviews was transcribed, segmented, coded and analyzed. This student-centered process approach (Gotwals & Alonzo, 2012) allowed for children's ideas to emerge naturally during the research tasks. Data was analyzed according to a three step analysis process using a real-world lens, a systems thinking skills lens, and the development of lower anchors for future learning progressions lens. Across a group of 20 preschool children there was an overarching theme that the ability to think in systems and utilize simple systems thinking tools, such as stock-flow maps, feedback loops and behavior over time graphs, was present. Since children are ready to reason using rudimentary systems thinking, then systems thinking opportunities should be incorporated into their informal and formal learning

  2. Leitura de imagens e cultura visual: desenredando conceitos para a prática educativa Image reading and critical understanding of the visual culture: unraveling concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilia Sardelich

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quase tudo do pouco que conhecemos, em relação ao conhecimento produzido, nos chega pelos meios de informação e comunicação. Estes, por sua vez, também constroem imagens do mundo. Imagens para deleitar, entreter, vender, com mensagens sobre o que devemos vestir, comer, aparentar, pensar. Em nossa sociedade contemporânea discute-se a necessidade de uma alfabetização visual que se expressa em várias designações como: leitura de imagens e compreensão crítica da cultura visual. Freqüentes mudanças de expressões e conceitos dificultam o entendimento dessas propostas para o currículo escolar, a definição do/a professor/a responsável por tal conhecimento e o referencial teórico do mesmo. Este artigo apresenta os conceitos que fundamentam as propostas da leitura de imagens e cultura visual, sinalizando suas proximidades e distâncias. Contrasta alguns referenciais teóricos da antropologia, arte, educação, história, sociologia, e sugere linhas de trabalho em ambientes de aprendizagem com o intuito de refletir sobre nossa permanente formação como docentes.Almost everything from the little we know relating to manufactured knowledge comes to us by means of information and communication. This in turn also build images of the world. Images for pleasure, entertainment, trade, telling us what to wear, to eat, to think, how to look. In our contemporary society there is a debate about the need of a visual education that expresses itself in different denominations such as image reading and critical understanding of the visual culture. Frequent changes in expressions and concepts cause more difficulties in understanding these propositions in the national curriculum, the definition of the teachers responsible for this knowledge and the theoretical reference of it. This article intends to unravel the concepts that establish these different propositions, pointing out their similarities and differences. It contrasts theoretical references

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  4. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  5. Visual analysis of large heterogeneous social networks by semantic and structural abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zeqian; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Eliassi-Rad, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Social network analysis is an active area of study beyond sociology. It uncovers the invisible relationships between actors in a network and provides understanding of social processes and behaviors. It has become an important technique in a variety of application areas such as the Web, organizational studies, and homeland security. This paper presents a visual analytics tool, OntoVis, for understanding large, heterogeneous social networks, in which nodes and links could represent different concepts and relations, respectively. These concepts and relations are related through an ontology (also known as a schema). OntoVis is named such because it uses information in the ontology associated with a social network to semantically prune a large, heterogeneous network. In addition to semantic abstraction, OntoVis also allows users to do structural abstraction and importance filtering to make large networks manageable and to facilitate analytic reasoning. All these unique capabilities of OntoVis are illustrated with several case studies.

  6. The Influence of Teachers' Conceptions on Their Students' Learning: Children's Understanding of Sheet Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. Aims: This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between…

  7. Kindergarten and Primary School Children's Everyday, Synthetic, and Scientific Concepts of Clouds and Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleus, Elina; Kikas, Eve; Marken, Tiivi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore children's understandings of everyday, synthetic and scientific concepts to enable a description of how abstract, verbally taught material relates to previous experience-based knowledge and the consistency of understanding about cloud formation. This study examined the conceptual understandings of cloud…

  8. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  9. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference

  10. Problems in abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsworth, A R

    2017-01-01

    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  11. ICENES 2007 Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this book Conference Program and Abstracts were included 13th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems which held between 03-08 June 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The main objective of International Conference series on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems (ICENES) is to provide an international scientific and technical forum for scientists, engineers, industry leaders, policy makers, decision makers and young professionals who will shape future energy supply and technology , for a broad review and discussion of various advanced, innovative and non-conventional nuclear energy production systems. The main topics of 159 accepted papers from 35 countries are fusion science and technology, fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, transmutation, laser in nuclear technology, radiation shielding, nuclear reactions, hydrogen energy, solar energy, low energy physics and societal issues

  12. Social risk, stigma and space: key concepts for understanding HIV vulnerability among black men who have sex with men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Caroline M; Garcia, Jonathan; Philbin, Morgan M; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men in the USA face disproportionate incidence rates of HIV. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study conducted in New York City that explored the structural and socio-cultural factors shaping men's sexual relationships with the goal of furthering understandings of their HIV-related vulnerability. Methods included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 31 Black men who have sex with men (three times each) and 17 key informants. We found that HIV vulnerability is perceived as produced through structural inequalities including economic insecurity, housing instability, and stigma and discrimination. The theoretical concepts of social risk, intersectional stigma, and the social production of space are offered as lenses through which to analyse how structural inequalities shape HIV vulnerability. We found that social risk shaped HIV vulnerability by influencing men's decisions in four domains: 1) where to find sexual partners, 2) where to engage in sexual relationships, 3) what kinds of relationships to seek, and 4) whether to carry and to use condoms. Advancing conceptualisations of social risk, we show that intersectional stigma and the social production of space are key processes through which social risk generates HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men.

  13. Understanding Social Situations (USS): A proof-of-concept social-cognitive intervention targeting theory of mind and attributional bias in individuals with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszdon, Joanna M; Roberts, David L; Penn, David L; Choi, Kee-Hong; Tek, Cenk; Choi, Jimmy; Bell, Morris D

    2017-03-01

    In this proof-of-concept trial, we examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of Understanding Social Situations (USS), a new social-cognitive intervention that targets higher level social-cognitive skills using methods common to neurocognitive remediation, including drill and practice and hierarchically structured training, which may compensate for the negative effects of cognitive impairment on learning. Thirty-eight individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the same baseline assessment of cognitive and social-cognitive functioning twice over a 1-month period to minimize later practice effects, then received 7-10 sessions of USS training, and then completed the same assessment again at posttreatment. USS training was well tolerated and received high treatment satisfaction ratings. Large improvements on the USS Skills Test, which contained items similar to but not identical to training stimuli, suggest that we were effective in teaching specific training content. Content gains generalized to improvements on some of the social-cognitive tasks, including select measures of attributional bias and theory of mind. Importantly, baseline neurocognition did not impact the amount of learning during USS (as indexed by the USS Skills Test) or the amount of improvement on social-cognitive measures. USS shows promise as a treatment for higher level social-cognitive skills. Given the lack of relationship between baseline cognition and treatment effects, it may be particularly appropriate for individuals with lower range cognitive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  15. Advancing the citizen scientist's contributions to documenting and understanding natural hazards: a proof of concept for linking crowdsourced and remotely sensed data on landslide hazards in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Markert, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Scientists, practitioners, policymakers, and citizen groups, share a role in ensuring "that all sectors have access to, understand and can use scientific information for better informed decision-making" (Sendai Framework 2015-2030). When it comes to understanding hazards and exposure, inventories on disaster events are often limited. Thus, there are many opportunities for citizen scientists to engage in improving the collective understanding—and ultimately reduction—of disaster risk. Landslides are very difficult to forecast on spatial and temporal scales meaningful for early warning and evacuation. Heuristic hazard mapping methods are very common in regional hazard zonation and rely on expert knowledge of previous events and local conditions, but they often lack a temporal component. As new data analysis packages are becoming more open and accessible, probabilistic approaches that consider high resolution spatial and temporal dimensions are becoming more common, but this is only possible when rich inventories of landslide events exist. The work presented offers a proof of concept on incorporating crowd-sourced data to improve landslide hazard model performance. Starting with a national inventory of 90 catalogued landslides in El Salvador for a study period of 1998 to 2011, we simulate the addition of over 600 additional crowd-sourced landslide events that would have been identified through human interpretation of high resolution imagery in the Google Earth time slider feature. There is a noticeable improvement in performance statistics between static heuristic hazard models and probabilistic models that incorporate the events identified by the "crowd." Such a dynamic incorporation of crowd-sourced data on hazard events is not so far-fetched. Given the engagement of "local observers" in El Salvador who augment in situ hydro-meteorological measurements, the growing access to Earth observation data to the lay person, and immense interest behind connecting citizen

  16. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  17. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    ANIMMA 2013 is the third of a series of conferences devoted to endorsing and promoting scientific and technical activities based on nuclear instrumentation and measurements. The main objective of ANIMMA conference is to unite the various scientific communities not only involved in nuclear instrumentation and measurements, but also in nuclear medicine and radiation. The conference is all about getting scientists, engineers and the industry to meet, exchange cultures and identify new scientific and technical prospects to help overcome both current and future unresolved issues. The conference provides scientists and engineers with a veritable opportunity to compare their latest research and development in different areas: physics, nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, safety, security, future energies (GEN III+, GENIV, ITER, ...). The conference topics include instrumentation and measurement methods for: Fundamental physics; Fusion diagnostics and technology; Nuclear power reactors; Research reactors; Nuclear fuel cycle; Decommissioning, dismantling and remote handling; Safeguards, homeland security; Severe accident monitoring; Environmental and medical sciences; Education, training and outreach. This document brings together the abstracts of the presentations. Each presentation (full paper) is analysed separately and entered in INIS

  18. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  19. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  20. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  1. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package

  2. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The document contains abstracts of 24 review papers, 24 invited papers, 24 oral contributions and 120 posters. 10 review papers summarize the status of laser fusion research and progress in high-power laser facilities in major world laboratories. Four papers review research programs (laser-matter interaction studies and X-ray source development) based on KrF laser systems. Other review papers discuss the problems of laser energy conversion into X-rays in laser-heated cavities, X-ray lasing at shorter wavelengths, optimization of targets for inertial fusion. Two review papers are devoted to light ion fusion. The subjects of most invited papers are special problems of current laser plasma research, such as hot electron generation, nonlinear resonance absorption, energy accumulation limits, pellet ignition, conversion of laser light into X-rays, high-pressure plasma generation. Three invited papers review laser plasma research in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Spain. One paper suggests a new method of producing muonic superdense matter. The remaining inivited papers deal with the progress in XUV lasers and with laser plasma applications for further laser development. Of the papers accepted for oral presentation 12 papers discuss various problems of laser-plasma interaction; 4 papers deal with laser targets, 4 papers with laser-initiated X-ray sources, 3 papers with the diagnostics of laser-produced plasma. The last oral contribution presents the main principles of the excimer laser theory. The largest group of posters is related to laser-plasma interaction and energy absorption problems, to laser-target interaction and various methods of laser plasma diagnostics. The other posters deal with plasma applications in laser development, plasma mirrors, Brillouin and Raman scattering, X-ray emission, harmonic generation, electron acceleration, production of high-Z plasmas and other related problems. (J.U.)

  3. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-01-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport

  4. Understanding the fate and biological effects of Ag- and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles in the environment: The quest for advanced analytics and interdisciplinary concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumann, Gabriele E., E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Philippe, Allan, E-mail: philippe@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Bundschuh, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.bundschuh@slu.se [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Ecotoxicology and Environment, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Lennart Hjelms väg 9, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden); Metreveli, George, E-mail: metreveli@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Klitzke, Sondra, E-mail: sondra.klitzke@tu-berlin.de [Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institute of Forest Sciences, Chair of Soil Ecology, 79085 Freiburg i.Br. (Germany); Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Department of Soil Science, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Rakcheev, Denis, E-mail: rakcheev@uni-landau.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, Fortstr. 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Grün, Alexandra, E-mail: alexg@uni-koblenz.de [Universität Koblenz-Landau, Institute for Integrated Natural Sciences, Dept. of Biology, Universitätsstr. 1, D-56070 Koblenz (Germany); and others

    2015-12-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) from consumers' products and industrial applications, especially silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NP), are emitted into the aquatic and terrestrial environments in increasing amounts. However, the current knowledge on their environmental fate and biological effects is diverse and renders reliable predictions complicated. This review critically evaluates existing knowledge on colloidal aging mechanisms, biological functioning and transport of Ag NP and TiO{sub 2} NP in water and soil and it discusses challenges for concepts, experimental approaches and analytical methods in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the processes linking NP fate and effects. Ag NP undergo dissolution and oxidation with Ag{sub 2}S as a thermodynamically determined endpoint. Nonetheless, Ag NP also undergo colloidal transformations in the nanoparticulate state and may act as carriers for other substances. Ag NP and TiO{sub 2} NP can have adverse biological effects on organisms. Whereas Ag NP reveal higher colloidal stability and mobility, the efficiency of NOM as a stabilizing agent is greater towards TiO{sub 2} NP than towards Ag NP, and multivalent cations can dominate the colloidal behavior over NOM. Many of the past analytical obstacles have been overcome just recently. Single particle ICP-MS based methods in combination with field flow fractionation techniques and hydrodynamic chromatography have the potential to fill the gaps currently hampering a comprehensive understanding of fate and effects also at a low field relevant concentrations. These analytical developments will allow for mechanistically orientated research and transfer to a larger set of EINP. This includes separating processes driven by NP specific properties and bulk chemical properties, categorization of effect-triggering pathways directing the EINP effects towards specific recipients, and identification of dominant environmental parameters triggering

  5. The Connection Competencies of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers about Geometric Concepts to Daily-Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirasa, Nimet

    2016-01-01

    However, geometry is the area with the most concrete possibility of mathematical topics which contains more abstract concepts, students experience difficulties while understanding. Therefore, the connection of issues with daily life to concrete the subjects and the ability of connecting geometric concepts with daily life of the teachers and…

  6. An abstract approach to music.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  7. Abstract algebra an interactive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Paulsen, William

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the Group Concept Introduction to Groups Modular Arithmetic Prime Factorizations The Definition of a Group The Structure within a Group Generators of Groups Defining Finite Groups in Mathematica and GAP Subgroups Patterns within the Cosets of Groups Left and Right Cosets How to Write a Secret Message Normal Subgroups Quotient Groups Mappings between Groups Isomorphisms Homomorphisms The Three Isomorphism Theorems Permutation Groups Symmetric Groups Cycles Cayley's Theorem Numbering the PermutationsBuilding Larger Groups from Smaller Groups The Direct Product The Fundamental Theorem of Finite Abelian Groups Automorphisms Semi-Direct Products The Search for Normal Subgroups The Center of a Group The Normalizer and Normal Closure Subgroups Conjugacy Classes and Simple Groups The Class Equation and Sylow's Theorems Solvable and Insoluble Groups Subnormal Series and the Jordan-Hölder Theorem Derived Group Series Polycyclic Groups Solving the Pyraminx™ Introduction to Rings Groups with an Additiona...

  8. Abstract: Body Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene

    2012-01-01

    social and age groups are regarded? In what ways has different practices limited or extended its involvement in the body? Has work been organized hierarchically in relation to the degree of direct body work? What happened when body work became mediated by machines and technology? Has body work as forms......This panel will explore the usefulness of the term ‘body work’ in cultural history. Body work is understood as work focusing on the bodies of others as component in a range of occupations in health and social care, as well as in unpaid work in the family. How can the notion of body work inform...... cultural history of health and illness whether through a micro-social focus on the intercorporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through clarifying our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and global processes...

  9. Abstract: Body Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene

    2012-01-01

    This panel will explore the usefulness of the term ‘body work’ in cultural history. Body work is understood as work focusing on the bodies of others as component in a range of occupations in health and social care, as well as in unpaid work in the family. How can the notion of body work inform...... cultural history of health and illness whether through a micro-social focus on the intercorporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through clarifying our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and global processes....... The British sociologist Julia Twigg has introduced and explored the term `bodywork', most recently in Body Work in Health and Social Care - Critical Themes, New Agendas (2011). She extends the term body work from applying to the work that individuals undertake on their own bodies, often as part of regimens...

  10. SU-A-BRA-03: Creative Stimulation: A Flexible Hands-On Approach to Building a Deeper Understanding of Critical Concepts in Radiation Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.

    2016-01-01

    learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can

  11. SU-A-BRA-03: Creative Stimulation: A Flexible Hands-On Approach to Building a Deeper Understanding of Critical Concepts in Radiation Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S. [Saint Agnes Cancer Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can

  12. Change Abstract Title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating possible health effects of transported and resuspended dusts People in regions such as the Eastern Mediterranean are often exposed to high levels of both transported desert dust and to resuspended urban dust. Due to warming and drying trends, the frequency and intensity of dust storms have increased in the Eastern Mediterranean over the last decades. High exposure to particulate matter is a known risk factor to the exposed population, but the detailed understanding of how these dusts affect health remain elusive. In this talk I will describe aspects of how dust may impact health. First, transport of bacteria by desert dust, its effects on the local microbiome and dependence on the source region will be described. Then, we will describe the biological effects due to presence of biological components on dust. Finally, we will discuss how metals from brake and tire wear in resuspended urban dust affect oxidative stress and inflammation, and lead to oxidative damage in lung tissues. The significance of these findings in light of recent measurements from the global SPARATN network will be presented.

  13. The method of abstraction in the design of databases and the interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Nikolay

    2018-03-01

    When designing the database structure oriented to the contents of indicators presented in the documents and communications subject area. First, the method of abstraction is applied by expansion of the indices of new, artificially constructed abstract concepts. The use of abstract concepts allows to avoid registration of relations many-to-many. For this reason, when built using abstract concepts, demonstrate greater stability in the processes. The example abstract concepts to address structure - a unique house number. Second, the method of abstraction can be used in the transformation of concepts by omitting some attributes that are unnecessary for solving certain classes of problems. Data processing associated with the amended concepts is more simple without losing the possibility of solving the considered classes of problems. For example, the concept "street" loses the binding to the land. The content of the modified concept of "street" are only the relations of the houses to the declared name. For most accounting tasks and ensure communication is enough.

  14. Age differences in concept formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Marilyn; Stratton-Salib, Brea C

    2007-02-01

    In order to identify the source of age-related deficits in concept formation, older and younger adults completed a new Concept Matching Test, tests of selective attention, and the Sorting Test, a standardized test of concept formation (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). Older adults showed intact concept identification, the ability to generate abstract concepts from stimulus features, but age differences were observed when irrelevant features were present. In addition, selective attention, but not concept identification ability, predicted age-related declines on the Sorting Test. Thus, reduced concept formation in older adults may stem from declines in abilities other than the capacity for abstraction.

  15. Understanding the performance of the multiple injection gasoline partially premixed combustion concept implemented in a 2-Stroke high speed direct injection compression ignition engine

    OpenAIRE

    Benajes Calvo, Jesus Vicente; Martín Díaz, Jaime; Novella Rosa, Ricardo; Thein, Kévin Jean Lucien

    2016-01-01

    The newly designed Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) concept operating with high octane fuels like gasoline has confirmed the possibility to combine low NOx and soot emissions keeping high indicated efficiencies, while offering a control over combustion profile and phasing through the injection settings. The potential of this PPC concept regarding pollutant control was experimentally evaluated using a commercial gasoline with Research Octane Number (RON) of 95 in a newly-designed 2-Stroke p...

  16. Understanding the relationship between nutritional knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-concept of high-school students suffering from overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Leila; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza; Azadbakht, Leila; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Adolescents’ overweight problems have been paid much attention due to their significant increase in recent decades in developed countries. Poor eating patterns subsequently affect their self-efficacy and self-concept. Therefore, paying attention to the nutritional knowledge of overweight students in this period is essential. This study examines the relationship between self-efficacy, self-concept, and nutritional knowledge of overweight students in the city of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: The 140 overweight students who participated in this descriptive, analytical study with were randomly selected from one of five areas of Isfahan city in the year 2011-2012. Questionnaires for data collection in this study included demographic form, nutrition knowledge, Cooper Smith self-esteem, and general self-efficacy questionnaire. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, regression, and Pearson's correlation coefficient with statistical package in social sciences version 18. Results: There was a significant correlation between whole nutritional knowledge and self-efficacy (r = 0.29, P > 0.001) and self-concept (r = 0.26, P = 0.002). There was a significant correlation between self-efficacy and self-concept (r = 0.3, P = 0.001). Furthermore, in the selection of food section there was no significant correlation with the self-concept (r = 0.147, P = 0.083). Regression analysis between self-concept, self-efficacy, family dimension, father's education, mother's education, father's occupation, mother's occupationa and income with nutrition knowledge showed that these eight variables explain 17.7% of the variance in health behaviors totally. Conclusion: By conducting this study, and revealing the direct relationship between nutritional knowledge, self-concept, and self-efficacy, we could conclude that if nutritional knowledge of overweight students is promoted, this factor would lead to an increase their self-concept and self-efficacy in order to adopt healthy behaviors

  17. Semi-automated entry of clinical temporal-abstraction knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Y; Chen, H; Stites, D P; Basso, L V; Kaizer, H; Wilson, D M; Musen, M A

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss the usability of an automated tool that supports entry, by clinical experts, of the knowledge necessary for forming high-level concepts and patterns from raw time-oriented clinical data. Based on their previous work on the RESUME system for forming high-level concepts from raw time-oriented clinical data, the authors designed a graphical knowledge acquisition (KA) tool that acquires the knowledge required by RESUME. This tool was designed using Protégé, a general framework and set of tools for the construction of knowledge-based systems. The usability of the KA tool was evaluated by three expert physicians and three knowledge engineers in three domains-the monitoring of children's growth, the care of patients with diabetes, and protocol-based care in oncology and in experimental therapy for AIDS. The study evaluated the usability of the KA tool for the entry of previously elicited knowledge. The authors recorded the time required to understand the methodology and the KA tool and to enter the knowledge; they examined the subjects' qualitative comments; and they compared the output abstractions with benchmark abstractions computed from the same data and a version of the same knowledge entered manually by RESUME experts. Understanding RESUME required 6 to 20 hours (median, 15 to 20 hours); learning to use the KA tool required 2 to 6 hours (median, 3 to 4 hours). Entry times for physicians varied by domain-2 to 20 hours for growth monitoring (median, 3 hours), 6 and 12 hours for diabetes care, and 5 to 60 hours for protocol-based care (median, 10 hours). An increase in speed of up to 25 times (median, 3 times) was demonstrated for all participants when the KA process was repeated. On their first attempt at using the tool to enter the knowledge, the knowledge engineers recorded entry times similar to those of the expert physicians' second attempt at entering the same knowledge. In all cases RESUME, using knowledge entered by means of the KA tool

  18. Sex, Culture, and Linguistic Relativity: Making Abstract Concepts Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Tracey

    2003-01-01

    Describes an exercise that combines outlined strategies to help students master the abstruse power of the linguistic relativity hypotheses in divining the relationship among language, thought, and culture in U.S. society. States the exercise accomplishes three important pedagogical tasks and that educator interaction with students motivates the…

  19. Cultural Analysis - towards cross-cultural understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestrup, Hans

    The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards...... an understanding of cultural complexity and cultural differences among people. Furthermore, the book provides a discussion of a number of ethical issues, which almost invariably will arise when people meet and co-act across cultural boundaries. Cultural Analysis consists of four parts. The first part offers...... a theoretical/abstract proposal for cultural understanding. The second part presents a theoretical/abstract proposal for under-standing intercultural plurality and complexity. The third part provides an empirical model for the analysis of intercultural co-action. Finally, the fourth part present and discusses...

  20. Reversible machine code and its abstract processor architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert; Yokoyama, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    A reversible abstract machine architecture and its reversible machine code are presented and formalized. For machine code to be reversible, both the underlying control logic and each instruction must be reversible. A general class of machine instruction sets was proven to be reversible, building ...... on our concept of reversible updates. The presentation is abstract and can serve as a guideline for a family of reversible processor designs. By example, we illustrate programming principles for the abstract machine architecture formalized in this paper....

  1. EURORIB 2010, Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoneva, N.; Lenske, H.; Casten, R.

    2012-01-01

    The second international EURORIB conference 'EURORIB'10' will be held from June 6. to June 11. 2010 in Lamoura (France). Our nuclear physics community is eagerly awaiting the construction of the next generation of Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities in Europe: HIE-ISOLDE at CERN, NUSTAR at FAIR, SPES at LNL, SPIRAL2 at GANIL and the future EURISOL. The collaborations built around these facilities are exploring new experimental and theoretical ideas that will advance our understanding of nuclear structure through studies of exotic nuclei. Following in the spirit of the conference held in Giens in 2008, EURORIB'10 will provide the opportunity for the different collaborations to come together and present these ideas, and explore the synergy between the research programmes based around the hypothetical severe acprojects. The main topics to be discussed at the conference are: 1) At and beyond the drip line, 2) Shell structure far from stability, 3) Fusion reactions and synthesis of heavy and superheavy nuclei, 4) Dynamics and thermodynamics of exotic nuclear systems, 5) Radioactive ion beams in nuclear astrophysics, 6) New modes of radioactivity, 7) Fundamental interactions, 8) Applications in other fields, 9) Future RIB facilities, 10) Production and manipulation of RIB, and 11) Working group meetings on synergy in instrumentation and data acquisition. This document gathers only the abstracts of the papers. (authors)

  2. Understanding philosophical animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Una

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the Predrag Krstić's book Philosophical Animal author is trying to find hers way through a broad and complex web of philosophies and roles that different animals play in them. The main question is how to understand philosophy itself in a present day context, which philosophy is supposed to think and rethink through. Animals as presented in concepts, more precisely philosophical contexts, open one interesting and innovative way to deal with this question, balancing between tradition of philosophy and its presence, structure of philosophical arguments and questioning of language of philosophy, abstract and individual. In this frame philosopher as the true philosophical animal is revealed as the main symbol that requires analysis in his philosophical strategies.

  3. Concept Mapping: A Critical Thinking Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles M.; Zha, Shenghua

    2013-01-01

    Concept mapping, graphically depicting the structure of abstract concepts, is based on the observation that pictures and line drawings are often more easily comprehended than the words that represent an abstract concept. The efficacy of concept mapping for facilitating critical thinking was assessed in four sections of an introductory psychology…

  4. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts

  5. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, R.M. (ed.)

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  6. Improving Students' Understanding of the Connections between the Concepts of Real-Gas Mixtures, Gas Ideal-Solutions, and Perfect-Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privat, Romain; Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Moine, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    In many textbooks of chemical-engineering thermodynamics, a gas mixture obeying the fundamental law pV[subscript m] = RT is most often called ideal-gas mixture (in some rare cases, the term perfect-gas mixture can be found). These textbooks also define the fundamental concept of ideal solution which in theory, can be applied indifferently to…

  7. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ­E¢b

    direction, which is believed to lead to improved social life and welfare. This means that Ethiopian trade and economic ... holding better market share and customer satisfaction in their products and services. In addition, in both ...... 1995. Dominant Values and Parenting. Styles: Major Limiting Factors on the Development of.

  8. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their effective participation under different socio- ecological constraints (IDRC, 1993;Takyiwa, 1998;. Kinikanwo, 2000; Isiugo-Abanike, 1994; UNO, 1989). The general issue here is to estimate the extent of female participation in ruminant livestock operations with a view to establishing if stereotyping such operations along.

  9. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feasible and sustainable options. ... strategies, specific to the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding as a mechanism to reduce the risk of HIV transmission is urgently needed ... Joyce Beatrice Ballidawa is a lecturer in the Department of Behavioural Sciences at Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, a position she has held.

  10. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation is about: danger identification, caracterization, evaluation exposition, risk (CAC, 1997; FAO, 2007), European food safety authority, foodrisk organization, pathogens risk ranking, risk reduction, gubernamental responsability

  11. ABSTRACT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Efforts have also been successfully made to include the study of rock art in the school/ college curriculum so as to help develop awareness amongst the students and general public about the need to preserve this cultural heritage for the posterity and also to highlight its importance in tourism industry. rock art and their ...

  12. ABSTRACT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... school/ college curriculum so as to help develop awareness amongst the students and general public about the need to preserve this cultural heritage for the posterity and also to highlight its importance in tourism industry. rock art and their chronological sequences to more applied aspects like scientific methods of dating ...

  13. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Ficus species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 41: 71-76. Nadkarni KM (1976) Indian Materia Medica. Third edition, Vol I. Popular Prakhasan, Bombay. NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) (1999). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 9th International Supplement M100- ...

  14. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getachew

    realistic distribution of no-show data in modeling the cost function was considered using data collected from the .... the paper models the cost function based on a realistic probability distributions based on the historical data is a .... Plot of Revenue generated vs. overbooking for two class case (at $500. Compensation Cost ...

  15. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Geographic information system; waste bin; optimal location; developing city. Introduction. Over the years, the spatial organization and existing infrastructure of cities in developing countries pose challenges for sustainable solid waste management programs. Much of the ...

  16. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATTAMAH C. O

    Differences in Climate Change Effects and Adaptation Strategies between Male and Female Livestock Entrepreneurs in ... differed from females in the adaptation strategies used in combating climate change and also on their view on ..... also make use of the same farm road whether in good or bad shape. This is in line with.

  17. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    inner forces (bending moments, shearing forces etc) are usually redistributed. Cracks that often appear within the walls of tall buildings during constructions point to this phenomenon. It has also been recognized that foundation engineering is complicated. (1). Also settlement has been accepted as stress induced and time ...

  18. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    viral activity has been observed for halofantrine, amodiaquine and mepacrine.” The clinical significance of these findings is uncertain“"”-. There is some evidence that HIV protease inhibitors may alter disease outcomes of colnfected patients.

  19. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was to determine how the natural aerial connec- teracting worker ants from adjacent trees and tions affected'the viability of colonies Oro!. , observing whether fighting took~iplace :(Yar~ra,. IQffginoda in the tree crowns, in the presence of, 1992). Ants of different colonies fight aggres- inimical ants,P" megacephala, 'on the ...

  20. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . user

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF677 and selected natural hybrid of peach × almond (H1and H2, and almond vegetative rootstock (local control.In this study,EMtreatments for 60 days before stress treatments were applied so that in each irrigation, EM solution to a concentration of one percent was given to half of the experiment pots. Other pots were irrigated equally with normal water. Stress levels were applied from July as follow: full irrigation, watering after unloading 33% and 66% soil moisture availability. In order to evaluate the performance, seedling survival, plant growth, number of leaves, leaf area, root fresh and dry weight and leaves and root length were measured. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that between rootstock levels across all treatments were significantly differences at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that the highest fresh and dry weight and leaf are awere observed forGF677and H1.Rootstockannualgrowth rate was also different. Most of the growth was related to the H1 Rootstocks. Thes urvival ratewas significantly different from the Rootstocks ofGF677,andH1showedthe highestpercentage of survival. The degree of adaptation to drought in varieties of almonds is different. The results showed that changes ingrowthparametersinGF677and H1were observed less often than other rootstocks. Because of strong roots,GF677and H1continue to attract more minerals under stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that the between irrigation levels for all treatments were significantly different at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that among the study traits, the highest amount was obtained from complete irrigation, while irrigationat66 percenthad the least amount. Water stress may directly affect photosyn thesis, through leaf photochemicalprocessorindirectly,byclosing stomata, reducingleaf area and growth. The results showed that the levels of(EM on the leaf surface, leaf number, annual growth, root dry weight and volume were significantly different (p