WorldWideScience

Sample records for underserved immigrant students

  1. Associations between positive parenting practices and child externalizing behavior in underserved Latino immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil Smith, Sharde'; Scott, Jenna C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  2. Immigration Facts on Foreign Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Neil G.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. policymakers have put forth various immigration reform proposals to improve retention of foreign students obtaining advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from American universities. These students are considered particularly desirable because they, like their American counterparts, offer the types of…

  3. With Educational Benefits for All: Campus Inclusion through Learning Communities Designed for Underserved Student Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, John E.; Hummel, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the practices of learning communities designed for specific, underserved student populations, highlighting on-campus examples and culminating with a synthesized list of core practices from these "inclusive" learning communities.

  4. Immigrant Students and the Obstacles to Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Tamiko; Pang, Valerie Ooka; Madueno, Marcelina; Park, Cynthia D.; Atlas, Miriam; Page, Cindy; Oliger, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article describes composites of actual students, but examples of hardworking immigrant students and their families can be found in every state. Many young immigrants are negotiating their place in society. They believe in the American Dream and struggle with issues of poverty, language, cultural assimilation, and the desire to further their…

  5. Dental students' attitudes toward underserved populations across four years of dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Mina; Seirawan, Hazem; Mulligan, Roseann

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess dental students' attitudes toward underserved populations across their four years of dental school. Students at the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of the University of Southern California were invited to take part in the study. Participating students completed a questionnaire on their attitudes toward the underserved at three time points: 1) during orientation week; 2) at the end of their second year after taking part in some community dental programs; and 3) at the end of their fourth year after they had completed all their mandatory and volunteer rotations in community dental programs. Students' attitudes were measured in four categories: societal expectations, dentist/student responsibility, personal efficacy, and access to care. First-year students scored 85 out of a maximum of 115 on the questionnaire. Female students scored higher than male students (P=0.006). Age, debt, and past history of volunteer work were not related to first-year students' total attitude scores; however, students with a history of volunteer experience scored higher on the dentist/student responsibility category (P=0.04). Students' attitude scores declined across the four years of dental school (P=0.001). The same patterns were evident for all categories except societal expectations. The decline was not related to age, gender, debt, or volunteer work experience. Follow-up studies are needed to help explain the factors that may be related to this decline.

  6. Experiences promoting healthcare career interest among high-school students from underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis E; McGuigan, Denise

    2006-09-01

    Promoting early interest in healthcare careers among youth from underserved areas is one promising strategy for addressing the health professional shortage in such communities, Most career choice studies try to predict outcomes using such traditional measures as grades and test scores, This study examines experiences influencing healthcare career interest among high-school students participating in health professions introductory programs in underserved communities. The opinions of parents and teachers regarding students' motivations are also considered. Seven focus groups (N=51) were conducted in one rural and two largely minority urban communities in New York State designated as health professional shortage areas. Qualitative data analysis involved a theory-driven, immersion and crystallization approach following the experiential learning model. Constructive experiences with the healthcare system, family role-modelpan>ing and support, interactive health-related school activities, the media, inspirational and accessible school staff, and strategic community partnerships, among other factors, facilitated student interest in health professions. Findings suggest that underserved and disenfranchised community environments still pose challenges for furthering healthcare career interest among youth.

  7. Impact of Patient Empathy Modeling on Pharmacy Students Caring for the Underserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy T.; LaLopa, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of the Patient Empathy Modeling pedagogy on students' empathy towards caring for the underserved during an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design Pharmacy students completing an APPE at 2 primary care clinics participated in a Patient Empathy Modeling assignment for 10 days. Each student “became the patient,” simulating the life of an actual patient with multiple chronic diseases who was coping with an economic, cultural, or communication barrier to optimal healthcare. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) before and after completing the assignment, and wrote daily journal entries and a reflection paper. Assessment Twenty-six students completed the PEM exercises from 2005-2006. Scores on the JSPE improved. Students' comments in journals and reflection papers revealed 3 major themes: greater appreciation of the difficulty patients have with adherence to medication and treatment regimens, increased empathy for patients from different backgrounds and patients with medical and psychosocial challenges, and improved ability to apply the lessons learned in the course to their patient care roles. Conclusion A Patient Empathy Modeling assignment improved pharmacy students' empathy toward underserved populations. Integrating the assignment within an APPE allowed students to immediately begin applying the knowledge and insight gained from the exercise. PMID:18483606

  8. Deconstructing "Bistro 24" for a Traditionally Underserved Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    The "Journal of Legal Studies Education" article, "Step Away from the Syllabus: Engaging Students on the First Day of Legal Environment," encouraged instructors to rethink their approaches to the initial class session. The exercise offers an opportunity to introduce the relevance of the legal environment course within the…

  9. Impact of desire to work in underserved communities on selection of specialty among fourth-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Lindstrom, Richard W; Dakak, Alan; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E; Edelstein, Ronald A

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the specific factors that influence medical student's choice of primary care as a specialty. Special attention is given to the influence of desire to work in underserved communities on selection of a specialty. A web-based survey of factors affecting choice of specialty was completed by 668 fourth-year students from 32 medical schools. Students interested in primary care reported an increased likelihood of working with underserved populations when compared with other specialties. The independent impact of both student's social compassion attitudes and values, and subjective and reinforcing influences on the selection of primary care, when compared with all other specialties, was strong. Personal practice-oriented considerations showed an independent negative impact on the selection of primary care when compared with surgery and support specialties. Financial considerations strongly influence the selection of support specialties. Medical training experiences showed an independent influence on the selection of surgery over primary care. The need for primary care physicians and specialists in underserved communities is considerable. Addressing health disparities in underserved communities requires a concerted effort to increase the availability of primary care providers in these communities. This study observed that primary care practice or specialty selection by medical students is influenced by individual values and subjective external influences other than predicted by medical training alone. This observation necessitates a closer determination of strategies required to ensure an increase in the number of primary care physicians serving underserved communities.

  10. Bullying among immigrant and non-immigrant early adolescents: School- and student-level effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoroulis, Irene; Georgiades, Katholiki

    2017-12-01

    We examined the association between school immigrant concentration and bullying among immigrant and non-immigrant early adolescents, and identified potential explanatory factors. First generation immigrant students had reduced odds of victimization and perpetration in schools with high (20-60%), compared to low, levels of immigrant concentration. Second generation immigrant students had reduced odds of ethnic/racial victimization in moderately concentrated schools; while non-immigrants had increased odds in the same schools. Non-white students had increased odds of ethnic/racial victimization compared to White students. While students' sense of school belonging and perceived teacher cultural sensitivity were negatively associated with bullying, they did not account for the differential associations noted above. Results demonstrate the importance of immigrant density as a protective school characteristic for immigrant and ethnic minority youth. Additional social processes operating in schools that may explain bullying behaviors among immigrant and non-immigrant youth should be explored to inform programs for promoting inclusion in schools. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immigrating to a Mainstream College Composition Class: I Wish…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eunjyu

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of first generation immigrants in mainstream colleges, they are often underserved. This paper uses the voice of a mainstreamed first generation immigrant to help mainstream higher education institutions create more inclusive learning environments for every student, including struggling ESL students.

  12. Homework Involvement and Academic Achievement of Native and Immigrant Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Natalia; Regueiro, Bibiana; Epstein, Joyce L; Piñeiro, Isabel; Díaz, Sara M; Valle, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Homework is a debated issue in society and its relationship with academic achievement has been deeply studied in the last years. Nowadays, schools are multicultural stages in which students from different cultures and ethnicities work together. In this sense, the present study aims to compare homework involvement and academic achievement in a sample of native and immigrant students, as well as to study immigrant students' relationship between homework involvement and Math achievement. The sample included 1328 students, 10-16 years old from Spanish families (85.6%) or immigrant students or students of immigrant origin (14.4%) from South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The study was developed considering three informants: elementary and secondary students, their parents and their teachers. Results showed higher involvement in homework in native students than in immigrant. Between immigrants students, those who are more involved in homework have better academic achievement in Math at secondary grades. There weren't found gender differences on homework involvement, but age differences were reported. Immigrant students are less involved in homework at secondary grades that students in elementary grades. The study highlights the relevance of homework involvement in academic achievement in immigrant students.

  13. Homework involvement and academic achievement of native and immigrant students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Suárez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Homework is a debated issue in society and its relationship with academic achievement has been deeply studied in the last years. Nowadays, schools are multicultural stages in which students from different cultures and ethnicities work together. In this sense, the present study aims to compare homework involvement and academic achievement in a sample of native and immigrant students, as well as to study immigrant students’ relationship between homework involvement and Math achievement. The sample included 1328 students, 10 to 16 years old from Spanish families (85.6% or are immigrant students or students of immigrant origin (14.4% from South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The study was developed considering three informants: elementary and secondary students, their parents and their teachers.Results showed higher involvement in homework in native students than in immigrant. Between immigrants students, those who are more involved in homework have better academic achievement in Math at secondary grades. There weren’t found gender differences on homework involvement but age differences were reported. Immigrant students are less involved in homework at secondary grades that students in elementary grades. The study highlights the relevance of homework involvement in academic achievement in immigrant students.

  14. Pharmacy students teaching prescribers strategies to lower prescription drug costs for underserved patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Marilyn R; Frear, Meghan E; Cutler, Timothy W; Lightwood, James M; Fingado, Amanda R; Lai, Cindy J; Lipton, Helene Levens

    2013-09-01

    The rising costs of health care and, in particular, prescription drugs remains a challenge. Health professionals' ability to promote cost-effective prescription drug use is critical, yet this subject is not included consistently in the curriculum of most health professional schools. As experts in prescription drug selection, use, and cost, pharmacists are in a unique position to help manage prescription drug regimens for the best therapeutic outcome, while also helping to keep patients' out-of-pocket (OOP) prescription drug costs low. In addition to promoting interprofessional collaboration, pharmacy student-led lectures may provide an effective means to teach prescription drug cost-savings strategies to other health professional students and current prescribers. To describe and evaluate the impact of a 60- to 90-minute standardized, case-based lecture on prescribers' attitudes and knowledge about drug cost-containment strategies. Four trained pharmacy students delivered a lecture that focused on strategies to help underserved patients with their OOP prescription drug costs. This lecture was given to health professional students and prescribers across disciplines. For purposes of this study, underserved patients included those with no drug insurance, those with limited financial resources who were unable to pay for their prescription drugs, and those whose drug insurance had significant gaps in coverage (e.g., Medicare Part D patients). Lectures targeted future and current prescribers and were delivered in multiple settings (e.g., residents' seminars, medical grand rounds, required health policy courses for medical and nursing students). Pretest/posttest surveys were administered to assess the impact of the lecture on learners' (a) knowledge of strategies to improve underserved patients' access to needed prescription drugs; (b) willingness to address and discuss cost issues with patients; (c) likelihood of collaborating with other health care professionals; and (d

  15. Educating Latino Immigrant Students: The Phenomenon of Teaching Latino Immigrant Elementary Students in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Sara Georgina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore one Indiana elementary teacher's perceptions of her Latino immigrant students as they become English-language proficient by providing an in-depth analysis of a 4th and 5th grade teacher at a local school. Findings are based on interviews with the focus teacher and with the personnel she works with such as…

  16. Need for cognition and attitudes toward immigrants among russian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Shchebetenko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The author examined how need for cognition may contribute to the attitudes toward immigrants among Russian students. It was shown that although need for cognition may not correlate with attitude toward immigrants directly it might either interact with other factors or influence several relations of attitudes. Specifically, low need for cognition may facilitate the application of immigrants' ethnicity as a cue for the attitudes toward immigrants. On the contrary, those participants having highneed for cognition probably may not use immigrants ethnicity as a cue for attitudes. Additionally, need for cognition might make attitudes toward immigrants more positive among Russian women comparing with Russian men. Furthermore, a positive correlation between perceived stereotypicity and attitude toward immigrants was eliminated among lowneed for cognition participants. Moreover, this correlation has become even negative among lowneed for cognition males. The results of the study are discussed.

  17. Foreign students, visitors and immigration to British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, R

    1993-01-01

    "This report has provided a brief outline of business immigration to Canada and to British Columbia from several source countries in the Asian Pacific Rim. The importance of business immigration to Canada in general, and British Columbia in particular, is [examined].... Even with the limited data currently available, this brief study indicates a very high statistical relationship between business immigration and other less formal and less permanent movements of people such as student flows and visitors." excerpt

  18. Engagement in Self-Regulated Deep Learning of Successful Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Students in Inner City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Sarah; Severiens, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine and explain differences in self-regulated (SR) deep learning of successful immigrant and non-immigrant students we investigated a population of 650 high track 10th grade students in Amsterdam, of which 39% had an immigrant background. By means of a questionnaire based on the MSLQ of Pintrich and De Groot (1990) the students…

  19. Being "in a Limbo": Perceptions of Immigration, Identity and Adaptation of Immigrant Students in South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Theresa; Fox, Jill; Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2016-01-01

    Much research is available that details student experiences of immigration and adaptation to receiving countries and schools, but few studies analyze the metaphors used by immigrant students (IS) when talking about the immigration experience, or offer a comparative lens through which to view identity negotiation in two very different contexts. The…

  20. Engagement in self-regulated deep learning of successful immigrant and non-immigrant students in inner city schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, S.; Severiens, S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine and explain differences in self-regulated (SR) deep learning of successful immigrant and non-immigrant students we investigated a population of 650 high track 10th grade students in Amsterdam, of which 39% had an immigrant background. By means of a questionnaire based on the MSLQ

  1. Institutions, Culture and Background: The School Performance of Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Marina; Frederic, Patrizio

    2015-01-01

    Programme for International Student Assessment data from 29 countries was used to measure immigrant school gaps (differences in scores between immigrants and natives) in relation to various potentially correlated factors. Results show that negative gaps are concentrated in the European Union; in the South, they are mainly correlated with school…

  2. Revisiting the silence of Asian immigrant students: The negotiation of Korean immigrant students' identities in science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Minjung

    This dissertation is a study about Korean immigrant students' identities, including academic identities related to science learning and identities along various social dimensions. I explore how Korean immigrant students participate in science classrooms and how they enact and negotiate their identities in their classroom discursive participation. My dissertation is motivated by the increasing attention in educational research to the intersectionality between science learning and various dimensions of identities (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, social networks) and a dearth of such research addressing Asian immigrant students. Asian immigrant students are stereotyped as quiet and successful learners, particularly in science and mathematics classes, and their success is often explained by cultural differences. I confront this static and oversimplified notion of cultural differences and Asians' academic success and examine the intersectionality between science learning and identities of Asian immigrant students, with the specific case of Korean immigrants. Drawing upon cultural historical and sociolinguistic perspectives of identity, I propose a theoretical framework that underscores multiple levels of contexts (macro level, meso level, personal, and micro level contexts) in understanding and analyzing students' identities. Based on a year-long ethnographic study in two high school Advanced Placement Biology classes in a public high school, I present the meso level contexts of the focal school and biology classes, and in-depth analyses of three focal students. The findings illustrate: (1) how meso level contexts play a critical role in these students' identities and science classroom participation, (2) how the meso level contexts are reinterpreted and have different meanings to different students depending on their personal contexts, and (3) how students negotiated their positions to achieve certain identity goals. I discuss the implications of the findings for the

  3. A Perilous Path: Undocumented Immigrant Students and the College Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliverez, Paz M.

    2007-01-01

    Undocumented immigrant students are a growing population in our nation's urban high schools, colleges and universities. Prior to and upon entering institutions of higher education, these students require college preparatory information, support, and guidance. Accordingly, this article discusses the challenges undocumented students encounter as…

  4. Immigrant Students at School: Easing the Journey towards Integration. OECD Reviews of Migrant Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    How school systems respond to immigration has an enormous impact on the economic and social well-being of all members of the communities they serve, whether they have an immigrant background or not. "Immigrant Students at School: Easing the Journey towards Integration" reveals some of the difficulties immigrant students encounter--and…

  5. Medical School Outcomes, Primary Care Specialty Choice, and Practice in Medically Underserved Areas by Physician Alumni of MEDPREP, a Postbaccalaureate Premedical Program for Underrepresented and Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Anneke M

    2017-01-01

    Minorities continue to be underrepresented as physicians in medicine, and the United States currently has a number of medically underserved communities. MEDPREP, a postbaccalaureate medical school preparatory program for socioeconomically disadvantaged or underrepresented in medicine students, has a stated mission to increase the numbers of physicians from minority or disadvantaged backgrounds and physicians working with underserved populations. This study aims to determine how MEDPREP enhances U.S. physician diversity and practice within underserved communities. MEDPREP recruits disadvantaged and underrepresented in medicine students to complete a 2-year academic enhancement program that includes science coursework, standardized test preparation, study/time management training, and emphasis on professional development. Five hundred twenty-five disadvantaged or underrepresented students over 15 years completed MEDPREP and were tracked through entry into medical practice. MEDPREP accepts up to 36 students per year, with two thirds coming from the Midwest region and another 20% from nearby states in the South. Students complete science, test preparation, academic enhancement, and professionalism coursework taught predominantly by MEDPREP faculty on the Southern Illinois University Carbondale campus. Students apply broadly to medical schools in the region and nation but are also offered direct entry into our School of Medicine upon meeting articulation program requirements. Seventy-nine percent of students completing MEDPREP became practicing physicians. Fifty-eight percent attended public medical schools, and 62% attended medical schools in the Midwest. Fifty-three percent of program alumni chose primary care specialties compared to 34% of U.S. physicians, and MEDPREP alumni were 2.7 times more likely to work in medically underserved areas than physicians nationally. MEDPREP increases the number of disadvantaged and underrepresented students entering and graduating

  6. Immigrant Students' Achievements in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šori, Iztok; Šušteric, Nika; Gaber, Slavko

    2011-01-01

    Achievement gaps between immigrant and native students indicate failure to assure educational equity in the majority of countries assessed by the Programme for International Student Assessment in 2009 (PISA, 2009). The present article explains disparate achievement results in Europe, first testing the hypothesis of old and new democracies. In…

  7. Population Health Outcomes of a Student-Led Free Health Clinic for an Underserved Population: A Naturalistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M; Tolchard, Barry

    2018-02-01

    There are a number of hard to reach and underserved communities who experience inadequate health care. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders peoples experience low life expectancy, higher levels for chronic disease and elevated smoking and drinking. These problems are further exacerbated when living in regional and rural Australia and poverty. There are growing concerns over helping such groups in order to close the health disparity gap. A student-led clinic (SLC) was developed to address clinical placement shortages while providing free health and social services in an underserved community in regional Australia. Health data was collected from 2086 attendees enrolled in the SLC to determine health changes and outcomes of student-delivered services. A series of health data was routinely collected at all contact points. This included physical health care, behavioural health risk, and chronic disease measures. All data was recorded in an electronic monitoring system. Population data identified some significant and positive changes to health patterns-smoking, waist size, and body mass index. Unfortunately, gaps in data entry precluded more robust findings. It was clear that this community suffered from experiences commonly associated with health disparity and poverty. There were higher risks of drinking alcohol and smoking with raised levels of lifestyle disease including diabetes. Some of these issues were mitigated by the community being able to attend a locally situated community driven clinic.

  8. Educational Achievement Gaps between Immigrant and Native Students in Two “New Immigration Countries”: Italy and Spain in comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolini, Davide; Schnell, Philipp; Palmer, John

    2013-01-01

    We use PISA 2009 data to determine how immigrant children in Italy and Spain compare with native students in reading and mathematics skills. Drawing on the vast empirical literature in traditional immigration countries, we test the extent to which the most well-established patterns and hypotheses of immigrant/native educational achievement gaps also apply to these new immigration countries. Findings show that both first- and second-generation immigrant students underperform natives in both countries. Although socioeconomic background and language skills contribute to the explanation of achievement gaps, significant differences remain within countries. While modeling socioeconomic background reduces the observed gaps to a very similar extent in the two countries, language spoken at home is more strongly associated with achievement in Italy. School-type differentiation, such as tracking in Italy and school ownership in Spain, do not reduce immigrant/native gaps, although in Italy tracking is strongly associated with students’ test scores. PMID:23493944

  9. Reflective Voices: Valuing Immigrant Students and Teaching with Ideological Clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposito, Sara; Favela, Alejandra

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need for teachers who work with immigrant students to become reflective about their ideology and how their belief systems affect their interaction with diverse families, noting the importance of their being aware of the delicate, nonstatic process of acculturation. Presents the voices of four novice teachers as they critically…

  10. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  11. Care Provided by Students in Community-Based Dental Education: Helping Meet Oral Health Needs in Underserved Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Keith A; Maguire, Meghan

    2018-01-01

    Since 2000, reports have documented the challenges faced by many Americans in receiving oral health care and the consequences of inadequate care such as high levels of dental caries among many U.S. children. To help address this problem, many dental schools now include community-based dental education (CBDE) in their curricula, placing students in extramural clinics where they provide care in underserved communities. CBDE is intended to both broaden the education of future oral health professionals and expand care for patients in community clinics. The aim of this study was to develop a three-year profile of the patients seen and the care provided by students at extramural clinics associated with one U.S. dental school. Three student cohorts participated in the rotations: final-year students in the Doctor of Dental Surgery, Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene, and Master of Dental Therapy programs. The study was a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from the school's database for three consecutive academic years. The data included patients' demographics and special health care needs status (based on information collected by students from their patients) and procedures students performed while on rotations. For the three-year period, the results showed a total of 43,128 patients were treated by 418 student providers. Approximately 25% of all encounters were with pediatric patients. Students completed 5,908 child prophylaxis, 5,386 topical fluoride varnish, and 7,678 sealant procedures on pediatric patients. Annually, 7% of the total patients treated had special health care needs. The results show that these students in CBDE rotations provided a substantial amount of oral health care at extramural sites and gained additional experience in caring for a diverse population of patients and performing a wide range of procedures.

  12. Education of Non-European Ancestry Immigrant Students in Suburban High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodavaram, Mary P.; Jones, Lisa A.; Weaver, Laurie R.; Marquez, Judith A.; Ensle, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine suburban high school teachers' beliefs about non-European ancestry immigrant students; more specifically, suburban teachers' beliefs regarding the impact of students' cultural backgrounds on academic performance were examined. Non-European ancestry immigrant students are those students whose ancestral…

  13. Summer Melts Immigrant Students' College Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Melissa M.; Pang, Valerie Ooka; Alvarado, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Many college-intending students find themselves dealing with the undermatch and summer melt phenomena. Undermatch refers to the situation where academically-successful high-school graduates choose not to go to any college or to go to a local community college not commensurate with their academic achievements. Summer melt describes how students may…

  14. Extending the Pathway: Building on a National Science Foundation Workforce Development Project for Underserved k-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Smith, T.

    2014-12-01

    own learning and shows promise of raising parents, teachers, administrators and other k-12 students awareness of educational opportunities in the geosciences, confidence in the ability of underserved rural students to reach their educational goals and supporting them through the critical middle and high school years towards a geoscience career.

  15. A Comparison of Financial Literacy between Native and Immigrant School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grama?ki, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the gap in Financial Literacy (FL) between native and immigrant 15-year-old school students using data from the 2012 PISA Financial Literacy Assessment. The size of the gap is about 0.15 standard deviations, going up to 0.3 for first-generation immigrants. This is partly because immigrants have poorer economic background,…

  16. Content and Language Integrated Learning and the Inclusion of Immigrant Minority Language Students: A Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the inclusion of immigrant minority language students in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) bilingual education programmes. It reviews results of research on (1) the reasons, beliefs and attitudes underlying immigrant minority language parents' and students' choice for CLIL programmes; (2) these students'…

  17. Dental students and faculty members' attitudes towards care for underserved patients and community service: do community-based dental education and voluntary service-learning matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volvovsky, Mariya; Vodopyanov, Dmitry; Inglehart, Marita R

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore 1) how students across the four years of a dental curriculum differed in attitudes towards underserved patients and community service at the beginning and end of each school year; 2) how these attitudes changed as a function of participating in required vs. voluntary community-based activities; and 3) what attitudes faculty members held about the effects of community service-learning on students. Surveys were distributed to 440 students at one dental school at the beginning and end of the school year. The overall response rate for those surveys was 75 percent, with variations among classes: first year, 94 percent; second year, 92 percent; third year, 69 percent; and fourth year, 43 percent. Survey data were also collected from twenty-two students (out of a possible forty-seven) who participated in voluntary service-learning and from fifty-four faculty members (out of approximately 150). The results showed that, at the beginning of the year, the first-year students' attitudes were more positive than the responses of students in all other cohorts. However, at the end of the year, their attitudes were less positive. Participating in voluntary service-learning improved students' attitudes towards treating underserved patients only in the short run, and experiencing ten weeks of community-based dental education did not improve their attitudes. The faculty respondents' attitudes, however, were quite positive. The decrease in students' positive attitudes towards treating underserved patients and participating in community service should raise questions about why this loss of idealism occurred.

  18. Do School Segregation and School Resources Explain Region-of-Origin Differences in the Mathematics Achievement of Immigrant Students?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.A.; Levels, M.

    2007-01-01

    Levels and Dronkers (2006) showed that educational achievement differs between immigrant students from different regions of origin (Latin America, Northern Africa, and Western Asia). This follow-up paper establishes whether these differences in educational achievement between immigrant students from

  19. When Social Class Meets Ethnicity: College-Going Experiences of Chinese and Korean Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Successful educational outcomes among Asian American college students often obscure the challenges and nuanced educational experiences of Asian immigrant ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand the college-going experiences of Chinese and Korean immigrant students by examining the relationship between these…

  20. Challenges Facing Immigrant Students beyond the Linguistic Domain in a New Gateway State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a great deal of theoretical and practical scholarship related to immigrant students, the extant literature most often conflates the needs of English language learners with the needs of immigrant students (Goodwin in "Educ Urb Soc" 34(2):156-172, 2002; Sox in "Theory Pract" 48:312-318, 2009; Yoon in "Am…

  1. Addressing the Challenges and Needs of English-Speaking Caribbean Immigrant Students: Guidelines for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Stephaney; Bryan, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Caribbean students are among the distinct immigrant groups in U.S. public schools with particular needs to be addressed by school counselors. This article discusses the challenges Caribbean immigrant students face that create obstacles to their academic and personal/social success. Guidelines for school counselors are outlined, which can be used…

  2. DO I BELONG HERE? Exploring Immigrant College Student Responses on the SERU Survey Sense of Belonging/Satisfaction Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Stebleton, Ronald L. Huesman, Jr., Aliya Kuzhabekova

    2010-01-01

    The immigrant college student population will likely continue to increase. This exploratory study addresses the questions: To what extent does sense of belonging/satisfaction of recent immigrant college students differ from non-immigrant college students? Do perceived self-ratings of belonging vary by immigrant generations? This research draws on a new extensive data source, the Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) survey. Survey data from the 2009 SERU is based on the respons...

  3. Bullying of Mexican Immigrant Students by Mexican American Students: An Examination of Intracultural Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Julian J.; Bauman, Sheri; Guillory, Raphael M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study using qualitative methods to investigate intracultural bullying, specifically, bullying between Mexican American (MA) and Mexican immigrant (MI) high school students. Previous research has reported specific cultural conflicts and discrimination within ethnic groups due to differences in acculturation. The purpose of…

  4. Understanding Students with Immigration Backgrounds: A German Case of Students' Language and Identity in Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchereau Bauer, Eurydice; Guerrero, Beatriz; Hornberg, Sabine; Bos, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    In this article we propose that teaching/learning is a process that involves world knowledge, identity, and future construction of oneself. The goal of this qualitative research paper is to document the experiences of 2 fourth-grade students with immigration backgrounds in Germany. Using a poststructuralist approach to language and identity, we…

  5. Troubling the Proletarianization of Mexican Immigrant Students in an Era of Neoliberal Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    In response to Richardson Bruna's "Mexican immigrant transnational social capital and class transformation: examining the role of peer mediation in insurgent science", this paper draws on the author's research on organizing, mobilization and knowledge production among adult im/migrant workers in Canada. While appreciative of the content…

  6. Immigration Reform and Education: Demystifying Mythologies about Latina/o Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, James; Unterreiner, Ann; Aragon, Antonette; Kellerman, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the authors deconstruct commonly held mythologies about immigration to inform the critical discourse and support those educators who strive to be fair brokers of an inclusive educational system addressing the distinct needs of immigrant students. We (teacher educators and a community organizer) emphasize and clarify verifiable…

  7. Can Language Attitudes Be Improved? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Students in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianos, Maria-Adelina; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit; Lapresta, Cecilio

    2017-01-01

    This study explores changes in attitudes towards Catalan, Spanish, and English over a 2-year period, on the part of secondary education students of immigrant origin residing in Catalonia. It aims to provide new data by adopting a longitudinal design and by focusing on the immigrant population, which has raised new challenges for the Catalan…

  8. Model (Undocumented) Minorities and "Illegal" Immigrants: Centering Asian Americans and US Carcerality in Undocumented Student Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachica Buenavista, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    As the numbers of immigrant apprehensions, detentions, and deportations increase, and in context of anti-immigrant sentiment, education scholars must better contend with the way that carcerality affects undocumented student experiences. Carcerality refers to social and political systems that formally and informally promote discipline, punishment,…

  9. Connecting Transnationalism to the Classroom and to Theories of Immigrant Student Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Patricia; Kasun, G. Sue

    2012-01-01

    This essay describes the importance of transnationalism in the lives of U.S. immigrant students and their families and how public school educators and researchers have neither adequately recognized nor situated this lifestyle. The authors discuss globalization and what propels transnational movement and argue that existing immigrant adaptation…

  10. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  11. Career Development Influences of International Students Who Pursue Permanent Immigration to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nancy; Flynn, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This research focused on the career decision and planning needs of a unique group of migrants: international students who are completing their studies as temporary immigrants and who are embarking on the career journey of employment and permanent immigration. A semi-structured interview employing a Critical Incident Technique was used to assess…

  12. The Cultural and Educational Transitioning of First Generation Immigrant Undergraduate Students in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinacore, Ada L.; Lerner, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of Canadian society and the significance of education for occupational mobility have prompted investigations into immigrant's educational attainment, yet little research examines immigrant post-secondary students. This phenomenological study illuminates the institutional, societal, educational, and psychosocial barriers facing…

  13. Achieving a Global Mind-Set at Home: Student Engagement with Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinger, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Developing a global mind-set in college students is a goal of many colleges and universities. Most often this goal is met by encouraging students to study abroad. This article explains how a service learning student engagement program at home achieves this goal by pairing Introduction to Sociology students with young immigrant children in a weekly…

  14. Immigrant Students’ Emotional and Cognitive Engagement at School: A Multilevel Analysis of Students in 41 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Pong, Suet-ling; Mori, Izumi; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Central to student learning and academic success, the school engagement of immigrant children also reflects their adaptation to a primary institution in their new country. Analysis of questionnaire responses of 276,165 fifteen-year-olds (50 % female) and their 10,789 school principals in 41 countries showed that school engagement has distinct, weakly-linked cognitive and emotional components. Native students had weaker attitudes toward school (cognitive engagement) but greater sense of belonging at school (emotional engagement) than immigrant students or students who spoke a foreign language at home. Students with better teacher–student relationships, teacher support or a classroom disciplinary climate often had a greater sense of belonging at school and had better attitudes toward school than other students. While immigrant students often have solid attitudes toward school, teachers can help them feel a greater sense of belonging at school. PMID:22484548

  15. Cornerstones of Student Success: Institutions Yielding High Return on Investment for Underserved Students. Policy Research 2017-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Janet K.; Duffy, Daniel Q.

    2017-01-01

    The Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) sought to identify those institutions helping students overcome barriers to college completion and achieve a livable wage. This analysis of Illinois 4-year postsecondary institutions highlights those institutions which fostered degree completion and job success with less debt for underrepresented…

  16. Cornerstones of Student Success: Institutions Yielding High Return on Investment for Underserved Students. Executive Summary. Policy Research 2017-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Janet K.; Duffy, Daniel Q.

    2017-01-01

    The Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) sought to identify those institutions helping students overcome barriers to college completion and achieve a livable wage. This analysis of Illinois 4-year postsecondary institutions highlights those institutions which fostered degree completion and job success with less debt for underrepresented…

  17. The Effect of Volunteering at a Student-Run Free Healthcare Clinic on Medical Students' Self-Efficacy, Comfortableness, Attitude, and Interest in Working with the Underserved Population and Interest in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kelvin; Kovalskiy, Aleksandr; Desai, Anand; Imran, Amna; Ismail, Rahim; Hernandez, Caridad

    2017-02-23

    The number of primary care physicians in the United States continues to lag behind the number of uninsured people. There has been a growing demand for medical students to improve their self-efficacy, comfortableness, attitude, and interest in working with the underserved and in primary care. This study aims to discern whether volunteering at a student-run, free healthcare clinic has a positive impact on these five variables of interest or not. A 95-item survey was distributed through Qualtrics Survey Software (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA) to medical students from the Class of 2018 and Class of 2019 at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine. They were recruited via emails, Facebook, and in-classroom announcements. Mean responses on a Likert-like scale to different survey items were collected and compared between two study cohorts: Keeping Neighbors In Good Health Through Service (KNIGHTS) Clinic volunteers and non-volunteers. Results from 128 students showed no significant differences in the means between the two cohorts (p-values were not significant). When volunteers were asked the survey item, "KNIGHTS Clinic positively influenced my attitude towards working with underserved patients," 62% strongly agreed, 26% agreed, 10% were neutral, and 2% disagreed. Based on the results, volunteering at KNIGHTS Clinic may not have a positive impact on the five variables of interest. However, the lack of significance may also be due to certain limitations of this study addressed elsewhere in this paper. With the majority of KNIGHTS Clinic volunteers agreeing that "KNIGHTS Clinic positively influenced […their] attitude towards working with underserved patients," there may be a positive impact of volunteering on volunteers' attitude towards working with the underserved.

  18. Attitudes of Native and Immigrant Students towards School Bullying in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Georgios; Samsari, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Although school bullying is a serious form of violence, relevant studies do not agree if immigrant students are at higher risk to be involved in bullying than native students in ethnically diverse schools. The purpose of the study was to investigate the attitudes of Greek and non-Greek students about school bullying. The sample composed of 719…

  19. Where Do We Start? Using Family Navigation to Help Underserved Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenner, Stephanie; Fernández, Ivys; Giron, Adriana; Grossman, Xena; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    The period of time after a child is identified with a developmental or mental health condition can be highly challenging. This is particularly true for diverse, underserved families who may face competing concerns related to poverty, culture, language, immigration, and family issues. Likewise, clinicians working with underserved families may…

  20. Troubling the proletarianization of Mexican immigrant students in an era of neoliberal immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, Aziz

    2010-06-01

    In response to Richardson Bruna's "Mexican immigrant transnational social capital and class transformation: examining the role of peer mediation in insurgent science", this paper draws on the author's research on organizing, mobilization and knowledge production among adult im/migrant workers in Canada. While appreciative of the content and concerns of Richardson Bruna's argument, the paper argues for a clearer position on tensions between agency and structure, and class and capitalist social relations in which to contextualize the schooling of immigrant children in today's US classrooms. In addition, it explores some implications of Mignolo's (2000) work on the geohistory of knowledge, notably his concept of `border thinking' for teachers, teacher education, and curricula. Finally, the article suggests the potential of methodological frameworks and approaches of institutional ethnography (Smith 1987), political activist ethnography (Frampton et al. 2006) and global ethnography (Burawoy 2000) to inform research into this field.

  1. National Articulation and Transfer Network (NATN): Building an Alternative Pathway for Underserved Student Populations To Access Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSI) & Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    This is a report on the National Articulation and Transfer Network (NATN) program, which seeks to increase the achievement and aspirations of students from underserved population, namely African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. More than 150 Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSI), and…

  2. Content and Language Integrated Learning and the inclusion of immigrant minority language students: A research review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses the inclusion of immigrant minority language students in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) bilingual education programmes. It reviews results of research on (1) the reasons, beliefs and attitudes underlying immigrant minority language parents' and students' choice for CLIL programmes; (2) these students' proficiency in the languages of instruction and their academic achievement; and (3) the effects of first language typology on their second and third language proficiency. The author explores conditions and reasons for the effectiveness of CLIL pedagogy, as well as the comparative suitability of CLIL programmes for immigrant minority language students. The review shows that CLIL programmes provide a means to acquire important linguistic, economic and symbolic capital in order to effect upward social mobility. Findings demonstrate that immigrant minority language students enrolled in CLIL programmes are able to develop equal or superior levels of proficiency in both languages of instruction compared to majority language students; with previous development of first language literacy positively impacting academic language development. CLIL programmes are found to offer immigrant minority language students educational opportunities and effective pedagogical support which existing mainstream monolingual and minority bilingual education programmes may not always be able to provide. In light of these findings, the author discusses shortcomings in current educational policy. The article concludes with recommendations for further research.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Enhancing the language development of immigrant ESL nursing students: a case study with recommendations for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, K F; Figlear, M R

    1998-01-01

    Immigrant nursing students who use English as a Second Language (ESL) are becoming a significant population in nursing education classrooms today. Frequently, nurse educators feel at a loss as they struggle to help students achieve their educational goals. The authors offer an analysis of one of the problems nurse educators and immigrant ESL nursing students face: language development. A case study that has as its theme the problem of language development is presented. Relevant second language acquisition research findings are outlined and appropriate teaching practices are suggested. This research and these practices are used to identify actions that nurse educators and their students can take to enhance and improve the language development of immigrant ESL nursing students.

  4. A Peer-Mentoring Scheme for Immigrant Students in English Secondary Schools: A Support Mechanism for Promoting Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiou, Kyriaki; Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Immigration in Europe has increased rapidly over the last years. As a result, schools are accepting students arriving from other countries at various stages of the school year. This can be a challenging process both for students and for schools. This paper describes the introduction of a peer-mentoring scheme to support immigrant students in three…

  5. Chinese immigrant high school students' cultural interactions, acculturation, family obligations, language use, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J; Okubo, Yuki; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Shea, Munyi; Ou, Dongshu; Pituc, Stephanie T

    2008-01-01

    When immigrant youth come to the United States, they must learn to interact with dominant and cultural groups as part of the adjustment process. The current study investigated whether the association between Chinese immigrant high school students' (N = 286) English fluency, academic and career/ college help-seeking, multidimensional acculturation, family responsibilities, and social support, predicted their intercultural competence concerns (their interactions across dominant and cultural groups). Results indicate that this was the case. Implications for research and practice with immigrant youth in a high school context are discussed.

  6. The Long-Term Effects of Bilingualism on Children of Immigration: Student Bilingualism and Future Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirdag, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the largely neglected long-term effects of bilingualism for students with roots in immigration. Our central research question is whether students' bilingual proficiencies have an impact on their future earnings in the USA. For this purpose, we used two different data-sets, i.e. the National Education Longitudinal…

  7. Latecomers: The Sources and Impacts of Late Arrival among Adolescent Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Elaine C.

    2016-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, the author describes and analyzes the experiences of latecomers, adolescent immigrant students who arrive late in the school year. She shines a light on the multifaceted challenges posed by these students' transnationalism, undocumented status, and labor migration, which contribute to their late arrival and threaten…

  8. A Survey Study Examining Teachers' Perceptions in Teaching Refugee and Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbegovic, Dajana

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research around best practices in working with refugee and immigrant students. Since teachers spend the majority of the school day with students, their insights about how best to serve these populations of children and adolescents is critical. This dissertation study conducted an online survey study with 139 elementary school…

  9. The long-term effects of bilingualism on children of immigration: student bilingualism and future earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agirdag, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the largely neglected long-term effects of bilingualism for students with roots in immigration. Our central research question is whether students' bilingual proficiencies have an impact on their future earnings in the USA. For this purpose, we used two different data-sets,

  10. Immigrant Status, Gender, and School Burnout in Finnish Lower Secondary School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Minkkinen, Jaana; Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Rimpelä, Arja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study among 9223 students from grade 7 and grade 9 (age 13-14 and 15-16) was to assess whether immigrant status and gender are associated with the level and change (slope) in school burnout among lower secondary school students in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Ninety-seven percent of the variation in school burnout…

  11. How Immigrant Students' Self-Views at School Relate to Different Patterns of First and Second Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ute; Lilla, Nanine; Zander, Lysann; Hannover, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how students from immigrant families whose first language differs from the language of instruction at school view themselves while at school, depending on the way in which they use their first and second language. While some immigrant students are inclined to predominantly use their first language in the home environment…

  12. A Narrative Inquiry of Chinese Immigrant Students' Educational Experiences in the United States: Language, Culture, and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuwen

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation research, I examined the overall educational experiences of Chinese immigrant students, particularly their educational experiences in the United States. Using narrative inquiry methodology in my study, I portrayed the stories of six Chinese immigrant students, including four undergraduates and two graduates in a Midwestern…

  13. Do School Segregation and School Resources Explain Region-of-Origin Differences in the Mathematics Achievement of Immigrant Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Levels, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Levels and Dronkers (2006) showed that educational achievement differs between immigrant students from different regions of origin (Latin America, Northern Africa, and Western Asia). This follow-up paper establishes whether these differences in educational achievement between immigrant students from different regions of origin can be explained by…

  14. Pedagogical strategies for teaching literacy to ESL immigrant students: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesope, Olusola O; Lavin, Tracy; Thompson, Terri; Ungerleider, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Many countries rely on immigrants for population growth and to maintain a skilled workforce. However, many such immigrants face literacy-related barriers to success in education and in the labour force. This meta-analysis reviews experimental and quasi-experimental studies to examine strategies for teaching English literacy to immigrant students. Following an exhaustive and systematic search for studies meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria, two researchers independently extracted data from 26 English as a Second Language (ESL) studies involving 3,150 participants. These participants consisted of ESL immigrant students in kindergarten through grade 6 who were exposed to English literacy instructional interventions. Measured outcomes were reading and writing. Mean effect sizes vary from small to large, depending on instructional interventions and outcome constructs. Across several different grade levels, settings, and methodological features, pedagogical strategies used in teaching ESL to immigrant students are associated with increased competence in reading and writing. Collaborative reading interventions, in which peers engage in oral interaction and cooperatively negotiate meaning and a shared understanding of texts, produced larger effects than systematic phonics instruction and multimedia-assisted reading interventions. The results show that the pedagogical strategies examined in this meta-analysis produced statistically significant benefits for students in all grade levels. The findings also show that students from low socio-economic status (SES) background benefit from ESL literacy interventions. However, significant heterogeneity was found in each subset. Educators and policy makers are encouraged to consider specific school contexts when making decisions about optimal pedagogical strategies. It is possible that contextual factors as well as ESL learner characteristics may influence the effectiveness of these strategies. To ensure literacy acquisition

  15. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  16. Mathematics Achievement of Mainland Immigrant Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main features of globalization is the increasing mobility of population. As an immigrant society, Hong Kong has witnessed waves of Mainland Chinese arrivals and assimilation into her mainstream, particularly around the change of sovereignty period. School-aged children constitute a substantial fraction of the new population. Given their…

  17. What Immigrant Students Can Teach Us about New Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wan Shun Eva

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents who have immigrant backgrounds are developing language, literacy, and social skills across national borders as they use social media and online tools to interact with people and information sources in different communities across their countries of origin and settlement. These transnational digital practices have the potential to serve…

  18. The Engineering 4 Health Challenge - an interdisciplinary and intercultural initiative to foster student engagement in B.C. and improve health care for children in under-serviced communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan; Weber-Jahnke, Jens H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the Engineering 4 Health (E4H) Challenge, an interdisciplinary and intercultural initiative that, on the one hand, seeks to improve health education of children in under-serviced communities and, on the other, seeks to attract students in British Columbia to professions in engineering and health. The E4H Challenge engages high school and university students in BC to cooperatively design and develop health information and communication technology (ICT) to educate children living in under-serviced communities. The E4H Challenge works with the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) program to integrate applications for health awareness into the school programs of communities in developing countries. Although applications developed by the E4H Challenge use the low-cost, innovative XO laptop (the "$100 laptop" developed by the OLPC foundation) the software can also be used with other inexpensive hardware.

  19. Second Language Education Context and Home Language Effect: Language Dissimilarities and Variation in Immigrant Students' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Sandra; Martins, Margarida Alves; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Heritage language speakers struggle in European classrooms with insufficient material provided for second language (SL) learning and assessment. Considering the amount of instruments and pertinent studies in English SL, immigrant students are better prepared than their peers in Romance language settings. This study investigates how factors such as…

  20. "They Don't Know Anything!": Latinx Immigrant Students Appropriating the Oppressor's Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzó, Lilia D.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses internalized oppression among Latinx communities through a revolutionary critical pedagogy. Data from a two-year ethnography of Latinx immigrant families show that students were developing deficit perspectives toward their parents, claiming that "they don't know anything," based on their positioning as powerless…

  1. The Transformation of Ms. Corazon: Creating Humanizing Spaces for Mexican Immigrant Students in Secondary ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Maria del Carmen; Franquiz, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the journey of one English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher who held rigid boundaries that negatively impacted the academic resiliency of her Mexican immigrant students. As she transformed her pedagogical orientation, she created permeability in her curricular practices. With the elements of "respeto" (respect), "confianza"…

  2. Ugandan Immigrant Students' Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Achievement in American High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssekannyo, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In a world that is now a global village, enterprising individuals, especially from Third World countries, who make it to greener pastures do not leave their children behind. But with a long list of barriers to academic achievement associated with immigrant and minority students in American high schools, an understanding of the experiences and…

  3. Social Representations as Mediators of Practice in Mathematics Classrooms with Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgorio, Nuria; de Abreu, Guida

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests that a critical perspective of the notion of social representations can offer useful insights into understanding practices of teaching and learning in mathematics classrooms with immigrant students. Drawing on literature using social representations, previous empirical studies are revisited to examine three specific…

  4. Implementing Task-Oriented Content-Based Instruction for First- and Second-Generation Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Williamson, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how the ESL program at an ethnically/linguistically diverse community college (between San Diego and the Mexican border) moved from a general, grammar-based ESL curriculum to a content-based instruction (CBI) curriculum. The move was designed to better prepare 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrant students for freshman…

  5. High School Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Civics to Immigrant Students in a New Gateway State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Jeremy Dale

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines Civics teachers' perceptions of working with immigrant students in a new gateway state. By analyzing collective case studies of six teachers in central North Carolina, from different types of schools and with different professional backgrounds, this study is positioned to make recommendations for social studies…

  6. Social Adaptation of New Immigrant Students: Cultural Scripts, Roles, and Symbolic Interactionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukasoanya, Grace

    2014-01-01

    It is important that counselors understand the socio-cultural dimensions of social adaptation among immigrant students. While many psychological theories could provide suitable frameworks for examining these, in this article, I argue that symbolic interactionism could provide an additional valuable framework for (a) exploring the intersections of…

  7. Students Using Multimodal Literacies to Surface Micronarratives of United States Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiso, Maria Paula; Low, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how immigrant students in the United States utilise multimodal literacy practices to complicate dominant narratives of American national identity--narratives of facile assimilation, meritocracy and linear trajectories. Such ideologies can be explicitly evident in curricular materials or can be woven more implicitly into…

  8. Immigrant Students and the Ecology of Externalization in a Secondary School in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, David; Jociles, María Isabel; Franzé, Adela

    2014-01-01

    We examine how counselors, teachers, and other professionals at a secondary school in Madrid (Spain) understand cultural diversity and work with immigrant students' educational circumstances. Our analysis suggests that cultural diversity is largely construed as a problem and the explanation of educational difficulties is organized around an…

  9. The Bilingual Advantage for Immigrant Students in French Immersion in Canada: Linking Advantages to Contextual Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the English and French proficiencies of three groups of early French immersion participants at the Grade 6 level: Canadian-born English-speaking, Canadian-born multilingual, and immigrant multilingual students. In addition to English and French multi-skills tests, the participants completed a questionnaire designed to gather…

  10. Social science as a tool in developing scientific thinking skills in underserved, low-achieving urban students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Elizabeth; Kuhn, Deanna

    2016-03-01

    Engagement in purposeful problem solving involving social science content was sufficient to develop a key set of inquiry skills in low-performing middle school students from an academically and economically disadvantaged urban public school population, with this skill transferring to a more traditional written scientific thinking assessment instrument 3weeks later. Students only observing their peers' activity or not participating at all failed to show these gains. Implications are addressed with regard to the mastery of scientific thinking skills among academically disadvantaged students. Also addressed are the efficacy of problem-based learning and the limits of observational learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Opinions from ESL instructors and students about curricula on hepatitis B for use in immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; Taylor, Victoria M; Hislop, T Gregory; Teh, Chong; Acorda, Elizabeth; Do, H Hoai; Chen, Hueifang; Thompson, Beti

    2008-01-01

    Chinese immigrants in Canada have a disproportionately high risk for hepatitis B compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma among Asian immigrants to North America. English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes are an effective way of reaching newly immigrated individuals and are a potential channel for delivering health messages. Using data from 6 focus groups among ESL instructors and students, we characterized perceptions about activities that are successfully used in ESL classrooms and strategies for delivering hepatitis B information. RESULTS. Instructors and students generally reported that activities that focused on speaking and listening skills and that addressed content relevant to students' daily lives were successful in the classroom. Instructors generally avoided material that was irrelevant or too difficult to understand. Focus group participants offered strategies for delivering hepatitis B information in ESL classrooms; these strategies included addressing symptoms and prevention and not singling out a specific population subgroup to avoid stigmatization. These findings might assist efforts to develop ESL curricula that target immigrant populations.

  12. Mother Tongue as a Determining Variable in Language Attitudes. The Case of Immigrant Latin American Students in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Angel; Janes, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Bearing in mind the relevance of immigration in Spain, we consider the linguistic idiosyncrasy of the autonomous community of Catalonia in the present study to describe and analyse language attitudes to Catalan and Spanish in a sample of 225 students of immigrant origin living in different parts of the region. We focus on language attitudes in so…

  13. A Model of Identity and Language Orientations: The Case of Immigrant Students from the Former Soviet Union in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan-Cook, Pnina; Olshtain, Elite

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical model featuring the relationship between identity and language orientations within the broader constellation of variables impacting immigration and acculturation processes was proposed within the framework of the current study and its applicability was tested with regards to 152 immigrant university students from the Former Soviet…

  14. Using a Learning Activity Sequence in Large-Enrollment Physical Geology Classes: Supporting the Needs of Underserved Students While Motivating Interest, Learning, and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, A.; Smith, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The learning activity sequence (LAS) strategy is a student-focused pedagogy that emphasizes active classroom learning to promote learning among all students, and in particular, those with diverse backgrounds. Online assessments both set the stage for active learning and help students synthesize material during their learning. UNM is one of only two Carnegie Research University Very High institutions also designated as Hispanic-serving and the only state flagship university that is also a majority-minority undergraduate institution. In 2010 Hispanics comprised 40% of 20,655 undergraduates (and 49% of freshmen), 37% of undergraduates were Pell Grant recipients (the largest proportion of any public flagship research university; J. Blacks Higher Ed., 2009) and 44% of incoming freshmen were first-generation students. To maximize student learning in this environment rich in traditionally underserved students, we designed a LAS for nonmajor physical geology (enrollments 100-160) that integrates in-class instruction with structured out-of-class learning. The LAS has 3 essential parts: Students read before class to acquire knowledge used during in-class collaborative, active-learning activities that build conceptual understanding. Lastly, students review notes and synthesize what they've learned before moving on to the next topic. The model combines online and in-class learning and assessment: Online reading assessments before class; active-learning experiences during class; online learning assessments after class. Class sessions include short lectures, peer instruction "clickers", and small-group problem solving (lecture tutorials). Undergraduate Peer-Learning Facilitators are available during class time to help students with problem solving. Effectiveness of the LAS approach is reflected in three types of measurements. (1) Using the LAS strategy, the overall rate of students earning a grade of C or higher is higher than compared to the average for all large

  15. The Normative Nature of Aggressive Intrusive Thinking Among an Underserved Incarcerated Population Compared With a Student Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLapp, Ryan C T; Chasson, Gregory S; Swerbilow, Jessica; Gibby, Brittany; Tellawi, Ghazel; Williams, Monnica T

    2018-02-01

    Aggressive intrusive thoughts (AITs) are unwanted and repetitive thoughts, impulses, or desires that enter into consciousness involuntarily. The current study compared the frequency of and distress from AITs in a sample of inmates jailed for violent crimes ( n = 78) versus college students ( n = 103; that is, participant status). The relationship between psychopathic traits and AITs was also explored. Results indicated that, although there were no differences between students and inmates, AIT frequency was positively associated with Primary Psychopathy. However, there was no significant interaction between participant status (i.e., inmate vs. student) and psychopathy. Finally, there were no significant main or interactions effects in the model predicting AIT distress. These findings demonstrate that AIT frequency is a normative cognitive experience that occurs in both nonviolent and violent individuals, and provides further evidence for an association between psychopathic traits and unwanted aggressive cognition.

  16. Will the integration of a Girl Scout STEM workshop improve the interest and confidence of underserved millenial students in STEM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Jestine

    This study addressed how the impact of Girl Scout workshop would improve the interest and confidence of millennial students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) careers. This study sought to determine if a three-week Girl Scout curriculum would impact urban female students' interest in STEM, confidence in science, and motivation to pursue STEM careers. The curriculum included hands-on STEM activities along with a guest speaker. The Girl Scouts completed the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) to determine their attitude toward science. Girl Scouts, parents, and troop leaders completed a post-workshop survey based on their experience. Chi Square tests, frequencies, and an ANOVA were run to analyze the results, which indicated an increase in interest and confidence.

  17. ¿Y ahora qué? Anticipated immigration status barriers and Latina/o high school students' future expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; Ramos, Karina; Medina, Cynthia

    2013-07-01

    Latina/o high school students without documentation face a challenging situation when they graduate from high school, with pathways to work and postsecondary education stymied by their immigration status. We examined the effects of anticipated barriers associated with immigration status, age, and sex on the dependent variables of vocational outcome expectations, anticipated external and internal barriers, and postsecondary schooling plans in a sample of 475 Latina/o high school students. Findings include that students anticipating immigration status problems had lower vocational outcome expectations and anticipated more external barriers to pursuing their postsecondary plans. Latina girls and older high school students anticipating immigration status problems were more likely to plan to attend 2-year rather than 4-year colleges, and less likely to plan on postsecondary education, respectively. Implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Career counselling an African immigrant student in a USA school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transitional, narrative data were gathered over time using interviews, head notes, observations, and assessment reports (Creswell 2007, 73). Contextual influences and themes that shaped the student's 'storied life' are described in light of Schlossberg's theory constructs of situation, self, support and strategies for ...

  19. Cultural Self-Efficacy of Second- Degree Nursing Students in Providing Care to Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskin, Predrag; Matthews, Eric; Wallace, Lisa A; Fox, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of perceived cultural self-efficacy of senior students in second-degree pre-licensure nursing programs in the provision of culturally appropriate care to immigrants. The study employed a quantitative, non-experimental design with survey methodology. The convenience sample consisted of 117 senior students enrolled in accelerated bachelor of sciences in nursing and entry levels master of sciences programs. The study used Bernal and Froman's Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES). The study found that the participants had low levels of transcultural self-efficacy. There was no association between the participants' demographic characteristics and their CSES scores. These findings were consistent with the findings of previous studies that surveyed traditional nursing students. The study provided important assessment data on learning needs of second-degree nursing student concerning the provision of culturally congruent care.

  20. Supporting minority nursing students: 'Opportunity for Success' for Ethiopian immigrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, D; Hirschfeld, M J

    2013-06-01

    To report on an Israeli academic nursing project, aimed at supporting the integration of Ethiopian immigrants into nursing studies. The representation of ethnic minorities within nursing is crucial for the provision of efficient care in diverse societies. Nevertheless, successful integration of minority students in nursing programs is not a simple task and needs developing support systems that will attract and retain students from minorities. Ethiopian Jewish immigrants and their descendants in Israel form a community of 120,000 people. Their participation in the national workforce is low, as well as their average income. The paper is based on formative evaluation, using action research, of an academic nursing program in Israel. Four main strategies identify this project: (1) a policy of institutional commitment, (2) personal relations with staff, (3) personal tutoring, and (4) cultural safety education. The project has reached success in terms of attraction, retention and students' satisfactions. The project's two main challenges, which need further concern, are: (1) giving support without labelling and (2) supporting without creating dependency. CONCLUSIONS AND INTERNATIONAL POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Appropriate strategies can enable success of minority students. Nevertheless, the amount of support needed for such programs raises two major questions: (1) To what extent should individual nursing departments be expected to bear solutions to this widely experienced problem? (2) How does focusing on one minority affect cultural safety of the overall group? © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  1. Improving Second Language Skills of Immigrant Students: A Field Trial Study Evaluating the Effects of a Summer Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanat, Petra; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jurgen; Ludtke, Oliver; Eckhardt, Andrea G.

    2012-01-01

    Immigrant students' school success is often hampered by limited second language (L2) proficiency, yet the effectiveness of different approaches to L2 support is unclear. Using a summer camp setting, we tested effects of (1) implicit support focusing on meaning of language by engaging students in language-intensive activities without drawing their…

  2. Reciprocal Relations between Intrinsic Reading Motivation and Reading Competence: A Comparison between Native and Immigrant Students in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ai; Pfost, Maximilian; Artelt, Cordula

    2018-01-01

    The present study compares native and immigrant students regarding the direction and the strength of the relation between intrinsic reading motivation and reading competence. Within the framework of the German National Educational Panel Study, 4,619 secondary school students were included in the analyses. The present study confirmed the reciprocal…

  3. Making the Mosaic: The Changing Face of NYC's (Im)migrant Students. IESP Policy Brief No. 04-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debraggio, Elizabeth; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna

    2011-01-01

    Immigration and migration to New York City (NYC) collectively create a dynamic population of students. In this brief the authors use a decade of detailed, longitudinal data on NYC's 1st-8th graders to explore both the "stock" of students enrolled and the "flow" of new entrants in each academic year. Together, these paint a…

  4. Somos Iguales..."Pero No Tanto": Examining the Experience of Belonging among Undocumented Immigrant Latina/o Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Using data collected from a larger ethnographic study that explored the educational experiences of three generational cohorts of undocumented immigrant Latino students in a public secondary school setting, this study provides undocumented students' perspective on barriers (perceived or real) to feeling or not feeling like a member of the school…

  5. Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as It Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert Warren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…

  6. Unauthorized Immigrant Students in the United States: Educational Policies, Practices, and the Role of School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Overlooking Ellis Island, the famous port of entry for millions of U.S. immigrants, is the Statue of Liberty. Miss Liberty's lamp has welcomed millions of immigrants to the United States. However, in light of recent executive orders against immigration as well as efforts to detain and deport millions of unauthorized immigrants, one might wonder…

  7. A Values-Affirmation Intervention Does Not Benefit Negatively Stereotyped Immigrant Students in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Margaretha De Jong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that a values-affirmation intervention can help reduce the achievement gap between African American and European American students in the US. In the present study, it was examined if these results would generalize to ethnic minority students in a country outside the US, namely the Netherlands, where there is also an achievement gap between native and ethnic minority students. This type of intervention was tested in two separate studies, the first among first-year pre-vocational students (n = 361, 84% ethnic minority, and the second among sixth grade students (n = 290, 96% ethnic minority. Most minority participants had a Turkish-Dutch or Moroccan-Dutch immigrant background. In the second study, a third condition was added to the original paradigm, in which students elaborated on either their affirmation- or a control exercise with the help of a teaching assistant. We also examined whether values affirmation affected the level of problem behavior of negatively stereotyped ethnic minority youth. Contrary to what was expected, multilevel analyses revealed that the intervention had no effect on the school achievement or the problem behavior of the ethnic minority students. Possible explanations for these findings, mainly related to contextual and cultural differences between the Netherlands and the US, are discussed.

  8. Gatekeepers of the American Dream: how teachers' perceptions shape the academic outcomes of immigrant and language-minority students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the student's hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gatekeepers of the American Dream: How Teachers' Perceptions Shape the Academic Outcomes of Immigrant and Language-Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    High school teachers evaluate and offer guidance to students as they approach the transition to college based in part on their perceptions of the students' hard work and potential to succeed in college. Their perceptions may be especially crucial for immigrant and language-minority students navigating the U.S. educational system. Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002), we consider how the intersection of nativity and language-minority status may (1) inform teachers' perceptions of students' effort and college potential, and (2) shape the link between teachers' perceptions and students' academic progress towards college (grades and likelihood of advancing to more demanding math courses). We find that teachers perceive immigrant language-minority students as hard workers, and that their grades reflect that perception. However, these same students are less likely than others to advance in math between the sophomore and junior years, a critical point for preparing for college. Language-minority students born in the U.S. are more likely to be negatively perceived. Yet, when their teachers see them as hard workers, they advance in math at the same rates as nonimmigrant native English speaking peers. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering both language-minority and immigrant status as social dimensions of students' background that moderate the way that high school teachers' perceptions shape students' preparation for college. PMID:25769866

  10. School difficulties in immigrant adolescent students and roles of socioeconomic factors, unhealthy behaviours, and physical and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Kénora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income, WHO-Quality of life (measuring the four dimensions physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment, unhealthy behaviours (last-30-day uses of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs and no regular sports/physical activities, grade repetition, low school performance ( Results Grade repetition affected 14.8% of students, low school performance 8.2%, and school dropout ideation 3.9%. European immigrants had a higher risk for grade repetition only with a gender-age-adjusted odds ratio (OR of 2.44, vs. French students. This odds ratio decreased to 1.76 (contribution 47% with further adjustment for all confounders (family structure, father’s occupation, family income, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Non-European immigrants had a statistically higher risk for all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation with ORs of 3.29, 3.02, and 3.42, respectively vs. French students. These odds ratios decreased to 1.76, 1.54, and 1.54, respectively (contributions 66%, 73%, and 78% with further adjustment for all confounders. Conclusions Compared with French students

  11. Predictors of Post-Secondary Academic Outcomes among Local-Born, Immigrant, and International Students in Canada: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Tricia L.; Zakzanis, Konstantine; Henderson, Joanna; Ravindran, Arun V.

    2017-01-01

    Poor academic performance and dropout are major concerns at post-secondary institutions. Influences include sociodemographic, psychosocial, and academic functioning factors. Canadian literature is limited, and little published data directly compare academic outcomes between local-born, immigrant, and international students. We conducted a…

  12. The Effects of Familial Acculturative Stress and Hopelessness on Suicidal Ideation by Immigration Status among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert; Miranda, Regina

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Based on acculturative family distancing theory, we examined whether familial acculturative stress interacted with hopelessness to predict suicidal ideation differentially among emerging adult immigrant versus nonimmigrant college students. Participants: We recruited 152 generationally and racially/ethnically diverse college students…

  13. Creating A Sustainable Model of Spine Care in Underserved Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta; Outerbridge, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The world lacks sustainable models of care to manage spinal disorders in poor and underserved communities. The purpose of this article is to: (1) review the rationale and importance of developing a sustainable evidence-based model of care at low cost for people with spinal disorders in underserved...... adequate care, World Spine Care (WSC) was established to "improve lives in underserved communities through sustainable, integrated, evidence-based, spinal care." WSC is comprised of volunteers and institutions from 6 continents and several countries, and incorporates a Board of Directors, an executive......) facilitation of opportunities for training graduate students in a variety of health-related fields. World Spine Care has (a) recognized the enormous need to establish clinical programs aimed at easing the suffering and disability associated with spinal disorders in resource-poor communities, (b) shown...

  14. Nevada Underserved Science Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicole Rourke; Jason Marcks

    2004-07-06

    Nevada Underserved Science Education Program (NUSEP) is a project to examine the effect of implementing new and innovative Earth and space science education curriculum in Nevada schools. The project provided professional development opportunities and educational materials for teachers participating in the program.

  15. "Designing Instrument for Science Classroom Learning Environment in Francophone Minority Settings: Accounting for Voiced Concerns among Teachers and Immigrant/Refugee Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, Bathélemy

    2015-01-01

    The three-phase process "-Instrument for Minority Immigrant Science Learning Environment," an 8-scale, 32-item see Appendix I- (I_MISLE) instrument when completed by teachers provides an accurate description of existing conditions in classrooms in which immigrant and refugee students are situated. Through the completion of the instrument…

  16. Premigration School Quality, Time Spent in the United States, and the Math Achievement of Immigrant High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozick, Robert; Malchiodi, Alessandro; Miller, Trey

    2016-10-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 1,189 immigrant youth in American high schools, we examine whether the quality of education in their country of origin is related to post-migration math achievement in the 9th grade. To measure the quality of their education in the country of origin, we use country-specific average test scores from two international assessments: the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). We find that the average PISA or TIMSS scores for immigrant youth's country of origin are positively associated with their performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment. We also find that each year spent in the United States is positively associated with performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment, but this effect is strongest for immigrants from countries with low PISA/TIMSS scores.

  17. The Information Seeking Behavior of Digital Native and Digital Immigrant Students of Bogor Agricultural University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Gristinawati Sujana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological expansion and the changing way individuals gain access to information has deeply impacted the structure of libraries – physically as well as conceptually. A new generation of digital services platforms for libraries is emerging, designed to provide a more comprehensive  approach  to  the  management  and  access  to  all  formats  of  library  materials. Despite the modernization of libraries and their adaption to the digital age, the library still hold a critical role within community to serve its users, continuing to be beacons of information sharing, learning, and entertainment even amidst tight fiscal times.  As one of the leading university in Indonesia, Bogor Agricultural University Library must find solutions to new challenges, overhaul many of their entrenched business processes, and foster systems that engage students.  This study examined the information seeking behavior of the digital native and digital immigrant students of Bogor Agricultural University, in order to remind the library that there are some changes happened in its users and to recommend the new services should be taken by the library. The similarities and differences in seeking information of those two group students were discussed.

  18. Underserved Students Who Earn Credit through Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) Have Higher Degree Completion Rates and Shorter Time-to-Degree. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) released a report on a multi-institutional study on prior learning assessment (PLA) and adult student outcomes. The study examined data from 62,475 adult students at 48 colleges and universities, following the students' academic progress over the course of seven years. The data from…

  19. Pedagogical Strategies for Teaching Literacy to ESL Immigrant Students: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Lavin, Tracy; Thompson, Terri; Ungerleider, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many countries rely on immigrants for population growth and to maintain a skilled workforce. However, many such immigrants face literacy-related barriers to success in education and in the labour force. Aims: This meta-analysis reviews experimental and quasi-experimental studies to examine strategies for teaching English literacy to…

  20. R&D: Welcoming Immigrant Students with a High-Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey J.; Walsh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Internationals Network for Public Schools has a reputation for engaging in culturally and linguistically responsive pedagogy with immigrant youth. The 19 schools in the internationals school network serve the unique academic and emotional needs of recently arrived immigrant youth who are English language learners. INPS schools are in New York,…

  1. Family Involvement in Children's Mathematics Education Experiences: Voices of Immigrant Chinese American Students and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Senfeng

    2013-01-01

    This study examines ways in which Chinese immigrant families are involved in their children's mathematics education, particularly focusing on how different types of families utilize different forms of capital to support their children's mathematics education. The theoretical framework defines four types of Chinese immigrant families--working…

  2. Immigrant Students in the Trump Era: What We Know and Do Not Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chi; Kebede, Maraki

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 U.S. presidential election marked a time of deep political divide for the nation and resulted in an administrative transition that represented a drastic shift in values and opinions on several matters, including immigration. This article explores the implications of this political transition for immigrants' K-16 educational experiences…

  3. The potential conflict between policy and ethics in caring for undocumented immigrants at academic health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacari Stone, Lisa; Steimel, Leah; Vasquez-Guzman, Estela; Kaufman, Arthur

    2014-04-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) are at the forefront of delivering care to the diverse medically underserved and uninsured populations in the United States, as well as training the majority of the health care workforce, who are professionally obligated to serve all patients regardless of race or immigration status. Despite AHCs' central leadership role in these endeavors, few consolidated efforts have emerged to resolve potential conflicts between national, state, and local policies that exclude certain classifications of immigrants from receiving federal public assistance and health professionals' social missions and ethical oath to serve humanity. For instance, whereas the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides a pathway to insurance coverage for more than 30 million Americans, undocumented immigrants and legally documented immigrants residing in the United States for less than five years are ineligible for Medicaid and excluded from purchasing any type of coverage through state exchanges. To inform this debate, the authors describe their experience at the University of New Mexico Hospital (UNMH) and discuss how the UNMH has responded to this challenge and overcome barriers. They offer three recommendations for aligning AHCs' social missions and professional ethics with organizational policies: (1) that AHCs determine eligibility for financial assistance based on residency rather than citizenship, (2) that models of medical education and health professions training provide students with service-learning opportunities and applied community experience, and (3) that frontline staff and health care professionals receive standardized training on eligibility policies to minimize discrimination towards immigrant patients.

  4. Comparing the Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of Adopted Korean Americans with Immigrant/U.S.-Born Korean Americans and Korean International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard M; Yun, Andrea Bora; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Nelson, Kim Park

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the ethnic identity and well-being of Korean Americans who were adopted internationally with immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans and Korean international students, as well as the relationship between ethnic identity and well-being for each group. One-hundred and seven college students completed measures of ethnic identity and subjective well-being. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans had higher ethnic identity scores than the other two groups. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans also had higher positive affect scores than international students. Ethnic identity was positively correlated with positive affect for all three groups (r's = .27 - .34), but was negatively correlated with negative affect for international students (r = -.44). Overall, the results suggest that ethnic identity, although slightly lower than non-adopted peers, is relevant to the well-being of adopted Korean American college students.

  5. Immigration: Coming to America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  6. Educating Social Work Students to Practice in the Latino Immigrant Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisneros, Jose; Alter, Catherine Foster

    2009-01-01

    Immigration from Latin America to the United States will be a political issue for many years. Because Latinos are the largest minority group in the U.S., they will continue to be a concern of social work education. Language differences, cultural distinctions, and unique political ramifications require specialized programs within social work…

  7. Communicative Competence and Institutional Affiliation: Interactional Processes of Identity Construction by Immigrant Students in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cots, Josep M.; Nussbaum, Luci

    2008-01-01

    The growing presence of children of immigrant families in the public school system in the bilingual region of Catalonia provides us with an opportunity to study how young multilingual and multicultural speakers construct their social competencies and their identity within the specific context of a gate-keeping social institution such as the…

  8. Problems of the Immigrant Students' Teachers: Are They Ready to Teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Figen

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study is to investigate the problems faced by the teachers' of immigrant children living in Turkey. The study was conducted based on the qualitative phenomenological research design and purposive sampling method was used. Qualitative research technique was used to collect, analyze and interpret data and technically content analysis was…

  9. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Immigrant Youth in Six European Countries: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Maja K; He, Jia; Heizmann, Boris; Van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2017-01-01

    School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001) and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants' acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement) through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland), those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal), and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia). In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students' ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement.

  10. The roles of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrant college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Celia Ching Yee; Correa, Alma; Robinson, Kendall; Lu, Qian

    2017-07-01

    Acculturative stress has been linked to psychological distress, but few studies have explored the moderating role of social constraints on this relationship. Social constraints are the perception that social networks are unsupportive to stressor-related discussions. In the present study, the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrants and the moderating role of social constraints in this relationship were examined. Participants were 306 college students (169 Hispanics/Latinos, 137 Asians; 33.9% first-generation immigrants, 66.1% second-generation immigrants) from two Texas universities. Correlation results showed that acculturative stress and social constraints were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. In addition, regression results indicated a significant three-way interaction effect among acculturative stress, social constraints, and racial/ethnic groups. Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Asians but not in Hispanics/Latinos. Significant association between acculturative stress and psychological distress was found in Asians with higher levels of social constraints but not in Asians with lower levels of social constraints. These findings suggested that the interaction effect of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress may be subject to cultural influences, and social constraints may have differential roles in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. Potential implications on the development of culturally adaptive interventions for different racial/ethnic minority groups were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. High Prevalence of Occult Hepatitis B among Immigrant Students in Canada: A Case for Universal Immunization of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Pennie

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and demographic characteristics of positive hepatitis B (HBV serology were determined among post secondary health care students in Ottawa. Ontario. HBV seropositivity was defined as the presence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg or antibodies to HBV core or surface antigens by radioimmunoassay. HBsAg-positive students were advised to visit their family doctors; the health measures that resulted were observed. Among 600 students born in North America, the proportion of HBV seropositive and HBsAg-positive were 0.8 and 0.2%, respectively. Among the 63 students born outside Europe or North America. 22.2% were HBV seropositive (odds ratio 29.7. confidence interval 10.1 to 97.5 and 7.9% were HBsAg-positive (odds ratio 54.2, confidence interval 5.9 to 2568.3. Of the seven HBsAg-positive students, none had known their HBV status – five visited their doctors, two of whom sought and immunized susceptible household contacts. This survey supports the view that many sexually active young adults integrating into Canadian society from immigrant families are unknowingly HBsAg-positive, and when their HBV status is identified to them and their doctors, appropriate measures for the protection of close contacts are often overlooked. Physician education about the management of HBV carriers should be improved and consideration given to the universal HBV immunization of young adults.

  12. English proficiency and peer interethnic relations as predictors of math achievement among Latino and Asian immigrant students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Alice N; Barile, John P; Malm, Esther K; Weaver, Scott R

    2012-12-01

    Studies show math achievement to be the best predictor of entering post-secondary education. However, less is known about the predictors of math achievement, particularly among immigrant youth. This study examined English proficiency and peer interethnic relations as predictors of mathematics achievement among Latino and Asian high school students, postulating an interaction between the predictors and mediation by academic motivation. A multilevel moderated-mediation model was used to analyze data from a national sample of 2113 non-native English speaking Latino and Asian students attending high school in the U.S. We found that higher academic motivation mediated the relationship between English proficiency during their sophomore year and gains in senior math achievement scores for both Asian and Latino students. For Latino students however, this indirect path was only significant for students whose perceptions of positive peer interethnic relations at school were average or above average. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring Views on Heritage Language Use and Bilingual Acquisition: Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence from Teachers and Immigrant Students in the Greek Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, Eleni; Kiliari, Angeliki; Stamou, Anastasia G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a synthesis of a series of studies, carried out by our research groups, from the Greek educational context on teachers' and immigrant students' views on issues of bilingual acquisition and of heritage language learning and teaching. Albeit including heterogeneous samples and employing quantitative and qualitative…

  14. Layers of Influence: Exploring Institutional- and State-Level Effects on College Student Views toward Access to Public Education for Undocumented Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay, Juan C.; Herrera, Felisha A.; Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Garcia, Gina A.

    2016-01-01

    Providing undocumented immigrants access to public education remains a pertinent issue facing both institutions of higher education and state governments. While instate resident tuition (ISRT) has remained a contentious policy, little is known about how such policies, as well as other state contexts, influence college students' attitudes toward…

  15. On the Wrong Side of the Tracks: Understanding the Effects of School Structure and Social Capital in the Educational Pursuits of Undocumented Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Roberto G.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, increasing scholarly and media attention has been paid to the plight of undocumented immigrant college students. However, only a small fraction of undocumented youth actually moves on from high school to postsecondary opportunities. Indeed, the exclusion from financial aid eligibility and low family socioeconomic status…

  16. Academic Performance of Native and Immigrant Students: a Study Focused on the Perception of Family Support and Control, School Satisfaction and Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The international assessment studies of key competences, such as the PISA report of the OECD, have revealed that the academic performance of Spanish students is significantly below the OECD average; in addition, it has also been confirmed that the results of immigrant students are consistently lower than those of their native counterparts. Given the context, the first objective of this work is to observe the variables (support, control, school satisfaction and learning environment which distinguish between native and immigrant students with high and low academic performance; the second objective is to check, by comparing the native and immigrant students with high and low performance and separating the two levels, to find out which of the selected variables clearly differentiate the two groups. To this end, a sample of 1359 students was used (79.8% native students and 20.2% immigrant students of Latin American origin, who were enrolled in the 5th and 6th year of Primary Education (aged 10-11 years and in the 1st and 2nd year of Secondary Education (aged 12-13 years. The origin and the fact of being a retained student or not were estimated as independent variables, whereas their responses to the variables of perceived family support and control (paternal and maternal separately, their school satisfaction and assessment of the learning environment were taken into account as dependent variables. Considering that the reliability of the scales used is adequate, along with the optimal factorization in a series of coherent constructs, it was revealed that the main differences consisted of individual dimensions (perception of family support and control and, to a lesser extent, of dimensions related to the context (assessment of the school and learning environments. Given the results obtained, our intention is to provide solid evidence that would facilitate the design of family involvement programs, helping to improve students' educational performance.

  17. Social Exclusion among Peers: The Role of Immigrant Status and Classroom Immigrant Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenty, Stephanie; Jonsson, Jan O

    2017-06-01

    Increasing immigration and school ethnic segregation have raised concerns about the social integration of minority students. We examined the role of immigrant status in social exclusion and the moderating effect of classroom immigrant density among Swedish 14-15-year olds (n = 4795, 51 % females), extending conventional models of exclusion by studying multiple outcomes: victimization, isolation, and rejection. Students with immigrant backgrounds were rejected more than majority youth and first generation non-European immigrants were more isolated. Immigrants generally experienced more social exclusion in immigrant sparse than immigrant dense classrooms, and victimization increased with higher immigrant density for majority youth. The findings demonstrate that, in addition to victimization, subtle forms of exclusion may impede the social integration of immigrant youth but that time in the host country alleviates some risks for exclusion.

  18. Context of Latino Students' Family Separation during and after Immigration: Perspectives, Challenges, and Opportunities for Collaborative Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jeremiah J.; Kula, Stacy M.; González, Verónica V.; Paik, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges and consequences of family separation and reunification during immigration from Latin America to the U.S. The historical pattern of paternal immigration as well as the recent rise in maternal immigration are discussed. The article addresses the impact of length of separation and how separation impacts family…

  19. Gender at the intersection with race and class in the schooling and wellbeing of immigrant-origin students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaei, Mahsa; Henderson, Rita Isabel

    2016-07-28

    In French-language secondary schools in Quebec, among all immigrant-origin students, those originating from South Asia have the highest dropout rate. However, girls belonging to this group consistently outperform their male peers of similar ethnic background. This stirs questions about the reasons for this relative outperformance and its linkage with overall wellbeing among these girls. A mixed methods approach guided data collection. It involved in-depth interviews with female and male students of South Asian origin (n = 19) and with individuals holding educational roles in the lives of youth (n = 25). An additional anonymous questionnaire aggregated parent perspectives (n = 36), though this article focuses primarily on qualitative lessons. This article shows three main reasons for why South Asian female adolescents in Quebec French-language secondary schools outperform their male counterparts in schooling attainment: parental expectations after migration, socialization at home, and relationships at school. According to our findings, academic perseverance among these girls does not necessarily translate into their improved wellbeing or their involvement in an advantageous process of acculturation. This study highlights that although gender, ethnicity, and class can create an interlocking system of oppression in certain social spheres for a specific group of women, it can emerge as advantageous in other contexts for the same group. This provides educational policy makers, as well as school and community workers, with guidance and avenues for action that can promote the wellbeing of immigrant-origin girls through involvement in beneficial processes of acculturation aligned with their improved academic performance.

  20. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi, Mary C Smith; Betancourt, Theresa S; Marcelin, Lilly; Klopner, Michelle; Munir, Kerim; Muriel, Anna C; Oswald, Catherine; Mukherjee, Joia S

    2009-12-22

    Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1) estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Haitian immigrant students; and 2) examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends) and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood). A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services may improve educational attainment and psychosocial health

  1. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Anna C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1 estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among Haitian immigrant students; and 2 examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. Methods A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. Results The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood. Conclusions A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services

  2. United States Immigration Policy and Indirect Immigration of Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vinod B.; Winkler, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    The number of foreign professionals (including college students) who have entered the United States with nonimmigrant status but who have their visas adjusted to immigrant status is steadily increasing. This study explores the relationship between the frequency of such adjustments and changes in immigration policy. (PGD)

  3. Academic Performance of Native and Immigrant Students: A Study Focused on the Perception of Family Support and Control, School Satisfaction, and Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Miguel A; Godás, Agustín; Ferraces, María J; Lorenzo, Mar

    2016-01-01

    The international assessment studies of key competences, such as the PISA report of the OECD, have revealed that the academic performance of Spanish students is significantly below the OECD average. In addition, it has also been confirmed that the results of immigrant students are consistently lower than those of their native counterparts. Given the context, the first objective of this work is to observe the variables (support, control, school satisfaction, and learning environment) which distinguish between retained and non-retained native and immigrant students. The second objective is to check, by comparing the retained and non-retained native and immigrant students and separating the two levels, in order to find out which of the selected variables clearly differentiate the two groups. A sample of 1359 students was used (79.8% native students and 20.2% immigrant students of Latin American origin), who were enrolled in the 5th and 6th year of Primary Education (aged 10-11 years) and in the 1st and 2nd year of Secondary Education (aged 12-13 years). The measurement scales, which undergo a psychometric analysis in the current work, have been developed in a previous research study (Lorenzo et al., 2009). The construct validity and reliability are reported (obtaining alpha indices between 0.705 and 0.787). Subsequently, and depending on the results of this analysis, inferential analyses are performed, using as independent variables the ethno-cultural origin and being retained or not, whereas, as dependent variables, the indices referring to students' perception of family support and control, as well as the assessment of the school and learning environment. Among other results, the Group × Being retained/Not being retained [ F (1, 1315) = 4.67, p non-retained subjects perceive more control than immigrants, as well as the Group × Being retained/Not being retained [ F (1, 1200) = 5.49, p non-retained students perceive more family support. Given the results obtained

  4. THE COGNITIVE COMPETENCES OF IMMIGRANT AND NATIVE STUDENTS ACROSS THE WORLD: AN ANALYSIS OF GAPS, POSSIBLE CAUSES AND IMPACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Thompson, James

    2016-01-01

    Immigration, immigration policies and education of immigrants alter competence levels. This study analysed their effects using PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS data (1995 to 2012, N=93 nations) for natives' and immigrants' competences, competence gaps and their population proportions. The mean gap is equivalent to 4.71 IQ points. There are large differences across countries in these gaps ranging from around +12 to -10 IQ points. Migrants' proportions grow roughly 4% per decade. The largest immigrant-based 'brain gains' are observed for Arabian oil-based economies, and the largest 'brain losses' for Central Europe. Regarding causes of native-immigrant gaps, language problems do not seem to explain them. However, English-speaking countries show an advantage. Acculturation within one generation and intermarriage usually reduce native-immigrant gaps (≅1 IQ point). National educational quality reduces gaps, especially school enrolment at a young age, the use of tests and school autonomy. A one standard deviation increase in school quality represents a closing of around 1 IQ point in the native-immigrant gap. A new Greenwich IQ estimation based on UK natives' cognitive ability mean is recommended. An analysis of the first adult OECD study PIAAC revealed that larger proportions of immigrants among adults reduce average competence levels and positive Flynn effects. The effects on economic development and suggestions for immigration and educational policy are discussed.

  5. Effects of Participation in Immigration Activism on Undocumented Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Samantha A.

    2015-01-01

    For undocumented students to go to college, they need to be highly resourceful and exceptionally motivated--and that might not be enough. Society confers numerous barriers on undocumented students regarding higher education attainment. Most undocumented students, who typically come from families living in poverty, cannot afford the high cost of a…

  6. Early tracking and immigrant optimism: a comparative study of educational aspirations among students in disadvantaged schools in Sweden and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Olav

    2017-01-01

    Educational tracking affects both the trajectories and the composition of peers that students meet in school. This study compares the effect of significant others on students' educational aspirations within two transition regimes: the more comprehensive Swedish system and the more stratified Dutch. Separating between doxic and habituated aspirations, I hypothesize that (1) aspirations among students in disadvantaged schools will be lower in the Netherlands than in Sweden; (2) the higher educational aspirations of girls and children of immigrants will disappear when significant others are controlled for; and (3) the positive effect of significant others is more marked among Swedish students than among Dutch due to greater student heterogeneity. The data comes from 3202 students in schools with low average grades in Sweden and the Netherlands. Results were in line with the hypothesis with one important exception. There was a marked difference in habituated aspirations but no difference in doxic aspirations between the Dutch and Swedish students. In conclusion, the findings suggest a) that early tracking systems creates a disconnect between students' hopes and what they perceive as likely outcomes, and b) that the phenomenon termed "immigrant optimism" and "ethnic capital" reflects unequal access to social capital.

  7. Connecting the Immigrant Experience through Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Eliza G.

    2016-01-01

    A 3rd-grade teacher used literature to help her immigrant students grapple with some of the larger issues related to immigration. Through the story of one Latino student, the teacher shares the literature that she used and how one student responded.

  8. Cutbacks in Student Immigration: A Nail in the Coffin for Higher Education in the UK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lizzi; Pachauri, Anupam; Jha, Shashiranjan; Zhou, Tinghua; Sondhi, Gunjan; Rounsaville, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a "COMPARE" forum specifically designed for research students. The forum reflects a view from the ground on what is considered to be a pertinent and deeply personal issue among international research students, and also an issue of concern for the higher-education sector in the UK: that of the recently announced…

  9. Language Ideologies and Standard English Language Policy in Singapore: Responses of a "Designer Immigrant" Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on year-long critical ethnographic study conducted in a Singapore school and examines how the standard English language educational policy is interpreted by a Secondary 3 (Grade 9) female student from China. She is a member of an exclusive group of academically able students who has been carefully recruited by the local…

  10. Motivation to Study Core French: Comparing Recent Immigrants and Canadian-Born Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie J.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of Allophone students attending public schools in Canada continues to increase (Statistics Canada, 2008), it is clear that a need exists in English-dominant areas to purposefully address the integration of these students into core French. I report the findings of a mixed-method study that was conducted to assess and compare the…

  11. Teaching English to Immigrant Students in the United States: A Brief Summary of Programs and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Ramos Calvo

    2003-01-01

    Nearly ten per cent of the students currently attending public schools in the United States are classified as English Language Learners (ELL); that is to say, students who are learning English. The most important challenge this population brings to the educational authorities of their school districts and the schools they attend, is to find the most effective ways to teach them both English and the academic content pertaining to their grade. Since the methods traditionally used did not ...

  12. Navigating the digital divide: A systematic review of eHealth literacy in underserved populations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, Amy; Burke, Anne; Reyes, Jared; Rohrberg, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    eHealth provides an important mechanism to connect medically underserved populations with health information, but little is known about gaps in eHealth literacy research in underserved adult populations within the U.S. Between June and July 2013, three systematic literature reviews of five databases were conducted and a subsequent hand search was completed. Identified literature was screened and studies meeting exclusion and inclusion criteria were synthesized and analyzed for common themes. Of the 221 articles critically appraised, 15 met these criteria. Thirty-five of these studies were excluded due to international origin. Of the articles meeting the inclusion criteria, underserved populations assessed included immigrant women, the elderly, low-income, the un- and underemployed, and African-American and Hispanic populations. eHealth literacy assessments utilized included one or two item screeners, the eHEALS scale, health information competence and cognitive task analysis. Factors examined in relation to eHealth literacy included age, experience, overall health literacy, education, income and culture. The majority did not assess the impact of locality and those that did were predominately urban. These data suggest that there is a gap in the literature regarding eHealth literacy knowledge for underserved populations, and specifically those in rural locations, within the U.S.

  13. Acculturation and School Adjustment of Immigrant Youth in Six European Countries: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja K. Schachner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001 and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000, we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants’ acculturation orientations on school adjustment (school-related attitudes, truancy, and mathematics achievement through school belonging. Analyses were based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment from six European countries, which were combined into three clusters based on their migrant integration and multicultural policies: Those with the most supportive policies (Belgium and Finland, those with moderately supportive policies (Italy and Portugal, and those with the most unsupportive policies (Denmark and Slovenia. In a multigroup path model, we confirmed most associations. As expected, mainstream orientation predicted higher belonging and better outcomes in all clusters, whereas the added value of students’ ethnic orientation was only observed in some clusters. Results are discussed in terms of differences in acculturative climate and policies between countries of settlement.

  14. Treating diabetes in underserved populations using an interprofessional care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W Hutchison, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Community Health Centers that provide diabetic care for underserved patients have unique challenges. This study describes how interprofessional care improves outcomes and results in cost savings. Interprofessional diabetes education and structured team building are discussed. The team consisted of a physician, nurse practitioner, clinical pharmacist, and a number of pre-medicinal, nursing, and pharmacy students. The outcomes were measured at one year intervals for a total of three years. During the two year period with the interprofessional care team, the diabetic patients in this study achieved a 10% improvement in HgA1c, and 9% improvement in systolic blood pressure, a 5% improvement in diastolic blood pressure, and a 62.6% reduction in triglycerides. These findings suggest that this interprofessional care model in a free clinic significantly improved the HgA1c, triglycerides, and blood pressure.

  15. Exploring Democracy: Nordic Music Teachers' Approaches to the Development of Immigrant Students' Musical Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Sidsel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a multi-sited ethnographic study was taken as a point of departure for exploring how Nordic music teachers, who work in multicultural environments, understand the development of their students' musical agency. The study was based on theories developed within general sociology and the sociology of music, as well as in previous…

  16. In-state tuition for undocumented immigrants and its impact on college enrollment, tuition costs, student financial aid, and indebtedness

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Sparber, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The 1996 Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act barred states from giving unlawful residents postsecondary education benefits that states do not offer to U.S. citizens. In contrast to this federal law, several states have passed legislation explicitly allowing undocumented immigrants to pay in-state tuition rates. We use a difference-in-difference estimation methodology to assess intended and unintended consequences of this tuition policy. First, we find evidence consistent with past studi...

  17. A systematic literature review of undergraduate clinical placements in underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Paul E S; McLachlan, John C; Illing, Jan C

    2013-10-01

    The delivery of undergraduate clinical education in underserved areas is increasing in various contexts across the world in response to local workforce needs. A collective understanding of the impact of these placements is lacking. Previous reviews have often taken a positivist approach by only looking at outcome measures. This review addresses the question: What are the strengths and weaknesses for medical students and supervisors of community placements in underserved areas? A systematic literature review was carried out by database searching, citation searching, pearl growing, reference list checking and use of own literature. The databases included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and ERIC. The search terms used were combinations and variations of four key concepts exploring general practitioner (GP) primary care, medical students, placements and location characteristics. The papers were analysed using a textual narrative synthesis. The initial search identified 4923 results. After the removal of duplicates and the screening of titles and abstracts, 185 met the inclusion criteria. These full articles were obtained and assessed for their relevance to the research question; 54 were then included in the final review. Four main categories were identified: student performance, student perceptions, career pathways and supervisor experiences. This review reflects the emergent qualitative data as well as the quantitative data used to assess initiatives. Underserved area placements have produced many beneficial implications for students, supervisors and the community. There is a growing amount of evidence regarding rural, underserved areas, but little in relation to inner city, deprived areas, and none in the UK. © John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2013.

  18. Academic Trajectories of Newcomer Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytan, Francisco X.; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve…

  19. Immigrants and Immigration in Israeli Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhaki, Moshe; Richter, Nava

    Millions of people have immigrated to Israel throughout the 1900s and before. Immigration waves are considered the most important social, political, and economical turning points in the history of Israel. This study analyzes the content of Israeli children's books dealing with immigrants and immigration to determine the image of immigrants and…

  20. Immigration, "Any Small Goodness," and Integrated Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Michelle; Field, Sherry L.; Ledbetter, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Mary Ledbetter's fifth grade students at the University of Texas Elementary School know immigration well. Some of them are recent immigrants from Mexico, or they have family members who are. Several of Mary's students are first or second generation Americans. For Mary, immigration is one of the most important units she teaches, one that integrates…

  1. Teaching English to Immigrant Students in the United States: A Brief Summary of Programs and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ramos Calvo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Nearly ten per cent of the students currently attending public schools in the United States are classified as English Language Learners (ELL; that is to say, students who are learning English. The most important challenge this population brings to the educational authorities of their school districts and the schools they attend, is to find the most effective ways to teach them both English and the academic content pertaining to their grade. Since the methods traditionally used did not teach them either the vocabulary or the content needed for subjects such as Math or Science, they fell behind their English-speaking peers. It was necessary, then, to evolve toward a better integration of the language and the lesson content. The present article summarizes the objectives of the traditional methods, details the changes that have taken place in the last decades to improve the simultaneous teaching of English and academic content, and concludes with an explanation of the techniques most used today.

  2. Engaging Youth and Pre-Service Teachers in Immigration Deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    In this report of innovative teacher practice, the author describes an arts-based event which brought together adolescent refugee and immigrant students and pre-service teachers to deliberate about immigration policies and attitudes in the United States.

  3. Bridging Scientific Expertise to Underserved Communities: Initiating and Sustaining Local STEM Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tania; Kenney, Jessica; Maple, John

    2017-06-01

    This presentation will feature effective outreach strategies used to recruit, engage, and sustain student involvement from underserved communities in out-of-school science outreach programs. For example, one strategy is to partner with subject matter experts to provide your audience with a deeper understanding of and a unique perspective on current science. Join us to learn more about how you can initiate and sustain a STEM based program in your local community.

  4. 75 FR 32099 - Enterprise Duty To Serve Underserved Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... 2590-AA27 Enterprise Duty To Serve Underserved Markets AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION... Recovery Act of 2008 (HERA) amended section 1335 of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and... Enterprises) to serve three specified underserved markets--manufactured housing, affordable housing...

  5. Re-Presenting Slavery: Underserved Questions in Museum Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Cyra

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the notion of what, not who, is underserved in museum education. The importance of looking through, in, and from objects in order to uncover underserved questions and themes is vital. A willingness to consider new ways to approach collections and display is necessary to have a dialogue with our audiences about how museums can…

  6. Factors Predicting Academic Success in Second and Third Language among Russian-Speaking Immigrant Students Studying in Israeli Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Orly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors predicting academic proficiency (AP), the specialised domains required for performing academic tasks, among Russian speaking (L1) immigrants currently studying Hebrew as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3) in Israeli schools. Specifically, the study examined the…

  7. Acculturation and school adjustment of immigrant youth in six European countries : Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schachner, M.K.; He, J.; Heizmann, B.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2017-01-01

    School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001) and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants’

  8. Immigrant and Refugee Students across "Receiving" Nations: To What Extent Can Educators Rely on PISA for Answers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Massive population shift is a current global reality--especially given some of the latest development on European shores; some are calling it a humanitarian crisis. Although the United States (US) receives a large number of immigrants (documented and not) and about 70,000 refugees each year, it is certainly not the only nation to do so.…

  9. Using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning in Assessing Motivation and Learning Strategies of Generation 1.5 Korean Immigrant Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Stoffa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential of utilizing the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL as instruments in measuring Generation 1.5 students' motivation and their use of language learning strategies. The MSLQ was of particular interest because it contains both a basic motivation subscale as well as a motivation/language learning strategies subscale. Participants of this study were 104 Generation 1.5 Korean immigrant students who were members of Korean communities located in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Participants provided general demographic information and completed both scales in a counterbalanced manner. Results indicated that while the two scales do have some similar content, the scales do not overlap entirely and appeared to measure two discrete indices. Results also indicated that a moderate correlation between MSLQ learning strategies and SILL learning strategies was found as well as between the SILL total score and the MSLQ total score.

  10. Immigrant Enhoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelman, Tatiana

    the difficulties that integration practitioners encounter in their attempts. I then highlight how the initial necessity of social spaces that are culturally and linguistically familiar to recent immigrants has, in conjunction with other factors, led to the establishment of at times solidified Russian-language...

  11. Les usages numériques éducatifs des élèves allophones issus de l’immigration récente: une étude exploratoire / Educational digital uses by allophone students from recent immigration: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Collin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est de dresser un portrait des usages numériques éducatifs des élèves allophones issus de l’immigration récente, notamment en lien avec leurs usages numériques non éducatifs et leur compétence numérique, en vue de soutenir leur intégration linguistique et scolaire. Deux cent trente-six élèves de classes d’accueil de l’île de Montréal ont participé à une expérimentation enregistrée sur ordinateur. Les résultats indiquent que les usages numériques éducatifs sont peu intégrés aux usages non éducatifs que développent les élèves en contexte extrascolaire, ce qui ne semble pas démarquer les élèves allophones issus de l’immigration récente des élèves occidentaux. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the educational digital uses by allophone students from recent immigration, particularly in relation to their non-educational digital uses and their digital competence, in order to support their linguistic and academic integration. Two hundred thirty-six students from welcoming classes from the island of Montreal participated in an experiment recorded on computers. Results indicate that the educational digital uses are little integrated to non-educational uses developed by students in extracurricular settings, which does not seem to set allophone students from recent immigration apart from non-immigrant students.

  12. A national study on nurses' retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Jamal, Diana; Dimassi, Hani; Dumit, Nuhad Y; McEwen, Mary K; Jaafar, Maha; Murray, Susan F

    2013-09-30

    Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student's t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses' characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses' intent to stay in underserved areas. A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P job satisfaction and their intent to stay. This study reveals poor retention of nurses in rural and underserved

  13. Immigration Laws Are Education Laws Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David

    1994-01-01

    The 1965 Immigration Act has significantly influenced American institutions and agencies. This act, which focused on family reunification and desired occupational skills instead of racial origin, has resulted in a massive increase of immigrant students from Asia and Latin America without increased funding to educate and assimilate them. Reduction…

  14. Media Exposure and Attitudes towards Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Gálvez Javier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidences of the media?s infl uence on shaping the attitudes of the Spanish population towards the immigrant community, survey indicators have seldom been designed to explain the relationship between media coverage of immigrants and the attitudes of native towards this phenomenon. Using a sample of students, we examined the validity of different types of indicators used to measure the frequency of media consumption, the recall of news regarding immigration and the degree of media credibility in order to explain racist and xenophobic attitudes. Results reveal a clear association between the news media and native group attitudes towards immigration, thus demonstrating the usefulness of these indicators.

  15. Challenging Anti-Immigration Discourses in School and Community Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allexsaht-Snider, Martha; Buxton, Cory A.; Harman, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid migration shifts, anti-immigrant discourses in the public sphere, and harsh immigration policies have posed daunting challenges for immigrant students, their families, their teachers, and their communities in the 21st century. Trends in public discourse and law enforcement in the United States mirror developments in European countries with…

  16. Complicating Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Unpacking West African Immigrants' Cultural Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keisha McIntosh; Jackson, Iesha; Knight, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from a case study of 18 second- and 1.5-generation West African immigrants. We draw upon notions of elusive culture and indigenous knowledges to highlight participants' complex cultural identities and respond to anti-immigration discourses through positioning West African immigrant students as assets in American…

  17. Faculty Member's Guide to U.S. Immigration Law. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eugene H.; Baron, Marvin J.

    Immigration laws and regulations pertaining to foreign students and scholars are summarized as an aid to faculty members. Basic immigration documents and terminology are explained, including the passport, visa, immigration status or classification, Form 1-20 ID, the "green card", and Departure Record. Classes of nonimmigrants are described,…

  18. Medical advocacy on behalf of detained immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Homer D; Foote, Mary; Keller, Allen S

    2011-06-01

    Detention of immigrants by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a rapidly growing form of incarceration in the U.S. with almost 400,000 people detained in 2008 (Schriro in Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 2009, http://www.ice.gov/doclib/091005_ice_detention_report-final.pdf ). ICE detainees are predominantly from Mexico and Latin America and only a small minority of detainees are asylum seekers. Immigrant detainees lack a legal guarantee of medical care (unlike criminal arrestees and prisoners) and face challenges in receiving medical care, particularly those with chronic medical conditions (Venters and Keller in J Health Care Poor Underserved 20:951-957, 2009). Although we and others have long been involved in advocating for detained asylum seekers, few resources are dedicated to medical advocacy for the broader population of ICE detainees. At the NYU Center for Health and Human Rights (CHHR), a program of medical advocacy was initiated in 2007 on behalf of ICE detainees focused on improvement of care in detention and medical parole. Our preliminary efforts reveal a pressing need for more involvement by physicians and other health advocates in this area.

  19. Checks, Balances, and Resistance: The Impact of an Anti-Immigrant Federal Administration on a School for Immigrant Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Chandler P.

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 presidential election was dominated by anti-immigrant rhetoric where truths counted for less than bombast, obscuring the fact that the majority of refugees and immigrants are women and children. This article describes how teachers and students in a school for newly arrived immigrants are adapting to the reality of the new administration.

  20. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  1. School Engagement Trajectories of Immigrant Youth: Risks and Longitudinal Interplay with Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Masten, Ann; Asendorpf, Jens B.

    2015-01-01

    We examined behavioral school engagement trajectories of immigrant and non-immigrant early adolescents in relation to their academic achievement. Data were based on teacher judgments and school records. Students from immigrant families living in Greece and their non-immigrant classmates (N = 1057) were assessed over the three years of middle…

  2. Immigrant Students’ Achievements in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Šušterič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Achievement gaps between immigrant and native students indicate failure to assure educational equity in the majority of countries assessed by the Programme for International Student Assessment in 2009 (PISA, 2009. The present article explains disparate achievement results in Europe, first testing the hypothesis of old and new democracies. In further contextualisation of the achievement results, the analysis seeks explanations beyond the common education system explanatory model. Specifically, the article considers results from Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia, highlighting the significance of language distance between native and immigrant students as well as migration regimes as important factors in creating or reducing the achievement gap between native and immigrant students. Evidence has been found that immigrant students score worse in countries with guest labour immigration regimes than in the countries with large scale forced immigration of people of the same ethnic (linguistic origin.

  3. ESL Placement and Schools: Effects on Immigrant Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn.

  4. Financial incentives for return of service in underserved areas: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many geographic regions, both in developing and in developed countries, the number of health workers is insufficient to achieve population health goals. Financial incentives for return of service are intended to alleviate health worker shortages: A (future health worker enters into a contract to work for a number of years in an underserved area in exchange for a financial pay-off. Methods We carried out systematic literature searches of PubMed, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database for studies evaluating outcomes of financial-incentive programs published up to February 2009. To identify articles for review, we combined three search themes (health workers or students, underserved areas, and financial incentives. In the initial search, we identified 10,495 unique articles, 10,302 of which were excluded based on their titles or abstracts. We conducted full-text reviews of the remaining 193 articles and of 26 additional articles identified in reference lists or by colleagues. Forty-three articles were included in the final review. We extracted from these articles information on the financial-incentive programs (name, location, period of operation, objectives, target groups, definition of underserved area, financial incentives and obligation and information on the individual studies (authors, publication dates, types of study outcomes, study design, sample criteria and sample size, data sources, outcome measures and study findings, conclusions, and methodological limitations. We reviewed program results (descriptions of recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction, program effects (effectiveness in influencing health workers to provide care, to remain, and to be satisfied with work and personal life in underserved areas, and program impacts (effectiveness in influencing health systems and health outcomes

  5. Financial incentives for return of service in underserved areas: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E

    2009-05-29

    In many geographic regions, both in developing and in developed countries, the number of health workers is insufficient to achieve population health goals. Financial incentives for return of service are intended to alleviate health worker shortages: A (future) health worker enters into a contract to work for a number of years in an underserved area in exchange for a financial pay-off. We carried out systematic literature searches of PubMed, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database for studies evaluating outcomes of financial-incentive programs published up to February 2009. To identify articles for review, we combined three search themes (health workers or students, underserved areas, and financial incentives). In the initial search, we identified 10,495 unique articles, 10,302 of which were excluded based on their titles or abstracts. We conducted full-text reviews of the remaining 193 articles and of 26 additional articles identified in reference lists or by colleagues. Forty-three articles were included in the final review. We extracted from these articles information on the financial-incentive programs (name, location, period of operation, objectives, target groups, definition of underserved area, financial incentives and obligation) and information on the individual studies (authors, publication dates, types of study outcomes, study design, sample criteria and sample size, data sources, outcome measures and study findings, conclusions, and methodological limitations). We reviewed program results (descriptions of recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction), program effects (effectiveness in influencing health workers to provide care, to remain, and to be satisfied with work and personal life in underserved areas), and program impacts (effectiveness in influencing health systems and health outcomes). Of the 43 reviewed studies 34

  6. The Relationship Between Immigrant School Composition, Classmate Support and Involvement in Physical Fighting and Bullying among Adolescent Immigrants and Non-immigrants in 11 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Sophie D; De Clercq, Bart; Molcho, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Contradictory findings regarding the relationship between immigrant school composition (the percentage of immigrant versus non-immigrant students in a school) and adol...... influences levels of peer violence. The results highlight a need for school intervention programs encouraging positive relations in schools with immigrant populations.......) and adolescent peer violence necessitate further consideration. The current study examined the relationship between immigrant school composition and peer violence, considering classmate support as a potential moderator among 51,636 adolescents (50.1 % female) from 11 countries. The findings showed that a higher...

  7. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Immigration beyond Ellis Island: Suggestions for Teaching about Immigration in the Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Kazi I.

    2014-01-01

    America's history books abound with stories of immigrants who contributed to the development of this country. In terms of social studies curriculum, all states require schools to teach about immigration. However, the question is how to teach this topic in a manner that will give students--elementary through high school--a better understanding of…

  9. Connecting Worlds: Using Photo Narrations to Connect Immigrant Children, Preschool Teachers, and Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Martha J.; Keat, Jane B.; Marinak, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in immigrant children to U.S. preschools have introduced unique challenges to teachers. An awareness of disconnections between a homogeneous teaching population and the increasingly diverse student population calls for additional exploration of enhancing connections to facilitate the young immigrants' learning process in the classroom.…

  10. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  11. Employing Young Talent from Underserved Populations: Designing a Flexible Organizational Process for Assimilation and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Mark Langer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an ongoing 13-year-old program designed to improve the ability of organizations to assimilate young talent from underserved populations, mostly students who have recently graduated from high school. Although many firms have internship and orientation programs, few have well-tested organizational approaches for assimilating 17-20 year-olds into their organizations in an efficient and productive manner. The objective of this study is to describe and evaluate the solution introduced by Workforce Opportunity Services (WOS, a non-profit agency that provides organizations with well-trained talent from underserved local communities. The WOS model is a systemic design involving a lead agency (WOS, corporate clients, training partnerships with local colleges and universities, and underutilized human capital. Over 290 students have completed the WOS program and obtained long-term employment, mostly in IT jobs that normally are outsourced. The results of the study show that companies have success employing young talent when they follow the WOS organizational process. Companies need to have patience with WOS student employees, but within six months most members of the WOS program make positive contributions to their sponsoring firm and have a strong likelihood of becoming permanently employed. Implications of the WOS model for organization design are discussed.

  12. Determinants of participation in a cardiometabolic health check among underserved groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Groenenberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic diseases affect underserved groups disparately. Participation in health checks is also lower, widening health inequalities in society. Two-stage screening (non-invasive health risk assessment (HRA and GP consultations for high-risk individuals seems cost-effective, provided that drop-out rates are low in both steps. We aimed to explore the process of decision-making regarding HRA participation among underserved groups (45–70 y: native Dutch with a lower socioeconomic status (SES, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese participants. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study. The questionnaire comprised the following determinants: a self-formulated first reaction, a structured set of predefined determinants, and the most important barrier(s and facilitator(s for HRA completion. We used univariable and (stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess which determinants were associated with HRA completion. Of the 892 participants in the questionnaire, 78% (n = 696 also completed the HRA. Moroccans and patients from GP practices with a predominantly non-Western population less often completed the HRA. A lower SES score, wanting to know one's risk, not remembering receiving the invitation (thus requiring a phone call, fear of the test result and/or adjusting lifestyle, perceived control of staying healthy, wanting to participate, and perceiving no barriers were associated with completing the HRA. We conclude that our ‘hard-to-reach’ population may not be unwilling to participate in the HRA. A more comprehensive approach, involving key figures within a community informing people about and providing help completing the HRA, would possibly be more suitable. Efforts should be particularly targeted at the less acculturated immigrants with an external locus of control.

  13. Contributions to Variations in Academic Trajectories amongst Recent Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Bang, Hee Jin; Onaga, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Immigration presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Over the course of five years, varying academic trajectories were identified for recent immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve analysis revealed that although some students…

  14. The ASSURE Summer REU Program: Introducing research to first-generation and underserved undergraduates through space sciences and engineering projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Darcy; Peticolas, Laura; Multiverse Team at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Lab

    2018-01-01

    The Advancing Space Science through Undergraduate Research Experience (ASSURE) summer REU program is an NSF-funded REU site at the Space Sciences Lab at UC Berkeley that first started in summer 2014. The program recruits students from all STEM majors, targeting underserved students including community college students and first-generation college students. The students have little or no research experience and a wide variety of academic backgrounds, but have a shared passion for space sciences and astronomy. We will describe our program's structure and the components we have found successful in preparing and supporting both the students and their research advisors for their summer research projects. This includes an intensive first week of introductory lectures and tutorials at the start of the program, preparing students for working in an academic research environment. The program also employs a multi-tiered mentoring system, with layers of support for the undergraduate student cohort, as well as graduate student and postdoctoral research advisors.

  15. Mentors, Resiliency, and Ganas: Factors Influencing the Success of DACAmented, Undocumented, and Immigrant Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Raúl; Lopez, William; Overton, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research has explored the psychological and emotional challenges undocumented students encounter while accessing higher education, yet few studies have specifically investigated the factors that facilitate success once admitted. Semistructured interviews with former or current undocumented students suggest that factors such as mentors,…

  16. Hepatitis B ESL education for Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vicky M; Gregory Hislop, T; Bajdik, Christopher; Teh, Chong; Lam, Wendy; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Yasui, Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Asian communities in North America include large numbers of immigrants with limited English proficiency. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in most Asian countries and, therefore, Asian immigrant groups have high rates of chronic HBV infection. We conducted a group-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a hepatitis B English as a second language (ESL) educational curriculum for Asian immigrants. Eighty ESL classes were randomized to experimental (hepatitis B education) or control (physical activity education) status. Students who reported they had not received a HBV test (at baseline) completed a follow-up survey 6 months after randomization. The follow-up survey assessed recent HBV testing and HBV-related knowledge. Provider reports were used to verify self-reported HBV tests. The study group included 218 students who reported they had not been tested for HBV. Follow-up surveys were completed by 180 (83%) of these students. Provider records verified HBV testing for 6% of the experimental group students and 0% of the control group students (P = 0.02). Experimental group students were significantly (P ESL curriculum had a meaningful impact on HBV-related knowledge and a limited impact on HBV testing levels. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of ESL curricula for other immigrant groups and other health topics, as well as other intervention approaches to increasing levels of HBV testing in Asian immigrant communities.

  17. Empowering underserved populations through cancer prevention and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Davis, Jenna L; Escobar, Myriam; Inda, Nikki Ross; Paige, Linda; Palencia, Jeannette; Vives, Maria; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that cancer is disproportionately distributed in racial/ethnic minority groups and medically underserved communities. In addition, cancer prevention and early detection represent the key defenses to combat cancer. The purpose of this article is to showcase the comprehensive health education and community outreach activities at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute (Moffitt) designed to promote and increase access to and utilization of prevention and early detection services among underserved populations. One of Moffitt's most important conduits for cancer prevention and early detection among underserved populations is through its community education and outreach initiatives, in particular, the Moffitt Program for Outreach Wellness Education and Resources (M-POWER). M-POWER works to empower underserved populations to make positive health choices and increase screening behaviors through strengthening collaboration and partnerships, providing community-based health education/promotion, and increasing access to care. Effective, empowering, and culturally and linguistically competent health education and community outreach, is key to opening the often impenetrable doors of cancer prevention and early detection to this society's most vulnerable populations.

  18. Occupational Health and Sleep Issues in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliny, Medhat; McKenzie, Judith Green

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorders and occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses impact an individual's overall health. In the United States, substantial racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities exist in sleep and occupational health. Primary care physicians working in underserved communities should be aware of this disparity and target these higher-risk populations for focused evaluation and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a psychological skills training programme for underserved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of a psychological skills training programme for underserved rugby union players. ... The programme's effectiveness was further validated by the experimental group's feedback. Recommendations are made for future research, as well as practical application within existing rugby development programmes in South ...

  20. Attitudes towards immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...

  1. The Ideal Immigrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  2. Exploratory Research on the Attitudes and Behaviors of Teachers from Chile in the Immigrant Student School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Valeria Sanhueza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research assesses the opinion of elementary and high school students (n=339 on the instructional attitudes and behaviors of teachers at schools in Chile that enroll children and young foreigners. For this purpose, we used the Teacher Attitude and Behavior Towards Diversity Scale (Sanhueza, 2010, whose exploratory factor analysis groups 16 items on two factors, enabling the distinction between the teachers Attitude of Respect and their Fair Treatment towards students, including 12 items, and the Teachers Instructional Behavior, including four items. The results reveal that respondents perceived their teachers’ attitudes and behaviors largely inclusive and they greatly value the respect, careful listening and support teachers show them when they have learning difficulties. Regarding gender, there were statistically significant differences in the responses on female students’ favor, while comparing responses depending on educative stage, high school students find more inclusive attitudes and practices in their teachers.

  3. Multicultural Milky Way: Ethnoastronomy and Planetarium Shows for Under-served Arizonans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen

    2018-01-01

    The astronomy outreach initiative, Multicultural Milky Way, partners the School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) at Arizona State University (ASU) with under-served populations in Arizona in learning about our Milky Way and other galaxies. Arizona is home to many diverse populations with rich cultural histories such as Mayan, Navajo, and Apache. Linking astronomy practiced by one’s indigenous culture to that of Western astronomy may increase the interest in science. Through multicultural planetarium shows and associated hands-on activities, under-served students and families will learn how the Milky Way is represented in different cultures and about the science of galaxies. New planetarium shows using the Mesa Community College (MCC) Digital Planetarium and STARLAB portable planetarium explore how the Milky Way is interpreted in different cultures. STARLAB shows and associated new hands-on activities have been featured during school visits, teacher trainings, and Community Astronomy Nights around Arizona. For authentic assessment, evaluation techniques and procedures were developed.

  4. Postcolonial Perspectives on the Inclusion of Immigrant Students in Galiza, Spain Perspectivas Postcoloniales sobre la Acogida del Alumnado Inmigrante en Galiza, España.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Teasley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study offers a critical exploration of educational policy in Galiza (or Galicia, Spain, in light of the growing cultural diversity of its population and its own socio-cultural history. By situating schools' "welcoming" (acogida, or reception and inclusion, of immigrant students within a broad, transversal terrain of postcolonial and relational (McCarthy, 1993 and 2005 analysis–one that traverses disciplinary perspectives and national and historical contexts–the main intent is to reflect on specific aspects of the official inclusion policy in order to help transform schooling into a more just and integrative cross-cultural institution. A series of ethnographic observations currently underway in educational communities of the four provinces of Galiza will provide some initial impressions of this policy as seen from the necessary perspectives of practice in schools. Some key questions include: What relevance does the postcolonial perspective have for the educational integration of immigrant students in Galiza? Does the mere development of a postcolonial awareness among teachers and students, as well as a relational understanding of today's world, constitute a potentially transformational, even emancipatory, pedagogical and curricular intervention? It is argued that it does, to the extent that it reveals the assimilationist orientation of integration, in the currently predominant approaches to inclusion or welcoming. Este estudio representa una exploración crítica de la política educativa de Galiza (o Galicia, España, ante la creciente diversidad cultural de su población y ante su propia historia sociocultural. Al situar la "acogida" escolar del alumnado de origen inmigrante dentro de un amplio terreno transversal de análisis postcolonial y relacional (McCarthy, 1993 y 2005—uno que atraviesa perspectivas disciplinarias y contextos nacionales e históricos—la intención principal es reflexionar

  5. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...... the impact of the increased number of immigrants differs between the two countries. We find higher inequality for immigrants than natives in Denmark but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this particular inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution...... of immigrants to overall inequality has increased, primarily caused by increased between-group inequality. The share of immigrants in the population is more important for the change in overall inequality in Denmark than in Germany, while the opposite is the case for inequality among immigrants....

  6. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration.

  7. America's immigration "problem.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, S

    1989-01-01

    Immigration has traditionally aroused strong passions in the US. Though Americans profess pride in their history as a nation of immigrants, each new wave of immigrants is met with strenuous opposition. Sassen points out that this opposition underestimates the US's capacity to absorb more people and fails to appreciate the political and economic forces that give rise to immigration. The outcry over rising illegal immigration culminated in the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. So far, the law's effectiveness has been limited. 1.8 million immigrants applied to regularize their status. However, there is growing evidence that the employer sanctions program is resulting in discrimination against minority workers who are US citizens, and in various abuses against undocumented workers. Meanwhile, illegal immigration continues to rise. The 1986 law, like earlier laws, is based o a faulty understanding of immigration causes. The US played a crucial role in the 1960s and 1970s in developing today's global economic system. This system contributed to the creation of pools of potential immigrants and to the formation of links between the industrialized and developing countries. In sum, foreign investment and promotion of export-oriented growth i the US in developing countries has served to increase immigration to the US. A workable US immigration policy would be based o the recognition that the US bears a certain amount of responsibility for international labor migrations. The precise features of a fair immigration policy will have to be elaborated. However, it is clear that US immigration policy will continue to be counterproductive as long as it places the responsibility for the formation of international migrations exclusively upon the migrants themselves.

  8. Leadership Advocacy: Bringing Nursing to the Homeless and Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    Nurses have historically played a key role in advocacy and service for all members of the community, including those who are traditionally underserved by other providers or the health system. Nurses from a local Atlanta community health system, both clinical and administrative, have continued this tradition by developing an advocacy and service program for the downtown homeless of Atlanta. From its beginnings as a highly informal volunteer program to its current structure as a strongly integrated community health center for the underserved and homeless of Atlanta, local nurses have demonstrated their strong value of service advocacy. Their leadership, insight, discipline, and strategic development have facilitated the growth of a focused, viable health service network for marginalized people of the city of Atlanta.

  9. Mid-Childhood Immigrant Perspectives on Achieving College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwicki, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This study extends what is known about the experience of mid-childhood immigration. Fifteen participants, college students who immigrated to the U.S. from Latin America between the ages of 8 and 16 and who had completed at least a semester of transferable college-level coursework, provided their narratives by way of an open-ended interview…

  10. The geographic accessibility of retail clinics for underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Armstrong, Katrina

    2009-05-25

    The extent to which retail clinics provide access to care for underserved populations remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether retail clinics tend to be located in census tracts with higher medical need. The locations of retail clinics as of July 1, 2008, were mapped and linked to the 2000 US Census and 2008 Health Resources and Services Administration data. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models with random effects were used to compare the characteristics of census tracts with and without retail clinics. To determine whether retail clinics followed the underlying distribution of chain stores, the location of clinics conditional on there being a chain store was analyzed in 6 counties. Of the 932 retail clinics, 930 were successfully mapped. Eighteen states had no retail clinics, and 17 states had 25 or more clinics. Within counties with at least 1 retail clinic, census tracts with retail clinics had a lower black population percentage, lower poverty rates, and higher median incomes and were less likely to be medically underserved areas/populations compared with census tracts without retail clinics. Similarly, stores with retail clinics were less likely to be located in medically underserved areas compared with stores without retail clinics. Retail clinics are currently located in more advantaged neighborhoods, which may make them less accessible for those most in need.

  11. French immigration policy since May 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deley, M

    1983-01-01

    its policies: to limit the entry of new foreigners; to end the precariousness which has characterized the existence of many immigrant families in France; and to examine immigration problems through bilateral negotiation with various sending countries. The immigration policy developed and carried out by the Mitterand administration during its first 15 months in office expressed an attitude of generosity towards established immigrants and external rigor vis-a-vis new immigration. The generosity of the new government is evident in the limitations placed on expulsion and detention, the guarantee of due process of law and all job-related rights for undocumented foreigners, the reaffirmation of family reunification, easier access to "privileged" immigrant status, the extension of the right of employment to foreign students and to Polish and Lebanese refugees, and new legislation guaranteeing the right of association to immigrants. The government's desire to control immigration more effectively is evident in the tightening of control at France's borders and in the substantial increases in sanctions against employers of clandestine workers.

  12. Multilingual Immigrants' French and English Acquisition in Grade 6 French Immersion: Evidence as Means to Improve Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2018-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the success of voluntary immigrants in Grade 6 French immersion with a double comparison to Canadian-born (a) Anglophones and (b) multilingual students (children of voluntary immigrants). The findings, that show the immigrant students to outperform the other two groups in French and English, are explored through a…

  13. Policy Implications of Limiting Immigrant Concentration in Danish Public Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Thomsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant students in Denmark on average perform worse in lower secondary school than native Danish students. Part of the effect may not stem from the immigrant students themselves, but from the student composition at the school. From a policy perspective, the latter aspect is quite interesting...... since it is more feasible to change student composition in schools than the socioeconomic status of the individual students.This article describes theoretically the circumstances under which total student achievement can be increased by reallocating certain groups of students. Empirical analyses......’ educational outcome, by limiting the share of immigrant students at grade level at any one school to less than 50 percent. The policy implications of this finding are discussed....

  14. Effect of Active Videogames on Underserved Children's Classroom Behaviors, Effort, and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Jung Eun; Pope, Zachary; Zhang, Dachao

    2016-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active videogames (AVGs) on underserved minority children's on-task classroom behavior, academic effort, and fitness. A one group pre- and posttest repeated measures design was used. In Fall 2013, 95 fourth grade children (57 boys, 38 girls; 96% of minority) from three classes at an underserved urban elementary school participated in teacher-supervised AVG activities (e.g., Wii Sports, Xbox Just Dance). Specifically, students participated in a 50-minute weekly AVG program at school for 6 weeks. Children's academic effort was evaluated by classroom teachers using a validated scale that assessed activity, attention, conduct, and social/emotional behavior. Moreover, children's classroom behavior was observed immediately before and after each AVG session by trained researchers. Finally, cardiovascular fitness was also measured. A paired t-test was used to assess teacher-rated student effort, while one-way (gender) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was performed to analyze children's on-task classroom behavior. There was a significant effect on children's effort between the first (mean = 3.24, SD = 0.75) and last week (mean = 3.41, SD = 0.73) assessments, t = 2.42, P = 0.02. In addition, there was a significant effect on classroom behavior, F = 33.103, P < 0.01. In detail, children scored significantly higher on on-task behavior during the post-AVG observation (mean = 81.4, SD = 12.3) than seen during the pre-AVG observation (mean = 69.8, SD = 14.9). However, no main effect was indicated for gender, F = 0.39, P = 0.54. No significant improvement in cardiovascular fitness was observed, although slight improvements were seen. Offering an AVG program at school could improve underserved minority children's classroom on-task behavior and academic effort. Future studies may include a control group to further confirm the effectiveness of AVG

  15. Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - U.S. Immigrant Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG

    2007-01-01

    Hearing on 'Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - US Immigrant Integration,' Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Serial No. 110-27. May 16, 2007. Abstract: In this statement to a House Hearing on comprehensive immigration reform focusing on immigrant integration, English and foreign language competencies, preferences and use among immigrants and thei...

  16. Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara E.

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching

  17. Is Integration Always most Adaptive? The Role of Cultural Identity in Academic Achievement and in Psychological Adaptation of Immigrant Students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, Kristin; Stanat, Petra; Edele, Aileen

    2018-01-01

    Immigrant adaptation research views identification with the mainstream context as particularly beneficial for sociocultural adaptation, including academic achievement, and identification with the ethnic context as particularly beneficial for psychological adaptation. A strong identification with both contexts is considered most beneficial for both outcomes (integration hypothesis). However, it is unclear whether the integration hypothesis applies in assimilative contexts, across different outcomes, and across different immigrant groups. This study investigates the association of cultural identity with several indicators of academic achievement and psychological adaptation in immigrant adolescents (N = 3894, 51% female, M age = 16.24, SD age  = 0.71) in Germany. Analyses support the integration hypothesis for aspects of psychological adaptation but not for academic achievement. Moreover, for some outcomes, findings vary across immigrant groups from Turkey (n = 809), the former Soviet Union (n = 712), and heterogeneous other countries (n = 2373). The results indicate that the adaptive potential of identity integration is limited in assimilative contexts, such as Germany, and that it may vary across different outcomes and groups. As each identification is positively associated with at least one outcome, however, both identification dimensions seem to be important for the adaptation of immigrant adolescents.

  18. Undocumented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the plight of undocumented immigrant students in the United States. Fights have been waged in various state legislatures over the past few years concerning whether undocumented immigrant students should be able to benefit from in-state tuition rates at public colleges and universities. But a story in The Wall Street Journal…

  19. Diabetes Self-management Quality Improvement Initiative for Medically Underserved Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Haesun; Thompson, Mark; Kreider, Kathryn Evans; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    The burden of diabetes is greater for minorities and medically underserved populations in the United States. An evidence-based provider-delivered diabetes self-management education intervention was implemented in a federally qualified health center for medically underserved adult patients with type 2 diabetes. The findings provide support for the efficacy of the intervention on improvement in self-management behaviors and glycemic control among underserved patients with diabetes, while not substantially changing provider visit time or workload.

  20. The integration of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Bauböck, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    from the Table of Contents: Migration and integration - Basic concepts and definitions; Immigration and Integration policies; The legal framework for integration; Dimension of social integration; Cultural integration; Conclusions;

  1. "Trying to Be Accepted": Exploring Foreign-Born Immigrants' Interactions with Faculty and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Rost-Banik, Colleen; Greene, Elizabeth; DeAngelo, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This multi-institutional qualitative study included an examination of foreign-born, undergraduate, immigrant college students' interactions with faculty members and student affairs professionals. Individual interviews with 103 immigrant students--representing over 40 countries--were collected across three U.S.-based institutions. Using…

  2. Higher education and children in immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Flores, Stella M

    2011-01-01

    The increasing role that immigrants and their children, especially those from Latin America, are playing in American society, Sandy Baum and Stella Flores argue, makes it essential that as many young newcomers as possible enroll and succeed in postsecondary education. Immigrant youths from some countries find the doors to the nation's colleges wide open. But other groups, such as those from Latin America, Laos, and Cambodia, often fail to get a postsecondary education. Immigration status itself is not a hindrance. The characteristics of the immigrants, such as their country of origin, race, and parental socioeconomic status, in addition to the communities, schools, and legal barriers that greet them in the United States, explain most of that variation. Postsecondary attainment rates of young people who come from low-income households and, regardless of income or immigration status, whose parents have no college experience are low across the board. Exacerbating the financial constraints is the reality that low-income students and those whose parents have little education are frequently ill prepared academically to succeed in college. The sharp rise in demand for skilled labor over the past few decades has made it more urgent than ever to provide access to postsecondary education for all. And policy solutions, say the authors, require researchers to better understand the differences among immigrant groups. Removing barriers to education and to employment opportunities for undocumented students poses political, not conceptual, problems. Providing adequate funding for postsecondary education through low tuition and grant aid is also straightforward, if not easy to accomplish. Assuring that Mexican immigrants and others who grow up in low-income communities have the opportunity to prepare themselves academically for college is more challenging. Policies to improve the elementary and secondary school experiences of all children are key to improving the postsecondary

  3. Coping with Illegal Immigrants in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Superintendent Steve Joel had reason to be concerned when he got a call from the police chief telling him that federal immigration authorities were coming to the local Swift & Company meat-packing plant to round up undocumented workers as part of a six-state raid. Of the 8,000 students in the Grand Island School District in Central Nebraska,…

  4. Implementing academic detailing for breast cancer screening in underserved communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford Alfred R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American and Hispanic women, such as those living in the northern Manhattan and the South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City, are generally underserved with regard to breast cancer prevention and screening practices, even though they are more likely to die of breast cancer than are other women. Primary care physicians (PCPs are critical for the recommendation of breast cancer screening to their patients. Academic detailing is a promising strategy for improving PCP performance in recommending breast cancer screening, yet little is known about the effects of academic detailing on breast cancer screening among physicians who practice in medically underserved areas. We assessed the effectiveness of an enhanced, multi-component academic detailing intervention in increasing recommendations for breast cancer screening within a sample of community-based urban physicians. Methods Two medically underserved communities were matched and randomized to intervention and control arms. Ninety-four primary care community (i.e., not hospital based physicians in northern Manhattan were compared to 74 physicians in the South Bronx neighborhoods of the New York City metropolitan area. Intervention participants received enhanced physician-directed academic detailing, using the American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer. Control group physicians received no intervention. We conducted interviews to measure primary care physicians' self-reported recommendation of mammography and Clinical Breast Examination (CBE, and whether PCPs taught women how to perform breast self examination (BSE. Results Using multivariate analyses, we found a statistically significant intervention effect on the recommendation of CBE to women patients age 40 and over; mammography and breast self examination reports increased across both arms from baseline to follow-up, according to physician self-report. At post-test, physician

  5. Crowdsourced Microfinance for Energy Efficiency in Underserved Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Donnel [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States); Cox, Morris [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States); Harmarneh, Sarey [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States); Zheng, Chen [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-06-21

    BlocPower’s mission is to provide access to energy efficiency financing for underserved communities across the United States. This project, “Crowdsourced Microfinance for Energy Efficiency in Underserved Communities,” is an extension of that goal and is grounded in the principles of providing engineering and financing services to those in need. The project is based on the creation of a BlocPower Marketplace as a central hub for connecting shovel-ready green buildings to institutional investors. This ‘connection’ entails using online crowdfunding to aggregate debt and equity capital from institutional investors to connect to customers (building owners) across various financial portfolios. BlocPower Marketplace is intended to bring social, environmental, and financial returns to investors while also decreasing investor risk by loaning out funds for energy installations in individual buildings. In detail, the intended benefits of crowdsourcing are two-sided. Firstly, for building owners, clean energy retrofit installations improve building operations, reduce utility costs, and reduce harmful impacts to their surrounding environment. Secondly, for institutional investors, they gain access to a new market of energy efficiency and are able to provide debt or equity capital with high financial returns. This gives investors the opportunity to create social and environmental impact in communities around the country as well. With this in mind, BlocPower designed the marketplace to specifically answer exploratory research questions with respect to the pricing of energy financing. Institutional investors typically charge high rates on project financing solutions in the energy space, particularly in low and middle-income communities, because of fears that required debt service will not be made. This makes access to energy capital exorbitantly difficult for those that need it the most. Through this project, BlocPower tested investor appetite to determine if

  6. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Hussain, Azhar; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades most Western countries have experienced increased net immigration as well as increased income inequality. This article analyzes the effects on income inequality of an increased number of immigrants in Denmark and Germany for the 20- year period 1984-2003 and how...

  7. Irelands' Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culleton, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    In industrialised Western nations generally, and European Union (EU) nations particularly, immigration is an issue of considerable concern and debate. In the EU, however, discussion of immigration has tended to centre on a number of policy issues, from reliance on welfare provision, to labour force participation, to healthcare provision, to…

  8. Educating Recent Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles all related to the theme of education for recent legal and illegal immigrants. In "Golden Lord with Us from the Main Forest: Some Thoughts on the Education of Recent Immigrants," Aurelio M. Montemayor reflects on his experiences growing up in a bilingual, bicultural extended family of…

  9. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  10. School Counsellors and Cultural Diversity Management in Spanish Secondary Schools: The Role of Relations with Other Educators and Intervention Models Used in Care of Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Falcón, Inmaculada; Coronel, José M.; Correa, R. Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the influx of immigrant pupils in Spanish schools has taken up much of school counsellors' agendas. This leads us to reflect upon the status and role of educational guidance in terms of cultural diversity management, particularly focusing on two elements that may potentially help understand the situation: relations with…

  11. On the move: Analyzing immigration determinants and immigrant outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372640060

    2017-01-01

    Given the increased number of immigrants worldwide, the determinants of immigration and the social and economic integration of immigrants into the countries of destination are of particular importance. The contributions of this dissertation address the determinants of immigration by looking at the

  12. Age at Immigration and Educational Attainment of Young Immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were

  13. Attitudes toward immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....

  14. Holdninger til Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger....

  15. Holdninger til immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    Denne artikel belyser holdninger til immigration blandt borgere i Danmark og de øvrige EU-15 lande - herunder holdningerne til immigration, der følger af den seneste EU-udvidelse. Det analyseres, hvilke faktorer der ligger til frund for disse holdninger, samt i hvilken udstrækning danskere afviger...... fra EU-gennemsnittet. Den typiske dansker er lidt mere skeptisk overfor immigration end andre europæere. Danskerne afskiller sig desuden ved, at forholdsvis få forbinder øget immigration med negative konsekvenser for arbejdsmarkedet, men forholdsvis mange forbinder det med højere omkostninger...... for velfærdsstaten. Når der tages hensyn til opfattelserne af de økonomiske konsekvenser af immigration, kommer Danmark til at fremstå som et væsentligt mere immigrationsskeptisk land, end hvad der kommer til udtryk i de ukorrigerede holdninger...

  16. Collaboration with pharmacy services in a family practice for the medically underserved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pharmacist-managed collaborative services in a family practice setting are described, and diabetes and hypertension outcomes are assessed.Methods: Pharmacist-managed clinics, pharmacotherapy consultations, and drug information services are provided for a medically underserved, predominantly African American population. A pharmacy residency director, an ambulatory care pharmacy resident and three PharmD candidate student pharmacists work directly with physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, and social workers to form an interdisciplinary health care team. Providers utilize pharmacy services through consultations and referrals. Collaboration outcomes were evaluated in twenty-two patients with diabetes and thirty hypertensive patients. Patients were retrospectively followed throughout their history with pharmacy service. Hemoglobin A1c (A1C was tracked before referral to pharmacy services, 3 to 6 months after, and as the most current measure after at least 6 months. Blood pressure (BP was observed before pharmacy involvement, 2 to 4 months later, and then currently for at least 4 months with the service. The mean of the most current markers was calculated, and the percent of patients at their goal marker was compared to national averages.Results: Fifty percent of pharmacy service patients met the American Diabetes Association hemoglobin A1c goal of less than 7% in our evaluation compared to the national mean of 49.8% overall and 44% in African Americans. Thirty percent of patients were at their BP goal while 33.1% of patients without diabetes and 33.2% of patients with diabetes nationally are at goal. Conclusion: The medically underserved patients under the care of pharmacy services achieved a higher percentage at their A1C goal than the national mean. The percentage of patients who achieved their BP goals was comparable to the national average. Increasing utilization of pharmacy services in the family practice setting allows for

  17. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  18. Leveraging Telehealth to Bring Volunteer Physicians Into Underserved Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Rudin, Robert; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-06-01

    Many disadvantaged communities lack sufficient numbers of local primary care and specialty physicians. Yet tens of thousands of physicians, in particular those who are retired or semiretired, desire meaningful volunteer opportunities. Multiple programs have begun to use telehealth to bridge the gap between volunteer physicians and underserved patients. In this brief, we describe programs that are using this model and discuss the promise and pitfalls. Physician volunteers in these programs report that the work can be fulfilling and exciting, a cutting-edge yet convenient way to remain engaged and contribute. Given the projected shortfall of physicians in the United States, recruiting retired and semiretired physicians to provide care through telehealth increases the total supply of active physicians and the capacity of the existing workforce. However, programs typically use volunteers in a limited capacity because of uncertainty about the level and duration of commitment. Acknowledging this reality, most programs only use volunteer physicians for curbside consults rather than fully integrating them into longitudinal patient care. The part-time availability of volunteers may also be difficult to incorporate into the workflow of busy safety net clinics. As more physicians volunteer in a growing number of telehealth programs, the dual benefits of enriching the professional lives of volunteers and improving care for underserved communities will make further development of these programs worthwhile.

  19. Physical Activity in an Underserved Population: Identifying Technology Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medairos, Robert; Kang, Vicky; Aboubakare, Carissa; Kramer, Matthew; Dugan, Sheila Ann

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify patterns of use and preferences related to technology platforms that could support physical activity (PA) programs in an underserved population. A 29-item questionnaire was administered at 5 health and wellness sites targeting low income communities in Chicago. Frequency tables were generated for Internet, cell phone, and social media use and preferences. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate differences across age and income groups. A total of 291 individuals participated and were predominantly female (69.0%). Majority reported incomes less than $30,000 (72.9%) and identified as African American/Black/Caribbean (49.3%) or Mexican/Mexican American (34.3%). Most participants regularly used smartphones (63.2%) and the Internet (75.9%). Respondents frequently used Facebook (84.8%), and less commonly used Instagram (43.6%), and Twitter (20.0%). Free Internet-based exercise programs were the most preferred method to increase PA levels (31.6%), while some respondents (21.0%) thought none of the surveyed technology applications would help. Cell phone, Internet, and social media use is common among the surveyed underserved population. Technology preferences to increase PA levels varied, with a considerable number of respondents not preferring the surveyed technology platforms. Creating educational opportunities to increase awareness may maximize the effectiveness of technology-based PA interventions.

  20. Voting over Selective Immigration Policies with Immigration Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Russo

    2008-01-01

    The claim that "skilled immigration is welcome" is often associated to the increasing adoption of selective immigration policies. I study the voting over differentiated immigration policies in a two-country, three-factor general equilibrium model where there exist skilled and unskilled workers, migration decisions are endogenous, enforcing immigration restriction is costly, and natives dislike unskilled immigration. According to my findings, decisions over border closure are made to protect t...

  1. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  2. The Human Face of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  3. Sleep duration of underserved minority children in a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration has been shown to associate with increased risk of obesity. Childhood obesity is more prevalent among underserved minority children. The study measured the sleep duration of underserved minority children living in a large US urban environment using accelerometry and its relation...

  4. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the GSEs...

  5. Migration Background and Educational Tracking: Is there a Double Disadvantage for Second-Generation Immigrants?

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Lüdemann; Guido Schwerdt

    2010-01-01

    Research on immigrants’ educational disadvantages largely focuses on differences in student achievement tests. Exploiting data from the German PIRLS extension, we find that second-generation immigrants face additional disadvantages with respect to grades and teacher recommendations for secondary school tracks that cannot be explained by differences in student achievement tests and general intelligence. Second-generation immigrations are disproportionately affected by prevailing social inequ...

  6. ITEAMS: Increasing the Self-Identification for Girls and Underserved Youth in Pursuing STEM Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bruce Ward

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report early findings on the efficacy of a technology-based project in increasing self-identification for girls and underserved youth to self-select STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. ITEAMS (Innovative Technology- Enabled Astronomy for Middle Schools – an out-of-schooltime program with online, robotic telescopes as its central focus – targets girls and minority students underrepresented in STEMrelated vocations. The participating students attend urban schools in Eastern Massachusetts. ITEAMS’ twofold goal is to: a provide inspiration for the participants to pursue STEM careers, and b increase the students’ mastery of foundational subject matter so they are prepared for the rigor of further STEM study. We use an online system for surveys and assessments, the former to capture attitudinal changes about career choices, and the latter to assess the students’ subject matter knowledge. Participating students take pre-, intermediate, and post subject-matter tests and career-interest surveys. While we find statistically significant gains in subject matter knowledge free of gender, race, or school bias, we also find girls profess less interest than boys in STEM careers as early as grades five and six, although other attitudinal indicators suggest ways to reverse that trend.

  7. Overeducation among immigrants in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson Joona, Pernilla; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Wadensjo, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    The utilization and reward of the human capital of immigrants in the labor market of the host country has been studied extensively. Using Swedish register data from 2001–2008, we extend the immigrant educational mismatch literature by analyzing incidence, wage effects and state dependence...... in overeducation among natives and immigrants. In line with previous research we find a higher incidence and a lower return to overeducation among immigrants indicating that immigrants lose more from being overeducated. We find a high degree of state dependence in overeducation both among natives and immigrants......, but considerably higher among immigrants....

  8. Battle Continues over In-State Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Ten states now offer in-state college tuition rates to illegal immigrant students. Others are struggling to enact similar policies. But while many advocates want to open the doors to higher education for undocumented students, critics say the laws granting in-state tuition discriminate against other low-income students and legal residents of the…

  9. How integrated are immigrants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Sandell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The successful integration of immigrants is seen as a principal means to secure economic growth and welfare in many countries. Success in this task depends on the capacity to formulate effective integration policies, which in turn is based on research capable of describing and explaining the integration process properly. Objective: Our objective is to define a conceptual and quantifiable measure of full immigrant integration.This enables a quantitative evaluation of how integrated immigrants are in a specific context in an immigrant - native system - a question poorly addressed by past research. Methods: Our approach consists of looking at the functional dependency of different integrationquantifiers on immigrant density. The empirical analysis uses register data from Spain. We focus on social integration and labour market integration in formal employment. Results: In our empirical analysis we find dramatic differences in immigrant integration levels across integration contexts. While labour market integration approaches the level of full integration, social integration quickly declines as immigration levels surge. It is shown that these differences are primarily due to the presence of social network effects in the social integration process, absent in the labour market integration process. Conclusions: Proper identification of integration deficits and its causes is likely to improve the efficiency of integration policy making, and the capacity to reach integration targets. Our framework has this quality. The research presented here shows that full labour market integration of immigrants is a realistic target. However, it also shows that, if left unattended, the segregation forces contained in social networks, quite dramatically obstruct the social integration process. Lack of social integration undermines the strategy of reliance on increasing immigration to secure future economic well-being that many governments andinternational

  10. Toward immigration reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.

  11. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...

  12. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...

  13. S&E immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite an overall decline in immigration to the United States in 1993, the number of scientists and engineers (S&Es) entering the country continued to rise, with women representing 21.3% of the total admitted with permanent resident status. According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 23,534 S&Es were admitted to the United States on permanent visas in 1993, 3.1% more than in 1992. Of that total, 5,020 were women. S&Es made up 2.6% of the total U.S. immigration in 1993. The slight 1993 increase followed a large jump in 1992 of 62% over the previous year.

  14. Immigration measures, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Norway undertook the following immigration measures: 1) it merged the Office of Immigration, which deals with asylum matters, and the Government Refugee Agency, which handles reception and settlement, into a new Directorate for Immigration under the Ministry of Local Government and Labour; 2) it instituted visa requirements for Chileans; and 3) it established a new reception program, under which five regional reception centers are to be created accommodating 200 to 300 people each, where asylum seekers will be placed until they have completed their police interview and a municipality has agreed to accept them. full text

  15. Empowering Factors Among Breast Cancer Screening Compliant Underserved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    litnssswus intermest itsý their doctor to maintain gorod breas heaLth health, and snssversý rhteir questi trs They alsoblelievesl haote Eneottiage...which encouraged children learning programs, and addressed socio-cultural, racial and new immigrant issues. Member, National Committee on Heath

  16. Immigration and Its Effect on the College-Going Outcomes of Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymotin, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze immigration's effect on the SAT-scores and college application patterns of high school students in California and Texas. The student-level dataset used is longitudinal in nature and is matched via a unique algorithm to the Census 2000 summary tabulation files to determine immigration at the local census-place level. The…

  17. Grade Level and Achievement of Immigrants' Children: Academic Redshirting in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Suet-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants' children at a disadvantaged position in the…

  18. Educational Experiences and Mental Health among War-Zone Immigrants in Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stermac, Lana; Brazeau, Paulette; Martin, Krystle

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggested that educational engagement may enhance posttraumatic and post-migration adjustment and contribute to overall wellbeing among war-zone immigrants (Stermac et al., 2008). This study examined this further and compared the educational experiences and the health outcomes of immigrant students and non-students who had…

  19. Liberal nationalism on immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Liberal nationalists such as David Miller and Will Kymlicka have claimed that liberal principles have implausible implications with regard to the issue of immigration. They hold that nationality should play a normative role in this regard, and that this is necessary in order to justify restrictions...... on immigration. The present chapter discusses the envisaged role for considerations of nationality with regard to admission and residence, and examines the actual implications of arguments advanced by liberal nationalists as to why nationality should play this role. It is argued that the connection between...... nationality and immigration on liberal nationalist premises is not as straightforward as one might expect, and that the addition of considerations of nationality to liberal principles makes no practical difference with regard to reasons for restricting immigration or criteria of selection among applicants...

  20. Immigration und Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Rauscher, Anton

    2003-01-01

    Immigration und Integration : eine Herausforderung für Kirche, Gesellschaft und Politik in Deutschland und den USA / hrsg. von Anton Rauscher. - Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2003. - 174 S. - (Soziale Orientierung ; 15)

  1. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the challenges that Danish community pharmacy staff encounter when serving non-Western immigrant customers. Special attention was paid to similarities and differences between the perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed...... to one pharmacist and one pharmacy assistant employed at each of the 55 community pharmacies located in the five local councils in Denmark with the highest number of immigrant inhabitants. KEY FINDINGS: The total response rate was 76% (84/110). Most respondents found that the needs of immigrant customers...... were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  2. Experiences with treating immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Sima; Bjerre, Neele V; Dauvrin, Marie

    2012-01-01

    of human trafficking. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The interviews highlighted specific challenges to treating immigrants in mental health services across all 16 countries including complications with diagnosis, difficulty in developing trust and increased risk...

  3. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  4. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since......Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...

  5. "A Day Without Immigrants"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Benita

    2009-01-01

    , policy makers, and participants. Although much of these debates ostensibly centered around illegal Latino/a immigration to the United States, underneath the discussion ran a curious ideological thread, one that invoked groups' right to be in the United States in the first place. The article argues...... that the rhetoric used in these discourses pitted various class-based ethnoracial groups against each other not so much to tackle the proposed immigration bill but, rather, to comment on the ramifications of an increasingly multiracial United States. Udgivelsesdato: 01 December 2009......Abstract This article considers the debates surrounding the "Day Without Immigrants" protests organized in major U.S. cities on 1 May 2006, prompted by H.R. 4437, the Border Protection, Anti-Terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005, from the multiple perspectives of scholars, pundits...

  6. Immigration and Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius, Wayne A.; Rosenblum, Marc R.

    2004-01-01

    With nearly one in ten residents of advanced industrialized states now an immigrant, international migration has become a fundamental driver of social, economic, and political change. We review alternative models of migratory behavior (which emphasize structural factors largely beyond states’ control) as well as models of immigration policy making that seek to explain the gaps between stated policy and actual outcomes. Some scholars attempt to explain the limited efficacy of control policies ...

  7. The Ethics of Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Matt S. Whitt

    2014-01-01

    Joseph H. Carens. The Ethics of Immigration(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). 384 pages. ISBN 9780199933839. US$35 (Hardback).When philosophers and political theorists turn their attention to migration, they often prioritize general normative commitments, giving only secondary concern to whether these commitments are reflected in policy. As a result, pressing issues affecting the status, rights, and life-chances of immigrants can get lost in abstract debates over the right of states to ...

  8. Enrolling Minority and Underserved Populations in Cancer Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie F; Dash, Chiranjeev; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Goode, Tawara D; Oppong, Bridget A; Dodson, Everett E; Hamilton, Rhonda N; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that community involvement is integral to solving public health problems, including involvement in clinical trials-a gold standard. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the accrual of participants for clinical trials. Location and cultural aspects of clinical trials influence recruitment and accrual to clinical trials. It is increasingly necessary to be aware of defining characteristics, such as location and culture of the populations from which research participants are enrolled. Little research has examined the effect of location and cultural competency in adapting clinical trial research for minority and underserved communities on accrual for clinical trials. Utilizing embedded community academic sites, the authors applied cultural competency frameworks to adapt clinical trial research in order to increase minority participation in nontherapeutic cancer clinical trials. This strategy resulted in successful accrual of participants to new clinical research trials, specifically targeting participation from minority and underserved communities in metropolitan Washington, DC. From 2012 to 2014, a total of 559 participants enrolled across six nontherapeutic clinical trials, representing a 62% increase in the enrollment of blacks in clinical research. Embedding cancer prevention programs and research in the community was shown to be yet another important strategy in the arsenal of approaches that can potentially enhance clinical research enrollment and capacity. The analyses showed that the capacity to acquire cultural knowledge about patients-their physical locales, cultural values, and environments in which they live-is essential to recruiting culturally and ethnically diverse population samples. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors in underserved rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors, need for spectacles, and the determinants of unmet need in underserved rural areas of Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, multistage cluster sampling was done in 2 underserved rural areas of Iran. Then, all subjects underwent vision testing and ophthalmic examinations including the measurement of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity, visual acuity with current spectacles, auto-refraction, retinoscopy, and subjective refraction. Need for spectacles was defined as UCVA worse than 20/40 in the better eye that could be corrected to better than 20/40 with suitable spectacles. Results: Of the 3851 selected individuals, 3314 participated in the study. Among participants, 18.94% [95% confidence intervals (CI: 13.48–24.39] needed spectacles and 11.23% (95% CI: 7.57–14.89 had an unmet need. The prevalence of need for spectacles was 46.8% and 23.8% in myopic and hyperopic participants, respectively. The prevalence of unmet need was 27% in myopic, 15.8% in hyperopic, and 25.46% in astigmatic participants. Multiple logistic regression showed that education and type of refractive errors were associated with uncorrected refractive errors; the odds of uncorrected refractive errors were highest in illiterate participants, and the odds of unmet need were 12.13, 5.1, and 4.92 times higher in myopic, hyperopic and astigmatic participants as compared with emmetropic individuals. Conclusion: The prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors was rather high in our study. Since rural areas have less access to health care facilities, special attention to the correction of refractive errors in these areas, especially with inexpensive methods like spectacles, can prevent a major proportion of visual impairment. Keywords: Uncorrected refractive errors, Population-based study, Unmet need

  10. HealthATM: personal health cyberinfrastructure for underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Nathan E; Horan, Thomas A; Thoms, Brian P

    2011-05-01

    There is an opportunity for personal health record (PHR) systems to play a vital role in fostering health self-management within underserved populations. If properly designed and promoted, it is possible that patients will use PHRs to become more empowered in taking an active role toward managing their health needs. This research examines the potential of a cyberinfrastructure-based PHR to encourage patient activation in health care, while also having population health implications. A multi-phased, iterative research approach was used to design and evaluate a PHR system called HealthATM, which utilizes services from a cloud computing environment. These services were integrated into an ATM-style interface aimed at providing a broad range of health consumers with the ability to manage health conditions and encourage accomplishment of health goals. Evaluation of the PHR included 115 patients who were clients of several free clinics in Los Angeles County. The majority of patients perceived ease of use (74%) and confidence (73%) in using the HealthATM system, and thought they would like to use it frequently (73%). Patients also indicated a belief in being responsible for their own health. However, fewer felt as though they were able to maintain necessary life changes to improve their health. Findings from the field tests suggest that PHRs can be a beneficial health management tool for underserved populations. In order for these types of tools to be effective within safety-net communities, they must be technically accessible and provide meaningful opportunities to increase patient engagement in their health care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Impact of an interprofessional education program on developing skilled graduates well-equipped to practise in rural and underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Ratie; Daniels, Priscilla S; Adonis, Tracy-Ann; Karuguti, Wallace M

    2014-01-01

    Poverty, limited access to resources and a lack of infrastructure characterise the division of rural areas from urban South Africa. Low numbers of social welfare professionals compound the problem. With education linked inextricably in social responsibility, higher education institutions (HEIs) are called upon increasingly to create conditions that encourage students and graduates to practise in more socially responsible ways, involving more than mere disciplinary expertise or technical knowledge, and that consider the problems of rural areas. Use of interprofessional education (IPE) programs, based on teamwork, could enable HEIs to train and guide health sciences students in how best to cooperate with each other and combine their skills to mutual benefit. This would enable them to develop professional skills facilitated by interactive engagement within community settings. Referencing experience gained in Australia and elsewhere, the Faculty of Community and Health Sciences (FCHS) at the University of Western Cape (UWC) has developed and applied an IPE program for South Africa. Students were placed in interdisciplinary groups in a rural and underserved municipality of the Western Cape - 17 students participated in a study on the effectiveness of this program. A quantitative self-administered questionnaire, followed by qualitative focus group discussions, established student perceptions of their IPE experience, how the experience influenced their intentions for or against future practice in rural and underserved areas, and their interest in future interprofessional collaboration and practice. More than 75% of the participating students agreed that they had learnt to develop knowledge base, procedural and healthcare practice presentation skills, along with preparing written community health histories. Student willingness to practise in rural areas was evidenced, citing community- and resource-based factors as determinants; however, concerns that some community

  12. Underserved Areas and Pediatric Resident Characteristics: Is There Reason for Optimism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque-Arena, Danielle; Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William L

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether resident characteristics and experiences are related to practice in underserved areas. Cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of pediatric residents (n = 1000) and additional sample of minority residents (n = 223) who were graduating in 2009 was conducted. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined relationships between resident characteristics (background, values, residency experiences, and practice goals) and reported 1) expectation to practice in underserved area and 2) postresidency position in underserved area. Response rate was 57%. Forty-one percent of the residents reported that they had an expectation of practicing in an underserved area. Of those who had already accepted postresidency positions, 38% reported positions in underserved areas. Service obligation in exchange for loans/scholarships and primary care/academic pediatrics practice goals were the strongest predictors of expectation of practicing in underserved areas (respectively, adjusted odds ratio 4.74, 95% confidence interval 1.87-12.01; adjusted odds ratio 3.48, 95% confidence interval 1.99-6.10). Other significant predictors include hospitalist practice goals, primary care practice goals, importance of racial/ethnic diversity of patient population in residency selection, early plan (before medical school) to care for underserved families, mother with a graduate or medical degree, and higher score on the Universalism value scale. Service obligation and primary care/academic pediatrics practice goal were also the strongest predictors for taking a postresidency job in underserved area. Trainee characteristics such as service obligations, values of humanism, and desire to serve underserved populations offer the hope that policies and public funding can be directed to support physicians with these characteristics to redress the maldistribution of physicians caring for children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  13. ¿Usted Va Al Capitolio También?: Adult Immigrants' Positioning in Response to News and Digital Media about Immigration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerón-Liu, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which adult immigrants engaged in discussion about immigration news at a web design course during the passing of Senate Bill 1070 in Arizona. Drawing on the method and theory of mediated discourse analysis, two focal interactions reveal the diverse positions that students took up in relation to anti-immigrant…

  14. Immigration in American Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The United States has long been perceived as a land of opportunity for immigrants. Yet, both in the past and today, US natives have expressed concern that immigrants fail to integrate into US society and lower wages for existing workers. This paper reviews the literatures on historical and contemporary migrant flows, yielding new insights on migrant selection, assimilation of immigrants into US economy and society, and the effect of immigration on the labor market. PMID:29398723

  15. ¿Qué otras competencias debe tener el profesorado del alumnado inmigrante? (What Other Skills Should Have Teachers of Immigrant Students? (Quelles compétences doivent avoir les professeurs des élèves immigrés? (Quais outras competências deve ter o professorado de alunos imigrantes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario Murua-Cartón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo de investigación se deriva del proyectoDesarrollo de competencias específicas del profesora- do y personal de apoyo para lograr la integración del alumnado inmigrante, iniciado en el curso 2008/09, sobre las competencias que debe presentar el profe- sorado que trabaja con alumnado inmigrante en las etapas de enseñanza infantil y primaria. Se planteó un cuestionario con 35 ítems referidos a Consciencia, Actitud, Conocimiento y Destreza y Habilidades. Tam- bién contó con preguntas abiertas sobre los niveles de satisfacción, expectativas de formación, situación personal... de los encuestados. En las conclusiones se observan la falta de preparación del profesorado para trabajar con alumnado inmigrante y su predisposición para la mejora de su práctica educativa.AbstractThis research article resulting from the project Development of speci- fic competences of teachers and su- pport staff to achieve the integration of immigrant students, started in the academic year 2008/09, on the skills required from the teachers working with immigrant students in stages of early childhood in Primary Education. It raised a questionnaire with 35 items related to: Awareness, Attitude, Skills and Knowledge and Skills. Also fea- tured open questions on satisfaction levels, training expectations, personal situation, of respondents. The conclu- sions noted the lack of preparation of teachers to work with immigrant stu- dents and their willingness to improve their educational practice.RésuméCet article de recherche découle du projet Développement de compéten- ces spécifiques des professeurs et du personnel d'appui pour réussir dans l'intégration des élèves immigrés; ce projet a commencé dans le cours 2008- 2009, par rapport aux compétences que les professeurs d’enseignement enfantin et primaire doivent avoir pour travailler avec des élèves immigrés. On a proposé un questionnaire avec tren- te-cinq 35 items référés

  16. Lack of Quality Primary Health Services: The Problems of the Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel A.

    1978-01-01

    Major political and economic forces, which affect the provision of primary health services, particularly to underserved populations, are reviewed. Technological, professional, governmental, fiscal, and societal solutions are proposed. (GC)

  17. Acculturative Stress, Psychological Distress, and Religious Coping Among Latina Young Adult Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Nicole; Dillon, Frank R; Rose Verdejo, Toni; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-02-01

    Religion is a source of strength in Latina/o culture during challenging life transitions, such as the immigration process. Guided by a sociological stress-process model, this study examines relations between dimensions of religious coping, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among 530 young Latina women (ages 18-23 years) who recently immigrated to the United States (i.e., approximately 12 months prior to assessment). Higher levels of acculturative stress were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Negative religious coping (i.e., the tendency to struggle with faith) moderated the relation between acculturative stress and psychological distress. Participants experiencing higher levels of acculturative stress reported greater psychological distress when they indicated more negative religious coping. Positive religious coping (i.e., the tendency to relate to faith with comfort and certainty) was not linked with acculturative stress or psychological distress. Implications for culturally tailored counseling interventions for this underserved and understudied population are discussed.

  18. Accelerometry cut points for physical activity in underserved African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trumpeter Nevelyn N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their increased use, no studies have examined the validity of Actical accelerometry cut points for moderate physical activity (PA in underserved (low-income, high-crime, minority populations. The high rates of chronic disease and physical inactivity in these populations likely impact the measurement of PA. There is growing concern that traditionally defined cut points may be too high for older or inactive adults. The present study aimed to determine the self-selected pace associated with instructions to “walk for exercise” and the corresponding accelerometry estimates (e.g., Actical counts/minute for underserved, African American adults. Method Fifty one participants (61% women had a mean age of 60.1 (SD = 9.9 and a mean body mass index of 30.5 kg/m2 (SD = 6.0. They performed one seated task, one standing task, and three walking tasks: “strolling”; “walking for exercise”; and “walking in an emergency.” Results The average pace for strolling, walking for exercise, and walking in an emergency were 1.62 miles per hour (mph; SD = .51, 2.51 mph (SD = .53, and 2.86 mph (SD = .58, respectively. The average Actical counts/minute for the five activities were: 4 (SD = 15, 16 (SD = 29, 751 (SD = 591, 2006 (SD = 1095, and 2617 (SD = 1169, respectively. Regression analyses showed that the predicted counts/minute for a pace of 2.0 mph (which is used as the criterion for moderate exercise in this study was 1075 counts/minute (SEM = 73. Conclusions The cut point associated with subjectively determined moderate PA is similar to those previously published for older adults and extends the use of adjusted cut points to African American populations. These results indicate that accurate cut points can be obtained using this innovative methodology.

  19. A large-scale national study of gambling severity among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents: The role of the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D; Borraccino, Alberto; Lazzeri, Giacomo; Charrier, Lorena; Lemma, Patrizia; Dalmasso, Paola; Santinello, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the association between immigrant generation, family sociodemographic characteristics, and problem gambling severity in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian youth. Data from the 2013-2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Survey were used for cross-sectional analyses of adolescent problem gambling. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a representative sample of 20,791 15-year-old students. Respondents' problem gambling severity, immigrant status, family characteristics (family structure, family affluence, perceived family support) and socio-demographic characteristics were individually assessed. Rates of adolescent at-risk/problem gambling were twice as high among first generation immigrants than non-immigrant students; the odds of being at-risk/problem gamblers were higher among first-generation immigrants than adolescents of other immigrant generations or non-immigrant. Not living with two biological or adoptive parents appears to be a factor that increases the risk of becoming a problem gambler in first generation immigrants. Immigrant status and family characteristics may play a key role in contributing to adolescent problem gambling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Teaching Immigrants Norwegian Culture to Support Their Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Awal Mohammed; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with 48 adult immigrant students studying Norwegian under basic education program of the Ski Municipality Adult Education Unit between 2009-2011. Using the framework of Genc and Bada (2005), we tried to replicate their study in a new setting--Norway. The study investigated migrant students' perceptions learning Norwegian…

  1. Migration Background and School Tracking: Is there a Double Disadvantage for Second-Generation Immigrants?

    OpenAIRE

    Lüdemann, Elke; Schwerdt, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Research on educational disadvantages of second-generation immigrants largely focuses on differences in student achievement tests. Exploiting data from the German PIRLS Extension, we provide evidence that second-generation immigrants face an additional disadvantage when tracked into different types of secondary school. We find that second-generation immigrants are less likely to receive a teacher recommendation for a higher school track. This difference cannot be attributed to differences in ...

  2. Coping with illegal immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, S A

    1981-01-01

    The annual net flow of illegal immigrants into the US is around 500,000/year which has increased tenfold over the last 15 years; these people, unprotected by US law, are targets of exploitation. Unless a restrictive policy is put into practice for illegal and legal immigrants the flow will accelerate, creating domestic pressures. A package proposed by a Presidential Task Force in 1982 proposed: 1) there be better border patrols and stricter laws regarding hiring of illegals, 2) issuing a counterfeit-resistant social security card, 3) conditional amnesty for some illegal immigrants already in the US, 4) a small increase in the number of legal immigrants allowed into the US from Mexico, and 5) a limited guest worker program. These ideas differed in some respects from those of an earlier Select Committee on Immigration. Guest worker programs in other countries are described. In July 1982 President Reagan faced 3 policy options: 1) he could ignore his Task Force's ideas and use a large guest worker program, legalizing and continuing the inflow of cheap labor; 2) he could adopt the recommendations and get a new, tougher policy initiated; or 3) he could allow the issue to abort itself. He adopted the 3rd option, a policy package with little internal force which he will not pursue vigorously. Any serious effort to achieve a more serious immigration policy must include 4 elements: 1) a tough set of employer sanctions, 2) a foolproof worker identification card system, 3) better border control, and 4) an amnesty program. These 4 measures are interrelated; if 1 fails, the policy ceases to achieve its goals. This 4-point program would have the advantage of maintaining a short-term "safety-valve" for those countries which are the sources of illegal migration.

  3. Immigration reform, American style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, D G

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the proposed Immigration and Reform Act (also known as the Simpson-Mazzoli bill), which seeks to overhaul US immigration law for the first time since 1952. This bill is consistent with President Reagan's hard line on border enforcement and mandates stiff penalties for those who transport illegal aliens for commercial advantage or private profit. It further offers Mexico preferential treatment in immigration (40,000 additional visas/year). It includes an amnesty program to offer legal status to qualified illegal residents. The bill directs the President to develop a secure national worker identification system and would create a large-scale temporary foreign agricultural program for perishable commodities. Agricultural workers' families would not be eligible to accompany them unless they also obtain temporary visas. Foreign temporary workers, employable only in cases where local domestic workers are not available, must be provided with wages and working conditions equal to those prevailing among domestic workers. Stiff penalties are stipulated for employers who fail to abide with the terms of the program. In the author's opinion, this bill fails to appreciate the global character of international migration and its complexity. It relects a fundamental ambivalence about a strictly controlled main gate versus a back door approach to immigration as well as the conflicting images of the US as a nation of immigrants versus the historical reality of American nativism and xenophobia. Needed are comprehensive initiatives whose mutually reinforcing components can address the multiple dimensions of the immigration problem within a framework that does not ignore workers who have contributed to the economic well-being of the US, regardless of their legal status.

  4. European immigration a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.

  5. Immigration and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Azhar, Hussain

    Four income inequality measures (Gini-coefficient, 90/10-decile ratio, and two generalized entropy indices) are applied to analyse immigrants’ income position relative to natives in a comparative perspective. Administrative data is used for Denmark, while survey data is used for Germany. We find...... higher inequality among immigrants than natives in Denmark, but vice versa for Germany. Over the period 1984-2003, this inequality gap has narrowed in both countries. At the same time, the contribution of immigrants to overall inequality has increased systematically, primarily caused by the increased...

  6. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    and lack of a local immigrant population by migrating to large municipalities. Lack of local fellow countrymen, however, increases the exit rate to medium-sized as well as large municipalities. This finding is likely to be a result of the dispersal policy. Finally, refugees react strongly to assignment......This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...... to small municipalities by migrating mainly to medium-sized municipalities....

  7. Leadership Opportunities with Communities, the Medically Underserved, and Special Populations (LOCUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Cynthia; Grosch, Michelle; Carufel-Wert, Donald

    2002-07-01

    The Leadership Opportunities with Communities, the Underserved, and Special Populations (LOCUS) Program aims to improve medical students' leadership knowledge and skills, to improve self-awareness and motivation for community service, and to provide models for students to integrate community service into their medical careers. The LOCUS program was established as a longitudinal, extracurricular student opportunity at the University of Wisconsin Medical School in the fall of 1998. Up to 15 new students each year are selected for the program through an application and interview process during their first or second year of medical school. Students remain in the program from acceptance until graduation from medical school. Nearly 50 students have enrolled in the program to date. LOCUS fellows are matched with a physician mentor, participate in core curriculum activities, and complete a longitudinal community service project. Mentors are community generalist physicians who have integrated community service into their own careers. Students participate in their mentors' clinical practices one afternoon a month during the first two years, and mentors serve as role models and provide guidance for students' projects and career development. The program administration and staff are supported through federal predoctoral training and Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) grants. The LOCUS core curriculum is delivered through a series of retreats, workshops, and seminars that emphasize active learning methods and include approximately 20 hours of scheduled activities per academic year. The curriculum addresses concepts of leadership in relation to one's self and in relation to others. Students are introduced to methods of self-reflection and develop their own vision and mission statements. Students also discuss the importance of compassion, self-care, striving for balance, avoiding burnout, and being realistic about what they can accomplish. Students practice strategies for

  8. Community-based colorectal cancer intervention in underserved Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X; Shive, Steve; Tan, Yin; Gao, Wanzhen; Rhee, Joanne; Park, Micah; Kim, Jaesool; Toubbeh, Jamil I

    2009-11-01

    Despite evidence of a decline in both incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer nationwide, it remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of mortality among Asian Americans, including Korean Americans. This community-based and theoretically guided study evaluated a culturally appropriate intervention program that included a bilingual cancer educational program among Korean Americans including information on CRC risks, counseling to address psychosocial and access barriers, and patient navigation assistance. A two-group quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-intervention assessment and a 12-month follow-up on screening was used in the study. Korean Americans (N=167) were enrolled from six Korean churches. The intervention group received culturally appropriate intervention program addressing accessibility and psychosocial barriers, and navigation assistance for screening. The control group received general health education that included cancer-related health issues and screening. There was a significant difference (pbenefits and barriers to screening (p<0.001). At baseline, 13% of participants in the intervention group and 10% in control group reported having had a CRC cancer screening test in the previous year. At the 12-month post-intervention follow-up, 77.4% of participants in the intervention group had obtained screening compared to 10.8% in the control group. While health disparities result from numerous factors, a culturally appropriate and church-based intervention can be highly effective in increasing knowledge of and access to, and in reducing barriers to CRC screening among underserved Koreans.

  9. Telemed: Ehealth applications applied to underserved areas in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachpazidis, Ilias [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Fraunhoferstr. 5, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: Ilias.Sachpazidis@igd.fraunhofer.de; Ohl, Roland [MedCom Gesellschaft fuer medizinische Bildverarbeitung mbH, Rundeturmstr. 12, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany); Binotto, Alecio Pedro Delazari [Centro de Excelencia em Tecnologias Avancadas Av. Assis Brasil, 8450, 91, 140-000 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Torres, Marcio Soares [Centro de Excelencia em Tecnologias Avancadas Av. Assis Brasil, 8450, 91, 140-000 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Messina, Luiz Ary [Messina Informatica e Comercio Ltda., Rua Castelo Branco 330, 29100-040 Praia da Costa, Vila Velha (Brazil); Sales, Alexandre [Fundacao de Apoio ao Hospital Universitario da UFES-Fahucam, Av. Marechal Campos 1355, 29042-715 Santos Dumont, Vitoria (Brazil); Gomes, Ricardo [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre Rua Prof. Annes Dias 285, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Sakas, Georgios [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Fraunhoferstr. 5, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-12-20

    Access to medical care is sometimes very difficult to be reached from people living in rural and underserved areas. This problem is very well known in rural areas in Brazil. Citizens have no access to health care. They have to travel hundreds of kilometres to receive medical care. In this paper, we will propose a medical network based on state-of-the-art medical imaging application that addresses the problems of providing health care from a distance. Additionally, we are going to show preliminarily results of the first year of the system deployment and utilization in undeserved regions in Brazil. The total number of patients submitted to ultrasound examinations, during the 10 months of projects' medical trials, is 321. The exams have begun with the elderly people (hypertension and diabetes cases) with 90% above 50-years-old. Fifty-four percent were male and 46% were female. From those exams, 67 exams (21%) needed a second medical opinion and were transmitted to Santa Casa hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil, one of the referral medical centres. From those second opinions of Santa Casa, 12 exams had to be repeated since the acquired images were not sufficient to give a correct diagnosis. The Lagoa Tres Cantos medical doctor performed also preventive exams with patients who had not presented any symptoms (70%)

  10. NASA and Public Libraries: Enhancing STEM Literacy in Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.; LaConte, K.; Harold, J. B.; Randall, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA research programs are helping humanity understand the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets, and defining the conditions necessary to support life beyond Earth. The Space Science Institute's (SSI) National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) was recently funded by NASA`s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to develop and implement a project called NASA@ My Library: A National Earth and Space Science Initiative That Connects NASA, Public Libraries and Their Communities. As places that offer their services for free, public libraries have become the "public square" by providing a place where members of a community can gather for information, educational programming, and policy discussions. Libraries are developing new ways to engage their patrons in STEM learning, and NCIL's STAR Library Education Network (STAR_Net) has been supporting their efforts for the last eight years, including through a vibrant community of practice that serves both librarians and STEM professionals. Project stakeholders include public library staff, state libraries, the earth and space science education community at NASA, subject matter experts, and informal science educators. The project will leverage high-impact SMD and library events to catalyze partnerships through dissemination of SMD assets and professional development. It will also develop frameworks for public libraries to increase STEM interest pathways in their communities (with supports for reaching underserved audiences). This presentation will summarize the key activities and expected outcomes of the 5-year project.

  11. Web usability testing with a Hispanic medically underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary; Bias, Randolph G; Prentice, Katherine; Fletcher, Robin; Vaughn, Terry

    2009-04-01

    Skilled website developers value usability testing to assure user needs are met. When the target audience differs substantially from the developers, it becomes essential to tailor both design and evaluation methods. In this study, researchers carried out a multifaceted usability evaluation of a website (Healthy Texas) designed for Hispanic audiences with lower computer literacy and lower health literacy. METHODS INCLUDED: (1) heuristic evaluation by a usability engineer, (2) remote end-user testing using WebEx software; and (3) face-to-face testing in a community center where use of the website was likely. Researchers found standard usability testing methods needed to be modified to provide interpreters, increased flexibility for time on task, presence of a trusted intermediary such as a librarian, and accommodation for family members who accompanied participants. Participants offered recommendations for website redesign, including simplified language, engaging and relevant graphics, culturally relevant examples, and clear navigation. User-centered design is especially important when website developers are not representative of the target audience. Failure to conduct appropriate usability testing with a representative audience can substantially reduce use and value of the website. This thorough course of usability testing identified improvements that benefit all users but become crucial when trying to reach an underserved audience.

  12. Employers’ Openness to Labour Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Mikalauskiene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the elucidation of the concept of migration and theories describing the process of migration, determines the issue of openness to immigration and presents its theoretical explanation.. The analysis of the empirical studies conducted in Lithuania assessing the openness of employers to labour immigrants was performed including the analysis of immigration trends in this country. The factors determining the attitudes towards immigration and immigrants are presented being divided into the main groups of economic and social-cultural factors.

  13. Immigration and the American century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  14. The politics of immigration reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, A K

    1984-01-01

    The US is the target for international migration, now more than ever. Population growth and economic stragnation in the Third World are increasing the pressures for out-migration, and current immigration law is wholly incapable of responding to the ever increasing flow of illegal immigrants. Border apprehensions of illegal aliens in the US were up 40% during 1983, and total apprehensions reached 1.25 million by the year's end. Recent public opinion polls have disclosed that an overwhelming majority of the American public demands immigration reform, and yet we as a nation have been distinctly unwilling or unable to respond to this clear public sentiment. This paper discusses the politics of the "Simpson-Mazzoli" Immigration Reform and Control Act, previous immigration legislation, current counterproposals for US immigration policy, and the political realities of immigration reform.

  15. Dynamics of immigration control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic implications of US border control policies and internal enforcement measures for the pattern of illegal immigration and the sectoral allocation of clandestine foreign workers. Efforts to counteract illegal immigration into the US have been increasing steadily following the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. The purpose of the Act is to reduce illegal immigration with the aid of three instruments: 1) employer sanctions; 2) increased controls along the border; and 3) a legalization program designed to meet the existing demand for agricultural labor in geographic locations that are in proximity of Mexico, the principal source of clandestine foreign labor. The effect of tougher border control measures increases the cost of illegal entry, discouraging clandestine inflows. On the other hand, these measures induce migrants to increase their own anti-detection efforts, reducing the probability of detection and the deportation rate. If the latter effect should dominate, the steady-state stock of clandestine foreign labor will actually increase in response to more vigorous border control measures. Explicit consideration of the role of networks in the clandestine labor market suggests the need for a drastic policy change. This policy change should target illegal migration in areas with high concentrations of clandestine foreign workers. Complementary measures should accompany this policy change to prevent unbalanced enforcement measures.

  16. Detention of Immigrant Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Julie M; Griffin, Marsha; Shapiro, Alan J

    2017-05-01

    Immigrant children seeking safe haven in the United States, whether arriving unaccompanied or in family units, face a complicated evaluation and legal process from the point of arrival through permanent resettlement in communities. The conditions in which children are detained and the support services that are available to them are of great concern to pediatricians and other advocates for children. In accordance with internationally accepted rights of the child, immigrant and refugee children should be treated with dignity and respect and should not be exposed to conditions that may harm or traumatize them. The Department of Homeland Security facilities do not meet the basic standards for the care of children in residential settings. The recommendations in this statement call for limited exposure of any child to current Department of Homeland Security facilities (ie, Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement facilities) and for longitudinal evaluation of the health consequences of detention of immigrant children in the United States. From the moment children are in the custody of the United States, they deserve health care that meets guideline-based standards, treatment that mitigates harm or traumatization, and services that support their health and well-being. This policy statement also provides specific recommendations regarding postrelease services once a child is released into communities across the country, including a coordinated system that facilitates access to a medical home and consistent access to education, child care, interpretation services, and legal services. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Can immigrants hurt trade?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Tomáš

    -, č. 329 (2007), s. 1-42 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : immigrants * international trade * informal trade barriers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp329.pdf

  18. Wealth & Immigration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...

  19. Immigration policy index

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-46 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : immigration policy * visa * differences-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016

  20. Immigrants in the Working Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vlachadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immigration constitutes an all time and multi-dimensional social phenomenon. There are quite a few people that in every time period seek a new place of residence and employment, in order to be able to survive or get a better life. The causes which lead to immigration are various and the immigration itself affects not only the immigrants but also the countries of departure and arrival. The immigration phenomenon has occupied and continues to occupy the majority of countries, among which is Greece which has been one of the new host countries for immigrants. The moving of the population presents when the social and economic environment in which an individual lives and moves, does not provide him with the capability to fulfill his pursuits and satisfy his ambitions. The most frequent reason of immigration nowadays is the economic factor and the objective of the individual that immigrates is finding work. In the present project we will study unemployment and employment in the host countries and more specifically in Greece. In Greece during the last years there appears to be an intense influx of immigrants converting it from a departure country to a host country for immigrants. What happens with the working conditions and insurance, how does immigration affect the unemployment of the permanent population, in what kind of jobs are immigrants occupied and do age and sex play a role in finding work? These are some of the questions we are called to answer through this project. The project not only will deal with how immigration affects the working market but also the economy in general (Cholezas and Tsakloglou, 2008. The research part of the project is based on the Greek and European Statistics Service. The statistical data are presented in the form of charts and diagrams. The data actually concern the legal immigrants in the area of Greece and countries of the E.U. (Vgenopoulos, 1988.

  1. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavika Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.

  2. Whose Immigration Story?: Attending to Hidden Messages of Material in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidoy, Eleni; Williams, Gwendolyn

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes materials used in schools with good intentions can have effects opposite from those stated. Through the microscopic analysis of a parent-student immigration interview assignment on a social studies unit on immigration, this article aims to uncover the hidden story that underlies the questions asked. In so doing, it intends not only to…

  3. Immigration, Suicidal Ideation and Deliberate Self-Injury in the Boston Youth Survey 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Azrael, Deborah; Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; Molnar, Beth E.; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and immigration-related correlates of deliberate self-injury (DSI) and suicidal ideation (SI) were estimated in a sample of Boston public high school students in 2006. Compared with U.S.-born youth, immigrant youth were not at increased risk for DSI or SI, even if they had experienced discrimination due to their ancestry. By…

  4. Pathways Fostering Mobility to Higher Education for Vulnerable Immigrants in France, Switzerland and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jake; Guégnard, Christine; Koomen, Maarten; Imdorf, Christian; Kamanzi, Canisius; Meyer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wish to clarify not only if, but also how--through which institutional settings--higher education (HE) is accessed by students from vulnerable immigrant groups in France, Switzerland and Canada. We are interested in the possible educational mobility that immigrant youths can experience arising from country-specific educational…

  5. Rediscovering and Reconnecting Funds of Knowledge of Immigrant Children, Families, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Seung Eun

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, one in four children under the age of 6 attending preschool has at least one immigrant parent and speaks a language other than English. Despite this increasing population of immigrant children in U.S. preschool settings, their stories have rarely been heard. The author shares three stories of her students and their families…

  6. African Immigrants, the "New Model Minority": Examining the Reality in U.S. K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpokodu, Omiunota N.

    2018-01-01

    African immigrants in the U.S. have been headlined as America's "new model minority." The purpose of this paper is to examine if evidence exists to support the claim of African immigrant students' (AIS) educational achievement and excellence (a core indicator of the "model minority" theory) in U.S. k-12 schools. Using a…

  7. ICT for Children of Immigrants: Indirect and Total Effects via Self-Efficacy on Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunha

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the direct, indirect, and total effects of information, communication, and technology (ICT) variables on math achievement for second-generation immigrant, first-generation immigrant, and nonimmigrant students. A path model was used to analyze U.S. nationally representative data from the Program for International Student…

  8. Undermatched? School-Based Linguistic Status, College Going, and the Immigrant Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca M.; Humphries, Melissa H.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research investigates the immigrant advantage--the academic benefit first- and second-generation students experience relative to native-born peers. However, little work examines how school-based linguistic status may influence this advantage. Contradictory patterns exist: Research identifies both an immigrant advantage and a language…

  9. Redefining "Immigrants" through Diaspora: Educational Experience of 1.5-Generation Chinese Youth in Cupertino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyan

    2017-01-01

    Through the intersection of diaspora and immigrant education, this article investigates how Chinese youth perceive their experience of being immigrant and 1.5-generation in and out of school. The fieldwork was conducted in Cupertino, California, in 2013-2014. In total, 11 students were chosen to participate in the research. It combines an…

  10. Immigrant Spanish as Liability or Asset? Generational Diversity in Language Ideologies at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Elaine; Mortimer, Katherine; Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly; Wortham, Stanton

    2014-01-01

    Latino students' educational success is central to America's prosperity--in traditional immigrant destinations and in New Latino Diaspora locations, previously unfamiliar with Latinos. Implicated in this success is the reception young immigrants receive, especially the ways in which they are identified in schools. We describe findings from 6 years…

  11. Assigned to the Margins: Teachers for Minority and Immigrant Communities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, June A.

    2006-01-01

    As communities of immigrant families gather in the low-income neighbourhoods of Tokyo and neighbouring cities, Japanese teachers face new challenges as well as the stigma of classrooms for immigrant children. Within the intricate politics of assignment in Japanese school districts, teachers and administrators can find themselves with students who…

  12. Smartphone threshold audiometry in underserved primary health-care contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Josefin; Swanepoel, De Wet; Carel Myburgh, Hermanus; Laurent, Claude

    2016-01-01

    To validate a calibrated smartphone-based hearing test in a sound booth environment and in primary health-care clinics. A repeated-measure within-subject study design was employed whereby air-conduction hearing thresholds determined by smartphone-based audiometry was compared to conventional audiometry in a sound booth and a primary health-care clinic environment. A total of 94 subjects (mean age 41 years ± 17.6 SD and range 18-88; 64% female) were assessed of whom 64 were tested in the sound booth and 30 within primary health-care clinics without a booth. In the sound booth 63.4% of conventional and smartphone thresholds indicated normal hearing (≤15 dBHL). Conventional thresholds exceeding 15 dB HL corresponded to smartphone thresholds within ≤10 dB in 80.6% of cases with an average threshold difference of -1.6 dB ± 9.9 SD. In primary health-care clinics 13.7% of conventional and smartphone thresholds indicated normal hearing (≤15 dBHL). Conventional thresholds exceeding 15 dBHL corresponded to smartphone thresholds within ≤10 dB in 92.9% of cases with an average threshold difference of -1.0 dB ± 7.1 SD. Accurate air-conduction audiometry can be conducted in a sound booth and without a sound booth in an underserved community health-care clinic using a smartphone.

  13. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration judges...

  14. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a...

  15. Portrayal of Immigrants in Newsmagazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Goldberger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how United States newsmagazines represented immigrants in the aftermath of September 11th terrorist attacks. Methodologically, the paper uses the frame analysis from a social constructivist standpoint, identifying the four functions of frame, as defined by Entman. Three months prior to the attacks, newsmagazines framed immigrants as “needed” and, in most cases, they portrayed them positively. In the period after the attacks, the frame shifted and newsmagazines started representing immigrants as “feared”, potential harborers of terrorists, and so on. Before the attacks, illegal immigrants were represented as the greatest immigration problem. After the attacks, the attention of newsmagazines shifted to legal immigrants with terrorist intentions. The results suggest that the issue of immigrants and immigration policy in the media collided with the threat of terrorism as a foreign policy issue. Thus, it became a security issue that influenced the representation of immigrants. In newsmagazines’ portrayal of immigrants, political features became more prominent than economic ones.

  16. Undocumented Students and Higher Education in the State of Georgia: The "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" Policy of Illegal Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Melissa McCants

    2013-01-01

    The study detailed the life history of a family of five, Georgia high school graduates, undocumented students using semi-structured interviews. Because the five participants were all of Latino descent and undocumented students, their lived experiences were expected to add to the relatively young research concerning the sensitive, yet powerful,…

  17. Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In many countries worldwide, health worker shortages are one of the main constraints in achieving population health goals. Financial-incentive programmes for return of service, whereby participants receive payments in return for a commitment to practise for a period of time in a medically underserved area, can alleviate local and regional health worker shortages through a number of mechanisms. First, they can redirect the flow of those health workers who would have been educated without financial incentives from well-served to underserved areas. Second, they can add health workers to the pool of workers who would have been educated without financial incentives and place them in underserved areas. Third, financial-incentive programmes may improve the retention in underserved areas of those health workers who participate in a programme, but who would have worked in an underserved area without any financial incentives. Fourth, the programmes may increase the retention of all health workers in underserved areas by reducing the strength of some of the reasons why health workers leave such areas, including social isolation, lack of contact with colleagues, lack of support from medical specialists and heavy workload. We draw on studies of financial-incentive programmes and other initiatives with similar objectives to discuss seven management functions that are essential for the long-term success of financial-incentive programmes: financing (programmes may benefit from innovative donor financing schemes, such as endowment funds, international financing facilities or compensation payments; promotion (programmes should use tested communication channels in order to reach secondary school graduates and health workers; selection (programmes may use selection criteria to ensure programme success and to achieve supplementary policy goals; placement (programmes should match participants to areas in order to maximize participant satisfaction and

  18. Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E

    2009-06-26

    In many countries worldwide, health worker shortages are one of the main constraints in achieving population health goals. Financial-incentive programmes for return of service, whereby participants receive payments in return for a commitment to practise for a period of time in a medically underserved area, can alleviate local and regional health worker shortages through a number of mechanisms. First, they can redirect the flow of those health workers who would have been educated without financial incentives from well-served to underserved areas. Second, they can add health workers to the pool of workers who would have been educated without financial incentives and place them in underserved areas. Third, financial-incentive programmes may improve the retention in underserved areas of those health workers who participate in a programme, but who would have worked in an underserved area without any financial incentives. Fourth, the programmes may increase the retention of all health workers in underserved areas by reducing the strength of some of the reasons why health workers leave such areas, including social isolation, lack of contact with colleagues, lack of support from medical specialists and heavy workload. We draw on studies of financial-incentive programmes and other initiatives with similar objectives to discuss seven management functions that are essential for the long-term success of financial-incentive programmes: financing (programmes may benefit from innovative donor financing schemes, such as endowment funds, international financing facilities or compensation payments); promotion (programmes should use tested communication channels in order to reach secondary school graduates and health workers); selection (programmes may use selection criteria to ensure programme success and to achieve supplementary policy goals); placement (programmes should match participants to areas in order to maximize participant satisfaction and retention); support (programmes

  19. The Impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on Immigrant Health: Perceptions of Immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research ex...

  20. Ethnic pluralism, immigration and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N

    2017-01-01

    We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...

  1. Unauthorized Immigration and Electoral Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Baerg, Nicole Rae; Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Quispe-Agnoli, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    How do inflows of unauthorized immigrants shape elections? Political economy theories often yield competing predictions and mixed empirical results. The main hurdle of empirically evaluating the impact of unauthorized immigrants on election outcomes is finding reliable data that can measure unauthorized immigration flows over time. Using a unique methodology for identifying undocumented workers across counties in the state of Georgia in the United States, we find a positive relationship betwe...

  2. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  4. Immigration Act of 1990 [29 November 1990]. [Summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    On November 29, 1990, the US amended its Immigration and Nationality Act. Title 1 sets up a permanent annual worldwide level of immigration to begin in fiscal year 1995 with transition levels for fiscal year 1992-94. Formulas are specified for family-related immigrants, employment-based immigrants, and diversity immigrants. Specified categories of special immigrants or aliens, including refugees, are excluded from the direct numerical limitations. Per country limits for the total number of immigrant visas are set, and exception provisions for specified conditions are made. Special rules apply to 1) spouses and children of lawful permanent resident aliens, 2) countries which used their limit of available visas, and 3) the treatment of Hong Kong as a separate foreign state. In addition, provisions for asylee adjustments are revised, with the maximum numerical limitation on adjustment of asylees increased. An annual asylee enumeration is required, and the numerical limitation for certain current asylees is waived. Adjustments are made for certain former asylees, subject to the specified per country limitations. Title 2 provides general and permanent provisions for nonimmigrants, including tourists, temporary workers (including artists or entertainers), and students. Title 3 provides for a temporary stay of deportation and work authorization for certain eligible immigrants who are spouses or unmarried children of a legalized alien under certain conditions. Title 4 sets forth a new system of administrative naturalization as well as new guidelines for eligibility for naturalization. Title 5 covers enforcement procedures for criminal aliens and provides provisions relating to employer sanctions and to anti-discrimination as well as to general enforcement. Title 6 contains grounds for exclusion and deportation, and Title 7 deals with the provision of grants to states for the education and training of US workers.

  5. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Lauter

    2009-01-01

    Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings...

  6. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  7. Immigration: An Overview of Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2000-01-01

    Immigration has been a subject of intense historical and contemporary debate in US political life. Proponents of immigration cite the important contributions immigrants have made and continue to make to the USA’s national development and evolution. Advocates of more restrictive immigration policies stress concerns over the USA’s ability to support immigrant residents and whether newer immigrants threaten the US national identity and social cohesion. Proponents and opponents of current US i...

  8. Immigrant language barriers and house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andreas M.

    2011-01-01

    Are language skills important in explaining the nexus between house prices and immigrant inflows? The language barrier hypothesis says immigrants from a non common language country value amenities more than immigrants from common language countries.> ; In turn, immigrants from non common language countries are less price sensitive to house price changes than immigrants from a common language country. Tests of the language barrier hypothesis with Swiss house prices show that an immigration inf...

  9. International students in United States' medical schools: does the medical community know they exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Jashodeep; Miller, Bonnie M

    2012-01-01

    Matriculation of international students to United States' (US) medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. While these students' numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools - both public and private - to support international students' education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to healthcare disparity eradication, minority health issues, and service in

  10. Individual Breast Cancer risk assessment in Underserved Populations: Integrating empirical Bioethics and Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily E.; Hoskins, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that individual breast cancer risk assessment may improve adherence to recommended screening and prevention guidelines, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Further research on the use of risk assessment models in underserved minority populations is critical to informing national public health efforts to eliminate breast cancer disparities. However, implementing individual breast cancer risk assessment in underserved patient populations raises particular ethical issues that require further examination. After reviewing these issues, we will discuss how empirical bioethics research can be integrated with health disparities research to inform the translation of research findings. Our in-progress National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded study, How Do Underserved Minority Women Think About Breast Cancer?, conducted in the context of a larger study on individual breast cancer risk assessment, is presented as a model. PMID:23124498

  11. Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan Prathiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India.

  12. Underserved populations in science education: Enhancement through learning community participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer Emily

    A positive relationship between college anatomy students' achievement and academic language proficiency in the context of a learning community was established. For many students the barrier to learning science is language. A relationship exists between low academic language proficiency and lack of success among students, in particular failure among at-risk minority and language-minority students. The sample consisted of Anatomy classes during the Fall semesters of the academic years, 2000, 2001, and 2002 at a community college in Central California having a high percentage of culturally and linguistically diverse students. Students from each semester participated in the academic language proficiency and science achievement studies. Twenty-two of the Fall 2002 students (n = 65) enrolled in the Learning Community (LC) that included instruction in academic language in the context of the anatomy course content. Fall 2002 students (n = 19) also participated in Peer-led Support (PLS) sessions. Fall 2001 students participated in a textbook use study (n = 44) and in a Cooperative-Learning (CL) (n = 35) study. Students in the LC and Non-LC groups took the academic language assessment; their results were correlated with course grades and attendance. Fall 2002 students were compared for: (1) differences regarding self-expectations, (2) program impressions, and (3) demographics. Fall 2001 student reading habits and CL participation were analyzed. Results identified: (1) selected academic language tasks as good predictors of science success, (2) a significant positive relationship between science success and participation in support interventions, (3) no differences in self expectations or demographic characteristics of participants and non-participants in the LC group, and (4) poor textbook reading habits. Results showed a significant positive relationship between academic language proficiency and science achievement in participatory instruction.

  13. BLACK AND HISPANIC IMMIGRANTS' RESILIENCE AGAINST NEGATIVE ABILITY RACIAL STEREOTYPES AT SELECTIVE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN THE UNITED STATES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jayanti; Lynch, Scott M

    2012-10-01

    Stereotype threat is a widely supported theory for understanding the racial achievement gap in college grade performance. However, today's minority college students are increasingly of immigrant origins, and it is unclear whether two dispositional mechanisms that may increase susceptibility to stereotype threat are applicable to immigrants. We use survey data to examine whether and how negative ability stereotypes affect the grades of 1,865 first, second, and third generation or higher (domestic) minority students at 28 selective American colleges. Structural equation model results indicate that first generation immigrants are highly-resistant to both dispositional identity threat mechanisms we consider. Second generation immigrants experience only certain dispositional elements of identity threat. Drawing on research in social psychology, we suggest immigrants tend to resist stereotype threat in part due to the primacy of their immigrant identities and their connectedness to the opportunity structure of mainstream society.

  14. Balancing the role of the dental school in teaching, research and patient care; including care for underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, W P; Brodin, P; Balciuniene, I; Brukiene, V; Bucur, M V; Corbet, E; Dillenberg, J; Djukanovic, D; Ekanayake, K; Eriksen, H; Fisher, J; Goffin, G; Hull, P; Kumchai, T; Lumley, P; Lund, J; Mathur, V; Novaes, A; Puriene, A; Roger-Leroi, V; Saito, I; Turner, S; Mabelya, L

    2008-02-01

    Inequalities within dentistry are common and are reflected in wide differences in the levels of oral health and the standard of care available both within and between countries and communities. Furthermore there are patients, particularly those with special treatment needs, who do not have the same access to dental services as the general public. The dental school should aim to recruit students from varied backgrounds into all areas covered by the oral healthcare team and to train students to treat the full spectrum of patients including those with special needs. It is essential, however, that the dental student achieves a high standard of clinical competence and this cannot be gained by treating only those patients with low expectations for care. Balancing these aspects of clinical education is difficult. Research is an important stimulus to better teaching and better clinical care. It is recognized that dental school staff should be active in research, teaching, clinical work and frequently administration. Maintaining a balance between the commitments to clinical care, teaching and research while also taking account of underserved areas in each of these categories is a difficult challenge but one that has to be met to a high degree in a successful, modern dental school.

  15. The influence of stereotype threat on immigrants: review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Markus; Weber, Silvana; Kronberger, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of 0.63 (random effects model) in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemen...

  16. Analysis of Spanish Policies for the Integration of Immigrant Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Usarralde, María Jesús; Yanes-Cabrera, Cristina; Llevot-Calvet, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The Organic Law on the Improvement of the National Education Quality ("Ley Orgánica de Reforma de la Calidad Educativa") readdressed one of the most significant educational issues: educational policies related to immigrant students. Therefore, this is an appropriate moment to evaluate these types of policies in three singular Spanish…

  17. Impediments to the successful reconstruction of African immigrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to counter the problem of a shortage of Mathematics and Sci- ence teachers in South African schools, ... Immigrant teachers who are marginalized in a new environment experience problems with coping; their sense of ..... activities such as drinking, smoking, gambling and drugs. The behaviour [of students] in ...

  18. Using the Comer Model To Educate Immigrant Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Susan E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the Comer Model as one way to educate immigrant students. Details model components: parent team, school planning and management team, school staff support team, school improvement plan, staff development, assessment and modification, and guiding principles of collaboration, consensus, and no fault. Asserts that the program can help…

  19. Immigrant Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Extracurricular activity involvement is generally beneficial toward student progress and success. Little is known, however, about immigrant youth involvement in school-based extracurricular activities. The author examined the patterns of Latino and Asian American youth extracurricular involvement by focusing on the pertinent role of immigrant…

  20. Immigration and Religion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2009-01-01

    An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...

  1. Illegal Immigration. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of illegal immigration. Contrary depictions of the aspirations and attitudes of illegal immigrants fuel…

  2. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lauter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.

  3. From Multiculturalism to Immigration Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lauter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Immigration is a tense political topic in virtually every Western country, and in many others as well. In fact, immigration is an international issue: 3 percent of the world's population, 191,000,000 people, now live in countries other than those in which they were born. This paper discusses why immigration is so fraught, the relation of the crisis over immigration to the growing fracture of the Western world's economy, as well as to terrorism like September 11 and the train bombings in Madrid, Mumbai, and London, and how these factors—growing economic disparity, immigration, and terrorism—have altered one of the basic cultural phenomena of the United States in the last three decades, namely, what we call multiculturalism.

  4. Nation and Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Behdad

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In my paper, I wish to offer a critical assessment of the cultural and political implications of postcolonial and cultural critics’ abandonment of situated terms like immigration, citizenship, race, state, and their celebratory embracing of such unmoored notions as nomadism, deterritorialization, exile, hybridy, and postnation. On the one hand, I hope to demonstrate that postcolonial critics’ valorization of displacement’s redemptive power mystifies the oppositional possibilities of hybrid consciousness. On the other, I wish to argue that such theoretical projects fail to both historicize the particularities of postcolonial cultural formations and the importance of the politics of location in describing various manifestations of the global.

  5. The unstoppable immigrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapinos, G P

    1990-01-01

    The author examines the effects of the restrictive immigration policies instituted by the European countries in the mid-1970s. "This article considers the following questions. Should one expect significant migrant supply pressure from the countries that formerly sent workers, as a result of their demographic, economic and labour market prospects? Have the European countries devised any development-assistance policy with the explicit intent of cutting down emigration from these countries? And would such a policy, if it existed, be efficient enough to decrease the incentives to migrate?" excerpt

  6. Religious and secular volunteering: A comparison between immigrants and non-immigrants in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carabain, C.L.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Using new survey data from the Netherlands, we find that non-immigrants are more likely to volunteer for secular organisations than guest worker immigrants and postcolonial citizen immigrants. In contrast, non-immigrants are less likely to engage in religious volunteering than both immigrant groups.

  7. Defining Traditionally Underserved Persons Who Are Deaf. NIU-RTC Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Greg; Clark, David Anthony

    This paper addresses issues in the definition of traditionally underserved persons who are deaf. It notes that these people have traditionally been labeled as low functioning, low achieving, multiply handicapped, minimal language skilled, and disadvantaged. A new definition, developed by the Northern Illinois University Research and Training…

  8. Theoretical Considerations for Art Education Research with and about "Underserved Populations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehe, Amelia M.; Acuff, Joni B.

    2013-01-01

    Though it is widely used, the concept of "underserved" is sorely undertheorized in art education. Before the field of art education can effectively address the persistent educational disparities across different sociocultural and economic groups, we need deeper understandings of entangled sociocultural and political processes that create…

  9. Assessing Workplace Communication Skills with Traditionally Underserved Persons Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Within the congenitally deaf population there exists a sizeable number of individuals who are considered to be traditionally underserved. These individuals are characterized by severe communication deficits irrespective of modality (e.g., speech, sign language, reading, writing). Unfortunately, until now there has not been a comprehensive…

  10. How to Guide: Aggregate under-served markets into buying pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-26

    This activity promotes new opportunities to increase energy security and lower energy costs for under-served markets. It involves market analysis and collaboration with community partners, as well as outreach activities to inform target markets and technical assistance for participants.

  11. A Qualitative Study of Parental Modeling and Social Support for Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…

  12. Continuing interprofessional education in geriatrics and gerontology in medically underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, John A; Ferguson, K Della; Sokal, Regina Davis

    2009-01-01

    There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a special opportunity in rural areas, particularly those designated as "medically underserved," for continuing interprofessional education as a vehicle for retaining health care professionals who tend to leave medically underserved areas for more lucrative professional opportunities elsewhere. In collaboration with the Consortium of New York Geriatric Education Centers, the Columbia-New York Geriatric Education Center at the Stroud Center of Columbia University has developed the Program for Outreach to Interprofessional Services and Education (POISE). The purpose of POISE is to develop, implement, evaluate, and sustain interprofessional education and training for health care learners, while emphasizing improved access to health services for the geriatric population in medically underserved areas. The POISE model was designed as an effective approach to teaching the core geriatrics and gerontology curriculum endorsed by the national (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) network of Geriatric Education Centers to health care learners in medically underserved areas of upstate New York. This article describes the adaptation and implementation of the POISE model.

  13. A Smart Partnership: Integrating Educational Technology for Underserved Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, Amina; Davis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the evolution of a large multi-stakeholder partnership that has grown since 2011 to scale deep engagement with learning through technology and decrease the digital divide for thousands of underserved school children in India. Using as its basis a case study of an initiative called integrated approach to technology in education…

  14. 76 FR 31998 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... necessary to comply with a provision of the FEHB law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of...: FEHB law (5 U.S.C. 8902(m)(2)) requires special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who... of the law requires that a State be designated as a Medically Underserved Area if 25 percent or more...

  15. The Quick Peek Program: A Model for Developmental Screening within Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jill; Norton, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Developmental screening of young children is important in all populations, especially underserved communities with known health care disparities. The American Academy of Pediatrics created guidelines and a toolkit for pediatricians to conduct developmental surveillance and screening, yet these guidelines are not uniformly implemented within…

  16. Reaching high-risk underserved individuals for cancer genetic counseling by video-teleconferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Lindsey A; Saldívar, Anna Maria Pulido; Poullard, Natalie E; Torres, Ivette C; Seth, Sarah G; Pollock, Brad H; Tomlinson, Gail E

    2016-04-01

    Breast and colorectal cancers are common cancers for which genetic risk assessment and counseling are available. However, these services are often limited to metropolitan areas and are not readily accessible to underserved populations. Moreover, ethnic and racial disparities present additional obstacles to identifying and screening high-risk individuals and have a bearing on treatment outcomes. To provide cancer genetic risk assessment and counseling through telemedicine to the remote, underserved primarily Hispanic population of the Texas-Mexico border region. Program participants were mailed a questionnaire to assess their satisfaction with the program so that we could determine the acceptability of video-teleconferencing for cancer risk assessment. The overall level of satisfaction with the program was very high, demonstrating the acceptability of a cancer genetic risk assessment program that relied on telemedicine to reach and underserved minority community. Delivery model requires the availability of and access to communication technologies; trained staff are needed at remote sites for sample collection and patient handling. Video-teleconferencing is an acceptable method of providing cancer risk assessment in a remote, underserved population. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  17. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  18. Engaging Youth in Underserved Communities through Digital-Mediated Arts Learning Experiences for Community Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chiu; Bruce, Bertram C.

    2013-01-01

    Learning for underserved youth is integral to social progress. Yet, too often, young people experience disconnects between their educational experiences and both individual and community needs. Arts can help these youth recover a unity through collective action in the community. Drawing from the experiences of a 4-year interdisciplinary research…

  19. Arts Infusion and Literacy Achievement within Underserved Communities: A Matter of Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Charles L.; Weltsek, Gustave J.; Hall, M. Lynne; Brinn, Ginger

    2016-01-01

    There is ample evidence that arts added to the K-12 curriculum can have many positive learning impacts. Nevertheless, many states do not promote such instruction as an integral part of classroom plans. For particular schools with underserved populations, arts-enhanced curricula can be a powerful learning tool. Beyond arts integration, arts…

  20. Investigating the Factors of Resiliency among Exceptional Youth Living in Rural Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Kevin A.; Schweitzer, Ashley; Tuxbury, Kristen; D'Aoust, Janelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is an important social justice concept that has important implications for educators working with exceptional youth in rural underserved communities who may suffer from the consequences associated with economic hardships. This multi-school qualitative study examined resilience among exceptional youth living in rural poverty through the…

  1. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  2. Sponsors, Sponsorship Rates and the Immigration Multiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Guillermina; Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews evidence of the extent to which U.S. immigrants utilize the family reunification entitlements of immigration laws. Examines two studies of the immigrant cohort: Jasso and Rosenzweig (1986) and the General Accounting Office report (1988). Provides estimates of the characteristics of U.S. citizen sponsors of immigrant spouses and parents.…

  3. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...

  4. Languages of Immigrants as Modern Foreign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Hans H.; Pornbacher, Ulrike

    Policy and planning concerning the minority languages of immigrants are discussed, focusing on three countries receiving many immigrants: England, France, and Germany. First, similarities and differences in the immigration histories of the three countries, and in their policies concerning education of immigrants, are examined. Then policy…

  5. International students in United States’ medical schools: does the medical community know they exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Jashodeep; Miller, Bonnie M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US) medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to healthcare disparity

  6. International students in United States’ medical schools: does the medical community know they exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashodeep Datta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME. However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion: By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to

  7. Factors that impact Patient Web Portal Readiness (PWPR) among the underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, Priya

    2017-06-01

    Healthcare organizations in the US are increasingly using Patient Portals as a means to provide patients with partial access to their health records and thereby comply with the 'meaningful use' of Health Information Technology policy issued by the US federal government. Patient portals are used to not only provide access to parts of the health records such as lab results but also offer services such as customized educational materials and appointment scheduling. While prior studies examining the adoption rates of these patient portals have not offered consistent findings, many of the studies have reported limited adoption and use [1] of patient portals, especially among the underserved population. This study explores the factors behind the reduced adoption rate of patient portals among the underserved by focusing on their Patient Web Portal Readiness (PWPR). The study empirically evaluates the impact of three important variables on PWPR among the underserved: (a) Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) activities, (b) patient attitude toward personal health record keeping; and (c) use of Internet for health information seeking. The study also incorporates three other factors: (d) access to Internet; (e) demographics; and (f) presence of chronic illness. Data were collected through a survey from 132 patients from the underserved population who visited 5 free clinics in the Northern Virginia area in the US. The paper-based survey was administered to the patients who visited these free clinics for care. The study findings show support for the hypotheses related to the impact of the two key factors - Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) activities and attitude toward personal health record keeping - on PWPR. The findings also indicate that the use of Internet for health information seeking has relatively more impact than patient's Internet access on PWPR. Overall, the findings imply the critical importance of complementary activities - e.g., PHIM

  8. Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education Locations Predominantly Located in Federally Designated Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclift, Songhai C; Brown, Elizabeth J; Finnegan, Sean C; Cohen, Elena R; Klink, Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    Background The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program is an Affordable Care Act funding initiative designed to expand primary care residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not require, training in underserved settings. Residents who train in underserved settings are more likely to go on to practice in similar settings, and graduates more often than not practice near where they have trained. Objective The objective of this study was to describe and quantify federally designated clinical continuity training sites of the THCGME program. Methods Geographic locations of the training sites were collected and characterized as Health Professional Shortage Area, Medically Underserved Area, Population, or rural areas, and were compared with the distribution of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-funded training positions. Results More than half of the teaching health centers (57%) are located in states that are in the 4 quintiles with the lowest CMS-funded resident-to-population ratio. Of the 109 training sites identified, more than 70% are located in federally designated high-need areas. Conclusions The THCGME program is a model that funds residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not explicitly require, that training take place in underserved settings. Because the majority of the 109 clinical training sites of the 60 funded programs in 2014-2015 are located in federally designated underserved locations, the THCGME program deserves further study as a model to improve primary care distribution into high-need communities.

  9. Immigration: an international economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R

    1984-01-01

    The creation of an effective US immigration policy has been complicated by the diversity of political interests and the absence of reliable statistics to determine the magnitude of the impact on the American economy. Estimates of the number of illegal aliens in the US range from 1 to 12 million. While political biases and complexities and data inadequacies complicate this analysis, some generalizations seem to be confirmed by worldwide experience. There are 2 mutually-supportive, short-run ways to reduce the flow of undocumented workers: 1) to better police US borders and shorelines and 2) to remove the motive for entry by making it illegal for employers to hire workers who are not authorized to work in the US. To give employers an easy defense and to facilitate their compliance with immigration laws, an effective worker identification system should be developed. To avoid the civil liberties, international relations, and human problems associated with mass deportations, illegal immigrants who entered the US before January 1, 1981 and who have been in continuous residence for at least 1 year, should be permitted to remain in the US as permanent resident aliens. The US should not adopt a new guest worker program. The proper sequence of changes in immigration policy is very important. Dealing with illegal immigration is essential; all these measures should be in place before an amnesty is granted. Because it is important to have friendly relations with neighboring countries and because the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is to reduce the wide disparities in employment opportunities between countries, the US should work with other countries to control illegal immigration, but should not link control to energy, trade, or other policies. It is particularly important to discuss immigration control plans with other countries, especially Mexico, and to do everything consistent with US interests to minimize the adverse impact of our immigration policies on our

  10. Socio-educational policies in Germany, Spain and France for the integration of immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Llorent Bedmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the socio-political integration policies being applied in Germany, Spain and France, highlighting their similarities and differences. We then checked whether their integration models were consistent with the common immigration policy of the UE and whether the latter allows them to plan measures for handling immigration to suit their own particular needs. We employed the Comparative Education methodology; the units of comparison were Germany, Spain and France, whose resident foreign populations represent more than 50% of the EU total. We studied the following: history and context; integration at federal and national level; the social-educational requirements for acquiring nationality; and the teaching of the mother tongue of immigrant students in educational institutions. We discovered that, even though the three countries belong to the EU and have common principles and rules about immigration, the design, management and ways of conceiving the integration of immigrant populations vary considerably.

  11. Political instability and illegal immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J E; Lien, D

    1995-01-01

    "Economic theory suggests that transnational migration results from the push-pull effect of wage differentials between host and source countries. In this paper, we argue that political instability exacerbates the migration flow, with greater instability leading to relatively larger flows. We conclude then that an optimal solution to the illegal immigration problem requires proper coordination of immigration and foreign policies by the host country. A narrow preoccupation with tougher immigration laws is wasteful and may be marginally effective." Emphasis is on the United States as a host country. excerpt

  12. Immigrant unemployment: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P W; Neo, L M

    1997-01-01

    "Between 1980 and 1996 both male and female immigrants experienced higher unemployment rates than Australia-born workers....A multivariate analysis is used in this article to examine unemployment rate differentials between Australia-born and immigrants from English-speaking countries and immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. A feature of the analysis is decomposition of unemployment rate differences between birthplace groups into a component attributable to the different characteristics of the birthplace groups (e.g. different mean levels of education) and a part that is viewed as an impact associated simply with being foreign born." (EXCERPT)

  13. Educational "When," "Where," and "How" Implications of In-State Resident Tuition Policies for Latino Undocumented Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev; Potochnick, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of in-state resident tuition (IRT) policies, which allow undocumented immigrants to pay in-state rather than out-of state tuition, on when and where undocumented immigrant students enroll, and how they finance their education. We identify effects based on differences in pre- and post-policy outcomes…

  14. The Undocumented (Im)Migrant Educational Pipeline: The Influence of Citizenship Status on Educational Attainment for People of Mexican Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Lara, Argelia

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have witnessed three trends impacting educational experiences for undocumented Mexican students: (a) a dramatic increase of Mexican-origin people, (b) organized and openly supported anti-immigrant policies with a racial dimension, and (c) increased participation by politicized migrants in national public discussions on immigration.…

  15. How Do Tougher Immigration Measures Affect Unauthorized Immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Puttitanun, Thitima; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    The recent impetus of tougher immigration-related measures passed at the state level raises concerns about the impact of such measures on the migration experience, trajectory, and future plans of unauthorized immigrants. In a recent and unique survey of Mexican unauthorized immigrants interviewed upon their voluntary return or deportation to Mexico, almost a third reported experiencing difficulties in obtaining social or government services, finding legal assistance, or obtaining health care services. Additionally, half of these unauthorized immigrants reported fearing deportation. When we assess how the enactment of punitive measures against unauthorized immigrants, such as E-Verify mandates, has affected their migration experience, we find no evidence of a statistically significant association between these measures and the difficulties reported by unauthorized immigrants in accessing a variety of services. However, the enactment of these mandates infuses deportation fear, reduces interstate mobility among voluntary returnees during their last migration spell, and helps curb deportees’ intent to return to the United States in the near future. PMID:23532619

  16. Mathematics Achievement by Immigrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examined academic achievement of immigrant children in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Analyzing data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, I gauged the performance gaps relating to the generation of immigration and the home language background. I found immigrant children's math and science achievement to be lower than the others only in England, the U.S., and Canada. Non-English language background was found in each country to relate to poor math and science learning and this disadvantage was stronger among native-born children—presumably children of indigenous groups—than among immigrant children. I also examined the school variation in math performance gaps, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to each country's data. The patterns in which language- and generation-related math achievement gaps varied between schools are different in the five countries.

  17. Shaping tolerant attitudes towards immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin

    2017-01-01

    civil societies cope with rising levels of diversity stemming from increased immigration and individualism. Within the tolerance literature, it is commonly agreed upon that a comprehensive welfare state is capable of bridging class divides and overcoming social categorization. However, over the past...... decades, European welfare states experienced an ongoing influx of immigrants, challenging their general purpose and increasing notions of ‘welfare chauvinism’. Drawing on insights from both tolerance and welfare state solidarity literature, we implement hierarchical analyses based on Eurobarometer data...

  18. Immigration, Wages, and Compositional Amenities

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Christian Dustmann; Ian Preston

    2009-01-01

    Economists are often puzzled by the stronger public opposition to immigration than trade, since the two policies have symmetric effects on wages. Unlike trade, however, immigration changes the composition of the local population, imposing potential externalities on natives. While previous studies have focused on fiscal spillovers, a broader class of externalities arise because people value the "compositional amenities" associated with the characteristics of their neighbors and co-workers. In ...

  19. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Lisa A; Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  20. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Keister

    Full Text Available Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability.

  1. The Influence of Stereotype Threat on Immigrants: Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eAppel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of .63 (random effects model in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemented by moderator analyses with regard to circulation (published or unpublished research, cultural context (US vs. Europe, age of immigrants, type of stereotype threat manipulation, dependent measures, and means for identification of immigrant status; evidence on the role of ethnic identity strength is reviewed. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. The influence of stereotype threat on immigrants: review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Weber, Silvana; Kronberger, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of 0.63 (random effects model) in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemented by moderator analyses with regard to circulation (published or unpublished research), cultural context (US versus Europe), age of immigrants, type of stereotype threat manipulation, dependent measures, and means for identification of immigrant status; evidence on the role of ethnic identity strength is reviewed. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26217256

  3. Labour Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  4. Labor Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  5. Primary Care for Underserved Populations: Navigating Policy to Incorporate Occupational Therapy Into Federally Qualified Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aileen D; Griffith, Vanessa M; Mroz, Tracy M; Jirikowic, Tracy L

    Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) provide low- or no-cost primary care to medically underserved populations such as homeless or low-income people, migrant workers, and members of marginalized cultural groups. Occupational therapy services have the potential to help improve the health and functioning of FQHC patients. Using a FQHC serving American Indian/Alaska Native populations as a case example, we describe how occupational therapy is well suited to help meet the needs of medically underserved populations. We then examine options for integrating occupational therapy into this unique primary care setting, discuss related administrative and policy considerations, and propose possible solutions to identified barriers. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Dental therapists: improving access to oral health care for underserved children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jay W; Mathu-Muju, Kavita R

    2014-06-01

    Disparities in dental health care that characterize poor populations are well known. Children suffer disproportionately and most severely from dental diseases. Many countries have school-based dental therapist programs to meet children's primary oral health care needs. Although dental therapists in the United States face opposition from national and state dental associations, many state governments are considering funding the training and deployment of dental therapists to care for underserved populations. Dental therapists care for American Indians/Alaska Natives in Alaska, and Minnesota became the first state to legislate dental therapist training. Children should receive priority preference; therefore, the most effective and economical utilization of dental therapists will be as salaried employees in school-based programs, beginning in underserved rural areas and inner cities.

  7. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. Method: The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. Results: The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. Implications: The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations. PMID:16239960

  8. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations.

  9. Increasing participation in cancer research: insights from Native Hawaiian women in medically underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Mitschke, Diane; Lono, Joelene

    2004-09-01

    The cancer burden falls heavily on Native Hawaiian women, and of particular concern are those living in medically underserved communities where participation in potentially helpful clinical studies may be limited. Difficulty in accrual of Native Hawaiian women to a culturally-grounded intervention led researchers to conduct focus groups aimed at exploring attitudes towards research, use of a traditional Hawaiian practice for family discussion, and study promotion. Social marketing theory guided the development of discussion questions and a survey. Through purposive sampling, 30 women from medically underserved communities were recruited. Content analysis was used to identify major discussion themes. Findings indicate that lack of informational access may be a major barrier to participation. Study information disseminated through community channels with targeted outreach to social and religious organizations, promotion through face-to-face contact with researchers, and culturally tailored messages directed to families were preferred. Community oriented strategies based on linkages with organizational networks may increase participation.

  10. The challenges of working in underserved areas: a qualitative exploratory study of views of policy makers and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda F; El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Iblasi, Abdulkareem S; Murray, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    The inadequate number of health care providers, particularly nurses, in underserved areas is one of the biggest challenges for health policymakers. There is a scarcity of research in Jordan about factors that affect nurse staffing and retention in underserved areas. To elucidate the views of staff nurses working in underserved areas, directors of health facilities in underserved areas and key informants from the policy and education arena on issues of staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. An exploratory study using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was utilized to elucidate the views of 22 key informants from the policy and education arena, 11 directors of health centers, and 19 staff nurses on issues that contribute to low staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. The five stage 'framework approach' proposed by Bryman et al. (1993) was utilized for data analysis. Nursing shortage in underserved areas in Jordan are exacerbated by a lack of financial incentives, poor transportation and remoteness of these areas, bad working conditions, and lack of health education institutions in these areas, as well as by opportunities for internal and external migration. Young Jordanian male nurses usually grab any opportunity to migrate and work outside the country to improve their financial conditions; whereas, female nurses are more restricted and not encouraged to travel abroad to work. Several strategies are suggested to enhance retention in these areas, such as promoting financial incentives for staff to work there, enhancing the transportation system, and promoting continuous and academic education. Nurses' administrators and health care policy makers could utilize the findings of the present study to design and implement comprehensive interventions to enhance retention of staff in underserved areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Personal values of family physicians, practice satisfaction, and service to the underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, B C; Guse, C; Gottlieb, M S

    2000-03-01

    Personal values are defined as "desirable goals varying in importance that serve as guiding principles in people's lives," and have been shown to influence specialty choice and relate to practice satisfaction. We wished to examine further the relationship of personal values to practice satisfaction and also to a physician's willingness to care for the underserved. We also wished to study associations that might exist among personal values, practice satisfaction, and a variety of practice characteristics. We randomly surveyed a stratified probability sample of 1224 practicing family physicians about their personal values (using the Schwartz values questionnaire), practice satisfaction, practice location, breadth of practice, demographics, board certification status, teaching involvement, and the payor mix of the practice. Family physicians rated the benevolence (motivation to help those close to you) value type highest, and the ratings of the benevolence value type were positively associated with practice satisfaction (correlation coefficient = 0.14, P = .002). Those involved in teaching medical trainees were more satisfied than those who were not involved (P = .009). Some value-type ratings were found to be positively associated with caring for the underserved. Those whose practices consisted of more than 40% underserved (underserved defined as Medicare, Medicaid, and indigent populations) rated the tradition (motivation to maintain customs of traditional culture and religion) value type significantly higher (P = .02). Those whose practices consisted of more than 30% indigent care rated the universalism (motivation to enhance and protect the well-being of all people) value type significantly higher (P = .03). Family physicians who viewed benevolence as a guiding principle in their lives reported a higher level of professional satisfaction. Likewise, physicians involved in the teaching of medical trainees were more satisfied with their profession. Family physicians

  12. Designing for Underserved Populations: Constraints and Requirements of Personal Health Record Systems

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-02-11

    In this podcast, Dr. Thomas Horan discusses how language, literacy, and access barriers can be overcome with electronic Personal Health Record (PHR) systems to improve health among the most vulnerable, isolated, and underserved populations.  Created: 2/11/2009 by Coordinating Center for Health Information Service (CCHIS), Healthy Healthcare Settings Goal Team, Office of Strategy and Innovation.   Date Released: 9/2/2009.

  13. School District Policymaking Responses to Demographic Change in New Immigrant Destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Erica Owyang

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, immigrants from Latin America and Asia have been arriving in parts of the United States that have had little recent experience with immigration. How school district leaders respond to these demographic changes has significant consequences for students, families and communities. Yet, there is little research on why and how school district leaders are coming to enact some policies, and not others, in response to their changing demographics. This study examines policymakin...

  14. Immigration and Unemployment Application of Game Theory on Diyarbakir: Istanbul Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgönül, Müge; Kaplan, Aslı

    The aim of this poster is to make a research about the relationship between unemployment and immigration. A mathematical model for the relationship between unemployment and immigration to İstanbul and Diyarbakır will be suggested by grade 11 International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme students, Boran Çıplak, Teoman Kenn Küçük, Emre Orhan, Meriç Tansi, Aysu Bulak, Özgün Karataş, Mavi Deniz Koçak.

  15. Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives: Learning Business Informatics at Higher Educational Level

    OpenAIRE

    Suša, Dalia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The term digital natives refer to those born since the 1980s and have been growing up surrounded by technology. On the other hand, digital immigrants are born before 1980s and learned how to use technology later in life. Objectives: Goal of the paper is to explore attitudes of digital native students on the course of Business Informatics at higher educational institutions (HEIs), and to compare them with attitudes of digital immigrants. Methods/Approach: The survey was conducted i...

  16. 8 CFR 3.0 - Executive Office for Immigration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Office for Immigration Review 3.0... IMMIGRATION REVIEW § 3.0 Executive Office for Immigration Review Regulations of the Executive Office for Immigration Review relating to the adjudication of immigration matters before immigration judges (referred to...

  17. Workplace physical violence among hospital nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda Fawzi; Al Khawaldeh, Abdullah Talal

    2014-07-01

    To: (1) examine the incidence, frequency and contributing factors to workplace violence among nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan, and (2) identify the existing policies and the management modalities to tackle workplace violence. Workplace violence is a major problem in healthcare organisations. An understanding of the nature of violence is essential to implementing successful management. A descriptive exploratory research design. The questionnaire that was developed in 2003 by the International Labor Office, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 521 Jordanian physicians and nurses (396 nurses, 125 physicians) who worked in hospitals located in underserved areas. Around 15% of the participants were exposed to physical violence. The factors that contributed to workplace violence were related to absence of policies, inadequate staffing and lack of communication skills. Only 16·9% of participants indicated that there were specific policies available for dealing with physical workplace violence. Strengthening security and providing training were some of the important factors indicated by participants for decreasing violence in the workplace. Workplace violence is a problem in underserved areas that needs attention from administrators. Most participants were very dissatisfied with the way the administrators dealt with the incidents. Instituting firm policies against perpetrators and developing protective violence guidelines to support healthcare staff in managing workplace violence are paramount to tackle the problem of workplace violence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Priorities for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research: The Views of Minority and Underserved Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Susan Dorr; Myers, C Daniel; Szymecko, Lisa; Cunningham Collins, Carla; Martinez, Sal; Ledón, Charo; Campbell, Terrance R; Danis, Marion; Cargill, Stephanie Solomon; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Rowe, Zachary

    2017-04-01

    To learn how minority and underserved communities would set priorities for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). Sixteen groups (n = 183) from minority and underserved communities in two states deliberated about PCOR priorities using the simulation exercise CHoosing All Together (CHAT). Most participants were minority, one-third reported income research agendas and interviews with community leaders, clinicians, and key informants. Tablet-based CHAT collected demographic information, individual priorities before and after group deliberation, and groups' priorities. Individuals and groups prioritized research on Quality of Life, Patient-Doctor, Access, Special Needs, and (by total resources spent) Compare Approaches. Those with less than a high school education were less likely to prioritize New Approaches, Patient-Doctor, Quality of Life, and Families/Caregivers. Blacks were less likely to prioritize research on Causes of Disease, New Approaches, and Compare Approaches than whites. Compare Approaches, Special Needs, Access, and Families/Caregivers were significantly more likely to be selected by individuals after compared to before deliberation. Members of underserved communities, in informed deliberations, prioritized research on Quality of Life, Patient-Doctor, Special Needs, Access, and Compare Approaches. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Physician assistants as servant leaders: meeting the needs of the underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, Michael J; Wheeler, Daniel W

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the level of servant leader characteristics in clinically practicing physician assistants (PAs) in underserved populations differed from PAs serving in other locales. Five subscales of servant leadership: altruistic calling, emotional healing, wisdom, persuasive mapping, and organizational stewardship, were measured in a quantitative study of clinically practicing PAs using a self-rating survey and a similar survey by others rating the PA. Of 777 PAs invited, 321 completed the survey. On a scale of 1 to 5, mean PA self-ratings ranged from 3.52 (persuasive mapping) to 4.05 (wisdom). Other raters' scores paired with the self-rated PA scores were comparable in all subscales except wisdom, which was rated higher by the other raters (4.32 by other raters, 4.01 by PAs, P= .002). There was no significant difference in the measures of servant leadership reported by PAs serving the underserved compared to PAs serving in other populations. Servant leader subscales were higher for PAs compared to previous studies of other health care or community leader populations. The results found that the PA population studied had a prominent level of servant leadership characteristics that did not differ between those working with underserved and nonunderserved populations.

  20. Improving Immunization Rates of Underserved Children: A Historical Study of 10 Health Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Robert Haley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite high immunization rates, hundreds of thousands of poor and underserved children continue to lack their necessary immunizations and are at risk of acquiring a vaccine-preventable disease. Local Health Departments (LHDs and public health clinicians figure prominently in efforts to address this problem. Methods This exploratory research compared ten (10 North Carolina LHDs with respect to immunization delivery factors. The study sample was identified based on urban designation as well as county demographic and socio-economic indicators that identified predicted “pockets” of underimmunization. Survey instruments were used to identify specific LHD immunization delivery factors. Results It was found that hours of operation, appointment policies, use and type of tracking systems, and wait times influence a health department’s ability to immunize underserved children. This exploratory research is of particular importance, because it suggests that the implementation of specific policy interventions may reduce the morbidity and mortality related to vaccine-preventable diseases in poor and underserved children. This research also highlights the significance of the nurses’ role in the policy making process in this important area of community health assurance. Conclusion To improve childhood immunization rates, policy-makers should encourage adequate and appropriate funding for LHDs to adopt service delivery factors that are associated with higher-performing local health departments. LHDs should study the population they serve to further refine service delivery factors to meet the population’s needs.

  1. Hospitalisation among immigrants in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraci Salvatore

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is increasing in Italy. In 2003, 2.6 million foreign citizens lived in the country; 52% were men and the majority were young adults who migrated for work. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in hospitalisation between immigrants and the resident population during the year 2000 in the Lazio region. Methods Hospital admissions of immigrants from Less Developed Countries were compared to those of residents. We measured differences in hospitalisation rates and proportions admitted. Results Adult immigrants have lower hospitalisation rates than residents (134.6 vs. 160.5 per thousand population for acute care; 26.4 vs. 38.3 for day care. However, hospitalisation rates for some specific causes (injuries, particularly for men, infectious diseases, deliveries and induced abortions, ill-defined conditions were higher for immigrants than for residents. Immigrants under 18 years seem to be generally healthy; causes of admission in this group are similar to those of residents of the same age (respiratory diseases, injuries and poisoning. The only important differences are for infectious and parasitic diseases, with a higher proportion among immigrant youths. Conclusion The low hospitalisation rates for foreigners may suggest that they are a population with good health status. However, critical areas, related to poor living and working conditions and to social vulnerability, have been identified. Under-utilisation of services and low day care rates may be partially due to administrative, linguistic, and cultural barriers. As the presence of foreigners becomes an established phenomenon, it is important to evaluate their epidemiological profile, develop instruments to monitor and fulfil their specific health needs and plan health services for a multi-ethnic population.

  2. Children of Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M.; Suárez-Orozco, Carola

    2016-01-01

    With some 460 languages spoken across the land, the United States has a deep reservoir of linguistic diversity. But our nation's inconsistent language-learning policies and practices present a variety of obstacles for learning English. Understanding and then addressing student needs during the critical transition phase for newcomer students is an…

  3. Student doctors ( umfundi wobugqirha ): The role of student-run free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1943, the Students' Health and Welfare Centres Organisation (SHAWCO) of the University of Cape Town has provided voluntary, student-run free clinics in under-served communities ... A mixed-methods study with a predominantly quantitative questionnaire utilising dichotomised Likert scales was performed with 110

  4. Of peasants, plantations, and immigrant proletarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martí­nez

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Dominican Sugar Plantations: Production and Foreign Labor Integration. MARTIN F. MURPHY. New York: Praeger, 1991. xii + 186 pp. (Cloth US$49.95 Peasants in Distress: Poverty and Unemployment in the Dominican Republic. ROSEMARY VARGAS-LUNDIUS. Boulder CO: Westview 1991. xxi + 387 pp. (Paper US$ 32.95 Few other places in the Caribbean region have as great a potential for international conflict as the island of Hispaniola. The historical antagonism between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is no doubt known to readers of this journal, as is the recent upsurge in tension between the two countries, which culminated in the expulsion of tens of thousands of Haitian immigrants from the Dominican Republic, from June to September 1991. The quickening pace of events, added to the worsening spiral of economic hardship gripping both nations, threaten to render obsolete even the most recent analyses of relations between the two countries. Even so, against the background of an increasingly acrimonious debate between the Dominican government and international human rights organizations accusing it of enslaving Haitian immigrants in the cane flelds, the appearance of two works by long-time students of the migration of Haitians as cane workers to the Dominican Republic is particularly timely.

  5. A Description of the Immigrant Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brauer, David

    2004-01-01

    .... Immigrants also contribute to the economy and pay taxes. A major question is whether immigration has the potential to lessen the strain on the federal budget as the baby-boom generation retires...

  6. A psychosocial approach to dentistry for the underserved: incorporating theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaer, Paul J; Younis, Mustafa Z; Benjamin, Paul L; Al Hajeri, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Dentistry for the underserved is more than an egalitarian social issue--it is a key factor in the health and social progress of our nation. The first signs or manifestations of several diseases such as varicella (i.e., chicken pox and shingles), STDs, and influenza become apparent in the oral cavity. The value of access to quality dentistry is an immeasurable factor in maintaining general medical health of people and fulfilling their psychosocial needs of pain reduction and enhanced cosmetics. In the United States, for the most part, only the middle and upper classes receive non-extraction, restorative, and prosthetic dentistry that is economically within their ability to pay. In addition, uninsured and poverty-level individuals often must face overwhelming long waiting lists, unnecessary referrals, lack of choice, and bureaucratic hurdles when seeking primary dental care. Therefore, it seems pertinent to put forth the question: What are the critical values and beliefs of psychosocial theory that can underscore the practice of dentistry for underserved populations in the United States? The widely employed public health theory, the health belief model (HBM), is applied to evaluate psychosocial factors in dental care for the underserved. The HBM is used to predict and explain behavioral changes in dental health and associated belief patterns. The HBM as applied to dentistry for the underserved predicts self-perceptions of susceptibility and seriousness of dental disease, health status, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, patients can make judgments about benefits, costs, and risks of dental treatment. A theoretical approach to dentistry employing the HBM, mediated by values and culture, can provide significant insights into patient thinking, beliefs, and perceptions. These insights can mediate access to and use of primary care dental services by underserved populations. Evidence-based practice (i.e., based on research using the scientific method) has been

  7. "We can see a future here": Place attachment, professional identity, and forms of capital mobilized to deliver medical education in an underserviced area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Neil; Halseth, Greg; Snadden, David

    2010-09-01

    Community-integrated undergraduate medical education is becoming a more common option for students predisposed to practice in rural and small town places. One such initiative, the Northern Medical Program, has been operating since 2004 in the northern interior of British Columbia, Canada. The NMP's curriculum relies heavily on the involvement of practicing physicians in its host community, Prince George. Drawing on Bourdieu's conceptualization of capital in its different forms, the commitment of the local physician community is understood as social capital derived from cultural capital centred on a collective sense of professional identity forged by conditions of practice in an underserviced area. The findings of this study are discussed with respect to the long-term operation and success of community-integrated medical education programs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Examine Barriers to Healthcare Access for Hispanic and Latino Immigrants in the U.S. South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Jean; Biddle, Donald J

    2017-04-01

    Geographic barriers to accessing timely and appropriate primary health care services have been identified as significant social determinants of health that contribute to the growing health inequities among Hispanic and Latino immigrants in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine the geographic factors that serve as barriers to healthcare access for Hispanic and Latino immigrants in the southern community of Louisville, Kentucky. Accessibility to healthcare services was examined using spatial analysis techniques, a Geographic Information System and geographic data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Louisville and Jefferson County Information Consortium. Results from this study indicated that physical location, socioeconomic factors, distance, and transportation served as barriers to accessing healthcare services. Findings provide significant implications for future research and policy-based interventions focused on eliminating geographic barriers and promoting social and health equity for the underserved.

  9. The Impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on Immigrant Health: Perceptions of Immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  10. The impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on immigrant health: perceptions of immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P

    2011-08-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  11. Immigration, Endogenous Technology Adoption and Wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.; Pandey, Manish

    2015-01-01

    We document that immigration to U.S. states has increased the mass of workers at the lower range of the skill distribution. We use this change in skill distribution of workers to analyze the effect of immigration on wages. Our model allows firms to endogenously respond to the immigration-induced

  12. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An individual... to an order of removal under the immigration laws of the United States is not eligible to apply for a...

  13. Effectiveness and costeffectiveness of screening immigrants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immigrants to developed countries are a major source of TB. Therefore amongst strategies adopted for TB control in developed countries include; 1) Screening immigrants at ports of entry referred to as “Port of Arrival Screening” (PoA) and 2) Passive screening (PS) for TB which means screening immigrants ...

  14. Immigrant Youth Mental Health, Acculturation, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frabutt, James M.

    2006-01-01

    One in five youth in the United States is a child of an immigrant and children of immigrants are the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18. Consequently, there is a great need to better understand the psychosocial impact of immigration on children's mental health and adjustment. It is striking, however, that research on…

  15. How Do Immigrants Affect Us Economically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Julian L.

    This document summarizes the key data and main findings of the book, "The Economic Consequences of Immigration into the United States." All immigrants, not only those who are illegal, are included in the discussion. Immigrants, it is concluded, raise the standard of living of the residents of the host country, rather than lowering it as is…

  16. Beyond "Culture Clash" Understandings of Immigrant Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Bic

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the ways in which the experiences of immigrant youth and families in U.S. schools and society have been conceptualized primarily as conflicts between immigrant cultures and dominant U.S. culture. Exemplified by the discourse of culture clash or of immigrants being torn between two worlds, this prevalent understanding…

  17. Immigration and the transformation of American unionism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Fine, J.; Jacoby, W.; Tichenor, D.

    2010-01-01

    Does immigration hamper union organizing in the United States? The prevailing literature strongly suggests that it does and for two reasons: first, immigrants increase the labor pool and diminish union influence over the labor market. And second, immigrants may be harder to organize than native

  18. 22 CFR 40.67 - Student visa abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Student visa abusers. 40.67 Section 40.67 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.67...

  19. Staff Members Acting as Grandparents in a High School for Recent Immigrants: Los Abuelitos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study considered how a high school in the south central United States serving predominantly immigrant students from Mexico and Central America made use of older Hispanic or Latino staff members as surrogate or stand-in grandparents (fondly called "abuelitos" by the students). The caring, intergenerational relationships…

  20. "La unión hace la fuerza": Community Organizing in Adult Education for Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlock, Russell H., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Adult English as a second language (ESL) educators have struggled to move beyond skills-based instruction to implement more student-centered, contextualized pedagogy that prepares students to become active citizens and to solve real-world problems, even as the growing number of immigrants make adult education increasingly important for determining…

  1. Learning to Work with Immigrant Families: An Experiment in Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehrunnisa A.; Bishop, Susan; Martin, Beth

    2017-01-01

    This study examined what students in three professional programs--Nursing, Social Work, and Early Childhood Studies--could learn about working with immigrant families using narrative inquiry as a heuristic device. Data collected from the students in focus groups demonstrated their capacity for ethical caring by recognizing individual…

  2. The First State Dream Act: In-State Resident Tuition and Immigration in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Stella M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Texas became the first state to pass an in-state resident tuition policy that benefits undocumented immigrant students, a majority of whom are of Latino/a origin. This analysis estimates the effect of the Texas in-state resident tuition policy on students likely to be undocumented. Using a differences-in-differences strategy and two…

  3. Political rationality: Young Danish and Norwegian immigrant citizens and their political reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    combining identities, emotions, and information is suggested and examined empirically. In a qualitative study the reflectivity of the students and their willingness to act as rational and responsible citizens is evaluated. Based on a selection of young Danish and Norwegian immigrant students, the dynamics...

  4. Immigrants Outperform Canadian-Born Groups in French Immersion: Examining Factors That Influence Their Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the French achievement results of three groups of students: Canadian-born English/French bilingual, Canadian-born multilingual and immigrant multilingual Grade 6 French immersion students, by investigating how the variables of integrative and instrumental motivations, attitudes to the learning situation, French language…

  5. New Orthodox Immigration in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Martikainen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish Orthodox Church is the second largest religious organization in Finland with ca. 57,000 members. During the last 15 years its membership has grown 7% because of international migration. The migrants are mainly from the former Soviet Union (e.g. Estonia, Russia and Ukraine, but there are also small groups from, e.g., Greece, Ethiopia and Romania. The article is a case study of the immigrant activities in two Orthodox parishes that are located in Helsinki and Turku. Issues such as organizational support, religious education and transnational connections are presented. Based on contemporary research on religion and immigration, the article aims to highlight the speci? c role of language in immigrant organizations, and it argues that more attention should be given to it as a speci? c factor.

  6. Immigrants in the Sexual Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    This book focuses on the latter half of the twentieth century, when much of northwest Europe grew increasingly multicultural with the arrival of foreign workers and (post-)colonial migrants, whilst simultaneously experiencing a boom in feminist and sexual liberation activism. Using multilingual...... newspapers, foreign worker organizations’ archives, and interviews, this book shows that immigrants in the Netherlands and Denmark held a variety of viewpoints about European gender and sexual cultures. Some immigrants felt solidarity with, and even participated in, European social movements that changed...... norms and laws in favor of women’s equality, gay and lesbian rights, and sexual liberation. These histories challenge today’s politicians and journalists who strategically link immigration to sexual conservatism, misogyny, and homophobia....

  7. The education power of immigrant associations in multicultural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Jiménez, Antonio J.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With this qualitative research we are trying to know the collaborative capacity and contributions that Immigrant Associations could do to the schools that form part of a social context characterised by the recent and massive arrival of immigrants of Maghrebian, Sub-Sahara, South America, European Union, and East Europe origin. The sample constituted by 55 immigrants that are members of Immigrant Associations, 16 teachers and 16 directors of schools, makes us to think about the role the Immigrant Associations could play in the education centres. The information coming out from immigrants and teachers shows up that the participation of associations, besides to do a good intercultural work and favour the identity signs of new students, empower the school influence of immigrant children. In addition to, this participation would support the continuity between the school and the student family; it also constitutes a way of working with children and young people in communities of learning. Con esta investigación cualitativa pretendemos dar a conocer la capacidad colaborativa y las aportaciones que pueden realizar las asociaciones de inmigrantes a las escuelas que forman parte de un contexto social caracterizado por la llegada reciente y masiva de inmigrantes de orígenes Magrebí, África Subsahariana, Sudamérica, Unión Europea y Europa del Este. La muestra constituida por 55 inmigrantes miembros de asociaciones de inmigrantes y 16 profesores y 16 directores de centros educativos, nos permite comprender el papel que pueden jugar las asociaciones de inmigrantes en los centros educativos. Los datos obtenidos a partir de los propios inmigrantes y profesores, ponen de manifiesto que la participación de las asociaciones, además de realizar una buena labor de mediación intercultural y favorecer las señas identitarias de los nuevos escolares, potencia el “poder” escolar y social de niños y jóvenes inmigrantes. Además, esta participaci

  8. Demands of immigration among nurses from Canada and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechinor, Linda A Victorino; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the demands of immigration on nurses from Canada and those from the Philippines, who immigrate to the USA and work in Hawaii. The findings can assist policy-makers in formulating plans to alleviate the shortage of nurses through effective immigration recruitment practices. Nurse educators can gain support for the recruitment of students from a diverse array of cultures. Managers and nursing leaders can use this information in designing recruitment, orientation, support and retention programmes for nurses that are specific to their cultural needs. The two groups of nurses were sampled from acute care staff nurse populations in Hawaii. Aroian's instrument, the Demands of Immigration scale, was used to measure and compare the distress levels of the nurses. The findings include a higher level of distress experienced by nurses from Canada compared with nurses from the Philippines. This might be attributed to a preponderance of social and collegial support available to the Philippine nurses in Hawaii where one-fourth of the population is derived from their country of origin.

  9. [Acculturation orientations and psychosocial adaptation among adolescents with immigrant background].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutaudier, N; Chauchard, E; Melioli, T; Valls, M; van Leeuwen, N; Chabrol, H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the typology of adolescents with immigrant background based on the orientations of acculturation and to estimate the psychosocial adaptation of the various subtypes. A sample of 228 French high school students with an immigrant background completed a questionnaire assessing acculturation orientations (Immigrant Acculturation Scale; Barrette et al., 2004), antisocial behaviors, depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Cluster analysis based on acculturation orientations was performed using the k-means method. Cluster analysis produced four distinct acculturation profiles: bicultural (31%), separated (28%), marginalized (21%), and assimilated-individualistic (20%). Adolescents in the separated and marginalized clusters, both characterized by rejection of the host culture, reported higher levels of antisocial behavior. Depressive symptoms and self-esteem did not differ between clusters. Several hypotheses may explain the association between separation and delinquency. First, separation and rejection of the host culture may lead to rebellious behavior such as delinquency. Conversely, delinquent behavior may provoke rejection or discrimination by peers or school, or legal sanctions that induce a reciprocal process of rejection of the host culture and separation. The relationship between separation and antisocial behavior may be bidirectional, each one reinforcing the other, resulting in a negative spiral. This study confirms the interest of the study of the orientations of acculturation in the understanding of the antisocial behavior of adolescents with immigrant background. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Intolerance toward immigrants in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...

  11. Immigrants and health care: sources of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Escarce, José J; Lurie, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Immigrants have been identified as a vulnerable population, but there is heterogeneity in the degree to which they are vulnerable to inadequate health care. Here we examine the factors that affect immigrants' vulnerability, including socioeconomic background; immigration status; limited English proficiency; federal, state, and local policies on access to publicly funded health care; residential location; and stigma and marginalization. We find that, overall, immigrants have lower rates of health insurance, use less health care, and receive lower quality of care than U.S.-born populations; however, there are differences among subgroups. We conclude with policy options for addressing immigrants' vulnerabilities.

  12. Illegal immigration: a supply side analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Bandyopadhyay, S C

    1998-12-01

    "This paper analyzes the supply-side determinants of illegal immigration using a three-sector general equilibrium model of the source country. Agricultural liberalization raises illegal immigration while liberalization of the high tech sector reduces it. In contrast, capital mobility in the source country renders trade policy ineffective for controlling illegal immigration. Paradoxically, increased enforcement (by the host country) may raise source country unskilled wages, although illegal immigration falls. Finally, under capital mobility, a rise in the source country restrictions on capital inflow raises the level of illegal immigration and reduces the effectiveness of border enforcement efforts by the host country." excerpt

  13. Prevalence of non-food allergies among non-immigrants, long-time immigrants and recent immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiayun; Sbihi, Hind

    2016-12-27

    The prevalence of allergic conditions has been increasing worldwide, with the highest rates seen in Western countries like Canada. The development of allergies is known to be related to both genetic and environmental factors, but the causal pathways remain unclear. Studies on immigrants provide a unique opportunity to disentangle these two factors and provide a better understanding of the disease aetiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between immigration status and prevalence of non-food allergies in a population-based study of Canadians. Data of 116,232 respondents from the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 3.1, 2005) were used in a multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between immigration status (non-immigrant, long-time immigrant [>10 years] and recent immigrant [≤10 years]) and self-reported doctor-diagnosed non-food allergies, adjusting for potential confounders. The highest prevalence of non-food allergies was found among non-immigrants (29.6%), followed by long-time immigrants (23.9%) and then recent immigrants (14.3%). The odds of non-food allergies were reduced by 60% (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.45) among recent immigrants and 25% (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.80) among long-time immigrants, compared with non-immigrants, after adjusting for sex, age, socio-economic status and rurality. This study finds a distinctly lower prevalence of non-food allergies among immigrants compared with non-immigrants, with the difference diminishing with longer duration of residence in Canada. The findings highlight the potential of environmental determinants of allergy development that warrant further investigation, and demonstrate the need for multicultural strategies to manage the public health burden of allergic conditions.

  14. Staying in STEM or changing course: Do natives and immigrants pursue the path of least resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Siqi

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines why Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) fields are becoming "immigrant" fields of study as native students shift from STEM fields to law, medicine and business. Using data from the 2010 National Survey of College Graduates, the analyses find that foreign college-educated immigrants with STEM degrees tend to remain in STEM fields, while natives are more likely to shift from STEM fields to law, medicine and business in graduate school. Among those who moved into law, medicine and business, the gains in earnings are larger for natives than for foreign educated immigrants. These results have important implications for the social mobility of highly educated natives and immigrants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association Between Stigma and Depression Outcomes Among Chinese Immigrants in a Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin A; Shapero, Benjamin G; Trinh, Nhi-Ha T; Chang, Trina E; Parkin, Susannah; Alpert, Jonathan E; Fava, Maurizio; Yeung, Albert S

    2016-10-01

    Stigma has been proposed to be a major underlying factor contributing to lower rates of mental health service utilization among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States. Yet, surprisingly little research has specifically explored associations between stigma, race/ethnicity, and psychiatric morbidity. This study aims to assess the impact of stigmatizing attitudes on depression outcomes among a psychiatrically underserved, immigrant Chinese population. Between 2009 and 2012, 190 Chinese immigrants with major depressive disorder as diagnosed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were enrolled in a trial of culturally sensitive collaborative care for depression. Participants' self-reported stigma regarding their symptoms was assessed at study entry using the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue, and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at baseline and follow-up. Hierarchical linear regression was used to assess the association between baseline stigma score and change in HDRS score, adjusting for potential confounders. Higher stigma scores at baseline were significantly associated with attenuated improvement in both HDRS score and quality of life at 6 months (P Stigma has a directly harmful effect on depression outcomes, even after individuals have been accurately diagnosed within a culturally sensitive community health center and agreed to treatment. These results support further research into interventions targeting stigma to improve mental health outcomes among minority populations. This study is a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from the randomized controlled trial registered by ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00854542. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Immigrant Workers and Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...

  17. Senegalese Immigrant Entrepreneurial Entanglements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Senegalese entrepreneurship in South Africa is a typical example of how entrepreneurial entanglements are beginning to pose huge challenges to the theorization and understanding of modern African forms of business. This group of immigrant entrepreneurs finds it difficult to separate the use of charms and magic in the ...

  18. Recruiting and retaining primary care physicians in urban underserved communities: the importance of having a mission to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom Walker, Kara; Ryan, Gery; Ramey, Robin; Nunez, Felix L; Beltran, Robert; Splawn, Robert G; Brown, Arleen F

    2010-11-01

    We examined factors influencing physician practice decisions that may increase primary care supply in underserved areas. We conducted in-depth interviews with 42 primary care physicians from Los Angeles County, California, stratified by race/ethnicity (African American, Latino, and non-Latino White) and practice location (underserved vs nonunderserved area). We reviewed transcriptions and coded them into themes by using standard qualitative methods. Three major themes emerged in relation to selecting geographic- and population-based practice decisions: (1) personal motivators, (2) career motivators, and (3) clinic support. We found that subthemes describing personal motivators (e.g., personal mission and self-identity) for choosing a practice were more common in responses among physicians who worked in underserved areas than among those who did not. By contrast, physicians in nonunderserved areas were more likely to cite work hours and lifestyle as reasons for selecting their current practice location or for leaving an underserved area. Medical schools and shortage-area clinical practices may enhance strategies for recruiting primary care physicians to underserved areas by identifying key personal motivators and may promote long-term retention through work-life balance.

  19. Beyond good grades: School composition and immigrant youth participation in extracurricular activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Dina G; Herda, Daniel; Hartzog, Cassie

    2013-01-01

    Past research has typically focused on educational attainment and achievement to understand the assimilation process for immigrant youth. However, academic achievement constitutes only part of the schooling experience. In this paper, we move beyond traditional measures such as test scores and dropout, and examine patterns of school-sponsored extracurricular activity participation. Analyzing data from Add Health and drawing upon the frog-pond and segmented assimilation frameworks, we find that immigrant minority youth are disadvantaged in regards to activity participation relative to the average student in high- compared to low-SES schools. In high-SES schools, immigrant youth are less similar to their peers in terms of socioeconomic, race, and immigrant status, and as suggested by the frog-pond hypothesis, social comparison and ranking processes contribute to lower levels of social integration of immigrant youth into the school setting. We also find that as percent minority rises in high-SES schools, participation increases as well. The opposite pattern appears in low-SES schools: when percent minority increases, activity participation among immigrant minority students declines. These results are commensurate with both theoretical frameworks, and suggest that different mechanisms are at work in high- and low-SES schools. However, the effects of minority peers do not seem to hold for sports participation, and we also find that percent immigrant operates differently from percent minority, depressing the probability of activity participation across both high- and low-SES schools. The main implication of our results is that racially diverse, higher-SES schools are the most favorable contexts for the social integration of immigrant minority youth as well as third- and later-generation blacks and Hispanics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Atraumatic restorative treatment for prevention and treatment of caries in an underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Naty; Simpser-Rafalin, Sara; Berthold, Peter

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of atraumatic restorative treatment to prevent and treat caries in an underserved community in Mexico. We placed 370 restorations and 193 sealants in 118 children aged 5 to 18; 85% reported no pain, and 93% were comfortable with their restorations. We then evaluated the children 1 and 2 years later. At 2-year evaluation, 66% of restorations and 35% of sealants were retained. Atraumatic restorative treatment is acceptable and effective to control and prevent decay in a socioeconomically deprived community.

  1. Students Designing Video Games about Immunology: Insights for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Neda; Sheridan, Kimberly; Williams, Asia; Clark, Kevin; Stegman, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Exposing American K-12 students to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) content is a national initiative. Game Design Through Mentoring and Collaboration targets students from underserved communities and uses their interest in video games as a way to introduce science, technology, engineering, and math topics. This article describes a…

  2. Next Generation Science Standards: All Standards, All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Miller, Emily C.; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) offer a vision of science teaching and learning that presents both learning opportunities and demands for all students, particularly student groups that have traditionally been underserved in science classrooms. The NGSS have addressed issues of diversity and equity from their inception, and the NGSS…

  3. Do Limited English Students Jeopardize the Education of Other Students? Lessons from the North Carolina Public School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diette, Timothy M.; Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The significant increase in immigration has altered the ethnic composition of public schools in many states. Given the perceived negative impact of immigrant students by some, we are interested in investigating whether higher concentrations of students with limited English (LE) skills in a school affect the academic performance of native students.…

  4. 28 CFR 0.117 - Office of Chief Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Chief Immigration Judge. 0.117... Executive Office for Immigration Review § 0.117 Office of Chief Immigration Judge. The Chief Immigration Judge shall provide general supervision to the Immigration Judges in performance of their duties in...

  5. Is Temporary Agency Employment a Stepping Stone for Immigrants?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Elke J.; Rosholm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether agency employment is a bridge into regular employment for immigrants to Denmark using the timing-of-events approach. We provide evidence of large positive in-treatment effects, particularly for non-western immigrants and immigrants arriving during childhood. Post-treatment effects are fairly high for male non-western immigrants and immigrants from Eastern Europe.

  6. Show me the money! An analysis of underserved stakeholders' funding priorities in Patient Centered Outcomes Research domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Stephanie Solomon; Baker, Lauren Lyn; Goold, Susan Dorr

    2017-07-01

    Develop an accessible exercise to engage underserved populations about research funding priorities; analyze the criteria they use to prioritize research; contrast these criteria to those currently used by Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Academic and community partners collaborated to develop an Ipad exercise to facilitate group deliberation about PCOR funding priorities. 16 groups (n = 183) of underserved individuals in both urban and rural areas participated. Recordings were qualitatively analyzed for prioritization criteria. Analysis yielded ten codes, many of which were similar to PCORI criteria, but all of which challenged or illuminated these criteria. Directly involving underserved populations in determining funding criteria is both feasible and important, and can better fulfill PCORI's goal of incorporating patient priorities.

  7. Humanizing the student--cadaver encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, B; Rodin, A E; Nagy, F; Reece, R D

    1979-12-01

    In a recently accredited medical school, the curriculum, which emphasizes the psychologic and social aspects of disease, includes innovative features aimed toward training students to provide humanistic health care in underserved areas. As part of this curriculum, an educational experiment was designed to explore issues concerning the medical student's first exposure to a cadaver. The authors describe the experiment as it evolved over a three-year period, and they discuss its value based on student evaluation and faculty opinion.

  8. Fear of Immigration Enforcement Among Older Latino Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nestor; Paredes, Cristian L; Hagan, Jacqueline

    2017-06-01

    The passage of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) and other subsequent restrictive immigration policies have created fear among Latino immigrants. This study examines whether fear of immigration enforcement is socially significant among older (50+ years) foreign-born Latino individuals in the United States without citizenship or permanent residence, and whether disapproval of immigrant enforcement policies is directly associated with fear of immigration enforcement among this older population. Data used in the analysis come from 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2013 national Latino surveys conducted by the Pew Research Center. Cross-sectional regression models are used to estimate the probabilities of fearing immigration enforcement in the Latino samples, as well as to examine the association between disapproval and fear of immigration enforcement. The study finds that the predicted probabilities of fearing immigration enforcement among foreign-born individuals aged 50 and over without citizenship or permanent residence are not negligible. Moreover, the study finds evidence of a direct association between the disapproval of enforcement measures and fear of immigration enforcement. Restrictive immigration measures have implications for conditions of fear and other stressors affecting the well-being of older immigrants.

  9. [Tuberculosis and immigration in Spain: scoping review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Rodrigo, Teresa; Camprubí, Esteve; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is a fairly recent phenomenon in Spain and there are still few scientific publications on tuberculosis (TB) and immigration. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the differential characteristics of TB in the immigrant population with respect to natives in Spain. Literature review of original articles written in Spanish or English and published 1998-2012 about TB among immigrant population. The articles with the key words "Tuberculosis", "immigrants" and "Spain" were included. Literature search was performed in Medline and MEDES. A total of 72,087 articles on TB were detected worldwide, 6% of them dealt with the immigration issue. Regarding Spain we found 2,917 articles representing 4% of the papers published worldwide, and in 219 (7.5%) immigration was considered. Of the 219 articles, 48% were published in Spanish journals and the 52% remaining in Anglo-Saxon journals. 93.5% of immigrants with TB were younger than 51, whereas this percentage was 64.9% in natives. Drug resistance can be seen in 7.8% of the immigrant population but in only 3.8% of natives. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem. Immigrants with TB were characterized by being younger and having more drug resistance and coming mostly from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem.

  10. To what extent does immigration affect inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Yonatan; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-11-01

    The current surge in income and wealth inequality in most western countries, along with the continuous immigration to those countries demand a quantitative analysis of the effect immigration has on economic inequality. This paper presents a quantitative analysis framework providing a way to calculate this effect. It shows that in most cases, the effect of immigration on wealth and income inequality is limited, mainly due to the relative small scale of immigration waves. For a large scale flow of immigrants, such as the immigration to the US, the UK and Australia in the past few decades, we estimate that 10 % ÷ 15 % of the wealth and income inequality increase can be attributed to immigration. The results demonstrate that immigration could possibly decrease inequality substantially, if the characteristics of the immigrants resemble the characteristics of the destination middle class population in terms of wealth or income. We empirically found that the simple linear relation ΔS = 0.18 ρ roughly describes the increase in the wealth share of the top 10 % due to immigration of a fraction ρ of the population.

  11. Trends in food insecurity among California residents from 2001 to 2011: Inequities at the intersection of immigration status and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Ro, Annie; Gee, Gilbert C

    2017-12-01

    Although immigrants are healthier than non-immigrants on numerous outcomes, the reverse appears to be true with regards to food insecurity. Most studies ignore heterogeneity in the risk for food insecurity within immigration status and by ethnicity, even though significant variation likely exists. We consider how immigration status and ethnicity are related to trends in food insecurity among Latinos and Asians in California from 2001 through 2011. Data come from the 2001 to 2011 restricted California Health Interview Survey (n=245,679). We categorized Latinos and Asians as US-born, naturalized/legal permanent residents (naturalized/LPR), and non-LPRs (students, temporary workers, refugees, and undocumented persons). Multivariable weighted logistic regression analyses assessed temporal trends over the 10-year period after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, and program participation. Across this period, US-born Asians reported similar levels of food insecurity as US-born Whites. Conversely, Latinos, regardless of immigration status or nativity, and Asian immigrants (i.e., naturalized/LPR and non-LPR) reported greater food insecurity than US-born Whites. Further, from 2001 through 2009, non-LPR Latinos reported higher risk of food insecurity than naturalized/LPR Latinos. Thus, food insecurity differs between ethnic groups, but also differs within ethnic group by immigration status. Efforts to reduce food insecurity should consider the additional barriers to access that are faced by immigrants, particularly those without legal permanent residency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceptions of cardiovascular health in an underserved community of deaf adults using American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael; Schlehofer, Deirdre; Cuculick, Jessica; Starr, Matthew; Smith, Scott; Chin, Nancy P

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease leads in overall mortality and morbidity in the United States. Cardiovascular disparities remain high among minority and underserved groups. Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users are an underserved and understudied group that receives little attention from researchers due to language and communication barriers. A recent ASL survey in Rochester, NY, indicated greater cardiovascular risk among Deaf participants. The study objective was to investigate risk perceptions of cardiovascular disease among Deaf ASL users, linking perceptions to features of Deaf culture and communication. This information will be used to inform future strategies to promote cardiovascular health among Deaf adults. Four focus groups were conducted in Rochester, New York, with 22 Deaf participants in ASL. Videotaped sessions were translated and transcribed by a bilingual researcher. A team of investigators coded, analyzed, and identified key themes from the data. Themes centered on five major domains: knowledge, barriers, facilitators, practices, and dissemination. The majority of themes focused on barriers and knowledge. Barriers included lack of health care information access due to language and communication challenges, financial constraints, and stress. Inconsistent knowledge emerged from many key areas of cardiovascular health. The study outlines key themes for improving cardiovascular health knowledge and perceptions among Deaf ASL users. Findings suggest the importance of providing health educational programs and information in ASL to maximize understanding and minimize misconceptions. When caring for Deaf ASL users, providers should take extra effort to ask about cardiovascular risk factors and confirm patients' understanding of these factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sources of health information in a multiethnic, underserved, urban community: does ethnicity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geana, Mugur V; Kimminau, Kim S; Greiner, K Allen

    2011-07-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing minority in the country, and is expected to reach about 30% of the total U.S. population by 2050. Historically, primary care practitioners are not the preferred source of health information for Latinos living in the United States. Latinos are known to rely more on media, family, and friends to get answers to health-related questions. Choosing the appropriate information source is an important component of health information-seeking behavior; it also represents a major challenge for health communicators trying to deliver information to their target audience. This study explores how ethnicity influences health information source selection among Latinos and White non-Latinos living together in an underserved, multiethnic urban community with poor health status and underlying socioeconomic characteristics. The results suggest that this community manifests a high degree of homogeneity in their usage of health information sources. Nevertheless, there are significant differences between ethnic groups and age groups on perceived usefulness of the health information retrieved from common sources. Our results suggest that health information sources that are interactive, native to the community (e.g., the local pharmacist), and promote active engagement are the most useful in delivering health messages that will be listened to by those living in this underserved, multiethnic urban community.

  14. Randomized Trial of a Family-based, Automated, Conversational Obesity Treatment Program for Underserved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. A.; Phillips, B.D.; Watson, B.L.; Newby, P.K.; Norman, G. J.; Adams, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a scalable obesity treatment program integrated with pediatric primary care and delivered using interactive voice technology (IVR) to families from underserved populations. Design and Methods Fifty parent-child dyads (child 9–12 yrs, BMI >95th percentile) were recruited from a pediatric primary care clinic and randomized to either an IVR or a wait-list control (WLC) group. The majority were lower-income, African-American (72%) families. Dyads received IVR calls for 12 weeks. Call content was informed by two evidenced-based interventions. Anthropometric and behavioral variables were assessed at baseline and 3 mo follow-up. Results Forty-three dyads completed the study. IVR parents ate 1 cup more fruit than WLC (p 75% agreed that the calls were useful, made for people like them, credible, and helped them eat healthy foods. Conclusion An obesity treatment program delivered via IVR may be an acceptable and feasible resource for families from underserved populations. PMID:23512915

  15. Asthma prevalence and risk factor assessment of an underserved and primarily Latino child population in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Maggie L; Reynolds, Stephen J; Hendrikson, Edward; Peel, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a substantialpublic health burden among children. Disease and risk-factor discrepancies have been identified among racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. At a rural health clinic (Salud Family Health Center) with primarily underserved and Latino patients in Colorado, the authors evaluated 250 medical records and administered 57 parental surveys to describe this population with respect to asthma diagnosis, asthma-like symptoms, and environmental/occupational risk factors among children. Wheeze and asthma were indicated in 9.7% and 8.9% of medical records, respectively. Twenty parents (35.7%) reported in a questionnaire that their child had experienced wheezing or whistling in the chest. Parents reported that children play in farming fields (21.8%) and feed livestock/animals (10.9%). Additionally, 13.2% and 9.4% of children have a household member who works around livestock or around grain, feed, or dust, respectively. Information from the Salud population can be used to develop larger-scale research and public health initiatives to eliminate health and risk factor disparities among underserved children.

  16. Delivering health care in a large urban hotel: cost effective, quality care for an underserved and uninsured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intili, Henry; Laws, Catherine

    2003-07-01

    Expansion of an occupational health clinic from registered nurse base to nurse practitioner base where employees can be treated for basic emergent conditions can result in health benefits to underserved and underinsured employees and financial benefits to management. It is essential that the financial benefits of the plan to expand clinical services outweigh the costs, and the savings projections be plausible. Emotional appeals to improve the health and well being of employees are not sufficient or credible in the management arena without financial payback. Expanded clinic services increase employee perception that the company cares for their welfare. This benefit is especially important to underserved and underinsured employees.

  17. An Analysis of Oppression and Health Education for Underserved Populations in the United States: The Issues of Acculturation, Patient-Provider Communication, and Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Shannon; Gull, Bethany; Ashby, Jeanie; Kamimura, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    The oppression of underserved populations is pervasive throughout the history of the United States (U.S.), especially in health care. Brazilian educator Paulo Freire's controversial ideas about systems of power can be aptly applied to health care. This paper focuses specifically on arguably the most medically underserved group in the U.S.…

  18. Do immigrants screened for skills do better than family reunification immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, G; Rosenzweig, M R

    1995-01-01

    "It is sometimes thought that immigrants [to the United States] who are screened for occupational skills are likely to become more productive Americans than immigrants who gain admission on the basis of family ties to native-born U.S. citizens or to previous immigrants. However, the expected differential may be small or nonexistent because: 1) kinship immigrants have access to family networks; 2) whereas employers may screen for short-term productivity, family members may screen for long-term productivity; and 3) native-born U.S citizens who sponsor spouses may be particularly adept at screening for long-term success. Longitudinal data on the 1977 immigrant cohort is used to compare initial and longer-term occupational outcomes among employment and kinship immigrants. Results indicate a narrowing of the differential, due both to higher rates of occupational downgrading among employment immigrants and of occupational upgrading among kinship immigrants." excerpt

  19. What is the Right to Exclude Immigrants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    It is normally taken for granted that states have a right to control immigration into their territory. When immigration is raised as a normative issue two questions become salient, one about what the right to exclude is, and one about whether and how it might be justified. This paper considers...... the first question. The paper starts by noting that standard debates about immigration have not addressed what the right to exclude is. Standard debates about immigration furthermore tend to result either in fairly strong cases for open borders or in denials that considerations of justice apply...... to immigration at all, which results in state discretion positions. This state of debate is both theoretically unsatisfactory and normatively implausible. The paper therefore explores an alternative approach to the right to exclude immigrants from the perspective of recent debates about the territorial rights...

  20. 應用敘事文本於師資培育移民教育課程及其對職前教師跨文化理解之影響 Implement Narrative Inquiry to Immigration Education and Explore Cross-cultural Understanding of Student Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    黃淑玲 Shu-Ling Huang

    2015-09-01

    new immigrants and 10 school teachers for children of new immigrants. By means of narrative inquiry, this study uses the immigrants’ life experiences to write narrative texts which are applied to the curriculum of immigration education in teacher education subsequently. The teaching mode of cross-cultural understanding is implemented in the curriculum as well. Before participating in the curriculum of narrative inquiry, most student teachers view new immigrants as outsiders with sociological-pathological perspectives. With the cross-cultural understanding and communicative curriculum of narrative inquiry, student teachers start to comprehend immigrants’ experiences and the process of their ego formation and transformation in the historical, social and cultural construction and context. Instead of the previous negative attitude, student teachers look upon new immigrants as insiders with the concept of egalitarian model of culture. They realize all cultures have their own values and meanings, and know how to respect differences between new immigrants’ cultures and mainstream culture. This study suggests that as the giver of knowledge and culture in the multicultural Taiwan society, it is necessary for teachers to understand the unique of their own culture and reflect their values on the culture. Simultaneously, teachers should keep the attitude of tolerance, understanding, appreciation toward different cultures and be capable of teaching their student these perspectives to be pioneers in the field of the multicultural education.

  1. Circulation of immigrants to Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Sándor Illés

    2015-01-01

    We measure the demographic patterns associated with international circular migration. Firstly, we define the circulation within the conceptual framework of transnationalism. Secondly, we create macro-scale data bank on long-term international circular migrants based on an original statistical method. Thirdly, we seek to gain further insight into the composition of international circular immigrants by gender, age, and family status. Conclusions indicate the need for future research.

  2. Venezuela: illegal immigration from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, A

    1984-01-01

    The influx of illegal Colombian immigrants into Venezuela is studied using data from a variety of sources, including the 1971 census and several studies conducted in 1979-1980. The author examines the origins and destinations of migrants; age, sex, educational status, and occupational data; reasons for migration; and geographic distribution of the migrating population. Tables from Venezuela's General Foreign-Born Register of December 1980 are presented in an appendix.

  3. Risk of eating disorders in immigrant populations

    OpenAIRE

    Mustelin, L.; Hedman, A.; Thornton, L.M.; Kuja-Halkola, R.; Keski-Rahkonen, A.; Cantor-Graae, E.; Almqvist, C.; Lichtenstein, P.; Mortensen, P.B.; Böcker Pedersen, C.; Bulik, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The risk of certain psychiatric disorders is elevated among immigrants. To date, no population studies on immigrant health have addressed eating disorders. We examined whether risk of eating disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants differ from native-born Danes and Swedes. Method: All individuals born 1984-2002 (Danish cohort) and 1989-1999 (Swedish cohort) and residing in the respective country on their 10th birthday were included. They were followed up for the d...

  4. The Acceleration of Immigrant Unhealthy Assimilation

    OpenAIRE

    Giuntella, Osea; Stella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that immigrants tend to be healthier than US natives and that this advantage erodes with time spent in the US. However, we know less about the heterogeneity of these trajectories among arrival cohorts. Recent studies have shown that later arrival cohorts of immigrants have lower entry wages and experience less economic assimilation. In this paper, we investigate whether similar cohort effects can be observed in the weight assimilation of immigrants in the US. Focusing on obes...

  5. Immigrants as Active Citizens: Exploring the Volunteering Experience of Chinese Immigrants in Vancouver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that immigration has played an important role in transforming Canada into an ethno-culturally diverse and economically prosperous nation, immigrants themselves are often criticised as passive citizens. This study attempts to deconstruct this myth by investigating the volunteering experiences of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. The…

  6. Age at Immigration and the Incomes of Older Immigrants, 1994–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972

  7. Consequences of Arizona's Immigration Policy on Social Capital among Mexican Mothers with Unauthorized Immigration Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Padilla, Brian; Valentine, Jessa Lewis

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the consequences of increasingly restrictive immigration policies on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigrant status in Arizona. Three focus groups conducted in Arizona explore how mothers' experiences with immigration policies have affected their neighborhood, community, and family ties. Focus group…

  8. Age at immigration and the incomes of older immigrants, 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kevin; Tienda, Marta

    2015-03-01

    Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994-2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Immigrant Narratives: Power, Difference, and Representation in Young-Adult Novels with Immigrant Protagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Elizabeth; Kalyanpur, Maya

    2011-01-01

    As of 2008, about 23% of children in the United States were immigrants or the children of immigrants. This paper examines how immigrants are portrayed in books aimed at teenagers. From a sample of 20 young-adult novels we look at the demographics of both protagonist and author and examine how three main themes are addressed: (1) experiences prior…

  10. The Effect of Immigrant Concentration in Schools on Native and Immigrant Children's Reading and Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Wurtz

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique and very rich PISA dataset from Denmark, we show that the immigrant concentration in the school influences reading and math skills for both immigrant children and native children. Overall, children in schools with a high immigrant concentration score lower on reading and math test scores. The negative effects associated with…

  11. Immigration and the Interplay among Citizenship, Identity and Career: The Case of Ethiopian Immigration to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flum, Hanoch; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2011-01-01

    Migration is a common phenomenon of the globalization era. In this article we explore the interplay of three foundational concepts in the migration experiences of Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel: citizenship, identity and career. Through our analysis we examine the multiple layers of being an immigrant citizen. Following immigration, as…

  12. Trade Unions, immigration and immigrants in Europe revisited: Unions’ attitudes and actions under new conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, S.; Penninx, R.; Roosblad, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the comparative approach used by Penninx and Roosblad (Trade Unions, Immigration and Immigrants in Europe, 1960-1993. New York: Berghahn Books) to study trade unions’ attitudes and actions in relation to immigrant workers in seven Western European countries. It reassesses that

  13. 78 FR 31398 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... receives evidence--that the alien is within the criteria set forth in paragraph (b) of this section... method of recording an alien's entitlement to an immigrant visa classification. Due to the availability... recording an alien's entitlement to an immigrant visa classification. Section 203(e)(3) of the Immigration...

  14. Brokering Identity and Learning Citizenship: Immigration Settlement Organizations and New Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yidan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines citizenship learning and identity construction of new Chinese immigrants in a Canadian immigration settlement organization (ISO). I address the gap between the concept of "settlement" and "citizenship" generated by government-funded ISOs and new immigrants' actual practices in these programs. I adopt Dorothy…

  15. The Europeanisation of immigration politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Favell

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available With the 1996-7 IGC and signing of the Amsterdam Treaty, immigration has moved towards the top of the EU policy agenda. This paper offers an overview of developments on immigration, asylum and citizenship. It goes on to develop a sociological approach to Europeanisation, which identifies the principle actors and organisations which constitute the emerging ‘political field’ of immigration at the EU level. In particular, it discusses in detail the growing presence of NGOs in Brussels, and their strategies for influencing EU policy making. It also relates the success of these ‘transnational’ organisations to other forms of transnational cooperation between networks of European police and security experts, and between region and city networks. To understand in sociological terms the specific forms of empowerment enabled to certain groups by European integration, it is necessary to show how successful actors in the European circles have created new forms of social and cultural ‘capital’ beyond the nation state.

  16. Met expectations and the wellbeing of diaspora immigrants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähönen, Tuuli Anna; Leinonen, Elina; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has pointed to the importance of expectations for the adaptation of immigrants. However, most studies have been methodologically retrospective with only limited possibilities to show the optimal relationship between migrants' expectations and actual acculturation experiences for their wellbeing and other aspects of psychological adaptation. Moreover, previous research has been conducted mostly among sojourners and students. This longitudinal study focused on the relationship between premigration expectations and postmigration experiences of diaspora immigrants from Russia to Finland (N = 153). We examined how the fulfillment of premigration expectations in social (i.e., family relations, friendships, and free time) and economic (i.e., occupational position, working conditions, and economic and career situation) domains affects immigrants' wellbeing (i.e., satisfaction with life and general mood) after migration. Three alternative models of expectation confirmation (i.e., disconfirmation model, ideal point model, and the importance of experiences only) derived from previous organizational psychological research were tested with polynomial regression and response surface analysis. In the economic domain, immigrants' expectations, experiences, and their interrelationship did not affect wellbeing in the postmigration stage. However, in the social domain, the more expectations were exceeded by actual experiences, the better were life satisfaction and the general mood of immigrants. The results underline the importance of social relationships and the context-dependent nature of immigrants' wellbeing. Interventions in the preacculturation stage should create positive but realistic expectations for diaspora immigrants and other groups of voluntary (re)migrants. Furthermore, policies concerning the postmigration stage should facilitate the fulfillment of these expectations and support the social adaptation of immigrants.

  17. Immigration and Health: Law, Policy, and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmet, Wendy E; Sainsbury-Wong, Lorianne; Prabhu, Maya

    2017-03-01

    Immigration poses numerous challenges for health professionals and public health lawyers. This article reviews these challenges. We begin by offering some background on immigration and health and then explain some of the reasons why immigrants are less likely than natives to have health insurance. Next we turn to a discussion of some of the particular challenges relating to the health care of refugees. We conclude by analyzing and rejecting some of the arguments that are made for discriminating against immigrants with respect to the provision of public health benefits and services.

  18. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  19. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracha P. Eamranond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  20. US immigration policy at a crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Duleep, Harriet Orcutt

    2013-01-01

    Two issues have taken center stage in the recent debates about U.S. immigration policy: one, illegal immigration and more generally the entrance of poorly educated individuals into the U.S. economy and two, whether the U.S. should continue its family-based admissions system or move towards a skills-based system. This paper analyzes these issues culling evidence from the history of U.S. immigration policy, the experiences of different types of U.S. immigrants, and cross-national comparisons.

  1. America's post-war immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterson, R F

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on immigration policy in the US after World War II and assesses the present situation. US immigration and refugee policy has undergone significant change since World War II. The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952, which instituted a system of proportional quotas based on national origins, was discarded in 1965 following years of criticism that it discriminated against nonwhites. Third World immigrants, especially from Asia and the Americas, have benefited from the immigration laws. However, the problems resulting from unrestricted and undifferentiated immigration are now becoming apparent, even to liberal critics of previous national origins policies. During the 1970s, there was a 61% increase in the number of Mexican nationals in the US and Mexicans currently comprise over 20% of the population in 40 Congressional districts in 8 states. 83.3% of legal immigrants, and all illegal immigrants, are of non-European descent--a fact that may retard their assimilation and intensify ethnic tensions. There is a danger that the concept of national borders may become superfluous. The theoreticval liberalism of the 1950s and 1960s is, in the 1970s, being confronted with the reality of large numbers of immigrants unable and unwilling to be absorbed into a previously European-dominated country. It is concluded that the enforced application of the concept of equality in matters of immigration has not been the panacea that its liberal proponents envisioned.

  2. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  3. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  4. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  5. [French immigration policy at a turning point?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihtol De Wenden, C

    1995-01-01

    The author examines the changes to French immigration law adopted in 1993 in the light of current trends and pressures affecting migration to France. The focus is on the changes in the rules concerning the acquisition of French nationality, and the assimilation of existing immigrants from developing countries. The difficulties of resolving such problems at the national level while migration regulations are being developed at the European Community level are noted. Problems involving the control of the nation's borders, illegal immigration, and the growing demand for political asylum are also discussed. The author raises the possibility that immigration could be better managed in light of current labor market conditions in France.

  6. Exploring the divergent academic outcomes of U.S.-origin and immigrant-origin Black undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Liem, Joan H.

    2013-01-01

    To explore the divergent academic experiences and outcomes of U.S.-origin and immigrant-origin Black Americans, we drew on Tinto’s model of persistence (1993) to test a three-wave longitudinal model of college persistence using path analysis. Our sample was comprised of 101 ethnically-diverse Black students who were randomly selected from nine public high schools in the metropolitan Boston area and went on to matriculate at 32 different, predominantly White colleges and universities. Specifically, we compared U.S.-origin and immigrant-origin Black undergraduates’ reported college social support/social integration and academic integration; and measured the influence of these factors (as well as high school grades and socioeconomic status) on college persistence two years later. As predicted, and consistent with previous studies, immigrant-origin Black students academically outperformed their U.S.-origin Black counterparts, earning significantly higher high school grades and demonstrating greater persistence in college. However, when the effects of high school grades and SES on college persistence were included in a multivariate path model together with immigration status and college social and academic integration, immigration status no longer predicted college persistence. Neither social nor academic integration predicted college persistence, within the path model, as hypothesized, but social integration did predict academic integration as expected. In separate correlational analyses, academic integration and SES were associated with college persistence for U.S.-origin Black students, but this was not the case for immigrant-origin Black students. We discuss the implications of these findings for fostering greater success among diverse Black undergraduates. PMID:24198895

  7. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  8. USCIS Applications for Immigration Benefits and Naturalization Monthly Statistical Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 'Application for Immigration Benefits' monthly charts provide data on applications and petitions received by USCIS for immigration benefits. The report exclude...

  9. American immigration policy, Chinese immigration, and Chinese concentration in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C S

    1985-07-01

    This article explores the relationship between US immigration laws, Chinese immigrants' initial choices of residences and occupations in New York City, and the recent expansion of New York's Chinatown. Data were obtained from a questionnaire administered to 121 Chinese immigrants in New York in 1980. It was hypothesized that a high degree of immigrant concentration in areas such as Chinatown is a result of migration policies that favor chain migration. During the period of time (1943-65) when Chinese immigration was severely restricted by the Chinese Exclusion Act and a quota system, the Chinese population in New York remained small. By 1980, however, the Chinese population in New York City had grown to 124,764 (1.8% of the city's population). This was largely a result of the 1965 Immigration Act, which allows an annual quota of 20,000 immigrants per country and gives preference to family members of American citizens and permanent residents. Support for the hypothesis that the current immigration law encourages chain migration was provided by the finding that the majority of Chinese immigrants surveyed immigrated under the sponsorship of close relatives (53.7%) or as children with parents (13.2%). 53.4% had their initial residence arranged for or provided by relatives, and another 33.1% by friends--a pattern that has contributed to the expansion of Chinatown. To minimize the risk of having their applications for the immigration of family members declined, Chinese in New York refrain from seeking public assistance and take whatever jobs are available. 55% of immigrants surveyed obtained work in restaurants or garment factories in Chinatown, further sustaining a Chinese enclave. It is concluded that a theoretical perspective that emphasizes the link between migration policy and immigrants' choices regarding residence and occupation has more utility than hypotheses that assert a causal relationship between racial discrimination against minorities, nonassimilation of

  10. Diet and Exercise Adherence and Practices among Medically Underserved Patients with Chronic Disease: Variation across Four Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzech, Kathryn M.; Vivian, James; Huebner Torres, Cristina; Armin, Julie; Shaw, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Many factors interact to create barriers to dietary and exercise plan adherence among medically underserved patients with chronic disease, but aspects related to culture and ethnicity are underexamined in the literature. Using both qualitative ("n" = 71) and quantitative ("n" = 297) data collected in a 4-year, multimethod study…

  11. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomen, A T

    1997-01-01

    "On September 30, 1996, President Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (1996 Act), Pub. L. No. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009. After an intense lobbying effort by the business community, most provisions relating to legal immigration were omitted from the final bill. Instead, the 1996 Act focuses on illegal immigration reform and includes some of the toughest measures ever taken against illegal immigration." Aspects considered include border enforcement, penalities against alien smuggling and document fraud, deportation and exclusion proceedings, employer sanctions, welfare provisions, and changes to existing refugee and asylum procedures. excerpt

  12. „I do not mind immigrants, it is immigration that bothers me“: The inconsistency of immigration attitudes in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, Dita; Leontiyeva, Yana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2017), s. 500-525 ISSN 1212-0014 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : immigration * attitudes towards immigrants in Europe * personalized and general attitudes Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 0.580, year: 2016

  13. The complexity and ambivalence of immigration attitudes: ambivalent stereotypes predict conflicting attitudes toward immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey

    2013-07-01

    Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Obesity and secondary conditions in adolescents with disabilities: addressing the needs of an underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, James H; Rowland, Jennifer L; Yamaki, Kiyoshi

    2007-09-01

    Children and adolescents with physical and cognitive disabilities have a higher prevalence of overweight compared to their non-disabled peers. This health risk can lead to a greater number of obesity-related secondary conditions (e.g., fatigue, pain, deconditioning, social isolation, difficulty performing activities of daily living) and can impose significant personal and economic hardship on the child and family. Effective strategies for reducing the risk of overweight/obesity in adolescents with disabilities must begin with greater awareness of the behavioral and environmental antecedents that lead to higher rates of obesity in this underserved segment of the youth population. Research on interventions to reduce obesity among adolescents with disabilities is an important area of future research for public health scientists. A range of interventions will be necessary to overcome the many barriers that youth with disabilities experience in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.

  15. Using social cognitive theory to predict physical activity and fitness in underserved middle school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-06-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using multiple regression analyses we accounted for 12% of the variance in PA and 13-21% of the variance in fitness. The best predictors of PA were barrier self-efficacy, classmate social support, and gender; whereas, only gender predicted fitness. The results affirmed the importance of barrier self-efficacy and gender differences. Our findings regarding classmate social support are some of the first to illuminate the importance of school-specific peers in promoting PA.

  16. The Inwood Astronomy Project: 100 Nights in Manhattan---An Outreach Initiative to Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. S.

    2008-11-01

    Observing the night sky in New York City is a challenge. However, there is a popular, and even club-going, interest in science in New York City. On the edges of that interest, most people that live in New York City have never had the opportunity to look through a telescope, particularly in underserved areas such as Northern Manhattan. The presenter discusses plans for frequent observing sessions utilizing the parks in New York City combined with public classes at the New York Public Library. Both observing sessions and classes will be held in the ethnically, racially and economically diverse Bronx and Manhattan neighborhoods of Washington Heights, Marble Hill and Inwood. Integration with area middle, elementary and high schools is also discussed. Particular issues surrounding publicity and the need for showmanship in an image-driven community with numerous entertainment opportunities are also discussed.

  17. Effectively translating diabetes prevention: a successful model in a historically underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Carol R; Eckhardt, Sarah; Talavera, Sandra; Goytia, Crispin; Lorig, Kate

    2011-09-01

    Lifestyle interventions can prevent diabetes through weight loss, but they are rarely translated for use in underserved communities. The aim of this study was to describe how a community-academic partnership formed and developed a program to address local health disparities by developing a low-cost, culturally and economically appropriate, peer-led community-based diabetes prevention program. Using a participatory approach, the partnership chose to focus on diabetes prevention, and co-developed all intervention, recruitment, research, and evaluation strategies. The partnership's philosophy to maintain high clinical and scientific standards paired with their ability to represent and engage the community facilitated the development of a randomized controlled trial that achieved statistically significant and sustained weight loss, and the recruitment of a largely Spanish-speaking, low income, uninsured population. The success of this intervention lies in the partnership's commitment to the community, co-ownership of research, and a careful balance between academic rigor and community engagement and relevance.

  18. Against Cursory Treatments in Ethics of Medical Migration from Underserved Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksekdag, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    In a recent paper, Mpofu, Sen Gupta, and Hays (2016) attempt to outline the obligations of recruiting high-income countries (HICs) and would-be emigrant health workers (HWs) to tackle the effects of mass exodus of health workers from underserved regions. They reconstruct (i) Rawlsian and Kantian global justice approaches to argue for moral obligations of HICs and (ii) an individual justice approach to point to non-enforceable social responsibilities of HWs to assist their compatriots. This critical commentary demonstrates that the argumentation within their individual justice approach is problematic on the basis of three reasons: (1) their discussion under-theorizes and undervalues individual rights and more specifically the right to exit, (2) their argumentation in the latter part, even if problematically, does rather point to moral obligations in lieu of social responsibilities of HWs, and (3) they overlook many other important freedoms, interests, and values pertinent to the issue of retention.

  19. Skills Education for Adult Tibetan Immigrants in the United States: Identification, Prioritization, Resources, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshi, Tenzin

    2012-01-01

    Generally, the Global Tibetan Professional Network of North America (GTPN-NA) considers lack of skills a problem among adult Tibetan immigrants. The GTPN-NA is a non-profit, volunteer-based networking forum focusing on Tibetan professionals and students from North America. By skills education, it means skills that may help support the transition…

  20. A Biliteracy Dialogue Approach to One-on-One Writing Instruction with Bilingual, Mexican, Immigrant Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemoller, W. Jason

    2013-01-01

    This interpretive study explores the writing and writing experiences of 2 bilingual, Mexican, immigrant undergraduates at a US university. Hornberger and Skilton-Sylvester's (2003) continua model of biliteracy situates writing interactions to understand how students explore and draw on their bilingual and bicultural resources as they develop…