WorldWideScience

Sample records for underserved communities envision

  1. Perceptions of cardiovascular health in underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lucinda L; Chin, Nancy P; Cottrell, Lesley A; Duckles, Joyce M; Fernandez, I Diana; Garces, D Marcela; Keyserling, Thomas C; McMilin, Colleen R; Peters, Karen E; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Tu, Shin-Ping; Vu, Maihan B; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2010-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths and illnesses in US adults, and the prevalence is disproportionately high in underserved populations. In this study, we assessed respondents' understanding of context-specific differences in knowledge and perceptions of disease, risk, and prevention in 6 underserved communities, with the longer-term goal of developing appropriate interventions. Thirty-nine small-group sessions and 14 interviews yielded data from 318 adults. Each site's researchers coded, analyzed, and extracted key themes from local data. Investigators from all sites synthesized results and identified common themes and differences. Themes clustered in 3 areas (barriers to cardiovascular health, constraints related to multiple roles, and suggestions for effective communications and programs). Barriers spanned individual, social and cultural, and environmental levels; women in particular cited multiple roles (eg, competing demands, lack of self-care). Programmatic suggestions included the following: personal, interactive, social context; information in language that people use; activities built around cultural values and interests; and community orientation. In addition, respondents preferred health-related information from trusted groups (eg, AARP), health care providers (but with noticeable differences of opinion), family and friends, and printed materials. Interventions to decrease barriers to cardiovascular health are needed; these strategies should include family and community context, small groups, interactive methods, culturally sensitive materials, and trusted information sources. New-immigrant communities need culturally and linguistically tailored education before receiving more substantive interventions.

  2. Creating A Sustainable Model of Spine Care in Underserved Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta; Outerbridge, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The world lacks sustainable models of care to manage spinal disorders in poor and underserved communities. The purpose of this article is to: (1) review the rationale and importance of developing a sustainable evidence-based model of care at low cost for people with spinal disorders in underserved...... adequate care, World Spine Care (WSC) was established to "improve lives in underserved communities through sustainable, integrated, evidence-based, spinal care." WSC is comprised of volunteers and institutions from 6 continents and several countries, and incorporates a Board of Directors, an executive...... are adapted to and integrated within each community in collaboration with local decision makers, existing health care workers and traditional healers. Cornerstones of WSC's emphasis on long-term sustainability are (1) education of community partners, governments and local health professionals, and (2...

  3. Community Currency in Korea : How do we envision Community Currency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kang (Joonmo); B.E. Hong (Baeg)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCommunity currency schemes were first introduced in Korea in 1998. Since then, there have been many efforts to use them but no report or academic research on the topic in Korea. Thus, we conducted a field investigation to identify the scope of community currency schemes in Korea and as

  4. Crowdsourced Microfinance for Energy Efficiency in Underserved Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Donnel [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States); Cox, Morris [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States); Harmarneh, Sarey [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States); Zheng, Chen [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-06-21

    BlocPower’s mission is to provide access to energy efficiency financing for underserved communities across the United States. This project, “Crowdsourced Microfinance for Energy Efficiency in Underserved Communities,” is an extension of that goal and is grounded in the principles of providing engineering and financing services to those in need. The project is based on the creation of a BlocPower Marketplace as a central hub for connecting shovel-ready green buildings to institutional investors. This ‘connection’ entails using online crowdfunding to aggregate debt and equity capital from institutional investors to connect to customers (building owners) across various financial portfolios. BlocPower Marketplace is intended to bring social, environmental, and financial returns to investors while also decreasing investor risk by loaning out funds for energy installations in individual buildings. In detail, the intended benefits of crowdsourcing are two-sided. Firstly, for building owners, clean energy retrofit installations improve building operations, reduce utility costs, and reduce harmful impacts to their surrounding environment. Secondly, for institutional investors, they gain access to a new market of energy efficiency and are able to provide debt or equity capital with high financial returns. This gives investors the opportunity to create social and environmental impact in communities around the country as well. With this in mind, BlocPower designed the marketplace to specifically answer exploratory research questions with respect to the pricing of energy financing. Institutional investors typically charge high rates on project financing solutions in the energy space, particularly in low and middle-income communities, because of fears that required debt service will not be made. This makes access to energy capital exorbitantly difficult for those that need it the most. Through this project, BlocPower tested investor appetite to determine if

  5. Implementing academic detailing for breast cancer screening in underserved communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford Alfred R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American and Hispanic women, such as those living in the northern Manhattan and the South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City, are generally underserved with regard to breast cancer prevention and screening practices, even though they are more likely to die of breast cancer than are other women. Primary care physicians (PCPs are critical for the recommendation of breast cancer screening to their patients. Academic detailing is a promising strategy for improving PCP performance in recommending breast cancer screening, yet little is known about the effects of academic detailing on breast cancer screening among physicians who practice in medically underserved areas. We assessed the effectiveness of an enhanced, multi-component academic detailing intervention in increasing recommendations for breast cancer screening within a sample of community-based urban physicians. Methods Two medically underserved communities were matched and randomized to intervention and control arms. Ninety-four primary care community (i.e., not hospital based physicians in northern Manhattan were compared to 74 physicians in the South Bronx neighborhoods of the New York City metropolitan area. Intervention participants received enhanced physician-directed academic detailing, using the American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer. Control group physicians received no intervention. We conducted interviews to measure primary care physicians' self-reported recommendation of mammography and Clinical Breast Examination (CBE, and whether PCPs taught women how to perform breast self examination (BSE. Results Using multivariate analyses, we found a statistically significant intervention effect on the recommendation of CBE to women patients age 40 and over; mammography and breast self examination reports increased across both arms from baseline to follow-up, according to physician self-report. At post-test, physician

  6. Leveraging Telehealth to Bring Volunteer Physicians Into Underserved Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Rudin, Robert; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-06-01

    Many disadvantaged communities lack sufficient numbers of local primary care and specialty physicians. Yet tens of thousands of physicians, in particular those who are retired or semiretired, desire meaningful volunteer opportunities. Multiple programs have begun to use telehealth to bridge the gap between volunteer physicians and underserved patients. In this brief, we describe programs that are using this model and discuss the promise and pitfalls. Physician volunteers in these programs report that the work can be fulfilling and exciting, a cutting-edge yet convenient way to remain engaged and contribute. Given the projected shortfall of physicians in the United States, recruiting retired and semiretired physicians to provide care through telehealth increases the total supply of active physicians and the capacity of the existing workforce. However, programs typically use volunteers in a limited capacity because of uncertainty about the level and duration of commitment. Acknowledging this reality, most programs only use volunteer physicians for curbside consults rather than fully integrating them into longitudinal patient care. The part-time availability of volunteers may also be difficult to incorporate into the workflow of busy safety net clinics. As more physicians volunteer in a growing number of telehealth programs, the dual benefits of enriching the professional lives of volunteers and improving care for underserved communities will make further development of these programs worthwhile.

  7. Engaging with Underserved Urban Communities on Climate Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, K.; Moser, F. C.; Baja, K.; Dindinger, J. M.; Chanse, V.; Rowan, K. E.; Rohring, B.

    2016-12-01

    Meeting the needs of urban high-risk/low-resource communities is one of the most critical challenges in improving climate resilience nationally, but little tailored information exists to guide community engagement efforts specifically for these contexts. This case study describes a collaboration between universities, local governments, and community members working in underserved neighborhoods of the City of Baltimore and Prince George's County, Maryland. In service of current and developing community programs, the team surveyed residents door-to-door about their perceptions of the socio-environmental risks they face, their priorities for change, and the ways in which communication may build protective social capital. We highlight theoretical, applied, and pedagogical aspects of the study that inform both the promise and limitations of these collaborations. These include: 1) the role of citizen participation in climate adaptation decision-making; 2) the meaning, use, and potential impact of community data; 3) balancing differing organizational priorities, timelines, and cultures within community-based projects; and 4) research participation of undergraduate students. The results of the survey illuminate climate risk perceptions in neighborhoods facing complex stressors with lessons for communication and engagement in other urban areas facing similar adaptation challenges.

  8. NASA and Public Libraries: Enhancing STEM Literacy in Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.; LaConte, K.; Harold, J. B.; Randall, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA research programs are helping humanity understand the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets, and defining the conditions necessary to support life beyond Earth. The Space Science Institute's (SSI) National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) was recently funded by NASA`s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to develop and implement a project called NASA@ My Library: A National Earth and Space Science Initiative That Connects NASA, Public Libraries and Their Communities. As places that offer their services for free, public libraries have become the "public square" by providing a place where members of a community can gather for information, educational programming, and policy discussions. Libraries are developing new ways to engage their patrons in STEM learning, and NCIL's STAR Library Education Network (STAR_Net) has been supporting their efforts for the last eight years, including through a vibrant community of practice that serves both librarians and STEM professionals. Project stakeholders include public library staff, state libraries, the earth and space science education community at NASA, subject matter experts, and informal science educators. The project will leverage high-impact SMD and library events to catalyze partnerships through dissemination of SMD assets and professional development. It will also develop frameworks for public libraries to increase STEM interest pathways in their communities (with supports for reaching underserved audiences). This presentation will summarize the key activities and expected outcomes of the 5-year project.

  9. With Educational Benefits for All: Campus Inclusion through Learning Communities Designed for Underserved Student Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, John E.; Hummel, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the practices of learning communities designed for specific, underserved student populations, highlighting on-campus examples and culminating with a synthesized list of core practices from these "inclusive" learning communities.

  10. Pediatric Asthma Care Coordination in Underserved Communities: A Quasiexperimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevic, Mary R; Stoll, Shelley; Wilkin, Margaret; Song, Peter X K; Baptist, Alan; Lara, Marielena; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Persky, Victoria; Uyeda, Kimberly; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Wang, Wen; Malveaux, Floyd J

    2016-11-01

    To assess the effect of care coordination on asthma outcomes among children in underserved urban communities. We enrolled children, most of whom had very poorly or not well-controlled asthma, in medical-social care coordination programs in Los Angeles, California; Chicago, Illinois; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and San Juan, Puerto Rico in 2011 to 2014. Participants (n = 805; mean age = 7 years) were 60% male, 50% African American, and 42% Latino. We assessed asthma symptoms and health care utilization via parent interview at baseline and 12 months. To prevent overestimation of intervention effects, we constructed a comparison group using bootstrap resampling of matched control cases from previous pediatric asthma trials. At follow-up, intervention participants had 2.2 fewer symptom days per month (SD = 0.3; P < .01) and 1.9 fewer symptom nights per month (SD = 0.35; P < .01) than did the comparison group. The relative risk in the past year associated with the intervention was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.45, 0.89) for an emergency department visit and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.47, 1.01) for hospitalization. Care coordination may improve pediatric asthma symptom control and reduce emergency department visits. Expanding third-party reimbursement for care coordination services may help reduce pediatric asthma disparities.

  11. Imaging the Sport of Golf – Envisioning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungary also has seen a tremendous increase in quality golf facilities in the last decade. The sport of golf – including golf tourism – in Hungary also makes it first moves to be officially (reunified with its historical partners in Western Europe and in the USA. This paper looks at developments in Hungarian Golf community in the last decades. While focusing on the ongoing economic, financial, and political changes surrounding the Hungarian National Golf Federation, this study also poses some questions. To what extent mushrooming of golf communities could be seen as a result of Europeanization of the country? Is it just a new achievement in PGA America’s global explosion? Can we see it as the benefit of the European Team’s astronomical success at the Ryder Cup tournaments?

  12. Engaging diverse underserved communities to bridge the mammography divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cully Angelia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer screening continues to be underutilized by the population in general, but is particularly underutilized by traditionally underserved minority populations. Two of the most at risk female minority groups are American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN and Latinas. American Indian women have the poorest recorded 5-year cancer survival rates of any ethnic group while breast cancer is the number one cause of cancer mortality among Latina women. Breast cancer screening rates for both minority groups are near or at the lowest among all racial/ethnic groups. As with other health screening behaviors, women may intend to get a mammogram but their intentions may not result in initiation or follow through of the examination process. An accumulating body of research, however, demonstrates the efficacy of developing 'implementation intentions' that define when, where, and how a specific behavior will be performed. The formulation of intended steps in addition to addressing potential barriers to test completion can increase a person's self-efficacy, operationalize and strengthen their intention to act, and close gaps between behavioral intention and completion. To date, an evaluation of the formulation of implementation intentions for breast cancer screening has not been conducted with minority populations. Methods/Design In the proposed program, community health workers will meet with rural-dwelling Latina and American Indian women one-on-one to educate them about breast cancer and screening and guide them through a computerized and culturally tailored "implementation intentions" program, called Healthy Living Kansas - Breast Health, to promote breast cancer screening utilization. We will target Latina and AI/AN women from two distinct rural Kansas communities. Women attending community events will be invited by CHWs to participate and be randomized to either a mammography "implementation intentions" (MI2 intervention or a

  13. Impact of a regional distributed medical education program on an underserved community: perceptions of community leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Patricia; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanlon, Neil; Poole, Gary; Bates, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    To describe community leaders' perceptions regarding the impact of a fully distributed undergraduate medical education program on a small, medically underserved host community. The authors conducted semistructured interviews in 2007 with 23 community leaders representing, collectively, the education, health, economic, media, and political sectors. They reinterviewed six participants from a pilot study (2005) and recruited new participants using purposeful and snowball sampling. The authors employed analytic induction to organize content thematically, using the sectors as a framework, and they used open coding to identify new themes. The authors reanalyzed transcripts to identify program outcomes (e.g., increased research capacity) and construct a list of quantifiable indicators (e.g., number of grants and publications). Participants reported their perspectives on the current and anticipated impact of the program on education, health services, the economy, media, and politics. Perceptions of impact were overwhelmingly positive (e.g., increased physician recruitment), though some were negative (e.g., strains on health resources). The authors identified new outcomes and confirmed outcomes described in 2005. They identified 16 quantifiable indicators of impact, which they judged to be plausible and measureable. Participants perceive that the regional undergraduate medical education program in their community has broad, local impacts. Findings suggest that early observed outcomes have been maintained and may be expanding. Results may be applicable to medical education programs with distributed or regional sites in similar rural, remote, and/or underserved regions. The areas of impact, outcomes, and quantifiable indicators identified will be of interest to future researchers and evaluators.

  14. Envisioning Religiously Diverse Partnership Systems among Government, Faith Communities and FBOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Anne Schneider

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent U.S. policy regarding faith-based organizations (FBO envisions “partnerships with government” that include both financial and non-financial relationships. This paper explores the current nature of a three-way partnership among faith communities, FBOs and government, proposing ways that government could more effectively partner with faith communities and their organizations. I use data from the Faith and Organizations Project and earlier studies of refugee resettlement and social welfare supports. The paper combines research and policy literature with research findings to describe how faith communities organize social services, education, health, senior services and community development through their FBOs, differences among religions and denominations and current forms of partnerships with government. Conclusions provide policy suggestions for U.S. systems.

  15. The Quick Peek Program: A Model for Developmental Screening within Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jill; Norton, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Developmental screening of young children is important in all populations, especially underserved communities with known health care disparities. The American Academy of Pediatrics created guidelines and a toolkit for pediatricians to conduct developmental surveillance and screening, yet these guidelines are not uniformly implemented within…

  16. Investigating the Factors of Resiliency among Exceptional Youth Living in Rural Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Kevin A.; Schweitzer, Ashley; Tuxbury, Kristen; D'Aoust, Janelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is an important social justice concept that has important implications for educators working with exceptional youth in rural underserved communities who may suffer from the consequences associated with economic hardships. This multi-school qualitative study examined resilience among exceptional youth living in rural poverty through the…

  17. Liability concerns and shared use of school recreational facilities in underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, John O; Connaughton, Daniel P; Maddock, Jason E

    2011-10-01

    In underserved communities, schools can provide the physical structure and facilities for informal and formal recreation as well as after-school, weekend, and summer programming. The importance of community access to schools is acknowledged by authoritative groups; however, fear of liability is believed to be a key barrier to community access. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of liability risk and associated issues among school administrators in underserved communities. A national survey of school administrators in underserved communities (n=360, response rate of 21%) was conducted in 2009 and analyzed in 2010. Liability perceptions in the context of community access were assessed through descriptive statistics. The majority of respondents (82.2%) indicated concern for liability should someone be injured on school property after hours while participating in a recreational activity. Among those that did not allow community access, 91% were somewhat to very concerned about liability and 86% believed that stronger legislation was needed to better protect schools from liability for after-hours recreational use. Among those who claimed familiarity with a state law that offered them limited liability protection, nearly three fourths were nevertheless concerned about liability. Liability concerns are prevalent among this group of school administrators, particularly if they had been involved in prior litigation, and even if they indicated they were aware of laws that provide liability protection where use occurs after hours. Reducing these concerns will be important if schools are to become locations for recreational programs that promote physical activity outside of regular school hours. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledgeable Neighbors: a mobile clinic model for disease prevention and screening in underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Caterina; Zurakowski, David; Bennet, Jennifer; Walker-White, Rainelle; Osman, Jamie L; Quarles, Aaron; Oriol, Nancy

    2012-03-01

    The Family Van mobile health clinic uses a "Knowledgeable Neighbor" model to deliver cost-effective screening and prevention activities in underserved neighborhoods in Boston, MA. We have described the Knowledgeable Neighbor model and used operational data collected from 2006 to 2009 to evaluate the service. The Family Van successfully reached mainly minority low-income men and women. Of the clients screened, 60% had previously undetected elevated blood pressure, 14% had previously undetected elevated blood glucose, and 38% had previously undetected elevated total cholesterol. This represents an important model for reaching underserved communities to deliver proven cost-effective prevention activities, both to help control health care costs and to reduce health disparities.

  19. Improving cardiovascular health of underserved populations in the community with Life's Simple 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marcia Pencak; Coke, Lola; Staffileno, Beth A; Robinson, Janis D; Tillotson, Robin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this nurse practitioner (NP) led initiative was to improve the cardiovascular health of two underserved populations in the community using the American Heart Association (AHA) Life's Simple 7 and My Life Check (MLC) tools. Two inner city community sites were targeted: (a) a senior center servicing African American (AA) older adults, and (b) a residential facility servicing homeless women. Preprogram health data (blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose levels, body mass index, and health behaviors) were collected to calculate MLC scores. Postprogram health data were obtained on participants with the lowest MLC scores who completed the program. Eight older adults completed the program with a 37.1% increase in average MLC score (6.2 vs. 8.5). Ten women completed the program with a 9.3% decrease in average MLC score (4.3 vs. 3.9). Favorable benefits were observed in the AA older adults. In contrast, similar benefits were not observed in the women, which may be because of a constellation of social, environmental, biological, and mental health factors. NPs are prepared to target community-based settings to address the health of underserved populations. Engaging key stakeholders in the planning and implementation is essential for success. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. Intercultural health and ethnobotany: how to improve healthcare for underserved and minority communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebroek, Ina

    2013-07-30

    The present conceptual review explores intercultural healthcare--defined as the integration of traditional medicine and biomedicine as complementary healthcare systems--in minority and underserved communities. This integration can take place at different levels: individuals (patients, healers, biomedical healthcare providers), institutions (health centers, hospitals) or society (government policy). Contemporary ethnobotany research of traditional medicine has primarily dealt with the botanical identification of plants commonly used by local communities, and the identification of health conditions treated with these plants, whereas ethnopharmacology has focused on the bioactivity of traditional remedies. On the other hand, medical anthropology seems to be the scholarship more involved with research into patients' healthcare-seeking itineraries and their interaction with traditional versus biomedical healthcare systems. The direct impact of these studies on public health of local communities can be contested. To compare and discuss the body of scholarly work that deals with different aspects of traditional medicine in underserved and minority communities, and to reflect on how gaps identified in research can be bridged to help improve healthcare in these communities. The literature covers a broad range of information of relevance to intercultural healthcare. This information is fragmented across different scientific and clinical disciplines. A conceptual review of these studies identifies a clear need to devote more attention to ways in which research on traditional medicine can be more effectively applied to improve local public health in biomedical resource-poor settings, or in geographic areas that have disparities in access to healthcare. Scholars studying traditional medicine should prioritize a more interdisciplinary and applied perspective to their work in order to forge a more direct social impact on public health in local communities most in need of

  1. Helping youth in underserved communities envision possible futures: an extension of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David

    2008-06-01

    Empowering youth through the exploration of their possible futures is afresh and innovative approach to the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility model (TPSR). The purpose of this study was to examine the combination of TPSR with the theory of possible selves. This combination, called the Career Club, was a program specifically designed to better assist students in understanding and facilitating reflective discussions on their future decisions. Career Club was taught weekly for nine sessions, 90 min each, at an inner city elementary school in a large metropolitan city. Participants comprised 12 seventh- and eighth-grade boys and girls who had at least 1 year and up to 5 years of experience in a TPSR program. Data sources included document analysis, lesson observations, formal interviews, and observationalfield notes. Themes were classified into the following categories: hoped- for-selves and feared selves-a delicate balance, coaching as a necessary component, and coming to understand possible futures. These results indicated that Career Club was effective in providing the participants a meaningful career exploration in coaching. Data also suggested these coaching experiences facilitated reflective discussions on realizing their future orientation choices.

  2. Retrospective evaluation of Project Envision: A community mobilization pilot program to prevent sexual violence in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lily; Fidler, Laura; O'Connor, Meghan; Haviland, Mary; Fry, Deborah; Pollak, Tamara; Frye, Victoria

    2018-02-01

    Sexual violence is a public health problem associated with short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Most interventions that aim to prevent sexual violence before it occurs target individual-level change or promote bystander training. Community-level interventions, while increasingly recommended in the sexual violence prevention field, are rarely documented in peer-reviewed literature. This paper is a targeted process evaluation of Project Envision, a 6-year pilot initiative to address social norms at the root of sexual violence through coalition building and community mobilization in three New York City neighborhoods, and reflects the perspectives of those charged with designing and implementing the program. Evaluation methods included a systematic literature review, archival source document review, and key informant interviews. Three themes emerged from the results: community identity and implications for engagement; capacity and readiness for community mobilization and consequences for implementation; and impacts on participants. Lessons learned include the limitations of using geographic boundaries to structure community interventions in urban settings; carefully considering whether communities should be mobilized around an externally-identified issue; translating theoretical frameworks into concrete tasks; assessing all coalition partners and organizations for readiness; critically evaluating available resources; and recognizing that community organizing is a skill that requires investment from funders. We conclude that Project Envision showed promise for shifting institutional norms towards addressing root causes of sexual violence in addition to providing victim services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Inwood Astronomy Project: 100 Nights in Manhattan---An Outreach Initiative to Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. S.

    2008-11-01

    Observing the night sky in New York City is a challenge. However, there is a popular, and even club-going, interest in science in New York City. On the edges of that interest, most people that live in New York City have never had the opportunity to look through a telescope, particularly in underserved areas such as Northern Manhattan. The presenter discusses plans for frequent observing sessions utilizing the parks in New York City combined with public classes at the New York Public Library. Both observing sessions and classes will be held in the ethnically, racially and economically diverse Bronx and Manhattan neighborhoods of Washington Heights, Marble Hill and Inwood. Integration with area middle, elementary and high schools is also discussed. Particular issues surrounding publicity and the need for showmanship in an image-driven community with numerous entertainment opportunities are also discussed.

  4. Caregiver's depressive symptoms and asthma control in children from an underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioseco, Andrea; Serrano, Carolina; Celedón, Juan C; Padilla, Oslando; Puschel, Klaus; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2017-12-01

    Caregiver's or maternal depression has been associated with increased asthma morbidity in children from prosperous nations, but little is known about this link in low and middle-income countries. To examine if caregiver's depressive symptoms are associated with poor asthma control and abnormal immune responses in school-aged children. Case-control study of 87 asthmatic children (aged 4-11 years) attending a primary care clinic in an underserved area of Santiago (Chile). Cases were children with poor asthma control (Child Asthma Control Test [cACT] asthma control (cACT ≥20 points). The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI) and a locally validated family health vulnerability test (SALUFAM) were used to assess caregivers' depression and family health vulnerability. Serum from participating children was assayed for IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13, TGF-β, cortisol, and total IgE. The mean (SD) age of study participants was 8.23 (2.15 years), and 55.2% were females. Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), family health vulnerability, and caregiver's depressive symptoms were significantly more common in cases than in controls (65.4% vs. 34.6%, p = 0.003; 41.3% vs. 24.8%, p = 0.07; and 39.1% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.04, respectively). There was no significant difference in the level of any serum biomarkers between groups. In a multivariate analysis, only ICS use was significantly associated with better asthma control (OR = 3.56 [1.34-9.48], p = 0.01). Presence of caregiver's depressive symptoms is associated with poor asthma control among children from an underserved community, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for ICS use.

  5. Engaging the underserved: a process model to mobilize rural community health coalitions as partners in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul B; Ramsey, Katrina; Rollins, Nancy; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; Buckley, David I; Stange, Kurt C; Fagnan, Lyle J

    2014-08-01

    Community engagement (CE) and community-engaged research (CEnR) are increasingly recognized as critical elements in research translation. Process models to develop CEnR partnerships in rural and underserved communities are needed. Academic partners transformed four established Community Health Improvement Partnerships (CHIPs) into Community Health Improvement and Research Partnerships (CHIRPs). The intervention consisted of three elements: an academic-community kickoff/orientation meeting, delivery of eight research training modules to CHIRP members, and local community-based participatory research (CBPR) pilot studies addressing childhood obesity. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of pre-/postsurveys, interviews, session evaluations, observational field notes, and attendance logs to evaluate intervention effectiveness and acceptability. Forty-nine community members participated; most (78.7%) attended five or more research training sessions. Session quality and usefulness was high. Community members reported significant increases in their confidence for participating in all phases of research (e.g., formulating research questions, selecting research methods, writing manuscripts). All CHIRP groups successfully conducted CBPR pilot studies. The CHIRP process builds on existing infrastructure in academic and community settings to foster CEnR. Brief research training and pilot studies around community-identified health needs can enhance individual and organizational capacity to address health disparities in rural and underserved communities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Understanding the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in underserved areas: a realist synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vareilles, Ga?lle; Pommier, Jeanine; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Background The recruitment of community health volunteers (CHVs) to support the delivery of health programmes is an established approach in underserved areas and in particular where there are health inequalities due to the scarcity of trained human resources. However, there is a dearth of evidence about what works to improve CHVs? performance. This review aimed to synthesise existing literature to explain why, how and under which circumstances intervention approaches to improve the performanc...

  7. Palliative Oncologic Care Curricula for Providers in Resource-Limited and Underserved Communities: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Melody J; Su, David; Deboer, Rebecca; Garcia, Michael; Tahir, Peggy; Anderson, Wendy; Kinderman, Anne; Braunstein, Steve; Sherertz, Tracy

    2017-12-20

    Familiarity with principles of palliative care, supportive care, and palliative oncological treatment is essential for providers caring for cancer patients, though this may be challenging in global communities where resources are limited. Herein, we describe the scope of literature on palliative oncological care curricula for providers in resource-limited settings. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Med Ed Portal databases, and gray literature. All available prospective cohort studies, case reports, and narratives published up to July 2017 were eligible for review. Fourteen articles were identified and referenced palliative care education programs in Argentina, Uganda, Kenya, Australia, Germany, the USA, or multiple countries. The most common teaching strategy was lecture-based, followed by mentorship and experiential learning involving role play and simulation. Education topics included core principles of palliative care, pain and symptom management, and communication skills. Two programs included additional topics specific to the underserved or American Indian/Alaskan Native community. Only one program discussed supportive cancer care, and no program reported educational content on resource-stratified decision-making for palliative oncological treatment. Five programs reported positive participant satisfaction, and three programs described objective metrics of increased educational or research activity. There is scant literature on effective curricula for providers treating cancer patients in resource-limited settings. Emphasizing supportive cancer care and palliative oncologic treatments may help address gaps in education; increased outcome reporting may help define the impact of palliative care curriculum within resource-limited communities.

  8. Social marketing for a farmer’s market in an underserved community: A needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Skizim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to assess local residents’ awareness of utilizing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP benefits to purchase fresh produce at local farmers’ markets, and to determine internet use and media preferences of study participants prior to implementation of a social marketing campaign. A needs assessment was conducted to collect baseline data in an underserved neighbourhood in New Orleans (LA, USA. The study was carried out August 2014-May 2015. The assessment revealed that 73% of the respondents were unaware that the SNAP benefits could be used to purchase food in farmers’ markets; 63% of low-income participants never attended a farmers’ market compared to 27% of mid/high-income. Over 50% of the low-income respondents have access to the internet at least once per day. The results show the potential of raising awareness among a wide range of members in the community. This needs assessment will serve as the foundation for a social marketing intervention, which will be disseminated city-wide.

  9. ENVISION Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is a highly advanced technique of cancer radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (ions) to destroy tumour cells. While conventional X-rays traverse the human body depositing radiation as they pass through, ions deliver most of their energy at one point. Hadrontherapy is most advantageous once the position of the tumour is accurately known, so that healthy tissues can be protected. Accurate positioning is a crucial challenge for targeting moving organs, as in lung cancer, and for adapting the irradiation as the tumour shrinks with treatment. Therefore, quality assurance becomes one of the most relevant issues for an effective outcome of the cancer treatment. In order to improve the quality assurance tools for hadrontherapy, the European Commission is funding ENVISION, a 4-year project that aims at developing solutions for: real-• time non invasive monitoring • quantitative imaging • precise determination of delivered dose • fast feedback for optimal treatment planning • real-t...

  10. Re-envisioning community-wildfire relations in the U.S. West as adaptive governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse B. Abrams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prompted by a series of increasingly destructive, expensive, and highly visible wildfire crises in human communities across the globe, a robust body of scholarship has emerged to theorize, conceptualize, and measure community-level resilience to wildfires. To date, however, insufficient consideration has been given to wildfire resilience as a process of adaptive governance mediated by institutions at multiple scales. Here we explore the possibilities for addressing this gap through an analysis of wildfire resilience among wildland-urban interface communities in the western region of the United States. We re-engage important but overlooked components of social-ecological system resilience by situating rural communities within their state- to national-level institutional contexts; we then analyze two communities in Nevada and New Mexico in terms of their institutional settings and responses to recent wildfire events. We frame our analysis around the concepts of scale matching, linking within and across scales, and institutional flexibility.

  11. Pop Up/Drill Down: A Traveling Exhibit Designed to Reach Underserved Communities through Art and Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N.

    2017-12-01

    Scientists observe the world around them in an attempt to understand it. Artists observe the world around them in an attempt to create a reflection or response to the environment. It is critical for the two fields to work together in order to engage and inform the general population. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership, the International Ocean Discovery Program and a series of collaborators are designing a traveling exhibit that will inspire underserved communities in the excitement of exploration, the process of science, and the people and tools required to get there. The project aims to learn more about how to increase access to and awareness of ocean/earth science by bringing a pop-up style museum exhibit to local libraries and public events. As an artist with a science and education background and the graphic designer for this exhibit, this author will highlight the ways this project utilizes art and design to educate underserved populations in ocean and geosciences.

  12. Care Provided by Students in Community-Based Dental Education: Helping Meet Oral Health Needs in Underserved Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Keith A; Maguire, Meghan

    2018-01-01

    Since 2000, reports have documented the challenges faced by many Americans in receiving oral health care and the consequences of inadequate care such as high levels of dental caries among many U.S. children. To help address this problem, many dental schools now include community-based dental education (CBDE) in their curricula, placing students in extramural clinics where they provide care in underserved communities. CBDE is intended to both broaden the education of future oral health professionals and expand care for patients in community clinics. The aim of this study was to develop a three-year profile of the patients seen and the care provided by students at extramural clinics associated with one U.S. dental school. Three student cohorts participated in the rotations: final-year students in the Doctor of Dental Surgery, Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene, and Master of Dental Therapy programs. The study was a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from the school's database for three consecutive academic years. The data included patients' demographics and special health care needs status (based on information collected by students from their patients) and procedures students performed while on rotations. For the three-year period, the results showed a total of 43,128 patients were treated by 418 student providers. Approximately 25% of all encounters were with pediatric patients. Students completed 5,908 child prophylaxis, 5,386 topical fluoride varnish, and 7,678 sealant procedures on pediatric patients. Annually, 7% of the total patients treated had special health care needs. The results show that these students in CBDE rotations provided a substantial amount of oral health care at extramural sites and gained additional experience in caring for a diverse population of patients and performing a wide range of procedures.

  13. LifeSteps: An Evidence-based Health Promotion Program for Underserved Populations – A Community Service Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Austin-McCain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the most common, costly, and preventable of all health problems in the United States. Chronic diseases represent the leading causes of death and are experienced at higher rates by minority populations (CDC, 2012. Innovative community-based health promotion programs are recommended that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations (Yeary, et al., 2011. LifeSteps is being developed as an evidence-based health promotion program focusing on health and wellness, a domain area defined within the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF, 2008. LifeSteps will utilize a client-centered approach to coach individuals in making health behavior changes. Fieldwork and service-learning components are incorporated integrating clinical practice, academic study, and collaboration with community providers. Program evaluation measures based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM have been identified to address all phases of program planning. The LifeSteps health promotion program aligns with local, national, and international objectives and addresses the need for programs that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations. Occupational therapists are in a unique position for implementing community-based interventions that promote health and contribute to a healthier society.

  14. The Reality of Sustaining Community-Based Sport and Physical Activity Programs to Enhance the Development of Underserved Youth: Challenges and Potential Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Meredith A.; Forneris, Tanya; Barker, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Many community-based sport and physical activity programs take a positive youth development approach when operating in underserved communities around the world (Forneris, Whitley, & Barker, 2013). However, one of the biggest challenges for these programs is sustainability (Lindsey, 2008). The purpose of this article is to present the 3…

  15. Prevalence and determinants of caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved South Asian communities: Cross-sectional analysis of data from Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Neuman (Melissa); G. Alcock (Glyn); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Kuddus (Abdul); D. Osrin (David); N. Shah More (Neena); N. Nair (Nirmala); P. Tripathy (Prasanta); C. Sikorski (Catherine); N. Saville (Naomi); A. Sen (Aman); T. Colbourn (Tim); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); N. Seward (Nadine); A. Manandhar; B. Shrestha (Bhim); A. Costello (Anthony); A. Prost (Audrey)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To describe the prevalence and determinants of births by caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved communities in South Asia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: 81 community-based geographical clusters in four locations in Bangladesh, India

  16. Factors associated with differential uptake of seasonal influenza immunizations among underserved communities during the 2009-2010 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahov, David; Bond, Keosha T; Jones, Kandice C; Ompad, Danielle C

    2012-04-01

    Influenza vaccination coverage remains low and disparities persist. In New York City, a community-based participatory research project (Project VIVA) worked to address this issue in Harlem and the South Bronx by supplementing existing vaccination programs with non-traditional venues (i.e., community-based organizations). We conducted a 10 min survey to assess access to influenza vaccine as well as attitudes and beliefs towards influenza vaccination that could inform intervention development for subsequent seasons. Among 991 participants recruited using street intercept techniques, 63% received seasonal vaccine only, 11% seasonal and H1N1, and 26% neither; 89% reported seeing a health care provider (HCP) during the influenza season. Correlates of immunization among those with provider visits during the influenza season included being US-born, interest in getting the vaccine, concern about self or family getting influenza, an HCP's recommendation and comfort with government. Among those without an HCP visit, factors associated with immunization included being US born, married, interest in getting the vaccine, understanding influenza information, and concern about getting influenza. Factors associated with lack of interest in influenza vaccine included being born outside the US, Black and uncomfortable with government. In medically underserved areas, having access to routine medical care and understanding the medical implications of influenza play an important role in enhancing uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination. Strategies to improve vaccination rates among Blacks and foreign-born residents need to be addressed. The use of non-traditional venues to provide influenza vaccinations in underserved communities has the potential to reduce health disparities.

  17. A Practical Risk Stratification Approach for Implementing a Primary Care Chronic Disease Management Program in an Underserved Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjun; Williams-Livingston, Arletha; Gaglioti, Anne; McAllister, Calvin; Rust, George

    2018-01-01

    The use of value metrics is often dependent on payer-initiated health care management incentives. There is a need for practices to define and manage their own patient panels regardless of payer to participate effectively in population health management. A key step is to define a panel of primary care patients with high comorbidity profiles. Our sample included all patients seen in an urban academic family medicine clinic over a two-year period. The simplified risk stratification was built using internal electronic health record and billing system data based on ICD-9 codes. There were 347 patients classified as high-risk out of the 5,364 patient panel. Average age was 59 years (SD 15). Hypertension (90%), hyperlipidemia (62%), and depression (55%) were the most common conditions among high-risk patients. Simplified risk stratification provides a feasible option for our team to understand and respond to the nuances of population health in our underserved community.

  18. Validation of English and Spanish-language versions of a screening questionnaire for rheumatoid arthritis in an underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jeffrey; Odutola, Jennifer; Gonzales, Christian Amurrio; Ward, Michael M

    2008-08-01

    Questionnaires to screen for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been tested in groups that were primarily well educated and Caucasian. We sought to validate the RA questions of the Connective Tissue Disease Screening Questionnaire (CSQ) in ethnic minorities in an underserved community, and to test a Spanish-language version. The Spanish-language version was developed by 2 native speakers. Consecutive English-speaking or Spanish-speaking patients in a community-based rheumatology practice completed the questionnaire. Diagnoses were confirmed by medical record review. Sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire for a diagnosis of RA were computed for each language version, using 2 groups as controls: patients with noninflammatory conditions, and participants recruited from the community. The English-language version was tested in 53 patients with RA (79% ethnic minorities; mean education level 11.3 yrs), 85 rheumatology controls with noninflammatory conditions, and 82 community controls. Using 3 positive responses as indicating a positive screening test, the sensitivity of the questionnaire was 0.77, the specificity based on rheumatology controls was 0.45, and the specificity based on community controls was 0.94. The Spanish-language version was tested in 55 patients with RA (mean education level 7.8 yrs), 149 rheumatology controls, and 88 community controls. The sensitivity of the Spanish-language version was 0.87, with specificities of 0.60 and 0.97 using the rheumatology controls and community controls, respectively. The sensitivity of the English-language version of the RA questions of the CSQ was lower in this study than in other cohorts, reflecting differences in the performance of the questions in different ethnic or socioeconomic groups. The Spanish-language version demonstrated good sensitivity, and both had excellent specificity when tested in community controls.

  19. A mixed-methods examination of communication between oncologists and primary care providers among primary care physicians in underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Binz-Scharf, Maria; D'Agostino, Tom; Blakeney, Natasha; Weiss, Elisa; Michaels, Margo; Patel, Shilpa; McKee, M Diane; Bylund, Carma L

    2015-03-15

    Research has demonstrated that communication and care coordination improve cancer patient outcomes. To improve communication and care coordination, it is important to understand primary care providers' (PCPs') perceptions of communication with oncologists as well as PCPs' communication needs. A mixed-methods approach was used in the present study. In the qualitative phase of the study, 18 PCPs practicing in underserved, minority communities were interviewed about their experiences communicating with oncologists. In the quantitative phase of the study, 128 PCPs completed an online survey about their preferences, experiences, and satisfaction with communication with oncologists. Results indicated a PCP-oncologist gap in communication occurred between diagnosis and treatment. PCPs wanted more communication with oncologists, updates on their patients' prognosis throughout treatment, and to be contacted via telephone or email and saw their role as crucial in providing supportive care for their patients. Although PCPs recognize that they play a critical, proactive role in supporting patients throughout the continuum of their cancer care experience, existing norms regarding postreferral engagement and oncologist-PCP communication often hinder activation of this role among PCPs. Expected standards regarding the method, frequency, and quality of postreferral communication should be jointly articulated and made accountable between PCPs and oncologists to help improve cancer patients' quality of care, particularly in minority communities. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  20. The association between women's self-rated health and satisfaction with environmental services in an underserved community in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Rima R; Elzein, Kareem; Hojeij, Safa

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the association between women's self-rated health and a number of socioeconomic and environmental health indicators relating to drinking water services in an underserved Lebanese community. A population-based, cross-sectional survey using interviews was adopted to obtain information from female homemakers of 2,223 households in the town of Bebnine, Lebanon. The questionnaire included indicators on self-rated health, satisfaction with water quality, source of drinking water, occurrence of diarrhea, and socioeconomic variables, such as education, occupation, and perceived economic status. Self-rated health was categorized as poor, fair, and good. Odds ratios for poor and fair compared to good self-rated health values were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. A total of 712 women (32%) reported poor self-rated health. Women who perceived their household income to be worse than others in town were four times as likely to report poor health. Compared to women who were satisfied with drinking water quality, dissatisfied women were 42% more likely to report poor health. Women living in households reporting recent episodes of diarrheal illness had poorer health ratings than those without. The findings suggest a positive relationship between individual perceptions of water quality and self-rated health. Community concerns over their surrounding environment serve as a primary guide for infrastructural development and government policy.

  1. Pediatric Obesity Empowerment Model Group Medical Visits (POEM-GMV) as Treatment for Pediatric Obesity in an Underserved Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jeffrey S; Dube, Eileen T; Cruz, Glavielinys A; Stevens, Jason; Keating Bench, Kara

    2015-10-01

    This is a retrospective cohort study to evaluate a novel group medical visit (GMV) program using an empowerment curriculum as treatment for pediatric obesity in a federally qualified community health center. Biometric and self-reported data were reviewed from 417 overweight or obese children ages 5-18 attending the pediatric obesity empowerment model GMV program (POEM-GMV) at least twice during a 3-year period. Variables were evaluated using paired means t-test. Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate variables and the BMI z-score. Subanalysis by gender was performed. The average participant was 10.48 ± 2.53 years old and participated for 301 ± 287 days. BMI z-score reduced from 2.99 ± 0.96 to 2.88 ± 0.88 (p pediatric obesity in an underserved community. There were statistically significantly improved outcomes in obesity, especially for boys. Significant improvement was observed in many lifestyle factors associated with obesity. Weight loss most closely correlated with reduced stress levels and sugary beverage consumption. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of POEM-GMV.

  2. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  3. Integrating community-based participatory research and informatics approaches to improve the engagement and health of underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unertl, Kim M; Schaefbauer, Chris L; Campbell, Terrance R; Senteio, Charles; Siek, Katie A; Bakken, Suzanne; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2016-01-01

    We compare 5 health informatics research projects that applied community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches with the goal of extending existing CBPR principles to address issues specific to health informatics research. We conducted a cross-case analysis of 5 diverse case studies with 1 common element: integration of CBPR approaches into health informatics research. After reviewing publications and other case-related materials, all coauthors engaged in collaborative discussions focused on CBPR. Researchers mapped each case to an existing CBPR framework, examined each case individually for success factors and barriers, and identified common patterns across cases. Benefits of applying CBPR approaches to health informatics research across the cases included the following: developing more relevant research with wider impact, greater engagement with diverse populations, improved internal validity, more rapid translation of research into action, and the development of people. Challenges of applying CBPR to health informatics research included requirements to develop strong, sustainable academic-community partnerships and mismatches related to cultural and temporal factors. Several technology-related challenges, including needs to define ownership of technology outputs and to build technical capacity with community partners, also emerged from our analysis. Finally, we created several principles that extended an existing CBPR framework to specifically address health informatics research requirements. Our cross-case analysis yielded valuable insights regarding CBPR implementation in health informatics research and identified valuable lessons useful for future CBPR-based research. The benefits of applying CBPR approaches can be significant, particularly in engaging populations that are typically underserved by health care and in designing patient-facing technology. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical

  4. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National

  5. Using an Interactive Systems Framework to Expand Telepsychology Innovations in Underserved Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Garney, Whitney R.; McCord, Carly E.; Walsh, Michaela V.; Alaniz, Angela B.

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that the use of promising innovations in mental health care can be improved. The advancement of telepsychology is one innovation that has been utilized as a method to reduce rural health disparities and increase the number of people with access to mental health services. This paper describes a successful pilot telepsychology program implemented in a rural community to increase access to mental health services and the model’s replication and expansion into four additional ...

  6. Recruiting and retaining primary care physicians in urban underserved communities: the importance of having a mission to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom Walker, Kara; Ryan, Gery; Ramey, Robin; Nunez, Felix L; Beltran, Robert; Splawn, Robert G; Brown, Arleen F

    2010-11-01

    We examined factors influencing physician practice decisions that may increase primary care supply in underserved areas. We conducted in-depth interviews with 42 primary care physicians from Los Angeles County, California, stratified by race/ethnicity (African American, Latino, and non-Latino White) and practice location (underserved vs nonunderserved area). We reviewed transcriptions and coded them into themes by using standard qualitative methods. Three major themes emerged in relation to selecting geographic- and population-based practice decisions: (1) personal motivators, (2) career motivators, and (3) clinic support. We found that subthemes describing personal motivators (e.g., personal mission and self-identity) for choosing a practice were more common in responses among physicians who worked in underserved areas than among those who did not. By contrast, physicians in nonunderserved areas were more likely to cite work hours and lifestyle as reasons for selecting their current practice location or for leaving an underserved area. Medical schools and shortage-area clinical practices may enhance strategies for recruiting primary care physicians to underserved areas by identifying key personal motivators and may promote long-term retention through work-life balance.

  7. Bolivia programme evaluation of a package to reach an underserved population: Community-based maternal and newborn care economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Diana; Pooley, Bertha; Dupuy, Julien Roger; Cardenas, Norma Amparo; Wall, Steve; Owen, Helen; Daviaud, Emmanuelle

    2017-10-01

    To address inequitable access to health services of indigenous communities in the Bolivian highlands, the Bolivian Ministry of Health, with the support of Save the Children-Saving Newborn Lives, conducted operational research to identify, implement and test a package of maternal and newborn interventions using locally recruited, volunteer Community Health Workers (vCHW) between 2008 and 2010. The additional annual economic and financial costs of the intervention were estimated from the perspective of the Bolivian Ministry of Health in two municipalities. The cost of intervention-stimulated increases in facility attendance was estimated with national surveillance data using a pre-post comparison, adjusted for secular trends in facility attendance. Three scale-up scenarios were modelled by varying the levels of coverage and the number (per mother and child pair) and frequency of home visits. Average cost per mother and average cost per home visit are presented in constant 2015 US$. Eighteen per cent of expectant mothers in the catchment area were visited at least once. The annualized additional financial cost of the community-based intervention across both municipalities was $43 449 of which 3% ($1324) was intervention design, 20% ($8474) set-up and 77% ($33 651) implementation. Drivers of additional costs were additional paid staff (68%), 81% of which was for management and support by local implementing partner and 19% of which was for vCHW supervision. The annual financial cost per vCHW was $595. Modelled scale-up scenarios highlight potential efficiency gains. Recognizing local imperatives to reduce inequalities by targeting underserved populations, the observed low coverage by vCHWs resulted in a high cost per mother and child pair ($296). This evaluation raises important questions about this model's ability to achieve its ultimate goals of reducing neonatal mortality and inequalities through behaviour change and increased care seeking and has served to

  8. Partnered Evaluation of a Community Engagement Intervention: Use of a “Kickoff” Conference in a Randomized Trial for Depression Care Improvement in Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Peter; Ngo, Victoria K.; Dixon, Elizabeth; Stockdale, Susan; Jones, Felica; Chung, Bowen; Jones, Andrea; Masongsong, Zoe; Khodyakov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Community partnered research and engagement strategies are gaining recognition as innovative approaches to improving healthcare systems and reducing health disparities in underserved communities. These strategies may have particular relevance for mental health interventions in low income, minority communities in which there often is great stigma and silence surrounding conditions such as depression and difficulty in implementing improved access and quality of care. At the same time, there is a relative dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of specific community engagement interventions and on the design, process, and context of these interventions necessary for understanding their implementation and generalizability. This paper evaluates one of a number of community engagement strategies employed in the Community Partners in Care (CPIC) study, the first randomized controlled trial of the role of community engagement in adapting and implementing evidence-based depression care. We specifically describe the unique goals and features of a community engagement “kickoff” conference as used in CPIC and provide evidence on the effectiveness of this type of intervention by analyzing its impact on: 1) stimulating a dialogue, sense of collective efficacy, and opportunities for learning and networking to address depression and depression care in the community, 2) activating interest and participation in CPIC’s randomized trial of two different ways to implement evidence-based quality improvement (QI) programs for depression across diverse community agencies, and 3) introducing evidence-based toolkits and collaborative care models to potential participants in both intervention conditions and other community members. We evaluated the effectiveness of the conference through a community-partnered process in which both community and academic project members were involved in study design, data collection and analysis. Data sources include participant conference evaluation

  9. Increasing Research Capacity in Underserved Communities: Formative and Summative Evaluation of the Mississippi Community Research Fellows Training Program (Cohort 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fastring

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Mississippi Community Research Fellows Training Program (MSCRFTP is a 15-week program conducted in Jackson, MS, USA consisting of training in the areas of evidence-based public health, research methods, research ethics, and cultural competency. The purpose of the program was to increase community knowledge and understanding of public health research, develop community-based projects that addressed health disparity in the participants’ community, increase individual and community capacity, and to engage community members as equal partners in the research process.MethodsA comprehensive evaluation of the MSCRFTP was conducted that included both quantitative and qualitative methods. All participants were asked to complete a baseline, midterm, and final assessment as part of their program requirements. Knowledge gained was assessed by comparing baseline assessment responses to final assessment responses related to 27 key content areas addressed in the training sessions. Assessments also collected participants’ attitudes toward participating in research within their communities, their perceived influence over community decisions, and their perceptions of community members’ involvement in research, satisfaction with the program, and the program’s impact on the participants’ daily practice and community work.ResultsTwenty-one participants, the majority of which were female and African-American, completed the MSCRFTP. Knowledge of concepts addressed in 15 weekly training sessions improved significantly on 85.2% of 27 key areas evaluated (p < 0.05. Two mini-grant community based participatory research projects proposed by participants were funded through competitive application. Most participants agreed that by working together, the people in their community could influence decisions that affected the community. All participants rated their satisfaction with the overall program as “very high” (76.2%, n = 16 or

  10. Giving Voice to the Medically Under-Served: A Qualitative Co-Production Approach to Explore Patient Medicine Experiences and Improve Services to Marginalized Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Asam; Tariq, Sana; Abbasi, Nasa; Mandane, Baguiasri

    2018-01-27

    With an aging population, the appropriate, effective and safe use of medicines is a global health priority. However, "'medically under-served" patients continue to experience significant inequalities around access to healthcare services. This study forms part of a wider project to co-develop and evaluate a digital educational intervention for community pharmacy. The aim of this paper is to explore the medicine needs of patients from marginalized communities and suggest practical way on how services could be better tailored to their requirements. Following ethical approval, qualitative data was gathered from: (1) workshops with patients and professionals ( n = 57 attendees); and (2) qualitative semi-structured interviews (10 patients and 10 pharmacists). Our findings revealed that patients from marginalized communities reported poor management of their medical conditions and significant problems with adherence to prescribed medicines. Their experience of pharmacy services was found to be variable with many experiencing discrimination or disadvantage as a result of their status. This study highlights the plight of medically under-served communities and the need for policy makers to tailor services to an individual's needs and circumstances. Furthermore, patients and professionals can work in collaboration using a co-production approach to develop educational interventions for pharmacy service improvements.

  11. A novel educational strategy targeting health care workers in underserved communities in Central America to integrate HIV into primary medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flys, Tamara; González, Rosalba; Sued, Omar; Suarez Conejero, Juana; Kestler, Edgar; Sosa, Nestor; McKenzie-White, Jane; Monzón, Irma Irene; Torres, Carmen-Rosa; Page, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs). We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2%) successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85%) attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (pstructure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills acquired through the process, and could continue working within their underserved communities while participating in the online component and then implement interventions that successfully converted theoretical knowledge to action to improve integration of HIV care into primary care.

  12. ‘Much clearer with pictures’: using community-based participatory research to design and test a Picture Option Grid for underserved patients with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Alam, Shama; Grande, Stuart W; Elwyn, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Women of low socioeconomic status (SES) diagnosed with early stage breast cancer experience decision-making, treatment and outcome disparities. Evidence suggests that decision aids can benefit underserved patients, when tailored to their needs. Our aim was to develop and test the usability, acceptability and accessibility of a pictorial encounter decision aid targeted at women of low SES diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Design Community-based participatory research (CBPR) using think-aloud protocols (phases 1 and 2) and semistructured interviews (phase 3). Setting Underserved community settings (eg, knitting groups, bingo halls, senior centres) and breast clinics. Participants In phase 1, we recruited a convenience sample of clinicians and academics. In phase 2, we targeted women over 40 years of age, of low SES, regardless of breast cancer history, and in phase 3, women of low SES, recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Intervention The pictorial encounter decision aid was derived from an evidence-based table comparing treatment options for breast cancer (http://www.optiongrid.org). Outcome measures We assessed the usability, acceptability and accessibility of the pictorial decision aid prototypes using the think-aloud protocol and semistructured interviews. Results After initial testing of the first prototype with 18 academics and health professionals, new versions were developed and tested with 53 lay individuals in community settings. Usability was high. In response to feedback indicating that the use of cartoon characters was considered insensitive, a picture-only version was developed and tested with 23 lay people in phase 2, and 10 target users in phase 3. Conclusions and relevance Using CBPR methods and iterative user testing cycles improved usability and accessibility, and led to the development of the Picture Option Grid, entirely guided by multiple stakeholder feedback. All women of low SES recently diagnosed with early stage breast

  13. A novel educational strategy targeting health care workers in underserved communities in Central America to integrate HIV into primary medical care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Flys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs. We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. METHODS: The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. RESULTS: Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2% successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85% attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001. The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001. A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills

  14. The Engineering 4 Health Challenge - an interdisciplinary and intercultural initiative to foster student engagement in B.C. and improve health care for children in under-serviced communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan; Weber-Jahnke, Jens H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the Engineering 4 Health (E4H) Challenge, an interdisciplinary and intercultural initiative that, on the one hand, seeks to improve health education of children in under-serviced communities and, on the other, seeks to attract students in British Columbia to professions in engineering and health. The E4H Challenge engages high school and university students in BC to cooperatively design and develop health information and communication technology (ICT) to educate children living in under-serviced communities. The E4H Challenge works with the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) program to integrate applications for health awareness into the school programs of communities in developing countries. Although applications developed by the E4H Challenge use the low-cost, innovative XO laptop (the "$100 laptop" developed by the OLPC foundation) the software can also be used with other inexpensive hardware.

  15. Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the Pacific region: rationale and design of a community randomized trial to prevent early childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Lynne R; Novotny, Rachel; Fialkowski, Marie K; Boushey, Carol J; Nigg, Claudio; Paulino, Yvette; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Bersamin, Andrea; Vargo, Don; Kim, Jang; Deenik, Jonathan

    2013-10-09

    's Healthy Living Program environmental trial is designed to focus on capacity building and to maximize the likelihood of sustainable impact on childhood obesity-related behaviors and outcomes. The multiple measures at the individual, community, and environment levels are designed to maximize the likelihood of detecting change. This approach enhances the likelihood for identifying and promoting the best methods to promote health and well-being of the children in the underserved US Affiliated Pacific Region. NIH clinical trial # NCT01881373.

  16. An Innovative Multiphased Strategy to Recruit Underserved Adults into a Randomized Trial of a Community-Based Diabetes Risk Reduction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Cabrera, Julissa; Freyre, Rachel; Grossman, Melanie; Alvarez, Natalie; Mathur, Deepika; Guerrero, Maria; Delgadillo, Adriana T.; Kanaya, Alka M.; Stewart, Anita L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct and evaluate a two-phased community-based approach to recruit lower socioeconomic status, minority, or Spanish-speaking adults at risk of developing diabetes to a randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention program delivered by a public health department. Design: Within geographic areas comprising our target population, 4 community organizations provided local space for conducting the study and program. Phase I—outreach in venues surrounding these organizations—included diabetes education, a short diabetes risk appraisal (DRA), and diabetes risk screening based on a fasting fingerstick glucose test. Phase II—trial recruitment—began concurrently for those found to be at risk of developing diabetes in Phase I by explaining the study, lifestyle program, and research process. Those interested and eligible enrolled in the 1-year study. Results: Over 2 years, approximately 5,110 individuals received diabetes education, 1,917 completed a DRA, and 1,164 were screened of which 641 (55%) had an elevated fingerstick result of ≥106 mg/dl. Of the study sampling frame—persons over age 25 at risk of developing diabetes (N = 544)—238 (43%) enrolled in the trial; of those who were study eligible (n = 427), 56% enrolled. In the final sample, mean age was 56 years (SD = 17), 78% were ethnic minorities, 32% were Spanish-speaking, and 15% had a high school education or less. Implications: Providing diabetes health education and screening prior to study recruitment may help overcome barriers to research participation in underserved communities, thus helping address difficulties recruiting minority and older populations into research, particularly research pertaining to chronic disease risk factors. PMID:21565823

  17. Budget Impact Analysis of Against Colorectal Cancer In Our Neighborhoods (ACCION): A Successful Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program for a Medically Underserved Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumyang; Lairson, David R; Chung, Tong Han; Kim, Junghyun; Shokar, Navkiran K

    2017-06-01

    Given the uncertain cost of delivering community-based cancer screening programs, we developed a Markov simulation model to project the budget impact of implementing a comprehensive colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention program compared with the status quo. The study modeled the impacts on the costs of clinical services, materials, and staff expenditures for recruitment, education, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), colonoscopy, follow-up, navigation, and initial treatment. We used data from the Against Colorectal Cancer In Our Neighborhoods comprehensive CRC prevention program implemented in El Paso, Texas, since 2012. We projected the 3-year financial consequences of the presence and absence of the CRC prevention program for a hypothetical population cohort of 10,000 Hispanic medically underserved individuals. The intervention cohort experienced a 23.4% higher test completion rate for CRC prevention, 8 additional CRC diagnoses, and 84 adenomas. The incremental 3-year cost was $1.74 million compared with the status quo. The program cost per person was $261 compared with $86 for the status quo. The costs were sensitive to the proportion of high-risk participants and the frequency of colonoscopy screening and diagnostic procedures. The budget impact mainly derived from colonoscopy-related costs incurred for the high-risk group. The effectiveness of FIT to detect CRC was critically dependent on follow-up after positive FIT. Community cancer prevention programs need reliable estimates of the cost of CRC screening promotion and the added budget impact of screening with colonoscopy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP): An Analysis of One Model's Efforts to Promote Achievement in Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Erin; Decker, Janet; Eckes, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Many claim that the Knowledge is Power Program has experienced success in closing the achievement gap in urban and rural communities across America. Studies suggest that KIPP charter schools enroll an overwhelming proportion of poor and minority students and often outperform their district peers. However, the purpose of this study is not to…

  19. Cultivation and Implementation of Community-Engaged Pharmacy Services in a Free Clinic to Enhance Care for the Medically Underserved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmeline Tran, Pharm.D. Candidate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partnerships between community free clinics and academic medical centers improve patient outcomes and enhance learning opportunities for students. A community-academic partnership between the Maliheh Free Clinic and the University of Utah College of Pharmacy was formed to fulfill a community need for pharmacy services, to promote interdisciplinary patient care, and to provide an experiential opportunity for students. The Maliheh Free Clinic based in Salt Lake City, Utah provides free primary health care to uninsured individuals who live 150% below federal poverty guidelines. Three pharmacy services were developed and implemented. These include: 1 clinic chart reviews which involve written recommendations following a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s chart examining his or her disease states and the appropriateness of his or her medications; 2 medication reconciliations and discussion of pharmacy-related recommendations with patients during Diabetes Day, an inclusive interdisciplinary patient appointment that addresses important aspects of diabetes care; and 3 an insulin dose adjustment service through a collaborative practice agreement with the clinic to monitor a patient’s blood glucose levels and adjust his or her medications accordingly on a weekly basis.

  20. ENLIGHT envisions its future

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Last week, the European Network for LIGht-ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT) met in Cracow to discuss how to best imagine its future. Over its 13 years of life, the network has succeeded in blending traditionally separate scientific communities with the common goal of more effective treatments against cancer and improving patient outcome.   Group photo of the ENLIGHT members participating in the network's annual meeting, held in Cracow on 18-19 September, 2015. Today, ENLIGHT includes over 300 members from more than 20 countries. Clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy are working in unison under the network’s umbrella. ENLIGHT has run four EU-funded projects – ULICE, PARTNER, ENVISION and ENTERVISION – and has managed to gather experts from the various fields to design common strategies to fight cancer with particles. “ENLIGHT has worked as an open collaborative network ...

  1. Effects of pediatric asthma care coordination in underserved communities on parent perceptions of care and asthma-management confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevic, Mary R; Baptist, Alan P; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Lara, Marielena; Persky, Victoria; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; Uyeda, Kimberly; Hazan, Rebecca; Garrity, Ashley; Malveaux, Floyd J

    2017-06-01

    Disparities by race and socioeconomic status persist in pediatric asthma morbidity, mortality, and treatment. Improving parent/provider communication and parents' asthma-management confidence may result in better asthma control in vulnerable populations. The Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. funded an initiative to implement medical-social care coordination to improve asthma outcomes at sites in four low-income, urban communities (Los Angeles, CA; Philadelphia, PA; Chicago, IL; and San Juan, PR.) As part of a cross-site evaluation of this effort, pre- post-program changes in parents' reports of asthma care and management were assessed. Across sites, 805 parents or other caregivers responded to a baseline survey that was repeated one year later following their child's participation in care coordination. Parents' asthma-management confidence, as well as their perceptions of provider access, trust, and communication, were measured with Likert scales. Linear mixed models were used to assess improvement in these variables, across and within sites, adjusting for sociodemographics. Pooled across sites, the adjusted mean estimate for all outcomes showed a significant improvement (p asthma care coordination, as implemented variously in diverse settings, was associated with improvement in parents' perceptions of asthma care and self-reported asthma-management knowledge and confidence. This positive impact on parents may help sustain care coordination's impact on children.

  2. Effectiveness of a group diabetes education programme in underserved communities in South Africa: pragmatic cluster randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Bob; Levitt, Naomi; Steyn, Krisela; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Rollnick, Stephen

    2012-12-24

    Diabetes is an important contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa and prevalence rates as high as 33% have been recorded in Cape Town. Previous studies show that quality of care and health outcomes are poor. The development of an effective education programme should impact on self-care, lifestyle change and adherence to medication; and lead to better control of diabetes, fewer complications and better quality of life. Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trialParticipants: Type 2 diabetic patients attending 45 public sector community health centres in Cape TownInterventions: The intervention group will receive 4 sessions of group diabetes education delivered by a health promotion officer in a guiding style. The control group will receive usual care which consists of ad hoc advice during consultations and occasional educational talks in the waiting room. To evaluate the effectiveness of the group diabetes education programmeOutcomes: diabetes self-care activities, 5% weight loss, 1% reduction in HbA1c. self-efficacy, locus of control, mean blood pressure, mean weight loss, mean waist circumference, mean HbA1c, mean total cholesterol, quality of lifeRandomisation: Computer generated random numbersBlinding: Patients, health promoters and research assistants could not be blinded to the health centre's allocationNumbers randomized: Seventeen health centres (34 in total) will be randomly assigned to either control or intervention groups. A sample size of 1360 patients in 34 clusters of 40 patients will give a power of 80% to detect the primary outcomes with 5% precision. Altogether 720 patients were recruited in the intervention arm and 850 in the control arm giving a total of 1570. The study will inform policy makers and managers of the district health system, particularly in low to middle income countries, if this programme can be implemented more widely. Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201205000380384.

  3. Effectiveness of a group diabetes education programme in underserved communities in South Africa: pragmatic cluster randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mash Bob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is an important contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa and prevalence rates as high as 33% have been recorded in Cape Town. Previous studies show that quality of care and health outcomes are poor. The development of an effective education programme should impact on self-care, lifestyle change and adherence to medication; and lead to better control of diabetes, fewer complications and better quality of life. Methods Trial design: Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial Participants: Type 2 diabetic patients attending 45 public sector community health centres in Cape Town Interventions: The intervention group will receive 4 sessions of group diabetes education delivered by a health promotion officer in a guiding style. The control group will receive usual care which consists of ad hoc advice during consultations and occasional educational talks in the waiting room. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the group diabetes education programme Outcomes: Primary outcomes: diabetes self-care activities, 5% weight loss, 1% reduction in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes: self-efficacy, locus of control, mean blood pressure, mean weight loss, mean waist circumference, mean HbA1c, mean total cholesterol, quality of life Randomisation: Computer generated random numbers Blinding: Patients, health promoters and research assistants could not be blinded to the health centre’s allocation Numbers randomized: Seventeen health centres (34 in total will be randomly assigned to either control or intervention groups. A sample size of 1360 patients in 34 clusters of 40 patients will give a power of 80% to detect the primary outcomes with 5% precision. Altogether 720 patients were recruited in the intervention arm and 850 in the control arm giving a total of 1570. Discussion The study will inform policy makers and managers of the district health system, particularly in low to middle income countries, if this programme can

  4. Quality of life in people with epilepsy in Sudan: An example of underserved communities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokrab, M; Sokrab, A; Elzubeir, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of life (QOL) in people with epilepsy (PWE) living in Khartoum State, Northern Sudan. The region offers a model of urban and suburban communities in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the neurology clinic of Khartoum State Hospital and Omer Ibn Alkhatab Health Center in the suburb of Khartoum State. We interviewed PWE living in the city, the suburbs and adjacent villages. Our subjects were known to have been on antiepileptic drugs (AED) for at least 6 months. The impact of epilepsy on the QOL was assessed in the clinic using a 23-item questionnaire with graded scales and check-lists to explored demographic characteristics, seizure control, adverse effects of antiepileptic medication, physical harm, social and psychological impact and stigmatization. Fifty-two females and 48 males between the ages of 10 and 80 years were interviewed. Sixty percent of participants were between 20 and 39 years of age. While on AED treatment, 63% developed at least one seizure at any given time, 49% in the past 6 months and 27% in the past week. Twenty six percent experienced one or more side effect of AEDs. A significant number of respondents admitted that epilepsy had a negative impact on several aspects of their daily life activities, education and social functioning. Of individuals eligible for work, 17% were unemployed or had their job terminated because of epilepsy. Relationships with spouses were affected in 20 % of cases. Fifteen percent felt stigmatized by their illness. None of the participants had received any formal health education or counseling about epilepsy. Epilepsy has a significant impact on several aspects of QOL, particularly physical injury and socioeconomic functioning affecting PWE living in Khartoum State. Poor seizure control, a risk factor for impaired QOL, was common. The overall perceptions of QOL and self satisfaction as stated by our PWE was more favorable when compared to

  5. Envisioning Curriculum as Six Simultaneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hanin; Conner, Lindsey; Mayo, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the discourse of complexity thinking to envision curriculum as six partial and coupled facets that exist simultaneously: curriculum as structure, curriculum as process, curriculum as content, curriculum as teaching, curriculum as learning and curriculum as activity. Such a curriculum is emergent and self-organising. It is emergent…

  6. A community needs responsive management training model: Re-envisioning management training for pastors of the International Assemblies of God Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malesela J. Masenya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organisations (NGO�s play an important role in helping satisfy society�s many needs. Churches, for example, are called upon to address critical challenges facing the South African society such as discrepancies in life chances, unemployment and corruption. It largely depends on the management skills of leaders of such organisations to succeed in their endeavour to meet community needs. In order to improve these skills, this study sought to redefine the initial training of student pastors, including their management training, at the colleges of the International Assemblies of God Church (IAG. A qualitative research approach was followed. Two focus group interviews and seven individual interviews were conducted. Interviews included members of the national and provincial executive committees of the IAG, serving pastors, directors of training colleges, pastor trainees in their final year of study, and a newly graduated student. The findings of the study support the importance of formal management training for pastors before being employed in the service of the IAG. This Church has moved away from accepting ministers for service based on their faith and profession of a call to ministry only. The investigation revealed shortcomings in the initial training programmes of pastors; for example, the emphasis on theological courses at the expense of courses that are responsive to community needs and management training issues. Leaders with the competency to respond to community needs are required. The implementation of a transformational management framework, which includes community responsive courses, is recommended as a way to effectively train church leaders.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Although this article is written within the framework of Educational Management, it touches on other fields like Practical Theology and Curriculum Development. It reflects on the perceived need to include management training in

  7. Evaluation of community provision of a preventive cardiovascular programme - the National Health Service Health Check in reaching the under-served groups by primary care in England: cross sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woringer, Maria; Cecil, Elizabeth; Watt, Hillary; Chang, Kiara; Hamid, Fozia; Khunti, Kamlesh; Dubois, Elizabeth; Evason, Julie; Majeed, Azeem; Soljak, Michael

    2017-06-14

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature mortality and a major contributor of health inequalities in England. Compared to more affluent and white counterparts, deprived people and ethnic minorities tend to die younger due to preventable CVD associated with lifestyle. In addition, deprived, ethnic minorities and younger people are less likely to be served by CVD prevention services. This study assessed the effectiveness of community-based outreach providers in delivering England's National Health Services (NHS) Health Check programme, a CVD preventive programme to under-served groups. Between January 2008 and October 2013, community outreach providers delivered a preventive CVD programme to 50,573 individuals, in their local communities, in a single consultation without prescheduled appointments. Community outreach providers operated on evenings and weekends as well as during regular business hours in venues accessible to the general public. After exclusion criteria, we analysed and compared socio-demographic data of 43,177 Health Check attendees with the general population across 38 local authorities (LAs). We assessed variation between local authorities in terms of age, sex, deprivation and ethnicity structures using two sample t-tests and within local authority variation in terms of ethnicity and deprivation using Chi squared tests and two sample t-tests respectively. Using Index of Multiple Deprivation, the mean deprivation score of the population reached by community outreach providers was 6.01 higher (p successful in recruiting ethnic minority groups. The mean proportion of men screened was 11.39% lower (p successful in motivating the under-served groups to improve lifestyle, it may reduce health inequalities therein.

  8. Methodology of a diabetes prevention translational research project utilizing a community-academic partnership for implementation in an underserved Latino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yunsheng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2–3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians. Methods and design The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a ≥ 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to either a usual care or a lifestyle intervention condition, and followed for one year. Like the efficacious Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP, the LLDPP intervention targeted weight loss through dietary change and increased physical activity. However, unlike the DPP, the LLDPP intervention was less intensive, tailored to literacy needs and cultural preferences, and delivered in Spanish. The group format of the intervention (13 group sessions over 1 year was complemented by 3 individual home visits and was implemented by individuals from the community with training and supervision by a clinical research nutritionist and a behavioral psychologist. Study measures included demographics, Stern predictive equation components (age, gender, ethnicity, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, body mass index, and family history of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin, dietary intake, physical activity, depressive symptoms, social support, quality of life, and medication use. Body weight was measured at baseline, 6-months, and one-year; all other measures were assessed at baseline and one-year. All surveys were orally administered in Spanish. Results A community-academic partnership enabled the successful recruitment, intervention, and assessment of Latinos at

  9. Interactive web-based portals to improve patient navigation and connect patients with primary care and specialty services in underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Linda; Ottenweller, Cecelia; Pfanz, Andre; Hanks, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study in the redesign, development, and implementation of a web-based healthcare clinic search tool for virtual patient navigation in underserved populations in Texas. It describes the workflow, assessment of system requirements, and design and implementation of two online portals: Project Safety Net and the Breast Health Portal. The primary focus of the study was to demonstrate the use of health information technology for the purpose of bridging the gap between underserved populations and access to healthcare. A combination of interviews and focus groups was used to guide the development process. Interviewees were asked a series of questions about usage, usability, and desired features of the new system. The redeveloped system offers a multitier architecture consisting of data, business, and presentation layers. The technology used in the new portals include Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5, Microsoft SQL Server 2008, Google Maps JavaScript API v3, jQuery, Telerik RadControls (ASP.NET AJAX), and HTML. The redesigned portals have 548 registered clinics, and they have averaged 355 visits per month since their launch in late 2011, with the average user visiting five pages per visit. Usage has remained relatively constant over time, with an average of 142 new users (40 percent) each month. This study demonstrates the successful application of health information technology to improve access to healthcare and the successful adoption of the technology by targeted end users. The portals described in this study could be replicated by health information specialists in other areas of the United States to address disparities in healthcare access.

  10. Occupational safety and health education and training for underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Tom; Flynn, Michael; Weinstock, Deborah; Zanoni, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the essential elements of effective occupational safety and health education and training programs targeting underserved communities. While not an exhaustive review of the literature on occupational safety and health training, the paper provides a guide for practitioners and researchers to the key factors they should consider in the design and implementation of training programs for underserved communities. It also addresses issues of evaluation of such programs, with specific emphasis on considerations for programs involving low-literacy and limited-English-speaking workers.

  11. Empowering underserved populations through cancer prevention and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Davis, Jenna L; Escobar, Myriam; Inda, Nikki Ross; Paige, Linda; Palencia, Jeannette; Vives, Maria; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that cancer is disproportionately distributed in racial/ethnic minority groups and medically underserved communities. In addition, cancer prevention and early detection represent the key defenses to combat cancer. The purpose of this article is to showcase the comprehensive health education and community outreach activities at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute (Moffitt) designed to promote and increase access to and utilization of prevention and early detection services among underserved populations. One of Moffitt's most important conduits for cancer prevention and early detection among underserved populations is through its community education and outreach initiatives, in particular, the Moffitt Program for Outreach Wellness Education and Resources (M-POWER). M-POWER works to empower underserved populations to make positive health choices and increase screening behaviors through strengthening collaboration and partnerships, providing community-based health education/promotion, and increasing access to care. Effective, empowering, and culturally and linguistically competent health education and community outreach, is key to opening the often impenetrable doors of cancer prevention and early detection to this society's most vulnerable populations.

  12. Occupational Health and Sleep Issues in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliny, Medhat; McKenzie, Judith Green

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorders and occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses impact an individual's overall health. In the United States, substantial racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities exist in sleep and occupational health. Primary care physicians working in underserved communities should be aware of this disparity and target these higher-risk populations for focused evaluation and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise and Sports Medicine Issues in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Vincent; Bedney, Daniel L; Eric Dadush, Arie

    2017-03-01

    Primary care providers can make a strong argument for exercise promotion in underserved communities. The benefits are vitally important in adolescent physical, cognitive, and psychological development as well as in adult disease prevention and treatment. In counseling such patients, we should take into account a patient's readiness for change and the barriers to exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Children’s Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the Pacific region: rationale and design of a community randomized trial to prevent early childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ) framework. Discussion The Children’s Healthy Living Program environmental trial is designed to focus on capacity building and to maximize the likelihood of sustainable impact on childhood obesity-related behaviors and outcomes. The multiple measures at the individual, community, and environment levels are designed to maximize the likelihood of detecting change. This approach enhances the likelihood for identifying and promoting the best methods to promote health and well-being of the children in the underserved US Affiliated Pacific Region. Trial registration NIH clinical trial # NCT01881373 PMID:24107083

  15. Building research capacity with members of underserved American Indian/Alaskan Native communities: training in research ethics and the protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Karen M; Yarborough, Mark; Cassady, Diana L; Styne, Dennis M

    2015-05-01

    To develop a research ethics training course for American Indian/Alaskan Native health clinic staff and community researchers who would be conducting human subjects research. Community-based participatory research methods were used in facilitated discussions of research ethics centered around topics included in the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative research ethics course. The community-based participatory research approach allowed all partners to jointly develop a research ethics training program that was relevant for American Indian/Alaskan Native communities. All community and clinic partners were able to pass the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative course they were required to pass so that they could be certified to conduct research with human subjects on federally funded projects. In addition, the training sessions provided a foundation for increased community oversight of research. By using a collaborative process to engage community partners in research ethics discussions, rather than either an asynchronous online or a lecture/presentation format, resulted in significant mutual learning about research ethics and community concerns about research. This approach requires university researchers to invest time in learning about the communities in which they will be working prior to the training. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Leadership Advocacy: Bringing Nursing to the Homeless and Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-OʼGrady, Tim

    Nurses have historically played a key role in advocacy and service for all members of the community, including those who are traditionally underserved by other providers or the health system. Nurses from a local Atlanta community health system, both clinical and administrative, have continued this tradition by developing an advocacy and service program for the downtown homeless of Atlanta. From its beginnings as a highly informal volunteer program to its current structure as a strongly integrated community health center for the underserved and homeless of Atlanta, local nurses have demonstrated their strong value of service advocacy. Their leadership, insight, discipline, and strategic development have facilitated the growth of a focused, viable health service network for marginalized people of the city of Atlanta.

  17. Precommitting to Serve the Underserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Nir; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    In many countries worldwide, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, a shortage of physicians limits the provision of lifesaving interventions. One existing strategy to increase the number of physicians in areas of critical shortage is conditioning medical school scholarships on a precommitment to work in medically underserved areas later. Current practice is usually to demand only one year of service for each year of funded studies. We show the effectiveness of scholarships conditional on such precommitment for increasing physician supplies in underserved areas. Then we defend these scholarships against ethical worries that they constitute slavery contracts; rely on involuntary, biased, or unauthorized early consent by a young signatory; put excessive strains on signed commitments; give rise to domination; and raise suspicion of slavery contracts. Importantly, we find that scholarships involving far longer commitment than current practice allows would also withstand these worries. Policymakers should consider introducing conditional scholarships, including long-term versions, as a means to increasing the supply of physicians to medically underserved areas. PMID:22548519

  18. Precommitting to serve the underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Nir; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-01-01

    In many countries worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, a shortage of physicians limits the provision of lifesaving interventions. One existing strategy to increase the number of physicians in areas of critical shortage is conditioning medical school scholarships on a precommitment to work in medically underserved areas later. Current practice is usually to demand only one year of service for each year of funded studies. We show the effectiveness of scholarships conditional on such precommitment for increasing physician supplies in underserved areas. Then we defend these scholarships against ethical worries that they constitute slavery contracts; rely on involuntary, biased, or unauthorized early consent by a young signatory; put excessive strains on signed commitments; give rise to domination; and raise suspicion of slavery contracts. Importantly, we find that scholarships involving far longer commitment than current practice allows would also withstand these worries. Policymakers should consider introducing conditional scholarships, including long-term versions, as a means to increasing the supply of physicians to medically underserved areas.

  19. Envision: An interactive system for the management and visualization of large geophysical data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searight, K. R.; Wojtowicz, D. P.; Walsh, J. E.; Pathi, S.; Bowman, K. P.; Wilhelmson, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    Envision is a software project at the University of Illinois and Texas A&M, funded by NASA's Applied Information Systems Research Project. It provides researchers in the geophysical sciences convenient ways to manage, browse, and visualize large observed or model data sets. Envision integrates data management, analysis, and visualization of geophysical data in an interactive environment. It employs commonly used standards in data formats, operating systems, networking, and graphics. It also attempts, wherever possible, to integrate with existing scientific visualization and analysis software. Envision has an easy-to-use graphical interface, distributed process components, and an extensible design. It is a public domain package, freely available to the scientific community.

  20. The Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) Data Warehouse: a Resource for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research and Quality Improvement in Underserved, Safety Net Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Reesa; Gillespie, Suzanne; Puro, Jon; Van Rompaey, Stephan; Quach, Thu; Carroll, Joseph; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crawford, Phil; Grasso, Chris; Kaleba, Erin; McBurnie, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The Community Health Applied Research Network, funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration, is a research network comprising 18 Community Health Centers organized into four Research Nodes (each including an academic partner) and a data coordinating center. The network represents more than 500,000 diverse safety net patients across 11 states. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation process of the CHARN data warehouse. The methods involved regulatory and governance development and approval, development of content and structure of the warehouse and processes for extracting the data locally, performing validation, and finally submitting data to the data coordinating center. Version 1 of the warehouse has been developed. Tables have been added, the population and the years of electronic health records (EHR) have been expanded for Version 2. It is feasible to create a national, centralized data warehouse with multiple Community Health Center partners using different EHR systems. It is essential to allow sufficient time: (1) to develop collaborative, trusting relationships among new partners with varied technology, backgrounds, expertise, and interests; (2) to complete institutional, business, and regulatory review processes; (3) to identify and address technical challenges associated with diverse data environments, practices, and resources; and (4) to provide continuing data quality assessments to ensure data accuracy.

  1. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  2. Envisioning Networked Urban Mobilities : Art, Performances, Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjaerulf, Aslak Aamot; Kesselring, Sven; Peters, Peter; Hannam, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Envisioning Networked Urban Mobilities brings together scientific reflections on the relations of art and urban mobilities and artistic research on the topic. The editors open the book by setting out the concept grounded in the exhibition curated by Aslak Aamot Kjærulff and refers to earlier work on

  3. Curating sound performance as laboratories of envisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus

    This paper is based on my dissertation research that investigates how sound performance can be presented and represented - in real time, as well as in and through the archive. This double perspective opens a field of curatorial problems related to the simultaneous movements of both envisioning...

  4. Envisioning the future by predicting the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrydstrup, Martin

    2017-01-01

    ), which demonstrate that global mean temperatures have risen in conjunction with the consumption of fossil fuels visualized in a graph that became known as the "Hockey Stick". I argue that in the first case we have a form of analogue reasoning, which predicts the past in order to envision the future...

  5. Re-Envisioning Religious Education in Light of Persons with "Disabilities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    The lived experience of persons with disabilities necessarily challenges our understandings of religious education. In this article, the author reviews how the marginalized lives of persons with disabilities might lead us to re-envision how religious education is defined and embodied in Western Christian communities. Based on this, suggestions are…

  6. American Dental Association White Paper Targets Dental Care for the Underserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Reaffirming its leadership role toward better oral health for all Americans, the ADA has produced a white paper that also challenges policy-makers and the US to improve access to dental services. The white paper, "State and Community Models for Improving Access to Dental Care for the Underserved," was presented October 1 to the House of…

  7. How to Guide: Aggregate under-served markets into buying pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-26

    This activity promotes new opportunities to increase energy security and lower energy costs for under-served markets. It involves market analysis and collaboration with community partners, as well as outreach activities to inform target markets and technical assistance for participants.

  8. Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Insights from Residents of Traditionally Underserved Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Evidence has shown that higher income and white populations are overrepresented in both access to and use of bike share. Efforts to overcome underserved communities barriers to access and use of bike share have been initiated in a number of cities...

  9. Impact of selection strategies on representation of underserved populations and intention to practise: international findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Sarah; Michielsen, Kristien; Iputo, Jehu; Elsanousi, Salwa; Mammen, Marykutty; Graves, Lisa; Willems, Sara; Cristobal, Fortunato L; Samson, Rex; Ellaway, Rachel; Ross, Simone; Johnston, Karen; Derese, Anselme; Neusy, André-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Socially accountable medical schools aim to reduce health inequalities by training workforces responsive to the priority health needs of underserved communities. One key strategy involves recruiting students from underserved and unequally represented communities on the basis that they may be more likely to return and address local health priorities. This study describes the impacts of different selection strategies of medical schools that aspire to social accountability on the presence of students from underserved communities in their medical education programmes and on student practice intentions. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to students starting medical education in five institutions with a social accountability mandate in five different countries. The questionnaire assessed students' background characteristics, rurality of background, and practice intentions (location, discipline of practice and population to be served). The results were compared with the characteristics of students entering medical education in schools with standard selection procedures, and with publicly available socio-economic data. The selection processes of all five schools included strategies that extended beyond the assessment of academic achievement. Four distinct strategies were identified: the quota system; selection based on personal attributes; community involvement, and school marketing strategies. Questionnaire data from 944 students showed that students at the five schools were more likely to be of non-urban origin, of lower socio-economic status and to come from underserved groups. A total of 407 of 810 (50.2%) students indicated an intention to practise in a non-urban area after graduation and the likelihood of this increased with increasing rurality of primary schooling (p = 0.000). Those of rural origin were statistically less likely to express an intention to work abroad (p = 0.003). Selection strategies to ensure that members of underserved communities

  10. Enrolling Minority and Underserved Populations in Cancer Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie F; Dash, Chiranjeev; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Goode, Tawara D; Oppong, Bridget A; Dodson, Everett E; Hamilton, Rhonda N; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that community involvement is integral to solving public health problems, including involvement in clinical trials-a gold standard. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the accrual of participants for clinical trials. Location and cultural aspects of clinical trials influence recruitment and accrual to clinical trials. It is increasingly necessary to be aware of defining characteristics, such as location and culture of the populations from which research participants are enrolled. Little research has examined the effect of location and cultural competency in adapting clinical trial research for minority and underserved communities on accrual for clinical trials. Utilizing embedded community academic sites, the authors applied cultural competency frameworks to adapt clinical trial research in order to increase minority participation in nontherapeutic cancer clinical trials. This strategy resulted in successful accrual of participants to new clinical research trials, specifically targeting participation from minority and underserved communities in metropolitan Washington, DC. From 2012 to 2014, a total of 559 participants enrolled across six nontherapeutic clinical trials, representing a 62% increase in the enrollment of blacks in clinical research. Embedding cancer prevention programs and research in the community was shown to be yet another important strategy in the arsenal of approaches that can potentially enhance clinical research enrollment and capacity. The analyses showed that the capacity to acquire cultural knowledge about patients-their physical locales, cultural values, and environments in which they live-is essential to recruiting culturally and ethnically diverse population samples. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Design storytelling with future scenario development; envisioning "the museum"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Albert de la Bruheze, Adri A.

    2015-01-01

    There are different ways to tell stories with design. This paper shows possibilities of telling stories by envisioning the future. Overall, design has the very ability to envision, visualize and express things that do not exist yet. We introduce the Future Scenario Development Design methodology as

  12. Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till

    2009-06-01

    retention; support (programmes should prepare participants for the time in an underserved area, stay in close contact with participants throughout the different phases of enrolment and help participants by assigning them mentors, establishing peer support systems or financing education courses relevant to work in underserved areas; enforcement (programmes may use community-based monitoring or outsource enforcement to existing institutions; and evaluation (in order to broaden the evidence on the effectiveness of financial incentives in increasing the health workforce in underserved areas, programmes in developing countries should evaluate their performance; in order to improve the strength of the evidence on the effectiveness of financial incentives, controlled experiments should be conducted where feasible. In comparison to other interventions to increase the supply of health workers to medically underserved areas, financial-incentive programmes have advantages – unlike initiatives using non-financial incentives, they establish legally enforceable commitments to work in underserved areas and, unlike compulsory service policies, they will not be opposed by health workers – as well as disadvantages – unlike initiatives using non-financial incentives, they may not improve the working and living conditions in underserved areas (which are important determinants of health workers' long-term retention and, unlike compulsory service policies, they cannot guarantee that they will supply health workers to underserved areas who would not have worked in such areas without financial incentives. Financial incentives, non-financial incentives, and compulsory service are not mutually exclusive and may positively affect each other's performance.

  13. Designing financial-incentive programmes for return of medical service in underserved areas: seven management functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E

    2009-06-26

    should prepare participants for the time in an underserved area, stay in close contact with participants throughout the different phases of enrolment and help participants by assigning them mentors, establishing peer support systems or financing education courses relevant to work in underserved areas); enforcement (programmes may use community-based monitoring or outsource enforcement to existing institutions); and evaluation (in order to broaden the evidence on the effectiveness of financial incentives in increasing the health workforce in underserved areas, programmes in developing countries should evaluate their performance; in order to improve the strength of the evidence on the effectiveness of financial incentives, controlled experiments should be conducted where feasible). In comparison to other interventions to increase the supply of health workers to medically underserved areas, financial-incentive programmes have advantages--unlike initiatives using non-financial incentives, they establish legally enforceable commitments to work in underserved areas and, unlike compulsory service policies, they will not be opposed by health workers--as well as disadvantages--unlike initiatives using non-financial incentives, they may not improve the working and living conditions in underserved areas (which are important determinants of health workers' long-term retention) and, unlike compulsory service policies, they cannot guarantee that they will supply health workers to underserved areas who would not have worked in such areas without financial incentives. Financial incentives, non-financial incentives, and compulsory service are not mutually exclusive and may positively affect each other's performance.

  14. Physical Activity in an Underserved Population: Identifying Technology Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medairos, Robert; Kang, Vicky; Aboubakare, Carissa; Kramer, Matthew; Dugan, Sheila Ann

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify patterns of use and preferences related to technology platforms that could support physical activity (PA) programs in an underserved population. A 29-item questionnaire was administered at 5 health and wellness sites targeting low income communities in Chicago. Frequency tables were generated for Internet, cell phone, and social media use and preferences. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate differences across age and income groups. A total of 291 individuals participated and were predominantly female (69.0%). Majority reported incomes less than $30,000 (72.9%) and identified as African American/Black/Caribbean (49.3%) or Mexican/Mexican American (34.3%). Most participants regularly used smartphones (63.2%) and the Internet (75.9%). Respondents frequently used Facebook (84.8%), and less commonly used Instagram (43.6%), and Twitter (20.0%). Free Internet-based exercise programs were the most preferred method to increase PA levels (31.6%), while some respondents (21.0%) thought none of the surveyed technology applications would help. Cell phone, Internet, and social media use is common among the surveyed underserved population. Technology preferences to increase PA levels varied, with a considerable number of respondents not preferring the surveyed technology platforms. Creating educational opportunities to increase awareness may maximize the effectiveness of technology-based PA interventions.

  15. Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education Locations Predominantly Located in Federally Designated Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclift, Songhai C; Brown, Elizabeth J; Finnegan, Sean C; Cohen, Elena R; Klink, Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    Background The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program is an Affordable Care Act funding initiative designed to expand primary care residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not require, training in underserved settings. Residents who train in underserved settings are more likely to go on to practice in similar settings, and graduates more often than not practice near where they have trained. Objective The objective of this study was to describe and quantify federally designated clinical continuity training sites of the THCGME program. Methods Geographic locations of the training sites were collected and characterized as Health Professional Shortage Area, Medically Underserved Area, Population, or rural areas, and were compared with the distribution of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-funded training positions. Results More than half of the teaching health centers (57%) are located in states that are in the 4 quintiles with the lowest CMS-funded resident-to-population ratio. Of the 109 training sites identified, more than 70% are located in federally designated high-need areas. Conclusions The THCGME program is a model that funds residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not explicitly require, that training take place in underserved settings. Because the majority of the 109 clinical training sites of the 60 funded programs in 2014-2015 are located in federally designated underserved locations, the THCGME program deserves further study as a model to improve primary care distribution into high-need communities.

  16. Envisioning Workforce Training Differently: The Obama "Free" Community College Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Education, particularly at the post-secondary level, does not come cheaply in the USA, with the increase in annual tuition costs far outpacing the inflation rate during the same time period. A core tenet of US President Obama's domestic policy agenda is the belief that increased educational attainment can potentially lead to better economic…

  17. Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

  18. Health effects of training laypeople to deliver emergency care in underserviced populations: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Orkin, Aaron M; Curran, Jeffrey D; Fortune, Melanie K; McArthur, Allison; Mew, Emma J; Ritchie, Stephen D; Van de Velde, Stijn; VanderBurgh, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Disease Control Priorities Project recommends emergency care training for laypersons in low-resource settings, but evidence for these interventions has not yet been systematically reviewed. This review will identify the individual and community health effects of educating laypeople to deliver prehospital emergency care interventions in low-resource settings. Methods and analysis This systematic review addresses the following question: in underserviced populations and low-reso...

  19. Diet and Obesity Issues in the Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia de Grubb, Maria C; Levine, Robert S; Zoorob, Roger J

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this article is to inform new directions for addressing inequalities associated with obesity by reviewing current issues about diet and obesity among socioeconomically vulnerable and underserved populations. It highlights recent interventions in selected high-risk populations, as well as gaps in the knowledge base. It identifies future directions in policy and programmatic interventions to expand the role of primary care providers, with an emphasis on those aimed at preventing obesity and promoting healthy weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HealthATM: personal health cyberinfrastructure for underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Nathan E; Horan, Thomas A; Thoms, Brian P

    2011-05-01

    There is an opportunity for personal health record (PHR) systems to play a vital role in fostering health self-management within underserved populations. If properly designed and promoted, it is possible that patients will use PHRs to become more empowered in taking an active role toward managing their health needs. This research examines the potential of a cyberinfrastructure-based PHR to encourage patient activation in health care, while also having population health implications. A multi-phased, iterative research approach was used to design and evaluate a PHR system called HealthATM, which utilizes services from a cloud computing environment. These services were integrated into an ATM-style interface aimed at providing a broad range of health consumers with the ability to manage health conditions and encourage accomplishment of health goals. Evaluation of the PHR included 115 patients who were clients of several free clinics in Los Angeles County. The majority of patients perceived ease of use (74%) and confidence (73%) in using the HealthATM system, and thought they would like to use it frequently (73%). Patients also indicated a belief in being responsible for their own health. However, fewer felt as though they were able to maintain necessary life changes to improve their health. Findings from the field tests suggest that PHRs can be a beneficial health management tool for underserved populations. In order for these types of tools to be effective within safety-net communities, they must be technically accessible and provide meaningful opportunities to increase patient engagement in their health care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Envisioning Democracy: Participatory Filmmaking with Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Jacqueline

    2018-05-01

    This paper explores the democratic potential for participatory filmmaking with homeless youth, as well as the constraints and dilemmas associated with this visual method. Theorizing democracy through the work of Hannah Arendt and Pierre Bourdieu, the paper approaches democracy not as an end, but rather as a process that seeks to lessen social injustice. Bourdieu's work helps us appreciate, however, that this process is constrained by structures of inequality that shape access to the political dispositions that enable such engagement. Consistent with other research on low-income and marginalized young people, this study found that homeless youth engage with democracy through forms of community participation and mutual support, and are disinclined to orient toward liberal democratic structures such as voting and political parties, which they see as harmful or problematic. With a focus on one particular dilemma faced by the research team-namely, the question of how to make sense of and represent the issue of legalizing marijuana, which had been signaled by the youth participants as of primary political importance to them-the paper uses Arendt and Bourdieu to discuss how participatory filmmaking can help to expand the space of appearances available to homeless youth in Canadian society, and create a space at a shared table of understanding with middle class power brokers. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  2. Re-Presenting Slavery: Underserved Questions in Museum Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Cyra

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the notion of what, not who, is underserved in museum education. The importance of looking through, in, and from objects in order to uncover underserved questions and themes is vital. A willingness to consider new ways to approach collections and display is necessary to have a dialogue with our audiences about how museums can…

  3. Integrated visions (part II): Envisioning Sustainable Energy Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Koh, J.; Neven, C.T.; Boekel, A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Climate change and resource depletion are driving the transition to renewable energy sources. Both the supply of renewables and the demand for energy are influenced by the physical environment and therefore concern spatial planning and landscape design. Envisioning the longterm development

  4. Envisioning how new technologies can fulfill customers’ unmet needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Y.; Chen, Y.; Chen, L.; Chen, Y.-H.

    2017-01-01

    Intended Contribution to Knowledge: Undeniably, home is the most important environment for human beings. This study investigates customers’ unmet needs, develops design concepts with new IoT technologies, envisions the values for family members, and reveals its impact on human life and interpersonal

  5. Unity and relevance: Envisioning career counselling's future in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four strategies offer an organizing framework for envisioning career counselling's future both globally and locally within the context of South African higher education. These strategies concern (1) reunifying around the theme of empowering workers to adapt; (2) renovating career counselling's foundations in individual ...

  6. 2020 Vision: Envisioning a New Generation of STEM Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Lynn D.; Falk, John H.

    2016-01-01

    In this issue, we have compiled six original papers, outcomes from the U.S. National Science Foundation (US-NSF)-funded REESE (Research and Evaluation on Education in Science and Engineering) 2020 Vision: The Next Generation of STEM Learning Research project. The purpose of 2020 Vision was to re-envision the questions and frameworks guiding STEM…

  7. The Peace Corps and Higher Education: Finally the Envisioned Partnership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Kevin F. F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of structural and contextual changes underway suggests that now that the Peace Corps has begun its second half-century, it may be the opportune time for a broader and deeper strategic partnership with higher education along the lines that the Peace Corps founders' envisioned. That partnership would involve higher education playing an…

  8. How High School Students Envision Their STEM Career Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Given that many urban students exclude Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics careers from their career choices, the present study focuses on urban high school students and adopts the social-cultural approach to understand the following questions: how do students envision their careers? What are the experiences that shape students'…

  9. Seeking environmental causes of neurodegenerative disease and envisioning primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter S; Palmer, Valerie S; Kisby, Glen E

    2016-09-01

    Pathological changes of the aging brain are expressed in a range of neurodegenerative disorders that will impact increasing numbers of people across the globe. Research on the causes of these disorders has focused heavily on genetics, and strategies for prevention envision drug-induced slowing or arresting disease advance before its clinical appearance. We discuss a strategic shift that seeks to identify the environmental causes or contributions to neurodegeneration, and the vision of primary disease prevention by removing or controlling exposure to culpable agents. The plausibility of this approach is illustrated by the prototypical neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS-PDC). This often-familial long-latency disease, once thought to be an inherited genetic disorder but now known to have a predominant or exclusive environmental origin, is in the process of disappearing from the three heavily affected populations, namely Chamorros of Guam and Rota, Japanese residents of Kii Peninsula, Honshu, and Auyu and Jaqai linguistic groups on the island of New Guinea in West Papua, Indonesia. Exposure via traditional food and/or medicine (the only common exposure in all three geographic isolates) to one or more neurotoxins in seed of cycad plants is the most plausible if yet unproven etiology. Neurotoxin dosage and/or subject age at exposure might explain the stratified epidemic of neurodegenerative disease on Guam in which high-incidence ALS peaked and declined before that of PD, only to be replaced today by a dementing disorder comparable to Alzheimer's disease. Exposure to the Guam environment is also linked to the delayed development of ALS among a subset of Chamorro and non-Chamorro Gulf War/Era veterans, a summary of which is reported here for the first time. Lessons learned from this study and from 65 years of research on ALS-PDC include the exceptional value of initial, field-based informal investigation of

  10. Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional

  11. 5 CFR 894.801 - Will benefits be available in underserved areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will benefits be available in underserved... Underserved Areas § 894.801 Will benefits be available in underserved areas? (a) Dental and vision plans under FEDVIP will include underserved areas in their service areas and provide benefits to enrollees in...

  12. Recruitment practices for U.S. minority and underserved populations in NRG oncology: Results of an online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise D. Cook

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer clinical trials (CCT provide much of the evidence for clinical guidelines and standards of care. But low levels of CCT participation are well documented, especially for minorities. Methods and materials: We conducted an online survey of 556 recruitment practices across the NRG Oncology network. Survey aims were 1 to learn how sites recruit minority/underserved populations; 2 to better understand the catchment areas of the NRG institutions; and 3 to aid in planning education programs for accrual of minority/underserved populations. Results: The survey response rate was 34.9%. The most effective methods reported for recruiting minority/underserved participants were patient navigators (44.4% and translators (38.9%. All institutions reported using a mechanism for eligibility screening and 71% of institutions reported using a screening/enrollment tracking system. CCT training was required at 78.1% and cultural competency training was required at 47.5% of responding institutions. Only 19.9% of sites used community partners to assist with minority recruitment and just 37.1% of respondents reported a defined catchment area. Sites reported very little race and ethnicity data. Conclusion: This NRG Oncology online survey provides useful data for improvements in trial enrollment and training to recruit minority/underserved populations to CCT. Areas for further investigation include web-based methods for recruitment and tracking, cultural competency training, definition of catchment areas, use of patient navigators, and community partnerships. The survey results will guide recruitment training programs.

  13. Physician assistants as servant leaders: meeting the needs of the underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, Michael J; Wheeler, Daniel W

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the level of servant leader characteristics in clinically practicing physician assistants (PAs) in underserved populations differed from PAs serving in other locales. Five subscales of servant leadership: altruistic calling, emotional healing, wisdom, persuasive mapping, and organizational stewardship, were measured in a quantitative study of clinically practicing PAs using a self-rating survey and a similar survey by others rating the PA. Of 777 PAs invited, 321 completed the survey. On a scale of 1 to 5, mean PA self-ratings ranged from 3.52 (persuasive mapping) to 4.05 (wisdom). Other raters' scores paired with the self-rated PA scores were comparable in all subscales except wisdom, which was rated higher by the other raters (4.32 by other raters, 4.01 by PAs, P= .002). There was no significant difference in the measures of servant leadership reported by PAs serving the underserved compared to PAs serving in other populations. Servant leader subscales were higher for PAs compared to previous studies of other health care or community leader populations. The results found that the PA population studied had a prominent level of servant leadership characteristics that did not differ between those working with underserved and nonunderserved populations.

  14. Intrinsic rewards experienced by a group of dentists working with underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, S P; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Winning, T A; Peterson, R

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore, using qualitative methods, the intrinsic reasons why dentists work with underserved groups. Minority and marginalized groups of Australians suffer a greater burden of dental disease than the general population due to disparities in accessing care. Recruitment and retention of dentists to care for underserved groups is problematic due to personal, professional and structural reasons. What drives dentists to work with underserved groups is not widely known. Sixteen dentists were recruited using 'snowball' purposeful sampling. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcriptions to identify themes. Five key themes emerged: (1) 'tapped on the shoulder', being personally approached or invited; (2) 'dental school experience', the challenges faced as a student; (3) 'empathic concern', the non-judgemental expressions of care toward others; (4) 'resilience', the ability to bounce back after setbacks; (5) 'intrinsic reward', the personal gain and satisfaction received. This study focuses on the intrinsic rewards which were found to be simple, unexpected, and associated with relieving pain, community engagement and making a difference. Emphasizing personal fulfilment and intrinsic reward could be useful when promoting dentistry as a career and when encouraging graduates to consider working with disadvantaged groups. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Optimal Advertising When Envisioning a Product-Harm Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Rubel; Prasad A. Naik; Shuba Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    How should forward-looking managers plan advertising if they envision a product-harm crisis in the future? To address this question, we propose a dynamic model of brand advertising in which, at each instant, a nonzero probability exists for the occurrence of a crisis event that damages the brand's baseline sales and may enhance or erode marketing effectiveness when the crisis occurs. Because managers do not know when the crisis will occur, its random time of occurrence induces a stochastic co...

  16. Effects of a psychological skills training programme for underserved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of a psychological skills training programme for underserved rugby ... The development of psychological skills is an important, but often neglected part of ... Repeated measures two-way ANOVAs revealed significant main time effects, ...

  17. Web usability testing with a Hispanic medically underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary; Bias, Randolph G; Prentice, Katherine; Fletcher, Robin; Vaughn, Terry

    2009-04-01

    Skilled website developers value usability testing to assure user needs are met. When the target audience differs substantially from the developers, it becomes essential to tailor both design and evaluation methods. In this study, researchers carried out a multifaceted usability evaluation of a website (Healthy Texas) designed for Hispanic audiences with lower computer literacy and lower health literacy. METHODS INCLUDED: (1) heuristic evaluation by a usability engineer, (2) remote end-user testing using WebEx software; and (3) face-to-face testing in a community center where use of the website was likely. Researchers found standard usability testing methods needed to be modified to provide interpreters, increased flexibility for time on task, presence of a trusted intermediary such as a librarian, and accommodation for family members who accompanied participants. Participants offered recommendations for website redesign, including simplified language, engaging and relevant graphics, culturally relevant examples, and clear navigation. User-centered design is especially important when website developers are not representative of the target audience. Failure to conduct appropriate usability testing with a representative audience can substantially reduce use and value of the website. This thorough course of usability testing identified improvements that benefit all users but become crucial when trying to reach an underserved audience.

  18. Neighborhood Social Predictors of Weight-related Measures in Underserved African Americans in the PATH Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Tyler C; Wilson, Dawn K; Coulon, Sandra M; Hand, Gregory A; Siceloff, E Rebekah

    2015-11-05

    African Americans have the highest rate of obesity in the United States relative to other ethnic minority groups. Bioecological factors including neighborhood social and physical environmental variables may be important predictors of weight-related measures specifically body mass index (BMI) in African American adults. Baseline data from the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial were collected from 417 African American adults. Overall a multiple regression model for BMI was significant, showing positive associations with average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (B =-.21, Psocial interaction (B =-.13, Psocial interaction was associated with healthier BMI, highlighting it as a potential critical factor for future interventions in underserved, African American communities.

  19. 77 FR 25779 - SBA Council on Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... CONTACT: The meeting is open to the public however advance notice of attendance is requested. Anyone... contact Nicole Nelson by May 3rd 2010, by fax or email in order to be placed on the agenda. [[Page 25780

  20. Myths and misconceptions about abortion among marginalized underserved community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, K; Karki, Y; Bista, K P

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe abortion remains a huge problem in Nepal even after legalization of abortion. Various myths and misconceptions persist which prompt women towards unsafe abortive practices. A qualitative study was conducted among different groups of women using focus group discussions and in depth interviews. Perception and understanding of the participants on abortion, methods and place of abortion were evaluated. A number of misconceptions were prevalent like drinking vegetable and herbal juices, and applying hot pot over the abdomen could abort pregnancy. However, many participants also believed that health care providers should be consulted for abortion. Although majority of the women knew that they should seek medical aid for abortion, they were still possessed with various misconceptions. Merely legalizing abortion services is not enough to reduce the burden of unsafe abortion. Focus has to be given on creating awareness and proper advocacy in this issue.

  1. 78 FR 28274 - Council on Underserved Communities, Re-Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Tuesday, May 21, 2013 from 2:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. Eastern Daylight Savings Time. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... issuing this notice to announce the date, time, and agenda for the first meeting of the SBA Council on...

  2. Medical School Outcomes, Primary Care Specialty Choice, and Practice in Medically Underserved Areas by Physician Alumni of MEDPREP, a Postbaccalaureate Premedical Program for Underrepresented and Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Anneke M

    2017-01-01

    Minorities continue to be underrepresented as physicians in medicine, and the United States currently has a number of medically underserved communities. MEDPREP, a postbaccalaureate medical school preparatory program for socioeconomically disadvantaged or underrepresented in medicine students, has a stated mission to increase the numbers of physicians from minority or disadvantaged backgrounds and physicians working with underserved populations. This study aims to determine how MEDPREP enhances U.S. physician diversity and practice within underserved communities. MEDPREP recruits disadvantaged and underrepresented in medicine students to complete a 2-year academic enhancement program that includes science coursework, standardized test preparation, study/time management training, and emphasis on professional development. Five hundred twenty-five disadvantaged or underrepresented students over 15 years completed MEDPREP and were tracked through entry into medical practice. MEDPREP accepts up to 36 students per year, with two thirds coming from the Midwest region and another 20% from nearby states in the South. Students complete science, test preparation, academic enhancement, and professionalism coursework taught predominantly by MEDPREP faculty on the Southern Illinois University Carbondale campus. Students apply broadly to medical schools in the region and nation but are also offered direct entry into our School of Medicine upon meeting articulation program requirements. Seventy-nine percent of students completing MEDPREP became practicing physicians. Fifty-eight percent attended public medical schools, and 62% attended medical schools in the Midwest. Fifty-three percent of program alumni chose primary care specialties compared to 34% of U.S. physicians, and MEDPREP alumni were 2.7 times more likely to work in medically underserved areas than physicians nationally. MEDPREP increases the number of disadvantaged and underrepresented students entering and graduating

  3. Smartphone threshold audiometry in underserved primary health-care contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Josefin; Swanepoel, De Wet; Carel Myburgh, Hermanus; Laurent, Claude

    2016-01-01

    To validate a calibrated smartphone-based hearing test in a sound booth environment and in primary health-care clinics. A repeated-measure within-subject study design was employed whereby air-conduction hearing thresholds determined by smartphone-based audiometry was compared to conventional audiometry in a sound booth and a primary health-care clinic environment. A total of 94 subjects (mean age 41 years ± 17.6 SD and range 18-88; 64% female) were assessed of whom 64 were tested in the sound booth and 30 within primary health-care clinics without a booth. In the sound booth 63.4% of conventional and smartphone thresholds indicated normal hearing (≤15 dBHL). Conventional thresholds exceeding 15 dB HL corresponded to smartphone thresholds within ≤10 dB in 80.6% of cases with an average threshold difference of -1.6 dB ± 9.9 SD. In primary health-care clinics 13.7% of conventional and smartphone thresholds indicated normal hearing (≤15 dBHL). Conventional thresholds exceeding 15 dBHL corresponded to smartphone thresholds within ≤10 dB in 92.9% of cases with an average threshold difference of -1.0 dB ± 7.1 SD. Accurate air-conduction audiometry can be conducted in a sound booth and without a sound booth in an underserved community health-care clinic using a smartphone.

  4. Multicultural Milky Way: Ethnoastronomy and Planetarium Shows for Under-served Arizonans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen

    2018-01-01

    The astronomy outreach initiative, Multicultural Milky Way, partners the School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) at Arizona State University (ASU) with under-served populations in Arizona in learning about our Milky Way and other galaxies. Arizona is home to many diverse populations with rich cultural histories such as Mayan, Navajo, and Apache. Linking astronomy practiced by one’s indigenous culture to that of Western astronomy may increase the interest in science. Through multicultural planetarium shows and associated hands-on activities, under-served students and families will learn how the Milky Way is represented in different cultures and about the science of galaxies. New planetarium shows using the Mesa Community College (MCC) Digital Planetarium and STARLAB portable planetarium explore how the Milky Way is interpreted in different cultures. STARLAB shows and associated new hands-on activities have been featured during school visits, teacher trainings, and Community Astronomy Nights around Arizona. For authentic assessment, evaluation techniques and procedures were developed.

  5. Sharing Gravity's Microscope: Star Formation and Galaxy Evolution for Underserved Arizonans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.; Bowman, Catherine DD; Taylor, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Learning science in a community is important for children of all levels and especially for many underserved populations. This project combines HST research of galaxy evolution using gravitationally lensed galaxies with hands-on activities and the Starlab portable planetarium to link astronomy with families, teachers, and students. To explore galaxy evolution, new activities were developed and evaluated using novel evaluation techniques. A new set of galaxy classification cards enable inquiry-based learning about galaxy ages, evolution, and gravitational lensing. Activities using new cylinder overlays for the Starlab transparent cylinder will enable the detailed examination of star formation and galaxy evolution as seen from the viewpoint inside of different types of galaxies. These activities were presented in several Arizona venues that enable family and student participation including ASU Earth and Space Open House, Arizona Museum of Natural History Homeschooling Events, on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, and inner city Phoenix schools serving mainly Hispanic populations. Additional events targeted underserved families at the Phoenix Zoo, in Navajo County, and for the Pascua Yaqui Tribe. After evaluation, the activities and materials will also be shared with local teachers and nationally.

  6. The Online-Counseling Debate: A View toward the Underserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Page, Delida

    2005-01-01

    This article responds to some important issues that Mallen, Vogel, Rochlen, and Day raise in "Online Counseling: Reviewing the Literature from a Counseling Psychology Framework." This reaction reviews the appropriateness of online counseling for underserved populations. The author provides suggestions for better serving historically undeserved…

  7. Employing Young Talent from Underserved Populations: Designing a Flexible Organizational Process for Assimilation and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Mark Langer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an ongoing 13-year-old program designed to improve the ability of organizations to assimilate young talent from underserved populations, mostly students who have recently graduated from high school. Although many firms have internship and orientation programs, few have well-tested organizational approaches for assimilating 17-20 year-olds into their organizations in an efficient and productive manner. The objective of this study is to describe and evaluate the solution introduced by Workforce Opportunity Services (WOS, a non-profit agency that provides organizations with well-trained talent from underserved local communities. The WOS model is a systemic design involving a lead agency (WOS, corporate clients, training partnerships with local colleges and universities, and underutilized human capital. Over 290 students have completed the WOS program and obtained long-term employment, mostly in IT jobs that normally are outsourced. The results of the study show that companies have success employing young talent when they follow the WOS organizational process. Companies need to have patience with WOS student employees, but within six months most members of the WOS program make positive contributions to their sponsoring firm and have a strong likelihood of becoming permanently employed. Implications of the WOS model for organization design are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of the Program in Medical Education for the Urban Underserved (PRIME-US) at the UC Berkeley-UCSF Joint Medical Program (JMP): The First 4 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Ivey, Susan L; Garcia, Roxanna M; Azzam, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Medical educators, clinicians, and health policy experts widely acknowledge the need to increase the diversity of our healthcare workforce and build our capacity to care for medically underserved populations and reduce health disparities. The Program in Medical Education for the Urban Underserved (PRIME-US) is part of a family of programs across the University of California (UC) medical schools aiming to recruit and train physicians to care for underserved populations, expand the healthcare workforce to serve diverse populations, and promote health equity. PRIME-US selects medical students from diverse backgrounds who are committed to caring for underserved populations and provides a 5-year curriculum including a summer orientation, a longitudinal seminar series with community engagement and leadership-development activities, preclerkship clinical immersion in an underserved setting, a master's degree, and a capstone rotation in the final year of medical school. This is a mixed-methods evaluation of the first 4 years of the PRIME-US at the UC Berkeley-UC San Francisco Joint Medical Program (JMP). From 2006 to 2010, focus groups were conducted each year with classes of JMP PRIME-US students, for a total of 11 focus groups; major themes were identified using content analysis. In addition, 4 yearly anonymous, online surveys of all JMP students, faculty and staff were conducted and analyzed. Most PRIME-US students came from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds and ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in medicine, and all were committed to caring for underserved populations. The PRIME-US students experienced many program benefits including peer support, professional role models and mentorship, and curricular enrichment activities that developed their knowledge, skills, and sustained commitment to care for underserved populations. Non-PRIME students, faculty, and staff also benefited from participating in PRIME-sponsored seminars and community-based activities

  9. An early stage evaluation of the Supporting Program for Obstetric Care Underserved Areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Baeg Ju; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jin Yong

    2014-06-01

    "The Supporting Program for Obstetric Care Underserved Areas (SPOU)" provides financial aids to rural community (or district) hospitals to reopen prenatal care and delivery services for regions without obstetrics and gynecology clinics or hospitals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early stage effect of the SPOU program. The proportion of the number of birth through SPOU was calculated by each region. Also survey was conducted to investigate the extent of overall satisfaction, elements of dissatisfaction, and suggestions for improvement of the program; 209 subjects participated from 7 to 12 December, 2012. Overall, 20% of pregnant women in Youngdong (71 cases) and Gangjin (106 cases) used their community (or district) hospitals through the SPOU whereas Yecheon (23 cases) was 8%; their satisfaction rates were high. Short distance and easy accessibility was the main reason among women choosing community (or district) hospital whereas the reasons of not selecting the community (or district) hospital were favor of the outside hospital's facility, system, and trust in the medical staffs. The SPOU seems to be currently effective at an early stage. However, to successfully implement this program, the government should make continuous efforts to recruit highly qualified medical staffs and improve medical facility and equipment.

  10. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-Cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett; Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings from the report 'SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future.' This presentation was given as a webinar on September 26, 2017.

  11. Educational and individual factors associated with positive change in and reaffirmation of medical students' intention to practice in underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscardin, Christy K; Grbic, Douglas; Grumbach, Kevin; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    The projected U.S. physician shortage will disproportionately affect underserved areas. This study examined the impact of medical school educational experiences on positive changes in and reaffirmation of students' intention to practice in underserved areas (practice intention). Medical students (n = 7,361) from 113 U.S. MD-granting medical schools who graduated in 2009-2010 and responded to both the Association of American Medical Colleges' 2006 Matriculating Student Questionnaire and 2010 Graduation Questionnaire were included. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with change in and reaffirmation of practice intention. After controlling for individual characteristics, community health field experience (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.57), learning another language (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.63), cultural competence/awareness experience (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.58), becoming more aware of perspectives of individuals from different backgrounds (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.48), and attending schools with higher social mission scores (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.16) were all significantly associated with positive changes in practice intention from matriculation to graduation. Field experience in community health (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.53), learning another language (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.65), and attending schools with higher social mission scores (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.43) were all significantly associated with reaffirmation of practice intention at graduation. Multifaceted factors are associated with practice intention. This study suggests medical schools can play active roles in alleviating the physician shortage in underserved areas through targeted curricular interventions and recruitment.

  12. International Comparisons in Underserved Health: Issues, Policies, Needs and Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Paul; Morelli, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    Health care globally has made great strides; for example, there are lower rates of infant and maternal mortality. Increased incomes have led to lower rates of diseases accompanying poverty and hunger. There has been a shift away from the infectious diseases so deadly in developing nations toward first-world conditions. This article presents health care statistics across age groups and geographic areas to help the primary care physician understand these changes. There is a special focus on underserved populations. New technologies in health and health care spending internationally are addressed, emphasizing universal health care. The article concludes with recommendations for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A community-based breast cancer screening program for medically underserved women: its effect on disease stage at diagnosis and on hazard of death Programa basado en la comunidad de tamizaje de cáncer de mama en mujeres médicamente subatendidas: efecto sobre el estadio de la enfermedad en el momento del diagnóstico y el riesgo de muerte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde B. McCoy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Earlier studies by this research team found that medically underserved minority women in the Miami-Dade County area of the state of Florida, United States, were in need of breast cancer screening and that there were problems with availability, accessibility, and acceptability of services. In response, a community-based comprehensive breast cancer screening program called the Early Detection Program (EDP was developed. The specific purpose of this study was to assess the effect that EDP participation had on stage at diagnosis and on hazard of death. METHODS: Existing data from the Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS, a statewide cancer registry, were linked with data from the EDP. In December 1998 we assembled a multiethnic (African-American, black Hispanic, white Hispanic, and white non-Hispanic retrospective cohort with the following inclusion criteria: all women aged 40 and older with breast cancer diagnosed and staged at University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center (which is located in the city of Miami, Florida from January 1987 through December 1997. EDP participants were medically underserved, that is, they resided in lower socioeconomic areas and/or had limited or no health insurance to cover medical costs. Subjects identified as EDP participants were compared to nonparticipants with respect to disease stage at diagnosis and hazard of death. Logistic regression and Cox regression models were used for analysis. RESULTS: EDP participants were 2.4 times as likely (95% confidence interval = 1.71 to 3.43 to present with a diagnosis of localized cancer as were nonparticipants, even after controlling for race and age at diagnosis. EDP participation was independently associated with both earlier diagnosis and reduced hazard of death. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in the EDP increases the likelihood of early detection of breast cancer and reduces the hazard of death for medically underserved women in the Miami-Dade County area of

  14. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  15. Dental Therapists as New Oral Health Practitioners: Increasing Access for Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickle, Colleen M; Self, Karl D

    2017-09-01

    The development of dental therapy in the U.S. grew from a desire to find a workforce solution for increasing access to oral health care. Worldwide, the research that supports the value of dental therapy is considerable. Introduction of educational programs in the U.S. drew on the experiences of programs in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, with Alaska tribal communities introducing dental health aide therapists in 2003 and Minnesota authorizing dental therapy in 2009. Currently, two additional states have authorized dental therapy, and two additional tribal communities are pursuing the use of dental therapists. In all cases, the care provided by dental therapists is focused on communities and populations who experience oral health care disparities and have historically had difficulties in accessing care. This article examines the development and implementation of the dental therapy profession in the U.S. An in-depth look at dental therapy programs in Minnesota and the practice of dental therapy in Minnesota provides insight into the early implementation of this emerging profession. Initial results indicate that the addition of dental therapists to the oral health care team is increasing access to quality oral health care for underserved populations. As evidence of dental therapy's success continues to grow, mid-level dental workforce legislation is likely to be introduced by oral health advocates in other states. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  16. Sleep duration of underserved minority children in a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration has been shown to associate with increased risk of obesity. Childhood obesity is more prevalent among underserved minority children. The study measured the sleep duration of underserved minority children living in a large US urban environment using accelerometry and its relation...

  17. 77 FR 43127 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved... determination of the States that qualify as Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health... law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health...

  18. 78 FR 50119 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved... determination of the states that qualify as Medically Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health... law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health...

  19. 76 FR 31998 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved Areas for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Medically Underserved... Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 2012. This is... certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in States with critical shortages of primary care...

  20. 75 FR 32972 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Medically Underserved Areas for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees Health Benefits Program; Medically Underserved... Underserved Areas under the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program for calendar year 2011. This is... certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in States with critical shortages of primary care...

  1. A 5A's communication intervention to promote physical activity in underserved populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Jennifer K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a clinician training intervention to improve physical activity counseling in underserved primary care settings using the 5As. The 5As (Ask, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange are a clinical tool recommended for health behavior counseling in primary care. Methods/Design The study is a two-arm randomized pilot pragmatic trial to examine a primary care clinician communication intervention on use of the 5As in discussion of physical activity in audio-recorded office visits in an ethnically diverse, low-income patient population. The study setting consists of two federally qualified community health centers in Rochester, NY. Eligible clinicians (n=15 are recruited and randomized into two groups. Group 1 clinicians participate in the training intervention first; Group 2 clinicians receive the intervention six months later. The intervention and its outcomes are informed by self-determination theory and principles of patient-centered communication. Assessment of outcomes is blinded. The primary outcome will be the frequency and quality of 5As discussions as judged by evaluating 375 audio-recorded patient visits distributed over baseline and in the post-intervention period (immediately post and at six months. Secondary outcomes will be changes in patients’ perceived competence to increase physical activity (Aim 2 and patients and clinicians beliefs regarding whether pertinent barriers to promoting exercise have been reduced. (Aim 3. Exploratory outcomes (Aim 4 are potential mediators of the intervention’s effect and whether the intervention affects actual enrollment in the community program recommended for exercise. The analysis will use repeated measures (in the form of recorded office visits from each clinician at each time point and aggregate measures of Groups 1 and 2 over time. Discussion Results will help elucidate the role of 5As communication training for clinicians on

  2. Attending to Communication and Patterns of Interaction: Culturally Sensitive Mental Health Care for Groups of Urban, Ethnically Diverse, Impoverished, and Underserved Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen

    2014-07-01

    The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Evaluation of a Coordinated School-Based Obesity Prevention Program in a Hispanic Community: Choosing Healthy and Active Lifestyles for Kids/healthy Schools Healthy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; Rausch, John; Okah, Ebiere; Tsao, Daisy; Nieto, Andres; Lyda, Elizabeth; Meyer, Dodi; McCord, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a public health concern that disproportionately affects underserved and minority communities. Purpose: To evaluate whether a comprehensive obesity prevention program that targets children and school staff in an underserved Hispanic community affects obesity related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among both students and…

  4. Implementing a Healthy Food Distribution Program: A Supply Chain Strategy to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Access in Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Kwan, Allison; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Gutierrez, Luis; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony

    2018-05-24

    Increasing access to fresh produce in small retail venues could improve the diet of people in underserved communities. However, small retailers face barriers to stocking fresh produce. In 2014, an innovative distribution program, Community Markets Purchasing Real and Affordable Foods (COMPRA), was launched in Los Angeles with the aim of making it more convenient and profitable for small retailers to stock fresh produce. Our case study describes the key processes and lessons learned in the first 2 years of implementing COMPRA. Considerable investments in staff capacity and infrastructure were needed to launch COMPRA. Early successes included significant week-to-week increases in the volume of produce distributed. Leveraging partnerships, maintaining a flexible operational and funding structure, and broadly addressing store owners' needs contributed to initial gains. We describe key challenges and next steps to scaling the program. Lessons learned from implementing COMPRA could inform other jurisdictions considering supply-side approaches to increase access to healthy food.

  5. Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara E.

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching

  6. With God on our side: Religious primes reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a menacing adversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Fessler, Daniel M T; Pollack, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The imagined support of benevolent supernatural agents attenuates anxiety and risk perception. Here, we extend these findings to judgments of the threat posed by a potentially violent adversary. Conceptual representations of bodily size and strength summarize factors that determine the relative threat posed by foes. The proximity of allies moderates the envisioned physical formidability of adversaries, suggesting that cues of access to supernatural allies will reduce the envisioned physical formidability of a threatening target. Across two studies, subtle cues of both supernatural and earthly social support reduced the envisioned physical formidability of a violent criminal. These manipulations had no effect on the perceived likelihood of encountering non-conflictual physical danger, raising the possibility that imagined supernatural support leads participants to view themselves not as shielded from encountering perilous situations, but as protected should perils arise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A National Longitudinal Survey of Medical Students' Intentions to Practice Among the Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Thomas F; Ham, Sandra A; Hart, Theodore G; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2018-01-01

    To explore students' intentions to practice in medically underserved areas. In January 2011, 960 third-year medical students from 24 MD-granting U.S. medical schools were invited to participate in a survey on their intention to practice in a medically underserved area. A follow-up survey was sent to participants in September 2011. Covariates included student demographics, medical school characteristics, environmental exposures, work experiences, sense of calling, and religious characteristics. Adjusted response rates were 564/919 (61.4%, first survey) and 474/564 (84.0%, follow-up survey). Among fourth-year medical students, an estimated 34.3% had an intention to practice among the underserved. In multivariate logistic regression modeling, predictors for intentions to practice among the underserved included growing up in an underserved setting (odds ratio [OR] range: 2.96-4.81), very strong sense of calling (OR range: 1.86-3.89), and high medical school social mission score (in fourth year: OR = 2.34 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.31-4.21]). International experience was associated with favorable change of mind in the fourth year (OR = 2.86 [95% CI, 1.13-7.24]). High intrinsic religiosity was associated with intentions to practice primary care in underserved settings (in fourth year: OR = 2.29 [95% CI = 1.13-4.64]). Growing up in medically underserved settings, work experience in religiously affiliated organizations, very strong sense of calling, and high medical school social mission score were associated with intentions to practice in underserved areas. Lack of formative educational experiences may dissuade students from considering underserved practice.

  8. Underserved Areas and Pediatric Resident Characteristics: Is There Reason for Optimism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque-Arena, Danielle; Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William L

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether resident characteristics and experiences are related to practice in underserved areas. Cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of pediatric residents (n = 1000) and additional sample of minority residents (n = 223) who were graduating in 2009 was conducted. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined relationships between resident characteristics (background, values, residency experiences, and practice goals) and reported 1) expectation to practice in underserved area and 2) postresidency position in underserved area. Response rate was 57%. Forty-one percent of the residents reported that they had an expectation of practicing in an underserved area. Of those who had already accepted postresidency positions, 38% reported positions in underserved areas. Service obligation in exchange for loans/scholarships and primary care/academic pediatrics practice goals were the strongest predictors of expectation of practicing in underserved areas (respectively, adjusted odds ratio 4.74, 95% confidence interval 1.87-12.01; adjusted odds ratio 3.48, 95% confidence interval 1.99-6.10). Other significant predictors include hospitalist practice goals, primary care practice goals, importance of racial/ethnic diversity of patient population in residency selection, early plan (before medical school) to care for underserved families, mother with a graduate or medical degree, and higher score on the Universalism value scale. Service obligation and primary care/academic pediatrics practice goal were also the strongest predictors for taking a postresidency job in underserved area. Trainee characteristics such as service obligations, values of humanism, and desire to serve underserved populations offer the hope that policies and public funding can be directed to support physicians with these characteristics to redress the maldistribution of physicians caring for children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Sustainable Supply of Safe Drinking Water for Underserved Households in Kenya: Investigating the Viability of Decentralized Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Chepchirchir Cherunya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water quality and safe water sources are pivotal aspects of consideration for domestic water. Focusing on underserved households in Kenya, this study compared user perceptions and preferences on water-service provision options, particularly investigating the viability of decentralized models, such as the Safe Water Enterprise (SWE, as sustainable safe drinking water sources. Results showed that among a number of water-service provision options available, the majority of households regularly sourced their domestic water from more than one source (86% Ngoliba/Maguguni, 98% Kangemi Gichagi. A majority of households perceived their water sources to be unsafe to drink (84% Ngoliba/Maguguni, 73% Kangemi Gichagi. For this reason, drinking water was mainly chlorinated (48% Ngoliba/Maguguni, 33% Kangemi Gichagi or boiled (42% Ngoliba/Maguguni, 67% Kangemi Gichagi. However, this study also found that households in Kenya did not apply these household water treatment methods consistently, thus indicating inconsistency in safe water consumption. The SWE concept, a community-scale decentralized safe drinking water source, was a preferred option among households who perceived it to save time and to be less cumbersome as compared to boiling and chlorination. Willingness to pay for SWE water was also a positive indicator for its preference by the underserved households. However, the long-term applicability of such decentralized water provision models needs to be further investigated within the larger water-service provision context.

  10. Bringing cutting-edge Earth and ocean sciences to under-served and rural audiences through informal science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S. K.; Petronotis, K. E.; Ferraro, C.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Yarincik, K.

    2017-12-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) is an international marine research collaboration that explores Earth's history and dynamics using ocean-going research platforms to recover data recorded in seafloor sediments and rocks and to monitor subseafloor environments. The JOIDES Resolution is the flagship vessel of IODP and is operated by the National Science Foundation. It is an inspirational hook for STEM Earth and ocean topics for children and the general public of all ages, but is not easily accessible due to its international travels and infrequent U.S. port calls. In response, a consortium of partners has created the Pop-Up/Drill Down Science project. The multi-year project, funded by NSF's Advancing Informal Science Learning program, aims to bring the JR and its science to under-served and rural populations throughout the country. Consisting of an inflatable walk-through ship, a multi-media experience, a giant interactive seafloor map and a series of interactive exhibit kiosks, the exhibit, entitled, In Search of Earth's Secrets: A Pop-Up Science Encounter, will travel to 12 communities throughout the next four years. In each community, the project will partner with local institutions like public libraries and small museums as hosts and to train local Girl Scouts to serve as exhibit facilitators. By working with local communities to select events and venues for pop-up events, the project hopes to bring cutting edge Earth and ocean science in creative new ways to underserved populations and inspire diverse audiences to explore further. This presentation will provide details of the project's goals, objectives and development and provide avenues to become involved.

  11. Leading the 21st-century academic library successful strategies for envisioning and realizing preferred futures

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2015-01-01

    Leading the 21st Century Academic Library: Successful Strategies for Envisioning and Realizing Preferred Futures will explore the new roles and directions academic libraries are taking in the 21st century as a consequence of visionary leadership in exploring diverse futures.

  12. Envisioning Oneself as a Leader: Comparisons of Women and Men in Spain and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Lauren A.; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Eagly, Alice H.

    2006-01-01

    In an examination of aspirations for leadership in the United States and Spain, male and female students envisioned themselves as a chief executive officer, vice president, or mid-level manager in an industry with a feminine image (clothing manufacturing) or a masculine image (auto manufacturing). Although men and women perceived these roles as…

  13. Writing as Envision: Autobiographical and Academic Writing in the Composition Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarczyk, Michelle M.

    Three students in an autobiography class--an African-American, a woman, and a gay man struggling to come out--used their writing to both affirm their places in the world and envision another place. Having reviewed her early educational experiences as an African-American, Holly focused her essay back to her present college days and her attempts to…

  14. Comparison of two polymer-based immunohistochemical detection systems: ENVISION+ and ImmPRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Vara, José A; Miller, Margaret A

    2006-11-01

    The non-specific background reaction produced in avidin-biotin-based immunohistochemistry, particularly after harsh antigen retrieval procedures, has promoted the use of non-avidin-biotin systems, yet there are few reports comparing the performance of non-avidin-biotin, polymer-based methods. In this study we compare two of these methods, ENVISION+trade mark and ImmPRESS, in animal tissues. We examined the immunoreactivity of 18 antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Antigens were located in the cytoplasmic membrane (CD11d, CD18 and CD79a), cytoplasm (calretinin, COX-1, COX-2, Glut-1, HepPar 1, KIT, Melan A, tryptase and uroplakin III) or nucleus (MUM-1, PGP 9.5 and thyroid transcription factor 1). We also evaluated three infectious agents (Aspergillus, calicivirus and West Nile virus). The staining with ENVISION+ or ImmPRESS was performed simultaneously for each antigen. The intensity of the reaction and background staining were scored. ImmPRESS yielded similar or higher reaction intensity than ENVISION+trade mark in 16/18 antigens. ImmPRESS produced abundant background with the other two antigens (calretinin and COX-2), which hindered interpretation of the specific reaction. The cost of ImmPRESS was 25% lower than for ENVISION+trade mark. Based on these results, ImmPRESS is a good polymer-based detection system for routine immunohistochemistry.

  15. In-Service Infant Teachers Re-Envision Their Practice through a Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Eleni; Recchia, Susan L.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: Most infant teachers have been prepared to be early childhood educators with minimal theoretical or practical exposure to infancy. This study highlights the outcomes of a professional development program (PDP) designed to support a group of infant teachers who lacked specific infancy preparation to re-envision their roles. Data…

  16. Envisioning a smart home that can learn and negotiate the needs of multiple users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Y.; Chen, L.; Lee, Y-H.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the previous smart home researches were primarily concerned for single-user scenarios. However, our homes are usually full with social interactions. In order to explore the research challenge, we applied need-finding approaches to envision the possibilities. We visited ten families to prove

  17. Health effects of training laypeople to deliver emergency care in underserviced populations: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Aaron M; Curran, Jeffrey D; Fortune, Melanie K; McArthur, Allison; Mew, Emma J; Ritchie, Stephen D; Van de Velde, Stijn; VanderBurgh, David

    2016-05-18

    The Disease Control Priorities Project recommends emergency care training for laypersons in low-resource settings, but evidence for these interventions has not yet been systematically reviewed. This review will identify the individual and community health effects of educating laypeople to deliver prehospital emergency care interventions in low-resource settings. This systematic review addresses the following question: in underserviced populations and low-resource settings (P), does first aid or emergency care training or education for laypeople (I) confer any individual or community health benefit for emergency health conditions (O), in comparison with no training or other forms of education (C)? We restrict this review to studies reporting quantitatively measurable outcomes, and search 12 electronic bibliographic databases and grey literature sources. A team of expert content and methodology reviewers will conduct title and abstract screening and full-text review, using a custom-built online platform. Two investigators will independently extract methodological variables and outcomes related to patient-level morbidity and mortality and community-level effects on resilience or emergency care capacity. Two investigators will independently assess external validity, selection bias, performance bias, measurement bias, attrition bias and confounding. We will summarise the findings using a narrative approach to highlight similarities and differences between the gathered studies. Formal ethical approval is not required. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and knowledge translation strategy. CRD42014009685. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Lack of Quality Primary Health Services: The Problems of the Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel A.

    1978-01-01

    Major political and economic forces, which affect the provision of primary health services, particularly to underserved populations, are reviewed. Technological, professional, governmental, fiscal, and societal solutions are proposed. (GC)

  19. Breast Cancer Outreach for Underserved Women: A Randomized Trial and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pasick, Rena

    1999-01-01

    The current study, BACCIS-II, is a randomized controlled trial of an outreach intervention model designed to increase the rate of periodic mammography and clinical breast exam among underserved women...

  20. Designing for Underserved Populations: Constraints and Requirements of Personal Health Record Systems

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Thomas Horan discusses how language, literacy, and access barriers can be overcome with electronic Personal Health Record (PHR) systems to improve health among the most vulnerable, isolated, and underserved populations.

  1. Enrolling Underserved Women in mHealth Programs: Results From Text4baby Outreach Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushar, Jessica A; Fishman, Jodie; Garfinkel, Danielle; Pirretti, Amy

    2018-03-01

    Public health practitioners have increasingly leveraged technology-based communication to get health information into the hands of hard-to-reach populations; however, best practices for outreach and enrollment into mobile health (mHealth) programs are lacking. This article describes enrollment results from campaigns focused on enrolling underserved pregnant women and mothers in Text4baby-a free, mHealth service-to inform outreach strategies for mHealth programs. Text4baby participants receive health and safety information, interactive surveys, alerts, and appointment reminders through at least three weekly texts and a free app-timed to users' due date or babies' birth date. Text4baby worked with partners to implement national, state, and community-based enrollment campaigns. Descriptive statistics were used to compare baseline enrollment prior to a campaign with enrollment during a campaign to generate enrollment estimates. Enrollment rates were calculated for campaigns for which the number targeted/reached was available. National television campaigns resulted in more than 10,000 estimated enrollments. Campaigns that were integrated with an existing program and text-based recruitment had the highest enrollment rates, ranging from 7% to 24%. Facebook advertisements and traditional media targeting providers and consumers were least effective. mHealth programs should consider text-based recruitment and outreach via existing programs; additional research is needed on return on investment for different outreach strategies and on the effectiveness of different outreach strategies at reaching and enrolling specific target populations.

  2. Envisioning place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi; Glick Schiller, Nina

    2016-01-01

    together, the articles contribute to an emerging relational social science by approaching urban sociabilities through four interrelated parameters: (1) a concept of place-making situated within trajectories of differential and multiscalar power; (2) a discursive analysis of narratives and silences...

  3. Envisioning Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the traditional ‘cool’ representation of Greenland as a frozen landscape devoid of people and human structures is being challenged by an emerging vision of Greenland as ‘hot’. This article presents and describes these two versions of Greenland, showing how demarcations of what is ‘nature...

  4. Telemed: Ehealth applications applied to underserved areas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachpazidis, Ilias; Ohl, Roland; Binotto, Alecio Pedro Delazari; Torres, Marcio Soares; Messina, Luiz Ary; Sales, Alexandre; Gomes, Ricardo; Sakas, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    Access to medical care is sometimes very difficult to be reached from people living in rural and underserved areas. This problem is very well known in rural areas in Brazil. Citizens have no access to health care. They have to travel hundreds of kilometres to receive medical care. In this paper, we will propose a medical network based on state-of-the-art medical imaging application that addresses the problems of providing health care from a distance. Additionally, we are going to show preliminarily results of the first year of the system deployment and utilization in undeserved regions in Brazil. The total number of patients submitted to ultrasound examinations, during the 10 months of projects' medical trials, is 321. The exams have begun with the elderly people (hypertension and diabetes cases) with 90% above 50-years-old. Fifty-four percent were male and 46% were female. From those exams, 67 exams (21%) needed a second medical opinion and were transmitted to Santa Casa hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil, one of the referral medical centres. From those second opinions of Santa Casa, 12 exams had to be repeated since the acquired images were not sufficient to give a correct diagnosis. The Lagoa Tres Cantos medical doctor performed also preventive exams with patients who had not presented any symptoms (70%)

  5. Telemed: Ehealth applications applied to underserved areas in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachpazidis, Ilias [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Fraunhoferstr. 5, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: Ilias.Sachpazidis@igd.fraunhofer.de; Ohl, Roland [MedCom Gesellschaft fuer medizinische Bildverarbeitung mbH, Rundeturmstr. 12, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany); Binotto, Alecio Pedro Delazari [Centro de Excelencia em Tecnologias Avancadas Av. Assis Brasil, 8450, 91, 140-000 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Torres, Marcio Soares [Centro de Excelencia em Tecnologias Avancadas Av. Assis Brasil, 8450, 91, 140-000 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Messina, Luiz Ary [Messina Informatica e Comercio Ltda., Rua Castelo Branco 330, 29100-040 Praia da Costa, Vila Velha (Brazil); Sales, Alexandre [Fundacao de Apoio ao Hospital Universitario da UFES-Fahucam, Av. Marechal Campos 1355, 29042-715 Santos Dumont, Vitoria (Brazil); Gomes, Ricardo [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre Rua Prof. Annes Dias 285, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Sakas, Georgios [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Fraunhoferstr. 5, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-12-20

    Access to medical care is sometimes very difficult to be reached from people living in rural and underserved areas. This problem is very well known in rural areas in Brazil. Citizens have no access to health care. They have to travel hundreds of kilometres to receive medical care. In this paper, we will propose a medical network based on state-of-the-art medical imaging application that addresses the problems of providing health care from a distance. Additionally, we are going to show preliminarily results of the first year of the system deployment and utilization in undeserved regions in Brazil. The total number of patients submitted to ultrasound examinations, during the 10 months of projects' medical trials, is 321. The exams have begun with the elderly people (hypertension and diabetes cases) with 90% above 50-years-old. Fifty-four percent were male and 46% were female. From those exams, 67 exams (21%) needed a second medical opinion and were transmitted to Santa Casa hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil, one of the referral medical centres. From those second opinions of Santa Casa, 12 exams had to be repeated since the acquired images were not sufficient to give a correct diagnosis. The Lagoa Tres Cantos medical doctor performed also preventive exams with patients who had not presented any symptoms (70%)

  6. The ASSURE Summer REU Program: Introducing research to first-generation and underserved undergraduates through space sciences and engineering projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Darcy; Peticolas, Laura; Multiverse Team at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Lab

    2018-01-01

    The Advancing Space Science through Undergraduate Research Experience (ASSURE) summer REU program is an NSF-funded REU site at the Space Sciences Lab at UC Berkeley that first started in summer 2014. The program recruits students from all STEM majors, targeting underserved students including community college students and first-generation college students. The students have little or no research experience and a wide variety of academic backgrounds, but have a shared passion for space sciences and astronomy. We will describe our program's structure and the components we have found successful in preparing and supporting both the students and their research advisors for their summer research projects. This includes an intensive first week of introductory lectures and tutorials at the start of the program, preparing students for working in an academic research environment. The program also employs a multi-tiered mentoring system, with layers of support for the undergraduate student cohort, as well as graduate student and postdoctoral research advisors.

  7. Facilitating community information service for national development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many rural communities have continued to be underserved; hence, information becomes necessary in integrating the needs of the people for sustainable development. Librarians and libraries are charged with providing the information resources and outreaches to the communities to help build the bridge between the ...

  8. "We can see a future here": Place attachment, professional identity, and forms of capital mobilized to deliver medical education in an underserviced area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Neil; Halseth, Greg; Snadden, David

    2010-09-01

    Community-integrated undergraduate medical education is becoming a more common option for students predisposed to practice in rural and small town places. One such initiative, the Northern Medical Program, has been operating since 2004 in the northern interior of British Columbia, Canada. The NMP's curriculum relies heavily on the involvement of practicing physicians in its host community, Prince George. Drawing on Bourdieu's conceptualization of capital in its different forms, the commitment of the local physician community is understood as social capital derived from cultural capital centred on a collective sense of professional identity forged by conditions of practice in an underserviced area. The findings of this study are discussed with respect to the long-term operation and success of community-integrated medical education programs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new rapid immunohistochemical staining technique using the EnVision antibody complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmerer, U; Kapp, M; Gassel, A M; Richter, T; Tank, C; Dietl, J; Ruck, P

    2001-05-01

    Rapid immunohistochemical investigation, in addition to staining with hematoxylin and eosin, would be useful during intraoperative frozen section diagnosis in some cases. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the recently described EnVision system, a highly sensitive two-step immunohistochemical technique, could be modified for rapid immunostaining of frozen sections. Forty-five primary antibodies were tested on frozen sections from various different tissues. After fixation in acetone for 1 min and air-drying, the sections were incubated for 3 min each with the primary antibody, the EnVision complex (a large number of secondary antibodies and horseradish peroxidase coupled to a dextran backbone), and the chromogen (3,3'diaminobenzidine or 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole). All reactions were carried out at 37C. Specific staining was seen with 38 antibodies (including HMB-45 and antibodies against keratin, vimentin, leukocyte common antigen, smooth muscle actin, synaptophysin, CD34, CD3, CD20, and prostate-specific antigen). A modification of the EnVision method allows the detection of a broad spectrum of antigens in frozen sections in less than 13 min. This method could be a useful new tool in frozen section diagnosis and research. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:623-630, 2001)

  10. Differential access to digital communication technology: association with health and health survey recruitment within an African-American underserviced urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, John; Makelarski, Jennifer A; Van Haitsma, Martha; Lipton, Rebecca B; Abramsohn, Emily; Lauderdale, Diane S; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2011-06-01

    Digital communication technologies (DCT), such as cell phones and the internet, have begun to replace more traditional technologies even in technology-poor communities. We characterized access to DCT in an underserved urban population and whether access is associated with health and study participation. A general probability community sample and a purposive high-turnover housing sample were recruited and re-interviewed after 3 months. Selected characteristics were compared by sample type and retention. Associations between DCT access and self-reported health were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Of 363 eligible individuals, 184 (general community = 119; high-turnover housing = 65) completed the baseline survey. Eighty-four percent of respondents had a cell phone and 62% had ever texted. Ever use of the internet was high (69%) overall, but frequency and years of internet use were higher in the general community sample. Self-reported fair or poor health was more common for residents of cell phone-only households and those with less frequent internet use. Technology use was similar for those retained and not retained. Overall, access to DCT was high in this underserved urban population but varied by sample type. Health varied significantly by DCT use, but study retention did not. These data have implications for incorporating DCT into health-related research in urban populations.

  11. Community Broadband Networks and the Opportunity for E-Government Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2017-01-01

    Community Broadband Networks (CBN) facilitate Broadband connectivity in underserved areas in many countries. The lack of Broadband connectivity is one of the reasons for the slow diffusion of e-government services in many countries.This article explains how CBNs can be enabled by governments...... to facilitate the delivery of e–government services in underserved areas in the developed and developing countries.The Community Based Broadband Mobilization (CBNM) models are used as explanatory tools....

  12. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  13. Do spiritual patients want spiritual interventions?: A qualitative exploration of underserved cancer patients' perspectives on religion and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Emma M; Kolidas, Evelyn; Moadel, Alyson

    2015-02-01

    This study examines religion and spirituality among advanced cancer patients from an underserved, ethnically-diverse population by exploring patient conceptualizations of religion and spirituality, the role of religion and spirituality in coping with cancer, and patient interest in spiritual support. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients who had participated in a study of a "mind-body" support group for patients with all cancer types. Analysis based on grounded theory was utilized to identify themes and theoretical constructs. With regard to patient conceptualizations of religion and spirituality, three categories emerged: (1) Spirituality is intertwined with organized religion; (2) Religion is one manifestation of the broader construct of spirituality; (3) Religion and spirituality are completely independent, with spirituality being desirable and religion not. Religion and spirituality played a central role in patients' coping with cancer, providing comfort, hope, and meaning. Patients diverged when it came to spiritual support, with some enthusiastic about interventions incorporating their spiritual values and others stating that they already get this support through religious communities. Spirituality plays a central role in the cancer experience of this underserved ethnically-diverse population. While spirituality seems to be a universal concern in advanced cancer patients, the meaning of spirituality differs across individuals, with some equating it with organized religion and others taking a more individualized approach. It is important that psychosocial interventions are developed to address this concern. Future research is needed to further explore the different ways that patients conceptualize spirituality and to develop spiritually-based treatments that are not "one size fits all."

  14. Sustainable Communities: A Lens for Envisioning and Achieving a Community-Based Culture of Social and Ecological Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Frans C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the obstacles to dealing with the social and ecological crises that obstruct the achievement of a culture of peace is silo thinking in global governance. A unidimensional mode of planning, silo thinking leads to decisions based on the area of expertise of a particular agency or intergovernmental organization and fails to recognize linkages…

  15. Predictors of Willingness to Use a Smartphone for Research in Underserved Persons Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Cho, Hwayoung; Webel, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The burden of HIV/AIDS is borne disproportionally by a growing number of racial and ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals. Developing mHealth interventions for the everyday self-management needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH) can be challenging given the current constraints of the U.S. healthcare system, especially for those from underserved communities. In order to develop effective, evidence-based mHealth self-management interventions, we need a better understanding of the factors associated with mHealth research. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with PLWH's participation in research using smartphones. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study (parent study) to examine the relationships among HIV self-management, age, gender and mental wellness. Relevant to this study, we analyzed the relationship between self-reported use of smartphones, willingness to use a smartphone for research, and other predictor variables including: HIV stigma, social isolation, social integration functions, and depression. We selected these variables because previous work indicated they may influence smartphone or mHealth use and because they also tend to be elevated in PLWH. Results We found increased age, HIV stigma and social isolation were negatively associated with smartphone use, which supports the use of smartphones for conducting research with PLWH but also suggest that age, stigma, social integration functions and social isolation need to be considered in research involving PLWH. Conclusions Findings here support smartphone use in research involving PLWH. However, future mHealth interventions targeting PLWH should take into account the inverse relationship between smart phone use and age, HIV stigma, and social isolation, and other predictor variables PMID:28118922

  16. Individual Breast Cancer risk assessment in Underserved Populations: Integrating empirical Bioethics and Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily E.; Hoskins, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that individual breast cancer risk assessment may improve adherence to recommended screening and prevention guidelines, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Further research on the use of risk assessment models in underserved minority populations is critical to informing national public health efforts to eliminate breast cancer disparities. However, implementing individual breast cancer risk assessment in underserved patient populations raises particular ethical issues that require further examination. After reviewing these issues, we will discuss how empirical bioethics research can be integrated with health disparities research to inform the translation of research findings. Our in-progress National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded study, How Do Underserved Minority Women Think About Breast Cancer?, conducted in the context of a larger study on individual breast cancer risk assessment, is presented as a model. PMID:23124498

  17. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  18. Continuing interprofessional education in geriatrics and gerontology in medically underserved areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, John A; Ferguson, K Della; Sokal, Regina Davis

    2009-01-01

    There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a special opportunity in rural areas, particularly those designated as "medically underserved," for continuing interprofessional education as a vehicle for retaining health care professionals who tend to leave medically underserved areas for more lucrative professional opportunities elsewhere. In collaboration with the Consortium of New York Geriatric Education Centers, the Columbia-New York Geriatric Education Center at the Stroud Center of Columbia University has developed the Program for Outreach to Interprofessional Services and Education (POISE). The purpose of POISE is to develop, implement, evaluate, and sustain interprofessional education and training for health care learners, while emphasizing improved access to health services for the geriatric population in medically underserved areas. The POISE model was designed as an effective approach to teaching the core geriatrics and gerontology curriculum endorsed by the national (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) network of Geriatric Education Centers to health care learners in medically underserved areas of upstate New York. This article describes the adaptation and implementation of the POISE model.

  19. Increasing access to health workers in underserved areas: a conceptual framework for measuring results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, L.; Dieleman, M.; Campbell, J.; Codjia, L.; Balabanova, D.; Dussault, G.; Dolea, C.

    2010-01-01

    Many countries have developed strategies to attract and retain qualified health workers in underserved areas, but there is only scarce and weak evidence on their successes or failures. It is difficult to compare lessons and measure results from the few evaluations that are available. Evaluation

  20. Increasing access to health workers in underserved areas : a conceptual framework for measuring results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, Luis; Dieleman, Marjolein; Campbell, James; Codjia, Laurence; Balabanova, Dina; Dussault, Gilles; Dolea, Carmen

    Many countries have developed strategies to attract and retain qualified health workers in underserved areas, but there is only scarce and weak evidence on their successes or failures. It is difficult to compare lessons and measure results from the few evaluations that are available. Evaluation

  1. Promising Practices: A Literature Review of Technology Use by Underserved Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielezinski, Molly B.; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2016-01-01

    How can technologies and digital learning experiences be used to support underserved, under-resourced, and underprepared students? For many years, educators, researchers, and policy makers looking for strategies to close the achievement gap and improve student learning have sought solutions involving new uses of technology, especially for students…

  2. A Smart Partnership: Integrating Educational Technology for Underserved Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, Amina; Davis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the evolution of a large multi-stakeholder partnership that has grown since 2011 to scale deep engagement with learning through technology and decrease the digital divide for thousands of underserved school children in India. Using as its basis a case study of an initiative called integrated approach to technology in education…

  3. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  4. 77 FR 67433 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... comments. SUMMARY: The Community Advantage (``CA'') Pilot Program is a pilot program to increase SBA... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this Notice to extend the term... Pilot Program was introduced to increase the number of SBA-guaranteed loans made to small businesses in...

  5. Focus Cities : Improving the Living Environment in Underserved ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Papers. Urban Poverty and Environment Programme : Colombo; monitoring and evaluation component; monitoring findings as of December 2008 - April 2009; outcome mapping no. 2. 129292.pdf. Papers. Statistical handbook on baseline survey : part 1; data tables; (Focus City Programme : Community based Assessment ...

  6. AIDS Prevention for the Underserved Majority : the Choice Disabled ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Download PDF. Journal articles. Gender-specific patterns of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships : a national cross sectional survey in Botswana. Download PDF. Journal articles. Community views of inter-generational sex : findings from focus groups in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland. Download PDF. Journal articles.

  7. 76 FR 63846 - Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Cost Rural Communities; 10.861, Public Television Station Digital Transition Grant Program; 10.862... rule do not impose substantial unreimbursed direct compliance costs on Indian tribal, Alaska native, or native Hawaiian governments and sovereign institutions or have tribal implications that preempt tribal...

  8. VenSAR on EnVision: Taking earth observation radar to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, Richard C.; Hall, David; Mason, Philippa J.; Herrick, Robert R.; Carter, Lynn M.; Williams, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Venus should be the most Earth-like of all our planetary neighbours: its size, bulk composition and distance from the Sun are very similar to those of Earth. How and why did it all go wrong for Venus? What lessons can be learned about the life story of terrestrial planets in general, in this era of discovery of Earth-like exoplanets? Were the radically different evolutionary paths of Earth and Venus driven solely by distance from the Sun, or do internal dynamics, geological activity, volcanic outgassing and weathering also play an important part? EnVision is a proposed ESA Medium class mission designed to take Earth Observation technology to Venus to measure its current rate of geological activity, determine its geological history, and the origin and maintenance of its hostile atmosphere, to understand how Venus and Earth could have evolved so differently. EnVision will carry three instruments: the Venus Emission Mapper (VEM); the Subsurface Radar Sounder (SRS); and VenSAR, a world-leading European phased array synthetic aperture radar that is the subject of this article. VenSAR will obtain images at a range of spatial resolutions from 30 m regional coverage to 1 m images of selected areas; an improvement of two orders of magnitude on Magellan images; measure topography at 15 m resolution vertical and 60 m spatially from stereo and InSAR data; detect cm-scale change through differential InSAR, to characterise volcanic and tectonic activity, and estimate rates of weathering and surface alteration; and characterise of surface mechanical properties and weathering through multi-polar radar data. These data will be directly comparable with Earth Observation radar data, giving geoscientists unique access to an Earth-sized planet that has evolved on a radically different path to our own, offering new insights on the Earth-sized exoplanets across the galaxy.

  9. Morphological variability of the P-wave for premature envision of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Arturo; Alcaraz, Raul; Rieta, Jose J

    2014-01-01

    The present work introduces the first study on the P-wave morphological variability two hours preceding the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The development of non-invasive methods able to track P-wave alterations over time is a clinically relevant tool to anticipate as much as possible the envision of a new PAF episode. This information is essential for further improvement of preventive and patient-tailored treatment strategies, which could avert the loss of sinus rhythm. In this way, risks for the patients could be minimized and their quality of life improved. Recently, the P-wave morphological analysis is drawing increasing attention because differences in morphology can reflect different atrial activation patterns. Indeed, the P-wave morphology study has recently proved to be useful for determining the presence of an underlying pathophysiological condition in patients prone to atrial fibrillation. However, the P-wave morphology variability over time has not been studied yet. In this respect, the present work puts forward some parameters related to the P-wave shape and energy with the ability to quantify non-invasively the notable atrial conduction alterations preceding the onset of PAF. Results showed that P-wave fragmentation and area presented higher variability over time as the onset of PAF approximates. By properly combining these indices, an average global accuracy of 86.33% was achieved to discern between electrocardiogram segments from healthy subjects, far from a PAF episode and less than one hour close to a PAF episode. As a consequence, the P-wave morphology long-term analysis seems to be a useful tool for the non-invasive envision of PAF onset with a reasonable anticipation. Nonetheless, further research is required to corroborate this finding and to validate the capability of the proposed P-wave metrics in the earlier prediction of PAF onset.

  10. Morphological variability of the P-wave for premature envision of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Arturo; Alcaraz, Raul; Rieta, Jose J

    2014-01-01

    The present work introduces the first study on the P-wave morphological variability two hours preceding the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The development of non-invasive methods able to track P-wave alterations over time is a clinically relevant tool to anticipate as much as possible the envision of a new PAF episode. This information is essential for further improvement of preventive and patient-tailored treatment strategies, which could avert the loss of sinus rhythm. In this way, risks for the patients could be minimized and their quality of life improved. Recently, the P-wave morphological analysis is drawing increasing attention because differences in morphology can reflect different atrial activation patterns. Indeed, the P-wave morphology study has recently proved to be useful for determining the presence of an underlying pathophysiological condition in patients prone to atrial fibrillation. However, the P-wave morphology variability over time has not been studied yet. In this respect, the present work puts forward some parameters related to the P-wave shape and energy with the ability to quantify non-invasively the notable atrial conduction alterations preceding the onset of PAF. Results showed that P-wave fragmentation and area presented higher variability over time as the onset of PAF approximates. By properly combining these indices, an average global accuracy of 86.33% was achieved to discern between electrocardiogram segments from healthy subjects, far from a PAF episode and less than one hour close to a PAF episode. As a consequence, the P-wave morphology long-term analysis seems to be a useful tool for the non-invasive envision of PAF onset with a reasonable anticipation. Nonetheless, further research is required to corroborate this finding and to validate the capability of the proposed P-wave metrics in the earlier prediction of PAF onset. (paper)

  11. Envisioning Women-Centered HIV Care: Perspectives from Women Living with HIV in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nadia; Greene, Saara; Carter, Allison; Lewis, Johanna; Nicholson, Valerie; Kwaramba, Gladys; Ménard, Brigitte; Kaufman, Elaina; Ennabil, Nourane; Andersson, Neil; Loutfy, Mona; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Kaida, Angela

    Women comprise nearly one-quarter of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Canada. Compared with men, women living with HIV experience inequities in HIV care and health outcomes, prompting a need for gendered and tailored approaches to HIV care. Peer and academic researchers from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study conducted focus groups to understand women's experience of seeking care, with the purpose of identifying key characteristics that define a women-centered approach to HIV care. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77 women living with HIV across Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia, Canada. Women envisioned three central characteristics of women-centered HIV care, including i) coordinated and integrated services that address both HIV and women's health care priorities, and protect against exclusion from care due to HIV-related stigma, ii) care that recognizes and responds to structural barriers that limit women's access to care, such as violence, poverty, motherhood, HIV-related stigma, and challenges to safe disclosure, and iii) care that fosters peer support and peer leadership in its design and delivery to honor the diversity of women's experiences, overcome women's isolation, and prioritize women's ownership over the decisions that affect their lives. Despite advances in HIV treatment and care, the current care landscape is inadequate to meet women's comprehensive care needs. A women-centered approach to HIV care, as envisioned by women living with HIV, is central to guiding policy and practice to improve care and outcomes for women living with HIV in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Education and training in medical imaging for conventional and particle radiation therapy through the EC funded envision and entervision

    CERN Document Server

    Cirilli, M

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in particle therapy today is quality assurance during treatment, which needs advanced medical imaging techniques. This issue is tackled by the EC funded project ENVISION, an R\\&D consortium of sixteen leading European research centres and one industrial partner, co-ordinated by CERN. ENVISION covers developments in Time Of Flight in-beam PET, in-beam single particle tomography, organ motion monitoring techniques, simulation, and treatment planning. Additionally, ENVISION serves as a training platform for the ENTERVISION project, a Marie-Curie Initial Training Network aimed at educating young researchers in online 3D digital imaging for hadron therapy. ENTERVISION brings together ten academic institutes and research centres of excellence and a leading European company in particle therapy, and is coordinated by CERN. Its multi-disciplinary training programme of ENTERVISION includes a diversified portfolio of scientific courses, complemented by specific courses aimed at developing soft skills...

  13. A national study on nurses' retention in healthcare facilities in underserved areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Jamal, Diana; Dimassi, Hani; Dumit, Nuhad Y; McEwen, Mary K; Jaafar, Maha; Murray, Susan F

    2013-09-30

    Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student's t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses' characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses' intent to stay in underserved areas. A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P job satisfaction and their intent to stay. This study reveals poor retention of nurses in rural and underserved

  14. Envisioning a Future Governance and Funding System for Undergraduate and Graduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey P; Stimpson, Jim P; Caverzagie, Kelly J

    2015-09-01

    Funding for graduate medical education (GME) and undergraduate medical education (UME) in the United States is being debated and challenged at the national and state levels as policy makers and educators question whether the multibillion dollar investment in medical education is succeeding in meeting the nation's health care needs. To address these concerns, the authors propose a novel all-payer system for GME and UME funding that equitably distributes medical education costs among all stakeholders, including those who benefit most from medical education. Through a "Medical Education Workforce (MEW) trust fund," indirect and direct GME dollars would be replaced with a funds-flow mechanism using fees paid for services by all payers (Medicaid, Medicare, private insurers, others) while providing direct compensation to physicians and institutions that actively engage medical learners in providing clinical care. The accountability of those receiving MEW funds would be improved by linking their funding levels to their ability to meet predetermined institutional, program, faculty, and learner benchmarks. Additionally, the MEW fund would cover learners' UME tuition, potentially eliminating their UME debt, in return for their provision of health care services (after completing GME training) in an underserved area or specialty. This proposed model attempts to increase transparency and enhance accountability in medical education by linking funding to the development of a physician workforce that is able to excel in the evolving health delivery system. Achieving this vision requires physician educators, leaders of academic health centers, policy makers, insurers, and patients to muster the courage to embrace transformational change.

  15. Forging University-Community Collaboration: The Agency Perspective on National Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Carol H.

    1994-01-01

    With passage of the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993, national service volunteers will be joining forces with community-based organizations to work with underserved populations, creating many challenges. The community agency perspective on some anticipated challenges, possible responses, and application of principles of good…

  16. Financial incentives for return of service in underserved areas: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many geographic regions, both in developing and in developed countries, the number of health workers is insufficient to achieve population health goals. Financial incentives for return of service are intended to alleviate health worker shortages: A (future health worker enters into a contract to work for a number of years in an underserved area in exchange for a financial pay-off. Methods We carried out systematic literature searches of PubMed, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database for studies evaluating outcomes of financial-incentive programs published up to February 2009. To identify articles for review, we combined three search themes (health workers or students, underserved areas, and financial incentives. In the initial search, we identified 10,495 unique articles, 10,302 of which were excluded based on their titles or abstracts. We conducted full-text reviews of the remaining 193 articles and of 26 additional articles identified in reference lists or by colleagues. Forty-three articles were included in the final review. We extracted from these articles information on the financial-incentive programs (name, location, period of operation, objectives, target groups, definition of underserved area, financial incentives and obligation and information on the individual studies (authors, publication dates, types of study outcomes, study design, sample criteria and sample size, data sources, outcome measures and study findings, conclusions, and methodological limitations. We reviewed program results (descriptions of recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction, program effects (effectiveness in influencing health workers to provide care, to remain, and to be satisfied with work and personal life in underserved areas, and program impacts (effectiveness in influencing health systems and health outcomes

  17. Assessing internet access and use in a medically underserved population: implications for providing enhanced health information services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Lisl; Dalrymple, Prudence W; Rogers, Michelle L; Williver-Farr, Heather

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between health information seeking, patient engagement and health literacy is not well understood. This is especially true in medically underserved populations, which are often viewed as having limited access to health information. To improve communication between an urban health centre and the community it serves, a team of library and information science researchers undertook an assessment of patients' level and methods of access to and use of the Internet. Data were collected in 53 face-to-face anonymous interviews with patients at the centre. Interviews were tape-recorded for referential accuracy, and data were analysed to identify patterns of access and use. Seventy-two percentage of study participants reported having access to the Internet through either computers or cell phones. Barriers to Internet access were predominantly lack of equipment or training rather than lack of interest. Only 21% of those with Internet access reported using the Internet to look for health information. The findings suggest that lack of access to the Internet in itself is not the primary barrier to seeking health information in this population and that the digital divide exists not at the level of information access but rather at the level of information use. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  18. Meeting the Needs of Underserved Patients in Western Kenya by Creating the Next Generation of Global Health Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Monica L; Karwa, Rakhi; Schellhase, Ellen M; Pastakia, Sonak D; Crowe, Susie; Manji, Imran; Jakait, Beatrice; Maina, Mercy

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To describe a novel training model used to create a sustainable public health-focused pharmacy residency based in Kenya and to describe the outcomes of this training program on underserved populations. Design. The postgraduate year 2 residency was designed to expose trainees to the unique public health facets of inpatient, outpatient, and community-based care delivery in low and middle-income countries. Public health areas of focus included supply chain management, reproductive health, pediatrics, HIV, chronic disease management, and teaching. Assessment. The outcomes of the residency were assessed based on the number of new clinical programs developed by residents, articles and abstracts written by residents, and resident participation in grant writing. To date, six residents from the United States and eight Kenyan residents have completed the residency. Eleven sustainable patient care services have been implemented as a result of the residency program. Conclusion. This pharmacy residency training model developed accomplished pharmacists in public health pharmacy, with each residency class expanding funding and clinical programming, contributing to curriculum development, and creating jobs.

  19. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. Method: The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. Results: The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. Implications: The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations. PMID:16239960

  20. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations.

  1. Effects of dance on depression, physical function, and disability in underserved adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Graor, Christine Heifner

    2014-07-01

    This study documented the feasibility and immediate effects of a dance intervention two times per week for 12 weeks on depression, physical function, and disability in older, underserved adults. The one-group, pretest-posttest study had a convenience sample of 40 participants recruited from a federally subsidized apartment complex located in an economically depressed, inner-city neighborhood. Depression, physical function, and disability were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Average age was 63 years (SD = 7.9), 92% were female, and 75% were African American. At baseline, participants reported increased depression (M = 20.0, SD = 12.4), decreased physical function (M = 56.6, SD = 10.9), and increased disability limitations (M = 65.7, SD = 14.9). At posttest, paired t tests showed that the dance intervention significantly decreased depression, t = 6.11, p dance intervention may be an effective adjunct therapy to improve depression, disability, and physical function in underserved adults.

  2. The challenges of working in underserved areas: a qualitative exploratory study of views of policy makers and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda F; El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Iblasi, Abdulkareem S; Murray, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    The inadequate number of health care providers, particularly nurses, in underserved areas is one of the biggest challenges for health policymakers. There is a scarcity of research in Jordan about factors that affect nurse staffing and retention in underserved areas. To elucidate the views of staff nurses working in underserved areas, directors of health facilities in underserved areas and key informants from the policy and education arena on issues of staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. An exploratory study using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was utilized to elucidate the views of 22 key informants from the policy and education arena, 11 directors of health centers, and 19 staff nurses on issues that contribute to low staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. The five stage 'framework approach' proposed by Bryman et al. (1993) was utilized for data analysis. Nursing shortage in underserved areas in Jordan are exacerbated by a lack of financial incentives, poor transportation and remoteness of these areas, bad working conditions, and lack of health education institutions in these areas, as well as by opportunities for internal and external migration. Young Jordanian male nurses usually grab any opportunity to migrate and work outside the country to improve their financial conditions; whereas, female nurses are more restricted and not encouraged to travel abroad to work. Several strategies are suggested to enhance retention in these areas, such as promoting financial incentives for staff to work there, enhancing the transportation system, and promoting continuous and academic education. Nurses' administrators and health care policy makers could utilize the findings of the present study to design and implement comprehensive interventions to enhance retention of staff in underserved areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reaching Non-Traditional and Under-Served Communities through Global Astronomy Month Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Global Astronomy Month (GAM), organized each year by Astronomers Without Borders (AWB), has become the world's largest annual celebration of astronomy. Launched as a follow-up to the unprecedented success of the 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009, GAM quickly attracted not only traditional partners in astronomy and space science outreach, but also unusual partners from very different fields. GAM's third annual edition, GAM2012, included worldwide programs for the sight-impaired, astronomy in the arts, and other non-traditional programs. The special planetarium program, OPTICKS, combined elements such as Moonbounce (sending images to the Moon and back) and artistic elements in a unique presentation of the heavens. Programs were developed to present the heavens to the sight-impaired as well. The Cosmic Concert, in which a new musical piece is composed each year, combined with background images of celestial objects, and presented during GAM, has become an annual event. Several astronomy themed art video projects were presented online. AWB's Astropoetry Blog held a very successful contest during GAM2012 that attracted more than 70 entries from 17 countries. Students were engaged by participation in special GAM campaigns of the International Asteroid Search Campaign. AWB and GAM have both developed into platforms where innovative programs can develop, and interdisciplinary collaborations can flourish. As AWB's largest program, GAM brings the audience and resources that provide a boost for these new types of programs. Examples, lessons learned, new projects, and plans for the future of AWB and GAM will be presented.

  4. Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Underserved Communities: Early Childcare Providers as Reporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Yvette M.; Harris, Jill F.; Coffield, Caroline N.; Louis, Barbara; Xie, Ming; Cidav, Zuleyha; Mandell, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of autism typically is associated with earlier access to intervention and improved outcomes. Daycares and preschools largely have been ignored as possible venues for early identification. This may be especially important for minority children in the United States who are typically diagnosed with autism later than White children,…

  5. VIVA LA SALUD INFANTILE: Pediatric obesity treatment in an underserved Hispanic community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric obesity in the US disproportionately impacts minority populations who face socioeconomic and cultural barriers to weight management programs. The specific aim of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of diet behavior modification or diet behavior modification plus structured aerob...

  6. Personal values of family physicians, practice satisfaction, and service to the underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, B C; Guse, C; Gottlieb, M S

    2000-03-01

    Personal values are defined as "desirable goals varying in importance that serve as guiding principles in people's lives," and have been shown to influence specialty choice and relate to practice satisfaction. We wished to examine further the relationship of personal values to practice satisfaction and also to a physician's willingness to care for the underserved. We also wished to study associations that might exist among personal values, practice satisfaction, and a variety of practice characteristics. We randomly surveyed a stratified probability sample of 1224 practicing family physicians about their personal values (using the Schwartz values questionnaire), practice satisfaction, practice location, breadth of practice, demographics, board certification status, teaching involvement, and the payor mix of the practice. Family physicians rated the benevolence (motivation to help those close to you) value type highest, and the ratings of the benevolence value type were positively associated with practice satisfaction (correlation coefficient = 0.14, P = .002). Those involved in teaching medical trainees were more satisfied than those who were not involved (P = .009). Some value-type ratings were found to be positively associated with caring for the underserved. Those whose practices consisted of more than 40% underserved (underserved defined as Medicare, Medicaid, and indigent populations) rated the tradition (motivation to maintain customs of traditional culture and religion) value type significantly higher (P = .02). Those whose practices consisted of more than 30% indigent care rated the universalism (motivation to enhance and protect the well-being of all people) value type significantly higher (P = .03). Family physicians who viewed benevolence as a guiding principle in their lives reported a higher level of professional satisfaction. Likewise, physicians involved in the teaching of medical trainees were more satisfied with their profession. Family physicians

  7. Designing for Underserved Populations: Constraints and Requirements of Personal Health Record Systems

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-02-11

    In this podcast, Dr. Thomas Horan discusses how language, literacy, and access barriers can be overcome with electronic Personal Health Record (PHR) systems to improve health among the most vulnerable, isolated, and underserved populations.  Created: 2/11/2009 by Coordinating Center for Health Information Service (CCHIS), Healthy Healthcare Settings Goal Team, Office of Strategy and Innovation.   Date Released: 9/2/2009.

  8. Workplace physical violence among hospital nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuAlRub, Raeda Fawzi; Al Khawaldeh, Abdullah Talal

    2014-07-01

    To: (1) examine the incidence, frequency and contributing factors to workplace violence among nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan, and (2) identify the existing policies and the management modalities to tackle workplace violence. Workplace violence is a major problem in healthcare organisations. An understanding of the nature of violence is essential to implementing successful management. A descriptive exploratory research design. The questionnaire that was developed in 2003 by the International Labor Office, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 521 Jordanian physicians and nurses (396 nurses, 125 physicians) who worked in hospitals located in underserved areas. Around 15% of the participants were exposed to physical violence. The factors that contributed to workplace violence were related to absence of policies, inadequate staffing and lack of communication skills. Only 16·9% of participants indicated that there were specific policies available for dealing with physical workplace violence. Strengthening security and providing training were some of the important factors indicated by participants for decreasing violence in the workplace. Workplace violence is a problem in underserved areas that needs attention from administrators. Most participants were very dissatisfied with the way the administrators dealt with the incidents. Instituting firm policies against perpetrators and developing protective violence guidelines to support healthcare staff in managing workplace violence are paramount to tackle the problem of workplace violence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Exploring How Secondary Pre-Service Teachers' Use Online Social Bookmarking to Envision Literacy in the Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Jamie; Gregory, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    This study considers how pre-service teachers envision disciplinary literacy through an online social bookmarking project. Thirty secondary pre-service teachers participated in the project through an undergraduate literacy course. Online bookmarks and post-project reflections were collected and analyzed using a constant comparative approach to…

  10. Making Decisions: Using Electronic Data Collection to Re-Envision Reference Services at the USF Tampa Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorinova, Lily; Huse, Andy; Lewis, Barbara; Torrence, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Declining reference statistics, diminishing human resources, and the desire to be more proactive and embedded in academic departments, prompted the University of South Florida Library to create a taskforce for re-envisioning reference services. The taskforce was charged with examining the staffing patterns at the desk and developing…

  11. A psychosocial approach to dentistry for the underserved: incorporating theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaer, Paul J; Younis, Mustafa Z; Benjamin, Paul L; Al Hajeri, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Dentistry for the underserved is more than an egalitarian social issue--it is a key factor in the health and social progress of our nation. The first signs or manifestations of several diseases such as varicella (i.e., chicken pox and shingles), STDs, and influenza become apparent in the oral cavity. The value of access to quality dentistry is an immeasurable factor in maintaining general medical health of people and fulfilling their psychosocial needs of pain reduction and enhanced cosmetics. In the United States, for the most part, only the middle and upper classes receive non-extraction, restorative, and prosthetic dentistry that is economically within their ability to pay. In addition, uninsured and poverty-level individuals often must face overwhelming long waiting lists, unnecessary referrals, lack of choice, and bureaucratic hurdles when seeking primary dental care. Therefore, it seems pertinent to put forth the question: What are the critical values and beliefs of psychosocial theory that can underscore the practice of dentistry for underserved populations in the United States? The widely employed public health theory, the health belief model (HBM), is applied to evaluate psychosocial factors in dental care for the underserved. The HBM is used to predict and explain behavioral changes in dental health and associated belief patterns. The HBM as applied to dentistry for the underserved predicts self-perceptions of susceptibility and seriousness of dental disease, health status, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, patients can make judgments about benefits, costs, and risks of dental treatment. A theoretical approach to dentistry employing the HBM, mediated by values and culture, can provide significant insights into patient thinking, beliefs, and perceptions. These insights can mediate access to and use of primary care dental services by underserved populations. Evidence-based practice (i.e., based on research using the scientific method) has been

  12. Beyond Blackboards: Engaging Underserved Middle School Students in Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Sarah; Judy, Justina; Muller, Chandra; Crawford, Richard H; Petrosino, Anthony J; White, Christina K; Lin, Fu-An; Wood, Kristin L

    Beyond Blackboards is an inquiry-centered, after-school program designed to enhance middle school students' engagement with engineering through design-based experiences focused on the 21 st Century Engineering Challenges. Set within a predominantly low-income, majority-minority community, our study aims to investigate the impact of Beyond Blackboards on students' interest in and understanding of engineering, as well as their ability to align their educational and career plans. We compare participants' and nonparticipants' questionnaire responses before the implementation and at the end of the program's first academic year. Statistically significant findings indicate a school-wide increase in students' interest in engineering careers, supporting a shift in school culture. However, only program participants showed increased enjoyment of design-based strategies, understanding of what engineers do, and awareness of the steps for preparing for an engineering career. These quantitative findings are supported by qualitative evidence from participant focus groups highlighting the importance of mentors in shaping students' awareness of opportunities within engineering.

  13. A novel orbiter mission concept for venus with the EnVision proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marta R. R.; Gil, Paulo J. S.; Ghail, Richard

    2018-07-01

    In space exploration, planetary orbiter missions are essential to gain insight into planets as a whole, and to help uncover unanswered scientific questions. In particular, the planets closest to the Earth have been a privileged target of the world's leading space agencies. EnVision is a mission proposal designed for Venus and competing for ESA's next launch opportunity with the objective of studying Earth's closest neighbor. The main goal is to study geological and atmospheric processes, namely surface processes, interior dynamics and atmosphere, to determine the reasons behind Venus and Earth's radically different evolution despite the planets' similarities. To achieve these goals, the operational orbit selection is a fundamental element of the mission design process. The design of an orbit around Venus faces specific challenges, such as the impossibility of choosing Sun-synchronous orbits. In this paper, an innovative genetic algorithm optimization was applied to select the optimal orbit based on the parameters with more influence in the mission planning, in particular the mission duration and the coverage of sites of interest on the Venusian surface. The solution obtained is a near-polar circular orbit with an altitude of 259 km that enables the coverage of all priority targets almost two times faster than with the parameters considered before this study.

  14. Using a Historical Lens to Envision the Next Generation of Genomic Translation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Abrams, Leah R; Koehly, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed successive and exponential advances in genomic discovery and technology, with a broad scientific imperative pushing for continual advancements. The most consistent critique of these advances is that they have vastly outpaced translation of new knowledge into improvements in public health and medicine. We employ a historical and epistemological analysis to characterize how prevailing scientific meta-narratives have shaped the pace and priorities of research applying genomics to health promotion. We use four 'pivotal events' - the genetic characterization of Down syndrome, the launch of the Human Genome Research Project, the discovery of BRCA1, and the emergence of direct-to- consumer genetic testing - to illustrate how these scientific meta-narratives have inhibited genomic translation research. The notion that discovery should precede translation research has over-focused translation research on the latest genetic testing platform. The idea that genetic-related research has an exceptional potential for public harm has encouraged research on worst case scenarios. The perceived competition between genetics and social determinants of health has discouraged a unified research agenda to move genomic translation forward. We make a case for creating new scientific meta-narratives in which discovery and translation research agendas are envisioned as an interdependent enterprise. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Modelling and simulation of complex sociotechnical systems: envisioning and analysing work environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Kirlik, Alex; Goh, Yang Miang; Buckle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Accurate comprehension and analysis of complex sociotechnical systems is a daunting task. Empirically examining, or simply envisioning the structure and behaviour of such systems challenges traditional analytic and experimental approaches as well as our everyday cognitive capabilities. Computer-based models and simulations afford potentially useful means of accomplishing sociotechnical system design and analysis objectives. From a design perspective, they can provide a basis for a common mental model among stakeholders, thereby facilitating accurate comprehension of factors impacting system performance and potential effects of system modifications. From a research perspective, models and simulations afford the means to study aspects of sociotechnical system design and operation, including the potential impact of modifications to structural and dynamic system properties, in ways not feasible with traditional experimental approaches. This paper describes issues involved in the design and use of such models and simulations and describes a proposed path forward to their development and implementation. Practitioner Summary: The size and complexity of real-world sociotechnical systems can present significant barriers to their design, comprehension and empirical analysis. This article describes the potential advantages of computer-based models and simulations for understanding factors that impact sociotechnical system design and operation, particularly with respect to process and occupational safety. PMID:25761227

  16. The shanai, the pseudosphere and other imaginings: envisioning culturally contextualised mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Bal Chandra; Taylor, Peter Charles

    2007-07-01

    Adopting a self-conscious form of co-generative writing and employing a bricolage of visual images and literary genres we draw on a recent critical auto/ethnographic inquiry to engage our readers in pedagogical thoughtfulness about the problem of culturally decontextualised mathematics education in Nepal, a country rich in cultural and linguistic diversity. Combining transformative, critical mathematics and ethnomathematical perspectives we develop a critical cultural perspective on the need for a culturally contextualized mathematics education that enables Nepalese students to develop (rather than abandon) their cultural capital. We illustrate this perspective by means of an ethnodrama which portrays a pre-service teacher's point of view of the universalist pedagogy of Dr. Euclid, a semi-fictive professor of undergraduate mathematics. We deconstruct the naivety of this conventional Western mathematics pedagogy arguing that it fails to incorporate salient aspects of Nepali culture. Subsequently we employ metaphorical imagining to envision a culturally inclusive mathematics education for enabling Nepalese teachers to (i) excavate multiple mathematical knowledge systems embedded in the daily practices of rural and remote villages across the country, and (ii) develop contextualized pedagogical perspectives to serve the diverse interests and aspirations of Nepali school children.

  17. Clinical medical education in rural and underserved areas and eventual practice outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Guilbault, Ryan William; Vinson, Joseph Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate medical students are enrolled in clinical education programs in rural and underserved urban areas to increase the likelihood that they will eventually practice in those areas and train in a primary care specialty to best serve those patient populations. MEDLINE and Cochrane Library online databases were searched to identify articles that provide a detailed description of the exposure and outcome of interest. A qualitative review of articles reporting outcome data without comparison or control groups was completed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). A meta-analysis of articles reporting outcome data with comparison or control groups was completed with statistical and graphical summary estimates. Seven hundred and nine articles were retrieved from the initial search and reviewed based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of those, ten articles were identified for qualitative analysis and five articles included control groups and thus were included in the quantitative analysis. Results indicated that medical students with clinical training in underserved areas are almost three times as likely to practice in underserved areas than students who do not train in those areas (relative risk [RR] = 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.17, 4.00). Furthermore, medical students training in underserved areas are about four times as likely to practice primary care in underserved areas than students who do not train in those locations (RR = 4.35; 95% CI: 1.56, 12.10). These estimates may help guide medical school administrators and policymakers to expand underserved clinical training programs to help relieve some of the problems associated with access to medical care among underserved populations.

  18. Envisioning New Technologies in Teacher Practice: Moving Forward, Circling Back Using a Teacher Action Research Approach. New Literacies and Digital Epistemologies. Volume 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong-Wilson, Teresa, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    How do classroom teachers envision new technologies within their practice? In the conversation on incorporating new technologies into classrooms, teachers are often sidelined. "Envisioning New Technologies in Teacher Practice" looks at the complex ways in which teachers move forward to embrace change as well as how they circle back, continually…

  19. An Exploratory Assessment of the Validity of the Community College Survey of Men (CCSM): Implications for Serving Veteran Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Thomas; Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2015-01-01

    The Community College Survey of Men (CCSM) assesses predictors of student success for historically underrepresented and underserved men in community colleges. The instrument is designed to inform programming and service-delivery for male students (Wood & Harris, 2013). While the instrument was designed for community college men in general,…

  20. Mobile and portable dental services catering to the basic oral health needs of the underserved population in developing countries: a proposed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganavadiya, R; Chandrashekar, Br; Goel, P; Hongal, Sg; Jain, M

    2014-05-01

    India is the second most populous country in the world with an extensive rural population (68.8%). Children less than 18 years constitute about 40% of the population. Approximately, 23.5% of the urban population resides in urban slums. The extensive rural population, school children and the urban slum dwellers are denied of even the basic dental services though there is continuous advancement in the field of dentistry. The dentist to population ratio has dramatically improved in the last one to two decades with no significant improvement in the oral health status of the general population. The various studies have revealed an increasing trend in oral diseases in the recent times especially among this underserved population. Alternate strategies have to be thought about rather than the traditional oral health-care delivery through private dentists on fee for service basis. Mobile and portable dental services are a viable option to take the sophisticated oral health services to the doorsteps of the underserved population. The databases were searched for publications from 1900 to the present (2013) using terms such as Mobile dental services, Portable dental services and Mobile and portable dental services with key articles obtained primarily from MEDLINE. This paper reviews the published and unpublished literature from different sources on the various mobile dental service programs successfully implemented in some developed and developing countries. Though the mobile and portable systems have some practical difficulties like financial considerations, they still seem to be the only way to reach every section of the community in the absence of national oral health policy and organized school dental health programs in India. The material for the present review was obtained mainly by searching the biomedical databases for primary research material using the search engine with key words such as mobile and/or portable dental services in developed and developing countries

  1. Mobile and Portable Dental Services Catering to the Basic Oral Health Needs of the Underserved Population in Developing Countries: A Proposed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganavadiya, R; Chandrashekar, BR; Goel, P; Hongal, SG; Jain, M

    2014-01-01

    India is the second most populous country in the world with an extensive rural population (68.8%). Children less than 18 years constitute about 40% of the population. Approximately, 23.5% of the urban population resides in urban slums. The extensive rural population, school children and the urban slum dwellers are denied of even the basic dental services though there is continuous advancement in the field of dentistry. The dentist to population ratio has dramatically improved in the last one to two decades with no significant improvement in the oral health status of the general population. The various studies have revealed an increasing trend in oral diseases in the recent times especially among this underserved population. Alternate strategies have to be thought about rather than the traditional oral health-care delivery through private dentists on fee for service basis. Mobile and portable dental services are a viable option to take the sophisticated oral health services to the doorsteps of the underserved population. The databases were searched for publications from 1900 to the present (2013) using terms such as Mobile dental services, Portable dental services and Mobile and portable dental services with key articles obtained primarily from MEDLINE. This paper reviews the published and unpublished literature from different sources on the various mobile dental service programs successfully implemented in some developed and developing countries. Though the mobile and portable systems have some practical difficulties like financial considerations, they still seem to be the only way to reach every section of the community in the absence of national oral health policy and organized school dental health programs in India. The material for the present review was obtained mainly by searching the biomedical databases for primary research material using the search engine with key words such as mobile and/or portable dental services in developed and developing countries

  2. Teaching, Learning, and Leading with Schools and Communities: One Urban University Re-Envisions Teacher Preparation for the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ann Marie; Ensminger, David C.; Heineke, Amy J.; Kennedy, Adam S.; Prasse, David P; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    Ultimately, the national goals of improving learning outcomes for all students and reducing, if not eliminating, the achievement gap require a teaching corps that brings knowledge and professional competencies to have positive impacts on diverse learners in diverse settings (Gándara & Maxwell-Jolly, 2006). As central actors in schools,…

  3. What Goes Around: the process of building a community-based harm reduction research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloh, Chelsea; Illsley, Shohan; Wylie, John; Migliardi, Paula; West, Ethan; Stewart, Debbie; Mignone, Javier

    2017-11-16

    Often, research takes place on underserved populations rather than with underserved populations. This approach can further isolate and stigmatize groups that are already made marginalized. What Goes Around is a community-based research project that was led by community members themselves (Peers). This research aimed to implement a community-based research methodology grounded in the leadership and growing research capacity of community researchers and to investigate a topic which community members identified as important and meaningful. Chosen by community members, this project explored how safer sex and safer drug use information is shared informally among Peers. Seventeen community members actively engaged as both community researchers and research participants throughout all facets of the project: inception, implementation, analysis, and dissemination of results. Effective collaboration between community researchers, a community organization, and academics facilitated a research process in which community members actively guided the project from beginning to end. The methods used in What Goes Around demonstrated that it is not only possible, but advantageous, to draw from community members' involvement and direction in all stages of a community-based research project. This is particularly important when working with a historically underserved population. Purposeful and regular communication among collaborators, ongoing capacity building, and a commitment to respect the experience and expertise of community members were essential to the project's success. This project demonstrated that community members are highly invested in both informally sharing information about safer sex and safer drug use and taking leadership roles in directing research that prioritizes harm reduction in their communities.

  4. A randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of an interactive mobile messaging intervention for underserved smokers: Project ACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J; Fletcher, Faith E; Danysh, Heather E; Marani, Salma; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cantor, Scott B; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2012-08-25

    Despite a significant decrease in smoking prevalence over the past ten years, cigarette smoking still represents the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Moreover, smoking prevalence is significantly higher among those with low levels of education and those living at, or below, the poverty level. These groups tend to be confronted with significant barriers to utilizing more traditional smoking cessation intervention approaches. The purpose of the study, Project ACTION (Adult smoking Cessation Treatment through Innovative Outreach to Neighborhoods), is to utilize a mobile clinic model, a network of community sites (i.e., community centers and churches) and an interactive mobile messaging system to reach and deliver smoking cessation treatment to underserved, low-income communities. We are using a group-randomized design, with the community site as the sampling unit, to compare the efficacy of three smoking cessation interventions: 1) Standard Care--brief advice to quit smoking, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and self-help materials; 2) Enhanced Care--standard care components plus a cell phone-delivered text/graphical messaging component; and 3) Intensive Care--enhanced care components plus a series of 11 cell phone-delivered proactive counseling sessions. An economic evaluation will also be performed to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of the three treatment approaches. We will recruit 756 participants (252 participants in each of the 3 intervention groups). At the time of randomization, participants complete a baseline assessment, consisting of smoking history, socio-demographic, and psychosocial variables. Monthly cell phone assessments are conducted for 6 months-post enrollment, and a final 12-month follow-up is conducted at the original neighborhood site of enrollment. We will perform mixed-model logistic regression to compare the efficacy of the three smoking cessation intervention treatment groups. It is

  5. A randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of an interactive mobile messaging intervention for underserved smokers: Project ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidrine Damon J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a significant decrease in smoking prevalence over the past ten years, cigarette smoking still represents the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Moreover, smoking prevalence is significantly higher among those with low levels of education and those living at, or below, the poverty level. These groups tend to be confronted with significant barriers to utilizing more traditional smoking cessation intervention approaches. The purpose of the study, Project ACTION (Adult smoking Cessation Treatment through Innovative Outreach to Neighborhoods, is to utilize a mobile clinic model, a network of community sites (i.e., community centers and churches and an interactive mobile messaging system to reach and deliver smoking cessation treatment to underserved, low-income communities. Methods/Design We are using a group-randomized design, with the community site as the sampling unit, to compare the efficacy of three smoking cessation interventions: 1 Standard Care - brief advice to quit smoking, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, and self-help materials; 2 Enhanced Care - standard care components plus a cell phone-delivered text/graphical messaging component; and 3 Intensive Care - enhanced care components plus a series of 11 cell phone-delivered proactive counseling sessions. An economic evaluation will also be performed to evaluate the relative cost effectiveness of the three treatment approaches. We will recruit 756 participants (252 participants in each of the 3 intervention groups. At the time of randomization, participants complete a baseline assessment, consisting of smoking history, socio-demographic, and psychosocial variables. Monthly cell phone assessments are conducted for 6 months-post enrollment, and a final 12-month follow-up is conducted at the original neighborhood site of enrollment. We will perform mixed-model logistic regression to compare the efficacy of the three smoking

  6. Austin Community College District's P-16 Initiative Graduates America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Mary; Madsen, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Austin Community College (ACC) District's P-16 Initiative supports partnerships with 30 school districts--reaching traditionally underserved students and bridging the gap between high school and college--so more Texas students can reach their educational goals. The P-16 Initiative is a constellation of efforts designed to provide broad-based…

  7. Envisioning Collaborative Composing in Music Education: Learning and Negotiation of Meaning in "operabyyou.com"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partti, Heidi; Westerlund, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative instrumental case study examines collaborative composing in the "operabyyou.com" online music community from the perspective of learning by utilising the concept of a "community of practice" as a heuristic frame. The article suggests that although informal music practices offer important opportunities for…

  8. Chronic disease management in rural and underserved populations: innovation and system improvement help lead to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Jane; Gamm, Larry; Kash, Bita; Peck, Mitchell

    2005-03-01

    Successful implementation of disease management (DM) is based on the ability of an organization to overcome a variety of barriers to deliver timely, appropriate care of chronic illnesses. Such programs initiate DM services to patient populations while initiating self-management education among medication-resistant patients who are chronically ill. Despite formidable challenges, rural health care providers have been successful in initiating DM programs and have discovered several ways in which these programs benefit their organizations. This research reports on six DM programs that serve large rural and underserved populations and have demonstrated that DM can be successfully implemented in such areas.

  9. Factors influencing participation in worksite wellness programs among minority and underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon E; Smith, Brenda A; Bybee, Ronald F

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, employers and employees are increasingly paying a larger portion of the nation's healthcare bill. Preventive measures are being employed by businesses in an effort to contain the escalating costs of employee healthcare. The work site is an ideal setting for health promotion because 130 million Americans are employed and spend one third of their time at work. However, unhealthy workers tend to be the least likely to participate in health promotion activities. Worksite Wellness Programs must be designed to engage segments of the work force with the greatest health needs. Culturally sensitive and appropriate programs must be developed to engage economically challenged minority and other underserved populations.

  10. Innovative Educational Initiatives to Train Psychodynamic Psychiatrists in Underserved Areas of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, César A; Michael, Marco Christian; Elvira, Sylvia Detri; Zakaria, Hazli; Kalayasiri, Rasmon; Adlan, Aida Syarinaz A; Moinalghorabaei, Mahdieh; Lukman, Petrin Redayani; San'ati, Mohammad; Duchonova, Katerina; Sullivan, Timothy B

    2018-06-01

    Psychodynamic psychiatry remains a challenging subject to teach in underserved areas, where enthusiasm to learn is substantial. Besides logistical and psychiatric workforce shortcomings, sensible cultural adaptations to make psychodynamic psychiatry relevant outside of high-income countries require creative effort. Innovative pedagogical methods that include carefully crafted mentoring and incorporate videoconferencing in combination with site visits can be implemented through international collaborations. Emphasis on mentoring is essential to adequately train future psychodynamic psychotherapy supervisors. Examples of World Psychiatric Association initiatives in countries such as Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, and Thailand are presented as possible models to emulate elsewhere. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On Second Chances and Stratification: How Sociologists Think about Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudde, Lauren; Goldrick-Rab, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges increase college access, extending postsecondary educational opportunities to underserved students, yet, these students exhibit low rates of program completion and transfer to 4-year colleges. Sociological research on community colleges focuses on the tension between increasing educational opportunity and failing to improve…

  12. Weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation, emotional social support, and physical activity in underserved adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; Lawman, Hannah G; Van Horn, M Lee

    2013-05-01

    This study examined weight status as a moderator of the relationship between motivation (controlled, autonomous, regulatory), emotional social support (parents, peers) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in underserved adolescents (ethnic minority, low-income). Participants from the Active by Choice Today Trial (n = 1,416; 54% girls, 73% African American, 52% overweight/obese) completed baseline measures, including height and weight, psychosocial surveys, and 7-day accelerometry estimates. Weight status was defined by body mass index z-score (zBMI). Weight status moderated the effects of controlled, autonomous, and regulatory motivation on MVPA, such that these variables were more strongly associated with MVPA in adolescents with lower versus higher zBMI scores. A better understanding of why motivation is not related to MVPA in underserved youth with a higher weight status is needed. Future pediatric obesity treatment in underserved youth may need to move beyond motivation into environmental factors associated with long-term behavior change.

  13. Envisioning the Shôjo Aesthetic in Illustrations of Miyazawa Kenji’s Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Claire Kilpatrick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite an ever-growing body of scholarship on the shôjo (girl in manga and anime, little has been written about representations of the ‘girl’ in Japanese picture books. Shôjo literature and culture have grown exponentially in Japan since about the 1980s, but there has been a tendency in popular media to overemphasise the 'cute', disempowering aspects of the ‘girl’. By using Takahara Eiri's (1999 concept of “girl consciousness” and Honda Masuko's (1992 envisioning of the girl’s imagined freedom through a hirahira (fluttering aesthetic, notions of the powerless or mindlessly consuming shôjo can be dispelled. Such concepts help demonstrate that the girl ‘has her own creative, critical and cultural, if not social or political, power’ (Aoyama 2008: 286. This paper examines the shôjo tropes in contemporary illustrations that were produced to accompany two tales by the renowned author Miyazawa Kenji (1896-1933, Futago no Hoshi (Twin Stars and Ginga Tetsudô no Yoru (Night of the Milky Way Railway. Although Kenji (as he is known is not generally considered a shôjo author, some of his works incorporate gently transgressive shôjo themes reminiscent of, for example, Yoshiya Nobuko’s Hana Monogatari (Flower Tales from the 1920s. I argue that the current artwork of two award-winning artists, Makino Suzuko and Azuma Itsuko, reflects and enhances Kenji’s ‘girlish’ verbal images, bringing them to the fore in their accompanying imagery for Futago and Ginga by drawing on shôjo art, manga and literature. The artists thus bring into play intertextual references that occur not only across different historical temporalities but also through relations between the author, the artist, the text(s, the protagonists and the reading/viewing audience. The analysis of their striking artwork shows how they bring Kenji’s 1920s’ works firmly into the arena of the contemporary ‘girl’, expanding the abstract consciousness of the shôjo to

  14. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  15. Randomized Trial of a Family-based, Automated, Conversational Obesity Treatment Program for Underserved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. A.; Phillips, B.D.; Watson, B.L.; Newby, P.K.; Norman, G. J.; Adams, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a scalable obesity treatment program integrated with pediatric primary care and delivered using interactive voice technology (IVR) to families from underserved populations. Design and Methods Fifty parent-child dyads (child 9–12 yrs, BMI >95th percentile) were recruited from a pediatric primary care clinic and randomized to either an IVR or a wait-list control (WLC) group. The majority were lower-income, African-American (72%) families. Dyads received IVR calls for 12 weeks. Call content was informed by two evidenced-based interventions. Anthropometric and behavioral variables were assessed at baseline and 3 mo follow-up. Results Forty-three dyads completed the study. IVR parents ate 1 cup more fruit than WLC (p 75% agreed that the calls were useful, made for people like them, credible, and helped them eat healthy foods. Conclusion An obesity treatment program delivered via IVR may be an acceptable and feasible resource for families from underserved populations. PMID:23512915

  16. Effect of Health Literacy on Decision-Making Preferences among Medically Underserved Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joann; Goodman, Melody S; Politi, Mary; Blanchard, Melvin; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2016-05-01

    Participation in the decision-making process and health literacy may both affect health outcomes; data on how these factors are related among diverse groups are limited. This study examined the relationship between health literacy and decision-making preferences in a medically underserved population. We analyzed a sample of 576 primary care patients. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the independent association of health literacy (measured by the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised) and patients' decision-making preferences (physician directed or patient involved), controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and gender. We tested whether having a regular doctor modified this association. Adequate health literacy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7;P= 0.009) was significantly associated with preferring patient-involved decision making, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Having a regular doctor did not modify this relationship. Males were significantly less likely to prefer patient-involved decision making (OR = 0.65;P= 0.024). Findings suggest health literacy affects decision-making preferences in medically underserved patients. More research is needed on how factors, such as patient knowledge or confidence, may influence decision-making preferences, particularly for those with limited health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Impact of Patient Empathy Modeling on Pharmacy Students Caring for the Underserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Judy T.; LaLopa, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of the Patient Empathy Modeling pedagogy on students' empathy towards caring for the underserved during an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design Pharmacy students completing an APPE at 2 primary care clinics participated in a Patient Empathy Modeling assignment for 10 days. Each student “became the patient,” simulating the life of an actual patient with multiple chronic diseases who was coping with an economic, cultural, or communication barrier to optimal healthcare. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) before and after completing the assignment, and wrote daily journal entries and a reflection paper. Assessment Twenty-six students completed the PEM exercises from 2005-2006. Scores on the JSPE improved. Students' comments in journals and reflection papers revealed 3 major themes: greater appreciation of the difficulty patients have with adherence to medication and treatment regimens, increased empathy for patients from different backgrounds and patients with medical and psychosocial challenges, and improved ability to apply the lessons learned in the course to their patient care roles. Conclusion A Patient Empathy Modeling assignment improved pharmacy students' empathy toward underserved populations. Integrating the assignment within an APPE allowed students to immediately begin applying the knowledge and insight gained from the exercise. PMID:18483606

  18. Practices Caring For The Underserved Are Less Likely To Adopt Medicare's Annual Wellness Visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Ishani; Souza, Jeffrey; McWilliams, J Michael; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2018-02-01

    In 2011 Medicare introduced the annual wellness visit to help address the health risks of aging adults. The visit also offers primary care practices an opportunity to generate revenue, and may allow practices in accountable care organizations to attract healthier patients while stabilizing patient-practitioner assignments. However, uptake of the visit has been uneven. Using national Medicare data for the period 2008-15, we assessed practices' ability and motivation to adopt the visit. In 2015, 51.2 percent of practices provided no annual wellness visits (nonadopters), while 23.1 percent provided visits to at least a quarter of their eligible beneficiaries (adopters). Adopters replaced problem-based visits with annual wellness visits and saw increases in primary care revenue. Compared to nonadopters, adopters had more stable patient assignment and a slightly healthier patient mix. At the same time, visit rates were lower among practices caring for underserved populations (for example, racial minorities and those dually enrolled in Medicaid), potentially worsening disparities. Policy makers should consider ways to encourage uptake of the visit or other mechanisms to promote preventive care in underserved populations and the practices that serve them.

  19. Development and pilot evaluation of novel genetic educational materials designed for an underserved patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Rebecca Jean; Komaromy, Miriam; Crawford, Beth; Beattie, Mary; Lee, Robin; Luce, Judith; Ziegler, John

    2007-01-01

    Genetic counseling for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations involves teaching about hereditary cancer, genetics and risk, subjects that are difficult to grasp and are routinely misunderstood. Supported by a grant from the Avon Foundation, the UCSF Cancer Risk Program started the first genetic testing and counseling service for a population of traditionally underserved women of varied ethnic and social backgrounds at the San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH). Informed by educational theory and clinical experience, we devised and piloted two simplified explanations of heredity and genetic risk, with the aim of uncovering how to best communicate genetics and risk to this underserved population. A "conventional" version comprised pictures of genes, pedigrees, and quantitative representations of risk. A "colloquial" pictorial version used an analogy of the "information book" of genes, family stories and vignettes, and visual representations of risk, without using scientific words such as genes or chromosomes. A verbal narrative accompanied each picture. We presented these modules to four focus groups of five to eight women recruited from the SFGH Family Practice Clinic. Overall, women preferred a picture-based approach and commented that additional text would have been distracting. The majority of women preferred the colloquial version because it was easier to understand and better conveyed a sense of comfort and hope. We conclude that simplicity, analogies, and familiarity support comprehension while vignettes, family stories, and photos of real people provide comfort and hope. These elements may promote understanding of complex scientific topics in healthcare, particularly when communicating with patients who come from disadvantaged backgrounds.

  20. Cancer screening promotion among medically underserved Asian American women: integration of research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei-yu; Seetoo, Amy D; Hong, Oi Saeng; Song, Lixin; Raizade, Rekha; Weller, Adelwisa L Agas

    2002-01-01

    Mammography and Pap smear tests are known to be effective early detection measures for breast and cervical cancers, respectively, but Asian Americans are reluctant to make visits for routine preventive care. Quantitative and qualitative research conducted by the Healthy Asian Americans Project (HAAP) between 1996 and 1999 indicated that Asian residents in southeastern Michigan, like the general Asian population in the US, underutilized early cancer screening programs due to cultural, psychosocial, linguistic, and economic barriers. This article reports how the HAAP's research findings guided the Michigan Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program (BCCCP) promotion (conducted from 2000 to 2001 among medically underserved Asian women residing in southeastern Michigan), and how evaluation of the HAAP's BCCCP promotion will direct future research and health promotion programs. The article presents strategies used to improve access to cancer screening programs for diverse Asian sub-groups as well as outcomes of the 2-year HAAP's BCCCP promotion among the target population. Discussion regarding lessons and experiences gained from integration of research and practice has implications on design and implementation of the cancer screening promotion for the rapidly increasing Asian American population as well as other medically underserved minority populations in the US.

  1. Envisioning a Post-Conflict Tripoli: The Inclusive Urban Strategy and Action Plan for Bab Al-Tabbaneh and Jebel Mohsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Micocci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Inclusive Urban Strategy and Action Plan is a study conducted by a multi-disciplinary international team focused on the post-conflict area of Tripoli, the second largest city of Lebanon. The project includes the neighbourhoods of Bab Al-Tabbaneh and Jebel Mohsen and the conflict zone in between where hostilities ended thanks to the implementation of a security plan in 2014. The aim of the proposal is to initiate and foster peace and reconciliation between the conflicting communities, while addressing spatial, social and economic segregations by a holistic and tactical urban approach.The strategy results from a deep study and understanding of the actual fragile conditions in Tripoli, and derives its guidelines from the fractures and the intrinsic resources of the place. It is structured in three main layers (urban armature, functional injections and placemaking and envisions the possibility to establish new relations and synergies inside the hugely fragmented environment.Instead of proposing concrete solutions, the strategy aims at initially generating the necessary conditions to trigger processes of recovery and therefore development, encountering positive outcomes and opportunities as well as possible threats. Adaptability and retrofitting thus became keywords in developing a realistic strategy that can take into consideration the difficulty of programming and making decisions in the context of post-conflict reconstruction.

  2. Using an academic-community partnership model and blended learning to advance community health nursing pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeonwu, Mabel; Berkowitz, Bobbie; Vlasses, Frances R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a model of teaching community health nursing that evolved from a long-term partnership with a community with limited existing health programs. The partnership supported RN-BSN students' integration in the community and resulted in reciprocal gains for faculty, students and community members. Community clients accessed public health services as a result of the partnership. A blended learning approach that combines face-to-face interactions, service learning and online activities was utilized to enhance students' learning. Following classroom sessions, students actively participated in community-based educational process through comprehensive health needs assessments, planning and implementation of disease prevention and health promotion activities for community clients. Such active involvement in an underserved community deepened students' awareness of the fundamentals of community health practice. Students were challenged to view public health from a broader perspective while analyzing the impacts of social determinants of health on underserved populations. Through asynchronous online interactions, students synthesized classroom and community activities through critical thinking. This paper describes a model for teaching community health nursing that informs students' learning through blended learning, and meets the demands for community health nursing services delivery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fluocinolone acetonide ophthalmic--Bausch & Lomb: fluocinolone acetonide Envision TD implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Bausch & Lomb and Control Delivery Systems have developed an intravitreal implant that can deliver the corticosteroid fluocinolone acetonide [fluocinolone acetonide implant, Retisert] to posterior eye tissue for up to 3 years. The implant uses Bausch & Lomb's Envision TD technology. This fluocinolone acetonide implant has been designed for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye and other eye disorders, which benefit from local anti-inflammatory therapy. In July 2003, Bausch & Lomb assumed all responsibility for day-to-day clinical development and regulatory activities relating to fluocinolone acetonide implant development from Control Delivery Systems. In May 2002, Control Delivery systems and Bausch & Lomb formally amended their budget for their license and development agreement. Bausch & Lomb will increase its funding to support the development of agents for the treatment of diabetic macular oedema, posterior uveitis and wet age-related macular degeneration to USD $206 million through to 2008. In January 2004, Bausch & Lomb decided to focus development of the fluocinolone acetonide implant in only one indication, non-infectious uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye. It had been in development for other indications, including macular oedema and age-related macular degeneration. However, these will be targeted with later-generation implant technologies, different drugs, or combinations of both. The implant delivering fluocinolone acetonide 0.59 mg or 2.1mg has completed enrollment in two pivotal 3-year phase IIb/III trials in the US, Canada, Australia and Asia for the treatment of posterior uveitis. Enrollment in these multicenter randomised, double-masked studies was closed in May 2003. Bausch & Lomb was expected to file an NDA with the US FDA for the use of the agent in the treatment of uveitis in mid-2003. However, in February 2003, the company reported that, after a review of various filing strategies

  4. Effect of Active Videogames on Underserved Children's Classroom Behaviors, Effort, and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Jung Eun; Pope, Zachary; Zhang, Dachao

    2016-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active videogames (AVGs) on underserved minority children's on-task classroom behavior, academic effort, and fitness. A one group pre- and posttest repeated measures design was used. In Fall 2013, 95 fourth grade children (57 boys, 38 girls; 96% of minority) from three classes at an underserved urban elementary school participated in teacher-supervised AVG activities (e.g., Wii Sports, Xbox Just Dance). Specifically, students participated in a 50-minute weekly AVG program at school for 6 weeks. Children's academic effort was evaluated by classroom teachers using a validated scale that assessed activity, attention, conduct, and social/emotional behavior. Moreover, children's classroom behavior was observed immediately before and after each AVG session by trained researchers. Finally, cardiovascular fitness was also measured. A paired t-test was used to assess teacher-rated student effort, while one-way (gender) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was performed to analyze children's on-task classroom behavior. There was a significant effect on children's effort between the first (mean = 3.24, SD = 0.75) and last week (mean = 3.41, SD = 0.73) assessments, t = 2.42, P = 0.02. In addition, there was a significant effect on classroom behavior, F = 33.103, P < 0.01. In detail, children scored significantly higher on on-task behavior during the post-AVG observation (mean = 81.4, SD = 12.3) than seen during the pre-AVG observation (mean = 69.8, SD = 14.9). However, no main effect was indicated for gender, F = 0.39, P = 0.54. No significant improvement in cardiovascular fitness was observed, although slight improvements were seen. Offering an AVG program at school could improve underserved minority children's classroom on-task behavior and academic effort. Future studies may include a control group to further confirm the effectiveness of AVG

  5. A community intervention: AMBER: Arab American breast cancer education and referral program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayash, Claudia; Axelrod, Deborah; Nejmeh-Khoury, Sana; Aziz, Arwa; Yusr, Afrah; Gany, Francesca M

    2011-12-01

    Although the number of Arab Americans is growing in the United States, there is very little data available on this population's cancer incidence and screening practices. Moreover, there are few interventions addressing their unique needs. This study aims to determine effective strategies for increasing breast cancer screening in at-risk underserved Arab American women. AMBER utilizes a community based participatory approach to conduct formative research and program interventions, including culturally appropriate Arabic language breast cancer education, screening coordination, and cultural competency training for healthcare professionals in New York City. In 2 years, 597 women were educated, 189 underserved women were identified as being in need of assistance, 68 were screened, one new case of breast cancer was detected, and four active cases in need of follow-up reconnected with care. The AMBER model is an important intervention for breast cancer screening and care in the underserved Arab American community.

  6. Diet and Exercise Adherence and Practices among Medically Underserved Patients with Chronic Disease: Variation across Four Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzech, Kathryn M.; Vivian, James; Huebner Torres, Cristina; Armin, Julie; Shaw, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Many factors interact to create barriers to dietary and exercise plan adherence among medically underserved patients with chronic disease, but aspects related to culture and ethnicity are underexamined in the literature. Using both qualitative ("n" = 71) and quantitative ("n" = 297) data collected in a 4-year, multimethod study…

  7. 75 FR 29447 - Public Health Service Act, Rural Physician Training Grant Program, Definition of “Underserved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ..., identified by the Regulatory Information Number (RIN), by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking... assisting eligible entities in recruiting students most likely to practice medicine in underserved rural... determined that good cause exists which makes the usual notice and comment procedure impractical, unnecessary...

  8. Navigating the digital divide: A systematic review of eHealth literacy in underserved populations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, Amy; Burke, Anne; Reyes, Jared; Rohrberg, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    eHealth provides an important mechanism to connect medically underserved populations with health information, but little is known about gaps in eHealth literacy research in underserved adult populations within the U.S. Between June and July 2013, three systematic literature reviews of five databases were conducted and a subsequent hand search was completed. Identified literature was screened and studies meeting exclusion and inclusion criteria were synthesized and analyzed for common themes. Of the 221 articles critically appraised, 15 met these criteria. Thirty-five of these studies were excluded due to international origin. Of the articles meeting the inclusion criteria, underserved populations assessed included immigrant women, the elderly, low-income, the un- and underemployed, and African-American and Hispanic populations. eHealth literacy assessments utilized included one or two item screeners, the eHEALS scale, health information competence and cognitive task analysis. Factors examined in relation to eHealth literacy included age, experience, overall health literacy, education, income and culture. The majority did not assess the impact of locality and those that did were predominately urban. These data suggest that there is a gap in the literature regarding eHealth literacy knowledge for underserved populations, and specifically those in rural locations, within the U.S.

  9. Community health workers in rural India: analysing the opportunities and challenges Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) face in realising their multiple roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saprii, Lipekho; Richards, Esther; Kokho, Puni; Theobald, Sally

    2015-12-09

    Globally, there is increasing interest in community health worker's (CHW) performance; however, there are gaps in the evidence with respect to CHWs' role in community participation and empowerment. Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), whose roles include social activism, are the key cadre in India's CHW programme which is designed to improve maternal and child health. In a diverse country like India, there is a need to understand how the ASHA programme operates in different underserved Indian contexts, such as rural Manipur. We undertook qualitative research to explore stakeholders' perceptions and experiences of the ASHA scheme in strengthening maternal health and uncover the opportunities and challenges ASHAs face in realising their multiple roles in rural Manipur, India. Data was collected through in-depth interviews (n = 18) and focus group discussions (n = 3 FGDs, 18 participants). Participants included ASHAs, key stakeholders and community members. They were purposively sampled based on remoteness of villages and primary health centres to capture diverse and relevant constituencies, as we believed experiences of ASHAs can be shaped by remoteness. Data were analysed using the thematic framework approach. Findings suggested that ASHAs are mostly understood as link workers. ASHA's ability to address the immediate needs of rural and marginalised communities meant that they were valued as service providers. The programme is perceived to be beneficial as it improves awareness and behaviour change towards maternal care. However, there are a number of challenges; the selection of ASHAs is influenced by power structures and poor community sensitisation of the ASHA programme presents a major risk to success and sustainability. The primary health centres which ASHAs link to are ill-equipped. Thus, ASHAs experience adverse consequences in their ability to inspire trust and credibility in the community. Small and irregular monetary incentives demotivate

  10. Impact of a Plant-Based Diet and Support on Mitigating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Latinos Living in Medically Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramal, Edelweiss; Champlin, Andrea; Bahjri, Khaled

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact that a high-fiber, low-fat diet, derived from mostly plant-based sources, when coupled with support has upon self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Latinos from medically underserved areas (MUAs). Experimental randomized controlled community pilot study. Three community clinics in MUAs located within San Bernardino County, California. Thirty-two randomly assigned Latinos with A1 C greater than 6.4: 15 control and 17 experimental. Participants completed a 5-week education program. Researchers provided follow-up support for 17 randomly assigned experimental group participants through focus groups held at participating clinics-1, 3, and 6 months posteducation. Changes in fat and fiber consumption were measured using a modified Dietary Screener for Mexican Americans. Self-management was measured through the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale and Diabetes Quality of Life Measure. Baseline characteristics for both groups were analyzed using independent t tests and χ 2 tests. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze biometric data between baseline and 6 months for both groups. Mean A1 C levels decreased from baseline to 6 months for both groups: control, μ 1 = 9.57, μ 2 = 9.49; experimental, μ 1 = 8.53, μ 2 = 7.31. The experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in mean A1 C levels ( P = .002) when compared to the control group.

  11. The association between income source and met need among community mental health service users in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna; Bondy, Susan J; Durbin, Janet

    2012-10-01

    We examined income source and match between recommended and received care among users of community mental health services. We conducted a secondary analysis of needs-based planning data on adults in Ontario community mental health programs from 2000 to 2002. The outcome was whether clients were severely underserved (yes/no) based on the match between level of care recommended and received. A logistic regression model investigated if income source predicted this outcome. 13% of clients were severely underserved. Over 40% were on public assistance and they had a higher risk of being severely undeserved than the others. Men were at greater risk. One aim of mental health reform is to increase access to care for vulnerable individuals. The finding that among users of community mental health services, individuals with public assistance income support are most vulnerable to being severely underserved should be considered by service planners and providers.

  12. Community-Based Health Programmes: Role Perceptions and Experiences of Female Peer Facilitators in Mumbai's Urban Slums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David

    2009-01-01

    Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using…

  13. Mediators and Moderators of the Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Intervention That Improved Dietary Outcomes in Pregnant Latino Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Megha K.; Kieffer, Edith C.; Choi, Hwajung; Schumann, Christina; Heisler, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy is an opportune time to initiate diabetes prevention strategies for minority and underserved women, using culturally tailored interventions delivered by community health workers. A community-partnered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with pregnant Latino women resulted in significantly improved vegetable, fiber, added sugar,…

  14. Project Coach: A Case Study of a College-Community Partnerships as a Venture in Social Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, Sam M.; Siegel, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Project Coach is an after school program developed and directed by the authors. The program, which is set in a high-need urban community in Springfield, Massachusetts, teaches high school and middle school students to be sport coaches and then to run youth sport leagues for elementary-aged youth in underserved neighborhoods in their own community.…

  15. Associations between positive parenting practices and child externalizing behavior in underserved Latino immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil Smith, Sharde'; Scott, Jenna C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  16. Against Cursory Treatments in Ethics of Medical Migration from Underserved Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksekdag, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    In a recent paper, Mpofu, Sen Gupta, and Hays (2016) attempt to outline the obligations of recruiting high-income countries (HICs) and would-be emigrant health workers (HWs) to tackle the effects of mass exodus of health workers from underserved regions. They reconstruct (i) Rawlsian and Kantian global justice approaches to argue for moral obligations of HICs and (ii) an individual justice approach to point to non-enforceable social responsibilities of HWs to assist their compatriots. This critical commentary demonstrates that the argumentation within their individual justice approach is problematic on the basis of three reasons: (1) their discussion under-theorizes and undervalues individual rights and more specifically the right to exit, (2) their argumentation in the latter part, even if problematically, does rather point to moral obligations in lieu of social responsibilities of HWs, and (3) they overlook many other important freedoms, interests, and values pertinent to the issue of retention.

  17. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in underserved rural areas: a crucial issue for future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H; Yekta, A; Jafarzadehpur, E; Doostdar, A; Ostadimoghaddam, H; Khabazkhoob, M

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo determine the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in underserved Iranian villages and to identify the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness.Patients and methodsMultistage cluster sampling was used to select the participants who were then invited to undergo complete examinations. Optometric examinations including visual acuity, and refraction were performed for all individuals. Ophthalmic examinations included slit-lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. Visual impairment was determined according to the definitions of the WHO and presenting vision.ResultsOf 3851 selected individuals, 3314 (86.5%) participated in the study. After using the exclusion criteria, the present report was prepared based on the data of 3095 participants. The mean age of the participants was 37.6±20.7 years (3-93 years). The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness was 6.43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.71-9.14) and 1.18% (95% CI: 0.56-1.79), respectively. The prevalence of visual impairment varied from 0.75% in participants aged less than 5 years to 38.36% in individuals above the age of 70 years. Uncorrected refractive errors and cataract were the first and second leading causes of visual impairment; moreover, cataract and refractive errors were responsible for 35.90 and 20.51% of the cases of blindness, respectively.ConclusionThe prevalence of visual impairment was markedly high in this study. Lack of access to health services was the main reason for the high prevalence of visual impairment in this study. Cataract and refractive errors are responsible for 80% of visual impairments which can be due to poverty in underserved villages.

  18. Evaluation of a student-run smoking cessation clinic for a medically underserved population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbert Jon O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is common among medically underserved populations. Accessible resources to encourage and support smoking cessation among these patients are limited. Volunteer medical student-run free smoking cessation clinics may provide an effective option to help these individuals achieve smoking abstinence. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a student-run clinic, we analyzed a case series of patients receiving care in a medical student-run Smoking Cessation Clinic (SCC at the Rochester, Minnesota Salvation Army Good Samaritan Health Clinic (GSHC. Findings Between January 2005 and March 2009, 282 cigarette smokers seeking care at the SCC were analyzed. Student providers at the SCC conducted 1652 weekly individual counseling sessions averaging 18 minutes per encounter. Patients were offered a choice of pharmacotherapies including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline for up to 12 weeks. Smoking abstinence was confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO. Thirty-two patients completed the entire 12-week program (11.3%. At last contact, 94 patients (33.3% abstained from smoking for ≥ 7 days and 39 patients (13.8% were continuously abstinent for ≥ 4 weeks. The 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at last contact were 58.6% for varenicline, 41.2% for bupropion, 33.9% for NRT, and 23.5% for bupropion and NRT. Analyzing missing patients as smoking, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 7.1%, 8.9%, and 8.2%, at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after program enrollment, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusions Our medical student-run smoking cessation clinic provided an effective and safe experience for medically underserved patients who might not otherwise have access to conventional smoking cessation programs because of high cost, lack of insurance, or other disparities. Similar medical student initiatives focusing on healthy lifestyles

  19. Collaboration with pharmacy services in a family practice for the medically underserved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pharmacist-managed collaborative services in a family practice setting are described, and diabetes and hypertension outcomes are assessed.Methods: Pharmacist-managed clinics, pharmacotherapy consultations, and drug information services are provided for a medically underserved, predominantly African American population. A pharmacy residency director, an ambulatory care pharmacy resident and three PharmD candidate student pharmacists work directly with physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, and social workers to form an interdisciplinary health care team. Providers utilize pharmacy services through consultations and referrals. Collaboration outcomes were evaluated in twenty-two patients with diabetes and thirty hypertensive patients. Patients were retrospectively followed throughout their history with pharmacy service. Hemoglobin A1c (A1C was tracked before referral to pharmacy services, 3 to 6 months after, and as the most current measure after at least 6 months. Blood pressure (BP was observed before pharmacy involvement, 2 to 4 months later, and then currently for at least 4 months with the service. The mean of the most current markers was calculated, and the percent of patients at their goal marker was compared to national averages.Results: Fifty percent of pharmacy service patients met the American Diabetes Association hemoglobin A1c goal of less than 7% in our evaluation compared to the national mean of 49.8% overall and 44% in African Americans. Thirty percent of patients were at their BP goal while 33.1% of patients without diabetes and 33.2% of patients with diabetes nationally are at goal. Conclusion: The medically underserved patients under the care of pharmacy services achieved a higher percentage at their A1C goal than the national mean. The percentage of patients who achieved their BP goals was comparable to the national average. Increasing utilization of pharmacy services in the family practice setting allows for

  20. Determination of ABO blood grouping from human oral squamous epithelium by the highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining method EnVision+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hiroshi; Yokota, Makoto; Tatsumi, Shinji; Sugiyama, Shizuyuki

    2002-03-01

    Using the highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining method EnVision+, which employs a dextran polymer reagent for the secondary antibody, the detection of the ABH antigens was attempted in the oral squamous epithelium. This new technique uses monoclonal antibody as a primary antibody and it takes about three hours for staining. The time is much shorter than conventional absorption-elution testing or absorption-inhibition testing for the determination of ABO blood grouping. Secretor saliva samples were stained at strong intensity by the antibody, which corresponded to its blood group and anti-H. On the one hand, nonsecretor saliva samples were stained at strong intensity only by the antibody that corresponded to its blood group, and at weak intensity only by anti-H. Since human oral squamous epithelium antigens were stained specifically by this method, we can examine the ABO blood group of saliva samples and perform cytodiagnosis at the same time. Our research suggested that the EnVision+ Method is a useful technique for ABO blood grouping of saliva in forensic cases.

  1. Extending the Pathway: Building on a National Science Foundation Workforce Development Project for Underserved k-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Smith, T.

    2014-12-01

    With new career openings in the geosciences expected and a large number of presently employed geoscientists retiring in the next decade there is a critical need for a new cadre of geoscientists to fill these positions. A project funded by the National Science Foundation titled K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career involving Wright State University and the Ripley, Lewis, Union, Huntington k-12 school district in Appalachian Ohio took led to dozens of seventh and eighth grade students traveling to Sandy Hook, New Jersey for a one week field experience to study oceanography with staff of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium. Teachers, parent chaperones, administrators and university faculty accompanied the students in the field. Teachers worked alongside their students in targeted professional development during the weeklong field experience. During the two academic years of the project, both middle school and high school teachers received professional development in Earth system science so that all students, not just those that were on the summer field experience could receive enhanced science learning. All ninth grade high school students were given the opportunity to take a high school/college dual credit Earth system science course. Community outreach provided widespread knowledge of the project and interest among parents to have their children participate. In addition, ninth grade students raised money themselves to fund a trip to the International Field Studies Forfar Field Station on Andros Island, Bahamas to study a tropical aquatic system. Students who before this project had never traveled outside of Ohio are currently discussing ways that they can continue on the pathway to a geoscience career by applying for internships for the summer between their junior and senior years. These are positive steps towards taking charge of their

  2. Master plan envisions multi-billion-dollar expansion of Vietnam's electricity monopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Massive investment in Vietnam's electricity monopoly by Western aid and export credit agencies form part of the ten-year master plan developed for Vietnam. Central planning and political patronage, instead of market assessments and customer choice form the basis for monopoly investments in a centralized grid linking big hydro, gas, coal, and nuclear power projects. Western aid agencies might effectively crowd out viable private-sector energy investments by financing power projects considered too large and risky by the private sector. These investments by Western aid agencies would assist in winning contracts for favoured exporters of engineering services and equipment. It would be a breeding ground for corruption in Vietnam if market discipline, public oversight, and enforceable property rights are not present in the face of power sector aid. There is a real possibility that damages to the environment could result from electricity investments, and some communities might be victimized, electricity costs might increase, the indebtedness level of the population might increase

  3. Using Envision to Assess the Sustainability of Groundwater Infrastructure: A Case Study of the Twin Oaks Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody R. Saville

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ISI (Institute for Sustainable Infrastructure Envision rating system is designed to be a comprehensive sustainability assessment that can be applied to a wide range of infrastructure projects, including water supply. With water supply resiliency, a prominent concern in many arid and semi-arid regions, the implementation of a water sustainability metric would be beneficial to both regulators and planners. This review seeks to assess the merit of applying Envision to water infrastructure projects specifically designed to enhance supply resiliency by retroactively rating the San Antonio Water System (SAWS Twin Oaks Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR project. In this review, we find that the novelty and innovation inherent in ASR is largely overlooked by Envision, which often does not evaluate sector-specific concepts. Furthermore, the project-oriented focus of Envision does not analyze water supply systems, or any infrastructure system, as a whole. This paper proposes that a water specific sustainability index be used in conjunction with Envision, to more specifically address concerns for water supply.

  4. The EnVision++ system: a new immunohistochemical method for diagnostics and research. Critical comparison with the APAAP, ChemMate, CSA, LABC, and SABC techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabattini, E; Bisgaard, K; Ascani, S; Poggi, S; Piccioli, M; Ceccarelli, C; Pieri, F; Fraternali-Orcioni, G; Pileri, S A

    1998-07-01

    To assess a newly developed immunohistochemical detection system, the EnVision++. A large series of differently processed normal and pathological samples and 53 relevant monoclonal antibodies were chosen. A chessboard titration assay was used to compare the results provided by the EnVision++ system with those of the APAAP, CSA, LSAB, SABC, and ChemMate methods, when applied either manually or in a TechMate 500 immunostainer. With the vast majority of the antibodies, EnVision++ allowed two- to fivefold higher dilutions than the APAAP, LSAB, SABC, and ChemMate techniques, the staining intensity and percentage of expected positive cells being the same. With some critical antibodies (such as the anti-CD5), it turned out to be superior in that it achieved consistently reproducible results with differently fixed or overfixed samples. Only the CSA method, which includes tyramide based enhancement, allowed the same dilutions as the EnVision++ system, and in one instance (with the anti-cyclin D1 antibody) represented the gold standard. The EnVision++ is an easy to use system, which avoids the possibility of disturbing endogenous biotin and lowers the cost per test by increasing the dilutions of the primary antibodies. Being a two step procedure, it reduces both the assay time and the workload.

  5. Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the Internet. Despite recent progress with mobile technology diffusion, more than four billion people worldwide are unconnected and have limited access to global communication infrastructure. The cost of implementing connectivity infrastructure in underserved ...

  6. IT Workforce Development: A Family and Consumer Sciences Community Capacity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Peggy S.; Kimbrell, Monica R.; Swenson, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This article examines Extension professionals building community capacity in 10 counties across five Appalachian states in response to the talent crisis in the United States information technology (IT) workforce. The goal has been to transfer IT knowledge and create a supportive environment to foster interest in IT careers among underserved girls…

  7. Latino Educational Leadership across the Pipeline: For Latino Communities and Latina/o Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cristóbal; Martinez, Melissa A.; Valle, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Educational leaders have challenges providing rich and equitable education for the Latino community, the fastest growing underserved demographic in the United States. Although the field of educational leadership draws connections to serve diverse populations, this work uses existing research and theory to establish the concept of Latino…

  8. The Information Needs and Behavior of Mature Community College Students: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeit, Krystina

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a review of literature devoted to the unique information needs and information-seeking behavior of the growing nontraditional or mature community college student population. This underserved user group faces distinctive challenges that librarians, researchers, and administrators must recognize and address. Much of the existing…

  9. Kinvolved: Utilizing Technology to Communicate, Evaluate, and Advocate for Improved Attendance and Family and Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Miriam; Meis, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The American K-12 grade education system is experiencing a truancy crisis. Nationally, 15%, or 7.5 million students, miss an entire month of school annually [1], with that rate frequently doubling or even tripling among students from underserved communities [2]. Research has identified attendance as one of three primary indicators of high school…

  10. N²E: Envisioning a process to support transition from nurse to educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Margaret; Oprescu, Florin; Jones, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Rising health inequities, continuing nursing shortages, and overlooked professional development needs of nurse educators are three important issues facing nursing in Australia. This paper argues for an innovative and proactive strategy that could transform the nurse education workforce into one that is repopulated, reinvigorated and refocused. The problem facing nurse educators, and subsequently affecting nurses' preparation for practice and longevity in the profession, was identified by drawing on findings from the literature, extensive educational experience, and an exploratory study of nurse educators working in universities, colleges and health services. A solution has been devised by drawing together the tenets of critical social theory, transformative learning, communities of practice and social media. Nursing educators, refocused around a social justice agenda, may be the remedy that the Australian Health Care System requires to embark on effective action that can benefit everyone, from the health service staff to our most vulnerable groups in society. This refocusing can be achieved in a structured and strategic process that builds confidence and professional capabilities.

  11. N2E: Envisioning a process to support transition from nurse to educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Margaret; Oprescu, Florin; Jones, Christian

    2013-11-21

    Abstract Rising health inequities, continuing nursing shortages, and overlooked professional development needs of nurse educators are three important issues facing nursing in Australia. This paper argues for an innovative and proactive strategy that could transform the nurse education workforce into one that is repopulated, reinvigorated and refocused. The problem facing nurse educators, and subsequently affecting nurses' preparation for practice and longevity in the profession, was identified by drawing on findings from the literature, extensive educational experience, and an exploratory study of nurse educators working in universities, colleges and health services. A solution has been devised by drawing together the tenets of critical social theory, transformative learning, communities of practice and social media. Nursing educators, refocused around a social justice agenda, may be the remedy that the Australian Health Care System requires to embark on effective action that can benefit everyone, from the health service staff to our most vulnerable groups in society. This refocusing can be achieved in a structured and strategic process that builds confidence and professional capabilities.

  12. An Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Immunosensor for Alpha-Fetoprotein Using an Envision Complex-Antibody Copolymer as a Sensitive Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ping; Gan, Ning; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Li, Tianhua; Zheng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    A novel strategy is presented for sensitive detection of alfa-fetoprotein (AFP), using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-functionalized Envision antibody complex (EVC) as the label. The Envision-AFP signal antibody copolymer (EVC-AFP Ab2) was composed of a dextran amine skeleton anchoring more than 100 molecules of HRP and 15 molecules of secondary antibody, and acted as a signal tag in the immunosensor. The sensor was constructed using the following steps: First, gold electrode (GE) was modified with nano-gold (AuNPs) by electro-deposition in HAuCl4 solution. The high affinity of the AuNPs surface facilitates direct formation of a self-assembled thiolated protein G layer. Next, the coated GE was incubated in a solution of AFP capture antibody (AFP Ab1); these antibodies attach to the thiolated protein G layer through their non-antigenic regions, leaving the antigen binding sites for binding of target analyte. Following a sandwich immunoreaction, an EVC-AFP Ab2-AFP-AFP Ab1 immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface, allowing large amounts of HRP on the complex to produce an amplified electrocatalytic current of hydroquinone (HQ) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Highly amplified detection was achieved, with a detection limit of 2 pg/mL and a linear range of 0.005–0.2 ng/mL for AFP in 10 μL undiluted serum; this is near or below the normal levels of most cancer biomarker proteins in human serum. Measurements of AFP in the serum of cancer patients correlated strongly with standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. These easily fabricated EVC-modified immunosensors show excellent promise for future fabrication of bioelectronic arrays. By varying the target biomolecules, this technique may be easily extended for use with other immunoassays, and thus represents a versatile design route.

  13. Factors Associated With Medical School Graduates' Intention to Work With Underserved Populations: Policy Implications for Advancing Workforce Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea N; Kuo, Tony; Arangua, Lisa; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2018-01-01

    Given projected U.S. physician shortages across all specialties that will likely impact underserved areas disproportionately, the authors sought to explore factors most correlated with medical school graduates' intention to work with underserved populations (IWUP). Data from the 2010-2012 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (n = 40,846) were analyzed. Variables (demographics, career preference, debt burden, intention to enter loan forgiveness programs) were examined using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Respondents included 49.5% (20,228/40,846) women, 16.6% (6,771/40,837) underrepresented minorities (URMs), and 32.4% (13,034/37,342) with primary care intent. The median educational debt was $160,000. Respondents who were women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49, 1.70), URMs (aOR 2.50, 95% CI 2.30, 2.72), intended to enter loan forgiveness programs (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 2.26, 2.63), intended to practice primary care (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.54, 1.76), and intended to emphasize nonclinical careers (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11, 1.37) had greater odds of reporting IWUP. Among those who chose specialties and careers with a nonclinical emphasis, and among those with greater burdens of educational and consumer debt, URMs were nearly twice as likely as other minorities and whites to report IWUP. Findings suggest physician characteristics that may be associated with filling workforce gaps in underserved areas. Restructuring financial incentive programs to support physician leaders and specialists with characteristics associated with IWUP may complement similar policies in primary care and could have key impacts on health equity in underserved areas.

  14. Relationship of body mass index and psychosocial factors on physical activity in underserved adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Lawman, Hannah G

    2010-09-01

    Previous research indicates that body mass index (BMI) and sex are important factors in understanding physical activity (PA) levels. The present study examined the influence of BMI on psychosocial variables (self-efficacy, social support) and PA in underserved (ethnic minority, low income) boys in comparison with girls. Participants (N = 669; 56% girls; 74% African American) were recruited from the "Active by Choice Today" trial. BMI ʐ score was calculated from objectively collected height and weight data, and PA was assessed with 7-day accelerometry estimates. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure self-efficacy and social support (family, peers) for PA. A 3-way interaction between BMI z score, sex, and family support on PA was shown such that family support was positively associated with PA in normal-weight but not overweight or obese boys, and was not associated with PA in girls. Self-efficacy had the largest effect size related to PA in comparison with the other psychosocial variables studied. Self-efficacy was found to be an important variable related to PA in underserved youth. Future studies should evaluate possible barriers to PA in girls, and overweight youth, to provide more effective family support strategies for underserved adolescents' PA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. T@lemed: Ehealth applications applied to underserved areas in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachpazidis, Ilias; Ohl, Roland; Binotto, Alécio Pedro Delazari; Torres, Márcio Soares; Messina, Luiz Ary; Sales, Alexandre; Gomes, Ricardo; Sakas, Georgios

    2006-12-01

    Access to medical care is sometimes very difficult to be reached from people living in rural and underserved areas. This problem is very well known in rural areas in Brazil. Citizens have no access to health care. They have to travel hundreds of kilometres to receive medical care. In this paper, we will propose a medical network based on state-of-the-art medical imaging application that addresses the problems of providing health care from a distance. Additionally, we are going to show preliminarily results of the first year of the system deployment and utilization in undeserved regions in Brazil. The total number of patients submitted to ultrasound examinations, during the 10 months of projects' medical trials, is 321. The exams have begun with the elderly people (hypertension and diabetes cases) with 90% above 50-years-old. Fifty-four percent were male and 46% were female. From those exams, 67 exams (21%) needed a second medical opinion and were transmitted to Santa Casa hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil, one of the referral medical centres. From those second opinions of Santa Casa, 12 exams had to be repeated since the acquired images were not sufficient to give a correct diagnosis. The Lagoa Tres Cantos medical doctor performed also preventive exams with patients who had not presented any symptoms (70%).

  16. ITEAMS: Increasing the Self-Identification for Girls and Underserved Youth in Pursuing STEM Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bruce Ward

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report early findings on the efficacy of a technology-based project in increasing self-identification for girls and underserved youth to self-select STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. ITEAMS (Innovative Technology- Enabled Astronomy for Middle Schools – an out-of-schooltime program with online, robotic telescopes as its central focus – targets girls and minority students underrepresented in STEMrelated vocations. The participating students attend urban schools in Eastern Massachusetts. ITEAMS’ twofold goal is to: a provide inspiration for the participants to pursue STEM careers, and b increase the students’ mastery of foundational subject matter so they are prepared for the rigor of further STEM study. We use an online system for surveys and assessments, the former to capture attitudinal changes about career choices, and the latter to assess the students’ subject matter knowledge. Participating students take pre-, intermediate, and post subject-matter tests and career-interest surveys. While we find statistically significant gains in subject matter knowledge free of gender, race, or school bias, we also find girls profess less interest than boys in STEM careers as early as grades five and six, although other attitudinal indicators suggest ways to reverse that trend.

  17. Cardiovascular risk in minority and underserved women in Appalachian Tennessee: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera Lea

    2010-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to translate current knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors, screening, and prevention to a disparate population of women and to ascertain the cardiovascular health status and risk factors in a sample of minority and underserved Appalachian women. Demographic data were collected from a voluntary sample of women from a disparate population living in Appalachian Tennessee. A coronary risk profile recorded family health history, personal health history, and lifestyle habits affecting risk for cardiovascular disease. Physiologic measurements included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol levels, ankle brachial index, and carotid artery stenosis. Women in Appalachia Tennessee from a disparate population have high risks for heart disease and stroke. This is a critical time to address any modifiable risk factors and aggressively treat underlying cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Nurse practitioners (NPs) often provide primary care to women who may not be aware of their cardiovascular risks or actual disease. NPs can ensure that their practice incorporates primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention through screening, individual health education, and aggressive evidence-based treatment plans for women.

  18. Underserved Pregnant and Postpartum Women's Access and Use of Their Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuqing; Hildebrand, Janet; Rousseau, Julie; Brown, Brandon; Pimentel, Pamela; Olshansky, Ellen

    The purpose of this study was to examine knowledge of and experiences with use of their electronic health record (EHR) among mostly Hispanic women during pregnancy and postpartum. Women who were in the MOMS Orange County prenatal or postpartum home visitation program completed surveys and participated in focus groups. Descriptive and content analyses were used. Twenty-six women participated. Nearly all women (24, 92.3%) knew what health records were and most (80.8%) felt that keeping their records would increase or greatly increase their confidence in caring for themselves and their families. Approximately one third reported already keeping a copy of their health records. Common barriers to accessing and understanding health records included healthcare providers' noncompliance with the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, limited EHR adoption, unfriendly patient portals, complicated medical terminology, rushed appointments with healthcare providers, lack of Spanish interpreters, and lack of Spanish-speaking healthcare providers. Programs are needed to educate and support women and providers in using health records to promote health literacy, pregnancy management, and patient-provider relationships in underserved populations.

  19. Identifying elements of patient-centered care in underserved populations: a qualitative study of patient perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Raja

    Full Text Available Patient-centered care is an important goal in the delivery of healthcare. However, many patients do not engage in preventive medical care. In this pilot study, we conducted twenty in depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews at the University of Illinois at Chicago Health Sciences campus in a four month time frame. Many patients were underserved and underinsured, and we wanted to understand their experiences in the healthcare system. Using content analysis, several themes emerged from the interview data. Participants discussed the need for empathy and rapport with their providers. They identified provider behaviors that fostered a positive clinical relationship, including step-by step explanations of procedures, attention to body language and clinic atmosphere, and appropriate time management. Participants identified cost as the most common barrier to engaging in preventive care and discussed children and social support as motivating factors. A long-term relationship with a provider was an important motivator for preventive care, suggesting that the therapeutic alliance was essential to many patients. Conversely, many participants discussed a sense of dehumanization in the healthcare system, reporting that their life circumstances were overlooked, or that they were judged based on insurance status or ethnicity. We discuss implications for provider training and healthcare delivery, including the importance of patient-centered medical homes.

  20. Dermatologic care in the homeless and underserved populations: observations from the Venice Family Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Anna L; Carranza, Dafnis; Lamp, Karen; Chiu, Melvin W; Lee, Catherine; Craft, Noah

    2012-01-01

    Dermatologic care in the homeless and impoverished urban underserved populations is rarely described despite the wide prevalence of skin concerns in this population. Because the homeless population may be subject to increased sun exposure compared to the nonhomeless population, they also may be at increased risk for skin cancer. We sought to describe the spectrum of dermatologic diseases seen in a free clinic in Venice, California--the Venice Family Clinic (VFC)--as well as the differences in diagnoses between the homeless and nonhomeless patients seen at this clinic. A retrospective chart review was performed of dermatology patients (N = 82) seen at VFC throughout the 2006 calendar year. The homeless population (n = 22) was found to have more diagnoses of malignant/premalignant growths (25% [16/64] of all homeless diagnoses) compared to their nonhomeless (n = 60) counterparts (6.1% [8/132] of all nonhomeless diagnoses; P < .0001). This difference was sustained when ethnicity was controlled, with 29.6% [16/54] of diagnoses in the homeless white group consisting of malignant/ premalignant growths compared to 8.9% [4/45] of diagnoses in the nonhomeless white cohort (P < .005). Homeless patients may have a higher incidence of skin cancers and precancerous skin lesions due to increased sun exposure and/or limited access to dermatologic care.

  1. A Behavioral Lifestyle Intervention Enhanced With Multiple-Behavior Self-Monitoring Using Mobile and Connected Tools for Underserved Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes and Comorbid Overweight or Obesity: Pilot Comparative Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Cai, Chunyan; Padhye, Nikhil; Orlander, Philip; Zare, Mohammad

    2018-04-10

    Self-monitoring is a cornerstone of behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mobile technology has the potential to improve adherence to self-monitoring and patient outcomes. However, no study has tested the use of a smartphone to facilitate self-monitoring in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in the underserved community. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of and compare preliminary efficacy of a behavioral lifestyle intervention using smartphone- or paper-based self-monitoring of multiple behaviors on weight loss and glycemic control in a sample of overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in underserved communities. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a behavioral lifestyle intervention. Overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from an underserved minority community health center in Houston, Texas. They were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) behavior intervention with smartphone-based self-monitoring, (2) behavior intervention with paper diary-based self-monitoring, and (3) usual care group. Both the mobile and paper groups received a total of 11 face-to-face group sessions in a 6-month intervention. The mobile group received an Android-based smartphone with 2 apps loaded to help them record their diet, physical activity, weight, and blood glucose, along with a connected glucometer, whereas the paper group used paper diaries for these recordings. Primary outcomes of the study included percentage weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) changes over 6 months. A total of 26 patients were enrolled: 11 in the mobile group, 9 in the paper group, and 6 in the control group. We had 92% (24/26) retention rate at 6 months. The sample is predominantly African Americans with an average age of 56.4 years and body mass index of 38.1. Participants lost an

  2. Community interventions for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donna R; Assaf, Annlouise R

    2005-12-01

    Review of the community-based CVD intervention programs suggests that a number of components have been successful using varying methods and materials for CVD risk reduction. It should be noted, however, that in multi-intervention programs it is often difficult to determine which components of the intervention were responsible for the overall success of the study. The community-based approach to CVD prevention is generalizable, cost-effective (because of the use of mass communication methods), and has the potential for modifying the environment and influencing health policies. Based on the experiences and successes of a number of community projects, recommendations have been proposed for developing future programs. Although they are not totally comprehensive, it has been suggested that a community-based intervention program should consider the following recommendations: 1) An understanding of the community: the needs and priorities of the community should be assessed, and close collaboration with individuals from the community, including community leaders, opinion leaders, community health care providers, and community organizations from various sectors of the community, should be consulted. Efforts should be focused on underserved and vulnerable populations. 2) Inclusion of community activities: these activities should be integrated within the context of the community environment, including primary health care services, voluntary organizations, grocery stores, restaurants, work sites, schools, and local media. 3) Inclusion mass media messages: the mass media can provide information and reinforcement of the behavior change. 4) Develop cost-effective interventions to assure that the community is exposed to an effective dose of the intervention. 5) Work with community organizations to help change social and physical environments to make them more conducive to health and healthy life-styles changes. 6) Develop a reliable monitoring and evaluation system: monitor the

  3. Re-Envisioning Human Rights in the Light of Arendt and Rancière: Towards an Agonistic Account of Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2017-01-01

    This article takes up Arendt's "aporetic" framing of human rights as well as Rancière's critique and suggests that reading them together may offer a way to re-envision human rights and human rights education (HRE)--not only because they make visible the perplexities of human rights, but also in that they call for an agonistic…

  4. Background staining of visualization systems in immunohistochemistry: comparison of the Avidin-Biotin Complex system and the EnVision+ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosse, Bettine A H; Seelentag, Walter; Bachmann, Astrid; Bosman, Fred T; Yan, Pu

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate specific immunostaining and background staining in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissues with the 2 most frequently used immunohistochemical detection systems, Avidin-Biotin-Peroxidase (ABC) and EnVision+. A series of fixed tissues, including breast, colon, kidney, larynx, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, prostate, stomach, and tonsil, was used in the study. Three monoclonal antibodies, 1 against a nuclear antigen (Ki-67), 1 against a cytoplasmic antigen (cytokeratin), and 1 against a cytoplasmic and membrane-associated antigen and a polyclonal antibody against a nuclear and cytoplasmic antigen (S-100) were selected for these studies. When the ABC system was applied, immunostaining was performed with and without blocking of endogenous avidin-binding activity. The intensity of specific immunostaining and the percentage of stained cells were comparable for the 2 detection systems. The use of ABC caused widespread cytoplasmic and rare nuclear background staining in a variety of normal and tumor cells. A very strong background staining was observed in colon, gastric mucosa, liver, and kidney. Blocking avidin-binding capacity reduced background staining, but complete blocking was difficult to attain. With the EnVision+ system no background staining occurred. Given the efficiency of the detection, equal for both systems or higher with EnVision+, and the significant background problem with ABC, we advocate the routine use of the EnVision+ system.

  5. Using information technology to reduce asthma disparities in underserved populations: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Perla A; Robles, Elias; Harris, Judith; Radford, Peggy

    2010-10-01

    Low health literacy has been identified as an independent predictor of poor asthma control. The Institute of Medicine considers the role of information technology (IT) as critical in providing "safe, effective, patient centered, timely, efficient, and equitable" care with the potential to reduce health disparities in underserved populations. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate an interactive computer-based questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms in children of parents with limited health literacy and/or limited English proficiency. Volunteer caregivers attending a mobile asthma clinic were randomly assigned to complete the electronic or the paper-and-pencil version of an asthma screening questionnaire (ASQ) in their language of choice (English or Spanish). In the electronic version, a tablet computer was used to present the ASQ questions as video clips and to collect information through the touchscreen. Participants also completed a demographic questionnaire, a brief health literacy questionnaire, and a system usability and satisfaction questionnaire. Reliability of the paper and electronic self-assessments was evaluated by comparing each participant's answers to information they provided during a nurse-guided structured interview (gold standard). A total of 48 parents participated in the study, 26 completed the electronic ASQ and 21 the paper-and-pencil form. Thirty-five percent of the children had well-controlled asthma (n = 17). Most participants were Spanish speaking (67%) Hispanic (n = 44) mothers (n = 43) with a median age of 32 years. More than half had ≤8 years of education (n = 25) and earned education was significant (ρ = .47, p higher than concordance between the paper ASQ and the nurse interview (68% versus 54%; p technology tools may help reduce barriers to access due to inadequate levels of English proficiency and health literacy.

  6. Text4baby program: an opportunity to reach underserved pregnant and postpartum women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazmararian, Julie A; Elon, Lisa; Yang, Baiyu; Graham, Megan; Parker, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Text4baby was launched in 2010 to promote healthy pregnancies and babies by the use of text messaging. The primary objective of this study was to assess factors related to the enrollment process and reception of text4baby. A prospective cohort study was conducted in two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta (April 2010-July 2011). Randomly selected pregnant and postpartum women (n = 468) were queried on cell phone use and instructed on text4baby enrollment. Self-enrollment issues were assessed at one-week follow-up (n = 351, 75.0 %), and message reception and reading patterns at two-month follow-up (n = 209, 44.7 %). Forty-two percent of the women had some college education and 82 % had household income education (80 % with some college vs. 62 % with less education), with household income above $10,000 (61 %  $20,000), and among women living in smaller households (77 % 1-3 members vs. 58 % > 3 members) (all p 90 % reported uninterrupted reception and regular reading of messages, and 88 % planned to continue using text4baby. Results also suggested that respondents who were younger (educated and had lower health literacy skills were more likely to have interrupted messages. Despite substantial interest in the text4baby program in an underserved population, innovative ways to help women with significant disadvantages enroll and receive uninterrupted messages are needed.

  7. The Role of Parenting Practices in the Home Environment among Underserved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Beth A; McGinn, Aileen P; Lounsbury, David W; Diamantis, Pamela M; Groisman-Perelstein, Adriana E; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Isasi, Carmen R

    2015-08-01

    The home environment, which includes parenting practices, is an important setting in which children develop their health behaviors. We examined the role of parenting practices in the home environment among underserved youth. We examined baseline data of a family-focused pediatric obesity intervention. Parenting practices (monitoring, discipline, limit setting of soda/snacks [SS] and screen media [SM], pressure to eat, and reinforcement) and availability of fruits/vegetables (FV) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), family meals, television (TV) watching during meals, TVs in the home, owning active video games/sports equipment, and household food security were assessed in 301 parent/caregivers of overweight/obese children (ages 7-12 years; BMI≥85th percentile). Associations were evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Parents/caregivers (ages 22-67 years) were largely Hispanic/Latino (74.1%), female (92.4%), and reported high levels of limit setting SS and low levels of pressure to eat. Parent age, gender, country of birth, and years living in the United States accounted for differences among several parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression models identified several statistically significant associations, including: Monitoring was positively associated with availability FV (odds ratio [OR]=2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25, 3.82); limit setting SS was inversely associated with availability of SSBs (OR=0.40; 95% CI, 0.21, 0.75); and limit setting SM was inversely associated with TV viewing during family meals (OR=0.51; 95% CI, 0.31, 0.85). Nearly 40% of our population was food insecure, and food insecurity was positively associated with pressure to eat (OR=1.77; 95% CI, 1.01, 3.15). Parenting practices play an important role in the home environment, and longitudinal studies are needed to examine these associations in the context of family-focused pediatric obesity

  8. Registered Nurses' personal rights vs. professional responsibility in caring for members of underserved and disenfranchised populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maze, Claire D Martino

    2005-05-01

    Health disparities exist and refer to the chasms in health status between the advantaged and disadvantaged. Intense multiculturalism will require different approaches and moral obligations to work with these groups and urgency exists to develop nursing caring strategies when dealing with these populations. Development of nursing curricula which identify prejudicial thinking and intolerance for marginalized groups will help to decrease fears and increase nurses' willingness to provide culturally competent health care for underserved and disenfranchised populations. Caring for members of disenfranchised groups instills fear at some level in nurses who are working with these individuals. This fear may be due, in part, to the potential harm nurses perceive the patient may cause them, or perhaps it is because they feel they could possibly be in the individual's situation at some point in their lives. Prejudice and discrimination continue to exist in society and have adversely affected the health care system and the nursing profession. Discrimination may be based on differences due to age, ability, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or any characteristics by which people differ. Registered Nurses are accountable for nursing decisions and actions regardless of personal preferences. Due to the rapidly changing healthcare system the nurse faces increasing ethical dilemmas and human rights issues. Nurses are individually accountable for caring for each patient and the right to refuse an assignment should be carefully interpreted to avoid patient abandonment. Nurses' objections can be based on moral, ethical, or religious beliefs not on personal preferences and in an emergency the nurse must provide treatment regardless of any personal objections.

  9. Exploring the Use of Electronic Mobile Technologies among Distance Learners in Rural Communities for Safe and Disruptive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntloedibe-Kuswani, Gomang Seratwa

    2013-01-01

    Several studies indicated the potential of electronic mobile technologies in reaching (safe learning) under-served communities and engaging (disruptive learning) disadvantaged peoples affording them learning experiences. However, the potential benefits of (electronic mobile learning) e-mobile learning have not been well understood from the…

  10. Community-Based Financial Literacy Education in a Cultural Context: A Study of Teacher Beliefs and Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, Edward W.; Forte, Karin Sprow

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings related to teaching beliefs and pedagogical practices of a study that examined how financial literacy educators educate adults from underserved population groups in community-based settings. The study is theoretically framed in the teaching beliefs and culturally responsive education literature. Findings reveal a…

  11. Envisioning Communications with Future Stakeholders - A Case Study Using the In-Situ Decommissioning of P-Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonucci, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will explore opportunities to expand the CAB's public outreach by the incorporation of technologies typically used in social networks and distance learning. Envisioning opportunities to engage next generation CAB members in public involvement will be delineated by retracing the decision process used with the in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This paper will discuss existing opportunities to enable another group of stakeholders to take part in the environmental policy decision making process regarding the inclusion of some very long lived radioactive constituents. The aim of the paper will be to locate places in the current process where alternate or parallel informational dissemination pathways could exist. These alternatives will incorporate the next generation's expectation for instantaneous information and universal ownership of hand-held communication devices. The goal of this paper is to use the present framework of CAB communications and add the components of virtual networking and distance learning in hopes of bridging the generational technology gap and extending the dialog to future stakeholders. (authors)

  12. EnVision+, a new dextran polymer-based signal enhancement technique for in situ hybridization (ISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedorn, K H; Goldmann, T; Henne, C; Kühl, H; Vollmer, E

    2001-09-01

    Seventy paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens and condylomata were tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) by conventional in situ hybridization (ISH) and ISH with subsequent signal amplification. Signal amplification was performed either by a commercial biotinyl-tyramide-based detection system [GenPoint (GP)] or by the novel two-layer dextran polymer visualization system EnVision+ (EV), in which both EV-horseradish peroxidase (EV-HRP) and EV-alkaline phosphatase (EV-AP) were applied. We could demonstrate for the first time, that EV in combination with preceding ISH results in a considerable increase in signal intensity and sensitivity without loss of specificity compared to conventional ISH. Compared to GP, EV revealed a somewhat lower sensitivity, as measured by determination of the integrated optical density (IOD) of the positively stained cells. However, EV is easier to perform, requires a shorter assay time, and does not raise the background problems that may be encountered with biotinyl-tyramide-based amplification systems. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:1067-1071, 2001)

  13. Evaluating distributed medical education: what are the community's expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Chris; Bates, Joanna; Hanlon, Neil; Snadden, David

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to explore community members' perceptions of present and future impacts of the implementation of an undergraduate medical education programme in an underserved community. We conducted semi-structured interviews with eight key informants representing the health, education, business, economy, media and political sectors. A two-stage approach was used. In the first stage, the interviews were analysed to identify sector-specific impacts informants perceived as already occurring or which they hoped to see in the future. The transcripts were then re-analysed to determine any underlying themes that crossed sectors. Community leaders described impacts that were already occurring in all sectors and also described changes in the community itself. Four underlying themes emerged: an increase in pride and status; partnership development; community self-efficacy, and community development. These underlying themes appear to characterise the development of social capital in the community. The implementation of distributed undergraduate medical education programmes in rural and underserved communities may impact their host communities in ways other than the production of a rural doctor workforce. Further studies to quantify impacts in diverse sectors and to explore possible links with social capital are needed.

  14. Building an argument for Internet expansion in Dwesa- an under-serviced rural community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present research findings that investigate the extent of Internet usage as well as options for extending the current reach of the wireless network in Dwesa, a rural area in South Africa’s Eastern Cape Province. A mix...

  15. Promoting Effective Parenting Practices and Preventing Child Behavior Problems in School among Ethnically Diverse Families from Underserved, Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kingston, Sharon; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Schwab, Amihai; Petkova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of "ParentCorps" among 4-year-old children (N = 171) enrolled in prekindergarten in schools in a large urban school district. "ParentCorps" includes a series of 13 group sessions for parents and children held at the school during early evening hours and facilitated by teachers and mental health…

  16. Community-based lifestyle intervention for underserved Hispanics with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes in Southwest Virginia.

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela, Ivette Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S., diabetes mellitus cases have been increasing, from 25 million in 2010 to 29 million in 2012. Healthy People 2020, the U.S. National Health Agenda, has established specific goals and objectives for diabetes. In the U.S., prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes for adult Hispanics was 38% and 12%, respectively, in 2012. The total estimated diabetes cost in the U.S. has been increasing, from $176 billion in 2007 to $245 billion in 2012. The current study had two research h...

  17. Comprehensive dental services for an underserved and medically compromised population provided through a community partnership and service learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Elisa M; LaBarre, Eugene; Fredekind, Richard; Isakson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco established a comprehensive dental care program at Laguna Honda Hospital, a public, skilled nursing facility. The program had three goals: (1) to provide dental students and residents an opportunity to provide oral health care for adults who were frail and medically compromised who could not come into the clinics, (2) to increase students' access to patients who needed removable prosthodontics, and (3) to fulfill Pacific's commitment to public service. Laguna Honda and Pacific pooled their resources to bring comprehensive dental care to patients who were not able to access the dental school clinics. The long-term goals are to restore and maintain the oral health of those who reside in the facility, and to educate future dentists to provide oral health care for similar populations.

  18. Emotion Regulation Difficulties, Youth-Adult Relationships, and Suicide Attempts among High School Students in Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Anthony R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Petrova, Mariya; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Goldston, David B.; Xia, Yinglin; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2013-01-01

    To develop and refine interventions to prevent youth suicide, knowledge is needed about specific processes that reduce risk at a population level. Using a cross-sectional design, the present study tested hypotheses regarding associations between self-reported suicide attempts, emotion regulation difficulties, and positive youth-adult relationships…

  19. The rural community care gerontologic nurse entrepreneur: role development strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Rosalie A

    2005-10-01

    Rural elderly individuals are an underserved population with limited access to health care. There is an increasing need for independent community care nurses to provide assistance to home-based elderly individuals with chronic illnesses to prevent unnecessary medical and placement decisions and, thus, allow them to maintain independence and quality of life. This article describes the rural setting and why community care nurses are needed, and explores strategies for implementing the role of the independent nurse entrepreneur in caring for community-based elderly individuals in rural settings.

  20. Re-Envisioning Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snaith, Holly; Rosamond, Ben

    2015-01-01

    of EU integration – namely the 1970s oil shocks and the more recent global financial crisis – in order to determine the extent to which these events have been contemporarily defined as providing opportunities to act, or simply challenges to the existing order. The paper provides an analysis of the way...... in which EU actors have mobilised the idea of ‘crisis’ in order to (a) exert control over endogenous and exogenous destabilising forces, (b) (re)define the EU as an object of both political engagement and academic study, and finally (c) make the case for further expansion and integration (particularly....... The comparative nature of the findings helps to contextualise current discourses around the global financial crisis, in order to evaluate the EU’s previous efforts at global repositioning, and the significance of crisis discourse to these efforts....

  1. Examining e-Health literacy and the digital divide in an underserved population in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm; Crosby, Martha E

    2014-02-01

    Seeking health information is one of the leading uses for the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). Research has found the amount one benefits from e-Health information (health information from electronic sources) is directly related to the level of e-Health literacy. e-Health literacy is defined as "the ability to seek, find, understand, and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem." In order to gain a further understanding of the effects and use of technology, the digital divide, and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes, focus group interviews were conducted with participants diagnosed with diabetes and currently residing in a Medically Underserved Area. Overall, 25 volunteers participated in the four focus group meetings. Based on the focus group discussions, a general low e-Health literacy rate was identified. This was demonstrated by the lack of access to the Internet and the skills needed to retrieve health information. Of the 25 participants, 64% reported having Internet access at some level, but, only one reported going on the Internet every day. When the barriers to using the Internet were discussed, many participants expressed a lack of knowledge in how to retrieve information. Results of this study further show that having access to technology is not necessarily associated with usage. This dynamic is evolving into a new form of digital divide, gap in information retrieval and usage, versus gap in access. This is the first known study to examine e-Health literacy in an underserved population in Hawai'i. With the proliferation of information and communication technology and the transformation of information retrieval to be mobile and "on demand", a multi-pronged communication and education strategy is needed to explore how technology can improve e-Health literacy and health outcomes among underserved populations.

  2. Examining e-Health Literacy and the Digital Divide in an Underserved Population in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    Seeking health information is one of the leading uses for the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). Research has found the amount one benefits from e-Health information (health information from electronic sources) is directly related to the level of e-Health literacy. e-Health literacy is defined as “the ability to seek, find, understand, and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem.” In order to gain a further understanding of the effects and use of technology, the digital divide, and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes, focus group interviews were conducted with participants diagnosed with diabetes and currently residing in a Medically Underserved Area. Overall, 25 volunteers participated in the four focus group meetings. Based on the focus group discussions, a general low e-Health literacy rate was identified. This was demonstrated by the lack of access to the Internet and the skills needed to retrieve health information. Of the 25 participants, 64% reported having Internet access at some level, but, only one reported going on the Internet every day. When the barriers to using the Internet were discussed, many participants expressed a lack of knowledge in how to retrieve information. Results of this study further show that having access to technology is not necessarily associated with usage. This dynamic is evolving into a new form of digital divide, gap in information retrieval and usage, versus gap in access. This is the first known study to examine e-Health literacy in an underserved population in Hawai‘i. With the proliferation of information and communication technology and the transformation of information retrieval to be mobile and “on demand”, a multi-pronged communication and education strategy is needed to explore how technology can improve e-Health literacy and health outcomes among underserved populations. PMID:24567867

  3. Application of handheld devices to field research among underserved construction worker populations: a workplace health assessment pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleming Lora E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel low-cost approaches for conducting rapid health assessments and health promotion interventions among underserved worker groups are needed. Recruitment and participation of construction workers is particularly challenging due to their often transient periods of work at any one construction site, and their limited time during work to participate in such studies. In the present methodology report, we discuss the experience, advantages and disadvantages of using touch screen handheld devices for the collection of field data from a largely underserved worker population. Methods In March 2010, a workplace-centered pilot study to examine the feasibility of using a handheld personal device for the rapid health assessment of construction workers in two South Florida Construction sites was undertaken. A 45-item survey instrument, including health-related questions on tobacco exposure, workplace safety practices, musculoskeletal disorders and health symptoms, was programmed onto Apple iPod Touch® devices. Language sensitive (English and Spanish recruitment scripts, verbal consent forms, and survey questions were all preloaded onto the handheld devices. The experience (time to survey administration and capital cost of the handheld administration method was recorded and compared to approaches available in the extant literature. Results Construction workers were very receptive to the recruitment, interview and assessment processes conducted through the handheld devices. Some workers even welcomed the opportunity to complete the questionnaire themselves using the touch screen handheld device. A list of advantages and disadvantages emerged from this experience that may be useful in the rapid health assessment of underserved populations working in a variety of environmental and occupational health settings. Conclusions Handheld devices, which are relatively inexpensive, minimize survey response error, and allow for easy storage of data

  4. Application of handheld devices to field research among underserved construction worker populations: a workplace health assessment pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Clarke, Tainya C; Davila, Evelyn P; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J

    2011-04-01

    Novel low-cost approaches for conducting rapid health assessments and health promotion interventions among underserved worker groups are needed. Recruitment and participation of construction workers is particularly challenging due to their often transient periods of work at any one construction site, and their limited time during work to participate in such studies. In the present methodology report, we discuss the experience, advantages and disadvantages of using touch screen handheld devices for the collection of field data from a largely underserved worker population. In March 2010, a workplace-centered pilot study to examine the feasibility of using a handheld personal device for the rapid health assessment of construction workers in two South Florida Construction sites was undertaken. A 45-item survey instrument, including health-related questions on tobacco exposure, workplace safety practices, musculoskeletal disorders and health symptoms, was programmed onto Apple iPod Touch® devices. Language sensitive (English and Spanish) recruitment scripts, verbal consent forms, and survey questions were all preloaded onto the handheld devices. The experience (time to survey administration and capital cost) of the handheld administration method was recorded and compared to approaches available in the extant literature. Construction workers were very receptive to the recruitment, interview and assessment processes conducted through the handheld devices. Some workers even welcomed the opportunity to complete the questionnaire themselves using the touch screen handheld device. A list of advantages and disadvantages emerged from this experience that may be useful in the rapid health assessment of underserved populations working in a variety of environmental and occupational health settings. Handheld devices, which are relatively inexpensive, minimize survey response error, and allow for easy storage of data. These technological research modalities are useful in the

  5. Enhancing community capacity to support physical activity: the development of a community-based indoor-outdoor walking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Jacome, Mary; Gallant, Mary P; Fisher, Brian D; Gotcsik, Frances S; Strogatz, David S

    2010-04-01

    The University at Albany Prevention Research Center, guided by a needs assessment in two underserved communities (one urban, one rural), initiated a pilot project that opened a public school for community walking in a rural setting. This study examined a 9-week program for potential barriers, benefits, influential factors, and the physical activity levels of program participants. Evaluation was based on daily logs, pedometer diaries, participant surveys, and focus groups. Results indicated that rural schools provide a useful resource for residents and increase participants' physical activity levels. A more comprehensive rural community walking program has been implemented as a result of these findings.

  6. Hearing the Silenced Voices of Underserved Women -The Role of Qualitative Research in Gynecologic and Reproductive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Angela K.; Marsh, Erica E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary for Indexing In order to provide effective evidence-based health care to women, rigorous research that examines women’s lived experiences in their own voices in needed. However, clinical health research has often excluded the experiences of women and minority patient populations. Further, clinical research has often relied on quantitative research strategies; this provides an interesting but limited understanding of women’s health experiences and hinders the provision of effective patient-centered care. In this review, we define qualitative research and its unique contributions to research, and provide examples of how qualitative research has given insights into the reproductive health perspectives and behaviors of underserved women. PMID:28160888

  7. The Regional Asthma Disease Management Program (RADMP) for low income underserved children in rural western North Carolina: a National Asthma Control Initiative Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Melinda S; Yeatts, Karin B; Russell, Donald W; Trees, Amy S; Sutherland, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of low-income children with asthma living in rural western North Carolina have suboptimal asthma management. To address the needs of these underserved children, we developed and implemented the Regional Asthma Disease Management Program (RADMP); RADMP was selected as one of 13 demonstration projects for the National Asthma Control Initiative (NACI). This observational intervention was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in 20 rural counties and the Eastern Band Cherokee Indian Reservation in western North Carolina. Community and individual intervention components included asthma education in-services and environmental assessments/remediation. The individual intervention also included clinical assessment and management. Environmental remediation was conducted in 13 childcare facilities and 50 homes; over 259 administrative staff received asthma education. Fifty children with mild to severe persistent asthma were followed for up to 2 years; 76% were enrolled in Medicaid. From 12-month pre-intervention to 12-month post-intervention, the total number of asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits decreased from 158 to 4 and hospital admissions from 62 to 1 (p < 0.0001). From baseline to intervention completion, lung function FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75 increased by 7.2%, 13.2% and 21.1%, respectively (all p < 0.001), and average school absences dropped from 17 to 8.8 days. Healthcare cost avoided 12 months post-intervention were approximately $882,021. The RADMP program resulted in decreased ED visits, hospitalizations, school absences and improved lung function and eNO. This was the first NACI demonstration project to show substantial improvements in healthcare utilization and clinical outcomes among rural asthmatic children.

  8. The Profile Envision and Splice Tool (PRESTO): Developing an Atmospheric Wind Analysis Tool for Space Launch Vehicles Using Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Brenton, James C.; Decker, Ryan K.

    2017-01-01

    Tropospheric winds are an important driver of the design and operation of space launch vehicles. Multiple types of weather balloons and Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) systems exist at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), co-located on the United States Air Force's (USAF) Eastern Range (ER) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), that are capable of measuring atmospheric winds. Meteorological data gathered by these instruments are being used in the design of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and other space launch vehicles, and will be used during the day-of-launch (DOL) of SLS to aid in loads and trajectory analyses. For the purpose of SLS day-of-launch needs, the balloons have the altitude coverage needed, but take over an hour to reach the maximum altitude and can drift far from the vehicle's path. The DRWPs have the spatial and temporal resolutions needed, but do not provide complete altitude coverage. Therefore, the Natural Environments Branch (EV44) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed the Profile Envision and Splice Tool (PRESTO) to combine balloon profiles and profiles from multiple DRWPs, filter the spliced profile to a common wavelength, and allow the operator to generate output files as well as to visualize the inputs and the spliced profile for SLS DOL operations. PRESTO was developed in Python taking advantage of NumPy and SciPy for the splicing procedure, matplotlib for the visualization, and Tkinter for the execution of the graphical user interface (GUI). This paper describes in detail the Python coding implementation for the splicing, filtering, and visualization methodology used in PRESTO.

  9. Development of a community-based participatory colorectal cancer screening intervention to address disparities, Arkansas, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen; Flowers, Eric; Ford, Gemessia; Burroughs, Desiree; Burton, Jackie; Woods, Delores; Stewart, Chara; Mehta, Paulette; Greene, Paul; Henry-Tillman, Ronda

    2011-03-01

    The death rate from colorectal cancer is high and affects poor and medically underserved populations disproportionately. In the United States, health disparities are particularly acute in the Lower Mississippi River Delta region. Because many in the region have limited access to basic health care resources, they are not screened for cancer, even though screening is one of the most effective strategies to prevent colorectal cancer. Community-based participatory research is a promising approach to prevent colorectal cancer in this population. The Empowering Communities for Life program was implemented in 2 underserved counties in the Arkansas Lower Mississippi River Delta. The program arose from a 9-year partnership between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and 9 cancer councils across Arkansas. Empowering Communities for Life is a community-based participatory intervention designed to increase colorectal cancer screening in rural, underserved communities through fecal occult blood testing. Community and academic partners collaborated to develop research infrastructure, intervention materials and methods, and the assessment instrument. Project outcomes were strengthened community-academic partnerships, certification of community partners in conducting human subjects research, development of a randomized controlled design to test the intervention's efficacy, an interactive PowerPoint presentation, an informational pamphlet, the certification of 6 lay health advisors and 22 role models to provide the intervention, and an assessment tool using an audience response system. Lessons learned in working collaboratively with diverse groups include the importance of meeting face to face and listening.

  10. Potential use of mobile phones in improving animal health service delivery in underserved rural areas: experience from Kilosa and Gairo districts in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Massawe, Lucas B; Silayo, Richard S; Mgongo, Frederick O K; Kimbita, Elikira; Wambura, Raphael M

    2016-10-07

    Sub-optimal performance of the animal health delivery system in rural areas is common in developing countries including Tanzania. However, penetration of mobile phones and availability of good road network and public transport systems offer opportunities for improving the access of rural communities to diagnostic and advisory services from facilities and expertise located in urban areas. A questionnaire survey on possession and use of mobile phones by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Kilosa and Gairo districts was carried out between November and December 2015. A total number of 138 livestock keepers from three villages of Chakwale (54), Mvumi (41) and Parakuyo (43) participated in the study. An e-based system was designed and tested to link rural communities with urban diagnostic facilities. It was observed that the average number of phones possessed by individuals interviewed and household families was 1.1 ± 0.26 (1-2) and 3.5 ± 2.23 (1-10), respectively. It was further observed that out of 138 livestock keepers interviewed, 133 (96.4 %) had feature phones while 10 (7.2 %) of them possessed smartphones. Mobile phone is currently used to support livestock production by communicating on animal health in Parakuyo (18, 41.9 %), Mvumi (18, 43.9 %) and Chakwale (14, 25.9 %). Other contributions of mobile phones in livestock and crop agriculture observed in the study area include: exchange of livestock price information, crop price information, communicating on plant health/diseases, livestock extension and advisory services as well as crop farming extension and advisory services. We also designed and tested an e-based SUAVetDiag® system to support timely diagnosis of infectious disease conditions and prompt advice on case management in veterinary underserved areas. Availability of mobile phones in rural areas, in combination with supporting infrastructure and facilities in urban areas, has potential to stimulate local development and improving

  11. Rewards and challenges of community health center practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Allison M; Chen, Frederick M; Ford, Paul A; Phillips, William R; Stevens, Nancy G

    2014-04-01

    More than 1100 community health centers (CHCs) in the United States provide primary care to 20 million underserved patients annually. CHCs have struggled to recruit and retain qualified physicians. To understand physicians' work experiences in CHCs and identify major sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Using purposeful sampling, we conducted semistructured interviews with 12 family physicians practicing in CHCs. Interview questions assessed physicians' experiences in CHCs and sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Interview notes were coded and analyzed by 2 investigators using a grounded theory approach to identify key themes. Though family physicians feel tremendous satisfaction from care of underserved patients, they are frustrated with the overwhelming workload they experience. Family physicians also report poor administrative management while working in CHCs. Implementation of the Affordable Care Act, which relies on expansion of CHC services, may be adversely affected by family physicians' frustrations with CHC practice. Further research to explore and potentially improve the CHC work environment may be needed.

  12. Envisioning engineering education and practice in the coming intelligence convergence era — a complex adaptive systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the recent attempts for improving and transforming engineering education are reviewed. The attempts aim at providing the entry level engineers with the skills needed to address the challenges of future large-scale complex systems and projects. Some of the frontier sectors and future challenges for engineers are outlined. The major characteristics of the coming intelligence convergence era (the post-information age) are identified. These include the prevalence of smart devices and environments, the widespread applications of anticipatory computing and predictive / prescriptive analytics, as well as a symbiotic relationship between humans and machines. Devices and machines will be able to learn from, and with, humans in a natural collaborative way. The recent game changers in learnscapes (learning paradigms, technologies, platforms, spaces, and environments) that can significantly impact engineering education in the coming era are identified. Among these are open educational resources, knowledge-rich classrooms, immersive interactive 3D learning, augmented reality, reverse instruction / flipped classroom, gamification, robots in the classroom, and adaptive personalized learning. Significant transformative changes in, and mass customization of, learning are envisioned to emerge from the synergistic combination of the game changers and other technologies. The realization of the aforementioned vision requires the development of a new multidisciplinary framework of emergent engineering for relating innovation, complexity and cybernetics, within the future learning environments. The framework can be used to treat engineering education as a complex adaptive system, with dynamically interacting and communicating components (instructors, individual, small, and large groups of learners). The emergent behavior resulting from the interactions can produce progressively better, and continuously improving, learning environment. As a first step towards the realization of

  13. Partnering on a Curriculum To Address the Dental Care Crisis in a Rural Island Community: The First Step of a Career Ladder Program in Dental Assisting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, J. A.; Johnson, Nancy

    This document describes the curriculum and objectives of the Certificate of Completion in Dental Assisting at Maui Community College, Hawaii. Hawaii is below the national average in oral health care, with as many as 40% of Maui residents being underserved. Dental disease among the uninsured and underinsured in Hawaii is three times the national…

  14. Breast Cancer Outreach for Underserved Women: A Randomized Trial and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pasick, Rena

    1997-01-01

    ... screening, and that have been evaluated for cost-effectiveness. Based on the successes of a nearly completed NCI-funded community intervention trial, the Breast and Cervical Cancer Intervention Study (BACCIS...

  15. Breastfeeding Patterns in the Rural Community of Hilo, Hawai‘i: An Exploration of Existing Data Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Jeanie L

    2013-01-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai‘i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai‘i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in...

  16. The South Asian heart lifestyle intervention (SAHELI) study to improve cardiovascular risk factors in a community setting: Design and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kandula, Namratha R.; Patel, Yasin; Dave, Swapna; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W.; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2013-01-01

    Disseminating and implementing evidence-based, cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention lifestyle interventions in community settings and in ethnic minority populations is a challenge. We describe the design and methods for the South Asian heart lifestyle intervention (SAHELI) study, a pilot study designed to determine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a culturally-targeted, community-based lifestyle intervention to improve physical activity and diet behaviors among medically underserved...

  17. SafeMed: Using pharmacy technicians in a novel role as community health workers to improve transitions of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James E; Surbhi, Satya; Bell, Paula C; Jones, Angel M; Rashed, Sahar; Ugwueke, Michael O

    2016-01-01

    To describe the design, implementation, and early experience of the SafeMed program, which uses certified pharmacy technicians in a novel expanded role as community health workers (CPhT-CHWs) to improve transitions of care. A large nonprofit health care system serving the major medically underserved areas and geographic hotspots for readmissions in Memphis, TN. The SafeMed program is a care transitions program with an emphasis on medication management designed to use low-cost health workers to improve transitions of care from hospital to home for superutilizing patients with multiple chronic conditions and polypharmacy. CPhT-CHWs were given primary responsibility for patient outreach after hospital discharge with the use of home visits and telephone follow-up. SafeMed program CPhT-CHWs served as pharmacist extenders, obtaining medication histories, assisting in medication reconciliation and identification of potential drug therapy problems (DTPs), and reinforcing medication education previously provided by the pharmacist per protocol. CPhT-CHW training included patient communication skills, motivational interviewing, medication history taking, teach-back techniques, drug disposal practices, and basic disease management. Some CPhT-CHWs experienced difficulties adjusting to an expanded scope of practice. Nonetheless, once the Tennessee Board of Pharmacy affirmed that envisioned SafeMed CPhT-CHW roles were consistent with Board rules, additional responsibilities were added for CPhT-CHWs to enhance their effectiveness. Patient outreach teams including CPhT-CHWs achieved increases in home visit and telephone follow-up rates and were successful in helping identify potential DTPs. The early experience of the SafeMed program demonstrates that CPhT-CHWs are well suited for novel expanded roles to improve care transitions for superutilizing populations. CPhT-CHWs can identify and report potential DTPs to the pharmacist to help target medication therapy management. Critical

  18. Community strategies to address cancer disparities in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Fields, Nell

    2012-01-01

    Central Appalachian residents suffer disproportionate health disparities, including an all-cancer mortality rate 17% higher than the general population. During 10 focus groups and 19 key informant interviews, 91 Appalachian residents identified cancer screening challenges and strategies. Challenges included (1) inadequate awareness of screening need, (2) insufficient access to screening, and (3) lack of privacy. Strategies included (1) witnessing/storytelling, (2) capitalizing on family history, (3) improving publicity about screening resources, (4) relying on lay health advisors, and (5) bundling preventive services. These insights shaped our community-based participatory research intervention and offered strategies to others working in Appalachia, rural locales, and other traditionally underserved communities.

  19. Preparing Historically Underserved Students for STEM Careers: The Role of an Inquiry-based High School Science Sequence Beginning with Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Jon P.

    Improving the STEM readiness of students from historically underserved groups is a moral and economic imperative requiring greater attention and effort than has been shown to date. The current literature suggests a high school science sequence beginning with physics and centered on developing conceptual understanding, using inquiry labs and modeling to allow students to explore new ideas, and addressing and correcting student misconceptions can increase student interest in and preparation for STEM careers. The purpose of this study was to determine if the science college readiness of historically underserved students can be improved by implementing an inquiry-based high school science sequence comprised of coursework in physics, chemistry, and biology for every student. The study used a retrospective cohort observational design to address the primary research question: are there differences between historically underserved students completing a Physics First science sequence and their peers completing a traditional science sequence in 1) science college-readiness test scores, 2) rates of science college-and career-readiness, and 3) interest in STEM? Small positive effects were found for all three outcomes for historically underserved students in the Physics First sequence.

  20. Attitude towards Community Building in Association of Southeast Asian Nations: A Public Opinion Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran Moorthy; Guido Benny

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) envisioned an integrated regional community by the year 2015, following the European Union model. However, unlike the European Community which was formed after years of discussion at different levels of society, institutions and government, ASEAN was rather quick to conceptualize this initiative, without seeking the feedbacks for the public. Consequently, ASEAN Community initiative has been criticized for being elitist in i...

  1. Inclusion of underserved racial and ethnic groups in cancer intervention research using new media: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hayley S; Shelton, Rachel C; Mitchell, Jamie; Eaton, Tara; Valera, Pamela; Katz, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An increasing number of behavioral and psychosocial cancer interventions incorporate new media elements that are digital, networked, and interactive. However, it is unclear to what extent new media is being leveraged to benefit underserved racial and ethnic groups who disproportionately bear the burden of cancer. This inquiry is timely in light of growing evidence that these groups are receptive to new media. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the inclusion of these groups in research on cancer-related new media interventions and use of new media to reduce racial and ethnic cancer disparities. A systematic search of three databases was conducted for articles published between January 2000 and March 2012 that presented studies of user experience with a behavioral or psychosocial cancer-related intervention with at least one new media component. Thirty-six articles were included in the final review. In about one-quarter of the studies, less than 20% of participants were African American, Latino, Asian American, or American Indian. In less than 10% of the studies, 80% or more of the samples were members of the aforementioned groups. Almost one-third of the studies reviewed were categorized as disparity focused but limited data were available on racial and ethnic differences in responses to new media interventions. Findings suggest that the promise and potential of new media cancer interventions are largely unrealized among the underserved. Additional research is needed to investigate a wide range of issues related to the development and delivery of such interventions in diverse racial and ethnic groups.

  2. Re-Envisioned Contributions: Experiences of Faculty Employed at Institutional Types That Differ from Their Original Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terosky, Aimee LaPointe; Gonzales, Leslie D.

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the theory of figured worlds, this qualitative study focuses on 18 faculty members employed at community colleges, broad access liberal arts, comprehensives, and regional research universities, who have constructed professionally and personally meaningful careers at institutions that differ from their original aspirations and/or their…

  3. Designing a community-based lay health advisor training curriculum to address cancer health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K; Ashley, Atalie A; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B Lee

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. APPROACH AND STRATEGIES: Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic-community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research.

  4. Kindness as a collective wish to co-design with communities using physical installation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chueng-Nainby, P.; Lin, X.; Hu, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a co-design intervention experimented with ‘kindness’ as a community value for social innovation during Dutch Design Week 2014. We discuss the insights gathered from the practice-based research aimed to envision and enact community’s creative imagery as a shared space for

  5. Assessing predictors of contraceptive use and demand for family planning services in underserved areas of Punjab province in Pakistan: results of a cross-sectional baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Khan, Omar Farooq; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Munroe, Erik

    2015-03-28

    Although Pakistan was one of the first countries in Asia to launch national family planning programs, current modern contraceptive use stands at only 26% with a method mix skewed toward short-acting and permanent methods. As part of a multiyear operational research study, a baseline survey was conducted to understand the predictors of contraceptive use and demand for family planning services in underserved areas of Punjab province in Pakistan. This paper presents the baseline survey results; the outcomes of the intervention will be presented in a separate paper after the study has been completed. A cross-sectional baseline household survey was conducted with randomly selected 3,998 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in the Chakwal, Mianwali, and Bhakkar districts of Punjab. The data were analyzed on SPSS 17.0 using simple descriptive and logistic regression. Most of the women had low socio-economic status and were younger than 30 years of age. Four-fifths of the women consulted private sector health facilities for reproductive health services; proximity, availability of services, and good reputation of the provider were the main predicators for choosing the facilities. Husbands were reported as the key decision maker regarding health-seeking and family planning uptake. Overall, the current contraceptive use ranged from 17% to 21% across the districts: condoms and female sterilization were widely used methods. Woman's age, husband's education, wealth quintiles, spousal communication, location of last delivery, and favorable attitude toward contraception have an association with current contraceptive use. Unmet need for contraception was 40.6%, 36.6%, and 31.9% in Chakwal, Mianwali, and Bhakkar, respectively. Notably, more than one fifth of the women across the districts expressed willingness to use quality, affordable long-term family planning services in the future. The baseline results highlight the need for quality, affordable long-term family planning

  6. Promotores de salud and community health workers: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestRasmus, Emma K; Pineda-Reyes, Fernando; Tamez, Montelle; Westfall, John M

    2012-01-01

    For underserved and disenfranchised communities in the United States, affordable, effective health care can be nearly inaccessible, which often leads to the exclusion of these communities from relevant medical information and care. Barriers to care are especially salient in minority communities, where language, traditions and customs, socioeconomics, and access to education can serve as additional roadblocks to accessing health care information and services. These factors have contributed to a national health disparity crisis that unnecessarily places some communities in a vulnerable position without adequate prevention and treatment opportunities. One solution to the exclusion some communities face in the health care system may be the promotores de salud (PdS)/community health worker (CHW), an approach to culturally competent health care delivery whose popularity in the mainstream health care system has been steadily growing in recent decades. Known by a wide variety of names and broad in the spectrum of health issues they address, the PdS/CHW serves as cultural brokers between their own community and the formal health care system and can play a crucial role in promoting health and wellness within their community. This annotated bibliography was created to educate the reader about the history, definition, key features, utility, outcomes, and broad potential of the CHW approach in a variety of populations. Intended to serve as a reference point to a vast body of information on the CHW/PdS approach, this document is a resource for those wishing to effect change in the disparities within the health care system, and to improve the access to, quality, and cost of health care for underserved patients and their communities. Promotores de Salud is a Spanish term that translates to Health Promoter. A female health worker may be referred to as a Promotora, a male as a Promotor, and the plural of both is Promotores. For the purposes of this bibliography, the terms community

  7. Dental care for the underserved children of Monterey County: meeting the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R E

    1998-05-01

    With its expansive area, and the special needs of agricultural workers, Monterey County held significant challenges for setting up a children's health clinic. Part of the solution to addressing the county's unmet dental needs was the establishment of the Children's Miracle Network dental center in 1995. But working in the fields leaves little time for travel to appointments, so the dental center expanded to a mobile unit that can go where the need is. Understanding the special needs of one's community is crucial to establishing programs that can successfully address the state's needs for children's dental care.

  8. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2003-01-01

    .... The central tenet of the CHTC project is the utilization of TeleHealth technology to improve and expand the opportunity for rural and urban underserved populations to receive quality, affordable health care...

  9. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Jr, Elton L

    2007-01-01

    .... The central tenet of the CHTC project is the utilization of TeleHealth technology to improve and expand the opportunity for rural and urban underserved populations to receive quality, affordable health care...

  10. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2004-01-01

    .... The central tenet of the CHTC project is the utilization of TeleHealth technology to improve and expand the opportunity for rural and urban underserved populations to receive quality, affordable health care...

  11. Examining the Influence of Cost Concern and Awareness of Low-cost Health Care on Cancer Screening among the Medically Underserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Alicia L; Strane, Alcha; Christie, Omari; Bynum, Shalanda; Wiltshire, Jaqueline

    2017-01-01

    African Americans suffer a greater burden of mortality from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers than other groups in the United States. Early detection through timely screening can improve survival outcomes; however, cost is frequently reported as a barrier to screening. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) provide preventive and primary care to underserved populations regardless of ability to pay, positioning them to improve cancer screening rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of concern about health care cost (cost concern) and awareness of low-cost health care (awareness) on cancer screening among 236 African Americans within an FQHC service area using self-report surveys. Multiple logistic regression indicated that awareness was positively associated with cervical and colorectal cancer screening, while cost concern was negatively associated with mammography screening. Results indicate that improving awareness and understanding of low-cost health care could increase cancer screening among underserved African Americans.

  12. Perceived impact of an interprofessional education program on community resilience: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Marion Kimball; McEwen, Marylyn Morris

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived impact of an interprofessional education (IPE) program for health sciences students on two culturally diverse, underserved communities. A community resilience/capacity framework, consisting of catalysts (primarily the creation of awareness) and capital components: human (workforce development), social (networking and empowerment) and economic (volunteer labor and money spent by the program), provided the conceptual underpinnings for the study. Focus groups with stakeholders in two communities, one rural and one metropolitan, were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed by categorizing data according to each capital component. In addition to the concepts contained in the capacity framework a new category, informational capital (data specific to the community) emerged during the analysis. We suggest that by acting as a catalyst a community based interprofessional program can affect components of community resilience/capacity, primarily human, social, and informational capital. Using the community resilience/capacity framework facilitated exploration of the perceived impact of an educational program on one rural and one urban underserved community beyond assessing student outcomes or number of clients served.

  13. The role of motivation in understanding social contextual influences on physical activity in underserved adolescents in the ACT Trial: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawman, Hannah G; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Zarrett, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has shown that social contextual factors are important in understanding physical activity (PA) behavior, although little is known about how these factors may relate to PA, especially in underserved adolescents (low income, minorities). This study examined how motivation may differentially mediate the relationship of two social contextual variables (i.e., peer and parent social support) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Baseline data (n = 1421 sixth graders, 54% female, 72% African American) from the Active by Choice Today (ACT) trial in underserved adolescents were analyzed. Motivation was examined as a mediator of the relationships between peer social support, parent social support, and MVPA (measured by 7-day accelerometer estimates). Motivation and peer but not parent support were significantly related to MVPA overall. Significant mediation effects were found indicating motivation partially mediated the relation between peer social support and MVPA and to a lesser degree parent support and MVPA. These findings provide support for the importance of social contextual influences, especially peer social support, on underserved adolescents' PA and motivation for PA.

  14. Camp NERF: methods of a theory-based nutrition education recreation and fitness program aimed at preventing unhealthy weight gain in underserved elementary children during summer months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Fristad, Mary; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Eneli, Ihuoma; Holloman, Chris; Kennel, Julie A; Melnyk, Bernadette; Gunther, Carolyn

    2016-10-26

    The number of obese children in the US remains high, which is problematic due to the mental, physical, and academic effects of obesity on child health. Data indicate that school-age children, particularly underserved children, experience unhealthy gains in BMI at a rate nearly twice as fast during the summer months. Few efforts have been directed at implementing evidence-based programming to prevent excess weight gain during the summer recess. Camp NERF is an 8-week, multi-component (nutrition, physical activity, and mental health), theory-based program for underserved school-age children in grades Kindergarten - 5th coupled with the USDA Summer Food Service Program. Twelve eligible elementary school sites will be randomized to one of the three programming groups: 1) Active Control (non-nutrition, physical activity, or mental health); 2) Standard Care (nutrition and physical activity); or 3) Enhanced Care (nutrition, physical activity, and mental health) programming. Anthropometric, behavioral, and psychosocial data will be collected from child-caregiver dyads pre- and post-intervention. Site-specific characteristics and process evaluation measures will also be collected. This is the first, evidence-based intervention to address the issue of weight gain during the summer months among underserved, school-aged children. Results from this study will provide researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals with insight on evidence-based programming to aid in childhood obesity prevention during this particular window of risk. NCT02908230/09-19-2016.

  15. Health Literacy among Medically Underserved: The Role of Demographic Factors, Social Influence, and Religious Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Gwede, Clement K; Sutton, Steven K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Davis, Stacy N; Abdulla, Rania; Ravindra, Chitra; Schultz, Ida; Roetzheim, Richard; Meade, Cathy D

    2017-11-01

    The current study examined the sociodemographic and psychosocial variables that predicted being at risk for low health literacy among a population of racially and ethnically diverse patients accessing primary care services at community-based clinics. Participants (N = 416) were aged 50-75 years, currently not up-to-date with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, at average CRC risk, and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at promoting CRC screening. Participants completed a baseline interview that assessed health literacy as measured by Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised, sociodemographic factors, and psychosocial variables (e.g., health beliefs) prior to randomization and receipt of an intervention. Thirty-six percent of the participants were found to be at risk for low health literacy. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were assessed as predictors of being at risk for low health literacy using logistic regression. In the final model, predictors were male gender, being from a racial/ethnic minority group, being unable to work, having higher social influence scores, and having higher religious belief scores. These findings suggest several patient characteristics that may be associated with low health literacy, and highlight the importance of supporting all patients through simplified and clear communications and information to improve understanding of CRC screening information.

  16. "Don't know" responses to risk perception measures: implications for underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Hay, Jennifer L; Orom, Heather; Kiviniemi, Marc T; Drake, Bettina F

    2013-02-01

    Risk perceptions are legitimate targets for behavioral interventions because they can motivate medical decisions and health behaviors. However, some survey respondents may not know (or may not indicate) their risk perceptions. The scope of "don't know" (DK) responding is unknown. Examine the prevalence and correlates of responding DK to items assessing perceived risk of colorectal cancer. Two nationally representative, population-based, cross-sectional surveys (2005 National Health Interview Survey [NHIS]; 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey [HINTS]), and one primary care clinic-based survey comprised of individuals from low-income communities. Analyses included 31,202 (NHIS), 1,937 (HINTS), and 769 (clinic) individuals. Five items assessed perceived risk of colorectal cancer. Four of the items differed in format and/or response scale: comparative risk (NHIS, HINTS); absolute risk (HINTS, clinic), and "likelihood" and "chance" response scales (clinic). Only the clinic-based survey included an explicit DK response option. "Don't know" responding was 6.9% (NHIS), 7.5% (HINTS-comparative), and 8.7% (HINTS-absolute). "Don't know" responding was 49.1% and 69.3% for the "chance" and "likely" response options (clinic). Correlates of DK responding were characteristics generally associated with disparities (e.g., low education), but the pattern of results varied among samples, question formats, and response scales. The surveys were developed independently and employed different methodologies and items. Consequently, the results were not directly comparable. There may be multiple explanations for differences in the magnitude and characteristics of DK responding. "Don't know" responding is more prevalent in populations affected by health disparities. Either not assessing or not analyzing DK responses could further disenfranchise these populations and negatively affect the validity of research and the efficacy of interventions seeking to eliminate health disparities.

  17. Collaboration Among Institutions to Bring Geospatial Technology to an Underserved Rural Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Maine at Machias and Washington County Community College, the two smallest and most remote public institutions in Maine, provide important education and workforce development services in a rural and economically-challenged region. Through an innovative collaboration supported by the National Science Foundation, the two institutions have developed geospatial technology (GST) programs designed to meet the specific workforce needs of the region, affording students with the opportunity to pursue degrees, certificates and minors. Prior to this effort, neither school had the resources to maintain a GST laboratory or to offer courses consistently. The region had almost no GST capacity with which to manage critical environmental resources and grapple with economic, public safety, and public health challenges. Several statewide studies had shown a growing need for more GST technicians and training for incumbent workers. The new programs are designed to produce a small number of specialist technicians with associate's degrees and a large number of ancillary users with significant GST expertise from courses, certificates or minors. Course content is shaped by workforce research in Maine and elsewhere, and all courses are offered in either blended, online or short-term intensive formats to provide access to incumbent workers and extend the geographic reach of the programs. Through the university's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Service Center, students from both institutions engage in real-world projects, and are linked with employers via internships. This has the added plus of providing low-cost and no-cost GIS services to area clients, generating demand. Many of these projects and internships lead to work for graduates, even through the economic downturn. By creating courses that serve multiple audiences, each contributing a small number to the total enrollment, the programs constitute a sustainable model that serves the growing needs of the region

  18. Experiences, opportunities and challenges of implementing task shifting in underserved remote settings: the case of Kongwa district, central Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munga Michael A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is experiencing acute shortages of Health Workers (HWs, a situation which has forced health managers, especially in the underserved districts, to hastily cope with health workers’ shortages by adopting task shifting. This has however been due to limited options for dealing with the crisis of health personnel. There are on-going discussions in the country on whether to scale up task shifting as one of the strategies for addressing health personnel crisis. However, these discussions are not backed up by rigorous scientific evidence. The aim of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, to describe the current situation of implementing task shifting in the context of acute shortages of health workers and, secondly, to provide a descriptive account of the potential opportunities or benefits and the likely challenges which might ensue as a result of implementing task shifting. Methods We employed in-depth interviews with informants at the district level and supplemented the information with additional interviews with informants at the national level. Interviews focussed on the informants’ practical experiences of implementing task shifting in their respective health facilities (district level and their opinions regarding opportunities and challenges which might be associated with implementation of task shifting practices. At the national level, the main focus was on policy issues related to management of health personnel in the context of implementation of task shifting, in addition to seeking their opinions and perceptions regarding opportunities and challenges of implementing task shifting if formally adopted. Results Task shifting has been in practice for many years in Tanzania and has been perceived as an inevitable coping mechanism due to limited options for addressing health personnel shortages in the country. Majority of informants had the concern that quality of services is likely to be affected if appropriate policy

  19. Enhancing Maternal and Perinatal Health in Under-Served Remote Areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Tanzanian Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo S Nyamtema

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio (MMR, unmet need for emergency obstetric care and health inequities across the country are in a critical state, particularly in rural areas. This study was established to determine the feasibility and impact of decentralizing comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care (CEmONC services in underserved rural areas using associate clinicians.Ten health centres (HCs were upgraded by constructing and equipping maternity blocks, operating rooms, laboratories, staff houses and installing solar panels, standby generators and water supply systems. Twenty-three assistant medical officers (advanced level associate clinicians, and forty-four nurse-midwives and clinical officers (associate clinicians were trained in CEmONC and anaesthesia respectively. CEmONC services were launched between 2009 and 2012. Monthly supportive supervision and clinical audits of adverse pregnancy outcomes were introduced in 2011 in these HCs and their respective district hospitals.After launching CEmONC services from 2009 to 2014 institutional deliveries increased in all upgraded rural HCs. Mean numbers of monthly deliveries increased by 151% and obstetric referrals decreased from 9% to 3% (p = 0.03 in HCs. A total of 43,846 deliveries and 2,890 caesarean sections (CS were performed in these HCs making the mean proportion of all births in EmONC facilities of 128% and mean population-based CS rate of 9%. There were 190 maternal deaths and 1,198 intrapartum and very early neonatal deaths (IVEND in all health facilities. Generally, health centres had statistically significantly lower maternal mortality ratios and IVEND rates than district hospitals (p < 0.00 and < 0.02 respectively. Of all deaths (maternal and IVEND 84% to 96% were considered avoidable.These findings strongly indicate that remotely located health centres in resource limited settings hold a great potential to increase accessibility to CEmONC services and to improve

  20. The Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, Medicaid, and breast cancer outcomes among Ohio's underserved women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroukian, Siran M; Bakaki, Paul M; Htoo, Phyo Than; Han, Xiaozhen; Schluchter, Mark; Owusu, Cynthia; Cooper, Gregory S; Rose, Johnie; Flocke, Susan A

    2017-08-15

    As an organized screening program, the national Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCEDP) was launched in the early 1990s to improve breast cancer outcomes among underserved women. To analyze the impact of the BCCEDP on breast cancer outcomes in Ohio, this study compared cancer stages and mortality across BCCEDP participants, Medicaid beneficiaries, and "all others." This study linked data across the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, Medicaid, the BCCEDP database, death certificates, and the US Census and identified 26,426 women aged 40 to 64 years who had been diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer during the years 2002-2008 (deaths through 2010). The study groups were as follows: BCCEDP participants (1-time or repeat users), Medicaid beneficiaries (women enrolled in Medicaid before their cancer diagnosis [Medicaid/prediagnosis] or around the time of their cancer diagnosis [Medicaid/peridiagnosis]), and all others (women identified as neither BCCEDP participants nor Medicaid beneficiaries). The outcomes included advanced-stage cancer at diagnosis and mortality. A multivariable logistic and survival analysis was conducted to examine the independent association between the BCCEDP and Medicaid status and the outcomes. The percentage of women presenting with advanced-stage disease was highest among women in the Medicaid/peridiagnosis group (63.4%) and lowest among BCCEDP repeat users (38.6%). With adjustments for potential confounders and even in comparison with Medicaid/prediagnosis beneficiaries, those in the Medicaid/peridiagnosis group were twice as likely to be diagnosed with advanced-stage disease (adjusted odds ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.83-2.66). Medicaid/peridiagnosis women are at particularly high risk to be diagnosed with advanced-stage disease. Efforts to reduce breast cancer disparities must target this group of women before they present to Medicaid. Cancer 2017;123:3097-106. © 2017 American Cancer Society

  1. Enhancing Maternal and Perinatal Health in Under-Served Remote Areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Tanzanian Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamtema, Angelo S; Mwakatundu, Nguke; Dominico, Sunday; Mohamed, Hamed; Pemba, Senga; Rumanyika, Richard; Kairuki, Clementina; Kassiga, Irene; Shayo, Allan; Issa, Omary; Nzabuhakwa, Calist; Lyimo, Chagi; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio (MMR), unmet need for emergency obstetric care and health inequities across the country are in a critical state, particularly in rural areas. This study was established to determine the feasibility and impact of decentralizing comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care (CEmONC) services in underserved rural areas using associate clinicians. Ten health centres (HCs) were upgraded by constructing and equipping maternity blocks, operating rooms, laboratories, staff houses and installing solar panels, standby generators and water supply systems. Twenty-three assistant medical officers (advanced level associate clinicians), and forty-four nurse-midwives and clinical officers (associate clinicians) were trained in CEmONC and anaesthesia respectively. CEmONC services were launched between 2009 and 2012. Monthly supportive supervision and clinical audits of adverse pregnancy outcomes were introduced in 2011 in these HCs and their respective district hospitals. After launching CEmONC services from 2009 to 2014 institutional deliveries increased in all upgraded rural HCs. Mean numbers of monthly deliveries increased by 151% and obstetric referrals decreased from 9% to 3% (p = 0.03) in HCs. A total of 43,846 deliveries and 2,890 caesarean sections (CS) were performed in these HCs making the mean proportion of all births in EmONC facilities of 128% and mean population-based CS rate of 9%. There were 190 maternal deaths and 1,198 intrapartum and very early neonatal deaths (IVEND) in all health facilities. Generally, health centres had statistically significantly lower maternal mortality ratios and IVEND rates than district hospitals (p < 0.00 and < 0.02 respectively). Of all deaths (maternal and IVEND) 84% to 96% were considered avoidable. These findings strongly indicate that remotely located health centres in resource limited settings hold a great potential to increase accessibility to CEmONC services and to improve maternal and

  2. Telehealth for diabetes self-management education and support in an underserved, free clinic population: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatt, Tiffaney B; Ward, Eileen D

    Primary study objectives were to (1) describe mean change in A1c from baseline of a free clinic population enrolled in telehealth diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) services and (2) to compare change in A1C and other clinical outcomes measures with free clinic patients enrolled in a traditional face-to-face DSME/S program. An exploratory study design and comparative evaluation of telehealth DSME/S services in a free clinic population was used. Baseline clinical measures were collected upon referral. Diabetes educators met with patients individually over 2-3 months. Clinical outcomes measures were collected within 6 months of program completion. Data from the telehealth group was assessed individually and compared to a free clinic traditional DSME/S program population. Twelve patients completed a telehealth free clinic DSME/S pilot program with a mean ± SD change in A1C from baseline of -1.03 ± 1.53% (P = 0.050). Mean ± SD change in A1C from baseline in the free clinic population participating in traditional face-to-face DSME/S services was -1.42 ± 1.80% (P = 0.001). No significant differences in secondary outcomes measures, including body mass index and blood pressure, were revealed among the study populations. Expanding access to care in populations faced with challenges of socioeconomics, limited education, and lower health literacy is a step toward reducing health disparities and positively affecting care. Mean A1C can be improved with telehealth DSME/S services in an underserved, free clinic population. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of racial and ethnic group and health literacy on responses to genomic risk information in a medically underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Stafford, Jewel D; McGowan, Lucy D'Agostino; Seo, Joann; Lachance, Christina R; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have examined how individuals respond to genomic risk information for common, chronic diseases. This randomized study examined differences in responses by type of genomic information (genetic test/family history) and disease condition (diabetes/heart disease), and by race/ethnicity in a medically underserved population. 1,057 English-speaking adults completed a survey containing 1 of 4 vignettes (2-by-2 randomized design). Differences in dependent variables (i.e., interest in receiving genomic assessment, discussing with doctor or family, changing health habits) by experimental condition and race/ethnicity were examined using chi-squared tests and multivariable regression analysis. No significant differences were found in dependent variables by type of genomic information or disease condition. In multivariable models, Hispanics were more interested in receiving a genomic assessment than Whites (OR = 1.93; p literacy had greater interest than those with adequate health literacy. Blacks (OR = 1.78; p = .001) and Hispanics (OR = 1.85; p = .001) had greater interest in discussing information with family than Whites. Non-Hispanic Blacks (OR = 1.45; p = .04) had greater interest in discussing genomic information with a doctor than Whites. Blacks (β = -0.41; p literacy was negatively associated with number of health habits participants intended to change. Findings suggest that race/ethnicity may affect responses to genomic risk information. Additional research could examine how cognitive representations of this information differ across racial/ethnic groups. Health literacy is also critical to consider in developing approaches to communicating genomic information.

  4. Macular edema in underserved diabetic patients: Improving detection by enhancing the optical signature and data analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamami, Mastour Abdullah

    Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema are chief causes of vision loss in working adults. Thus, retinal screening of patients with diabetes has become standard practice in some countries to prevent visual impairment and blindness from diabetic retinopathy. One goal is to improve techniques currently used to diagnose diabetic retinopathy. Another goal is to probe pathophysiological changes seen with imaging methods. Analysis was performed on a novel dataset from more than 2000 underserved adult diabetic patients, who were recruited for a screening study for diabetic eye disease. Data were collected from four county clinics at Alameda Health, Alameda County, CA. Over 90% of patients self-identified as a racial/ethnic identity other than non-Hispanic white. We investigated the prevalence and optical properties of macular edema. In the first study, a retrospective cohort study was performed to compare macular thickness in diabetic patients with and without macular edema to determine the presence of damage to the external limiting membrane or and the relation of damage to the ELM to damage to photoreceptors. In the second study, we investigated whether the information in red light better visualizes cysts in diabetic macular edema, as compared to green light. In the third study, we investigated whether the demographic and blood glucose information predict diabetic macular edema. Three logistic regression analyses were compared. In the fourth study, we examined how different outcome measures of retinal thickness vary with demographic and blood glucose measures, using a trichotomous variable for retinal thickness. The findings point strongly to large individual differences in the development of macular edema, which is difficult to diagnose with the most common methods in dark eyes. Further, while blood glucose was found to be important, there are additional differences in the potential for macular edema that are associated with ethnic group and gender.

  5. Promoting Community Health and Eliminating Health Disparities Through Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  6. Self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression as predictors of poststroke self-care among underserved ethnic minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. Robertson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Underserved ethnic minorities have multiple chronic disease risk factors, including tobacco, alcohol and substance use, which contribute to increased incidence of stroke. Self-efficacy (self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression may directly and indirectly influence engagement in post stroke self-care behaviors. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression, on tobacco, alcohol and substance use in a sample of largely ethnic minority, underserved stroke survivors (n=52. Participants previously recruited for a culturally tailored secondary stroke prevention self-care intervention were included. The treatment group received three stroke self-care sessions. The usual care group completed assessments only. Both groups were included in these analyses. Main outcome measures included tobacco, alcohol and substance use. Self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression were also assessed. Logistic regression analyses, using self-efficacy, religious practice and depression as the referents, were used to predict binary outcomes of tobacco, alcohol and substance use at 4-weeks post-stroke. Higher depression and self-care self-efficacy were associated with reduced odds of smoking and substance use. Greater participation in religious activities was associated with lower odds of alcohol use. We can conclude that incorporating depression treatment and techniques to increase self-care self-efficacy, and encouraging religious participation may help to improve stroke self-care behaviors for underserved and low socioeconomic status individuals. Results are discussed in the context of stroke self-management.

  7. Leveraging community-academic partnerships to improve healthy food access in an urban, Kansas City, Kansas, community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabachi, Natabhona M; Kimminau, Kim S

    2012-01-01

    Americans can combat overweight (OW) and obesity by eating unprocessed, fresh foods. However, all Americans do not have equal access to these recommended foods. Low-income, minority, urban neighborhoods in particular often have limited access to healthy resources, although they are vulnerable to higher levels of OW and obesity. This project used community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to investigate the food needs of residents and develop a business plan to improve access to healthy food options in an urban, Kansas City, Kansas, neighborhood. Partner community organizations were mobilized to conduct a Community Food Assessment survey. The surveys were accompanied by flyers that were part of the communication engagement strategy. Statistical analysis of the surveys was conducted. We engaged low-income, minority population (40% Latino, 30% African American) urban communities at the household level. Survey results provided in-depth information about residents' food needs and thoughts on how to improve food access. Results were reported to community members at a town hall style meeting. Developing a strategic plan to engage a community and develop trust is crucial to sustaining a partnership particularly when working with underserved communities. This project demonstrates that, if well managed, the benefits of academic and community partnerships outweigh the challenges thus such relationships should be encouraged and supported by communities, academic institutions, local and national government, and funders. A CBPR approach to understanding an urban community's food needs and opinions is important for comprehensive food access planning.

  8. Building a Community-Academic Partnership: Implementing a Community-Based Trial of Telephone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Rural Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Aisenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities.

  9. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  10. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of 'Post-Devolution' Public Policy in the UK 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy - thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities - such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision - policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance.

  11. Evaluating Michigan's community hospital access: spatial methods for decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varnakovida Pariwate

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community hospital placement is dictated by a diverse set of geographical factors and historical contingency. In the summer of 2004, a multi-organizational committee headed by the State of Michigan's Department of Community Health approached the authors of this paper with questions about how spatial analyses might be employed to develop a revised community hospital approval procedure. Three objectives were set. First, the committee needed visualizations of both the spatial pattern of Michigan's population and its 139 community hospitals. Second, the committee required a clear, defensible assessment methodology to quantify access to existing hospitals statewide, taking into account factors such as distance to nearest hospital and road network density to estimate travel time. Third, the committee wanted to contrast the spatial distribution of existing community hospitals with a theoretical configuration that best met statewide demand. This paper presents our efforts to first describe the distribution of Michigan's current community hospital pattern and its people, and second, develop two models, access-based and demand-based, to identify areas with inadequate access to existing hospitals. Results Using the product from the access-based model and contiguity and population criteria, two areas were identified as being "under-served." The lower area, located north/northeast of Detroit, contained the greater total land area and population of the two areas. The upper area was centered north of Grand Rapids. A demand-based model was applied to evaluate the existing facility arrangement by allocating daily bed demand in each ZIP code to the closest facility. We found 1,887 beds per day were demanded by ZIP centroids more than 16.1 kilometers from the nearest existing hospital. This represented 12.7% of the average statewide daily bed demand. If a 32.3 kilometer radius was employed, unmet demand dropped to 160 beds per day (1

  12. Goal setting using telemedicine in rural underserved older adults with diabetes: experiences from the informatics for diabetes education and telemedicine project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Susan P; Lagua, Carina; Trief, Paula M; Izquierdo, Roberto; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2010-05-01

    To describe the use of telemedicine for setting goals for behavior change and examine the success in achieving these goals in rural underserved older adults with diabetes. Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes living in rural upstate New York who were enrolled in the telemedicine intervention of the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) project (n = 610) participated in home televisits with nurse and dietitian educators every 4-6 weeks for 2-6 years. Behavior change goals related to nutrition, physical activity, monitoring, diabetes health maintenance, and/or use of the home telemedicine unit were established at the conclusion of each televisit and assessed at the next visit. Collaborative goal setting was employed during 18,355 televisits (mean of 33 goal-setting televisits/participant). The most common goals were related to monitoring, followed by diabetes health maintenance, nutrition, exercise, and use of the telemedicine equipment. Overall, 68% of behavioral goals were rated as "improved" or "met." The greatest success was achieved for goals related to proper insulin injection technique and daily foot care. These elderly participants had the most difficulty achieving goals related to use of the computer. No gender differences in goal achievement were observed. Televisits can be successfully used to collaboratively establish behavior change goals to help improve diabetes self-management in underserved elderly rural adults.

  13. Healthcare provider perceptions of the role of interprofessional care in access to and outcomes of primary care in an underserved area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shaowei; Teichman, Peter G; Latif, David; Boyd, Jennifer; Gupta, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    To meet the needs of an aging population who often have multiple chronic conditions, interprofessional care is increasingly adopted by patient-centred medical homes and Accountable Care Organisations to improve patient care coordination and decrease costs in the United States, especially in underserved areas with primary care workforce shortages. In this cross-sectional survey across multiple clinical settings in an underserved area, healthcare providers perceived overall outcomes associated with interprofessional care teams as positive. This included healthcare providers' beliefs that interprofessional care teams improved patient outcomes, increased clinic efficiency, and enhanced care coordination and patient follow-up. Teams with primary care physician available each day were perceived as better able to coordinate care and follow up with patients (p = .031), while teams that included clinical pharmacists were perceived as preventing medication-associated problems (p care model as a useful strategy to improve various outcomes across different clinical settings in the context of a shortage of primary care physicians.

  14. Self-collected cervicovaginal sampling for site-of-care primary HPV-based cervical cancer screening: a pilot study in a rural underserved Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Chatzaki, Εkaterini; Constantinidis, Τheocharis; Nena, Evangelia; Tsertanidou, Athena; Agorastos, Theodoros

    2017-11-01

    In the present pilot study, the feasibility of a site-of-care cervicovaginal self-sampling methodology for HPV-based screening was tested in 346 women residing in underserved rural areas of Northern Greece. These women provided self-collected cervicovaginal sample along with a study questionnaire. Following molecular testing, using the cobas ® HPV Test, Roche ® , HPV positive women, were referred to colposcopy and upon abnormal findings, to biopsy and treatment. Participation rate was 100%. Regular pap-test examination was reported for 17.1%. Among hrHPV testing, 11.9% were positive and colposcopy/biopsy revealed 2 CIN3 cases. Non-compliance was the most prevalent reason for no previous attendance. Most women reported non-difficulty and non-discomfort in self-sampling (77.6% and 82.4%, respectively). They would choose self-sampling over clinician-sampling (86.2%), and should self-sampling being available, they would test themselves more regularly (92.3%). In conclusion, self-sampling is feasible and well-accepted for HPV-based screening, and could increase population coverage in underserved areas, helping towards successful prevention.

  15. Aspirin for the prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly: rationale and design of a neuro-vascular imaging study (ENVIS-ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Christopher M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the rationale and design of the ENVIS-ion Study, which aims to determine whether low-dose aspirin reduces the development of white matter hyper-intense (WMH lesions and silent brain infarction (SBI. Additional aims include determining whether a changes in retinal vascular imaging (RVI parameters parallel changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; b changes in RVI parameters are observed with aspirin therapy; c baseline cognitive function correlates with MRI and RVI parameters; d changes in cognitive function correlate with changes in brain MRI and RVI and e whether factors such as age, gender or blood pressure influence the above associations. Methods/Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of three years duration set in two Australian academic medical centre outpatient clinics. This study will enrol 600 adults aged 70 years and over with normal cognitive function and without overt cardiovascular disease. Subjects will undergo cognitive testing, brain MRI and RVI at baseline and after 3 years of study treatment. All subjects will be recruited from a 19,000-patient clinical outcome trial conducted in Australia and the United States that will evaluate the effects of aspirin in maintaining disability-free longevity over 5 years. The intervention will be aspirin 100 mg daily versus matching placebo, randomized on a 1:1 basis. Discussion This study will improve understanding of the mechanisms at the level of brain and vascular structure that underlie the effects of aspirin on cognitive function. Given the limited access and high cost of MRI, RVI may prove useful as a tool for the identification of individuals at high risk for the development of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive decline. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01038583

  16. Distinguishing Means and Ends: The Counterintuitive Effects of UNHCR's Community Development Approach in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Muggah, Robert

    2017-01-01

    UNHCR's community development approach (CDA) consists of a disparate set of guidelines designed to strengthen the self-reliance of refugees during protracted displacement. It envisions refugees as agents of their own development, and aims to prepare them for a durable solution. But in the absence of basic standards and benchmarks, the CDA is being used—by implementing partners as well as specialized units with the agency—as an opportunity to advance rights-based development. This raises a num...

  17. Moving Into Communities: Developing Cultural Competence with Pre-service Educators through Community Service-Learning Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Coffey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research in teacher education suggests that field experiences in community settings can offer pre-service teachers a context for understanding the link between theory and practice. This paper documents the experiences of pre-service educators who participated in service-learning partnerships for thirty hours in multiple community settings in the southeast United States. Pre-service teachers not only volunteered in the community, but they also engaged in critically reflective journal writing and participated in evaluative class discussions. Students praised the benefits of a service experience in both school and community placements and discussed how interactions with the community agencies gave them the insight into how community organizations often play a significant role in the lives of the underserved students they will eventually teach. The author argues that the inclusion of a service-learning component in early pre-service teacher education field experiences has the potential to facilitate the examination of the relationships between community organizations and schools and encourage development of cultural competence among pre-service teachers. KEYWORDSservice-learning, pre-service teacher preparation, community partnerships

  18. History of community health center affiliations with The New England College of Optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Roger; Sharda, Vandhana

    2008-10-01

    Since the 1970s, The New England College of Optometry (NECO) has been a leader in community-based educational programming. This was accomplished through the development of affiliation agreements with health care facilities that care for the underserved, notably community health centers (CHCs). The college's clinical system, the New England Eye Institute (NEEI), develops CHC programs, manages professional services agreements, initiates teaching affiliation agreements, and leads staff recruitment and retention efforts. CHC collaborations, which effectively address disparities in access to health care and visual health status, represent a significant component of the college's primary care clinical training venues. Since their inception in 1972, these CHC academic-community partnerships have provided more than 650,000 eye examinations to the underserved and have trained more than 3,200 graduates in community-based eye care, interdisciplinary care management environment, clinical prevention strategies, and population health. This report describes NECO's longstanding success with CHCs, explains the scope of practice at CHCs, explains how students are involved in the CHCs' eye care services, and discusses the various management and business arrangements. The benefits and challenges of CHC affiliations with optometry schools and colleges are also discussed.

  19. An Innovative Mobile Health System to Improve and Standardize Antenatal Care Among Underserved Communities: A Feasibility Study in an Italian Hosting Center for Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsari, Lucia; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Guarenti, Laura; Grandi, Teresa; Leotta, Serena; Barcellini, Lucia; Borella, Paola; Benski, Anne Caroline

    2017-11-16

    Innovative migrant-friendly tools are needed to assist health personnel manage the high number of pregnancies within reception centers. This study tests functionality and acceptability of a new mHealth system in providing antenatal care amongst migrants. The study, carried out between 2014 and 2016, involved 150 pregnant women residing in the largest European migrant reception center in Sicily. A ticket tracking system assessed the system's functionality and a questionnaire assessed women's acceptability. The system facilitated the collection of clinical data, enabling the creation of electronic patient records and identifying 10% of pregnancies as high-risk. The application's digital format increased health providers' adherence to antenatal-care recommendations, while the graphic interface facilitated women's engagement and retention of the health education modules. The study recorded a 91.9% patient satisfaction rate. The system was efficient in providing comprehensive and high-quality antenatal care amongst migrants, facilitating the continuity of care for a population undergoing frequent relocations.

  20. Language Development, Delay and Intervention--The Views of Parents from Communities That Speech and Language Therapy Managers in England Consider to Be Under-Served

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Harding, Sam; Roulstone, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based practice includes research evidence, clinical expertise and stakeholder perspectives. Stakeholder perspectives are important and include parental ethno-theories, which embrace views about many aspects of speech, language and communication, language development, and interventions. The Developmental Niche Framework…

  1. Physician Migration to and from Canada: The Challenge of Finding the Ethical and Political Balance between the Individual's Right to Mobility and Recruitment to Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphinee, W. Dale

    2005-01-01

    Physician migration to and from countries results from many local causes and international influences. These factors operate in the context of an increasingly globalized economy. From an ethical point of view, selective and targeted "raiding" of developing countries' medical workforce by wealthier countries is not acceptable. However,…

  2. Stories From the Field: The Use of Information and Communication Technologies to Address the Health Needs of Underserved Populations in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farach, Nasim; Faba, Gladys; Julian, Soroya; Mejía, Felipe; Cabieses, Báltica; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Cortinois, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    As their availability grew exponentially in the last 20 years, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in health has been widely espoused, with many emphasizing their potential to decrease health inequities. Nonetheless, there is scarce availability of information regarding ICT as tools to further equity in health, specifically in Latin American and Caribbean settings. Our aim was to identify initiatives that used ICT to address the health needs of underserved populations in Latin America and Caribbean. Among these projects, explore the rationale behind the selection of ICT as a key component, probe perceptions regarding contributions to health equity, and describe the challenges faced during implementation. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study. Interviews were completed via Skype or face-to-face meetings using a semistructured interview guide. Following participant consent, interviews were audio recorded and verbatim transcriptions were developed. All transcriptions were coded using ATLASti7 software. The text was analyzed for patterns, shared themes, and diverging opinions. Emerging findings were reviewed by all interviewers and shared with participants for feedback. We interviewed representatives from eight organizations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries that prominently employed ICT in health communication, advocacy, or surveillance projects. ICT expanded project's geographic coverage, increased their reach into marginalized or hard-to-reach groups, and allowed real-time data collection. Perceptions of contributions to health equity resided mainly in the provision of health information and linkage to health services to members of groups experiencing greater morbidity because of poverty, remote place of residence, lack of relevant public programs, and/or stigma and discrimination, and in more timely responses by authorities to the health needs of these groups as a result of the increased availability of strategic

  3. Do health information technology self-management interventions improve glycemic control in medically underserved adults with diabetes? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkemper, Elizabeth M; Mamykina, Lena; Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effect of health information technology (HIT) diabetes self-management education (DSME) interventions on glycemic control in medically underserved patients. Following an a priori protocol, 5 databases were searched. Studies were appraised for quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment. Studies reporting either hemoglobin A1c pre- and post-intervention or its change at 6 or 12 months were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis using random effects models. Thirteen studies met the criteria for the systematic review and 10 for the meta-analysis and represent data from 3257 adults with diabetes (mean age 55 years; 66% female; 74% racial/ethnic minorities). Most studies ( n  = 10) reflected an unclear risk of bias. Interventions varied by HIT type: computer software without Internet ( n  = 2), cellular/automated telephone ( n  = 4), Internet-based ( n  = 4), and telemedicine/telehealth ( n  = 3). Pooled A1c decreases were found at 6 months (-0.36 (95% CI, -0.53 and -0.19]; I 2  = 35.1%, Q  = 5.0), with diminishing effect at 12 months (-0.27 [95% CI, -0.49 and -0.04]; I 2  = 42.4%, Q  = 10.4). Findings suggest that medically underserved patients with diabetes achieve glycemic benefit following HIT DSME interventions, with dissipating but significant effects at 12 months. Telemedicine/telehealth interventions were the most successful HIT type because they incorporated interaction with educators similar to in-person DSME. These results are similar to in-person DSME in medically underserved patients, showing that well-designed HIT DSME has the potential to increase access and improve outcomes for this vulnerable group. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. A controlled community-based trial to promote smoke-free policy in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Adkins, Sarah; Begley, Kathy; York, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak tobacco control policies. The purpose was to test the effects of a stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention on readiness for smoke-free policy, and policy outcomes in rural underserved communities. A controlled community-based trial including 37 rural counties. Data were collected annually with community advocates (n = 330) and elected officials (n = 158) in 19 intervention counties and 18 comparison counties over 5 years (average response rate = 68%). Intervention communities received policy development strategies from community advisors tailored to their stage of readiness and designed to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science. Policy outcomes were tracked over 5 years. Communities receiving the stage-specific, tailored intervention had higher overall community readiness scores and better policy outcomes than the comparison counties, controlling for county-level smoking rate, population size, and education. Nearly one-third of the intervention counties adopted smoke-free laws covering restaurants, bars, and all workplaces compared to none of the comparison counties. The stage-specific, tailored policy-focused intervention acted as a value-added resource to local smoke-free campaigns by promoting readiness for policy, as well as actual policy change in rural communities. Although actual policy change and percent covered by the policies were modest, these areas need additional resources and efforts to build capacity, build demand, and translate and disseminate science in order to accelerate smoke-free policy change and reduce the enormous toll from tobacco in these high-risk communities. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Complexities of Providing Dental Hygiene Services in Community Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkowski, Pamela; Aksu, Mert N

    2016-06-01

    Direct access care provided by dental hygienists can reduce oral health disparities for the underserved, yet legal, regulatory, and ethical considerations create complexities and limits. Individual state dental practice acts regulate the scope of practice and level of supervision required when dental hygienists deliver care. Yet, inconsistent state practice act regulations contribute to ethical and legal limitations and dilemmas for practitioners. The dental hygienist is positioned to assume an increasingly larger role in the management of oral health disparities. However, there are several legal and ethical considerations that impact both dental hygienists and dentists providing care in complex community settings. This article informs dental hygienists and other related constituencies about conundrums that are encountered when providing care 'beyond the operatory.' An evidence-based view of ways in which dental hygienists are reducing oral health disparities illustrates the complex issues involved in providing such care. Potential scenarios that can occur during care provision in underserved settings provide the basis for a discussion of legal and other associated issues impacting dental hygiene practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining Neighborhood Social Cohesion in the Context of Community-based Participatory Research: Descriptive Findings from an Academic-Community Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Lori Brand; Fouad, Mona N; Hawk, Bianca; Osborne, Tiffany; Bae, Sejong; Eady, Sequoya; Thompson, Joanice; Brantley, Wendy; Crawford, Lovie; Heider, Laura; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process of conducting an assessment of neighborhood perceptions and cohesion by a community coalition-academic team created in the context of community-based participatory research (CBPR), to guide the design of locally relevant health initiatives. Guided by CBPR principles, a collaborative partnership was established between an academic center and a local, urban, underserved neighborhood in Birmingham, Alabama to identify and address community concerns and priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2016 among community residents (N=90) to examine perceptions of neighborhood characteristics, including social cohesion and neighborhood problems. The major concerns voiced by the coalition were violence and lack of neighborhood cohesion and safety. The community survey verified the concerns of the coalition, with the majority of participants mentioning increasing safety and stopping the violence as the things to change about the community and the greatest hope for the community. Furthermore, results indicated residents had a moderate level of perceived social cohesion (mean = 2.87 [.67]). The Mid-South TCC Academic and Community Engagement (ACE) Core successfully partnered with community members and stakeholders to establish a coalition whose concerns and vision for the community matched the concerns of residents of the community. Collecting data from different groups strengthened the interpretation of the findings and allowed for a rich understanding of neighborhood concerns.

  7. Envisioning a 21st Century, National, Spacecraft Servicing and Protection Infrastructure and Demand Potential: A Logical Development of the Earth Orbit Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsham, Gary A.

    2003-01-01

    The modern world is extremely dependent on thin strings of several hundred civil, military, and commercial spacecraft/satellites currently stationed in space. They provide a steady stream of commerce, defense, and knowledge data. This dependency will in all likelihood increase significantly during this century. A major disruption of any kind in these essential systems and networks could be socially, economically, and politically catastrophic, on a global scale. The development of a space-based, robotic services economy could be useful in mitigating this growing risk, from an efficiency and security standpoint. This paper attempts to suggest what makes sense to invest in next for the logical, economic development of Earth orbit i.e., after ISS completion. It expands on the results of an advanced market research and analysis study that sampled the opinions of several satellite industry executives and presents these results within a broad policy context. The concept of a spacecraft carrier that serves as the nucleus of a national, space-based or on-orbit, robotic services infrastructure is introduced as the next logical step for United States leadership in space. This is viewed as a reasonable and appropriate followon to the development of ELVs and satellites in the 1950s and 1960s, the Space Shuttle/PRLV in the 1970s and 1980s, and the International Space Station (ISS) in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. Large-scale experience in LEO-to-GEO spacecraft/satellite servicing and protection by robotic means is assumed to be an indispensable prerequisite or stepping-stone toward the development and preservation of the large scientific exploration facilities that are envisioned by NASA for operation beyond GEO. A balanced, return on national investment (RONI) strategy for space, focused on the provision of enhanced national/homeland security for increased protection, national economic/industrial expansion for increased revenue, and national scientific exploration for increased

  8. Effects of a culturally tailored physical activity promotion program on selected self-regulation skills and attitudes in adolescents of an underserved, multiethnic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Suzanne; Bush, Paula Louise; Chagnon, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    To implement a culturally tailored physical activity (PA) promotion program (FunAction) and to assess its impact on five self-regulation skills and attitudes in adolescents. Design . The design and implementation of the FunAction program were informed by social marketing principles. The study used a quasi-experimental approach to assess the impact of the program on specific outcome variables. A multiethnic, underserved middle school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The intervention group was made up of grade 8 students (n  =  165) and the control group was made up of grade 7 students (n  =  137). During the 16-week intervention, adolescents were able to choose from a variety of 45-minute cardiovascular PAs offered daily during their school lunch period. Adolescents participated in the activities on a voluntary basis. A self-report questionnaire was administered preintervention and postintervention to measure adolescents' scores on the following self-regulation skills and attitudes: self-control, self-esteem, attention/concentration, social competence, and interethnic relationships. Three-way repeated measures analyses of variance and correlational analyses were used. Results . A significant improvement was observed only in attention/concentration. Girls' attention/concentration scores improved significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group (F(1,127)  =  16.26, p marketing principles can help encourage adolescents from underserved, multiethnic milieus to participate in PA during their school lunch hour. Furthermore, voluntary participation in a culturally tailored PA program can improve youths' attention/concentration.

  9. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... access to capital for small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this... (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). The CA Pilot Program was introduced to increase SBA-guaranteed... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this Notice to revise several...

  10. Do Faith Communities Have a Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Andra; Dyess, Susan; Grooper, Sareen

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a multifaceted phenomenon. A partnership with faith-based communities to address the issue has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural beliefs of faith community leaders regarding childhood obesity and to examine attitudes about their role in addressing the issue. A qualitative descriptive design informed by ethnographic methods and triangulation of multiple data sources was utilized to assess the cultural beliefs of faith community leaders. A purposive sample of 13 leaders (nine females, four males) from seven multicultural and multigenerational local faith communities participated in the study. No more than three participants from any one faith community were enrolled in the study. Twenty-first century lifestyle challenges, accountability of behaviors (a dichotomy that fluctuated between individual responsibility to community and/or social responsibility), and the need for intentionality emerged as themes from the data. Faith community leaders envisioned a role for faith communities in addressing childhood obesity. Findings support the ongoing development of population based health promotion programs through faith community engagement. The findings provide a foundation for nurses partnering with faith communities on health promotion programs targeting childhood obesity to address family health issues in a holistic way. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. SaludABLEOmaha: improving readiness to address obesity through healthy lifestyle in a Midwestern Latino community, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Robbins, Regina; Steenson, Sharalyn; Stewart, Catherine; Fisher, Christopher; Huang, Terry T-K

    2015-02-12

    A community's readiness for change is a precursor to the effective application of evidence-based practices for health promotion. Research is lacking regarding potential strategies to improve readiness to address obesity-related health issues in underserved communities. This case study describes SaludABLEOmaha, an initiative to increase readiness of residents in a Midwestern Latino community to address obesity and adopt healthy lifestyles. SaludABLEOmaha emphasized 2 core approaches, youth activism and collaboration among public and private institutions, which we applied to planning and implementing tactics in support of 3 interconnected strategies: 1) social marketing and social media, 2) service learning in schools (ie, curricula that integrate hands-on community service with instruction and reflection), and 3) community and business engagement. Following the Community Readiness Model protocol (http://triethniccenter.colostate.edu/communityReadiness.htm), structured interviews were conducted with community leaders and analyzed before and 2.5 years after launch of the program. The community increased in readiness from stage 3 of the Community Readiness Model, "vague awareness," at baseline to stage 5, "preparation," at follow-up. SaludABLEOmaha improved community readiness (eg, community knowledge, community climate), which probably contributed to the observed increase in readiness to address obesity through healthy lifestyle. Community mobilization approaches such as youth activism integrated with social marketing and social media tactics can improve community responsiveness to obesity prevention and diminish health disparities.

  12. SaludABLEOmaha: Improving Readiness to Address Obesity Through Healthy Lifestyle in a Midwestern Latino Community, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Robbins, Regina; Steenson, Sharalyn; Stewart, Catherine; Fisher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background A community’s readiness for change is a precursor to the effective application of evidence-based practices for health promotion. Research is lacking regarding potential strategies to improve readiness to address obesity-related health issues in underserved communities. Community Context This case study describes SaludABLEOmaha, an initiative to increase readiness of residents in a Midwestern Latino community to address obesity and adopt healthy lifestyles. Methods SaludABLEOmaha emphasized 2 core approaches, youth activism and collaboration among public and private institutions, which we applied to planning and implementing tactics in support of 3 interconnected strategies: 1) social marketing and social media, 2) service learning in schools (ie, curricula that integrate hands-on community service with instruction and reflection), and 3) community and business engagement. Following the Community Readiness Model protocol (http://triethniccenter.colostate.edu/communityReadiness.htm), structured interviews were conducted with community leaders and analyzed before and 2.5 years after launch of the program. Outcome The community increased in readiness from stage 3 of the Community Readiness Model, “vague awareness,” at baseline to stage 5, “preparation,” at follow-up. Interpretation SaludABLEOmaha improved community readiness (eg, community knowledge, community climate), which probably contributed to the observed increase in readiness to address obesity through healthy lifestyle. Community mobilization approaches such as youth activism integrated with social marketing and social media tactics can improve community responsiveness to obesity prevention and diminish health disparities. PMID:25674679

  13. Community Health Workers as Support for Sickle Cell Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lewis L.; Green, Nancy S.; Ivy, E. Donnell; Neunert, Cindy; Smaldone, Arlene; Johnson, Shirley; Castillo, Sheila; Castillo, Amparo; Thompson, Trevor; Hampton, Kisha; Strouse, John J.; Stewart, Rosalyn; Hughes, TaLana; Banks, Sonja; Smith-Whitley, Kim; King, Allison; Brown, Mary; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Smith, Wally R.; Martin, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Community health workers are increasingly recognized as useful for improving health care and health outcomes for a variety of chronic conditions. Community health workers can provide social support, navigation of health systems and resources, and lay counseling. Social and cultural alignment of community health workers with the population they serve is an important aspect of community health worker intervention. Although community health worker interventions have been shown to improve patient-centered outcomes in underserved communities, these interventions have not been evaluated with sickle cell disease. Evidence from other disease areas suggests that community health worker intervention also would be effective for these patients. Sickle cell disease is complex, with a range of barriers to multifaceted care needs at the individual, family/friend, clinical organization, and community levels. Care delivery is complicated by disparities in health care: access, delivery, services, and cultural mismatches between providers and families. Current practices inadequately address or provide incomplete control of symptoms, especially pain, resulting in decreased quality of life and high medical expense. The authors propose that care and care outcomes for people with sickle cell disease could be improved through community health worker case management, social support, and health system navigation. This report outlines implementation strategies in current use to test community health workers for sickle cell disease management in a variety of settings. National medical and advocacy efforts to develop the community health workforce for sickle cell disease management may enhance the progress and development of “best practices” for this area of community-based care. PMID:27320471

  14. Understanding and Predicting Social Media Use Among Community Health Center Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823

  15. The urban and community health pathway: preparing socially responsive physicians through community-engaged learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Linda N; Young, Staci A; Meurer, John R; Johnson, Sheri L; Gilbert, Ileen A; Diehr, Sabina

    2011-10-01

    One of five options for the new required Medical College of Wisconsin Pathways program, the Urban and Community Health Pathway (UCHP), links training with community needs and assets to prepare students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to provide effective care in urban, underserved settings; promote community health; and reduce health disparities. Students spend at least 10 hours per month on pathway activities: 4 hours of core material delivered through readings, didactics, case discussions, and site visits; and at least 6 hours of experiential noncore activities applying core competencies, guided by an Individualized Learning Plan and faculty advisor. Noncore activities include community-engaged research, service-learning activities or other relevant experiences, and submission of a synthesis paper addressing pathway competencies. The first cohort of students began their pathways in January 2010. Of 560 participating students, 95 (of which 48 were first-year, 21 second-year, and 26 third-year students) selected UCHP. Core sessions focused on public health, social determinants, cultural humility, poverty, the local healthcare system, and safety net. During noncore time, students engaged in projects addressing homelessness, obesity, advocacy, Hmong and Latino health, HIV, asthma, and violence prevention. Students enjoyed working with peers across classes and favored interactive, community-based sessions over didactics in the classroom. Students' papers reflected a range of service and scholarly activities and a deepened appreciation of social and economic influences on health. The UCHP enriches the traditional curriculum with individualized, community-based experiences to build knowledge about health determinants and skills in partnering with communities to improve health. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  17. Adolescent and parent use of new technologies for health communication: a study in an urban latino community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Arlene; Stockwell, Melissa S; Osborne, Jennel C; Cortes, Yamnia; Bekele, ElShadey; Green, Nancy S

    2015-02-20

    Mobile communication technologies provide novel opportunities to support clinic-based health initiatives. Adoption of technologies for daily use and for health communication can differ between communities, depending upon demographic and cultural characteristics. A survey was administered in adolescent primary care and subspecialty clinics to assess parent-adolescent preferences in use of mobile technologies and social media to support provider-patient communication in an urban Latino community. Of 130 respondents (65 parent-adolescent pairs), approximately half frequently sent and received text messages but lacked agreement regarding the other's text messaging use. In contrast, adolescents only rarely used email compared to parents (15.4% versus 37.5%, P=0.006). Of social media, Facebook™/MySpace™ was most frequently used by parents and youth (60% and 55.4%, P=0.59); however, most lacked interest in using social media for health communication. Parents reported more interest than adolescents in receiving email (73.4% versus 35.9%, PInstant Messaging or Facebook™/MySpace™ (aOR 4.6, 95%CI 1.4-14.7) were more likely to be interested in using social media for health communication. These findings underscore the importance of targeted assessment for planning the utilization of communication technologies and social media in clinical care or research for underserved youth. Significance for public healthCommunication technologies provide novel opportunities to support clinic-based health initiatives for underserved youth. However, adoption of technologies among communities may differ depending upon demographic and cultural characteristics. We surveyed a sample of urban Latino parents and youth regarding their current use of mobile and social media technologies and preferences for use of these technologies for health communication. This is the first study to compare the perspective of underserved parents and their youth regarding use of a wide variety of mobile and

  18. Multiple Minorities or Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Plurilingual Learners? Re-Envisioning Allophone Immigrant Children and Their Inclusion in French-Language Schools in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Four out of five immigrants to Canada speak a language other than English or French as a first language. Immigration is increasingly transforming francophone minority communities. Allophone children acquire minority status on multiple levels within French-language schools, where they can become both a linguistic minority and a cultural minority…

  19. Ethical considerations for conducting health disparities research in community health centers: a social-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; Scott, Ebony; Melendez, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Anna; Ramos, Rosio; Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Michelen, Walid

    2013-12-01

    Community health centers (CHCs) provide optimal research settings. They serve a high-risk, medically underserved population in the greatest need of intervention. Low socioeconomic status renders this population particularly vulnerable to research misconduct. Traditional principles of research ethics are often applied to participants only. The social-ecological model offers a comprehensive framework for applying these principles across multiple levels (participants, providers, organizations, communities, and policy). Our experience with the Trial Using Motivational Interviewing, Positive Affect and Self-Affirmation in African-Americans with Hypertension, a randomized trial conducted in CHCs, led us to propose a new platform for discussing research ethics; examine the social, community, and political factors surrounding research conducted in CHCs; and recommend how future research should be conducted in such settings.

  20. SaludableOmaha: development of a youth advocacy initiative to increase community readiness for obesity prevention, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Stewart, Catherine; Robbins, Regina; Riggs, Cara; Mayberger, Susan; Cervantes, Alberto; Huang, Terry T-K

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates in minority populations continue to rise despite leveling national trends. Although interventions that address social and environmental factors exist, processes that create demand for policy and environmental change within communities have not been identified. We developed a pilot program in South Omaha, a Nebraska Latino community, based on the community readiness model (CRM), called SaludableOmaha. We used CRM to explore the potential of youth advocacy to shift individual and community norms regarding obesity prevention in South Omaha and to advocate for health-promoting community environments. We used CRM to assess supply and demand for health programs, engage the community, determine the community's baseline readiness to address childhood obesity, and guide youth advocacy program development. We conducted our project in 2 phases. In the first, we trained a cohort of youth. In the second, the youth cohort created and launched a Latino health movement, branded as SaludableOmaha. A third phase, which is currently under way, is directed at institutionalizing youth advocacy in communities. At baseline, the community studied was at a low stage of readiness for change. Our program generated infrastructure and materials to support the growth and institutionalization of youth advocacy as a means of increasing community readiness for addressing obesity prevention. CRM is an important tool for addressing issues such as childhood obesity in underserved communities because it provides a framework for matching interventions to the community. Community partnerships such as SaludableOmaha can aid the adoption of obesity prevention programs.

  1. Serving the Needs of the Latina Community for Health Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Yaros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Latinos remain the largest US population with limited health literacy (Andrulis D.P. & Brach, 2007. Concerned with how local media can meet the information needs of underserved audiences, we interviewed Latinas who were pregnant or mothers of young children living in a Spanish speaking community, and surveyed 33 local health professionals. Findings are that Latina women’s most common source of health information was family and friends. They said they tune to Spanish television and radio programs, but gave low grades to news media for health information. Medical professionals agreed that Latinas generally get their health information through friends and family, and rated the media poorly in terms of serving Latinas’ needs. Since the data indicate that the local news media are not serving Latinas’ health information needs as much as they could, we offer recommendations to potentially exploit new technological affordances and suggest expansion of conventional definitions of health literacy.

  2. Integration of Rural Community Pharmacies into a Rural Family Medicine Practice-Based Research Network: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E. Hagemeier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Practice-based research networks (PBRN seek to shorten the gap between research and application in primary patient care settings. Inclusion of community pharmacies in primary care PBRNs is relatively unexplored. Such a PBRN model could improve care coordination and community-based research, especially in rural and underserved areas. The objectives of this study were to: 1 evaluate rural Appalachian community pharmacy key informants’ perceptions of PBRNs and practice-based research; 2 explore key informants’ perceptions of perceived applicability of practice-based research domains; and 3 explore pharmacy key informant interest in PBRN participation. Methods: The sample consisted of community pharmacies within city limits of all Appalachian Research Network (AppNET PBRN communities in South Central Appalachia. A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from November 2013 to February 2014. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between key informant and practice characteristics, and PBRN interest and perceptions. Findings: A 47.8% response rate was obtained. Most key informants (88% were very or somewhat interested in participating in AppNET. Enrichment of patient care (82.8%, improved relationships with providers in the community (75.9%, and professional development opportunities (69.0% were perceived by more than two-thirds of respondents to be very beneficial outcomes of PBRN participation. Respondents ranked time constraints (63% and workflow disruptions (20% as the biggest barriers to PBRN participation. Conclusion: Key informants in rural Appalachian community pharmacies indicated interest in PBRN participation. Integration of community pharmacies into existing rural PBRNs could advance community level care coordination and promote improved health outcomes in rural and underserved areas.   Type: Original Research

  3. The community health worker cultural mentoring project: preparing professional students for team work with health workers from urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwen, Laurie N; Schwolsky-Fitch, Elena; Rodriquez, Romelia; Horta, Greg; Lopez, Ivanna

    2007-01-01

    Community Health Workers or CHWs (also known by a variety of alternative titles) are health workers drawn from communities to provide access to care for members of their communities. CHWs have been documented as effective in delivering a variety of services in a culturally-sensitive manner, and in providing a bridge between health professionals and underserved or minority communities. Yet, CHWs have not been well incorporated into interdisciplinary health care teams. The majority of health professionals are not even aware of the possible role and skills of CHWs. Believing that the best time to educate professionals about this valuable health worker and ensure that CHWs become part of interdisciplinary health care teams is during the student years, the Hunter College Schools of the Health Professions, and the Community Health Worker Network of New York City developed a pilot project, the Community Health Worker Cultural Mentoring Project. Community Health Workers, who were members of the Network, served as "community mentors" for health professions students drawn from the programs of community health education, nursing, and nutrition. CHWs worked with faculty of selected courses in each of the professional programs, and served as panelists in these courses, presenting information about health beliefs and alternative health practices of diverse cultural groups in communities of New York City. Class sessions were first held in the fall of 2004; subsequent sessions were held in following semesters. Approximately 40 students participated in 7 classes, with 6 CHWs serving as mentors - two per class. At the end of the classroom presentations, students wrote reflections relating to their understanding of the CHW role and relevance for their future interdisciplinary practice. The majority of reflections met the goal of increasing professional students' understanding of the CHW role and skills. At this point, quantitative and qualitative data will need to be collected to

  4. Pipe dream? Envisioning a grassroots Python ecosystem of open, common software tools and data access in support of river and coastal biogeochemical research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, E.

    2013-12-01

    Practical, problem oriented software developed by scientists and graduate students in domains lacking a strong software development tradition is often balkanized into the scripting environments provided by dominant, typically proprietary tools. In environmental fields, these tools include ArcGIS, Matlab, SAS, Excel and others, and are often constrained to specific operating systems. While this situation is the outcome of rational choices, it limits the dissemination of useful tools and their integration into loosely coupled frameworks that can meet wider needs and be developed organically by groups addressing their own needs. Open-source dynamic languages offer the advantages of an accessible programming syntax, a wealth of pre-existing libraries, multi-platform access, linkage to community libraries developed in lower level languages such as C or FORTRAN, and access to web service infrastructure. Python in particular has seen a large and increasing uptake in scientific communities, as evidenced by the continued growth of the annual SciPy conference. Ecosystems with distinctive physical structures and organization, and mechanistic processes that are well characterized, are both factors that have often led to the grass-roots development of useful code meeting the needs of a range of communities. In aquatic applications, examples include river and watershed analysis tools (River Tools, Taudem, etc), and geochemical modules such as CO2SYS, PHREEQ and LOADEST. I will review the state of affairs and explore the potential offered by a Python tool ecosystem in supporting aquatic biogeochemistry and water quality research. This potential is multi-faceted and broadly involves accessibility to lone grad students, access to a wide community of programmers and problem solvers via online resources such as StackExchange, and opportunities to leverage broader cyberinfrastructure efforts and tools, including those from widely different domains. Collaborative development of such

  5. The Effect of Volunteering at a Student-Run Free Healthcare Clinic on Medical Students' Self-Efficacy, Comfortableness, Attitude, and Interest in Working with the Underserved Population and Interest in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kelvin; Kovalskiy, Aleksandr; Desai, Anand; Imran, Amna; Ismail, Rahim; Hernandez, Caridad

    2017-02-23

    The number of primary care physicians in the United States continues to lag behind the number of uninsured people. There has been a growing demand for medical students to improve their self-efficacy, comfortableness, attitude, and interest in working with the underserved and in primary care. This study aims to discern whether volunteering at a student-run, free healthcare clinic has a positive impact on these five variables of interest or not. A 95-item survey was distributed through Qualtrics Survey Software (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA) to medical students from the Class of 2018 and Class of 2019 at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine. They were recruited via emails, Facebook, and in-classroom announcements. Mean responses on a Likert-like scale to different survey items were collected and compared between two study cohorts: Keeping Neighbors In Good Health Through Service (KNIGHTS) Clinic volunteers and non-volunteers. Results from 128 students showed no significant differences in the means between the two cohorts (p-values were not significant). When volunteers were asked the survey item, "KNIGHTS Clinic positively influenced my attitude towards working with underserved patients," 62% strongly agreed, 26% agreed, 10% were neutral, and 2% disagreed. Based on the results, volunteering at KNIGHTS Clinic may not have a positive impact on the five variables of interest. However, the lack of significance may also be due to certain limitations of this study addressed elsewhere in this paper. With the majority of KNIGHTS Clinic volunteers agreeing that "KNIGHTS Clinic positively influenced […their] attitude towards working with underserved patients," there may be a positive impact of volunteering on volunteers' attitude towards working with the underserved.

  6. Forging successful academic-community partnerships with community health centers: the California statewide Area Health Education Center (AHEC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Virginia; Blossom, H John; Mitchell, Brenda; Herrera-Mata, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Increased access to insurance under the Affordable Care Act will increase demands for clinical services in community health centers (CHCs). CHCs also have an increasingly important educational role to train clinicians who will remain to practice in community clinics. CHCs and Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) are logical partners to prepare the health workforce for the future. Both are sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration, and they share a mission to improve quality of care in medically underserved communities. AHECs emphasize the educational side of the mission, and CHCs the service side. Building stronger partnerships between them can facilitate a balance between education and service needs.From 2004 to 2011, the California Statewide AHEC program and its 12 community AHECs (centers) reorganized to align training with CHC workforce priorities. Eight centers merged into CHC consortia; others established close partnerships with CHCs in their respective regions. The authors discuss issues considered and approaches taken to make these changes. Collaborative innovative processes with program leadership, staff, and center directors revised the program mission, developed common training objectives with an evaluation plan, and defined organizational, functional, and impact characteristics for successful AHECs in California. During this planning, centers gained confidence as educational arms for the safety net and began collaborations with statewide programs as well as among themselves. The AHEC reorganization and the processes used to develop, strengthen, and identify standards for centers forged the development of new partnerships and established academic-community trust in planning and implementing programs with CHCs.

  7. Factors affecting frequency of communication about family health history with family members and doctors in a medically underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Pandya, Chintan; Garg, Priyanka; Stafford, Jewel; Lachance, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Family history contributes to risk for many common chronic diseases. Little research has investigated patient factors affecting communication of this information. 1061 adult community health center patients were surveyed. We examined factors related to frequency of discussions about family health history (FHH) with family members and doctors. Patients who talked frequently with family members about FHH were more likely to report a family history of cancer (p =.012) and heart disease (p history of heart disease (p = .011), meet physical activity recommendations (p = .022), seek health information frequently in newspapers (p history of some diseases, those not meeting physical activity recommendations, and those who do not frequently seek health information may not have ongoing FHH discussions. Interventions are needed to encourage providers to update patients' family histories systematically and assist patients in initiating FHH conversations in order to use this information for disease prevention and control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Potential in Preparing Community Health Workers to Address Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Daisey; Adamovich, Stephanie; Ingram, Maia; Harris, Frances P; de Zapien, Jill; Sánchez, Adriana; Colina, Sonia; Marrone, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    In underserved areas, it is crucial to investigate ways of increasing access to hearing health care. The community health worker (CHW) is a model that has been applied to increase access in various health arenas. This article proposes further investigation into the application of this model to audiology. To assess the feasibility of training CHWs about hearing loss as a possible approach to increase accessibility of hearing health support services in an underserved area. A specialized three-phase training process for CHWs was developed, implemented, and evaluated by audiologists and public health researchers. The training process included (1) focus groups with CHWs and residents from the community to raise awareness of hearing loss among CHWs and the community; (2) a 3-hr workshop training to introduce basic topics to prepare CHWs to identify signs of hearing loss among community members and use effective communication strategies; and (3) a 24-hr multisession, interactive training >6 weeks for CHWs who would become facilitators of educational and peer-support groups for individuals with hearing loss and family members. Twelve Spanish-speaking local CHWs employed by a federally qualified health center participated in a focus group, twelve received the general training, and four individuals with prior experience as health educators received further in-person training as facilitators of peer-education groups on hearing loss and communication. Data was collected from each step of the three-phase training process. Thematic analysis was completed for the focus group data. Pre- and posttraining assessments and case study discussions were used to analyze results for the general workshop and the in-depth training sessions. CHWs increased their knowledge base and confidence in effective communication strategies and developed skills in facilitating hearing education and peer-support groups. Through case study practice, CHWs demonstrated competencies and applied their learning

  9. Community perceptions of mental illness in rural Uganda: An analysis of existing challenges facing the Bwindi Mental Health Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess community perceptions of mental illness in the Bwindi Community Hospital (BCH) catchment area: to recognise beliefs about the causes and the treatments for mental illness. To provide community data to staff at BCH as they work to develop more effective community mental health programmes. Background A shortage of mental health providers in Uganda has prompted research into community-based task-sharing models for the provision of mental health services in underserved communities. Methods Six focus group discussions, with a total of 54 community members (50% male, n = 27; mean age + s.d. [39.9 + 10.9 years]) from the BCH catchment area, were conducted to assess community member and stakeholder perceptions of mental illness and belief in the feasibility of community-based programming. Qualitative study of data through thematic analysis was conducted to assess the presence of commonly occurring perceptions. Results Qualitative thematic analysis revealed two major themes: (1) belief that any given patient’s metal illness results from either an intrinsic or an extrinsic cause and (2) belief in a need to determine treatment of mental illness based on the believed cause. Conclusion As BCH designs community-based mental health services, our findings provide support for the need for further education of community members and training of community health workers to address and integrate the above-stated beliefs regarding mental illness. PMID:29041798

  10. A study protocol: using demand-side financing to meet the birth spacing needs of the underserved in Punjab Province in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Abbas, Ghazanfer; Ishaque, Muhammad; Bilgrami, Mohsina; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-05-30

    High fertility rates, unwanted pregnancies, low modern contraceptive prevalence and a huge unmet need for contraception adversely affect women's health in Pakistan and this problem is compounded by limited access to reliable information and quality services regarding birth spacing especially in rural and underserved areas. This paper presents a study protocol that describes an evaluation of a demand-side financing (DSF) voucher approach which aims to increase the uptake of modern contraception among women of the lowest two wealth quintiles in Punjab Province, Pakistan. This study will use quasi-experimental design with control arm and be implemented in: six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department; 24 social franchise facilities branded as 'Suraj' (Sun), led by Marie Stopes Society (a local non-governmental organization); and 12 private sector clinics in Chakwal, Mianwali and Bhakkar districts. The study respondents will be interviewed at baseline and endline subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. In addition, health service data will record each client visit during the study period. The study will examine the impact of vouchers in terms of increasing the uptake of modern contraception by engaging private and public sector service providers (mid-level and medical doctors). If found effective, this approach can be a viable solution to satisfying the current demand and meeting the unmet need for contraception, particularly among the poorest socio-economic group.

  11. A study protocol: using demand-side financing to meet the birth spacing needs of the underserved in Punjab Province in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High fertility rates, unwanted pregnancies, low modern contraceptive prevalence and a huge unmet need for contraception adversely affect women’s health in Pakistan and this problem is compounded by limited access to reliable information and quality services regarding birth spacing especially in rural and underserved areas. This paper presents a study protocol that describes an evaluation of a demand-side financing (DSF) voucher approach which aims to increase the uptake of modern contraception among women of the lowest two wealth quintiles in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Methods/Design This study will use quasi-experimental design with control arm and be implemented in: six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department; 24 social franchise facilities branded as ‘Suraj’ (Sun), led by Marie Stopes Society (a local non-governmental organization); and 12 private sector clinics in Chakwal, Mianwali and Bhakkar districts. The study respondents will be interviewed at baseline and endline subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. In addition, health service data will record each client visit during the study period. Discussion The study will examine the impact of vouchers in terms of increasing the uptake of modern contraception by engaging private and public sector service providers (mid-level and medical doctors). If found effective, this approach can be a viable solution to satisfying the current demand and meeting the unmet need for contraception, particularly among the poorest socio-economic group. PMID:24885657

  12. Relationships Between Health Literacy and Genomics-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Perceived Importance, and Communication in a Medically Underserved Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Blanchard, Melvin; Milam, Laurel; Pokharel, Manusheela; Elrick, Ashley; Goodman, Melody S

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of genomic information in clinical care heightens the need to examine how individuals understand, value, and communicate about this information. Based on a conceptual framework of genomics-related health literacy, we examined whether health literacy was related to knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived importance of genetics and family health history (FHH) and communication about FHH in a medically underserved population. The analytic sample was composed of 624 patients at a primary care clinic in a large urban hospital. About half of the participants (47%) had limited health literacy; 55% had no education beyond high school, and 58% were Black. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was associated with lower genetic knowledge (β = -0.55, SE = 0.10, p interval [CI; 0.28, 0.90], p = .020), and greater perceived importance of genetic information (OR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.27, 3.00], p = .0022) but lower perceived importance of FHH information (OR = 0.47, 95% CI [0.26, 0.86], p = .013) and more frequent communication with a doctor about FHH (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.27, 3.23], p = .0032). The findings highlight the importance of considering domains of genomics-related health literacy (e.g., knowledge, oral literacy) in developing educational strategies for genomic information. Health literacy research is essential to avoid increasing disparities in information and health outcomes as genomic information reaches more patients.

  13. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Lessons Learned Recruiting Minority Participants for Research in Urban Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Elizabeth; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2018-02-01

    To help understand and mitigate health disparities, it is important to conduct research with underserved and underrepresented minority populations under real world settings. There is a gap in the literature detailing real-time research staff experience, particularly in their own words, while conducting in-person patient recruitment in urban community health centers. This paper describes challenges faced at the clinic, staff, and patient levels, our lessons learned, and strategies implemented by research staff while recruiting predominantly low-income African-American women for an interviewer-administered survey study in four urban Federally Qualified Health Centers in New Jersey. Using a series of immersion-crystallization cycles, fieldnotes and research reflections written by recruiters, along with notes from team meetings during the study, were qualitatively analyzed. Clinic level barriers included: physical layout of clinic, very low or high patient census, limited private space, and long wait times for patients. Staff level barriers included: unengaged staff, overburdened staff, and provider and staff turnover. Patient level barriers included: disinterested patients, patient mistrust and concerns over confidentiality, no-shows or lack of patient time, and language barrier. We describe strategies used to overcome these barriers and provide recommendations for in-person recruitment of underserved populations into research studies. To help mitigate health disparities, disseminating recruiters' experiences, challenges, and effective strategies used will allow other researchers to build upon these experience in order to increase recruitment success of underserved and underrepresented minority populations into research studies. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Placement, support, and retention of health professionals: national, cross-sectional findings from medical and dental community service officers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail M; Onah, Michael; Kornik, Saul; Peacocke, Julia; Reid, Stephen

    2014-02-26

    In South Africa, community service following medical training serves as a mechanism for equitable distribution of health professionals and their professional development. Community service officers are required to contribute a year towards serving in a public health facility while receiving supervision and remuneration. Although the South African community service programme has been in effect since 1998, little is known about how placement and practical support occur, or how community service may impact future retention of health professionals. National, cross-sectional data were collected from community service officers who served during 2009 using a structured self-report questionnaire. A Supervision Satisfaction Scale (SSS) was created by summing scores of five questions rated on a three-point Likert scale (orientation, clinical advising, ongoing mentorship, accessibility of clinic leadership, and handling of community service officers' concerns). Research endpoints were guided by community service programmatic goals and analysed as dichotomous outcomes. Bivariate and multivariate logistical regressions were conducted using Stata 12. The sample population comprised 685 doctors and dentists (response rate 44%). Rural placement was more likely among unmarried, male, and black practitioners. Rates of self-reported professional development were high (470 out of 539 responses; 87%). Participants with higher scores on the SSS were more likely to report professional development. Although few participants planned to continue work in rural, underserved communities (n = 171 out of 657 responses, 25%), those serving in a rural facility during the community service year had higher intentions of continuing rural work. Those reporting professional development during the community service year were twice as likely to report intentions to remain in rural, underserved communities. Despite challenges in equitable distribution of practitioners, participant satisfaction with the

  16. Food security: what the community wants. Learning through focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, D; Dewolfe, J A; Thompson, L

    1994-01-01

    We used focus groups to learn the range of issues threatening food security of low income residents in our community. Five major themes emerged from the discussions: literacy, money, time, mental health and self-esteem, suggesting several approaches that could help ensure food security: 1) education, 2) sharing of resources, 3) coalition building, and 4) advocacy. Education programs have to be practical, allowing for demonstrations and hands-on learning while emphasizing skill building and problem solving. Incorporating a social aspect into learning may compensate for the social isolation and would capitalize on the impressive mutual support we witnessed. Strategies based on self-help and peer assistance may counteract low self-esteem and overcome suspicion of health professionals. A community-wide effort is needed to address the factors contributing to food insecurity. We envision the formation of a coalition of professionals, agencies, and low income people to develop a comprehensive strategy for achieving food security.

  17. Integrated model of primary and secondary eye care for underserved rural areas: The L V Prasad Eye Institute experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullapalli N Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a major global public health problem and recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO showed that in India there were 62 million visually impaired, of whom 8 million are blind. The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS provided a comprehensive estimate for prevalence and causes of blindness for the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. It also highlighted that uptake of services was also an issue, predominantly among lower socio-economic groups, women, and rural populations. On the basis of this analysis, L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI developed a pyramidal model of eye care delivery. This article describes the LVPEI eye care delivery model. The article discusses infrastructure development, human resource development, and service delivery (including prevention and promotion in the context of primary and secondary care service delivery in rural areas. The article also alludes to opportunities for research at these levels of service delivery and the amenability of the evidence generated at these levels of the LVPEI eye health pyramid for advocacy and policy planning. In addition, management issues related to the sustainability of service delivery in rural areas are discussed. The article highlights the key factors required for the success of the LVPEI rural service delivery model and discusses challenges that need to be overcome to replicate the model. The article concludes by noting the potential to convert these challenges into opportunities by integrating certain aspects of the existing healthcare system into the model. Examples include screening of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in order to promote higher community participation. The results of such integration can serve as evidence for advocacy and policy.

  18. Coping strategies and behavioural changes following a genital herpes diagnosis among an urban sample of underserved Midwestern women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Roth, Alexis; Brand, Juanita Ebert; Zimet, Gregory D; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on understanding the coping strategies and related behavioural changes of women who were recently diagnosed with herpes simplex virus type 2. In particular, we were interested in how coping strategies, condom use, and acyclovir uptake evolve over time. Twenty-eight women screening positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 were recruited through a public health STD clinic and the Indianapolis Community Court. Participants completed three semi-structured interviews with a woman researcher over a six-month period. The interviews focused on coping strategies for dealing with a diagnosis, frequency of condom use, suppressive and episodic acyclovir use, and the utilisation of herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups. Interview data were analysed using content analysis to identify and interpret concepts and themes that emerged from the interviews. Women employed a variety of coping strategies following an herpes simplex virus type 2 diagnosis. Of the women, 32% reported an increase in religious activities, 20% of women reported an increase in substance use, and 56% of women reported engaging in other coping activities. A total of 80% of women reported abstaining from sex immediately following the diagnosis, but 76% of women reported engaging in sex again by the six-month interview. Condom and medication use did not increase and herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups were not utilised by participants. All participants reported engaging in at least one coping mechanism after receiving their diagnosis. A positive diagnosis did not seem to result in increased use of condoms for the majority of participants and the use of acyclovir was low overall. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Envisioning a social-health information exchange as a platform to support a patient-centered medical neighborhood: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Chan, Connie V; Makam, Anil; Stieglitz, Heather; Amarasingham, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Social determinants directly contribute to poorer health, and coordination between healthcare and community-based resources is pivotal to addressing these needs. However, our healthcare system remains poorly equipped to address social determinants of health. The potential of health information technology to bridge this gap across the delivery of healthcare and social services remains unrealized. We conducted in-depth, in-person interviews with 50 healthcare and social service providers to determine the feasibility of a social-health information exchange (S-HIE) in an urban safety-net setting in Dallas County, Texas. After completion of interviews, we conducted a town hall meeting to identify desired functionalities for a S-HIE. We conducted thematic analysis of interview responses using the constant comparative method to explore perceptions about current communication and coordination across sectors, and barriers and enablers to S-HIE implementation. We sought participant confirmation of findings and conducted a forced-rank vote during the town hall to prioritize potential S-HIE functionalities. We found that healthcare and social service providers perceived a need for improved information sharing, communication, and care coordination across sectors and were enthusiastic about the potential of a S-HIE, but shared many technical, legal, and ethical concerns around cross-sector information sharing. Desired technical S-HIE functionalities encompassed fairly simple transactional operations such as the ability to view basic demographic information, visit and referral data, and medical history from both healthcare and social service settings. A S-HIE is an innovative and feasible approach to enabling better linkages between healthcare and social service providers. However, to develop S-HIEs in communities across the country, policy interventions are needed to standardize regulatory requirements, to foster increased IT capability and uptake among social service agencies

  20. Community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the oil and gas companies with the Northern communities regarding drilling activities was an important aspect of oil and gas operations conducted in the Beaufort Sea. During the 1960s the industry and aboriginal people basically ignored each other. Later, the industry put more emphasis on community consultation until finally two-way communication was established. Respect for the land and the environment were very important to aboriginal people who depended on the land and its resources for their traditional way of life. Community relations policies by the various companies involved in the area, and the impact they have had on their respective communities were recounted. Not all efforts were successful, however, the companies and the communities learned from their experiences, and by the time operations ceased, the communities seemed to be more appreciative of the ways they were being treated by the oil companies. 22 figs

  1. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...... lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...

  2. Community-based dental education and the importance of faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen

    2010-09-01

    Community-based dental education offers a variety of positive learning experiences for students while providing needed dental services for the underserved. More dental students are being instructed by a growing body of largely volunteer community-based faculty who practice in a wide range of community settings including community hospitals and clinics, nursing homes, and private practices. These geographically dispersed instructors may have little experience as educators. Their practice styles and their motivation to improve teaching effectiveness are likely to differ from the styles and motivation of school-based faculty members. Moreover, many dental schools have begun to emphasize practices that may be unfamiliar to community-based faculty such as evidence-based practice. Providing faculty development for them is challenging, yet crucial to the success of these programs and dental education in general. Fundamental elements that must be considered for effective community faculty development programming include fostering a culture of respect between school-based and community faculty members, basing programs on the actual needs of these educators, integrating principles of adult learning theory, and establishing ongoing institutional support. This article provides background on this movement, reviews the literature for faculty development programs geared specifically to community-based educators, makes recommendations for development programs for these dental educators, and includes suggestions for future research.

  3. A Growing Opportunity: Community Gardens Affiliated with US Hospitals and Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; Hanson, Ryan; Sciamanna, Christopher N

    Community gardens can reduce public health disparities through promoting physical activity and healthy eating, growing food for underserved populations, and accelerating healing from injury or disease. Despite their potential to contribute to comprehensive patient care, no prior studies have investigated the prevalence of community gardens affiliated with US healthcare institutions, and the demographic characteristics of communities served by these gardens. In 2013, national community garden databases, scientific abstracts, and public search engines (e.g., Google Scholar) were used to identify gardens. Outcomes included the prevalence of hospital-based community gardens by US regions, and demographic characteristics (age, race/ethnicity, education, household income, and obesity rates) of communities served by gardens. There were 110 healthcare-based gardens, with 39 in the Midwest, 25 in the South, 24 in the Northeast, and 22 in the West. Compared to US population averages, communities served by healthcare-based gardens had similar demographic characteristics, but significantly lower rates of obesity (27% versus 34%, p gardens are located in regions that are demographically representative of the US population, and are associated with lower rates of obesity in communities they serve.

  4. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...

  5. Reducing Disparities in Cancer Screening and Prevention through Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships with Local Libraries: A Comprehensive Dynamic Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, Bruce D; Weiss, Elisa; Lounsbury, David; Michel, Tamara; Gordon, Alexis; Erb-Downward, Jennifer; Sabino-Laughlin, Eilleen; Carpenter, Alison; Schwartz, Carolyn E; Bulone, Linda; Kemeny, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Reduction of cancer-related disparities requires strategies that link medically underserved communities to preventive care. In this community-based participatory research project, a public library system brought together stakeholders to plan and undertake programs to address cancer screening and risk behavior. This study was implemented over 48 months in 20 large urban neighborhoods, selected to reach diverse communities disconnected from care. In each neighborhood, Cancer Action Councils were organized to conduct a comprehensive dynamic trial, an iterative process of program planning, implementation and evaluation. This process was phased into neighborhoods in random, stepped-wedge sequence. Population-level outcomes included self-reported screening adherence and smoking cessation, based on street intercept interviews. Event-history regressions (n = 9374) demonstrated that adherence outcomes were associated with program implementation, as were mediators such as awareness of screening programs and cancer information seeking. Findings varied by ethnicity, and were strongest among respondents born outside the U.S. or least engaged in care. This intervention impacted health behavior in diverse, underserved and vulnerable neighborhoods. It has been sustained as a routine library system program for several years after conclusion of grant support. In sum, participatory research with the public library system offers a flexible, scalable approach to reduce cancer health disparities. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  6. Barriers to Providing Health Education During Primary Care Visits at Community Health Centers: Clinical Staff Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Planas, Jessica; Pose, Alix; Smith, Linda

    2016-04-01

    The rapid increase of diverse patients living in the US has created a different set of needs in healthcare, with the persistence of health disparities continuing to challenge the current system. Chronic disease management has been discussed as a way to improve health outcomes, with quality patient education being a key component. Using a community based participatory research framework, this study utilized a web-based survey and explored clinical staff perceptions of barriers to providing patient education during primary care visits. With a response rate of nearly 42 %, appointment time allotment seemed to be one of the most critical factors related to the delivery of health education and should be considered key. The importance of team-based care and staff training were also significant. Various suggestions were made in order to improve the delivery of quality patient education at community health centers located in underserved areas.

  7. Community electricity for sustainable livelihoods through public-private partnership (Ethiopia, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Uganda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the past, public-private partnerships have been developed in all four countries involved in the project with varying levels of success. There are clear lessons to be learned from these approaches, and much potential to develop models which build on their success factors. Models that will be developed within the course of this research will address the inequalities and social exclusion within existing public-private partnership models in order to broaden access to electricity services. Fieldwork will be carried out in communities, using a sustainable livelihoods approach to assess existing approaches and develop the most promising models through a series of pilot projects in each country. The objective of this work was to define and test models for public-private partnerships to deliver electricity services to rural and under-served urban communities, to enable the provision of electricity for communal and domestic access. (author)

  8. Retaining health workforce in rural and underserved areas of India: What works and what doesn't? A critical interpretative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Angeli, Federica; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Singla, Neetu; Grover, Manoj; Maarse, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Human resource for health is critical in quality healthcare delivery. India, with a large rural population (68.8%), needs to urgently bridge the gaps in health workforce deployment between urban and rural areas. We did a critical interpretative synthesis of the existing literature by using a predefined selection criteria to assess relevant manuscripts to identify the reasons for retaining the health workforce in rural and underserved areas. We discuss different strategies for retention of health workforce in rural areas on the basis of four major retention interventions, viz. education, regulation, financial incentives, and personal and professional support recommended by WHO in 2010. This review focuses on the English-language material published during 2005-14 on human resources in health across low- and middle-income countries. Healthcare in India is delivered through a diverse set of providers. Inequity exists in health manpower distribution across states, area (urban-rural), gender and category of health personnel. India is deficient in health system development and financing where health workforce education and training occupy a low priority. Poor governance, insufficient salary and allowances, along with inability of employers to provide safe, satisfying and rewarding work conditions-are causing health worker attrition in rural India. The review suggests that the retention of health workers in rural areas can be ensured by multiplicity of interventions such as medical schools in rural areas, rural orientation of medical education, introducing compulsory rural service in lieu of incentives providing better pay packages and special allowances, and providing better living and working conditions in rural areas. A complex interplay of factors that impact on attraction and retention of health workforce necessitates bundling of interventions. In low-income countries, evidence- based strategies are needed to ensure context-specific, field- tested and cost

  9. Parent-child reading interactions among English and English as a second language speakers in an underserved pediatric clinic in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabayashi, Kristyn M; Huang, Gary Y; Linskey, Katy R; Pirga, Jason; Bane-Terakubo, Teresa; Lee, Meta T

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare reading patterns between English-speaking and English as a Second Language (ESL) families in a health care setting in Hawai'i. A cross-sectional study was performed at an underserved pediatric primary care clinic in Hawai'i. Caregivers of patients between the ages of 6 months to 5 years were asked questions regarding demographics and parent-child reading interactions. Respondents were categorized into English-speaking or ESL groups based on primary language spoken at home. Pearson chi2 tests and Fisher exact tests were performed to compare demographic differences, reading frequency, and reading attitudes between groups. One-hundred three respondents completed the survey Fifty percent were ESL. All ESL respondents were of Asian-Pacific Islander (API) or mixed Asian ethnicity. All Caucasians in the study (n = 9) were in the English-speaking group. Between the English-speaking (n = 52) and ESL (n = 51) groups, there were no significant statistical differences in age or gender of the child, reading attitudes, or parent's educational status. Parents in the ESL group read to their children significantly fewer days per week than their English-speaking counterparts, had significantly fewer books in the home, and lived significantly fewer years in the United States. The findings suggest that API immigrant families share similar attitudes about reading as English-speaking families in Hawai'i but have significantly fewer books in their household and read significantly less frequently Physicians working with API populations should be aware that immigrant children may have fewer reading interactions and should counsel parents on the importance of reading daily.

  10. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  11. Use of a sensitive EnVision +-based detection system for Western blotting: avoidance of streptavidin binding to endogenous biotin and biotin-containing proteins in kidney and other tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Rosamonde E; Craven, Rachel A; Harnden, Patricia A; Selby, Peter J

    2003-04-01

    Western blotting remains a central technique in confirming identities of proteins, their quantitation and analysis of various isoforms. The biotin-avidin/streptavidin system is often used as an amplification step to increase sensitivity but in some tissues such as kidney, "nonspecific" interactions may be a problem due to high levels of endogenous biotin-containing proteins. The EnVision system, developed for immunohistochemical applications, relies on binding of a polymeric conjugate consisting of up to 100 peroxidase molecules and 20 secondary antibody molecules linked directly to an activated dextran backbone, to the primary antibody. This study demonstrates that it is also a viable and sensitive alternative detection system in Western blotting applications.

  12. Community noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  13. Implementation of a new 'community' laboratory CD4 service in a rural health district in South Africa extends laboratory services and substantially improves local reporting turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, L M; Cassim, N; Glencross, D K

    2015-12-16

    The CD4 integrated service delivery model (ITSDM) provides for reasonable access to pathology services across South Africa (SA) by offering three new service tiers that extend services into remote, under-serviced areas. ITSDM identified Pixley ka Seme as such an under-serviced district. To address the poor service delivery in this area, a new ITSDM community (tier 3) laboratory was established in De Aar, SA. Laboratory performance and turnaround time (TAT) were monitored post implementation to assess the impact on local service delivery. Using the National Health Laboratory Service Corporate Data Warehouse, CD4 data were extracted for the period April 2012-July 2013 (n=11,964). Total mean TAT (in hours) was calculated and pre-analytical and analytical components assessed. Ongoing testing volumes, as well as external quality assessment performance across ten trials, were used to indicate post-implementation success. Data were analysed using Stata 12. Prior to the implementation of CD4 testing at De Aar, the total mean TAT was 20.5 hours. This fell to 8.2 hours post implementation, predominantly as a result of a lower pre-analytical mean TAT reducing from a mean of 18.9 to 1.8 hours. The analytical testing TAT remained unchanged after implementation and monthly test volumes increased by up to 20%. External quality assessment indicated adequate performance. Although subjective, questionnaires sent to facilities reported improved service delivery. Establishing CD4 testing in a remote community laboratory substantially reduces overall TAT. Additional community CD4 laboratories should be established in under-serviced areas, especially where laboratory infrastructure is already in place.

  14. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  15. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  16. A community participatory model of mobile dental service-survey among stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biney Anne Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mobile dental service (MDS at Ludhiana is a unique model of oral health care delivery which enables rural communities to develop their own creative system through partnerships, for ensuring consistent oral health care delivery in the underserved areas. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction among the stakeholders participating in the MDS program of a premier Dental College in Ludhiana. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 12 villages of Ludhiana district in Punjab where the MDSs were being provided. Four hundred and fifty patients, 50 organizers and 40 service providers were interviewed separately with pretested questionnaires. Results: About 98.4% of the patients were completely satisfied with the overall care provided. 71.1% of the patients felt there was increased times in services and 76.7% felt that there was inadequate referral network. Most patients were satisfied with the communication skills of the doctors. 57.5% of the organizers felt that the overall care provided in the MDSs was consistently good and high quality in spite of challenging infrastructure. 100% of the health care providers felt that working in the MDS was a good learning experience in spite of the heavy workload and infrastructure challenges. Conclusion: The study reveals that the MDS is a satisfactory mode of dental care delivery for all the stakeholders involved. Despite the challenges, this partnership program can be nurtured as a successful model of oral health care delivery in underserved areas.

  17. Teaching social responsibility through community service-learning in predoctoral dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondani, Mario A

    2012-05-01

    Social responsibility refers to one's sense of duty to the society in which he or she lives. The Professionalism and Community Service (PACS) dental module at the University of British Columbia is based upon community service-learning and helps dental students to understand the challenges faced by vulnerable segments of the population as they actively reflect on experiences gathered from didactic and experiential activities. This article aims to illustrate the extent to which PACS has fostered awareness of social responsibility through the British Columbia Ministry of Education's Performance Standards Framework for Social Responsibility. Reflections were gathered from students in all four years of the D.M.D. program and were analyzed thematically in three categories of the framework: Contribution to the Classroom and Community, Value of Diversity in the Community, and Exercise of Responsibilities. The constant comparison analysis of the reflective qualitative data revealed that the students directly or indirectly addressed these three categories in their reflections as they synthesized their understanding of community issues and their collaborative roles as socially responsible members of the dental profession. Follow-up studies are needed to explore the impact of community-based dental education upon students' perceptions and understanding of social responsibility and professionalism regarding underserved communities.

  18. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time. PMID:29057794

  19. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R; Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M

    2017-10-18

    Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.

  20. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Singleton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI. Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97% stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.

  1. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  2. Establishing community partnerships to support late-life anxiety research: lessons learned from the Calmer Life project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, John Paul; Shrestha, Srijana; Escamilla, Monica; Clark, Sharonda; Wilson, Nancy; Kunik, Mark; Zeno, Darrell; Harris, Toi B; Peters, Alice; Varner, Ivory L; Scantlebury, Carolyn; Scott-Gurnell, Kathy; Stanley, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines the development of the Calmer Life project, a partnership established between researchers and faith-based and social service organizations to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporating religious/spiritual components for older African Americans in low-income communities. The program was designed to bypass several barriers to delivery of CBT within the specified community; it allows multimodal delivery (in person or by telephone) that occurs outside traditional mental health settings through faith-based organizations and neighborhood community centers. It includes religion/spirituality as an element, dependent upon the preference of the participant, and is modular, so that people can select the skills they wish to learn. Established relationships within the community were built upon, and initial meetings were held in community settings, allowing feedback from community organizations. This ongoing program is functioning successfully and has strengthened relationships with community partners and facilitated increased availability of education and services in the community. The lessons learned in establishing these partnerships are outlined. The growth of effectiveness research for late-life anxiety treatments in underserved minority populations requires development of functional partnerships between academic institutions and community stakeholders, along with treatment modifications to effectively address barriers faced by these consumers. The Calmer Life project may serve as a model.

  3. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  4. COMMUNITY OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... The Role of Research in Social Marketing: The Community Eye. Outreach Clinic .... Serious thought was given to the possibility of establishing static eye care .... Information obtained included vital statistics, work history, job.

  5. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  6. Community expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, L.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between the nuclear generator and the local community has been one of stability and co-operation. However in more recent times (2000-2003) the nuclear landscape has had several major issues that directly effect the local nuclear host communities. - The associations mandate is to be supportive of the nuclear industry through ongoing dialogue, mutual cooperation and education, - To strengthen community representation with the nuclear industry and politically through networking with other nuclear host communities. As a result of these issues, the Mayors of a number of communities started having informal meetings to discuss the issues at hand and how they effect their constituents. These meetings led to the official formation of the CANHC with representation from: In Canada it is almost impossible to discuss decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear Facilities without also discussing Nuclear Waste disposal for reasons that I will soon make clear. Also I would like to briefly touch on how and why expectation of communities may differ by geography and circumstance. (author)

  7. Know Your Numbers: Creation and implementation of a novel community health mobile application (app) by student pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michelle; Nguyen, Vi; Vishwanath, Soumya; Wolfe, Courtney; Patel, Sweta

    A free mobile application (app), Know Your Numbers (KYN), was developed by student pharmacists to assist underserved community members to track their health numbers. The study objectives included creating a health app, implementing a pilot program, and analyzing the frequency of app use and perceptions of community members toward their health numbers, pharmacists, and health apps. Student pharmacists recruited participants at the community clinics and health fairs organized in underserved communities of the Atlanta metropolitan area. This study used a pre- and post-survey study design to compare perceptions before and after use of a health app. Eligible participants completed a 22-item pre-survey that assessed understanding of their health numbers, previous health app use, and perceptions of pharmacists. Frequency of app use and change in perceptions of community members toward health numbers, pharmacists, and health apps before and after enrolling in KYN were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed rank tests for matched pre- and post-surveys. Thirty-three participants were enrolled for 56 days. African American participants (93.9%) earned less than $25,000 annually (56.7%). On average, participants had 3.98 interactions per week. Before using the mobile health app, 84.8% of users felt comfortable using a health app, but only 9% used one regularly. The post-survey response rate was 27.2% (n = 9). More participants agreed that a health app helped them to meet their health goals after the program (24.4% to 100%; P = 0.0006). More than 90% of participants agreed in both surveys that it is important to check their health numbers regularly and that they trust pharmacists to provide accurate information. KYN is a novel mobile tool that promotes chronic disease self-management and the profession of pharmacy. These findings support the benefits of mobile health app's usability and its ability to assist in achieving personal health goals

  8. A Community-Based Randomized Trial of Hepatitis B Screening Among High-Risk Vietnamese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X; Fang, Carolyn Y; Seals, Brenda; Feng, Ziding; Tan, Yin; Siu, Philip; Yeh, Ming Chin; Golub, Sarit A; Nguyen, Minhhuyen T; Tran, Tam; Wang, Minqi

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based liver cancer prevention program on hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening among low-income, underserved Vietnamese Americans at high risk. We conducted a cluster randomized trial involving 36 Vietnamese community-based organizations and 2337 participants in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York City between 2009 and 2014. We randomly assigned 18 community-based organizations to a community-based multilevel HBV screening intervention (n = 1131). We randomly assigned the remaining 18 community-based organizations to a general cancer education program (n = 1206), which included information about HBV-related liver cancer prevention. We assessed HBV screening rates at 6-month follow-up. Intervention participants were significantly more likely to have undergone HBV screening (88.1%) than were control group participants (4.6%). In a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel analysis, the intervention effect on screening outcomes remained statistically significant after adjustment for demographic and health care access variables, including income, having health insurance, having a regular health provider, and English proficiency. A community-based, culturally appropriate, multilevel HBV screening intervention effectively increases screening rates in a high-risk, hard-to-reach Vietnamese American population.

  9. "Nursing Students Assaulted": Considering Student Safety in Community-Focused Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneval, Rhonda E; Kurz, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Community nursing experiences for undergraduate students have progressed beyond community-based home visits to a wide array of community-focused experiences in neighborhood-based centers, clinics, shelters, and schools. Our Bachelor of Science in Nursing program chose to use sites situated within neighborhoods close to campus in order to promote student and faculty engagement in the local community. These neighborhood sites provide opportunities for students to deliver nursing services to underserved and vulnerable populations experiencing poverty and health disparities. Some of these neighborhoods are designated as high crime areas that may potentially increase the risk of harm to students and faculty. There is a need to acknowledge the risk to personal safety and to proactively create policies and guidelines to reduce potential harm to students engaged in community-focused experiences. When a group of baccalaureate nursing students was assaulted while walking to a neighborhood clinic, the faculty was challenged as how to respond given the lack of policies and guidelines. Through our experience, we share strategies to promote personal safety for students and recommend transparency by administrators regarding potential safety risks to students engaged in community-focused fieldwork activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The science-policy interface: Perceptions and strategies of the Iberian 'new water culture' expert community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a normative consensus that science should contribute to decision-making in environmental policy, given that science provides a means of understanding natural systems, human impacts upon them, and the consequences of those impacts for human systems. Despite this general agreement, however, the means through which science is transmitted into policy is contested. This paper envisions several of the competing characterisations of the science-policy interface as a continuum with the endpoints of 'fortress science' and 'co-production', and applies this continuum in an empirical analysis of the transboundary expert community promoting a 'new water culture' on the Iberian Peninsula. In engaging directly with members of this community, the paper finds that these characterisations are better seen as strategies among which scientists and their communities may choose and over which they may disagree. These trade-offs and disagreements in turn have implications for policy impact.

  11. The eCALM Trial-eTherapy for cancer appLying mindfulness: online mindfulness-based cancer recovery program for underserved individuals living with cancer in Alberta: protocol development for a randomized wait-list controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zernicke Kristin A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated stress can exacerbate cancer symptom severity, and after completion of primary cancer treatments, many individuals continue to have significant distress. Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR is an 8-week group psychosocial intervention consisting of training in mindfulness meditation and yoga designed to mitigate stress, pain, and chronic illness. Efficacy research shows face-to-face (F2F MBCR programs have positive benefits for cancer patients; however barriers exist that impede participation in F2F groups. While online MBCR groups are available to the public, none have been evaluated. Primary objective: determine whether underserved patients are willing to participate in and complete an online MBCR program. Secondary objectives: determine whether online MBCR will mirror previous efficacy findings from F2F MBCR groups on patient-reported outcomes. Method/design The study includes cancer patients in Alberta, exhibiting moderate distress, who do not have access to F2F MBCR. Participants will be randomized to either online MBCR, or waiting for the next available group. An anticipated sample size of 64 participants will complete measures online pre and post treatment or waiting period. Feasibility will be tracked through monitoring numbers eligible and participating through each stage of the protocol. Discussion 47 have completed/completing the intervention. Data suggest it is possible to conduct a randomized waitlist controlled trial of online MBCR to reach underserved cancer survivors. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01476891

  12. "I Love Fruit But I Can't Afford It": Using Participatory Action Research to Develop Community-Based Initiatives to Mitigate Challenges to Chronic Disease Management in an African American Community Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Courtney; Johnson, Joy; Nueslein, Brianne; Edmunds, David; Valdez, Rupa S

    2018-03-12

    As chronic conditions are on the rise in the USA, management initiatives outside of the inpatient setting should be explored to reduce associated cost and access disparities. Chronic conditions disproportionately affect African American public housing residents due to the effects of historical marginalization on the manifestation of economic and social problems exacerbating health disparities and outcomes. Informed by participatory research action tenets, this study focused on identifying the challenges to management of chronic conditions and developing community-envisioned initiatives to address these challenges in a predominantly African American public housing community. Two focus groups were conducted with former and current public housing residents and were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Physical activity, the cost associated with healthy eating, and lack of information were noted as challenges to chronic disease management. Initiatives discussed were the formation of a walking partner's program to promote physical activity, a shopper's club to exchange coupons and learn how to prepare healthy meals, and a natural remedy's book to share information intergenerationally about management tactics. Challenges identified existed predominantly on the individual and the system level, while the initiatives generated target engaging interpersonal and community relationships. These community-envisioned approaches should be explored to facilitate chronic disease management in public housing neighborhoods.

  13. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, is Chair and Associate Professor in the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Dr. McNeill's research is on the elimination of cancer-related health disparities in minority populations. Her research has particular emphasis on understanding the influence of social contextual determinants of cancer in minorities, with a special focus of the role of physical activity as a key preventive behavior and obesity as a major cancer determinant. Her research takes place in minority and underserved communities such as public housing developments, black churches, community-based clinics and low-income neighborhoods-communities with excess cancer death rates. She has been continuously funded, receiving grants from various funding agencies (i.e., National Institutes of Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, etc.), to better understand and design innovative solutions to address obesity in racial/ethnic minority communities. Dr. McNeill is PI of several community-based studies, primarily working with African American churches. One is a called Project CHURCH, an academic-faith-based partnership established to: 1) identify underlying reasons for health disparities in cancer and cancer risk factors (e.g., screening, diet) among AAs using a cohort study (N=2400), 2) engage AAs as partners in the research process, and 3) to ultimately eliminate disparities among AAs. In 2014 Dr. McNeill furthered her partnership through the Faith, Health, and Family (FHF) Collaborative. The goals of FHF are to enhance the Project CHURCH partnership to address family obesity in African Americans, strengthen the partnership by developing a larger coalition of organizations and stakeholders to address the problem, assess church and community interest in family obesity and develop an agenda to address obesity in faith settings. To date we have 50 churches as members. Dr. McNeill is also director of the Center for Community

  14. Designed communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In current residential spaces there seem to be an increasing emphasis on small-scale communities. A number of new, high profiled residential complexes thus seek to promote new ways of social living by rethinking architectural design, typologies and concepts. In this paper I explore the emergence ...

  15. Walkable Communities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and discusses the benefits of walkable communities, as they relate to health, the environment, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  16. Interfirm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . These results yield a paradox which the present paper aims to address. Based on an in-depth case study of how a high-tech small firm organizes its interfirm activity, I show how a hybrid social relation, that is neither weak nor strong, is a useful conception for interfirm communities. Hereby, the study also...

  17. Design and methods for a community-based intervention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth: H2GO! study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L. Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake is an important dietary target among underserved children at high risk for obesity and associated morbidities. Community-based approaches to reduce SSB intake are needed. The use of narrative-based approaches (presenting messages within the context of a story can facilitate connection with target health messages and empower children as behavior change agents within their families. The H2GO! program is a community-based behavioral intervention that integrates narrative-based strategies to reduce SSB consumption and promote water intake among school-age youth and parents. Methods Guided by the Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Ecological Model, the H2GO! intervention consists of 6 weekly sessions that target beverage knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors through youth-produced messages and narratives to reduce SSB intake and encourage water intake and parent–child activities. To reach underserved youth and families, we identified Boys & Girls Clubs (B&GC (youth-based community centers that serve an ethnically diverse and predominantly low socioeconomic status population as a community partner and study setting. Participants (children ages 9–12 years and their parents will be recruited from B&GC sites in Massachusetts, USA. Intervention efficacy will be assessed through a site-randomized trial (N = 2 youth-based community sites, pair-matched for size and racial/ethnic composition with 54 parent–child pairs (N = 108 enrolled per site (N = 216 total. The comparison site will carry on with usual practice. Child and parental SSB and water consumption (primary outcomes and parent and child beverage knowledge and attitudes (secondary outcomes will be measured via self-report surveys. Additional outcomes include children’s anthropometric data, additional dietary behaviors, and physical activity. Measures will be collected at baseline, 2 and 6 months follow-up. With

  18. Capacity for Cancer Care Delivery Research in National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program Community Practices: Availability of Radiology and Primary Care Research Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Ruth C; Sicks, JoRean D; Chang, George J; Lyss, Alan P; Stewart, Teresa L; Sung, Lillian; Weaver, Kathryn E

    2017-12-01

    Cancer care spans the spectrum from screening and diagnosis through therapy and into survivorship. Delivering appropriate care requires patient transitions across multiple specialties, such as primary care, radiology, and oncology. From the program's inception, the National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) sites were tasked with conducting cancer care delivery research (CCDR) that evaluates structural, organizational, and social factors, including care transitions that determine patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the capacity of the NCORP to conduct multidisciplinary CCDR that includes radiology and primary care practices. The NCORP includes 34 community and 12 minority and underserved community sites. The Landscape Capacity Assessment was conducted in 2015 across these 46 sites, composed of the 401 components and subcomponents designated to conduct CCDR. Each respondent had the opportunity to designate an operational practice group, defined as a group of components and subcomponents with common care practices and resources. The primary outcomes were the proportion of adult oncology practice groups with affiliated radiology and primary care practices. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of those affiliated radiology and primary care groups that participate in research. Eighty-seven percent of components and subcomponents responded to at least some portion of the assessment, representing 230 practice groups. Analyzing the 201 adult oncology practice groups, 85% had affiliated radiologists, 69% of whom participate in research. Seventy-nine percent had affiliated primary care practitioners, 31% of whom participate in research. Institutional size, multidisciplinary group practice, and ownership by large regional or multistate health systems was associated with research participation by affiliated radiology and primary care groups. Research participation by these affiliated specialists was not significantly

  19. Proyecto MercadoFRESCO: a multi-level, community-engaged corner store intervention in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Albert, Stephanie L; Sharif, Mienah Z; Langellier, Brent A; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Glik, Deborah C; Brookmeyer, Ron; Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Prelip, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Urban food swamps are typically situated in low-income, minority communities and contribute to overweight and obesity. Changing the food landscape in low income and underserved communities is one strategy to combat the negative health consequences associated with the lack of access to healthy food resources and an abundance of unhealthy food venues. In this paper, we describe Proyecto MercadoFRESCO (Fresh Market Project), a corner store intervention project in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights in California that used a multi-level approach with a broad range of community, business, and academic partners. These are two neighboring, predominantly Latino communities that have high rates of overweight and obesity. Located in these two communities are approximately 150 corner stores. The project used a community-engaged approach to select, recruit, and convert four corner stores, so that they could become healthy community assets in order to improve residents' access to and awareness of fresh and affordable fruits and vegetables in their immediate neighborhoods. We describe the study framework for the multi-level intervention, which includes having multiple stakeholders, expertise in corner store operations, community and youth engagement strategies, and social marketing campaigns. We also describe the evaluation and survey methodology to determine community and patron impact of the intervention. This paper provides a framework useful to a variety of public health stakeholders for implementing a community-engaged corner store conversion, particularly in an urban food swamp.

  20. The pipeline of physiology courses in community colleges: to university, medical school, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jenny; Pape-Lindstrom, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    Community colleges are significant in the landscape of undergraduate STEM (science technology, engineering, and mathematics) education (9), including biology, premedical, and other preprofessional education. Thirty percent of first-year medical school students in 2012 attended a community college. Students attend at different times in high school, their first 2 yr of college, and postbaccalaureate. The community college pathway is particularly important for traditionally underrepresented groups. Premedical students who first attend community college are more likely to practice in underserved communities (2). For many students, community colleges have significant advantages over 4-yr institutions. Pragmatically, they are local, affordable, and flexible, which accommodates students' work and family commitments. Academically, community colleges offer teaching faculty, smaller class sizes, and accessible learning support systems. Community colleges are fertile ground for universities and medical schools to recruit diverse students and support faculty. Community college students and faculty face several challenges (6, 8). There are limited interactions between 2- and 4-yr institutions, and the ease of transfer processes varies. In addition, faculty who study and work to improve the physiology education experience often encounter obstacles. Here, we describe barriers and detail existing resources and opportunities useful in navigating challenges. We invite physiology educators from 2- and 4-yr institutions to engage in sharing resources and facilitating physiology education improvement across institutions. Given the need for STEM majors and health care professionals, 4-yr colleges and universities will continue to benefit from students who take introductory biology, physiology, and anatomy and physiology courses at community colleges. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  1. Improving access to mental health care in an Orthodox Jewish community: a critical reflection upon the accommodation of otherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Phil; Williamson, Tracey; Kada, Raphael; Frazer, Debra; Dhliwayo, Chardworth; Gask, Linda

    2017-08-14

    The English National Health Service (NHS) has significantly extended the supply of evidence based psychological interventions in primary care for people experiencing common mental health problems. Yet despite the extra resources, the accessibility of services for 'under-served' ethnic and religious minority groups, is considerably short of the levels of access that may be necessary to offset the health inequalities created by their different exposure to services, resulting in negative health outcomes. This paper offers a critical reflection upon an initiative that sought to improve access to an NHS funded primary care mental health service to one 'under-served' population, an Orthodox Jewish community in the North West of England. A combination of qualitative and quantitative data were drawn upon including naturally occurring data, observational notes, e-mail correspondence, routinely collected demographic data and clinical outcomes measures, as well as written feedback and recorded discussions with 12 key informants. Improvements in access to mental health care for some people from the Orthodox Jewish community were achieved through the collaborative efforts of a distributed leadership team. The members of this leadership team were a self-selecting group of stakeholders which had a combination of local knowledge, cultural understanding, power to negotiate on behalf of their respective constituencies and expertise in mental health care. Through a process of dialogic engagement the team was able to work with the community to develop a bespoke service that accommodated its wish to maintain a distinct sense of cultural otherness. This critical reflection illustrates how dialogic engagement can further the mechanisms of candidacy, concordance and recursivity that are associated with improvements in access to care in under-served sections of the population, whilst simultaneously recognising the limits of constructive dialogue. Dialogue can change the dynamic of

  2. A Novel Model for Teaching Primary Care in a Community Practice Setting: Tufts at Tech Community Veterinary Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCobb, Emily; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Malcolm, Elizabeth L; Wolfus, Gregory; Rush, John E

    Providing veterinary students with opportunities to develop clinical skills in a realistic, hands-on environment remains a challenge for veterinary education. We have developed a novel approach to teaching clinical medicine to fourth-year veterinary students and technical high school students via development of a primary care clinic embedded within a technical high school. The primary care clinic targets an underserved area of the community, which includes many of the participating high school students. Support from the veterinary community for the project has been strong as a result of communication, the opportunity for veterinarians to volunteer in the clinic, and the careful targeting of services. Benefits to veterinary students include the opportunity to build clinical competencies and confidence, as well as the exposure to a diverse client population. The financial model of the clinic is described and initial data on outcomes for case load, clinic income, veterinary student evaluations, and high school students' success in passing the veterinary assisting examination are reported. This clinical model, involving a partnership between a veterinary school and a technical high school, may be adoptable to other clinical teaching situations.

  3. Using a Learning Activity Sequence in Large-Enrollment Physical Geology Classes: Supporting the Needs of Underserved Students While Motivating Interest, Learning, and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, A.; Smith, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The learning activity sequence (LAS) strategy is a student-focused pedagogy that emphasizes active classroom learning to promote learning among all students, and in particular, those with diverse backgrounds. Online assessments both set the stage for active learning and help students synthesize material during their learning. UNM is one of only two Carnegie Research University Very High institutions also designated as Hispanic-serving and the only state flagship university that is also a majority-minority undergraduate institution. In 2010 Hispanics comprised 40% of 20,655 undergraduates (and 49% of freshmen), 37% of undergraduates were Pell Grant recipients (the largest proportion of any public flagship research university; J. Blacks Higher Ed., 2009) and 44% of incoming freshmen were first-generation students. To maximize student learning in this environment rich in traditionally underserved students, we designed a LAS for nonmajor physical geology (enrollments 100-160) that integrates in-class instruction with structured out-of-class learning. The LAS has 3 essential parts: Students read before class to acquire knowledge used during in-class collaborative, active-learning activities that build conceptual understanding. Lastly, students review notes and synthesize what they've learned before moving on to the next topic. The model combines online and in-class learning and assessment: Online reading assessments before class; active-learning experiences during class; online learning assessments after class. Class sessions include short lectures, peer instruction "clickers", and small-group problem solving (lecture tutorials). Undergraduate Peer-Learning Facilitators are available during class time to help students with problem solving. Effectiveness of the LAS approach is reflected in three types of measurements. (1) Using the LAS strategy, the overall rate of students earning a grade of C or higher is higher than compared to the average for all large

  4. Positive implications from socially accountable, community-engaged medical education across two Philippines regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Torres; Cristobal, Fortunato; Siega-Sur, Jusie; Ross, Simone; Neusy, Andre-Jacques; Halili, Servando; Reeve, Carole

    2018-02-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide lack access to quality health services, largely because of geographic and socioeconomic maldistribution of qualified practitioners. This study describes differences between the practice locations of Philippines medical graduates from two 'socially accountable, community-engaged' health professional education (SAHPE) schools and the practice locations of graduates from two 'conventionally trained' medical schools located in the same respective geographic regions. Licensed medical graduates were currently practising in the Philippines and had been practising for at least 6 months. Graduates were from two Philippines SAHPE schools (Ateneo de Zamboanga University-School of Medicine (ADZU-SOM) on the Zamboanga Peninsula (n=212) and the University of the Philippines Manila-School of Health Sciences (SHS-Palo) in Eastern Visayas (n=71), and from two 'conventional' medical schools Methods: Current graduate practice locations in municipalities or cities were linked with their respective population size and socioeconomic income class, and geocoded using Geographical Information System software onto a geospatial map of the Philippines. Bivariate analysis compared the population size and socioeconomic class of communities where the SAHPE medical graduates practised to communities where 'conventional' medical school graduates practised. Thirty-one percent of ADZU-SOM medical graduates practised in communities play a significant role in graduates choosing to practice in rural and/or economically disadvantaged communities. Governments experiencing medical workforce maldistributions similar to those in the Philippines should consider SAHPE as a potentially cost-effective strategy in recruiting and retaining health graduates to underserved areas.

  5. Challenges facing community health workers in Brazil's Family Health Strategy: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman-Kahn, Rebecca; Schoen, Julia; Mallett, John William; Brentani, Alexandra; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Heisler, Michele

    2017-09-21

    Community health worker (CHW) programs are implemented in many low- and middle-income countries such as Brazil to increase access to and quality of care for underserved populations; CHW programs have been found to improve certain indicators of health, but few studies have investigated the daily work of CHWs, their perspectives on what both helps and hinders them from fulfilling their roles, and ways that their effectiveness and job satisfaction could be increased. To examine these questions, we observed clinic visits, CHW home visits, and conducted semistructured interviews with CHWs in 7 primary care centers in Brazil-2 in Salvador, Bahia, and 5 in São Paulo, SP-in which CHWs are incorporated into the work of all primary care health teams. In addition to enhancing communication between the medical system and the community, CHWs consider their key roles to be helping persuade community members to seek medical care and increasing health professionals' awareness of the social conditions affecting their patients' health. Key obstacles that CHWs face include failure to be fully integrated into the primary care team, inability to follow-up on identified health needs due to limited resources, as well as community members' lack of understanding of their work and undervaluing of preventative medicine. Increased training, better incorporation of CHWs into clinic flow and decision making, and establishing a clear community awareness of the roles and value of CHWs will help increase the motivation and effectiveness of CHWs in Brazil. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Health and academic success: A look at the challenges of first-generation community college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Deanna L H

    2016-04-01

    Community colleges in the United States serve more than six million students and are the gateway to postsecondary education for individuals from typically underserved populations such as low-income, ethnic minorities, and first-generation college students. First-generation college students are defined as students whose adoptive or natural parents' highest level of education was a high school diploma or less. Postsecondary education has the potential to reduce both health and socioeconomic disparities. First-generation community college students face significant economic, social, and cultural barriers to academic success and are the most at risk for "dropping-out." The purpose of this brief report was to explore what is known about social, psychological, and physical factors that impede first-generation community college students' academic success. Little is known about potential health and psychological barriers experienced by first-generation community college students that impact academic achievement. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) on community college campuses are in the ideal position to identify and treat health issues, and conduct much-needed research into these areas. College health centers are an important practice setting for APNs to provide direct care to students as well as influence college policies that improve student health, well-being, and promote academic success. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. Supporting Latino communities' natural helpers: a case study of promotoras in a research capacity building course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiniano, Angie Denisse; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wallace, Steven P

    2012-08-01

    Promotores have unique access to underserved and hard-to-reach Latino communities facing health disparities. Although promotores are involved in community change, they rarely receive training that gives them the skills to be partners in research. We present a case study of promotoras who participated in a research capacity building course focused on assessing community health needs. Data comes from course application surveys, follow-up notes, and narratives from qualitative phone interviews of eight promotoras. Content analysis drawing from grounded theory was conducted to identify and describe emerging themes. Four themes emerged as promotoras discussed their experience learning basic research skills and teaching others: (1) challenges, (2) support, (3) building capacity, and (4) using research. Promotores play an important role in the health of Latino communities and are increasingly asked to participate in research processes; however they have few opportunities for training and professional development in this area. Capacity building opportunities for promotores need to be tailored to their needs and provide them with support. Fostering collaboration between promotores and partnering with local community-based organizations can help facilitate needed research skill-building among promotores.

  8. Clinical outcomes of a diabetes education program for patients with diabetes mellitus in the Micronesian community in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mok Thoong

    2016-01-01

    Hawaii has diverse population made up of a cultural mix of different races. Due to different cultural and social influences and language barrier, many of the under-served population who migrated to Hawaii and having diabetes mellitus may be susceptible to long-term complications due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia and medication nonadherence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a diabetes education program on the clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus in the Micronesian community of Hawaii. This study included patients over age 18 years, with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The diabetes education program was customized for its weekly classes to fit to the under-served population. Data were collected on participants on the 1(st) day and then 6 months after attending the education program. Data on primary and secondary endpoints were collected and analyzed. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, fasting blood glucose, and triglyceride levels of participants fell significantly from baseline after attending the diabetes education program for 6 months. No significant changes were observed in other secondary outcomes during the study time period. Based on our findings, the diabetes education program that was tailored to the Micronesian population was successful in achieving glycemic goals, enhancing medication adherence, improving clinical outcomes, and also preventing long-term complications among its participants.

  9. From The NIH Director - Envisioning the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not very prestigious. But I loved physics and math, was interested in medicine, and had an uncle ... or good health, from the molecular and atomic levels on up. Whether it is electron microscopy or ...

  10. Envisioning and Enabling Sustainable Smart Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many of the world’s most urgent problems such as climate change, population growth, poverty, malnutrition and environmental degradation not only demand solutions but also require us to find more sustainable ways of living. Market mechanisms can be effective in

  11. Envisioning a Common European Asylum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Türk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bolder approach is needed if the European Union is to overcome fragmentation and manage refugee movements effectively and in accordance with international obligations. Imaginative moves in this direction could also advance the global refugee protection regime.

  12. Envisioning Science Environment Technology and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maknun, J.; Busono, T.; Surasetja, I.

    2018-02-01

    Science Environment Technology and Society (SETS) approach helps students to connect science concept with the other aspects. This allows them to achieve a clearer depiction of how each concept is linked with the other concepts in SETS. Taking SETS into account will guide students to utilize science as a productive concept in inventing and developing technology, while minimizing its negative impacts on the environment and society. This article discusses the implementation of Sundanese local wisdoms, that can be found in the local stilt house (rumah panggung), in the Building Construction subject in vocational high school on Building Drawing Technique expertise. The stilt house structural system employs ties, pupurus joints, and wedges on its floor, wall, and truss frames, as well as its beams. This local knowledge was incorporated into the Building Construction learning program and applied on the following basic competences: applying wood’s specification and characteristics for building construction, managing wood’s specification and characteristics for building construction, analyzing building structure’s type and function based on their characteristics, reasoning building structure’s type and function based on their characteristics, categorizing wood construction works, and reasoning wood construction works. The research result is the Sundanese traditional-local-wisdom-based learning design of the Building Construction subject.

  13. Cultivating nursing leadership for our envisioned future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Lee A

    2012-01-01

    Nurses have been called upon to lead and partner in the transformation of health care. Leadership is a component of the scope of nursing practice; however, the optimal approach to development of leadership competency has not been established. A metasynthesis of qualitative studies on leadership development was conducted to enhance an understanding of conditions that nurses reported to support or hinder their development as leaders. Noblit and Hare's approach was used for the metasynthesis process. Three overarching themes emerged. Opportunity structure, the relationship factor, and organizational culture are essential factors contributing to the successful cultivation of leadership competencies in nurses.

  14. Cyberethics: Envisioning Character Education in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theory and research forming the framework of a graduate course in cyberethics education. The course content includes theory and research on the psychology of the Internet, moral development, and character education. Discussion includes application of these constructs to issues such as empathy, privacy, and other issues as…

  15. Envision Downtown: Public Space Public Life Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pedestrian and Bicycle counts, Stationary Activity Counts, and Age and Gender counts for 16 locations in Downtown Pittsburgh. Data was collected over a weekday (7am...

  16. Elected Union Officers Envision Employee Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Public Affairs Office, Naval Postgraduate School

    2016-01-01

    Today@NPS showcases some of the speakers, conferences, experiments, lectures, and other events that take place at the Naval Postgraduate School on a daily basis. If you would like more information about any of the highlighted activities please contact the NPS public affairs office at .

  17. Envisioning the future of 'big data' biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Alex A T; Van Horn, John Darrell

    2017-05-01

    Through the increasing availability of more efficient data collection procedures, biomedical scientists are now confronting ever larger sets of data, often finding themselves struggling to process and interpret what they have gathered. This, while still more data continues to accumulate. This torrent of biomedical information necessitates creative thinking about how the data are being generated, how they might be best managed, analyzed, and eventually how they can be transformed into further scientific understanding for improving patient care. Recognizing this as a major challenge, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has spearheaded the "Big Data to Knowledge" (BD2K) program - the agency's most ambitious biomedical informatics effort ever undertaken to date. In this commentary, we describe how the NIH has taken on "big data" science head-on, how a consortium of leading research centers are developing the means for handling large-scale data, and how such activities are being marshalled for the training of a new generation of biomedical data scientists. All in all, the NIH BD2K program seeks to position data science at the heart of 21 st Century biomedical research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Defining the value of community benefits. Analyzing the kinds of goods society produces clarifies hospitals' charity care contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, S M

    1992-01-01

    Community benefits occur when a hospital bears all or part of the relatively unquantifiable costs of promoting, sponsoring, or engaging in religious, educational, scientific, or health-related activities designed to improve community health. By the very nature of their health-related activities, not-for-profit hospitals make extensive and varied contributions to community benefit. When a hospital free clinic inoculates a child for measles, the community as a whole benefits because the inoculation reduces the chance that measles will spread. Not-for-profit hospitals also provide many goods that are "undersupplied" by the for-profit private sector or the public sector, such as research, trauma centers used disproportionately by self-pay patients, and advocacy to rid the community of health hazards. Moreover, a number of factors impose a legal and normative obligation on not-for-profit hospitals to engage in activities that benefit the community. These include Internal Revenue Service rules governing tax exemption, hospitals' fiduciary responsibilities to philanthropic donors, their obligations as "institutional actors" in their communities, and their mission to reach out to the poor and underserved.

  19. Community Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saganowski, Stanisław; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Havi...

  20. Conceptualizing Holistic Community Resilience to Climate ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of resilience has been evolving over the past decade as a way to address the current and future challenges nations, states, and cities face from a changing climate. Understanding how the environment (natural and built), climate event risk, societal interactions, and governance reflect community resilience for adaptive management is critical for envisioning urban and natural environments that can persist through extreme weather events and longer-term shifts in climate. To be successful, this interaction of these five domains must result in maintaining quality of life and ensuring equal access to the benefits or the protection from harm for all segments of the population. An exhaustive literature review of climate resilience approaches was conducted examining the two primary elements of resilience—vulnerability and recoverability. The results of this review were examined to determine if any existing frameworks addressed the above five major areas in an integrated manner. While some aspects of a resilience model were available for existing sources, no comprehensive approach was available. A new conceptual model for resilience to climate events is proposed that incorporates some available structures and addresses these five domains at a national, regional, state, and county spatial scale for a variety of climate-induced events ranging from superstorms to droughts and their concomitant events such as wildfires, floods, and pest invasions. This conceptua

  1. Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine

    ”Online Communities” er et medie for brugere og fagfolk, hvor de kan mødes digitalt for at dele erfaringer, og dette kan anvendes som inspiration indenfor Brugerdreven Innovation. Via ”desk research” kan virksomheder opnå adgang til varierende mængder af brugere på en forholdsvist enkelt måde. I...... denne rapport beskrives eksperimentets opbygning, resultater og mulige værdi. Vi håber hermed på at kunne give praktisk indsigt i, hvorledes virksomheder fra byggematerialeindustrien kan agere i online communities....

  2. A successful model for longitudinal community-engaged health research: the 2040 Partners for Health Student Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Romany M; Reinsvold, Magdalena C; Reddy, Anireddy; Bennett, Paige E; Hoerauf, Janine M; Puls, Kristina M; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Ly, Alexandra R; White, Gregory; McNeil, Owetta; Meredith, Janet J

    2017-06-01

    Community-based participatory research [CBPR] is an emerging approach to collaborative research aimed at creating locally effective and sustainable interventions. The 2040 Partners for Health student program was developed as a unique model of longitudinal CBPR. Analysis of this program and its components illuminates both the challenges and the opportunities inherent in community engagement. The program rests on a foundation of a community-based, non-profit organization and a supportive academic university centre. Inter-professional health students and community members of underserved populations work together on different health projects by employing an adapted CBPR methodology. Three successful examples of sustainable CBPR projects are briefly described. The three projects are presented as primary outcomes resulting from this model. Benefits and challenges of the model as an approach to community-engaged research are discussed as well as secondary benefits of student participation. The 2040 Partners for Health student program represents a successful model of CBPR, illuminating common challenges and reiterating the profound value of community-engaged research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Extension of academic pediatric radiology to the community setting: experience in two sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecklund, K.; Share, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Children are better served by radiologists and technical personnel trained in the care of pediatric patients. However, a variety of obstacles may limit the access of children to dedicated pediatric imaging facilities. Objective. We designed and implemented two models for providing community-based imaging by academic pediatric radiologists. Materials and methods. The first site was an outpatient clinic staffed by physicians from the university-affiliated children's hospital. Imaging services included radiography, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound. The second site was a full-service community hospital radiology department staffed by a group practice, with pediatric imaging covered by the children's hospital radiologists. Facility, equipment, and protocol modifications were required to maintain quality standards. Success of these models was determined by volume statistics, referring physician/patient satisfaction surveys, and quality-assurance (QA) programs. Results. The outpatient satellite had a 48 % increase in total examinations from the first year to the second year and 87 % the third year. Pediatric examinations in the community hospital increased over 1000 % the first 7 months. Referring physicians reported increased diagnostic information and patient satisfaction compared to previous service. QA efforts revealed improved image quality when pediatric radiologists were present, but some continuing difficulties off-hours. Conclusion. We successfully implemented pediatric imaging programs in previously underserved communities. This resulted in increased pediatric radiologist supervision and interpretation of examinations performed on children and improved referring physician and patient satisfaction. (orig.)

  4. Extension of academic pediatric radiology to the community setting: experience in two sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecklund, K.; Share, J.C. [Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-01-01

    Background. Children are better served by radiologists and technical personnel trained in the care of pediatric patients. However, a variety of obstacles may limit the access of children to dedicated pediatric imaging facilities. Objective. We designed and implemented two models for providing community-based imaging by academic pediatric radiologists. Materials and methods. The first site was an outpatient clinic staffed by physicians from the university-affiliated children's hospital. Imaging services included radiography, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound. The second site was a full-service community hospital radiology department staffed by a group practice, with pediatric imaging covered by the children's hospital radiologists. Facility, equipment, and protocol modifications were required to maintain quality standards. Success of these models was determined by volume statistics, referring physician/patient satisfaction surveys, and quality-assurance (QA) programs. Results. The outpatient satellite had a 48 % increase in total examinations from the first year to the second year and 87 % the third year. Pediatric examinations in the community hospital increased over 1000 % the first 7 months. Referring physicians reported increased diagnostic information and patient satisfaction compared to previous service. QA efforts revealed improved image quality when pediatric radiologists were present, but some continuing difficulties off-hours. Conclusion. We successfully implemented pediatric imaging programs in previously underserved communities. This resulted in increased pediatric radiologist supervision and interpretation of examinations performed on children and improved referring physician and patient satisfaction. (orig.)

  5. The partnership model: working with individuals, families, and communities toward a new vision of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, R; Ballard, E; Fauver, S; Gariota, M; Holland, L

    1996-06-01

    Increasingly, health professionals must learn to work in new partnership relationships with clients and community to promote health effectively. A partnership requires a transformation of the professional role from chief actor to partner, and the client role from passive recipient to partner. A partnership approach has particular merit in a reformed health care system that increasingly emphasizes active involvement and self-care actions of individuals and families to maintain health and prevent disease. A partnership approach is also important to professionals working with underserved, vulnerable, and/or minority populations. For too long professionals and policymakers have relegated these groups to passive roles in health decision making and action. This article will provide a description of the partnership process as it has been developed and implemented by nurse practitioners in an urban Hispanic community with emphasis on a community partnership. A partnership model is described and compared to the more traditional professional model. A definition and essential criteria for partnership are presented. Finally, a specific example of how the partnership process was implemented at the community level is discussed.

  6. St. Albans Under the Stars: Connecting the Community to the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gerceida

    2016-03-01

    St. Albans Under the Stars (SUTS) is a community-based program organized in 2006 for the purpose of promoting fun science projects in underserved communities, and to assist in college readiness initiatives. The public outreach program has three components: 1) Solar observing with a PST telescope, 2) Engaging hands-on activities for all ages, and 3) Night observing with an 8'' Celestron telescope and a host of other amateur astronomers participating in the program with their telescopes, all aimed at different objects visible in the night sky. There is a mobile unit part that has traveled in the past to minority communities in four states; Missouri, Tennessee, Mississippi, & Illinois using the same methods as used in New York to excite students about science. It is our aim to go national sharing astronomical knowledge while emphasizing the ancient, cultural, and inspirational value of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We believe strongly in the need for more minority involvement in science fields. Thus, we encourage higher education as part of our effort to engage members of the community, young and ``the young at heart'' to participate in various introductory aspects of the project.

  7. Comparison of Program Costs for Parent-Only and Family-Based Interventions for Pediatric Obesity in Medically Underserved Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, David M.; Sallinen, Bethany J.; Perri, Michael G.; Lutes, Lesley D.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Brumback, Babette

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the costs of parent-only and family-based group interventions for childhood obesity delivered through Cooperative Extension Services in rural communities. Methods: Ninety-three overweight or obese children (aged 8 to 14 years) and their parent(s) participated in this randomized controlled trial, which included a 4-month…

  8. Reducing inequities among children with asthma in the island of Puerto Rico: experiences of a community-based, trans-sectoral effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Marielena; Valencia, Gilberto Ramos; Gavillán, Jesús A González Gavillán; Reyes, Beatriz Morales; Arabía, Carmen; Malpica, Fernando López; Freytes, Dharma M; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Mario H; Chinman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Children living in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have the highest poverty and asthma prevalence rates of all U.S. children. Since 2000, a group of community, health care, education, housing, and academic representatives have been collaborating in a project to improve quality of life and reduce disparities among children with asthma in very poor communities in Puerto Rico. To date the project has implemented a successful intervention in the Luis Lloréns Torres Housing Project, aimed at adapting evidence-based interventions to improve the social and physical environment of children with asthma. The program has recently been extended to another San Juan housing area, the Manuel A. Pérez Housing Project. Using implementation theory, the authors report and reflect on the project's experience to date, provide recommendations, and discuss implications of lessons learned to address inequities in asthma care throughout other underserved areas in the U.S., Latin America, and the Caribbean.

  9. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  10. Correlates of Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Rural Population: The Role of Fatalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Collins, Tom

    2017-09-01

    One largely unexplored barrier to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is fatalistic beliefs about cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of ever having endoscopy screenings for CRC and to determine whether fatalism plays a unique role. Because evidence suggests that cancer-associated fatalistic beliefs may be particularly common among rural Americans, the study was conducted in a medically underserved area of rural Appalachia.  METHODS: Rural residents (N = 260) between 51 and 75 years of age, from a medically underserved area of Appalachia, Kentucky, were recruited for a cross-sectional study. The outcome measure was assessed by a single item asking whether participants ever had a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy. Demographic and health-related correlates of this outcome were selected based on past studies of rural populations. A single item assessed perceptions of fatalism regarding CRC. Age-adjusted analyses of correlates testing significant at the bivariate level were conducted.  RESULTS: The analytic sample was limited to 135 rural residents indicating they had ever had CRC endoscopy and 107 indicating never having endoscopy. In age-adjusted analyses, only the measure of fatalism had a significant association with having endoscopy. Those endorsing the statement pertaining to fatalism were 2.3 times more likely (95% CI = 1.24-4.27, P = .008) than the remainder to indicate never having endoscopy.  CONCLUSIONS: A community-based approach to the promotion of endoscopy for CRC screening could focus on overcoming CRC-associated fatalism, thereby potentially bringing more unscreened people to endoscopy clinics. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Resilient Communities: From Sustainable to Secure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, Clifford R.

    2009-07-01

    our biosphere is costing approximately 2.5-4.0 trillion dollars annually. There are solutions that can insure resilience only if society collectively addresses natural disasters, human disasters, and smart sustainable resilient infrastructure. A Global Center for Preparedness (GCP) can be a potential construct that can be collectively used to address the problem, providing necessary integrated solutions. Computer simulation can be a tool to envision the problem and the optional approaches. Both the Fusion Theater and the DREAMS Suite are facilitating technologies to assist in providing solutions. Where this is no vision the people perish, so a reliable integrated systems approach offers considerable promise. The ultimate goal is to preserve and enhance the physical, economic, and social integrity of the United States and the global community by air, land, sea, and space.

  12. Conducting a randomized trial in rural and urban safety-net health centers: Added value of community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Muthukrishnan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in the US. Despite evidence that screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality, screening rates are sub-optimal with disparities by race/ethnicity, income, and geography. Rural-urban differences in CRC screening are understudied even though approximately one-fifth of the US population lives in rural areas. This focus on urban populations limits the generalizability and dissemination potential of screening interventions. Methods: Using community-based participatory research (CBPR principles, we designed a cluster-randomized trial, adaptable to a range of settings, including rural and urban health centers. We enrolled 483 participants across 11 health centers representing 2 separate networks. Both networks serve medically-underserved communities; however one is primarily rural and one primarily urban. Results: Our goal in this analysis is to describe baseline characteristics of participants and examine setting-level differences. CBPR was a critical for recruiting networks to the trial. Patient respondents were predominately female (61.3%, African-American (66.5%, and earned <$1200 per month (87.1%. The rural network sample was older; more likely to be female, white, disabled or retired, and have a higher income, but fewer years of education. Conclusions: Variation in the samples partly reflects the CBPR process and partly reflects inherent differences in the communities. This confirmed the importance of using CBPR when planning for eventual dissemination, as it enhanced our ability to work within diverse settings. These baseline findings indicate that using a uniform approach to implementing a trial or intervention across diverse settings might not be effective or efficient. Keywords: Colorectal cancer screening, Community-based participatory research, Health disparities, Medically underserved populations, Dissemination and implementation, Randomized trial

  13. Poor retention does not have to be the rule: retention of volunteer community health workers in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwick, Teralynn; Brenner, Jennifer L; Kyomuhangi, Teddy; Wotton, Kathryn A; Kabakyenga, Jerome Kahuma

    2014-05-01

    Globally, health worker shortages continue to plague developing countries. Community health workers are increasingly being promoted to extend primary health care to underserved populations. Since 2004, Healthy Child Uganda (HCU) has trained volunteer community health workers in child health promotion in rural southwest Uganda. This study analyses the retention and motivation of volunteer community health workers trained by HCU. It presents retention rates over a 5-year period and provides insight into volunteer motivation. The findings are based on a 2010 retrospective review of the community health worker registry and the results of a survey on selection and motivation. The survey was comprised of qualitative and quantitative questions and verbally administered to a convenience sample of project participants. Between February 2004 and July 2009, HCU trained 404 community health workers (69% female) in 175 villages. Volunteers had an average age of 36.7 years, 4.9 children and some primary school education. Ninety-six per cent of volunteer community health workers were retained after 1 year (389/404), 91% after 2 years (386/404) and 86% after 5 years (101/117). Of the 54 'dropouts', main reasons cited for discontinuation included 'too busy' (12), moved (11), business/employment (8), death (6) and separation/divorce (6). Of 58 questionnaire respondents, most (87%) reported having been selected at an inclusive community meeting. Pair-wise ranking was used to assess the importance of seven 'motivational factors' among respondents. Those highest ranked were 'improved child health', 'education/training' and 'being asked for advice/assistance by peers', while the modest 'transport allowance' ranked lowest. Our findings suggest that in our rural, African setting, volunteer community health workers can be retained over the medium term. Community health worker programmes should invest in community involvement in selection, quality training, supportive supervision and

  14. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.

  15. Affiliations of community health centers with the accredited schools and colleges of optometry in the states and territories of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    In 2006, the American Optometric Association Community Health Center Committee surveyed schools/colleges of optometry in the United States and its territories to assess collaborations between community health centers and optometric institutions. The survey investigated the number and structure of affiliations that existed between Federally Qualified Health Centers and schools/colleges of optometry in the United States. The survey reached the schools through the American Optometric Association Faculty Relations Committee or personal contact (Inter-American University of Puerto Rico). The survey showed wide variation in affiliations of community health centers with optometry programs. Six schools had no affiliations, whereas the remaining 11 ranged from 1 to 14. Information relating to 37 community health centers was reported. Results showed that schools utilized community health centers for fourth-year students in 5 schools, and both third- and fourth-year students in the remaining 6 schools. Schools vary regarding how precepting is managed with either full-time faculty (64.9%) or adjunct faculty. Business models also vary between schools. Affiliations between school/colleges of optometry and community health centers differ considerably. Optometric affiliations with community health centers can result in increased access to eye care for underserved populations and increased clinical experience for optometry students and residents. Opportunities exist to establish additional affiliations. Educational benefits and costs associated with affiliations should be explored before entering into a collaborative model of eye care delivery.

  16. The role of community conversations in facilitating local HIV competence: case study from rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Nhamo, Mercy; Scott, Kerry; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon

    2013-04-17

    This paper examines the potential for community conversations to strengthen positive responses to HIV in resource-poor environments. Community conversations are an intervention method through which local people work with a facilitator to collectively identify local strengths and challenges and brainstorm potential strategies for solving local problems. We conducted 18 community conversations (with six groups at three points in time) with a total of 77 participants in rural Zimbabwe (20% HIV positive). Participants were invited to reflect on how they were responding to the challenges of HIV, both as individuals and in community groups, and to think of ways to better support openness about HIV, kindness towards people living with HIV and greater community uptake of HIV prevention and treatment. Community conversations contributed to local HIV competence through (1) enabling participants to brainstorm concrete action plans for responding to HIV, (2) providing a forum to develop a sense of common purpose in relation to implementing these, (3) encouraging and challenging participants to overcome fear, denial and passivity, (4) providing an opportunity for participants to move from seeing themselves as passive recipients of information to active problem solvers, and (5) reducing silence and stigma surrounding HIV. Our discussion cautions that community conversations, while holding great potential to help communities recognize their potential strengths and capacities for responding more effectively to HIV, are not a magic bullet. Poverty, poor harvests and political instability frustrated and limited many participants' efforts to put their plans into action. On the other hand, support from outside the community, in this case the increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment, played a vital role in enabling communities to challenge stigma and envision new, more positive, ways of responding to the epidemic.

  17. Development and evaluation of a genomics training program for community health workers in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei-Shih; Zhao, Shixi; Stelzig, Donaji; Dhar, Shweta U; Eble, Tanya; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2018-01-04

    PurposeGenomics services have the potential to reduce incidence and mortality of diseases by providing individualized, family health history (FHH)-based prevention strategies to clients. These services may benefit from the involvement of community health workers (CHWs) in the provision of FHH-based genomics education and services, as CHWs are frontline public health workers and lay health educators, who share similar ethnicities, languages, socioeconomic statuses, and life experiences with the communities they serve. We developed, implemented, and evaluated the FHH-based genomics training program for CHWs.MethodsThis theory- and evidence-based FHH-focused genomics curriculum was developed by an interdisciplinary team. Full-day workshops in English and Spanish were delivered to 145 Texas CHWs (91.6% were Hispanic/black). Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 3-month follow-up data were collected.ResultsCHWs significantly improved their attitudes, intention, self-efficacy, and knowledge regarding adopting FHH-based genomics into their practice after the workshops. At 3-month follow-up, these scores remained higher, and there was a significant increase in CHWs' genomics practices.ConclusionThis FHH-based genomics training successfully educated Texas CHWs, and the outcomes were promising. Dissemination of training to CHWs in and outside of Texas is needed to promote better access to and delivery of personalized genomics services for the lay and underserved communities.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 4 January 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.236.

  18. Tracking How Science Resources Result in Educator- and Community-Level Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J. B.; Fitzhugh, G.; LaConte, K.; Holland, A.

    2017-12-01

    Learners frequently need to access increasingly complex information to help them understand our changing world. More and more libraries are transforming themselves into places where learners not only access STEM information, but interact with professionals and undertake hands-on learning. Libraries are beginning to position themselves as part of learning ecosystems that contribute to a collective impact on the community. Traveling STEM exhibits are catalyzing these partnerships and engaging students, families, and adults in repeat visits through an accessible venue: their public library. This talk will explore impacts from two STAR Library Network's (STAR_Net) exhibitions (Discover Earth and Discover Tech) on partnerships, the circulation of STEM resources, and the engagement of learners. The STAR_Net project's summative evaluation utilized mixed methods to investigate project implementation and its outcomes. Methods included pre- and post-exhibit surveys administered to staff from each library that hosted the exhibits; interviews with staff from host libraries; patron surveys; exhibit-related circulation records; web metrics regarding the online STAR_Net community of practice; and site visits. The latter provides a more complete view of impacts on the community, including underserved audiences. NASA@ My Library is a new STAR_Net initiative, which provides STEM facilitation kits, training, and other resources to 75 libraries nationwide. Initial results will be presented that show high levels of engagement by librarians and strong response rate from patrons on surveys.

  19. Cancer screening information at community health fairs: What the participants do with information they receive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrose, Erica; Ledergerber, Jessica; Acheampong, Derrick; Jandorf, Lina

    2017-09-21

    To assess participants' reasons for seeking cancer screening information at community health fairs and what they do with the information they receive. Mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was used. Community health fairs are organized in underserved New York City neighbourhoods. From June 14, 2016 to August 26, 2016, cancer prevention tables providing information about various cancer screenings were established at 12 local community health fairs in New York City. In-person and follow up telephone surveys assessing interest in the cancer prevention table, personal cancer screening adherence rates, information-sharing behaviours and demographic variables have been taken into account. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS 22.0: frequencies, descriptive, cross tabulations. All qualitative data was coded by theme so that it could be analysed through SPSS. For example, Were you interested in a specific cancer? may be coded as 2 for yes , breast cancer . One hundred and sixteen patrons participated in the initial survey. Of those, 88 (78%) agreed to give their contact information for the follow-up survey and 60 follow-up surveys were completed (68%). Of those who reported reading the material, 45% shared the information; 15% subsequently spoke to a provider about cancer screenings and 40% intended to speak to a provider. Participants disseminated information without prompting; suggesting the reach of these fairs extends beyond the people who visit our table. Future studies should look at whether patrons would share information at higher rates when they are explicitly encouraged to share the information.

  20. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2004-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  1. Involving the Community

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Step 3: Identifying the different community groups and other stakeholders concerned .... How can two-way communication enhance community participation in ...... for maintenance and the rights of specific community groups to drinkable water.

  2. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2003-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  3. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Jr, Elton L

    2007-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  4. Community Mentoring: A Tool for Successful Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring occurs in an ad hoc and largely invisible manner in communities. This mentoring happens through modeling, storytelling, and asking open-ended questions. If Extension specialists and agents were more conscious and intentional about teaching community members and leaders about community mentoring, they would be more successful in resolving…

  5. Keeping "Community" in a Community Land Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Karen A.; Galande, Mugdha

    2011-01-01

    This instrumental case study examined the role of grassroots community organizing in a community land trust (CLT) in a southern U.S. city. Twenty-nine homeowners, renters, board members, community members, and current and former CLT employees were interviewed. In addition, two focus groups of 11 and six participants composed of CLT residents and…

  6. Motivating and demotivating factors for community health workers: A qualitative study in urban slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew Sunil; Pant, Shradha; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2017-04-01

    Background Community health workers play an important role in delivering health-care services, especially to underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. They have been shown to be successful in providing a range of preventive, promotive and curative services. This qualitative study investigated the factors motivating or demotivating community health workers in urban settings in Delhi, India. Methods In this sub-study of the ANCHUL (Ante Natal and Child Healthcare in Urban Slums) implementation research project, four focus-group discussions and nine in-depth interviews were conducted with community health workers and medical officers. Utilizing a reflexive and inductive qualitative methodology, the data set was coded, to allow categories of motivating and demotivating factors to emerge. Results Motivating factors identified were: support from family members for their work, improved self-identity, job satisfaction and a sense of social responsibility, prior experiences of ill health, the opportunity to acquire new skills and knowledge, social recognition and status conferred by the community, and flexible work and timings. Negative experiences in the community and at health centres, constraints in the local health system in response to the demand generated by the community health workers, and poor pay demotivated community health workers in this study, even causing some to quit their jobs. Conclusion Community-health-worker programmes that focus on ensuring the technical capacity of their staff may not give adequate attention to the factors that motivate or discourage these workers. As efforts get under way to ensure universal access to health care, it is important that these issues are recognized and addressed, to ensure that community health worker programmes are effective and sustainable.

  7. Implementation of a new 'community' laboratory CD4 service in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The CD4 integrated service delivery model (ITSDM) provides for reasonable access to pathology services across South Africa (SA) by offering three new service tiers that extend services into remote, under-serviced areas. ITSDM identified Pixley ka Seme as such an under-serviced district. Objective.

  8. U.S. EPA Superfund Program's Policy for Community Involvement at Radioactively Contaminated Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, Pat; Walker, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Superfund program's statutory requirements for community involvement. It also discusses the efforts the Superfund program has made that go beyond these statutory requirements to involve communities. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implements the Superfund program under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). From the beginning of the Superfund program, Congress envisioned a role for communities. This role has evolved and expanded during the implementation of the Superfund program. Initially, the CERCLA statute had community involvement requirements designed to inform surrounding communities of the work being done at a site. CERCLA's provisions required 1) development of a community relations plan for each site, 2) establishment of information repositories near each site where all publicly available materials related to the site would be accessible for public inspection, 3) opportunities for the public to comment on the proposed remedy for each site and 4) development of a responsiveness summary responding to all significant comments received on the proposed remedy. In recognition of the need for people living near Superfund sites to be well-informed and involved with decisions concerning sites in their communities, SARA expanded Superfund's community involvement activities in 1986. SARA provided the authority to award Technical Assistance Grants (TAGs) to local communities enabling them to hire independent technical advisors to assist them in understanding technical issues and data about the site. The Superfund Community Involvement Program has sought to effectively implement the statutory community involvement requirements, and to go beyond those requirements to find meaningful ways to involve citizens in the cleanup of sites in their communities. We've structured our program around

  9. Community health workers in Lesotho: Experiences of health promotion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seutloali, Thato; Napoles, Lizeka; Bam, Nomonde

    2018-02-27

    Lesotho adopted primary health care in 1979, and community health workers (CHWs) were included in the programme to focus on health promotion, particularly to reach people in underserved rural areas. Although the CHW programme has been successful, the heavy burden of disease because of HIV and/or AIDS and tuberculosis shifted resources from health promotion to home-based care. The study explored the lived experience of CHWs in conducting health promotion activities in Lesotho. The study was conducted in four health centres in Berea district, Lesotho. A qualitative study was conducted using an interviewer guide translated from English into Sesotho for four CHW focus group discussions, four individual interviews of key informants and four semi-structured interviews with the health centre nurses. The roles of CHWs in health promotion ranged from offering basic first aid and home-based care to increasing access to health care services by taking patients to the facilities and promoting behaviour change through health education. Their perceived successes included increased access to health care services and reduced mortality rates. CHW challenges involved their demotivation to carry out their work because of lack of or inconsistent financial incentives and supplies, work overload which compromises quality of their work and limited community involvement. This study concludes that CHWs are beneficial to health promotion and its various activities. They had a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, although they did not fully comprehend that what they were describing was, in fact, health promotion. When it came to advocacy, CHWs did not fully understand it, nor did they consider it as part of their roles, although they acknowledged its importance. Their role of increasing access to health care services by accompanying patients to the facilities has increased considerably because of changes in disease burden. This is affecting their ability to practise other

  10. A simple and low-cost Internet-based teleconsultation system that could effectively solve the health care access problems in underserved areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntalp, Mehmet; Akar, Orkun

    2004-08-01

    In many developing countries including Turkey, telemedicine systems are not in wide use due to the high cost and complexity of the required technology. Lack of these systems however has serious implications on patients who live in rural areas. The objective of this paper is to present a simple and economically affordable alternative to the current systems that would allow experts to easily access the medical data of their remote patients over the Internet. The system is developed in client-server architecture with a user-friendly graphical interface and various services are implemented as dynamic web pages based on PHP. The other key features of the system are its powerful security features and platform independency. An academic prototype is implemented and presented to the evaluation of a group of physicians. The results reveal that the system could find acceptance from the medical community and it could be an effective means of providing quality health care in developing countries.

  11. On Community Education and Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Dušana Findeisen introduces community education and development. She particularly insists upon the fact that in the future our life will not be organised around a paid full time job and that we will be forced into searching other ways of getting involved into society and to acquire our social identity. Community education is one of the ways we could eventually choose. Since community development education in Slovenia has not developed yet the author begins by describing some basic concepts like community and history of community education and community development movement. Further on, she introduces the Andragogical Summer School based in a small Slovenian town, its aim being to encourage Slovenian adult educators to encourage community development projects.

  12. Social network recruitment for Yo Puedo: an innovative sexual health intervention in an underserved urban neighborhood—sample and design implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Alexandra M; vanDommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Luecke, Ellen; Cheng, Helen; Dow, William; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Padian, Nancy S

    2015-02-01

    Most existing evidence-based sexual health interventions focus on individual-level behavior, even though there is substantial evidence that highlights the influential role of social environments in shaping adolescents' behaviors and reproductive health outcomes. We developed Yo Puedo, a combined conditional cash transfer and life skills intervention for youth to promote educational attainment, job training, and reproductive health wellness that we then evaluated for feasibility among 162 youth aged 16-21 years in a predominantly Latino community in San Francisco, CA. The intervention targeted youth's social networks and involved recruitment and randomization of small social network clusters. In this paper we describe the design of the feasibility study and report participants' baseline characteristics. Furthermore, we examined the sample and design implications of recruiting social network clusters as the unit of randomization. Baseline data provide evidence that we successfully enrolled high risk youth using a social network recruitment approach in community and school-based settings. Nearly all participants (95%) were high risk for adverse educational and reproductive health outcomes based on multiple measures of low socioeconomic status (81%) and/or reported high risk behaviors (e.g., gang affiliation, past pregnancy, recent unprotected sex, frequent substance use; 62%). We achieved variability in the study sample through heterogeneity in recruitment of the index participants, whereas the individuals within the small social networks of close friends demonstrated substantial homogeneity across sociodemographic and risk profile characteristics. Social networks recruitment was feasible and yielded a sample of high risk youth willing to enroll in a randomized study to evaluate a novel sexual health intervention.

  13. Faith communities and their assets for health promotion: the views from health professionals and faith leaders in Dundee, in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Donna M; Kiger, Alice; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2012-06-01

    Within the European Union, as well as in Canada and the United States (US), health promoters employ a number of strategies to encourage community-based health improvements. This involves the creation of innovative health promotion partnerships to support and enable people to choose and engage in healthy living practices. Compared to the US, in other Western countries, such as the United Kingdom, faith communities have largely been ignored in health promotion partnerships. This study established existing evidence about health promotion in faith communities in Scotland by examining the perceptions and attitudes concerning health promotion among faith leaders and health promotion professionals. We conducted 33 semi-structured interviews with health promotion professionals (n = 9) and representatives of Christian and non-Christian faith communities (n = 24). The majority of participants expressed an interest in the concept of health promotion in a faith community and could readily envision its application in their area of work. Both groups identified multiple physical assets, as well as social supports within faith communities that could be directed towards healthy living activities. Faith groups and church organisations may constitute potential partners and new settings to increase community capacity for health promotion. Further research and funding for demonstration projects may be particularly helpful to provide evidence of the strengths and limitations of faith-based health promotion in Scotland, which in turn could inform health promotion practice and policy.

  14. Translating a heart disease lifestyle intervention into the community: the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study; a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Dave, Swapna; De Chavez, Peter John; Bharucha, Himali; Patel, Yasin; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2015-10-16

    South Asians (Asian Indians and Pakistanis) are the second fastest growing ethnic group in the United States (U.S.) and have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This pilot study evaluated a culturally-salient, community-based healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce ASCVD risk among South Asians. Through an academic-community partnership, medically underserved South Asian immigrants at risk for ASCVD were randomized into the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study. The intervention group attended 6 interactive group classes focused on increasing physical activity, healthful diet, weight, and stress management. They also received follow-up telephone support calls. The control group received translated print education materials about ASCVD and healthy behaviors. Primary outcomes were feasibility and initial efficacy, measured as change in moderate/vigorous physical activity and dietary saturated fat intake at 3- and 6-months. Secondary clinical and psychosocial outcomes were also measured. Participants' (n = 63) average age was 50 (SD = 8) years, 63 % were female, 27 % had less than or equal to a high school education, one-third were limited English proficient, and mean BMI was 30 kg/m2 (SD ± 5). There were no significant differences in change in physical activity or saturated fat intake between the intervention and control group. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significant weight loss (-1.5 kg, p-value = 0.04) and had a greater sex-adjusted decrease in hemoglobin A1C (-0.43 %, p-value culturally-salient, community-based lifestyle intervention was feasible for engaging medically underserved South Asian immigrants and more effective at addressing ASCVD risk factors than print health education materials. NCT01647438, Date of Trial Registration: July 19, 2012.

  15. Breastfeeding Patterns in the Rural Community of Hilo, Hawai‘i: An Exploration of Existing Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai‘i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai‘i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in Hilo was obtained from the Hawai‘i WIC program and includes initiation, duration, exclusivity of breastfeeding, and reasons for not breastfeeding. These data were compared to data from published reports available at the county, state, and national level. The State of Hawai‘i and Hilo exceed national targets for breastfeeding initiation; however, rates soon drop following delivery, and mixed feedings of infants is common. The highest percentage of mothers weaned their infants within the first four weeks postpartum. The reasons the majority of the mothers gave for weaning were tied to breastfeeding situations that are amenable to skilled lactation support (eg, milk supply issues and latch or sucking problems). While available data sets offer valuable information on the breastfeeding patterns in this rural community, there are limitations to their usefulness, primarily due to the inconsistent operational definitions of infant feeding variables used in the surveys, and the lack of availability of community level data. PMID:23520565

  16. Breastfeeding patterns in the rural community of Hilo, Hawai'i: an exploration of existing data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Jeanie L

    2013-03-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai'i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai'i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in Hilo was obtained from the Hawai'i WIC program and includes initiation, duration, exclusivity of breastfeeding, and reasons for not breastfeeding. These data were compared to data from published reports available at the county, state, and national level. The State of Hawai'i and Hilo exceed national targets for breastfeeding initiation; however, rates soon drop following delivery, and mixed feedings of infants is common. The highest percentage of mothers weaned their infants within the first four weeks postpartum. The reasons the majority of the mothers gave for weaning were tied to breastfeeding situations that are amenable to skilled lactation support (eg, milk supply issues and latch or sucking problems). While available data sets offer valuable information on the breastfeeding patterns in this rural community, there are limitations to their usefulness, primarily due to the inconsistent operational definitions of infant feeding variables used in the surveys, and the lack of availability of community level data.

  17. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  18. Proceedings of the conference on computer codes and the linear accelerator community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.

    1990-07-01

    The conference whose proceedings you are reading was envisioned as the second in a series, the first having been held in San Diego in January 1988. The intended participants were those people who are actively involved in writing and applying computer codes for the solution of problems related to the design and construction of linear accelerators. The first conference reviewed many of the codes both extant and under development. This second conference provided an opportunity to update the status of those codes, and to provide a forum in which emerging new 3D codes could be described and discussed. The afternoon poster session on the second day of the conference provided an opportunity for extended discussion. All in all, this conference was felt to be quite a useful interchange of ideas and developments in the field of 3D calculations, parallel computation, higher-order optics calculations, and code documentation and maintenance for the linear accelerator community. A third conference is planned

  19. Proceedings of the conference on computer codes and the linear accelerator community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.K. (comp.)

    1990-07-01

    The conference whose proceedings you are reading was envisioned as the second in a series, the first having been held in San Diego in January 1988. The intended participants were those people who are actively involved in writing and applying computer codes for the solution of problems related to the design and construction of linear accelerators. The first conference reviewed many of the codes both extant and under development. This second conference provided an opportunity to update the status of those codes, and to provide a forum in which emerging new 3D codes could be described and discussed. The afternoon poster session on the second day of the conference provided an opportunity for extended discussion. All in all, this conference was felt to be quite a useful interchange of ideas and developments in the field of 3D calculations, parallel computation, higher-order optics calculations, and code documentation and maintenance for the linear accelerator community. A third conference is planned.

  20. For a Critique of Transatlantic Mestiza Territoriality: Challenging the Angolan-Cuban Revolutionary Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena López

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the transatlantic confluence of two hegemonic cultural traditions; the ideology of mestizaje and lusotropicalismo in the discourses of the Angolan and Cuban socialist regimes. The shared political utopia during the Angolan Civil War envisioned a South-South community, racially homogeneous. In the last part of the essay I review the works Dulces guerreros cubanos (1999 by Norberto Fuentes, Desconfiemos de los amaneceres apacibles (2011 by Emilio Comas Paret, Geração da Utopía (1992 by Pepetela, and Estação das Chuvas (1996 by José Eduardo Agualusa, in order to demonstrate socio-racial conflicts embedded in the leftist armed struggle. These narratives challenge the homogeneity of official discourses about identity that sustained the transatlantic mestiza territoriality. In doing so, they note a historical continuity of inequality and authoritarianism between colonial and postcolonial, between pre-national and revolutionary nation.