Full Text Available Abstract In many countries worldwide, health worker shortages are one of the main constraints in achieving population health goals. Financial-incentive programmes for return of service, whereby participants receive payments in return for a commitment to practise for a period of time in a medically underserved area, can alleviate local and regional health worker shortages through a number of mechanisms. First, they can redirect the flow of those health workers who would have been educated without financial incentives from well-served to underserved areas. Second, they can add health workers to the pool of workers who would have been educated without financial incentives and place them in underserved areas. Third, financial-incentive programmes may improve the retention in underserved areas of those health workers who participate in a programme, but who would have worked in an underserved area without any financial incentives. Fourth, the programmes may increase the retention of all health workers in underserved areas by reducing the strength of some of the reasons why health workers leave such areas, including social isolation, lack of contact with colleagues, lack of support from medical specialists and heavy workload. We draw on studies of financial-incentive programmes and other initiatives with similar objectives to discuss seven management functions that are essential for the long-term success of financial-incentive programmes: financing (programmes may benefit from innovative donor financing schemes, such as endowment funds, international financing facilities or compensation payments; promotion (programmes should use tested communication channels in order to reach secondary school graduates and health workers; selection (programmes may use selection criteria to ensure programme success and to achieve supplementary policy goals; placement (programmes should match participants to areas in order to maximize participant satisfaction and
Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E
In many countries worldwide, health worker shortages are one of the main constraints in achieving population health goals. Financial-incentive programmes for return of service, whereby participants receive payments in return for a commitment to practise for a period of time in a medically underserved area, can alleviate local and regional health worker shortages through a number of mechanisms. First, they can redirect the flow of those health workers who would have been educated without financial incentives from well-served to underserved areas. Second, they can add health workers to the pool of workers who would have been educated without financial incentives and place them in underserved areas. Third, financial-incentive programmes may improve the retention in underserved areas of those health workers who participate in a programme, but who would have worked in an underserved area without any financial incentives. Fourth, the programmes may increase the retention of all health workers in underserved areas by reducing the strength of some of the reasons why health workers leave such areas, including social isolation, lack of contact with colleagues, lack of support from medical specialists and heavy workload. We draw on studies of financial-incentive programmes and other initiatives with similar objectives to discuss seven management functions that are essential for the long-term success of financial-incentive programmes: financing (programmes may benefit from innovative donor financing schemes, such as endowment funds, international financing facilities or compensation payments); promotion (programmes should use tested communication channels in order to reach secondary school graduates and health workers); selection (programmes may use selection criteria to ensure programme success and to achieve supplementary policy goals); placement (programmes should match participants to areas in order to maximize participant satisfaction and retention); support (programmes
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In many geographic regions, both in developing and in developed countries, the number of health workers is insufficient to achieve population health goals. Financial incentives for return of service are intended to alleviate health worker shortages: A (future health worker enters into a contract to work for a number of years in an underserved area in exchange for a financial pay-off. Methods We carried out systematic literature searches of PubMed, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database for studies evaluating outcomes of financial-incentive programs published up to February 2009. To identify articles for review, we combined three search themes (health workers or students, underserved areas, and financial incentives. In the initial search, we identified 10,495 unique articles, 10,302 of which were excluded based on their titles or abstracts. We conducted full-text reviews of the remaining 193 articles and of 26 additional articles identified in reference lists or by colleagues. Forty-three articles were included in the final review. We extracted from these articles information on the financial-incentive programs (name, location, period of operation, objectives, target groups, definition of underserved area, financial incentives and obligation and information on the individual studies (authors, publication dates, types of study outcomes, study design, sample criteria and sample size, data sources, outcome measures and study findings, conclusions, and methodological limitations. We reviewed program results (descriptions of recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction, program effects (effectiveness in influencing health workers to provide care, to remain, and to be satisfied with work and personal life in underserved areas, and program impacts (effectiveness in influencing health systems and health outcomes
Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E
In many geographic regions, both in developing and in developed countries, the number of health workers is insufficient to achieve population health goals. Financial incentives for return of service are intended to alleviate health worker shortages: A (future) health worker enters into a contract to work for a number of years in an underserved area in exchange for a financial pay-off. We carried out systematic literature searches of PubMed, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database for studies evaluating outcomes of financial-incentive programs published up to February 2009. To identify articles for review, we combined three search themes (health workers or students, underserved areas, and financial incentives). In the initial search, we identified 10,495 unique articles, 10,302 of which were excluded based on their titles or abstracts. We conducted full-text reviews of the remaining 193 articles and of 26 additional articles identified in reference lists or by colleagues. Forty-three articles were included in the final review. We extracted from these articles information on the financial-incentive programs (name, location, period of operation, objectives, target groups, definition of underserved area, financial incentives and obligation) and information on the individual studies (authors, publication dates, types of study outcomes, study design, sample criteria and sample size, data sources, outcome measures and study findings, conclusions, and methodological limitations). We reviewed program results (descriptions of recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction), program effects (effectiveness in influencing health workers to provide care, to remain, and to be satisfied with work and personal life in underserved areas), and program impacts (effectiveness in influencing health systems and health outcomes). Of the 43 reviewed studies 34
AbuAlRub, Raeda F; El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Iblasi, Abdulkareem S; Murray, Susan F
The inadequate number of health care providers, particularly nurses, in underserved areas is one of the biggest challenges for health policymakers. There is a scarcity of research in Jordan about factors that affect nurse staffing and retention in underserved areas. To elucidate the views of staff nurses working in underserved areas, directors of health facilities in underserved areas and key informants from the policy and education arena on issues of staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. An exploratory study using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was utilized to elucidate the views of 22 key informants from the policy and education arena, 11 directors of health centers, and 19 staff nurses on issues that contribute to low staffing and retention of nurses in underserved areas. The five stage 'framework approach' proposed by Bryman et al. (1993) was utilized for data analysis. Nursing shortage in underserved areas in Jordan are exacerbated by a lack of financial incentives, poor transportation and remoteness of these areas, bad working conditions, and lack of health education institutions in these areas, as well as by opportunities for internal and external migration. Young Jordanian male nurses usually grab any opportunity to migrate and work outside the country to improve their financial conditions; whereas, female nurses are more restricted and not encouraged to travel abroad to work. Several strategies are suggested to enhance retention in these areas, such as promoting financial incentives for staff to work there, enhancing the transportation system, and promoting continuous and academic education. Nurses' administrators and health care policy makers could utilize the findings of the present study to design and implement comprehensive interventions to enhance retention of staff in underserved areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the GSEs...
Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors, need for spectacles, and the determinants of unmet need in underserved rural areas of Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, multistage cluster sampling was done in 2 underserved rural areas of Iran. Then, all subjects underwent vision testing and ophthalmic examinations including the measurement of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity, visual acuity with current spectacles, auto-refraction, retinoscopy, and subjective refraction. Need for spectacles was defined as UCVA worse than 20/40 in the better eye that could be corrected to better than 20/40 with suitable spectacles. Results: Of the 3851 selected individuals, 3314 participated in the study. Among participants, 18.94% [95% confidence intervals (CI: 13.48â24.39] needed spectacles and 11.23% (95% CI: 7.57â14.89 had an unmet need. The prevalence of need for spectacles was 46.8% and 23.8% in myopic and hyperopic participants, respectively. The prevalence of unmet need was 27% in myopic, 15.8% in hyperopic, and 25.46% in astigmatic participants. Multiple logistic regression showed that education and type of refractive errors were associated with uncorrected refractive errors; the odds of uncorrected refractive errors were highest in illiterate participants, and the odds of unmet need were 12.13, 5.1, and 4.92 times higher in myopic, hyperopic and astigmatic participants as compared with emmetropic individuals. Conclusion: The prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors was rather high in our study. Since rural areas have less access to health care facilities, special attention to the correction of refractive errors in these areas, especially with inexpensive methods like spectacles, can prevent a major proportion of visual impairment. Keywords: Uncorrected refractive errors, Population-based study, Unmet need
Sachpazidis, Ilias [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Fraunhoferstr. 5, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: Ilias.Sachpazidis@igd.fraunhofer.de; Ohl, Roland [MedCom Gesellschaft fuer medizinische Bildverarbeitung mbH, Rundeturmstr. 12, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany); Binotto, Alecio Pedro Delazari [Centro de Excelencia em Tecnologias Avancadas Av. Assis Brasil, 8450, 91, 140-000 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Torres, Marcio Soares [Centro de Excelencia em Tecnologias Avancadas Av. Assis Brasil, 8450, 91, 140-000 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Messina, Luiz Ary [Messina Informatica e Comercio Ltda., Rua Castelo Branco 330, 29100-040 Praia da Costa, Vila Velha (Brazil); Sales, Alexandre [Fundacao de Apoio ao Hospital Universitario da UFES-Fahucam, Av. Marechal Campos 1355, 29042-715 Santos Dumont, Vitoria (Brazil); Gomes, Ricardo [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre Rua Prof. Annes Dias 285, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Sakas, Georgios [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Fraunhoferstr. 5, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany)
Access to medical care is sometimes very difficult to be reached from people living in rural and underserved areas. This problem is very well known in rural areas in Brazil. Citizens have no access to health care. They have to travel hundreds of kilometres to receive medical care. In this paper, we will propose a medical network based on state-of-the-art medical imaging application that addresses the problems of providing health care from a distance. Additionally, we are going to show preliminarily results of the first year of the system deployment and utilization in undeserved regions in Brazil. The total number of patients submitted to ultrasound examinations, during the 10 months of projects' medical trials, is 321. The exams have begun with the elderly people (hypertension and diabetes cases) with 90% above 50-years-old. Fifty-four percent were male and 46% were female. From those exams, 67 exams (21%) needed a second medical opinion and were transmitted to Santa Casa hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil, one of the referral medical centres. From those second opinions of Santa Casa, 12 exams had to be repeated since the acquired images were not sufficient to give a correct diagnosis. The Lagoa Tres Cantos medical doctor performed also preventive exams with patients who had not presented any symptoms (70%)
Laraque-Arena, Danielle; Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William L
To examine whether resident characteristics and experiences are related to practice in underserved areas. Cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of pediatric residents (n = 1000) and additional sample of minority residents (n = 223) who were graduating in 2009 was conducted. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined relationships between resident characteristics (background, values, residency experiences, and practice goals) and reported 1) expectation to practice in underserved area and 2) postresidency position in underserved area. Response rate was 57%. Forty-one percent of the residents reported that they had an expectation of practicing in an underserved area. Of those who had already accepted postresidency positions, 38% reported positions in underserved areas. Service obligation in exchange for loans/scholarships and primary care/academic pediatrics practice goals were the strongest predictors of expectation of practicing in underserved areas (respectively, adjusted odds ratio 4.74, 95% confidence interval 1.87-12.01; adjusted odds ratio 3.48, 95% confidence interval 1.99-6.10). Other significant predictors include hospitalist practice goals, primary care practice goals, importance of racial/ethnic diversity of patient population in residency selection, early plan (before medical school) to care for underserved families, mother with a graduate or medical degree, and higher score on the Universalism value scale. Service obligation and primary care/academic pediatrics practice goal were also the strongest predictors for taking a postresidency job in underserved area. Trainee characteristics such as service obligations, values of humanism, and desire to serve underserved populations offer the hope that policies and public funding can be directed to support physicians with these characteristics to redress the maldistribution of physicians caring for children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India.
Toner, John A; Ferguson, K Della; Sokal, Regina Davis
There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a special opportunity in rural areas, particularly those designated as "medically underserved," for continuing interprofessional education as a vehicle for retaining health care professionals who tend to leave medically underserved areas for more lucrative professional opportunities elsewhere. In collaboration with the Consortium of New York Geriatric Education Centers, the Columbia-New York Geriatric Education Center at the Stroud Center of Columbia University has developed the Program for Outreach to Interprofessional Services and Education (POISE). The purpose of POISE is to develop, implement, evaluate, and sustain interprofessional education and training for health care learners, while emphasizing improved access to health services for the geriatric population in medically underserved areas. The POISE model was designed as an effective approach to teaching the core geriatrics and gerontology curriculum endorsed by the national (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) network of Geriatric Education Centers to health care learners in medically underserved areas of upstate New York. This article describes the adaptation and implementation of the POISE model.
... necessary to comply with a provision of the FEHB law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of...: FEHB law (5 U.S.C. 8902(m)(2)) requires special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who... of the law requires that a State be designated as a Medically Underserved Area if 25 percent or more...
Barclift, Songhai C; Brown, Elizabeth J; Finnegan, Sean C; Cohen, Elena R; Klink, Kathleen
Background The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program is an Affordable Care Act funding initiative designed to expand primary care residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not require, training in underserved settings. Residents who train in underserved settings are more likely to go on to practice in similar settings, and graduates more often than not practice near where they have trained. Objective The objective of this study was to describe and quantify federally designated clinical continuity training sites of the THCGME program. Methods Geographic locations of the training sites were collected and characterized as Health Professional Shortage Area, Medically Underserved Area, Population, or rural areas, and were compared with the distribution of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-funded training positions. Results More than half of the teaching health centers (57%) are located in states that are in the 4 quintiles with the lowest CMS-funded resident-to-population ratio. Of the 109 training sites identified, more than 70% are located in federally designated high-need areas. Conclusions The THCGME program is a model that funds residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not explicitly require, that training take place in underserved settings. Because the majority of the 109 clinical training sites of the 60 funded programs in 2014-2015 are located in federally designated underserved locations, the THCGME program deserves further study as a model to improve primary care distribution into high-need communities.
El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Jamal, Diana; Dimassi, Hani; Dumit, Nuhad Y; McEwen, Mary K; Jaafar, Maha; Murray, Susan F
Nursing shortages and maldistribution are priority issues for healthcare systems around the globe. Such imbalances are often aggravated in underserved areas, especially in developing countries. Despite the centrality of this issue, there is a dearth of studies that examine the retention of nurses in underserved areas in the Middle East Region. This study investigates the characteristic and the factors associated with the retention of nurses working in rural areas in Lebanon. This study uses a non-experimental cross-sectional design to survey nurses working in underserved areas of Lebanon. Underserved areas in Lebanon were identified using WHO definition. A total of 103 health facilities (hospitals and primary healthcare centers) located in these areas were identified and all nurses working at these facilities received a copy of the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire included five sections: demographic, work-life, career plan, job satisfaction, and assessment of work environment. Analysis included univariate and bivariate (chi-square, Student's t-test and ANOVA) tests to describe the respondents and examine the significance between nurses' characteristics and their intent to stay. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with nurses' intent to stay in underserved areas. A total of 857 nurses from 63 Primary Healthcare (PHC) centers and hospitals responded to the questionnaire (75.5% response rate). Only 35.1% of nurses indicated their intent to stay in their current job over the coming one to three years. Surveyed nurses were most satisfied with relationship with co-workers and least satisfied with extrinsic rewards. Rural nurses working in PHC centers were more satisfied than their hospital counterparts on all aspects of work and had significantly higher intention to stay (62.5% compared to 31.5% in hospitals, P job satisfaction and their intent to stay. This study reveals poor retention of nurses in rural and underserved
Crampton, Paul E S; McLachlan, John C; Illing, Jan C
The delivery of undergraduate clinical education in underserved areas is increasing in various contexts across the world in response to local workforce needs. A collective understanding of the impact of these placements is lacking. Previous reviews have often taken a positivist approach by only looking at outcome measures. This review addresses the question: What are the strengths and weaknesses for medical students and supervisors of community placements in underserved areas? A systematic literature review was carried out by database searching, citation searching, pearl growing, reference list checking and use of own literature. The databases included MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and ERIC. The search terms used were combinations and variations of four key concepts exploring general practitioner (GP) primary care, medical students, placements and location characteristics. The papers were analysed using a textual narrative synthesis. The initial search identified 4923 results. After the removal of duplicates and the screening of titles and abstracts, 185 met the inclusion criteria. These full articles were obtained and assessed for their relevance to the research question; 54 were then included in the final review. Four main categories were identified: student performance, student perceptions, career pathways and supervisor experiences. This review reflects the emergent qualitative data as well as the quantitative data used to assess initiatives. Underserved area placements have produced many beneficial implications for students, supervisors and the community. There is a growing amount of evidence regarding rural, underserved areas, but little in relation to inner city, deprived areas, and none in the UK. © John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2013.
AbuAlRub, Raeda Fawzi; Al Khawaldeh, Abdullah Talal
To: (1) examine the incidence, frequency and contributing factors to workplace violence among nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan, and (2) identify the existing policies and the management modalities to tackle workplace violence. Workplace violence is a major problem in healthcare organisations. An understanding of the nature of violence is essential to implementing successful management. A descriptive exploratory research design. The questionnaire that was developed in 2003 by the International Labor Office, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 521 Jordanian physicians and nurses (396 nurses, 125 physicians) who worked in hospitals located in underserved areas. Around 15% of the participants were exposed to physical violence. The factors that contributed to workplace violence were related to absence of policies, inadequate staffing and lack of communication skills. Only 16·9% of participants indicated that there were specific policies available for dealing with physical workplace violence. Strengthening security and providing training were some of the important factors indicated by participants for decreasing violence in the workplace. Workplace violence is a problem in underserved areas that needs attention from administrators. Most participants were very dissatisfied with the way the administrators dealt with the incidents. Instituting firm policies against perpetrators and developing protective violence guidelines to support healthcare staff in managing workplace violence are paramount to tackle the problem of workplace violence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Dane M; Nichols, Tommy
The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges when recruiting and retaining rural physicians and to ascertain methods that make rural physician recruitment and retention successful. There are studies that suggest rural roots is an important factor in recruiting rural physicians, while others look at rural health exposure in medical school curricula, self-actualization, community sense and spousal perspectives in the decision to practice rural medicine. An extensive literature review was performed using Academic Search Complete, PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration. Key words were rural, rural health, community hospital(s), healthcare, physicians, recruitment, recruiting, retention, retaining, physician(s) and primary care physician(s). Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed full-text articles written in English, published from 1997 and those limited to USA and Canada. Articles from foreign countries were excluded owing to their unique healthcare systems. While there are numerous articles that call for special measures to recruit and retain physicians in rural areas, there is an overall dearth. This review identifies several articles that suggest recruitment and retention techniques. There is a need for a research agenda that includes valid, reliable and rigorous analysis regarding formulating and implementing these strategies. Rural Americans are under-represented when it comes to healthcare and what research there is to assist recruitment and retention is difficult to find. This paper identify the relevant research and highlights key strategies.
Na, Baeg Ju; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Hyun Joo
Public health physicians (PHPs) are certified physicians who are serving in a public health center or subcenter in a rural village, instead of serving in the military. However, the PHP program has recently become the subject of a profound debate, over 30 years after its adoption. In this study, we attempted to ascertain physicians' perspectives on the PHP program, including: whether the PHP policy should continue; if they agree on changing the role of PHPs in healthcare; what would be the desired role of PHPs; and what resources would be required and what possible barriers would be anticipated under the changes. We selected 88 PHPs as our study sample using quota sampling. Over 60% of respondents were in support of continuing the PHP program. They believed some remote islands and mountainous areas are still in need of public healthcare doctors. However, some of them believed that the role of PHPs should be changed to take on community health promotion, because the problem of medically underserved rural areas has almost been resolved. However, people living in rural areas are ageing and suffering from a lack of education and health information. In particular, in order to successfully transition into new roles, PHPs must be provided with continuing education and professional development programs covering their new responsibilities. It is imperative to refurbish the PHP program to meet current needs and continue its central role in public healthcare.
Sachpazidis, Ilias; Ohl, Roland; Binotto, Alécio Pedro Delazari; Torres, Márcio Soares; Messina, Luiz Ary; Sales, Alexandre; Gomes, Ricardo; Sakas, Georgios
Access to medical care is sometimes very difficult to be reached from people living in rural and underserved areas. This problem is very well known in rural areas in Brazil. Citizens have no access to health care. They have to travel hundreds of kilometres to receive medical care. In this paper, we will propose a medical network based on state-of-the-art medical imaging application that addresses the problems of providing health care from a distance. Additionally, we are going to show preliminarily results of the first year of the system deployment and utilization in undeserved regions in Brazil. The total number of patients submitted to ultrasound examinations, during the 10 months of projects' medical trials, is 321. The exams have begun with the elderly people (hypertension and diabetes cases) with 90% above 50-years-old. Fifty-four percent were male and 46% were female. From those exams, 67 exams (21%) needed a second medical opinion and were transmitted to Santa Casa hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil, one of the referral medical centres. From those second opinions of Santa Casa, 12 exams had to be repeated since the acquired images were not sufficient to give a correct diagnosis. The Lagoa Tres Cantos medical doctor performed also preventive exams with patients who had not presented any symptoms (70%).
Vareilles, Ga?lle; Pommier, Jeanine; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit
Background The recruitment of community health volunteers (CHVs) to support the delivery of health programmes is an established approach in underserved areas and in particular where there are health inequalities due to the scarcity of trained human resources. However, there is a dearth of evidence about what works to improve CHVs? performance. This review aimed to synthesise existing literature to explain why, how and under which circumstances intervention approaches to improve the performanc...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other... HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities... purchase by each Enterprise of mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and other...
Lumbanraja, Sarma Nursani
Background: Early intervention of low birth weight (LBW) should reduce maternal and fetal morbidity. In underserved areas, with inadequacy of health technologies, it was very important to develop a simple scoring system based on the LBW risk factors. Aims and Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a scoring system to predict LBW in underserved area. Materials and Methods: This case–control study enrolled total of women with a singleton LBW in Padang Sidempuan General Hospi...
Hashemi, H; Yekta, A; Jafarzadehpur, E; Doostdar, A; Ostadimoghaddam, H; Khabazkhoob, M
PurposeTo determine the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in underserved Iranian villages and to identify the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness.Patients and methodsMultistage cluster sampling was used to select the participants who were then invited to undergo complete examinations. Optometric examinations including visual acuity, and refraction were performed for all individuals. Ophthalmic examinations included slit-lamp biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy. Visual impairment was determined according to the definitions of the WHO and presenting vision.ResultsOf 3851 selected individuals, 3314 (86.5%) participated in the study. After using the exclusion criteria, the present report was prepared based on the data of 3095 participants. The mean age of the participants was 37.6±20.7 years (3-93 years). The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness was 6.43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.71-9.14) and 1.18% (95% CI: 0.56-1.79), respectively. The prevalence of visual impairment varied from 0.75% in participants aged less than 5 years to 38.36% in individuals above the age of 70 years. Uncorrected refractive errors and cataract were the first and second leading causes of visual impairment; moreover, cataract and refractive errors were responsible for 35.90 and 20.51% of the cases of blindness, respectively.ConclusionThe prevalence of visual impairment was markedly high in this study. Lack of access to health services was the main reason for the high prevalence of visual impairment in this study. Cataract and refractive errors are responsible for 80% of visual impairments which can be due to poverty in underserved villages.
Medical School Outcomes, Primary Care Specialty Choice, and Practice in Medically Underserved Areas by Physician Alumni of MEDPREP, a Postbaccalaureate Premedical Program for Underrepresented and Disadvantaged Students.
Metz, Anneke M
Minorities continue to be underrepresented as physicians in medicine, and the United States currently has a number of medically underserved communities. MEDPREP, a postbaccalaureate medical school preparatory program for socioeconomically disadvantaged or underrepresented in medicine students, has a stated mission to increase the numbers of physicians from minority or disadvantaged backgrounds and physicians working with underserved populations. This study aims to determine how MEDPREP enhances U.S. physician diversity and practice within underserved communities. MEDPREP recruits disadvantaged and underrepresented in medicine students to complete a 2-year academic enhancement program that includes science coursework, standardized test preparation, study/time management training, and emphasis on professional development. Five hundred twenty-five disadvantaged or underrepresented students over 15 years completed MEDPREP and were tracked through entry into medical practice. MEDPREP accepts up to 36 students per year, with two thirds coming from the Midwest region and another 20% from nearby states in the South. Students complete science, test preparation, academic enhancement, and professionalism coursework taught predominantly by MEDPREP faculty on the Southern Illinois University Carbondale campus. Students apply broadly to medical schools in the region and nation but are also offered direct entry into our School of Medicine upon meeting articulation program requirements. Seventy-nine percent of students completing MEDPREP became practicing physicians. Fifty-eight percent attended public medical schools, and 62% attended medical schools in the Midwest. Fifty-three percent of program alumni chose primary care specialties compared to 34% of U.S. physicians, and MEDPREP alumni were 2.7 times more likely to work in medically underserved areas than physicians nationally. MEDPREP increases the number of disadvantaged and underrepresented students entering and graduating
Mpofu, Ratie; Daniels, Priscilla S; Adonis, Tracy-Ann; Karuguti, Wallace M
Poverty, limited access to resources and a lack of infrastructure characterise the division of rural areas from urban South Africa. Low numbers of social welfare professionals compound the problem. With education linked inextricably in social responsibility, higher education institutions (HEIs) are called upon increasingly to create conditions that encourage students and graduates to practise in more socially responsible ways, involving more than mere disciplinary expertise or technical knowledge, and that consider the problems of rural areas. Use of interprofessional education (IPE) programs, based on teamwork, could enable HEIs to train and guide health sciences students in how best to cooperate with each other and combine their skills to mutual benefit. This would enable them to develop professional skills facilitated by interactive engagement within community settings. Referencing experience gained in Australia and elsewhere, the Faculty of Community and Health Sciences (FCHS) at the University of Western Cape (UWC) has developed and applied an IPE program for South Africa. Students were placed in interdisciplinary groups in a rural and underserved municipality of the Western Cape - 17 students participated in a study on the effectiveness of this program. A quantitative self-administered questionnaire, followed by qualitative focus group discussions, established student perceptions of their IPE experience, how the experience influenced their intentions for or against future practice in rural and underserved areas, and their interest in future interprofessional collaboration and practice. More than 75% of the participating students agreed that they had learnt to develop knowledge base, procedural and healthcare practice presentation skills, along with preparing written community health histories. Student willingness to practise in rural areas was evidenced, citing community- and resource-based factors as determinants; however, concerns that some community
Holbrook, W P; Brodin, P; Balciuniene, I; Brukiene, V; Bucur, M V; Corbet, E; Dillenberg, J; Djukanovic, D; Ekanayake, K; Eriksen, H; Fisher, J; Goffin, G; Hull, P; Kumchai, T; Lumley, P; Lund, J; Mathur, V; Novaes, A; Puriene, A; Roger-Leroi, V; Saito, I; Turner, S; Mabelya, L
Inequalities within dentistry are common and are reflected in wide differences in the levels of oral health and the standard of care available both within and between countries and communities. Furthermore there are patients, particularly those with special treatment needs, who do not have the same access to dental services as the general public. The dental school should aim to recruit students from varied backgrounds into all areas covered by the oral healthcare team and to train students to treat the full spectrum of patients including those with special needs. It is essential, however, that the dental student achieves a high standard of clinical competence and this cannot be gained by treating only those patients with low expectations for care. Balancing these aspects of clinical education is difficult. Research is an important stimulus to better teaching and better clinical care. It is recognized that dental school staff should be active in research, teaching, clinical work and frequently administration. Maintaining a balance between the commitments to clinical care, teaching and research while also taking account of underserved areas in each of these categories is a difficult challenge but one that has to be met to a high degree in a successful, modern dental school.
Overpopulation and urbanization – Population migration to coastal regions – Climate change – Terrorism and pandemics • September 11, 2001 • SARS and...years due to a multitude of factors, overpopulation and urbanization, population migration to coastal areas, and climate change to name a few (Scott...of factors, overpopulation and urbanization, population migration to coastal areas, and climate change to name a few (Scott 2011; Study shows
Toner, John A.; Ferguson, K. Della; Sokal, Regina Davis
There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a…
Angelo S Nyamtema
Full Text Available In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio (MMR, unmet need for emergency obstetric care and health inequities across the country are in a critical state, particularly in rural areas. This study was established to determine the feasibility and impact of decentralizing comprehensive emergency obstetric and neonatal care (CEmONC services in underserved rural areas using associate clinicians.Ten health centres (HCs were upgraded by constructing and equipping maternity blocks, operating rooms, laboratories, staff houses and installing solar panels, standby generators and water supply systems. Twenty-three assistant medical officers (advanced level associate clinicians, and forty-four nurse-midwives and clinical officers (associate clinicians were trained in CEmONC and anaesthesia respectively. CEmONC services were launched between 2009 and 2012. Monthly supportive supervision and clinical audits of adverse pregnancy outcomes were introduced in 2011 in these HCs and their respective district hospitals.After launching CEmONC services from 2009 to 2014 institutional deliveries increased in all upgraded rural HCs. Mean numbers of monthly deliveries increased by 151% and obstetric referrals decreased from 9% to 3% (p = 0.03 in HCs. A total of 43,846 deliveries and 2,890 caesarean sections (CS were performed in these HCs making the mean proportion of all births in EmONC facilities of 128% and mean population-based CS rate of 9%. There were 190 maternal deaths and 1,198 intrapartum and very early neonatal deaths (IVEND in all health facilities. Generally, health centres had statistically significantly lower maternal mortality ratios and IVEND rates than district hospitals (p < 0.00 and < 0.02 respectively. Of all deaths (maternal and IVEND 84% to 96% were considered avoidable.These findings strongly indicate that remotely located health centres in resource limited settings hold a great potential to increase accessibility to CEmONC services and to improve
Shah, Tayyab Ikram; Bell, Scott; Wilson, Kathi
Urban environments can influence many aspects of health and well-being and access to health care is one of them. Access to primary health care (PHC) in urban settings is a pressing research and policy issue in Canada. Most research on access to healthcare is focused on national and provincial levels in Canada; there is a need to advance current understanding to local scales such as neighbourhoods. This study examines spatial accessibility to family physicians using the Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method to identify neighbourhoods with poor geographical access to PHC services and their spatial patterning across 14 Canadian urban settings. An index of spatial access to PHC services, representing an accessibility score (physicians-per-1000 population), was calculated for neighborhoods using a 3km road network distance. Information about primary health care providers (this definition does not include mobile services such as health buses or nurse practitioners or less distributed services such as emergency rooms) used in this research was gathered from publicly available and routinely updated sources (i.e. provincial colleges of physicians and surgeons). An integrated geocoding approach was used to establish PHC locations. The results found that the three methods, Simple Ratio, Neighbourhood Simple Ratio, and 3SFCA that produce City level access scores are positively correlated with each other. Comparative analyses were performed both within and across urban settings to examine disparities in distributions of PHC services. It is found that neighbourhoods with poor accessibility scores in the main urban settings across Canada have further disadvantages in relation to population high health care needs. The results of this study show substantial variations in geographical accessibility to PHC services both within and among urban areas. This research enhances our understanding of spatial accessibility to health care services at the neighbourhood level. In
Ferrando, Annalisa; Ruggieri, Alessandro
In this paper we consider the relation between firms’ financial structure, access to external finance and labor productivity using a large dataset of firm-level data for Euro-area countries during the period 1995-2011. Our empirical strategy is twofold. First we develop an indicator of financial constraints at firm level using a classification based on specific firm characteristics and various measures of financial pressure and liquidity. Second we apply this indicator to a firm-level product...
This study sets out from the contemporary discussion on the need of separate financial reporting standards for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and focuses on financial reporting information needs in the context of entrepreneurial and growth-oriented SMEs. The main purpose of the study is to sort out areas of financial reporting information that are likely to be of significance tomanagers of entrepreneurial SMEs in their provision of information to users. In order to fulfill this pu...
Wan, Shaowei; Teichman, Peter G; Latif, David; Boyd, Jennifer; Gupta, Rahul
To meet the needs of an aging population who often have multiple chronic conditions, interprofessional care is increasingly adopted by patient-centred medical homes and Accountable Care Organisations to improve patient care coordination and decrease costs in the United States, especially in underserved areas with primary care workforce shortages. In this cross-sectional survey across multiple clinical settings in an underserved area, healthcare providers perceived overall outcomes associated with interprofessional care teams as positive. This included healthcare providers' beliefs that interprofessional care teams improved patient outcomes, increased clinic efficiency, and enhanced care coordination and patient follow-up. Teams with primary care physician available each day were perceived as better able to coordinate care and follow up with patients (p = .031), while teams that included clinical pharmacists were perceived as preventing medication-associated problems (p care model as a useful strategy to improve various outcomes across different clinical settings in the context of a shortage of primary care physicians.
... 2590-AA27 Enterprise Duty To Serve Underserved Markets AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION... Recovery Act of 2008 (HERA) amended section 1335 of the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and... Enterprises) to serve three specified underserved markets--manufactured housing, affordable housing...
Hanlon, Neil; Halseth, Greg; Snadden, David
Community-integrated undergraduate medical education is becoming a more common option for students predisposed to practice in rural and small town places. One such initiative, the Northern Medical Program, has been operating since 2004 in the northern interior of British Columbia, Canada. The NMP's curriculum relies heavily on the involvement of practicing physicians in its host community, Prince George. Drawing on Bourdieu's conceptualization of capital in its different forms, the commitment of the local physician community is understood as social capital derived from cultural capital centred on a collective sense of professional identity forged by conditions of practice in an underserviced area. The findings of this study are discussed with respect to the long-term operation and success of community-integrated medical education programs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Maksutova, Elmira; Boobekova, Aigul; Davletova, Ainura; Kazakbaeva, Chinara; Kondrateva, Yelena; Landoulsi, Sihem; Lazdane, Gunta; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Seuc Jo, Armando H
To demonstrate the feasibility and safety of training midlevel healthcare providers (midwives and family nurses) to provide medical abortion and postabortion contraception in underserved areas in Kyrgyzstan. This was an implementation study at four referral facilities and 28 Felsher Obstetric Points in two districts to train their midwives and family nurses to deliver safe and effective abortion care with co-packaged mifepristone-misoprostol and provide contraceptives postabortion. The outcome of abortion - complete abortion, incomplete abortion or o-going pregnancy - was the primary end point measured. An international consultant trained 18 midwives and 14 family nurses (with midwifery diplomas) to provide medical abortion care. Supervising gynecologists based in the referral centers and study investigators based in Bishkek provided monthly monitoring of services and collection of patient management forms. A voluntary self-administered questionnaire at the follow-up visit documented women's acceptability of medical abortion services. All study data were cross-checked and entered into an online data management system for descriptive analysis. Between August 2014 and September 2015, midwives provided medical abortion to 554 women with a complete abortion rate of 97.8%, of whom 62% chose to use misoprostol at home. No women were lost to follow-up. Nearly all women (99.5%) chose a contraceptive method postabortion; 61% of women receiving services completed the acceptability form, of whom more than 99% indicated a high level of satisfaction with the service and would recommend it to a friend. This study demonstrates that trained Kyrgyz midwives and nurses can provide medical abortion safely and effectively. This locally generated evidence can be used by the Kyrgyz Ministry of Health to reduce unintended pregnancy and expand safe abortion care to women in underserved periurban and rural settings. Success in scaling up midwife/nurse provision of medical abortion in
Carmen Martínez-Carrascal; Annalisa Ferrando
This paper analyses the impact that firms financial position has on investment decisions using panel data from a large sample of non-financial corporations(around 120,000 firms) in six euro area countries(Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain). The results indicate that financial position is important to explain capital expenditures, as financial pressure appears relevant in explaining investment dynamics when it is proxied by cash flow, indebtedness and debt burden. The ...
Ladino, Marco A; Wiley, Joslyn; Schulman, Ivonne Hernandez; Sabucedo, Alberto J; Garcia, Desiree; Cardona, Jose M; Valdes, Alejandro; Pedraza, Fernando; Echeverri, Roberto J
The Miami VA Healthcare System serves veterans in three South Florida counties: Miami-Dade, Broward, and Monroe, with an estimated veteran population of 175,000. To overcome geographical barriers and facilitate the access to nephrology clinics, we implemented provider-patient tele-nephrology using secured videoconferencing. A retrospective and descriptive study design was used to evaluate the effect of the tele-nephrology clinic intervention. Multiple clinical indicators were included in the analysis: blood pressure (BP) control, stabilization of the renal function, and electrolyte/metabolic control. One hundred one patients who were evaluated in the clinic between 2013 and 2015 were included in the analysis, and the indicators were collected retrospectively. One hundred one patients were included in the analysis, with 95% of patients being male (n = 96) and 5% female (n = 5). The mean age was 65.5 years. Fifty patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage III (49.5%), 14 patients had CKD stage IV (13%), and 8 patients had CKD stage II (7.9%). A one-way analysis of variance between subjects was conducted and showed that the effect of the tele-nephrology clinic intervention on reducing BP was statistically significant (systolic BP less than 140 p value nephrology clinic intervention, we were able to effectively improve BP and stabilize renal function in patients with kidney disease who reside in underserved areas.
Karimuribo, Esron D; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Massawe, Lucas B; Silayo, Richard S; Mgongo, Frederick O K; Kimbita, Elikira; Wambura, Raphael M
Sub-optimal performance of the animal health delivery system in rural areas is common in developing countries including Tanzania. However, penetration of mobile phones and availability of good road network and public transport systems offer opportunities for improving the access of rural communities to diagnostic and advisory services from facilities and expertise located in urban areas. A questionnaire survey on possession and use of mobile phones by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Kilosa and Gairo districts was carried out between November and December 2015. A total number of 138 livestock keepers from three villages of Chakwale (54), Mvumi (41) and Parakuyo (43) participated in the study. An e-based system was designed and tested to link rural communities with urban diagnostic facilities. It was observed that the average number of phones possessed by individuals interviewed and household families was 1.1 ± 0.26 (1-2) and 3.5 ± 2.23 (1-10), respectively. It was further observed that out of 138 livestock keepers interviewed, 133 (96.4 %) had feature phones while 10 (7.2 %) of them possessed smartphones. Mobile phone is currently used to support livestock production by communicating on animal health in Parakuyo (18, 41.9 %), Mvumi (18, 43.9 %) and Chakwale (14, 25.9 %). Other contributions of mobile phones in livestock and crop agriculture observed in the study area include: exchange of livestock price information, crop price information, communicating on plant health/diseases, livestock extension and advisory services as well as crop farming extension and advisory services. We also designed and tested an e-based SUAVetDiag® system to support timely diagnosis of infectious disease conditions and prompt advice on case management in veterinary underserved areas. Availability of mobile phones in rural areas, in combination with supporting infrastructure and facilities in urban areas, has potential to stimulate local development and improving
Gullapalli N Rao
Full Text Available Blindness is a major global public health problem and recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO showed that in India there were 62 million visually impaired, of whom 8 million are blind. The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS provided a comprehensive estimate for prevalence and causes of blindness for the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. It also highlighted that uptake of services was also an issue, predominantly among lower socio-economic groups, women, and rural populations. On the basis of this analysis, L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI developed a pyramidal model of eye care delivery. This article describes the LVPEI eye care delivery model. The article discusses infrastructure development, human resource development, and service delivery (including prevention and promotion in the context of primary and secondary care service delivery in rural areas. The article also alludes to opportunities for research at these levels of service delivery and the amenability of the evidence generated at these levels of the LVPEI eye health pyramid for advocacy and policy planning. In addition, management issues related to the sustainability of service delivery in rural areas are discussed. The article highlights the key factors required for the success of the LVPEI rural service delivery model and discusses challenges that need to be overcome to replicate the model. The article concludes by noting the potential to convert these challenges into opportunities by integrating certain aspects of the existing healthcare system into the model. Examples include screening of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in order to promote higher community participation. The results of such integration can serve as evidence for advocacy and policy.
Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Khan, Omar Farooq; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Munroe, Erik
Although Pakistan was one of the first countries in Asia to launch national family planning programs, current modern contraceptive use stands at only 26% with a method mix skewed toward short-acting and permanent methods. As part of a multiyear operational research study, a baseline survey was conducted to understand the predictors of contraceptive use and demand for family planning services in underserved areas of Punjab province in Pakistan. This paper presents the baseline survey results; the outcomes of the intervention will be presented in a separate paper after the study has been completed. A cross-sectional baseline household survey was conducted with randomly selected 3,998 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in the Chakwal, Mianwali, and Bhakkar districts of Punjab. The data were analyzed on SPSS 17.0 using simple descriptive and logistic regression. Most of the women had low socio-economic status and were younger than 30 years of age. Four-fifths of the women consulted private sector health facilities for reproductive health services; proximity, availability of services, and good reputation of the provider were the main predicators for choosing the facilities. Husbands were reported as the key decision maker regarding health-seeking and family planning uptake. Overall, the current contraceptive use ranged from 17% to 21% across the districts: condoms and female sterilization were widely used methods. Woman's age, husband's education, wealth quintiles, spousal communication, location of last delivery, and favorable attitude toward contraception have an association with current contraceptive use. Unmet need for contraception was 40.6%, 36.6%, and 31.9% in Chakwal, Mianwali, and Bhakkar, respectively. Notably, more than one fifth of the women across the districts expressed willingness to use quality, affordable long-term family planning services in the future. The baseline results highlight the need for quality, affordable long-term family planning
This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.
... of federal assets at risk of fraud and misuse, financial information at risk of unauthorized modification or destruction, sensitive information at risk of inappropriate disclosure, and critical operations at risk of disruption...
As countries of the world used large amounts of public funds to manage the 2008 financial crisis, public debt has risen to a critical level in many of them. Due to the drop in real economy, several countries faced unemployment and economic fallback that are still unresolved to this day. After the crisis, many were concerned how to restore the confidence in financial institutions and how banks can better contribute to sustainable social and economic growth. This paper discusses corporate socia...
Theodoropoulos Theodore E.
Full Text Available Powerful obstacles to the further integration of repot, bond and equity markets remain the still fragmented securities settlement industry in Europe, which charges much higher fees for cross border transactions than for domestic transactions, and differences in legal systems. This paper describes the main developments in the euro area financial markets before and after the introduction of the single currency. It looks at the evolution of the euro area financial structure in the last few years. Interestingly in various dimensions the financial structure of euro area countries seems to become more diverse over time. We assess the progress towards financial integration in the most important euro-area financial segments, namely money and equity markets, as well as banking. The available data suggest that the unsecured money market strongly integrated with the introduction of the euro, as the single currency and related euro-area-wide large-value payment systems link the different countries well. Also, some progress occurred in the integration of euro-area equity markets, as stock exchanges in a few countries merged to form Euronext and professional asset managers replaced country allocation by sector allocation strategies. Overall, while asset holdings have become more international in the euro area since the introduction of the single currency, securities markets are still much less integrated than in the US. In the area of retail banking the increased homogeneity of interest rates seems to be driven more by macroeconomic convergence than by market integration. In addition we consider a wide range of other determinants, such as foreign debt or net foreign assets, terms of trade, government debt and regulated prices.
Jones, E.; Underhill, G.
This article examines the institutional preconditions for stable financial integration in a ‘theory of optimal financial areas’ (OFA). This theory is modelled on the theory of optimal currency areas that has been used to inform the process of monetary integration. Where it differs from optimum
Garcia, Andrea N; Kuo, Tony; Arangua, Lisa; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J
Given projected U.S. physician shortages across all specialties that will likely impact underserved areas disproportionately, the authors sought to explore factors most correlated with medical school graduates' intention to work with underserved populations (IWUP). Data from the 2010-2012 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (n = 40,846) were analyzed. Variables (demographics, career preference, debt burden, intention to enter loan forgiveness programs) were examined using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Respondents included 49.5% (20,228/40,846) women, 16.6% (6,771/40,837) underrepresented minorities (URMs), and 32.4% (13,034/37,342) with primary care intent. The median educational debt was $160,000. Respondents who were women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49, 1.70), URMs (aOR 2.50, 95% CI 2.30, 2.72), intended to enter loan forgiveness programs (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 2.26, 2.63), intended to practice primary care (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.54, 1.76), and intended to emphasize nonclinical careers (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11, 1.37) had greater odds of reporting IWUP. Among those who chose specialties and careers with a nonclinical emphasis, and among those with greater burdens of educational and consumer debt, URMs were nearly twice as likely as other minorities and whites to report IWUP. Findings suggest physician characteristics that may be associated with filling workforce gaps in underserved areas. Restructuring financial incentive programs to support physician leaders and specialists with characteristics associated with IWUP may complement similar policies in primary care and could have key impacts on health equity in underserved areas.
Nicole Rourke; Jason Marcks
Nevada Underserved Science Education Program (NUSEP) is a project to examine the effect of implementing new and innovative Earth and space science education curriculum in Nevada schools. The project provided professional development opportunities and educational materials for teachers participating in the program.
Rosenthal, J; Rodewald, L; McCauley, M; Berman, S; Irigoyen, M; Sawyer, M; Yusuf, H; Davis, R; Kalton, G
Background. The National Immunization Survey demonstrates that national immunization coverage in 2002 remained near the all-time highs achieved in 2000. However, that survey cannot detect whether coverage is uniformly high within relatively small areas or populations. The measles resurgence in the
Dewi, Etika; Heykal, Mohamad
The research objective aims to evaluate the problems about the implementation of financial inclusion for the economic development especially in the area of South Tangerang and find solutions for the development financial inclusion. The research is qualitative research that using primary data and the data collection methods is in the questionnaires, interviews, and observations through the official website and Annual Report. The object of this research is OJK of Financial Services Authority as the regulator, five conventional banks are BRI, Mandiri, BNI, BCA and CIMB Niaga as supply side, and the micro and small category of Small Medium Enterprise in Tangerang Selatan area as the demand side. Using testing questionnaire data with validity and reliability test. The conclusion of the research is the OJK and banks have done enough support to improve the financial inclusion program to the micro and small category of SMEs. The majority of services and facilities available have been by the needs of SMEs, but there are still obstacles in marketing (marketing exclusion). Thus, an efficient solution is to educate and socialize more evenly and more vigorously, and invite other banks to participate in supporting OJK programs in increasing financial inclusion.
McKee, Michael; Schlehofer, Deirdre; Cuculick, Jessica; Starr, Matthew; Smith, Scott; Chin, Nancy P
Cardiovascular disease leads in overall mortality and morbidity in the United States. Cardiovascular disparities remain high among minority and underserved groups. Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users are an underserved and understudied group that receives little attention from researchers due to language and communication barriers. A recent ASL survey in Rochester, NY, indicated greater cardiovascular risk among Deaf participants. The study objective was to investigate risk perceptions of cardiovascular disease among Deaf ASL users, linking perceptions to features of Deaf culture and communication. This information will be used to inform future strategies to promote cardiovascular health among Deaf adults. Four focus groups were conducted in Rochester, New York, with 22 Deaf participants in ASL. Videotaped sessions were translated and transcribed by a bilingual researcher. A team of investigators coded, analyzed, and identified key themes from the data. Themes centered on five major domains: knowledge, barriers, facilitators, practices, and dissemination. The majority of themes focused on barriers and knowledge. Barriers included lack of health care information access due to language and communication challenges, financial constraints, and stress. Inconsistent knowledge emerged from many key areas of cardiovascular health. The study outlines key themes for improving cardiovascular health knowledge and perceptions among Deaf ASL users. Findings suggest the importance of providing health educational programs and information in ASL to maximize understanding and minimize misconceptions. When caring for Deaf ASL users, providers should take extra effort to ask about cardiovascular risk factors and confirm patients' understanding of these factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The KIDROP model of combining strategies for providing retinopathy of prematurity screening in underserved areas in India using wide-field imaging, tele-medicine, non-physician graders and smart phone reporting
Full Text Available Aim: To report the Karnataka Internet Assisted Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (KIDROP program for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP screening in underserved rural areas using an indigenously developed tele-ROP model. Materials and Methods: KIDROP currently provides ROP screening and treatment services in three zones and 81 neonatal units in Karnataka, India. Technicians were trained to use a portable Retcam Shuttle (Clarity, USA and validated against ROP experts performing indirect ophthalmoscopy. An indigenously developed 20-point score (STAT score graded their ability (Level I to III to image and decide follow-up based on a three-way algorithm. Images were also uploaded on a secure tele-ROP platform and accessed and reported by remote experts on their smart phones (iPhone, Apple. Results: 6339 imaging sessions of 1601 infants were analyzed. A level III technician agreed with 94.3% of all expert decisions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for treatment grade disease were 95.7, 93.2, 81.5 and 98.6 respectively. The kappa for technicians to decide discharge of babies was 0.94 (P < 0.001. Only 0.4% of infants needing treatment were missed.The kappa agreement of experts reporting on the iPhone vs Retcam for treatment requiring and mild ROP were 0.96 and 0.94 (P < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: This is the first and largest real-world program to employ accredited non-physicians to grade and report ROP. The KIDROP tele-ROP model demonstrates that ROP services can be delivered to the outreach despite lack of specialists and may be useful in other middle-income countries with similar demographics.
Izaguirre, Juan Carlos; Lyman, Timothy; McGuire, Claire; Grace, Dave
Policy makers worldwide are increasingly appreciating the expanding role that digital financial services play in reaching financially excluded and underserved customers. Though models vary widely, all have at their heart a low-cost digital financial product such as e-money issued by a mobile network operator (MNO) or financial institution that permits customers to make payments, to transfe...
The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1995 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.
Intili, Henry; Laws, Catherine
Expansion of an occupational health clinic from registered nurse base to nurse practitioner base where employees can be treated for basic emergent conditions can result in health benefits to underserved and underinsured employees and financial benefits to management. It is essential that the financial benefits of the plan to expand clinical services outweigh the costs, and the savings projections be plausible. Emotional appeals to improve the health and well being of employees are not sufficient or credible in the management arena without financial payback. Expanded clinic services increase employee perception that the company cares for their welfare. This benefit is especially important to underserved and underinsured employees.
Clements, Hayley S; Cumming, Graeme S
The ability of private conservation organizations to remain financially viable is a key factor influencing their effectiveness. One-third of financially motivated private-land conservation areas (PLCAs) surveyed in South Africa are unprofitable, raising questions about landowners' abilities to effectively adapt their business models to the socioeconomic environment. In any complex system, options for later adaptation can be constrained by starting conditions (path dependence). We tested 3 hypothesized drivers of path dependence in PLCA ecotourism and hunting business models: (H1) the initial size of a PLCA limits the number of mammalian game and thereby predators that can be sustained; (H2) initial investments in infrastructure limit the ability to introduce predators; and (H3) rainfall limits game and predator abundance. We further assessed how managing for financial stability (optimized game stocking) or ecological sustainability (allowing game to fluctuate with environmental conditions) influenced the ability to overcome path dependence. A mechanistic PLCA model based on simple ecological and financial rules was run for different initial conditions and management strategies, simulating landowner options for adapting their business model annually. Despite attempts by simulated landowners to increase profits, adopted business models after 13 years were differentiated by initial land and infrastructural assets, supporting H1 and H2. A conservation organization's initial assets can cause it to become locked into a financially vulnerable business model. In our 50-year simulation, path dependence was overcome by fewer of the landowners who facilitated natural ecological variability than those who maintained constant hunting rates and predator numbers, but the latter experienced unsustainably high game densities in low rainfall years. Management for natural variability supported long-term ecological sustainability but not shorter term socioeconomic sustainability for
Baird, Donnel [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States); Cox, Morris [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States); Harmarneh, Sarey [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States); Zheng, Chen [BlocPower LLC, New York, NY (United States)
BlocPower’s mission is to provide access to energy efficiency financing for underserved communities across the United States. This project, “Crowdsourced Microfinance for Energy Efficiency in Underserved Communities,” is an extension of that goal and is grounded in the principles of providing engineering and financing services to those in need. The project is based on the creation of a BlocPower Marketplace as a central hub for connecting shovel-ready green buildings to institutional investors. This ‘connection’ entails using online crowdfunding to aggregate debt and equity capital from institutional investors to connect to customers (building owners) across various financial portfolios. BlocPower Marketplace is intended to bring social, environmental, and financial returns to investors while also decreasing investor risk by loaning out funds for energy installations in individual buildings. In detail, the intended benefits of crowdsourcing are two-sided. Firstly, for building owners, clean energy retrofit installations improve building operations, reduce utility costs, and reduce harmful impacts to their surrounding environment. Secondly, for institutional investors, they gain access to a new market of energy efficiency and are able to provide debt or equity capital with high financial returns. This gives investors the opportunity to create social and environmental impact in communities around the country as well. With this in mind, BlocPower designed the marketplace to specifically answer exploratory research questions with respect to the pricing of energy financing. Institutional investors typically charge high rates on project financing solutions in the energy space, particularly in low and middle-income communities, because of fears that required debt service will not be made. This makes access to energy capital exorbitantly difficult for those that need it the most. Through this project, BlocPower tested investor appetite to determine if
Pollack, Craig Evan; Armstrong, Katrina
The extent to which retail clinics provide access to care for underserved populations remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether retail clinics tend to be located in census tracts with higher medical need. The locations of retail clinics as of July 1, 2008, were mapped and linked to the 2000 US Census and 2008 Health Resources and Services Administration data. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models with random effects were used to compare the characteristics of census tracts with and without retail clinics. To determine whether retail clinics followed the underlying distribution of chain stores, the location of clinics conditional on there being a chain store was analyzed in 6 counties. Of the 932 retail clinics, 930 were successfully mapped. Eighteen states had no retail clinics, and 17 states had 25 or more clinics. Within counties with at least 1 retail clinic, census tracts with retail clinics had a lower black population percentage, lower poverty rates, and higher median incomes and were less likely to be medically underserved areas/populations compared with census tracts without retail clinics. Similarly, stores with retail clinics were less likely to be located in medically underserved areas compared with stores without retail clinics. Retail clinics are currently located in more advantaged neighborhoods, which may make them less accessible for those most in need.
from southern Mediterranean countries are the results of both push marginalisation and destabilisation) and pull (economic concentration and wealth in the North) factors. This paper is part of a larger research project exploring the establishment of new economic–financial links through the actions......The migration issue in the Mediterranean region has been widely monitored and assessed in the last decade. Its various socioeconomic causes and impacts—demographic, social, political and economic—have been largely analysed, and, despite differences in the approaches, there has been broad consensus...... and Spanish coasts of the Mediterranean basin. The root of the issue can be mainly attributed to the impacts of globalisation: economic marginalisation of the peripheral areas and the political destabilisation of both the countries and the region at large. The failure of the Barcelona Process, followed...
This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration (Western) financial statements as of September 30, 1991. In their opinion, Western`s statements are fairly presented in all material respects in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and its compliance with laws and regulations, as well as a management letter addressing needed improvements are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.
International audience; The last financial crises have revealed the vulnerability of many emerging countries. Yet, within an economically integrated area, some groups of countries have been spared the disastrous consequences of these crises. The purpose of this article is to underline the similarities between these countries in order to draw up a set of regional criteria that would protect an area against speculative attacks. Using a probit analysis, we show that the convergence of some banki...
Ashford Alfred R
Full Text Available Abstract Background African American and Hispanic women, such as those living in the northern Manhattan and the South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City, are generally underserved with regard to breast cancer prevention and screening practices, even though they are more likely to die of breast cancer than are other women. Primary care physicians (PCPs are critical for the recommendation of breast cancer screening to their patients. Academic detailing is a promising strategy for improving PCP performance in recommending breast cancer screening, yet little is known about the effects of academic detailing on breast cancer screening among physicians who practice in medically underserved areas. We assessed the effectiveness of an enhanced, multi-component academic detailing intervention in increasing recommendations for breast cancer screening within a sample of community-based urban physicians. Methods Two medically underserved communities were matched and randomized to intervention and control arms. Ninety-four primary care community (i.e., not hospital based physicians in northern Manhattan were compared to 74 physicians in the South Bronx neighborhoods of the New York City metropolitan area. Intervention participants received enhanced physician-directed academic detailing, using the American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer. Control group physicians received no intervention. We conducted interviews to measure primary care physicians' self-reported recommendation of mammography and Clinical Breast Examination (CBE, and whether PCPs taught women how to perform breast self examination (BSE. Results Using multivariate analyses, we found a statistically significant intervention effect on the recommendation of CBE to women patients age 40 and over; mammography and breast self examination reports increased across both arms from baseline to follow-up, according to physician self-report. At post-test, physician
Melhuish, Edward C.; Belsky, Jay; Malin, A.
The theme of this study is that financial difficulties lead to financial distress that may lead to poorer psychological well-being and that one particularly vulnerable group is families with young children in disadvantaged areas. It interviewed 8,000 mothers of three-year-olds in deprived areas of England. An executive summary, introduction and outline of the methods used is followed by results on the effects of financial difficulties on life satisfaction, depression, malaise, self-esteem and...
Odom Walker, Kara; Ryan, Gery; Ramey, Robin; Nunez, Felix L; Beltran, Robert; Splawn, Robert G; Brown, Arleen F
We examined factors influencing physician practice decisions that may increase primary care supply in underserved areas. We conducted in-depth interviews with 42 primary care physicians from Los Angeles County, California, stratified by race/ethnicity (African American, Latino, and non-Latino White) and practice location (underserved vs nonunderserved area). We reviewed transcriptions and coded them into themes by using standard qualitative methods. Three major themes emerged in relation to selecting geographic- and population-based practice decisions: (1) personal motivators, (2) career motivators, and (3) clinic support. We found that subthemes describing personal motivators (e.g., personal mission and self-identity) for choosing a practice were more common in responses among physicians who worked in underserved areas than among those who did not. By contrast, physicians in nonunderserved areas were more likely to cite work hours and lifestyle as reasons for selecting their current practice location or for leaving an underserved area. Medical schools and shortage-area clinical practices may enhance strategies for recruiting primary care physicians to underserved areas by identifying key personal motivators and may promote long-term retention through work-life balance.
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the impact of subjects of state financial control, primarily internal, over the budget on all levels of executive power, in order to eliminate subjectivity in their actions and increase the efficiency of public finances in general. Method. The study, which requires a deeper consideration of the issue of transformation of the content of the role performed by subjects of state financial control, primarily internal, in the presence of crisis phenomena in the economy. Methodology. The study of this issue is based on the analysis of the performance of the State Audit Service of Ukraine in identifying violations that led to losses of financial and material resources for the period of 2011–2017. Results. In our opinion, the dynamics of a constant decrease in the size of eliminated financial violations testifies to the insignificant effectiveness of the implemented control measures. The lowest, according to statistical indicators, is an indicator of elimination of financial violations in recent years, as well, the number of financial audits has also decreased significantly. Moreover, the number of inspections in individual cases had no effect on the final result. At the same time, the transition to new standards of inspections, with a view to deregulating and reducing the level of subjectivism, is less effective, but more transparent, which is positive in a slowdown of the economy, despite a certain reduction, but there is a significant level of corruption. Subjectivity in the actions of the controlling bodies can exert significant pressure on the entities subject to their supervision. Therefore, in order to achieve an optimal balance between the effectiveness of control measures and the reduction of pressure on economic entities, it is necessary to bring the existing system to standards that correspond to the level of developed countries. Currently, the process of changing approaches to inspections is based on
Bazargan, Mohsen; Lindstrom, Richard W; Dakak, Alan; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E; Edelstein, Ronald A
The objective of this study was to explore the specific factors that influence medical student's choice of primary care as a specialty. Special attention is given to the influence of desire to work in underserved communities on selection of a specialty. A web-based survey of factors affecting choice of specialty was completed by 668 fourth-year students from 32 medical schools. Students interested in primary care reported an increased likelihood of working with underserved populations when compared with other specialties. The independent impact of both student's social compassion attitudes and values, and subjective and reinforcing influences on the selection of primary care, when compared with all other specialties, was strong. Personal practice-oriented considerations showed an independent negative impact on the selection of primary care when compared with surgery and support specialties. Financial considerations strongly influence the selection of support specialties. Medical training experiences showed an independent influence on the selection of surgery over primary care. The need for primary care physicians and specialists in underserved communities is considerable. Addressing health disparities in underserved communities requires a concerted effort to increase the availability of primary care providers in these communities. This study observed that primary care practice or specialty selection by medical students is influenced by individual values and subjective external influences other than predicted by medical training alone. This observation necessitates a closer determination of strategies required to ensure an increase in the number of primary care physicians serving underserved communities.
(2017) ISSN 1748-7870 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09190S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : financial market fragmentation * monetary transmission * European Central Bank Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.925, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/horvath-0478988.pdf
Babetskii, Ian; Komárek, L.; Komárková, Z.
Roč. 57, 7-8 (2007), s. 341-362 ISSN 0015-1920 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA402/05/2758 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial integration * stock markets * European Union Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2007 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1083_fau_7_8_2007_000000000039.pdf
Financial Arbitrator The legislative introduction of the institute of Financial Arbitrator as the relevant authority for settling out-of-court disputes into Czech law is a relatively new phenomenon, and is related to the interests of consumer protection within the European Union. In particular, the interests of the European Union in this area are to reinforce consumer confidence in the financial market. Given the fact that the majority of consumer disputes are so-called petty disputes, and re...
Rieder, S.; Haefeli, U.
This final report for Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) analyses financial measures that can be taken in the energy area. Based on 17 years of experience with the use of financial measures for the support of energy policy in Switzerland, the mechanisms involved and the effects obtained are discussed. Financial measures are looked at in the light of theoretical economics and applied psychology. The so-called 'deadweight' effect, i.e. that part of activities that would have taken place anyway, is looked at in detail. Finally, the importance of measures is examined and the strengths and weaknesses of financial measures and subvention mechanisms are commented on.
Mette, Lindsey A; Saldívar, Anna Maria Pulido; Poullard, Natalie E; Torres, Ivette C; Seth, Sarah G; Pollock, Brad H; Tomlinson, Gail E
Breast and colorectal cancers are common cancers for which genetic risk assessment and counseling are available. However, these services are often limited to metropolitan areas and are not readily accessible to underserved populations. Moreover, ethnic and racial disparities present additional obstacles to identifying and screening high-risk individuals and have a bearing on treatment outcomes. To provide cancer genetic risk assessment and counseling through telemedicine to the remote, underserved primarily Hispanic population of the Texas-Mexico border region. Program participants were mailed a questionnaire to assess their satisfaction with the program so that we could determine the acceptability of video-teleconferencing for cancer risk assessment. The overall level of satisfaction with the program was very high, demonstrating the acceptability of a cancer genetic risk assessment program that relied on telemedicine to reach and underserved minority community. Delivery model requires the availability of and access to communication technologies; trained staff are needed at remote sites for sample collection and patient handling. Video-teleconferencing is an acceptable method of providing cancer risk assessment in a remote, underserved population. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.
Full Text Available Alternative sources of energy represent a great area of progress nowadays. The trend of the 21. century is energetically demanding with an increaming tendency to use fossil fuels, sources of which are however limited. The article will deal with an inevitability of the use of marketing tools with the aim to increase the share of these energetical resources on the Slovak market. The result will be obtaining of some financial advantage for future users on one side and the increase of volume of sales for vendors on the other side.
This article looks at the notion of what, not who, is underserved in museum education. The importance of looking through, in, and from objects in order to uncover underserved questions and themes is vital. A willingness to consider new ways to approach collections and display is necessary to have a dialogue with our audiences about how museums can…
Federico Martínez-Carrasco Pleite
Full Text Available Poverty levels that lives a significant percentage of population in many developing countries, often accompanied by a lack of access to savings products, payment, credit or insurance, which determine high levels of financial exclusion. In this paper, we present the case of a savings bankproject developed a decade ago by the León XIII Foundation in Mexico. After analyzing this experience, we present the data obtained with a survey realized to 218 beneficiaries. The bivariate and multivariate analysis of this information, besides allowing quantifying the living conditionsof the beneficiaries, provides valuable information about the saving capacity of the population reached through this initiative, segmenting its beneficiaries in consideration of their characteristics and their saving effort.
Healthcare organizations in the US are increasingly using Patient Portals as a means to provide patients with partial access to their health records and thereby comply with the 'meaningful use' of Health Information Technology policy issued by the US federal government. Patient portals are used to not only provide access to parts of the health records such as lab results but also offer services such as customized educational materials and appointment scheduling. While prior studies examining the adoption rates of these patient portals have not offered consistent findings, many of the studies have reported limited adoption and use  of patient portals, especially among the underserved population. This study explores the factors behind the reduced adoption rate of patient portals among the underserved by focusing on their Patient Web Portal Readiness (PWPR). The study empirically evaluates the impact of three important variables on PWPR among the underserved: (a) Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) activities, (b) patient attitude toward personal health record keeping; and (c) use of Internet for health information seeking. The study also incorporates three other factors: (d) access to Internet; (e) demographics; and (f) presence of chronic illness. Data were collected through a survey from 132 patients from the underserved population who visited 5 free clinics in the Northern Virginia area in the US. The paper-based survey was administered to the patients who visited these free clinics for care. The study findings show support for the hypotheses related to the impact of the two key factors - Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) activities and attitude toward personal health record keeping - on PWPR. The findings also indicate that the use of Internet for health information seeking has relatively more impact than patient's Internet access on PWPR. Overall, the findings imply the critical importance of complementary activities - e.g., PHIM
Kool, C.J.M.; de Regt, E.; van Veen, T.
This paper focusses on the relation between external imbalances and domestic money and credit growth in the euro area. We compute money and credit overhang both for the euro area as a whole and for individual member countries. Our results show that both aggregate money and credit overhang have
China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…
This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1996. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1996 statements. The auditors` report on Western`s internal control structure disclosed two new reportable conditions and discussed the status of an unresolved condition from prior years. The new conditions involved the write-off of aging accounts receivable and the understatement of interest expense for inactive construction work orders. These reportable conditions are not considered to be material weaknesses. Western concurred with the audit recommendations and is responsible for necessary corrective actions. The auditors also considered the overview and performance measure data for completeness and material consistency with the basic financial statements as noted in the internal control report. The report also disclosed an additional reportable condition directed to the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) which is not considered to be a material weakness. Reclamation concurred with the audit recommendation and is responsible for necessary corrective action. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations disclosed two new instances of noncompliance involving interest charges on all construction costs funded with Federal appropriations and other capitalized costs. The report also discussed the status of one instance of noncompliance from prior years. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for all of these instances of noncompliance.
Economou, Marina; Bergiannaki, Joanna Despina; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Karayanni, Ismini; Skalkotos, George; Patelakis, Athanasios; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Stefanis, Costas
The financial crisis has yielded adverse effects on the population worldwide, as evidenced by elevated rates of major depression. International recommendations for offsetting the mental health impact of the recession highlight the need for effective treatment, including reduction in the stigma attached to the disorder. This study endeavoured to explore lay attitudes to depression and psychiatric medication during a period of financial crisis and to identify their correlates. Furthermore, it investigated their link to help-seeking intentions. A random and representative sample of 621 respondents from Athens area participated in the study (Response Rate = 81.7%). The telephone interview schedule consisted of the Personal Stigma Scale, a self-constructed scale tapping attitudes to psychiatric medication and one question addressing help-seeking intentions. The preponderant stigmatising belief about depression pertains to perceiving the disorder as a sign of personal weakness. In addition, stereotypes of unpredictability and dangerousness were popular among the sample. Nonetheless, stigmatising beliefs are much stronger with regard to psychiatric medication; perceived as addictive, capable of altering one's personality, less effective than homeopathic remedies and doing more harm than good. Help-seeking intentions were predicted by education, unemployment and attitudes to psychiatric medication solely. Research on the mental health effects of the global recession should encompass studies investigating the stigma attached to mental disorders and its implications. © The Author(s) 2016.
Cargill, Stephanie Solomon; Baker, Lauren Lyn; Goold, Susan Dorr
Develop an accessible exercise to engage underserved populations about research funding priorities; analyze the criteria they use to prioritize research; contrast these criteria to those currently used by Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Academic and community partners collaborated to develop an Ipad exercise to facilitate group deliberation about PCOR funding priorities. 16 groups (n = 183) of underserved individuals in both urban and rural areas participated. Recordings were qualitatively analyzed for prioritization criteria. Analysis yielded ten codes, many of which were similar to PCORI criteria, but all of which challenged or illuminated these criteria. Directly involving underserved populations in determining funding criteria is both feasible and important, and can better fulfill PCORI's goal of incorporating patient priorities.
Víctor Manuel Alcantar Enríquez
Full Text Available This research, consisting of a descriptive study with a non-experimental design, involved an analysis to determine the validity and reliability of an instrument composed of seventeen items aimed at assessing the quality of service in the financial area of a public university by means of four variables: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness and empathy. The methodological strategy included the design of the measuring instrument; verification of the validity of content and construct; and analysis of internal consistency by means of Cronbach’s alpha. The instrument was applied to 152 users of the service, attaining a reliability coefficient of 0.943. The results show that with respect to specific concepts, the questions were clear; nevertheless we found it necessary to relocate items and rename variables, which resulted in a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the quality of service in the context under study.
The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1994 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.
Friedman, Jay W; Mathu-Muju, Kavita R
Disparities in dental health care that characterize poor populations are well known. Children suffer disproportionately and most severely from dental diseases. Many countries have school-based dental therapist programs to meet children's primary oral health care needs. Although dental therapists in the United States face opposition from national and state dental associations, many state governments are considering funding the training and deployment of dental therapists to care for underserved populations. Dental therapists care for American Indians/Alaska Natives in Alaska, and Minnesota became the first state to legislate dental therapist training. Children should receive priority preference; therefore, the most effective and economical utilization of dental therapists will be as salaried employees in school-based programs, beginning in underserved rural areas and inner cities.
This research was conducted in the sub-district of Takisung, district of Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan Province in 2012. This paper was aimed to know the farming performance of the Bali Cattle rearing system in the transmigration area reared by the transmigrant groups of Harapan Makmur, Sumber Rejeki, Tunas Muda and Darmarwulan, that were selected using purposive sampling as the primary data. The agroecosystem that supported the area consisted of palm oil, rubber and agricultural land. Secondary data was obtained from province agriculture officer and district livestock officer. The results of the study showed that the benefits of calf crop beef cattle rearing system (traditional breeding system) in the group of Harapan Makmur was around IDR 5,295,200/year with B/C ratio of 1.28, whereas the value of the benefits of the group of Tunas Muda was around IDR 4,105,800/year with B/C ratio of 1.22. The value of the benefit of feedlot cattle rearing system in the groups of Sumber Rejeki was around IDR 2,110,000/3 months with B/C ratio of 1.07 and the value of the benefits of the group of Damarwulan was around IDR 5,760,000/3 months with B/C ratio of 1.09. Land resource and source of manpower strongly supported the development of cattle farming with the ownership of 2-4 head/family, both the cows and the bull are very economical, effective and efficient in those business so that would benefit to the farmers group.
Zayas, Luis E; McGuigan, Denise
Promoting early interest in healthcare careers among youth from underserved areas is one promising strategy for addressing the health professional shortage in such communities, Most career choice studies try to predict outcomes using such traditional measures as grades and test scores, This study examines experiences influencing healthcare career interest among high-school students participating in health professions introductory programs in underserved communities. The opinions of parents and teachers regarding students' motivations are also considered. Seven focus groups (N=51) were conducted in one rural and two largely minority urban communities in New York State designated as health professional shortage areas. Qualitative data analysis involved a theory-driven, immersion and crystallization approach following the experiential learning model. Constructive experiences with the healthcare system, family role-modelpan>ing and support, interactive health-related school activities, the media, inspirational and accessible school staff, and strategic community partnerships, among other factors, facilitated student interest in health professions. Findings suggest that underserved and disenfranchised community environments still pose challenges for furthering healthcare career interest among youth.
Amanda Jane Succi
At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.
Dewulf, Bart; Neutens, Tijs; De Weerdt, Yves; Van de Weghe, Nico
In many countries, financial assistance is awarded to physicians who settle in an area that is designated as a shortage area to prevent unequal accessibility to primary health care. Today, however, policy makers use fairly simple methods to define health care accessibility, with physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) within predefined administrative boundaries being overwhelmingly favoured. Our purpose is to verify whether these simple methods are accurate enough for adequately designating medical shortage areas and explore how these perform relative to more advanced GIS-based methods. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we conduct a nation-wide study of accessibility to primary care physicians in Belgium using four different methods: PPR, distance to closest physician, cumulative opportunity, and floating catchment area (FCA) methods. The official method used by policy makers in Belgium (calculating PPR per physician zone) offers only a crude representation of health care accessibility, especially because large contiguous areas (physician zones) are considered. We found substantial differences in the number and spatial distribution of medical shortage areas when applying different methods. The assessment of spatial health care accessibility and concomitant policy initiatives are affected by and dependent on the methodology used. The major disadvantage of PPR methods is its aggregated approach, masking subtle local variations. Some simple GIS methods overcome this issue, but have limitations in terms of conceptualisation of physician interaction and distance decay. Conceptually, the enhanced 2-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method, an advanced FCA method, was found to be most appropriate for supporting areal health care policies, since this method is able to calculate accessibility at a small scale (e.g., census tracts), takes interaction between physicians into account, and considers distance decay. While at present in health care research
This project will contribute to government efforts in Delta State to improve delivery and use of maternal and child healthcare services in three marginalized rural communities. Maternal and child health concerns According to the World Health Organization, Nigeria's maternal mortality ratio in 2013 was 560, down from 610 in ...
... conflict with this rule will be preempted. No retroactive effect will be given to the rule and, in..., Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders have a deep spiritual, cultural, and historical... can be at odds with spiritual, cultural, historical, and environmental values. Additionally, there are...
Maternal and child health is a priority for Nigeria, but there are significant challenges and opportunities at state levels that influence efforts to reduce deaths. This project will contribute to government efforts in Delta State to improve delivery and use of maternal and child healthcare services in three marginalized rural ...
..., and telecommunications and broadband programs. The data covered by this collection of information are... application materials are covered by the information collection package for the specific RUS program being..., water and waste, and telecom and broadband infrastructure, RUS also plays a big role in improving other...
Donald Robert Haley
Full Text Available Background Despite high immunization rates, hundreds of thousands of poor and underserved children continue to lack their necessary immunizations and are at risk of acquiring a vaccine-preventable disease. Local Health Departments (LHDs and public health clinicians figure prominently in efforts to address this problem. Methods This exploratory research compared ten (10 North Carolina LHDs with respect to immunization delivery factors. The study sample was identified based on urban designation as well as county demographic and socio-economic indicators that identified predicted “pockets” of underimmunization. Survey instruments were used to identify specific LHD immunization delivery factors. Results It was found that hours of operation, appointment policies, use and type of tracking systems, and wait times influence a health department’s ability to immunize underserved children. This exploratory research is of particular importance, because it suggests that the implementation of specific policy interventions may reduce the morbidity and mortality related to vaccine-preventable diseases in poor and underserved children. This research also highlights the significance of the nurses’ role in the policy making process in this important area of community health assurance. Conclusion To improve childhood immunization rates, policy-makers should encourage adequate and appropriate funding for LHDs to adopt service delivery factors that are associated with higher-performing local health departments. LHDs should study the population they serve to further refine service delivery factors to meet the population’s needs.
Full Text Available The paper aims at investigating the impact of integration between the Romanian and the euro area financial markets, with focus on the banking and stock market segments, on the growth rate of Romanian listed firms. Previous research has showed that financial integration accelerates growth especially for firms acting in industries more dependent on external finance. The paper uses quarterly firm-level data and a panel fixed effects model in order to control for firm heterogeneity. The model specification controls for firm-level attributes and the development in the two segments of the domestic financial market. The paper brings evidence on the significant impact of financial integration on firms’ growth with regard to both price- and volume-based measures. Integration in banking markets positively impacts on growth while integration in stock markets seems to tighten firm’s growth opportunities. Additionally, the Gibrat’s law is rejected. The findings have implications on researchers and Romanian policy makers alike. They call for action to deepen the integration in the banking markets. The paper contributes to the debate on the relationship between financial development and financial integration respectively, on growth in an emerging economy.
US Ecology is a full service waste management company. The company operates two of the nation's three existing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities and has prepared and submitted license applications for two new LLRW disposal facilities in California and Nebraska. The issue of financial assurances is an important aspect of site development and operation. Proper financial assurances help to insure that uninterrupted operation, closure and monitoring of a facility will be maintained throughout the project's life. Unfortunately, this aspect of licensing is not like others where you can gauge acceptance by examining approved computer codes, site performance standards or applying specific technical formulas. There is not a standard financial assurance plan. Each site should develop its requirements based upon the conditions of the site, type of design, existing state or federal controls, and realistic assessments of future financial needs. Financial assurances at U.S. Ecology's existing sites in Richland, Washington, and Beatty, Nevada, have been in place for several years and are accomplished in a variety of ways by the use of corporate guarantees, corporate capital funds, third party liability insurance, and post closure/long-term care funds. In addressing financial assurances, one can divide the issue into three areas: Site development/operations, third party damages, and long-term care/cleanup
Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta; Outerbridge, Geoff
The world lacks sustainable models of care to manage spinal disorders in poor and underserved communities. The purpose of this article is to: (1) review the rationale and importance of developing a sustainable evidence-based model of care at low cost for people with spinal disorders in underserved...... adequate care, World Spine Care (WSC) was established to "improve lives in underserved communities through sustainable, integrated, evidence-based, spinal care." WSC is comprised of volunteers and institutions from 6 continents and several countries, and incorporates a Board of Directors, an executive......) facilitation of opportunities for training graduate students in a variety of health-related fields. World Spine Care has (a) recognized the enormous need to establish clinical programs aimed at easing the suffering and disability associated with spinal disorders in resource-poor communities, (b) shown...
In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...
Luisa R. Blanco
Full Text Available For this study, we conducted seven focus groups in the Los Angeles area with a total of 70 participants (42 Latinos and 28 African Americans recruited from three senior centers and a church. There was a wide variety of responses in relation to the usage of financial services among participants. We found that although some participants seem to participate more in the formal financial sector and show a higher level of sophistication when managing their finances, other participants’ use of formal financial institutions is minimal. Among African American participants, we found several instances in which individuals feel very comfortable using banks. Lower levels of participation in the formal financial sector were found among the lower income Latino participants. In relation to barriers to participate in the financial sector, supply was not an issue, but demand and behavioral factors seem more important. Overall, no participants saved very much on a regular basis. We also find that participants in general do not want to ask their children for money, and also do not want to save and accumulate wealth to leave to their children.
Barger, Diana; Pooley, Bertha; Dupuy, Julien Roger; Cardenas, Norma Amparo; Wall, Steve; Owen, Helen; Daviaud, Emmanuelle
To address inequitable access to health services of indigenous communities in the Bolivian highlands, the Bolivian Ministry of Health, with the support of Save the Children-Saving Newborn Lives, conducted operational research to identify, implement and test a package of maternal and newborn interventions using locally recruited, volunteer Community Health Workers (vCHW) between 2008 and 2010. The additional annual economic and financial costs of the intervention were estimated from the perspective of the Bolivian Ministry of Health in two municipalities. The cost of intervention-stimulated increases in facility attendance was estimated with national surveillance data using a pre-post comparison, adjusted for secular trends in facility attendance. Three scale-up scenarios were modelled by varying the levels of coverage and the number (per mother and child pair) and frequency of home visits. Average cost per mother and average cost per home visit are presented in constant 2015 US$. Eighteen per cent of expectant mothers in the catchment area were visited at least once. The annualized additional financial cost of the community-based intervention across both municipalities was $43 449 of which 3% ($1324) was intervention design, 20% ($8474) set-up and 77% ($33 651) implementation. Drivers of additional costs were additional paid staff (68%), 81% of which was for management and support by local implementing partner and 19% of which was for vCHW supervision. The annual financial cost per vCHW was $595. Modelled scale-up scenarios highlight potential efficiency gains. Recognizing local imperatives to reduce inequalities by targeting underserved populations, the observed low coverage by vCHWs resulted in a high cost per mother and child pair ($296). This evaluation raises important questions about this model's ability to achieve its ultimate goals of reducing neonatal mortality and inequalities through behaviour change and increased care seeking and has served to
Full Text Available Financial resources of the village that are sourced from a country or a Regional Finance Financial based Law Number 6 Year 2014 of The Village is the mandate of the law that must be allocated to the village. The interconnectedness of the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or Region concerned the Financial administrative and territorial relations, and there is no setting directly regarding the finances of the village as part of the financial system of the country or the financial area. In respect of the elements of the crime of corruption deeds against financial irregularities of the village there are still disagreements on the interpretation of the law in trapping the perpetrators of corruption on the village chief that implies not satisfy the principle of legality and legal certainty in the ruling of the matter of financial irregularities. In fact, many of the village chief or Councilor caught the criminal offence of corruption over the use of financial irregularities. This research analyzes How the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or region, as well as whether the financial resources of the village is derived from the state budget or region budget managed in village budget belongs to the category of village finances and whether tort against the financial management of the village can be categorized as a criminal act corruption. How To Cite: Purnomo, H. (2015. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 121-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.81
Financial management has developed as a separate area of study, being very important for both the small or large companies. Financial management has a role in investment decisions, financing decisions and controlling resources. The responsibility of the financial manager is to monitor actual performance of the company
Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Davis, Jenna L; Escobar, Myriam; Inda, Nikki Ross; Paige, Linda; Palencia, Jeannette; Vives, Maria; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee
It is well documented that cancer is disproportionately distributed in racial/ethnic minority groups and medically underserved communities. In addition, cancer prevention and early detection represent the key defenses to combat cancer. The purpose of this article is to showcase the comprehensive health education and community outreach activities at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute (Moffitt) designed to promote and increase access to and utilization of prevention and early detection services among underserved populations. One of Moffitt's most important conduits for cancer prevention and early detection among underserved populations is through its community education and outreach initiatives, in particular, the Moffitt Program for Outreach Wellness Education and Resources (M-POWER). M-POWER works to empower underserved populations to make positive health choices and increase screening behaviors through strengthening collaboration and partnerships, providing community-based health education/promotion, and increasing access to care. Effective, empowering, and culturally and linguistically competent health education and community outreach, is key to opening the often impenetrable doors of cancer prevention and early detection to this society's most vulnerable populations.
Kalliny, Medhat; McKenzie, Judith Green
Sleep disorders and occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses impact an individual's overall health. In the United States, substantial racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities exist in sleep and occupational health. Primary care physicians working in underserved communities should be aware of this disparity and target these higher-risk populations for focused evaluation and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of a psychological skills training programme for underserved rugby union players. ... The programme's effectiveness was further validated by the experimental group's feedback. Recommendations are made for future research, as well as practical application within existing rugby development programmes in South ...
Turner, John D.
This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...
This article presents and assesses the methodology and results of a comparative analysis conducted by Bruno Amable in financial systems and corporate governance in the context of current policy and regulatory challenges. The article, which is based on a literature review and game theory examples, first describes and evaluates the methodology and final classification given by Amable. The role of Amable’s core concept; namely, institutional complementarity, is underlined. A game theory applicat...
Nurses have historically played a key role in advocacy and service for all members of the community, including those who are traditionally underserved by other providers or the health system. Nurses from a local Atlanta community health system, both clinical and administrative, have continued this tradition by developing an advocacy and service program for the downtown homeless of Atlanta. From its beginnings as a highly informal volunteer program to its current structure as a strongly integrated community health center for the underserved and homeless of Atlanta, local nurses have demonstrated their strong value of service advocacy. Their leadership, insight, discipline, and strategic development have facilitated the growth of a focused, viable health service network for marginalized people of the city of Atlanta.
Peter J. Morgan; Victor Pontines
Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion, i.e., greater access to financial services for low-income households and firms, as part of their overall strategies for economic and financial development. This raises the question of whether financial stability and financial inclusion are, broadly speaking, substitutes or complements. In other words, does the move toward greater financial inclusion tend to increase or decrease financial stability? A number of studies have sugge...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Shortage Areas: Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) and Medically Underserved Area/Population (MUA/P) by Address tool helps you determine if a specific...
Kendall, J. S.
Observing the night sky in New York City is a challenge. However, there is a popular, and even club-going, interest in science in New York City. On the edges of that interest, most people that live in New York City have never had the opportunity to look through a telescope, particularly in underserved areas such as Northern Manhattan. The presenter discusses plans for frequent observing sessions utilizing the parks in New York City combined with public classes at the New York Public Library. Both observing sessions and classes will be held in the ethnically, racially and economically diverse Bronx and Manhattan neighborhoods of Washington Heights, Marble Hill and Inwood. Integration with area middle, elementary and high schools is also discussed. Particular issues surrounding publicity and the need for showmanship in an image-driven community with numerous entertainment opportunities are also discussed.
Seol, Haesun; Thompson, Mark; Kreider, Kathryn Evans; Vorderstrasse, Allison
The burden of diabetes is greater for minorities and medically underserved populations in the United States. An evidence-based provider-delivered diabetes self-management education intervention was implemented in a federally qualified health center for medically underserved adult patients with type 2 diabetes. The findings provide support for the efficacy of the intervention on improvement in self-management behaviors and glycemic control among underserved patients with diabetes, while not substantially changing provider visit time or workload.
Girdzijauskas, Stasys; Moskaliova, Vera
The financial structures that make use of money flow for “easy money” or cheating purpose are called financial pyramids. Recently financial pyramids intensively penetrates IT area. It is rather suitable way of the fraud. Money flow modeling and activity analysis of such financial systems allows identifying financial pyramids and taking necessary means of precautions. In the other hand even investing companies that function normally when market conditions changes (e.g. interest rates) eventual...
Αντύπας, Αντώνιος Τ.
The present doctoral thesis covers different aspects in the financial econometrics area. In particular, the research focuses on the heterogeneous agents in the market (rational and behavioural), the performance measures related to this type of agents and, more generally, the asset evaluation within a portfolio selection framework. Further, the time varying dependence among the financial markets is also considered. In general, the financial markets represent one of the main indicators fo...
He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Hu, Chunxiang
Cultivation modes of autotrophic microalgae for biodiesel production utilizing open raceway pond were analyzed in this study. Five before screened good microalgae were tested their lipid productivity and biodiesel quality again in outdoor 1000L ORP. Then, Chlorella sp. L1 and Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 were selected due to their stronger environmental adaptability, higher lipid productivity and better biodiesel properties. Further scale up cultivation for two species with batch and semi-continuous culture was conducted. In 40,000L ORP, higher lipid productivity (5.15 versus 4.06gm(-2)d(-1) for Chlorella sp. L1, 5.35 versus 3.00gm(-2)d(-1) for M. dybowskii Y2) was achieved in semi-continuous mode. Moreover, the financial costs of 14.18$gal(-1) and 13.31$gal(-1) for crude biodiesel in two microalgae with semi-continuous mode were more economically feasible for commercial production on large scale outdoors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA
Full Text Available This study presents funding opportunities to support investment and rural development and fisheries sector. Adoption of the national program and rural development as a strategic document for implementing European programs meant for rural Romania assumption of an intervention model is based on a medium-term strategy on the development of the village world. The work is based on the analysis of official documents indicating alignment programs of intervention policies in the field and on their analysis of available data that refers to the current state of implementation of programs referring to Romanian rural development. Given that the Common Agricultural Policythe (CAP budget for 2014-2020 is higher than the amounts allocated for the 2007-2013 program, consider that in determining the coordinates of financial allocation for the next year must take into account the problems encountered in previous period to eliminate them, because the efficiency of the implementation of funds to support rural development objectives depends largely on rural transformation internally and reducing disparities in the regions and communities, and externally in relation to Member States of the European Union .
Olson, Lucretia Maria
This manual contains student assignments in the financial services area of the marketing process. The individualized competency-based materials are intended to enhance and supplement instruction or to provide the basis for a course of instruction by the teacher-coordinator. Information on skills needed in jobs in financial marketing is first…
Rimmer, James H; Rowland, Jennifer L; Yamaki, Kiyoshi
Children and adolescents with physical and cognitive disabilities have a higher prevalence of overweight compared to their non-disabled peers. This health risk can lead to a greater number of obesity-related secondary conditions (e.g., fatigue, pain, deconditioning, social isolation, difficulty performing activities of daily living) and can impose significant personal and economic hardship on the child and family. Effective strategies for reducing the risk of overweight/obesity in adolescents with disabilities must begin with greater awareness of the behavioral and environmental antecedents that lead to higher rates of obesity in this underserved segment of the youth population. Research on interventions to reduce obesity among adolescents with disabilities is an important area of future research for public health scientists. A range of interventions will be necessary to overcome the many barriers that youth with disabilities experience in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.
Uscher-Pines, Lori; Rudin, Robert; Mehrotra, Ateev
Many disadvantaged communities lack sufficient numbers of local primary care and specialty physicians. Yet tens of thousands of physicians, in particular those who are retired or semiretired, desire meaningful volunteer opportunities. Multiple programs have begun to use telehealth to bridge the gap between volunteer physicians and underserved patients. In this brief, we describe programs that are using this model and discuss the promise and pitfalls. Physician volunteers in these programs report that the work can be fulfilling and exciting, a cutting-edge yet convenient way to remain engaged and contribute. Given the projected shortfall of physicians in the United States, recruiting retired and semiretired physicians to provide care through telehealth increases the total supply of active physicians and the capacity of the existing workforce. However, programs typically use volunteers in a limited capacity because of uncertainty about the level and duration of commitment. Acknowledging this reality, most programs only use volunteer physicians for curbside consults rather than fully integrating them into longitudinal patient care. The part-time availability of volunteers may also be difficult to incorporate into the workflow of busy safety net clinics. As more physicians volunteer in a growing number of telehealth programs, the dual benefits of enriching the professional lives of volunteers and improving care for underserved communities will make further development of these programs worthwhile.
Medairos, Robert; Kang, Vicky; Aboubakare, Carissa; Kramer, Matthew; Dugan, Sheila Ann
This study aims to identify patterns of use and preferences related to technology platforms that could support physical activity (PA) programs in an underserved population. A 29-item questionnaire was administered at 5 health and wellness sites targeting low income communities in Chicago. Frequency tables were generated for Internet, cell phone, and social media use and preferences. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate differences across age and income groups. A total of 291 individuals participated and were predominantly female (69.0%). Majority reported incomes less than $30,000 (72.9%) and identified as African American/Black/Caribbean (49.3%) or Mexican/Mexican American (34.3%). Most participants regularly used smartphones (63.2%) and the Internet (75.9%). Respondents frequently used Facebook (84.8%), and less commonly used Instagram (43.6%), and Twitter (20.0%). Free Internet-based exercise programs were the most preferred method to increase PA levels (31.6%), while some respondents (21.0%) thought none of the surveyed technology applications would help. Cell phone, Internet, and social media use is common among the surveyed underserved population. Technology preferences to increase PA levels varied, with a considerable number of respondents not preferring the surveyed technology platforms. Creating educational opportunities to increase awareness may maximize the effectiveness of technology-based PA interventions.
Blenner, Stephanie; Fernández, Ivys; Giron, Adriana; Grossman, Xena; Augustyn, Marilyn
The period of time after a child is identified with a developmental or mental health condition can be highly challenging. This is particularly true for diverse, underserved families who may face competing concerns related to poverty, culture, language, immigration, and family issues. Likewise, clinicians working with underserved families may…
Short sleep duration has been shown to associate with increased risk of obesity. Childhood obesity is more prevalent among underserved minority children. The study measured the sleep duration of underserved minority children living in a large US urban environment using accelerometry and its relation...
This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants' audit of the Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (Western) financial statements as of September 30, 1991. In their opinion, Western's statements are fairly presented in all material respects in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Their reports on Western's internal control structure and its compliance with laws and regulations, as well as a management letter addressing needed improvements are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.
Bergstrand, C R
Ryan's (1971) description of the ideology of "victim-blaming" is briefly reviewed. It is then shown how this strategy for obscuring the causes of a social problem is used against rural, medically underserved communities by health care provider and planning interest groups to "explain" critical shortages of physicians in their areas. In addition to lending further support for the existence of this ideology, a "looping" effect of social policy designed to deal with physician maldistribution is identified. It is argued that this can be viewed as analytically distinct from the ideology itself and that it serves the purpose of further obscuring the larger structural sources of the social problem.
1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...
Rioseco, Andrea; Serrano, Carolina; Celedón, Juan C; Padilla, Oslando; Puschel, Klaus; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A
Caregiver's or maternal depression has been associated with increased asthma morbidity in children from prosperous nations, but little is known about this link in low and middle-income countries. To examine if caregiver's depressive symptoms are associated with poor asthma control and abnormal immune responses in school-aged children. Case-control study of 87 asthmatic children (aged 4-11 years) attending a primary care clinic in an underserved area of Santiago (Chile). Cases were children with poor asthma control (Child Asthma Control Test [cACT] asthma control (cACT ≥20 points). The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI) and a locally validated family health vulnerability test (SALUFAM) were used to assess caregivers' depression and family health vulnerability. Serum from participating children was assayed for IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13, TGF-β, cortisol, and total IgE. The mean (SD) age of study participants was 8.23 (2.15 years), and 55.2% were females. Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), family health vulnerability, and caregiver's depressive symptoms were significantly more common in cases than in controls (65.4% vs. 34.6%, p = 0.003; 41.3% vs. 24.8%, p = 0.07; and 39.1% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.04, respectively). There was no significant difference in the level of any serum biomarkers between groups. In a multivariate analysis, only ICS use was significantly associated with better asthma control (OR = 3.56 [1.34-9.48], p = 0.01). Presence of caregiver's depressive symptoms is associated with poor asthma control among children from an underserved community, but this association was no longer significant after accounting for ICS use.
The present conceptual review explores intercultural healthcare--defined as the integration of traditional medicine and biomedicine as complementary healthcare systems--in minority and underserved communities. This integration can take place at different levels: individuals (patients, healers, biomedical healthcare providers), institutions (health centers, hospitals) or society (government policy). Contemporary ethnobotany research of traditional medicine has primarily dealt with the botanical identification of plants commonly used by local communities, and the identification of health conditions treated with these plants, whereas ethnopharmacology has focused on the bioactivity of traditional remedies. On the other hand, medical anthropology seems to be the scholarship more involved with research into patients' healthcare-seeking itineraries and their interaction with traditional versus biomedical healthcare systems. The direct impact of these studies on public health of local communities can be contested. To compare and discuss the body of scholarly work that deals with different aspects of traditional medicine in underserved and minority communities, and to reflect on how gaps identified in research can be bridged to help improve healthcare in these communities. The literature covers a broad range of information of relevance to intercultural healthcare. This information is fragmented across different scientific and clinical disciplines. A conceptual review of these studies identifies a clear need to devote more attention to ways in which research on traditional medicine can be more effectively applied to improve local public health in biomedical resource-poor settings, or in geographic areas that have disparities in access to healthcare. Scholars studying traditional medicine should prioritize a more interdisciplinary and applied perspective to their work in order to forge a more direct social impact on public health in local communities most in need of
Financial Workbook. External User Guide. Grant Administration Division .... Financial Reporting cycle. The Workbook passes back and forth between the recipient and IDRC throughout the project life cycle. Proposed Budget Preparation. Financial Reporting ... The system will automatically calculate the indirect cost per year.
This Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) provides a narrative discussion of the financial results and operational changes for the financial year ended on. 31 March 2015. This discussion should be read with the. Financial Statements and accompanying notes provided on pages 46-63, which were prepared in ...
Full Text Available Investment in human capital is a key determinant of socio-economic development in the twenty-fi rst century. These investments in rural areas require well-planned interventions in the fi eld of education. The necessary funds for this purpose will be available under the multiannual fi nancial framework EU 2014–2020. Interventions in this area in Poland are planned mainly under the Operational Programme Knowledge Education Development POWER and the Regional Operational Programmes (RPO. It should therefore be valuable to preliminarily assess the opportunities and threats connected with the development of human capital in rural areas in Poland in the fi eld of education in 2014–2020. The aim of this article is, thus, an attempt to make such an assessment, taking into account the following aspects: scope of the EU support; procedures for obtaining fi nancial support; available funds and financial instruments. The article verifi es the following hypothesis: based on program POWER establishments and RPO 2014–2020 in the section on education potential chances of the HRD in rural areas mainly result from wide range scope of this suport; while the main threats stem from a very limited scale of prioritization in the procedure of obtaining fi nancial support and the use of non-repayable fi nancial instruments (grants. The article draws upon the analysis of regulations of the European Commission and national legislative sources, as well as literature on development of human capital in rural areas and the absorption of EU funds for social projects.
Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert
We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the
Stebbins, Marilyn R; Frear, Meghan E; Cutler, Timothy W; Lightwood, James M; Fingado, Amanda R; Lai, Cindy J; Lipton, Helene Levens
The rising costs of health care and, in particular, prescription drugs remains a challenge. Health professionals' ability to promote cost-effective prescription drug use is critical, yet this subject is not included consistently in the curriculum of most health professional schools. As experts in prescription drug selection, use, and cost, pharmacists are in a unique position to help manage prescription drug regimens for the best therapeutic outcome, while also helping to keep patients' out-of-pocket (OOP) prescription drug costs low. In addition to promoting interprofessional collaboration, pharmacy student-led lectures may provide an effective means to teach prescription drug cost-savings strategies to other health professional students and current prescribers. To describe and evaluate the impact of a 60- to 90-minute standardized, case-based lecture on prescribers' attitudes and knowledge about drug cost-containment strategies. Four trained pharmacy students delivered a lecture that focused on strategies to help underserved patients with their OOP prescription drug costs. This lecture was given to health professional students and prescribers across disciplines. For purposes of this study, underserved patients included those with no drug insurance, those with limited financial resources who were unable to pay for their prescription drugs, and those whose drug insurance had significant gaps in coverage (e.g., Medicare Part D patients). Lectures targeted future and current prescribers and were delivered in multiple settings (e.g., residents' seminars, medical grand rounds, required health policy courses for medical and nursing students). Pretest/posttest surveys were administered to assess the impact of the lecture on learners' (a) knowledge of strategies to improve underserved patients' access to needed prescription drugs; (b) willingness to address and discuss cost issues with patients; (c) likelihood of collaborating with other health care professionals; and (d
W Hutchison, Robert
Community Health Centers that provide diabetic care for underserved patients have unique challenges. This study describes how interprofessional care improves outcomes and results in cost savings. Interprofessional diabetes education and structured team building are discussed. The team consisted of a physician, nurse practitioner, clinical pharmacist, and a number of pre-medicinal, nursing, and pharmacy students. The outcomes were measured at one year intervals for a total of three years. During the two year period with the interprofessional care team, the diabetic patients in this study achieved a 10% improvement in HgA1c, and 9% improvement in systolic blood pressure, a 5% improvement in diastolic blood pressure, and a 62.6% reduction in triglycerides. These findings suggest that this interprofessional care model in a free clinic significantly improved the HgA1c, triglycerides, and blood pressure.
Suwailem, Sami Al
Islamic financial industry is growing rapidly. Markets are increasingly appreciat-ing Islamic instruments, and more institutions are willing to provide Islamic services to their clients. However, development of Islamic financial products through appropriate processes of financial engineering has remained an important area of researches. Two issues are always faced by any Islamic financial products in one go, competitiveness and shariah compliance. Not only Islamically acceptable, but any Isla...
Wallington, Sherrie F; Dash, Chiranjeev; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Goode, Tawara D; Oppong, Bridget A; Dodson, Everett E; Hamilton, Rhonda N; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L
Research suggests that community involvement is integral to solving public health problems, including involvement in clinical trials-a gold standard. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the accrual of participants for clinical trials. Location and cultural aspects of clinical trials influence recruitment and accrual to clinical trials. It is increasingly necessary to be aware of defining characteristics, such as location and culture of the populations from which research participants are enrolled. Little research has examined the effect of location and cultural competency in adapting clinical trial research for minority and underserved communities on accrual for clinical trials. Utilizing embedded community academic sites, the authors applied cultural competency frameworks to adapt clinical trial research in order to increase minority participation in nontherapeutic cancer clinical trials. This strategy resulted in successful accrual of participants to new clinical research trials, specifically targeting participation from minority and underserved communities in metropolitan Washington, DC. From 2012 to 2014, a total of 559 participants enrolled across six nontherapeutic clinical trials, representing a 62% increase in the enrollment of blacks in clinical research. Embedding cancer prevention programs and research in the community was shown to be yet another important strategy in the arsenal of approaches that can potentially enhance clinical research enrollment and capacity. The analyses showed that the capacity to acquire cultural knowledge about patients-their physical locales, cultural values, and environments in which they live-is essential to recruiting culturally and ethnically diverse population samples. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Botts, Nathan E; Horan, Thomas A; Thoms, Brian P
There is an opportunity for personal health record (PHR) systems to play a vital role in fostering health self-management within underserved populations. If properly designed and promoted, it is possible that patients will use PHRs to become more empowered in taking an active role toward managing their health needs. This research examines the potential of a cyberinfrastructure-based PHR to encourage patient activation in health care, while also having population health implications. A multi-phased, iterative research approach was used to design and evaluate a PHR system called HealthATM, which utilizes services from a cloud computing environment. These services were integrated into an ATM-style interface aimed at providing a broad range of health consumers with the ability to manage health conditions and encourage accomplishment of health goals. Evaluation of the PHR included 115 patients who were clients of several free clinics in Los Angeles County. The majority of patients perceived ease of use (74%) and confidence (73%) in using the HealthATM system, and thought they would like to use it frequently (73%). Patients also indicated a belief in being responsible for their own health. However, fewer felt as though they were able to maintain necessary life changes to improve their health. Findings from the field tests suggest that PHRs can be a beneficial health management tool for underserved populations. In order for these types of tools to be effective within safety-net communities, they must be technically accessible and provide meaningful opportunities to increase patient engagement in their health care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Frederic S. Mishkin
This paper outlines a set of financial policies that can help make financial crises less likely in emerging market countries. To justify these policies, the paper first explains what a financial crisis is, the factors that promote a financial crisis and the dynamics of a financial crisis. It then examines twelve basic areas of financial policies to prevent financial crises: 1) prudential supervision, 2) accounting and disclosure requirements, 3) legal and judicial systems, 4) market-based dis...
Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M
A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.
Full Text Available The actuality of this article is determined by the need to demonstrate that financial crisis is not just an issue of economic disaster caused by contagion effect of financial cataclysm, expressed in national currency depreciation, depletion of foreign exchange reserves, mass bankruptcy of financial institutions, non-market entities insolvency and impossibility of sovereign debt servicing, but a special investment opportunity with associated characteristics of profitability. Central aims of article is research of financial crisis essence, investment mechanisms linked to existing fundamental laws of its conduct and determination of investment opportunities manifested in various segments of financial market and related sectors. Main research methods were: systemic analysis, statistical analysis, monographic and logic synthesis, etc. Main scientific results obtained in the article, due to research are to identify, analyze and demonstrate investment opportunities of international financial crisis and financial crises in Moldova.
Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm; Crosby, Martha E
Seeking health information is one of the leading uses for the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). Research has found the amount one benefits from e-Health information (health information from electronic sources) is directly related to the level of e-Health literacy. e-Health literacy is defined as "the ability to seek, find, understand, and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem." In order to gain a further understanding of the effects and use of technology, the digital divide, and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes, focus group interviews were conducted with participants diagnosed with diabetes and currently residing in a Medically Underserved Area. Overall, 25 volunteers participated in the four focus group meetings. Based on the focus group discussions, a general low e-Health literacy rate was identified. This was demonstrated by the lack of access to the Internet and the skills needed to retrieve health information. Of the 25 participants, 64% reported having Internet access at some level, but, only one reported going on the Internet every day. When the barriers to using the Internet were discussed, many participants expressed a lack of knowledge in how to retrieve information. Results of this study further show that having access to technology is not necessarily associated with usage. This dynamic is evolving into a new form of digital divide, gap in information retrieval and usage, versus gap in access. This is the first known study to examine e-Health literacy in an underserved population in Hawai'i. With the proliferation of information and communication technology and the transformation of information retrieval to be mobile and "on demand", a multi-pronged communication and education strategy is needed to explore how technology can improve e-Health literacy and health outcomes among underserved populations.
Crosby, Martha E
Seeking health information is one of the leading uses for the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). Research has found the amount one benefits from e-Health information (health information from electronic sources) is directly related to the level of e-Health literacy. e-Health literacy is defined as “the ability to seek, find, understand, and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem.” In order to gain a further understanding of the effects and use of technology, the digital divide, and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes, focus group interviews were conducted with participants diagnosed with diabetes and currently residing in a Medically Underserved Area. Overall, 25 volunteers participated in the four focus group meetings. Based on the focus group discussions, a general low e-Health literacy rate was identified. This was demonstrated by the lack of access to the Internet and the skills needed to retrieve health information. Of the 25 participants, 64% reported having Internet access at some level, but, only one reported going on the Internet every day. When the barriers to using the Internet were discussed, many participants expressed a lack of knowledge in how to retrieve information. Results of this study further show that having access to technology is not necessarily associated with usage. This dynamic is evolving into a new form of digital divide, gap in information retrieval and usage, versus gap in access. This is the first known study to examine e-Health literacy in an underserved population in Hawai‘i. With the proliferation of information and communication technology and the transformation of information retrieval to be mobile and “on demand”, a multi-pronged communication and education strategy is needed to explore how technology can improve e-Health literacy and health outcomes among underserved populations. PMID:24567867
Jothi, A Lenin
Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m
Leibenhaut, Mark H
A basic knowledge of financial accounting can help radiologists analyze business opportunities and examine the potential impacts of new technology or predict the adverse consequences of new competitors entering their service area. The income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement are the three basic financial statements that document the current financial position of the radiology practice and allow managers to monitor the ongoing financial operations of the enterprise. Pro forma, or hypothetical, financial statements can be generated to predict the financial impact of specific business decisions or investments on the profitability of the practice. Sensitivity analysis, or what-if scenarios, can be performed to determine the potential impact of changing key revenue, investment, operating cost or financial assumptions. By viewing radiology as both a profession and a business, radiologists can optimize their use of scarce economic resources and maximize the return on their financial investments.
Hall, Daniel A.
Major political and economic forces, which affect the provision of primary health services, particularly to underserved populations, are reviewed. Technological, professional, governmental, fiscal, and societal solutions are proposed. (GC)
Fink, John E.; Hummel, Mary L.
This chapter explores the practices of learning communities designed for specific, underserved student populations, highlighting on-campus examples and culminating with a synthesized list of core practices from these "inclusive" learning communities.
Trumpeter Nevelyn N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their increased use, no studies have examined the validity of Actical accelerometry cut points for moderate physical activity (PA in underserved (low-income, high-crime, minority populations. The high rates of chronic disease and physical inactivity in these populations likely impact the measurement of PA. There is growing concern that traditionally defined cut points may be too high for older or inactive adults. The present study aimed to determine the self-selected pace associated with instructions to “walk for exercise” and the corresponding accelerometry estimates (e.g., Actical counts/minute for underserved, African American adults. Method Fifty one participants (61% women had a mean age of 60.1 (SD = 9.9 and a mean body mass index of 30.5 kg/m2 (SD = 6.0. They performed one seated task, one standing task, and three walking tasks: “strolling”; “walking for exercise”; and “walking in an emergency.” Results The average pace for strolling, walking for exercise, and walking in an emergency were 1.62 miles per hour (mph; SD = .51, 2.51 mph (SD = .53, and 2.86 mph (SD = .58, respectively. The average Actical counts/minute for the five activities were: 4 (SD = 15, 16 (SD = 29, 751 (SD = 591, 2006 (SD = 1095, and 2617 (SD = 1169, respectively. Regression analyses showed that the predicted counts/minute for a pace of 2.0 mph (which is used as the criterion for moderate exercise in this study was 1075 counts/minute (SEM = 73. Conclusions The cut point associated with subjectively determined moderate PA is similar to those previously published for older adults and extends the use of adjusted cut points to African American populations. These results indicate that accurate cut points can be obtained using this innovative methodology.
Khem Raj Bhetuwal Ph. D.
An efficient financial system can effectively mobilize and allocate resources leading to robust economic growth. Financial liberalization improves the functioning of financial system by increasing the availability of funds and allowing risk diversification and increased investment. The indices of financial liberalization and financial development, generated by the principal component analysis, depict a gradual process of financial liberalization and a continuous financial sector development. ...
Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.
In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…
Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the most common, costly, and preventable of all health problems in the United States. Chronic diseases represent the leading causes of death and are experienced at higher rates by minority populations (CDC, 2012. Innovative community-based health promotion programs are recommended that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations (Yeary, et al., 2011. LifeSteps is being developed as an evidence-based health promotion program focusing on health and wellness, a domain area defined within the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework (OTPF, 2008. LifeSteps will utilize a client-centered approach to coach individuals in making health behavior changes. Fieldwork and service-learning components are incorporated integrating clinical practice, academic study, and collaboration with community providers. Program evaluation measures based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM have been identified to address all phases of program planning. The LifeSteps health promotion program aligns with local, national, and international objectives and addresses the need for programs that meet the diverse needs of underserved populations. Occupational therapists are in a unique position for implementing community-based interventions that promote health and contribute to a healthier society.
Ma, Grace X; Shive, Steve; Tan, Yin; Gao, Wanzhen; Rhee, Joanne; Park, Micah; Kim, Jaesool; Toubbeh, Jamil I
Despite evidence of a decline in both incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer nationwide, it remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of mortality among Asian Americans, including Korean Americans. This community-based and theoretically guided study evaluated a culturally appropriate intervention program that included a bilingual cancer educational program among Korean Americans including information on CRC risks, counseling to address psychosocial and access barriers, and patient navigation assistance. A two-group quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-intervention assessment and a 12-month follow-up on screening was used in the study. Korean Americans (N=167) were enrolled from six Korean churches. The intervention group received culturally appropriate intervention program addressing accessibility and psychosocial barriers, and navigation assistance for screening. The control group received general health education that included cancer-related health issues and screening. There was a significant difference (pbenefits and barriers to screening (p<0.001). At baseline, 13% of participants in the intervention group and 10% in control group reported having had a CRC cancer screening test in the previous year. At the 12-month post-intervention follow-up, 77.4% of participants in the intervention group had obtained screening compared to 10.8% in the control group. While health disparities result from numerous factors, a culturally appropriate and church-based intervention can be highly effective in increasing knowledge of and access to, and in reducing barriers to CRC screening among underserved Koreans.
Dusenbery, P.; LaConte, K.; Harold, J. B.; Randall, C.
NASA research programs are helping humanity understand the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets, and defining the conditions necessary to support life beyond Earth. The Space Science Institute's (SSI) National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) was recently funded by NASA`s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to develop and implement a project called NASA@ My Library: A National Earth and Space Science Initiative That Connects NASA, Public Libraries and Their Communities. As places that offer their services for free, public libraries have become the "public square" by providing a place where members of a community can gather for information, educational programming, and policy discussions. Libraries are developing new ways to engage their patrons in STEM learning, and NCIL's STAR Library Education Network (STAR_Net) has been supporting their efforts for the last eight years, including through a vibrant community of practice that serves both librarians and STEM professionals. Project stakeholders include public library staff, state libraries, the earth and space science education community at NASA, subject matter experts, and informal science educators. The project will leverage high-impact SMD and library events to catalyze partnerships through dissemination of SMD assets and professional development. It will also develop frameworks for public libraries to increase STEM interest pathways in their communities (with supports for reaching underserved audiences). This presentation will summarize the key activities and expected outcomes of the 5-year project.
Moore, Mary; Bias, Randolph G; Prentice, Katherine; Fletcher, Robin; Vaughn, Terry
Skilled website developers value usability testing to assure user needs are met. When the target audience differs substantially from the developers, it becomes essential to tailor both design and evaluation methods. In this study, researchers carried out a multifaceted usability evaluation of a website (Healthy Texas) designed for Hispanic audiences with lower computer literacy and lower health literacy. METHODS INCLUDED: (1) heuristic evaluation by a usability engineer, (2) remote end-user testing using WebEx software; and (3) face-to-face testing in a community center where use of the website was likely. Researchers found standard usability testing methods needed to be modified to provide interpreters, increased flexibility for time on task, presence of a trusted intermediary such as a librarian, and accommodation for family members who accompanied participants. Participants offered recommendations for website redesign, including simplified language, engaging and relevant graphics, culturally relevant examples, and clear navigation. User-centered design is especially important when website developers are not representative of the target audience. Failure to conduct appropriate usability testing with a representative audience can substantially reduce use and value of the website. This thorough course of usability testing identified improvements that benefit all users but become crucial when trying to reach an underserved audience.
Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, Edward W.; Forte, Karin Sprow
This article presents the findings related to teaching beliefs and pedagogical practices of a study that examined how financial literacy educators educate adults from underserved population groups in community-based settings. The study is theoretically framed in the teaching beliefs and culturally responsive education literature. Findings reveal a…
The objectives of the audit were to: Determine whether the inventory accounts on the FY 1993 financial statement of the Fund are presented fairly in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, Evaluate the internal control...
The objectives of the audit were to determine whether the DRMS Statement of Financial Position, as of September 30, 1994, was presented fairly in accordance with Office of Management and Budget Bulletin...
Full Text Available This paper explores how well equipped today’s households are to make complex financial decisions in the face of often high-cost and high-risk financial instruments. Specifically we focus on financial literacy. Most importantly, we describe the geography of financial literacy, i.e., how financial literacy is distributed across the fifty US states. We describe the correlation of financial literacy and some important aggregate variables, such as state-level poverty rates. Finally, we examine the extent to which differences in financial literacy can be explained by states’ demographic and economic characteristics. To assess financial literacy, five questions were added to the 2009 National Financial Capability Study, covering fundamental concepts of economics and finance encountered in everyday life: simple calculations about interest rates and inflation, the workings of risk diversification, the relationship between bond prices and interest rates, and the relationship between interest payments and maturity in mortgages. We constructed an index of financial literacy based on the number of correct answers provided by each respondent to the five financial literacy questions. The financial literacy index reveals wide variation in financial literacy across states. Much of the variation is attributable to differences in the demographic makeup of the states; however, a handful of states have either higher or lower levels of financial literacy than is explained by demographics alone. Also, there is a significant correlation between the financial literacy of a state and that state’s poverty level. The findings indicate directions for policy makers and practitioners interested in targeting areas where financial literacy is low.
Sandström, Josefin; Swanepoel, De Wet; Carel Myburgh, Hermanus; Laurent, Claude
To validate a calibrated smartphone-based hearing test in a sound booth environment and in primary health-care clinics. A repeated-measure within-subject study design was employed whereby air-conduction hearing thresholds determined by smartphone-based audiometry was compared to conventional audiometry in a sound booth and a primary health-care clinic environment. A total of 94 subjects (mean age 41 years ± 17.6 SD and range 18-88; 64% female) were assessed of whom 64 were tested in the sound booth and 30 within primary health-care clinics without a booth. In the sound booth 63.4% of conventional and smartphone thresholds indicated normal hearing (≤15 dBHL). Conventional thresholds exceeding 15 dB HL corresponded to smartphone thresholds within ≤10 dB in 80.6% of cases with an average threshold difference of -1.6 dB ± 9.9 SD. In primary health-care clinics 13.7% of conventional and smartphone thresholds indicated normal hearing (≤15 dBHL). Conventional thresholds exceeding 15 dBHL corresponded to smartphone thresholds within ≤10 dB in 92.9% of cases with an average threshold difference of -1.0 dB ± 7.1 SD. Accurate air-conduction audiometry can be conducted in a sound booth and without a sound booth in an underserved community health-care clinic using a smartphone.
The main goal of this bachelor thesis called "Company Financial Analysis" is to evaluate the financial situation of ZS Kosova Hora a.s. in the years 2005 2013 using standard methods of financial analysis. To achieve this goal horizontal and vertical analyses, ratio analysis, pyramidal decomposition of the ROE indicator and solvency and bankruptcy models have been used. In all these areas the selected company has been compared with a selected sample of other agricultural enterprises and its fi...
Full Text Available Financial knowledge has been identified as an issue of importance to individual financial wellness. The FINRA Financial Capability Study provides data that make it possible to assess financial knowledge, and to analyze it in the context of financial satisfaction and participation in financial behaviors that are generally considered positive. This paper looks at these relationships by gender and by age group, identifying key differences in outcomes and behaviors. The aim of this study was to identify areas and issues where policy makers can focus efforts, and where practitioners can develop education and therapy protocols to assist clients in financial development and restoration.
This paper examines impediments to mortgage borrowing in South Africa. The analysis is premised on the fact that, despite South Africa's relatively sophisticated financial system compared to other countries in sub Saharan Africa, its housing finance system has not been able to replicate for the low to moderate income ...
Grass, M.; Schoder, T.; Scheller, E.
This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of an opinion survey made among small and medium-scale enterprises (SME) in Switzerland concerning the influence of the financial crisis. The methods and questionnaires used are briefly described and the enterprises questioned are characterised. Innovation activities and research and development activities are reviewed. The effects of the financial crisis on business in 2008 are reported on and present and future developments are discussed. The general framework for long-term development is discussed, as are commercial, institutional and governmental general conditions. The report is concluded with a literature list
The purpose of this study is to explore the area of accounting in traditional market. There are two areas of accounting: management and financial accounting. Some of traditional market traders have prepared financial notes, whereas some of them do not. Their financial notes usually consist of receivables, payables, customer orders, inventories, sales and cost price, and salary expenses. The purpose of these financial notes is usually for decision making. It is very rare for the traditional ma...
Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael
One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze. The purpose of this special issue of the journal on “Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives” is to highlight several areas of research by leading academics in which novel econometric, financial econometric, mathematical fi...
Full Text Available Poor financial literacy may lead to poor life choices. These life choices can create or contribute to financial stress with adverse consequences - not the least of which may be homelessness. These issues are relatively well understood, but there is limited research on the link between financial stress, financial literacy and counselling, and homelessness. Specifically, there has been little research on how improved financial literacy and appropriate financial counselling might help to prevent homelessness. This paper synthesises existing literature on this topic and considers these issues using the ABCX family stress model of Hill (1958 using data from an Australian program aimed at alleviating family homelessness, the Home Advice Program. We provide evidence that suggests that case management and support which incorporates financial counselling and financial literacy can assist in moderating the impact of financial stress and help those at risk of homelessness. The findings have implications for public policy in the areas of financial education, consumer finance, and social services provision.
Full Text Available State aid represents selective measures of public financial support granted for activities or areas to achieve general objectives, such as environmental protection, development of SMEs, development of disadvantaged areas, rescue and restructuring strategic businesses, etc. But, even if the public authorities support economic development, the state aids can distort normal competitive environment. It is therefore necessary to develop and implement precisely rules on how the public authorities can intervene on market by providing state aids. State aid may be compatible if it pursues clearly defined objectives of common interest with the general beneficial effects on economic development, and does not affect the trade between European Union Member States.
Anderson, Emily E.; Hoskins, Kent
Research suggests that individual breast cancer risk assessment may improve adherence to recommended screening and prevention guidelines, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Further research on the use of risk assessment models in underserved minority populations is critical to informing national public health efforts to eliminate breast cancer disparities. However, implementing individual breast cancer risk assessment in underserved patient populations raises particular ethical issues that require further examination. After reviewing these issues, we will discuss how empirical bioethics research can be integrated with health disparities research to inform the translation of research findings. Our in-progress National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded study, How Do Underserved Minority Women Think About Breast Cancer?, conducted in the context of a larger study on individual breast cancer risk assessment, is presented as a model. PMID:23124498
Dessislava Kostova – Pickett
Full Text Available We will start with an analysis structure that defines the key areas in which long-term funding sources will be analyzed and attracted. We will then look at the techniques for calculating the impact on the company's financial performance caused by the introduction of new capital from each of the major sources. We will turn to the often used form of graphing, EBIT (break before interest and tax break-even chart to demonstrate the dynamic impact of financial choices, which changes the company's situation. Once we touch the leases as a special source, we will list the key issues involved in the stock options.
systems not supporting strategic objectives and ...... Management maintains books of accounts, information systems, and financial and management controls that are designed to provide ..... Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into Canadian dollars at the exchange rate in effect.
The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 to bring together into a single agency the major energy research and development programs of the Federal Government. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 1977, Congress provided ERDA with $7355 million to carry out its programs. This was comprised of $6332 million in current appropriations, $740 million in reimbursements resulting primarily from the sale of enriched uranium, and $283 million in previously provided but unused appropriations. ERDA employed approximately 9536 scientific, technical, and support personnel and also relied heavily on the private sector to staff and operate Government-owned facilities. Contractors from industry, educational, and other non-profit organizations numbered approximately 128,141. ERDA's financial management system included an integrated accounting and budgeting system involving both Government and major contractor operations. This accrual based accounting system met all the requirements of Government fund accounting and provided management with necessary data. ERDA was abolished and its assets and liabilities were transferred to the Department of Energy on October 1, 1977. This final unclassified Financial Report of the Energy Research and Development Administration contains the financial statements presenting the financial position of ERDA at September 30, 1977, and the results of operations for the period beginning October 1, 1976, and ending September 30, 1977.
Hastings, Justine S; Madrian, Brigitte C; Skimmyhorn, William L
In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the extent to which a competitive market provides incentives for firms to educate consumers or offer products that facilitate informed choice. We review the literature on alternative policies to improve financial outcomes, and compare the evidence to evidence on the efficacy and cost of financial education. Finally, we discuss directions for future research.
Full Text Available The recent financial crises has revealed the need to improve and ensure the stability of the financial sector to reduce negative externalities, to ensure fair and substantial contribution of the financial sector to the public finances and the need to consolidate public finance. All those needs represent substantial arguments for the discussion about the introduction of financial sector taxation. There are discussed in the paper two possible schemes of financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of the introduction of financial sector taxation, to discuss the pros and cons of two major candidates on financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax and to suggest the possible candidate suitable for the implementation on the EU level. Financial transaction tax represents the tool suitable mainly on global level, for only in that case enables generate sufficient financial resources. From EU point of view is considered as less suitable, for it bears the risk of reallocation. Therefore the introduction of financial activities tax on EU level is considered as a better solution for the financial sector taxation in the EU, for financial sector is exempted from value added tax. With respect to the fact, that the implementation would represent the innovative approach to the financial sector taxation, there are no empirical proves and therefore this could be the subject of further research.
Montealegre, Jane R; Landgren, Rachel M; Anderson, Matthew L; Hoxhaj, Shkelzen; Williams, Sandra; Robinson, David J; Scheurer, Michael E; Ramondetta, Lois M
Self-sample human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in public emergency departments (EDs) may be a viable strategy to opportunistically screen women who otherwise do not attend for regular Papanicolaou test-based cervical cancer screening. We describe the acceptability of self-sample HPV testing among women presenting to two high-volume, urban EDs that primarily care for the medically underserved. In 2014, a total of 210 women 21 years of age and older were recruited from two public ED waiting areas following a two-stage cluster sampling design. Questionnaire items inquired about demographics, healthcare access and utilization, history of cervical cancer screening, and acceptability of self-sample HPV testing. Descriptive analyses were performed. Overall, 34.8% of participants were considered screening non-attendees based on their adherence to the current guidelines for Pap testing every three years. Acceptability of self-sample HPV testing was high, with over 85% of participants reporting that they would be willing to use the test if available. A smaller proportion (58%) was deemed likely to accept self-sample HPV testing in a public ED restroom setting. Primary concerns expressed by women were that the sampling may not be done correctly (64%) and that they may not know how to perform the sampling (39%). Opportunistic self-sample HPV testing is acceptable to women seeking care at a high-volume, urban emergency care center. The use of this intervention potentially offers a unique strategy to improve cervical cancer screening among high-risk women who otherwise do not attend for regular screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Long, Greg; Clark, David Anthony
This paper addresses issues in the definition of traditionally underserved persons who are deaf. It notes that these people have traditionally been labeled as low functioning, low achieving, multiply handicapped, minimal language skilled, and disadvantaged. A new definition, developed by the Northern Illinois University Research and Training…
Kraehe, Amelia M.; Acuff, Joni B.
Though it is widely used, the concept of "underserved" is sorely undertheorized in art education. Before the field of art education can effectively address the persistent educational disparities across different sociocultural and economic groups, we need deeper understandings of entangled sociocultural and political processes that create…
Within the congenitally deaf population there exists a sizeable number of individuals who are considered to be traditionally underserved. These individuals are characterized by severe communication deficits irrespective of modality (e.g., speech, sign language, reading, writing). Unfortunately, until now there has not been a comprehensive…
This activity promotes new opportunities to increase energy security and lower energy costs for under-served markets. It involves market analysis and collaboration with community partners, as well as outreach activities to inform target markets and technical assistance for participants.
Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra
This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…
Charania, Amina; Davis, Niki
This paper explores the evolution of a large multi-stakeholder partnership that has grown since 2011 to scale deep engagement with learning through technology and decrease the digital divide for thousands of underserved school children in India. Using as its basis a case study of an initiative called integrated approach to technology in education…
Harris, Jill; Norton, Amy
Developmental screening of young children is important in all populations, especially underserved communities with known health care disparities. The American Academy of Pediatrics created guidelines and a toolkit for pediatricians to conduct developmental surveillance and screening, yet these guidelines are not uniformly implemented within…
Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn
Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…
Lin, Ching-Chiu; Bruce, Bertram C.
Learning for underserved youth is integral to social progress. Yet, too often, young people experience disconnects between their educational experiences and both individual and community needs. Arts can help these youth recover a unity through collective action in the community. Drawing from the experiences of a 4-year interdisciplinary research…
Carney, Charles L.; Weltsek, Gustave J.; Hall, M. Lynne; Brinn, Ginger
There is ample evidence that arts added to the K-12 curriculum can have many positive learning impacts. Nevertheless, many states do not promote such instruction as an integral part of classroom plans. For particular schools with underserved populations, arts-enhanced curricula can be a powerful learning tool. Beyond arts integration, arts…
Curtin, Kevin A.; Schweitzer, Ashley; Tuxbury, Kristen; D'Aoust, Janelle A.
Resilience is an important social justice concept that has important implications for educators working with exceptional youth in rural underserved communities who may suffer from the consequences associated with economic hardships. This multi-school qualitative study examined resilience among exceptional youth living in rural poverty through the…
Maldague, R.; Frerotte, M.
From three different G.N.P. growth rates models for the country the consumption of primary energy and electricity in 1985 and afterwards is evaluated following four models. The compared MWh cost of nuclear and classical power stations for electricity production evaluated for 1985 are analysed. The assumed power is 1300 MW for the nuclear and 600 MW for the classical power station. The power stations to install afterwards 1985 are presented and their impact on the financial investments, the employment and trade balance is considered. (A.F.)
...), and Marine Corps orders, publications and directives to determine those keys areas considered most essential to Marine Corps financial management specialists in the performance of their duties...
Depuis l’éclatement de la bulle spéculative des valeurs technologiques, le système bancaire et financier allemand traverse une situation tendue et se restructure. Ses entreprises et institutions sont contraintes de réduire leurs coûts (suppression de quelque 50 000 emplois pour les seules grandes banques, réduction du réseau de filiales) et de rechercher de nouvelles stratégies (vente de participations industrielles, coopérations et fusions, réorganisation interne, internationalisation, etc.)...
Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Robin, Alan L; Woodward, Maria A
To evaluate the epidemiology of uncorrected refractive errors (URE) in adults both in the United States and globally, health outcomes impacted by URE, common barriers to treatment, and propose potential interventions. URE is the main cause of visual impairment and the second leading cause of blindness globally. Rates of URE are rising, and cause disability that reduces productivity, economic earnings, and the quality of life of affected individuals. Economic barriers, healthcare access, and sociocultural constraints are among the most fundamental barriers to correcting URE. However, innovative approaches are poised to lower rates of URE. URE is a leading cause of preventable visual impairment with serious health consequences. Numerous social and financial barriers are associated with the high prevalence of URE in low-income adults. Novel delivery programs for eyeglasses and programs to provide refractive surgery to correct refractive error could decrease rates of URE.
This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.
Pérez Briceño , Juan Carlos; Iñiguez Ortega , Andrea; León Pineda , Sergio Mauricio
International audience; This article is part of learning in financial mathematics students who are studying at the National University of Loja. He made a slight historical review, indicating the necessary application of mathematics in the field of finance and training in this area, carried out an analysis of the current situation, conceptualizes and analyzes the importance to other subjects, a review of the most important contents and formulas it is done, so we can get to conclude why studyin...
Shah, Tayyab Ikram; Bell, Scott; Wilson, Kathi
Background Urban environments can influence many aspects of health and well-being and access to health care is one of them. Access to primary health care (PHC) in urban settings is a pressing research and policy issue in Canada. Most research on access to healthcare is focused on national and provincial levels in Canada; there is a need to advance current understanding to local scales such as neighbourhoods. Methods This study examines spatial accessibility to family physicians using the Thre...
Madiedo, Marta; Contreras, Sonia; Villalobos, Octavio; Kahn, Bruce S.; Safir, Amit; Levitz, David
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in low resource settings, often affecting the most economically disenfranchised segment of the population. The key challenge with cervical cancer is the lack of an effective screening program for many of the at-risk, difficult-to-reach women. Outreach programs that utilize mobile clinics to increase access to screening and care in Baja California have been developed. However, many barriers such as quality assurance, efficient referral remained a challenge in this region. Visualization-based co-tests together with cytology (Pap smears) as a primary screen have been proposed. Here, the mobile colposcope of the enhanced visual assessment (EVA) is used to capture an image immediately following a Pap smear. EVA images were reviewed by expert colposcopists. Initial or preliminary data from pilot services showed that Pap false positives and Pap false negatives maybe reduced by expert review of EVA images. This suggests that reviewing of EVA images may be instrumental in catching inaccurate Pap results, thereby improving care. Thus, there is a need to further explore the benefits of using EVA as additional information when conducting Pap smear screenings.
continued to maintain their weight. The participants were actively interested in maintaining their weight, and as a result of which self esteem was also...It is apparent that self motivation is important for success. Self -directed education requires certain support to facilitate learning which should...spent in school physical education classes. Make sure you include all sport teams that you participated in during the last year. 1. Aerobics 11
Develop and expand retention, coordination, self - esteem , and physical and cognitive functioning CERMUSA is collaborating with the Quittie Glen... aerobic exercise and relaxation training on fatigue and physical performance of cancer patients after surgery. A randomised controlled trial. Support Care...of Family Practice. Windsor, P. M., Nicol, K. F., & Potter, J. (2004). A randomized, controlled trial of aerobic exercise for treatment-related
... law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health...-0004. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FEHB law (5 U.S.C. 8902(m)(2)) requires special consideration for... primary care physicians. This section of the law requires that a state be designated as a Medically...
... necessary to comply with a provision of the FEHB law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lynelle T. Frye, 202-606-0004. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FEHB law (5 U.S.C. 8902(m)(2)) requires special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health services in...
interpretation, physician mentoring and the transmission of a video clip to a pediatric specialist are few interactions that have been accomplished...population and rates are even higher for veterans with PTSD. The National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) found that divorce rates for veterans...8217 Readjustment Survey. Abstract retrieved January 3, 2007 from 6 http://www .ncptsd. va.gov /facts/veterans/fs_NVVRS .html The Journal. Hospital Gains
.... The purpose of this project is to evaluate in a multi-phase project the possible impact of a unique telemammography system that utilizes common carriers with wavelet-based data compression for image...
.... The purpose of this project is to evaluate in a multi-phase project the possible impact of a unique tele-mammography system that utilizes common carriers with wavelet-based data compression for image...
... law that mandates special consideration for enrollees of certain FEHB plans who receive covered health... law requires non-HMO FEHB plans to reimburse beneficiaries, subject to their contract terms, for...: Lynelle T. Frye, 202-606-0004. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FEHB law (5 U.S.C. 8902(m)(2)) requires special...
Full Text Available The appropriate level of financial knowledge and the degree of financial integration needed in today's financialized world. This paper studies the level of financial literacy and the degree of financial inclusion among the students who study economic fields. These students are a special target group - very important for future development of financial markets. They are not only the future participants, but also the potential animators and creators of the financial market as well as the future financial advisors. The research sample comes from Visegrad Group countries (4V Countries, as the representatives from Central and Eastern Europe countries, where the level of financial literacy and degree of financial inclusion seems to be lower in comparison to the West European Countries. The research also contributes to knowledge in the area of expanding the methods of assessments of efficiency of financial education. The Authors decided to verify the new assessment of effectiveness of financial education. It will be conducted by a separate and simultaneous assessment of financial literacy and financial inclusion. The main results of research confirm the very low level of financial literacy and financial inclusion of young future economists in 4V Countries in both groups: starting and finishing the professional financial education. In addition, examining the degree of financial inclusion among the students who at the same time are educated at the basic level confirms the much lower level of informed financial inclusion.
Wong, Lai Yin; Heng, Bee Hoon; Cheah, Jason Tiang Seng; Tan, Chee Beng
Primary care services in Singapore are provided by 18 Government-funded polyclinics and about 1200 private General Practitioners (GPs). This study aims to examine the spatial accessibility to polyclinics and identify service gaps, and suggest optimal sites using Geographic Information System (GIS) to aid in future planning. A national database containing 3.6 million polyclinic visits in 2006 were geo-analysed using ArcView GIS. Patients' travel impedance to the nearest polyclinic was computed using DriveTime to identify areas with the lowest spatial accessibility and highest volume of under-served population. Jurong West and Sembawang were ranked as top areas with poor spatial accessibility to polyclinic services. ArcGIS was used to identify optimal sites with the minimum accumulated distance impedance to this under-served population. If new facilities were set up at these identified sites, volume of visits by Jurong West and Sembawang patients who could access the nearest polyclinics within 4 km Euclidean distance from their residence would total at 123 000 and 93 000, respectively. Future efforts in polyclinic planning should take this into consideration to maximize patients' benefits and minimize patients' travelling costs in order to achieve social equity on healthcare access. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Chatzaki, Εkaterini; Constantinidis, Τheocharis; Nena, Evangelia; Tsertanidou, Athena; Agorastos, Theodoros
In the present pilot study, the feasibility of a site-of-care cervicovaginal self-sampling methodology for HPV-based screening was tested in 346 women residing in underserved rural areas of Northern Greece. These women provided self-collected cervicovaginal sample along with a study questionnaire. Following molecular testing, using the cobas ® HPV Test, Roche ® , HPV positive women, were referred to colposcopy and upon abnormal findings, to biopsy and treatment. Participation rate was 100%. Regular pap-test examination was reported for 17.1%. Among hrHPV testing, 11.9% were positive and colposcopy/biopsy revealed 2 CIN3 cases. Non-compliance was the most prevalent reason for no previous attendance. Most women reported non-difficulty and non-discomfort in self-sampling (77.6% and 82.4%, respectively). They would choose self-sampling over clinician-sampling (86.2%), and should self-sampling being available, they would test themselves more regularly (92.3%). In conclusion, self-sampling is feasible and well-accepted for HPV-based screening, and could increase population coverage in underserved areas, helping towards successful prevention.
Full Text Available There is an important link between the following two variables: financial instability and political instability. Often, the link is bidirectional, so both may influence each other. This is way the lately crisis are becoming larger and increasingly complex. Therefore, the academic environment is simultaneously talking about economic crises, financial crises, political crises, social crises, highlighting the correlation and causality between variables belonging to the economic, financial, political and social areas, with repercussions and spillover effects that extend from one area to another. Given the importance, relevance and the actuality of the ones described above, I consider that at least a theoretical analysis between economic, financial and political factors is needed in order to understand the reality. Thus, this paper aims to find links and connections to complete the picture of the economic reality.
Full Text Available The architecture of systems dedicated to risk management is probably one of the more complex tasks to tackle in the world of finance. Financial risk has been at the center of attention since the explosive growth of financial markets and even more so after the 2008 financial crisis. At multiple levels, financial companies, financial regulatory bodies, governments and cross-national regulatory bodies, all have put the subject of financial risk in particular and the way it is calculated, managed, reported and monitored under intense scrutiny. As a result the technology underpinnings which support the implementation of financial risk systems has evolved considerably and has become one of the most complex areas involving systems and technology in the context of the financial industry. We present the main paradigms, require-ments and design considerations when undertaking the implementation of risk system and give examples of user requirements, sample product coverage and performance parameters.
Full Text Available This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relatively better than its financial depth, especially for financial markets, in which Indonesia ranks in the lower average group. From literature reviews, it can be inferred that the main factor driving the poor financial depth in Indonesia is non-competitiveness of the institutions; whereas the driving force of poor financial access in Indonesia are geographical constraints, poverty, a high income gap, and a less than effective national financial development policy.
Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Easton, Sue; Walters, Stephen
Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The 'Nourishing Start for Health' (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10,833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0-6 months. Participating organisations Research and Governance
Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen
Introduction Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Methods and analysis Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The ‘Nourishing Start for Health’ (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10 833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0–6 months. Ethics and
Full Text Available Financial analysis is an essential part of the financial management of the company, as it acts as a feedback information, where the business is in different areas of the financial management, in which areas of the company the targets have been achieved and, conversely, in which areas the business is lagging behind the expectations.
Ganavadiya, R; Chandrashekar, BR; Goel, P; Hongal, SG; Jain, M
India is the second most populous country in the world with an extensive rural population (68.8%). Children less than 18 years constitute about 40% of the population. Approximately, 23.5% of the urban population resides in urban slums. The extensive rural population, school children and the urban slum dwellers are denied of even the basic dental services though there is continuous advancement in the field of dentistry. The dentist to population ratio has dramatically improved in the last one to two decades with no significant improvement in the oral health status of the general population. The various studies have revealed an increasing trend in oral diseases in the recent times especially among this underserved population. Alternate strategies have to be thought about rather than the traditional oral health-care delivery through private dentists on fee for service basis. Mobile and portable dental services are a viable option to take the sophisticated oral health services to the doorsteps of the underserved population. The databases were searched for publications from 1900 to the present (2013) using terms such as Mobile dental services, Portable dental services and Mobile and portable dental services with key articles obtained primarily from MEDLINE. This paper reviews the published and unpublished literature from different sources on the various mobile dental service programs successfully implemented in some developed and developing countries. Though the mobile and portable systems have some practical difficulties like financial considerations, they still seem to be the only way to reach every section of the community in the absence of national oral health policy and organized school dental health programs in India. The material for the present review was obtained mainly by searching the biomedical databases for primary research material using the search engine with key words such as mobile and/or portable dental services in developed and developing countries
Faba, Gladys; Julian, Soroya; Mejía, Felipe; Cabieses, Báltica; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Cortinois, Andrea A
increased availability of strategic information on morbidity and its social determinants. Most projects faced initial resistance to implementation because of lack of precedents. Their financial and technical sustainability was threatened by reliance on external funding and weak transitional structures amidst key staff changes. Projects often experienced challenges in establishing meaningful communication with target audience members, mainly because of divergent motivations behind ICT use between projects and its target audience and the lack of access or familiarity with ICT among the most underserved members of such audiences. Conclusions ICT can benefit projects focusing on the health needs of underserved populations by expanding the breadth and depth of target audience coverage and improving data management. Most projects tended to be small, short-term pilot interventions with limited engagement with the formal health sector and did not include health equity as an explicit component. Collaborative projects with government institutions, particularly those with health surveillance objectives, seemed to be the most optimistic about long-term sustainability. PMID:27227124
S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractRisk management is crucial for optimal portfolio management. One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance is the expansion of financial derivatives. The purpose of this special issue on “Risk Management and Financial Derivatives” is to highlight some areas in which novel
This paper addresses the financial value of the teacher librarian, outlines areas in which this value can be identified, and indicates measures that can be used to demonstrate this value. The four major financial areas in which the value of the teacher librarian can be assessed are: (1) capital investment, made up of the building, stock, and…
Murphy, Aileen D; Griffith, Vanessa M; Mroz, Tracy M; Jirikowic, Tracy L
Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) provide low- or no-cost primary care to medically underserved populations such as homeless or low-income people, migrant workers, and members of marginalized cultural groups. Occupational therapy services have the potential to help improve the health and functioning of FQHC patients. Using a FQHC serving American Indian/Alaska Native populations as a case example, we describe how occupational therapy is well suited to help meet the needs of medically underserved populations. We then examine options for integrating occupational therapy into this unique primary care setting, discuss related administrative and policy considerations, and propose possible solutions to identified barriers. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Kreps, Gary L.
Objective: This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. Method: The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. Results: The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. Implications: The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations. PMID:16239960
Kreps, Gary L
This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations.
Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Mitschke, Diane; Lono, Joelene
The cancer burden falls heavily on Native Hawaiian women, and of particular concern are those living in medically underserved communities where participation in potentially helpful clinical studies may be limited. Difficulty in accrual of Native Hawaiian women to a culturally-grounded intervention led researchers to conduct focus groups aimed at exploring attitudes towards research, use of a traditional Hawaiian practice for family discussion, and study promotion. Social marketing theory guided the development of discussion questions and a survey. Through purposive sampling, 30 women from medically underserved communities were recruited. Content analysis was used to identify major discussion themes. Findings indicate that lack of informational access may be a major barrier to participation. Study information disseminated through community channels with targeted outreach to social and religious organizations, promotion through face-to-face contact with researchers, and culturally tailored messages directed to families were preferred. Community oriented strategies based on linkages with organizational networks may increase participation.
Eliason, B C; Guse, C; Gottlieb, M S
Personal values are defined as "desirable goals varying in importance that serve as guiding principles in people's lives," and have been shown to influence specialty choice and relate to practice satisfaction. We wished to examine further the relationship of personal values to practice satisfaction and also to a physician's willingness to care for the underserved. We also wished to study associations that might exist among personal values, practice satisfaction, and a variety of practice characteristics. We randomly surveyed a stratified probability sample of 1224 practicing family physicians about their personal values (using the Schwartz values questionnaire), practice satisfaction, practice location, breadth of practice, demographics, board certification status, teaching involvement, and the payor mix of the practice. Family physicians rated the benevolence (motivation to help those close to you) value type highest, and the ratings of the benevolence value type were positively associated with practice satisfaction (correlation coefficient = 0.14, P = .002). Those involved in teaching medical trainees were more satisfied than those who were not involved (P = .009). Some value-type ratings were found to be positively associated with caring for the underserved. Those whose practices consisted of more than 40% underserved (underserved defined as Medicare, Medicaid, and indigent populations) rated the tradition (motivation to maintain customs of traditional culture and religion) value type significantly higher (P = .02). Those whose practices consisted of more than 30% indigent care rated the universalism (motivation to enhance and protect the well-being of all people) value type significantly higher (P = .03). Family physicians who viewed benevolence as a guiding principle in their lives reported a higher level of professional satisfaction. Likewise, physicians involved in the teaching of medical trainees were more satisfied with their profession. Family physicians
In this podcast, Dr. Thomas Horan discusses how language, literacy, and access barriers can be overcome with electronic Personal Health Record (PHR) systems to improve health among the most vulnerable, isolated, and underserved populations. Created: 2/11/2009 by Coordinating Center for Health Information Service (CCHIS), Healthy Healthcare Settings Goal Team, Office of Strategy and Innovation. Date Released: 9/2/2009.
Anderson, Tania; Kenney, Jessica; Maple, John
This presentation will feature effective outreach strategies used to recruit, engage, and sustain student involvement from underserved communities in out-of-school science outreach programs. For example, one strategy is to partner with subject matter experts to provide your audience with a deeper understanding of and a unique perspective on current science. Join us to learn more about how you can initiate and sustain a STEM based program in your local community.
Goold, Susan Dorr; Myers, C Daniel; Szymecko, Lisa; Cunningham Collins, Carla; Martinez, Sal; Ledón, Charo; Campbell, Terrance R; Danis, Marion; Cargill, Stephanie Solomon; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Rowe, Zachary
To learn how minority and underserved communities would set priorities for patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). Sixteen groups (n = 183) from minority and underserved communities in two states deliberated about PCOR priorities using the simulation exercise CHoosing All Together (CHAT). Most participants were minority, one-third reported income research agendas and interviews with community leaders, clinicians, and key informants. Tablet-based CHAT collected demographic information, individual priorities before and after group deliberation, and groups' priorities. Individuals and groups prioritized research on Quality of Life, Patient-Doctor, Access, Special Needs, and (by total resources spent) Compare Approaches. Those with less than a high school education were less likely to prioritize New Approaches, Patient-Doctor, Quality of Life, and Families/Caregivers. Blacks were less likely to prioritize research on Causes of Disease, New Approaches, and Compare Approaches than whites. Compare Approaches, Special Needs, Access, and Families/Caregivers were significantly more likely to be selected by individuals after compared to before deliberation. Members of underserved communities, in informed deliberations, prioritized research on Quality of Life, Patient-Doctor, Special Needs, Access, and Compare Approaches. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Huckabee, Michael J; Wheeler, Daniel W
The purpose of this study was to determine if the level of servant leader characteristics in clinically practicing physician assistants (PAs) in underserved populations differed from PAs serving in other locales. Five subscales of servant leadership: altruistic calling, emotional healing, wisdom, persuasive mapping, and organizational stewardship, were measured in a quantitative study of clinically practicing PAs using a self-rating survey and a similar survey by others rating the PA. Of 777 PAs invited, 321 completed the survey. On a scale of 1 to 5, mean PA self-ratings ranged from 3.52 (persuasive mapping) to 4.05 (wisdom). Other raters' scores paired with the self-rated PA scores were comparable in all subscales except wisdom, which was rated higher by the other raters (4.32 by other raters, 4.01 by PAs, P= .002). There was no significant difference in the measures of servant leadership reported by PAs serving the underserved compared to PAs serving in other populations. Servant leader subscales were higher for PAs compared to previous studies of other health care or community leader populations. The results found that the PA population studied had a prominent level of servant leadership characteristics that did not differ between those working with underserved and nonunderserved populations.
L. V. Kurmaeva
Forms and methods of external and internal financial control are discussed. The system of the state and municipal financial control in Russia is described. Changes to organization of internal financial control and audit are proposed.
This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...
This article reviewed the history of Zhong He Shanxi Uranium Enrichment Company, summarizing an efficient and systematical financial management method during both construction period and operational period of the company. It related to fundamental financial management structure building, integrated budgeting, fund management, cost management, asset management, tax planning and HR management. of financial staffs. (author)
The study examines the impact of the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on the quality of financial reporting in Nigeria. The study utilises a period based approach to analyse changes in the degree of financial reporting quality (FRQ) that hinges on three proxies: Value Relevance, Earnings ...
This paper investigates how financial globalization and financial development affect income inequality within a country. We demonstrate that when a country is financially closed to the world market, the Gini coefficient is monotonically decreasing with respect to the degree of financial development, whereas when a country becomes so small due to financial globalization that financial development in the country does not affect the world interest rate, the Gini coefficient is monotonically i...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Under-5-years child mortality remains high in rural China. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI was introduced to China in 1998, but only a few rural areas have been included. This study aimed at assessing the current situation of the health system of rural health care and evaluating the clinical competency of village doctors in management of childhood illnesses prior to implementing IMCI programme in remote border rural areas. Methods The study was carried out in the border areas of Puer prefecture of Yunnan province. There were 182 village doctors in the list of the health bureau in these border areas. Of these, 154 (84.6% were recruited into the study. The local health system components were investigated using a qualitative approach and analyzed with triangulation of information from different sources. The clinical component was assessed objectively and quantitatively presented using descriptive statistics. Results The study found that the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS coordinated the health insurance system and the provider service through 3 tiers: village doctor, township and county hospitals. The 30 RMB per person per year premium did not cover the referral cost, and thereby decreased the number of referrals. In contrast to available treatment facilities and drug supply, the level of basic medical education of village doctors and township doctors was low. Discontent among village doctors was common, especially concerning low rates of return from the service, exceptions being procedures such as injections, which in fact may create moral hazards to the patients. Direct observation on the assessment and management of paediatric patients by village doctors revealed inadequate history taking and physical examination, inability to detect potentially serious complications, overprescription of injection and antibiotics, and underprescription of oral rehydration salts and poor quality of counseling
Li, Xiuyun; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Xia, Xiaoling; Sangsupawanich, Pasuree; Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Keling
Under-5-years child mortality remains high in rural China. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) was introduced to China in 1998, but only a few rural areas have been included. This study aimed at assessing the current situation of the health system of rural health care and evaluating the clinical competency of village doctors in management of childhood illnesses prior to implementing IMCI programme in remote border rural areas. The study was carried out in the border areas of Puer prefecture of Yunnan province. There were 182 village doctors in the list of the health bureau in these border areas. Of these, 154 (84.6%) were recruited into the study. The local health system components were investigated using a qualitative approach and analyzed with triangulation of information from different sources. The clinical component was assessed objectively and quantitatively presented using descriptive statistics. The study found that the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) coordinated the health insurance system and the provider service through 3 tiers: village doctor, township and county hospitals. The 30 RMB per person per year premium did not cover the referral cost, and thereby decreased the number of referrals. In contrast to available treatment facilities and drug supply, the level of basic medical education of village doctors and township doctors was low. Discontent among village doctors was common, especially concerning low rates of return from the service, exceptions being procedures such as injections, which in fact may create moral hazards to the patients. Direct observation on the assessment and management of paediatric patients by village doctors revealed inadequate history taking and physical examination, inability to detect potentially serious complications, overprescription of injection and antibiotics, and underprescription of oral rehydration salts and poor quality of counseling. There is a need to improve health finance and clinical
Flaer, Paul J; Younis, Mustafa Z; Benjamin, Paul L; Al Hajeri, Maha
Dentistry for the underserved is more than an egalitarian social issue--it is a key factor in the health and social progress of our nation. The first signs or manifestations of several diseases such as varicella (i.e., chicken pox and shingles), STDs, and influenza become apparent in the oral cavity. The value of access to quality dentistry is an immeasurable factor in maintaining general medical health of people and fulfilling their psychosocial needs of pain reduction and enhanced cosmetics. In the United States, for the most part, only the middle and upper classes receive non-extraction, restorative, and prosthetic dentistry that is economically within their ability to pay. In addition, uninsured and poverty-level individuals often must face overwhelming long waiting lists, unnecessary referrals, lack of choice, and bureaucratic hurdles when seeking primary dental care. Therefore, it seems pertinent to put forth the question: What are the critical values and beliefs of psychosocial theory that can underscore the practice of dentistry for underserved populations in the United States? The widely employed public health theory, the health belief model (HBM), is applied to evaluate psychosocial factors in dental care for the underserved. The HBM is used to predict and explain behavioral changes in dental health and associated belief patterns. The HBM as applied to dentistry for the underserved predicts self-perceptions of susceptibility and seriousness of dental disease, health status, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, patients can make judgments about benefits, costs, and risks of dental treatment. A theoretical approach to dentistry employing the HBM, mediated by values and culture, can provide significant insights into patient thinking, beliefs, and perceptions. These insights can mediate access to and use of primary care dental services by underserved populations. Evidence-based practice (i.e., based on research using the scientific method) has been
Purnell, Jason Q; Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W; McBride, Timothy D
Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice.
S. V. KUCHER
Full Text Available The article researches the features of preparation and submission of the consolidated financial statements of the world countries of different systems of accounting standardization in order to identify the areas of accounting improvement for the process of consolidation of financial reporting indicators. The main problems of consolidated financial statements preparation by business entities in Ukraine are determined. The author determines the theoretical and practical problems of consolidation of financial statements of organizational and methodical character. The comparative analysis of the features of standardization process of financial statements consolidation in the world countries is carried out. The main differences in the requirements for the formation of consolidated financial statements indicators of such countries as the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Belarus and the People’s Republic of China are outlined. The main directions of scientific researches on the improvement of accounting and analytical support for the preparation of consolidated financial statements are formed.
Full Text Available We study financial literacy in France using the PATER survey and following the Lusardi and Mitchell (2011c approach. We find that some subpopulations are less financially literate than others: women, young and old people as well as less-educated people are more likely to face difficulties when dealing with fundamental financial concepts such as risk diversification and inflation and interest compounding. We also find some differences in financial knowledge depending on the political opinion of the respondents. Finally we show that these differences in financial knowledge are correlated with differences in the propensity to plan: people who score higher on the financial literacy questions are more likely to be engaged in the preparation of a clearly defined financial plan.
Miller, Monica L; Karwa, Rakhi; Schellhase, Ellen M; Pastakia, Sonak D; Crowe, Susie; Manji, Imran; Jakait, Beatrice; Maina, Mercy
Objective. To describe a novel training model used to create a sustainable public health-focused pharmacy residency based in Kenya and to describe the outcomes of this training program on underserved populations. Design. The postgraduate year 2 residency was designed to expose trainees to the unique public health facets of inpatient, outpatient, and community-based care delivery in low and middle-income countries. Public health areas of focus included supply chain management, reproductive health, pediatrics, HIV, chronic disease management, and teaching. Assessment. The outcomes of the residency were assessed based on the number of new clinical programs developed by residents, articles and abstracts written by residents, and resident participation in grant writing. To date, six residents from the United States and eight Kenyan residents have completed the residency. Eleven sustainable patient care services have been implemented as a result of the residency program. Conclusion. This pharmacy residency training model developed accomplished pharmacists in public health pharmacy, with each residency class expanding funding and clinical programming, contributing to curriculum development, and creating jobs.
Egan, J. J.
Various financial issues involved in commercial space enterprise are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the materials processing area: the current state of business plan and financial developments, what is needed for enhanced probability of success of future materials development efforts in attracting financial backing, and finally, the risks involved in this entire business area.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum, remains...
Catalin-Florinel Stanescu; Laurentiu Mircea Simion
Concerns about the financial risk is increasing. In this climate, companies of all types and sizes want a robust framework for financial risk management to meet compliance requirements, contribute to better decision making and increase performance. Financial risk management professionals working with financial institutions and other corporate clients to achieve these objectives.
Daniela Zapodeanu; Mihail-Ioan Cociuba
Following the financial-economic crisis the financial systems worldwide have been subjected to enormous pressure, which called into question the need for financial system stability in general and in particular the one of the banking system. We overview the most important indicators in financial stability and we analyze the evolution of the main indicators of financial health for the Romanian banking system as a whole and for two banks, respectively BRD and Transylvania Bank . We find that ban...
Lopez, Naty; Simpser-Rafalin, Sara; Berthold, Peter
We evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of atraumatic restorative treatment to prevent and treat caries in an underserved community in Mexico. We placed 370 restorations and 193 sealants in 118 children aged 5 to 18; 85% reported no pain, and 93% were comfortable with their restorations. We then evaluated the children 1 and 2 years later. At 2-year evaluation, 66% of restorations and 35% of sealants were retained. Atraumatic restorative treatment is acceptable and effective to control and prevent decay in a socioeconomically deprived community.
Full Text Available The financial market is one of the elements of the market-oriented economy. The financial analysis is a fundamental element of the financial controlling business. The purpose of this article is to inform briefly about horizontal and vertical financial statements analysis as the source of competitive advantage of the firm. The article is divided into two parts. First describes financial analysis and financial statements generally. Second, it presents a practical contribution of the horizontal and vertical financial statements analysis at the controlled businesses as financial management tools, which identify the financial position, market behaviour, correlations between the net profit and the prohibitively cost and operating profit, the financial activities profit, the income tax etc.Business, which the analysed firm operates in asks a provable claim on the high value of fixed assets. The capital composition of the firm is call to typify for the state-owned enterprise that was transformed to private joint-stock companies. Analysis is specially pleading for the needs considering the price of the borrowed capital in the capital structure rating. Fault factor ø value talks about needs for the cost regulation. Stair-step conception used for counting of the net profit in the accountant period indicates the financial profit, alternatively loss, as the distinguished pre-tax profit element. Picture about firms financial results can be completed with the information about the income tax value. Form of financial analyses presented in the article entablature the accents on the necessity to compare several accounting period and on the necessity of complex understanding of statements accounting slide en bloc.Financial analyse makes the decision makers possible to screen potential partners before the cooperation starts. On the other side, it makes a possibility to influence the production process, sales and financial management during the accounting
This study is intended to analyse the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyse the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze.
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze.
Haq, Cynthia; Grosch, Michelle; Carufel-Wert, Donald
The Leadership Opportunities with Communities, the Underserved, and Special Populations (LOCUS) Program aims to improve medical students' leadership knowledge and skills, to improve self-awareness and motivation for community service, and to provide models for students to integrate community service into their medical careers. The LOCUS program was established as a longitudinal, extracurricular student opportunity at the University of Wisconsin Medical School in the fall of 1998. Up to 15 new students each year are selected for the program through an application and interview process during their first or second year of medical school. Students remain in the program from acceptance until graduation from medical school. Nearly 50 students have enrolled in the program to date. LOCUS fellows are matched with a physician mentor, participate in core curriculum activities, and complete a longitudinal community service project. Mentors are community generalist physicians who have integrated community service into their own careers. Students participate in their mentors' clinical practices one afternoon a month during the first two years, and mentors serve as role models and provide guidance for students' projects and career development. The program administration and staff are supported through federal predoctoral training and Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) grants. The LOCUS core curriculum is delivered through a series of retreats, workshops, and seminars that emphasize active learning methods and include approximately 20 hours of scheduled activities per academic year. The curriculum addresses concepts of leadership in relation to one's self and in relation to others. Students are introduced to methods of self-reflection and develop their own vision and mission statements. Students also discuss the importance of compassion, self-care, striving for balance, avoiding burnout, and being realistic about what they can accomplish. Students practice strategies for
Sina, Peter Garlans
The purpose of this research was to examine the gender difference in financial efficacy and financial satisfaction, and influence of financial efficacy to financial satisfaction. Based on the result is found that three hypothesis are accepted. These means, there are difference between woman and man in financialefficacy and financial satisfaction. Other result that financial efficacy gave significant impact to financial satisfaction.
World Bank Group
The key findings and recommendations presented in this report cover 4 main areas: financial inclusion, financial capability, relationship between financial inclusion and capability, and financial consumer protection. The remaining chapters are structured as follows. Chapter one explores the financial inclusion landscape in Mozambique. Chapter two gives an overview of Mozambicans' levels of...
Full Text Available We present new evidence from the Euro Survey of the Austrian Central Bank on the level of financial literacy in Romania and analyze how financial literacy is related to household savings. Less than 5% of respondents were able to correctly answer the three “core” financial literacy questions on interest compounding, inflation, and risk diversification, with the risk diversification question posing the greatest difficulties. Twenty percent of respondents are able to answer both the interest compounding and inflation questions correctly. Financial literacy levels differ between regions and across rural and urban areas. Older and less-educated individuals perform worst on the financial literacy questions, but those who remember previous periods of economic turbulence during transition perform better. We find that financial literacy is positively and significantly related to saving and investment.
Practical C++ Financial Programming is a hands-on book for programmers wanting to apply C++ to programming problems in the financial industry. The book explains those aspects of the language that are more frequently used in writing financial software, including the STL, templates, and various numerical libraries. The book also describes many of the important problems in financial engineering that are part of the day-to-day work of financial programmers in large investment banks and hedge funds. The author has extensive experience in the New York City financial industry that is now distilled in
Kramer, Marc M.
We find that people with higher confidence in their own financial literacy are less likely to seek financial advice, but no relation between objective measures of literacy and advice seeking. The negative association between confidence and advice seeking is more pronounced among wealthy households.
This incumbent of this position is responsible for the preparation of all internal and external financial reports. ... compliance with established budget guidelines, compliance with policies and reasonableness of budget requests; coordinate the work of financial analysts;; Consolidate all outstanding budget issues and items on ...
Geana, Mugur V; Kimminau, Kim S; Greiner, K Allen
The Latino population is the fastest growing minority in the country, and is expected to reach about 30% of the total U.S. population by 2050. Historically, primary care practitioners are not the preferred source of health information for Latinos living in the United States. Latinos are known to rely more on media, family, and friends to get answers to health-related questions. Choosing the appropriate information source is an important component of health information-seeking behavior; it also represents a major challenge for health communicators trying to deliver information to their target audience. This study explores how ethnicity influences health information source selection among Latinos and White non-Latinos living together in an underserved, multiethnic urban community with poor health status and underlying socioeconomic characteristics. The results suggest that this community manifests a high degree of homogeneity in their usage of health information sources. Nevertheless, there are significant differences between ethnic groups and age groups on perceived usefulness of the health information retrieved from common sources. Our results suggest that health information sources that are interactive, native to the community (e.g., the local pharmacist), and promote active engagement are the most useful in delivering health messages that will be listened to by those living in this underserved, multiethnic urban community.
Wright, J. A.; Phillips, B.D.; Watson, B.L.; Newby, P.K.; Norman, G. J.; Adams, W.G.
Objective To evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a scalable obesity treatment program integrated with pediatric primary care and delivered using interactive voice technology (IVR) to families from underserved populations. Design and Methods Fifty parent-child dyads (child 9–12 yrs, BMI >95th percentile) were recruited from a pediatric primary care clinic and randomized to either an IVR or a wait-list control (WLC) group. The majority were lower-income, African-American (72%) families. Dyads received IVR calls for 12 weeks. Call content was informed by two evidenced-based interventions. Anthropometric and behavioral variables were assessed at baseline and 3 mo follow-up. Results Forty-three dyads completed the study. IVR parents ate 1 cup more fruit than WLC (p 75% agreed that the calls were useful, made for people like them, credible, and helped them eat healthy foods. Conclusion An obesity treatment program delivered via IVR may be an acceptable and feasible resource for families from underserved populations. PMID:23512915
Arthur Mark Langer
Full Text Available This article describes an ongoing 13-year-old program designed to improve the ability of organizations to assimilate young talent from underserved populations, mostly students who have recently graduated from high school. Although many firms have internship and orientation programs, few have well-tested organizational approaches for assimilating 17-20 year-olds into their organizations in an efficient and productive manner. The objective of this study is to describe and evaluate the solution introduced by Workforce Opportunity Services (WOS, a non-profit agency that provides organizations with well-trained talent from underserved local communities. The WOS model is a systemic design involving a lead agency (WOS, corporate clients, training partnerships with local colleges and universities, and underutilized human capital. Over 290 students have completed the WOS program and obtained long-term employment, mostly in IT jobs that normally are outsourced. The results of the study show that companies have success employing young talent when they follow the WOS organizational process. Companies need to have patience with WOS student employees, but within six months most members of the WOS program make positive contributions to their sponsoring firm and have a strong likelihood of becoming permanently employed. Implications of the WOS model for organization design are discussed.
Habibian, Mina; Seirawan, Hazem; Mulligan, Roseann
The objective of this study was to assess dental students' attitudes toward underserved populations across their four years of dental school. Students at the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of the University of Southern California were invited to take part in the study. Participating students completed a questionnaire on their attitudes toward the underserved at three time points: 1) during orientation week; 2) at the end of their second year after taking part in some community dental programs; and 3) at the end of their fourth year after they had completed all their mandatory and volunteer rotations in community dental programs. Students' attitudes were measured in four categories: societal expectations, dentist/student responsibility, personal efficacy, and access to care. First-year students scored 85 out of a maximum of 115 on the questionnaire. Female students scored higher than male students (P=0.006). Age, debt, and past history of volunteer work were not related to first-year students' total attitude scores; however, students with a history of volunteer experience scored higher on the dentist/student responsibility category (P=0.04). Students' attitude scores declined across the four years of dental school (P=0.001). The same patterns were evident for all categories except societal expectations. The decline was not related to age, gender, debt, or volunteer work experience. Follow-up studies are needed to help explain the factors that may be related to this decline.
The astronomy outreach initiative, Multicultural Milky Way, partners the School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) at Arizona State University (ASU) with under-served populations in Arizona in learning about our Milky Way and other galaxies. Arizona is home to many diverse populations with rich cultural histories such as Mayan, Navajo, and Apache. Linking astronomy practiced by one’s indigenous culture to that of Western astronomy may increase the interest in science. Through multicultural planetarium shows and associated hands-on activities, under-served students and families will learn how the Milky Way is represented in different cultures and about the science of galaxies. New planetarium shows using the Mesa Community College (MCC) Digital Planetarium and STARLAB portable planetarium explore how the Milky Way is interpreted in different cultures. STARLAB shows and associated new hands-on activities have been featured during school visits, teacher trainings, and Community Astronomy Nights around Arizona. For authentic assessment, evaluation techniques and procedures were developed.
Clark, Maggie L; Reynolds, Stephen J; Hendrikson, Edward; Peel, Jennifer L
Asthma is a substantialpublic health burden among children. Disease and risk-factor discrepancies have been identified among racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. At a rural health clinic (Salud Family Health Center) with primarily underserved and Latino patients in Colorado, the authors evaluated 250 medical records and administered 57 parental surveys to describe this population with respect to asthma diagnosis, asthma-like symptoms, and environmental/occupational risk factors among children. Wheeze and asthma were indicated in 9.7% and 8.9% of medical records, respectively. Twenty parents (35.7%) reported in a questionnaire that their child had experienced wheezing or whistling in the chest. Parents reported that children play in farming fields (21.8%) and feed livestock/animals (10.9%). Additionally, 13.2% and 9.4% of children have a household member who works around livestock or around grain, feed, or dust, respectively. Information from the Salud population can be used to develop larger-scale research and public health initiatives to eliminate health and risk factor disparities among underserved children.
Chen, Judy T.; LaLopa, Joseph
Objective To determine the impact of the Patient Empathy Modeling pedagogy on students' empathy towards caring for the underserved during an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design Pharmacy students completing an APPE at 2 primary care clinics participated in a Patient Empathy Modeling assignment for 10 days. Each student “became the patient,” simulating the life of an actual patient with multiple chronic diseases who was coping with an economic, cultural, or communication barrier to optimal healthcare. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) before and after completing the assignment, and wrote daily journal entries and a reflection paper. Assessment Twenty-six students completed the PEM exercises from 2005-2006. Scores on the JSPE improved. Students' comments in journals and reflection papers revealed 3 major themes: greater appreciation of the difficulty patients have with adherence to medication and treatment regimens, increased empathy for patients from different backgrounds and patients with medical and psychosocial challenges, and improved ability to apply the lessons learned in the course to their patient care roles. Conclusion A Patient Empathy Modeling assignment improved pharmacy students' empathy toward underserved populations. Integrating the assignment within an APPE allowed students to immediately begin applying the knowledge and insight gained from the exercise. PMID:18483606
Weaver, Shannon; Gull, Bethany; Ashby, Jeanie; Kamimura, Akiko
The oppression of underserved populations is pervasive throughout the history of the United States (U.S.), especially in health care. Brazilian educator Paulo Freire's controversial ideas about systems of power can be aptly applied to health care. This paper focuses specifically on arguably the most medically underserved group in the U.S.…
Full Text Available Acceptance of marketing as a business concept in financial organizations, implies that the respective organization adopts the following marketing postulations: value of action capital conclusively depends on the client (value; key goal of marketing management in financial organizations is to attract new and retain existing clients; clients are attracted by delivering superior value/offer, and retaind by generating client satisfaction; in creating and delivering superior quality (value, marketing must have full colaboration with other departments (functional business areas. Due to the financial services nature, marketing management demands the classical marketing mix concept to accomodate and expand with respect to basic 4P concept, by adding new elements related to humen force (employees, physical environment and the manner in which they provide services to their clients. Therefore we believe that for the financial organizations 7P, namely 7C model is more adequate than classical model, and that it represents conceptual frame that identifies wider spectar of marketing management tools. In addition, we would like to emphasize that the advertisment, that participates with over 2/3 in total marketing budget, represents the dominant promotional form and that the budget structure for advertizing is commonly defined by the goal and task method, that stands for an important indicator of proper market orientation of financial organizations in Serbia.
The financial system in the United States is slowly migrating from the bricks and mortar of banks on the city square to branch banks, ATM`s, and now direct linkage through computers to the home. Much work has been devoted to the security problems inherent in protecting property and people. The impact of attacks on the information aspects of the financial system has, however, received less attention. Awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milken or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These events, although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. Most of the losses can be traced to the contribution of many small attacks perpetrated against a variety of vulnerable components and systems. This paper explores the magnitude of these financial system losses and identifies new areas for security to be applied to high consequence events.
City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data compiles standard financial integrity benchmarks that allow the City to measure its financial standing. It measure the City's debt ratio and bond ratings....
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This section contains the annual CMS financial statements as required under the Chief Financial Officers (CFO) Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-576). The CFO Act marked a major...
T. V. Teplova
Full Text Available In this paper as the main feature of innovation in the financial health of a company analyst view the shift to two circuits of key interests of owners of capital (financial stakeholders. Justifi ed by differences key financial systems within the contour ownership interest and the lender three projections: liquidity, the current economic efficiency and growth. In the paper as the main feature of the innovation in the analysis of the financial health of a company is considered a transition to the two circuits of the interests of the key owners of financial capital (financial stakeholders. Justifi ed differences of key financial indicator systems in the framework of the outline of the interests of the owner and the lender by three projections: liquidity, efficiency and the quality of growth. The examples of Russian companies have different interpretations of financial targets and indicators with a choice of activities.
This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.
Full Text Available The disciplinary accountability of the personnel from the local public administration isdifferently regulated, depending on the personnel category. The disciplinary accountability of the civilservants is an administrative-disciplinary accountability regulated by the Law no. 188/1999 concerningthe Status of the civil servants and can take place only under the circumstances stipulated by law, whilethe disciplinary accountability of the persons hired on the basis of the individual work contract isregulated by the Work Law, Law no. 53/2003 and can take place only under the circumstances stipulatedby this law. The only basis of the disciplinary responsibility is the disciplinary infringement, that in factrepresents a deed related to work, a deed consisting in an action or inaction carried out with guilt by theemployee, through which this one broke the legal norms, the internal regulations, the individual workcontract or the applicable collective work contract, the orders and the legal dispositions of the hierarchicalsuperiors (Law no. 53/2003, Art. 263, Paragr. 2.
This dissertation explores how financial reporting enforcement differs in Europe and how these differences influence the materiality assessment and disclosure decisions made by the preparers of the financial statement. Furthermore, it analyses how financial reporting enforcement influences...... al. 2013, Brown et al. 2014). This heterogeneous enforcement has created a particular need to understand how enforcement influences financial reporting if the primary users must be able to use it as a reliable source of information. This issue is investigated in the following three papers...
Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.
Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…
World Bank; International Monetary Fund
A joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank mission visited Rabat and Casablanca in 2015, to assess the soundness and resilience of the banking system, the state of play in financial inclusion and infrastructure, the oversight frameworks for banking, capital markets and financial market infrastructures, crisis preparedness, and update the findings of the Financial Sector Assessme...
van de Laar, T.A.H.M.; Bleker, Sylvie; Houben, Raf
This chapter will focus on the goals of financial market regulation through the rules of economics, the strategies financial regulation employs to achieve these goals and the insights this provides for the compliance profession. For an overview of the goals and strategies of financial regulation
Bush, Sarah B.; McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.
The current state of the economy elevates the need to build awareness of financial markets and personal finance among the nation's young people through implementing a financial literacy curriculum in schools. A limited amount of time spent on financial literacy can have a positive effect on students' budgeting skills. This knowledge will only add…
Mauk, Kristen L; Mauk, James M
Rehabilitation nurses, particularly those who work in geriatrics, recognize that the elderly have become increasingly heterogeneous, with many remaining active well into their 80s and beyond. As the baby boomers enter older adulthood, the senior healthcare market will be greatly affected. The areas of finance, economics, and marketing are seeing new trends that combine the expertise of financial planners with healthcare advisors and advocates for seniors. One emerging specialty area is financial gerontology. This article defines financial gerontology, presents emerging trends and certifications related to the field, and discusses implications for the rehabilitation nurse.
Sushko E. Yu.
Full Text Available The rapid sophistication of the Russian financial system inevitably leads not only to the emergence of great opportunities for the development of the financial sector, as expressed in the opening of the new financial institutions or new financial products and services, but also a huge financial risks for companies of this sector, as expressed in the increase of population’s debts and the decline of trust in the financial sector. That is why special tools used in making management decisions about the development of the financial sector in a particular region acquires greater significance. On the basis of statistical data over the Volgograd region the author developed the model of initial attractiveness estimation of an area for business entities, reflecting the level of financial literacy and using the data from open sources of information. The article provides a brief introduction to the development of the methodology: from a theoretical substantiation of the original list of variables for analysis up to determine the regression equation. Obtained regression model can be used by entrepreneurs in case of expansion of their financial business to new areas and by regional governance whose aim is to increase the level of financial literacy.
Munga Michael A
infrastructures are not in place before formalising tasks shifting. There was also a perception that implementation of task shifting has ensured access to services especially in underserved remote areas. Professional discontent and challenges related to the management of health personnel policies were also perceived as important issues to consider when implementing task shifting practices. Additional resources for additional training and supervisory tasks were also considered important in the implementation of task shifting in order to make it deliver much the same way as it is for conventional modalities of delivering care. Conclusions Task shifting implementation occurs as an ad hoc coping mechanism to the existing shortages of health workers in many undeserved areas of the country, not just in the study site whose findings are reported in this paper. It is recommended that the most important thing to do now is not to determine whether task shifting is possible or effective but to define the limits of task shifting so as to reach a consensus on where it can have the strongest and most sustainable impact in the delivery of quality health services. Any action towards this end needs to be evidence-based.
Highfield, Linda; Ottenweller, Cecelia; Pfanz, Andre; Hanks, Jeanne
Medicare payments, healthcare service use, and telemedicine implementation costs in a randomized trial comparing telemedicine case management with usual care in medically underserved participants with diabetes mellitus (IDEATel)
Shea, Steven; Starren, Justin; Teresi, Jeanne A; Ganz, Michael L; Burton, Tanya M; Pashos, Chris L; Blustein, Jan; Field, Lesley; Morin, Philip C; Izquierdo, Roberto E; Silver, Stephanie; Eimicke, Joseph P; Lantigua, Rafael A; Weinstock, Ruth S
Objective To determine whether a diabetes case management telemedicine intervention reduced healthcare expenditures, as measured by Medicare claims, and to assess the costs of developing and implementing the telemedicine intervention. Design We studied 1665 participants in the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel), a randomized controlled trial comparing telemedicine case management of diabetes to usual care. Participants were aged 55 years or older, and resided in federally designated medically underserved areas of New York State. Measurements We analyzed Medicare claims payments for each participant for up to 60 study months from date of randomization, until their death, or until December 31, 2006 (whichever happened first). We also analyzed study expenditures for the telemedicine intervention over six budget years (February 28, 2000– February 27, 2006). Results Mean annual Medicare payments (SE) were similar in the usual care and telemedicine groups, $9040 ($386) and $9669 ($443) per participant, respectively (p>0.05). Sensitivity analyses, including stratification by censored status, adjustment by enrollment site, and semi-parametric weighting by probability of dropping-out, rendered similar results. Over six budget years 28 821 participant/months of telemedicine intervention were delivered, at an estimated cost of $622 per participant/month. Conclusion Telemedicine case management was not associated with a reduction in Medicare claims in this medically underserved population. The cost of implementing the telemedicine intervention was high, largely representing special purpose hardware and software costs required at the time. Lower implementation costs will need to be achieved using lower cost technology in order for telemedicine case management to be more widely used. PMID:20190064
Grohmann, Antonia; Klühs, Theres; Menkhoff, Lukas
While financial inclusion is typically addressed by improving the financial infrastructure we show that financial literacy, representing the demand-side of financial markets, also has a beneficial effect. We study this effect at the cross-country level, which allows to consider institutional variation. Regarding "access to finance", financial infrastructure and financial literacy are mainly substitutes. However, regarding the "use of financial services", the effect of higher financial literac...
Caruntu Genu Alexandru
Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.
This article investigates the sources of sociability in modern financial systems as a prelude to assessing the prospects for financial regulation. Three sources are identified: sociality dependent upon contract, upon relational interdependency, and upon the operation of will and passion. Each...... of the article which is to explore further the nature of ‘irrationality’ as manifest in financial crises. When the contours of both these aspects of financial calculation have been elaborated, the article moves on to consider how they might shape regulatory responses to the seeming inevitability of financial...
Gao, Zan; Lee, Jung Eun; Pope, Zachary; Zhang, Dachao
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active videogames (AVGs) on underserved minority children's on-task classroom behavior, academic effort, and fitness. A one group pre- and posttest repeated measures design was used. In Fall 2013, 95 fourth grade children (57 boys, 38 girls; 96% of minority) from three classes at an underserved urban elementary school participated in teacher-supervised AVG activities (e.g., Wii Sports, Xbox Just Dance). Specifically, students participated in a 50-minute weekly AVG program at school for 6 weeks. Children's academic effort was evaluated by classroom teachers using a validated scale that assessed activity, attention, conduct, and social/emotional behavior. Moreover, children's classroom behavior was observed immediately before and after each AVG session by trained researchers. Finally, cardiovascular fitness was also measured. A paired t-test was used to assess teacher-rated student effort, while one-way (gender) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was performed to analyze children's on-task classroom behavior. There was a significant effect on children's effort between the first (mean = 3.24, SD = 0.75) and last week (mean = 3.41, SD = 0.73) assessments, t = 2.42, P = 0.02. In addition, there was a significant effect on classroom behavior, F = 33.103, P < 0.01. In detail, children scored significantly higher on on-task behavior during the post-AVG observation (mean = 81.4, SD = 12.3) than seen during the pre-AVG observation (mean = 69.8, SD = 14.9). However, no main effect was indicated for gender, F = 0.39, P = 0.54. No significant improvement in cardiovascular fitness was observed, although slight improvements were seen. Offering an AVG program at school could improve underserved minority children's classroom on-task behavior and academic effort. Future studies may include a control group to further confirm the effectiveness of AVG
General Services Administration — For a visual depiction of GSA's Balance Sheet and Statement of Net Cost, please use the interactive charts to view the financial results for fiscal years 2007-2013.
Chesser, Amy; Burke, Anne; Reyes, Jared; Rohrberg, Tessa
eHealth provides an important mechanism to connect medically underserved populations with health information, but little is known about gaps in eHealth literacy research in underserved adult populations within the U.S. Between June and July 2013, three systematic literature reviews of five databases were conducted and a subsequent hand search was completed. Identified literature was screened and studies meeting exclusion and inclusion criteria were synthesized and analyzed for common themes. Of the 221 articles critically appraised, 15 met these criteria. Thirty-five of these studies were excluded due to international origin. Of the articles meeting the inclusion criteria, underserved populations assessed included immigrant women, the elderly, low-income, the un- and underemployed, and African-American and Hispanic populations. eHealth literacy assessments utilized included one or two item screeners, the eHEALS scale, health information competence and cognitive task analysis. Factors examined in relation to eHealth literacy included age, experience, overall health literacy, education, income and culture. The majority did not assess the impact of locality and those that did were predominately urban. These data suggest that there is a gap in the literature regarding eHealth literacy knowledge for underserved populations, and specifically those in rural locations, within the U.S.
Orzech, Kathryn M.; Vivian, James; Huebner Torres, Cristina; Armin, Julie; Shaw, Susan J.
Many factors interact to create barriers to dietary and exercise plan adherence among medically underserved patients with chronic disease, but aspects related to culture and ethnicity are underexamined in the literature. Using both qualitative ("n" = 71) and quantitative ("n" = 297) data collected in a 4-year, multimethod study…
Webster, Lee Ann H
Medical practice leadership teams, often consisting primarily of physicians with limited financial backgrounds, must make important business decisions and continuously monitor practice operations. In order to competently perform this duty, they need financial reports that are relevant and easy to understand. This article explores financial reporting and decision-making in a physician practice. It discusses reports and tools, such as ratios, graphs, and comparisons, that practices typically include in their reports. Because profitability and cash flow are often the most important financial considerations for physician practices, reports should generally focus on the impact of various activities and potential decisions upon these concerns. This article also provides communication tips for both those presenting practice financial information and those making the decisions. By communicating effectively, these leaders can best use financial information to improve decision-making and maximize financial performance.
This paper attempts to measure and understand financial inclusion by looking at availability and accessibility elements of financial services. The study was carried out by constructing one Composite Financial Inclusion Index with different financial services indicators. One observes a lot of variation across states, for rural and urban regions. Even within a state, differences are clearly evident between rural and urban areas for the different indicators considered. The paper concludes to pro...
M. Mala; Dr. G. Vasanthi
Financial inclusion means connecting all individuals, who are in the remote rural areas, to a well-functioning financial system. During post liberalization period the Indian post offices are providing banking services to the all section of people of the society since 1882. Indian post served Indian villagers as banker much before financial inclusion become buzzword and Indian post claims to be the pioneer of financial inclusion in India. The paper aims to focus on utilizing the India Post Off...
Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil Smith, Sharde'; Scott, Jenna C
This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
Martin, Jeffrey J; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn
Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using multiple regression analyses we accounted for 12% of the variance in PA and 13-21% of the variance in fitness. The best predictors of PA were barrier self-efficacy, classmate social support, and gender; whereas, only gender predicted fitness. The results affirmed the importance of barrier self-efficacy and gender differences. Our findings regarding classmate social support are some of the first to illuminate the importance of school-specific peers in promoting PA.
Horowitz, Carol R; Eckhardt, Sarah; Talavera, Sandra; Goytia, Crispin; Lorig, Kate
Lifestyle interventions can prevent diabetes through weight loss, but they are rarely translated for use in underserved communities. The aim of this study was to describe how a community-academic partnership formed and developed a program to address local health disparities by developing a low-cost, culturally and economically appropriate, peer-led community-based diabetes prevention program. Using a participatory approach, the partnership chose to focus on diabetes prevention, and co-developed all intervention, recruitment, research, and evaluation strategies. The partnership's philosophy to maintain high clinical and scientific standards paired with their ability to represent and engage the community facilitated the development of a randomized controlled trial that achieved statistically significant and sustained weight loss, and the recruitment of a largely Spanish-speaking, low income, uninsured population. The success of this intervention lies in the partnership's commitment to the community, co-ownership of research, and a careful balance between academic rigor and community engagement and relevance.
In a recent paper, Mpofu, Sen Gupta, and Hays (2016) attempt to outline the obligations of recruiting high-income countries (HICs) and would-be emigrant health workers (HWs) to tackle the effects of mass exodus of health workers from underserved regions. They reconstruct (i) Rawlsian and Kantian global justice approaches to argue for moral obligations of HICs and (ii) an individual justice approach to point to non-enforceable social responsibilities of HWs to assist their compatriots. This critical commentary demonstrates that the argumentation within their individual justice approach is problematic on the basis of three reasons: (1) their discussion under-theorizes and undervalues individual rights and more specifically the right to exit, (2) their argumentation in the latter part, even if problematically, does rather point to moral obligations in lieu of social responsibilities of HWs, and (3) they overlook many other important freedoms, interests, and values pertinent to the issue of retention.
Lobanova, E. N.; Zmitrovich, A. I.; Voshevoz, A. A.; Krivko-Krasko, A. V.
In this article we consider concepts and components of the Financial Decision Making System that is being developed in the Institute of Business and Management Technology, BSU. Such system can be successfully used either for training experts in financial analytics and financial management or for financial managers and financial directors in an enterprise for the effective financial decision making.
Mathews, Maria; Ryan, Dana
Financial incentives are increasingly offered to recruit nursing personnel to work in underserved communities. The authors describe and compare the characteristics of federal, provincial and territorial financial recruitment incentive programs for registered nurses (RNs), nurse practitioners (NPs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), registered practical nurses or registered psychiatric nurses. The authors identified incentive programs from government, health ministry and student aid websites and by contacting program officials. Only government-funded recruitment programs providing funding beyond the normal employee wages and benefits and requiring a service commitment were included. The authors excluded programs offered by hospitals, regional or private firms, and programs that rewarded retention. All provinces and territories except QC and NB offer financial recruitment incentive programs for RNs; six provinces (BC, AB, SK, ON, QC and NL) offer programs for NPs, and NL offers a program for LPNs. Programs include student loan forgiveness, tuition forgiveness, education bursaries, signing bonuses and relocation expenses. Programs target trainees, recent graduates and new hires. Funding and service requirements vary by program, and service requirements are not always commensurate with funding levels. This snapshot of government-funded recruitment incentives provides program managers with data to compare and improve nursing workforce recruitment initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.
Full Text Available Objectives: Pharmacist-managed collaborative services in a family practice setting are described, and diabetes and hypertension outcomes are assessed.Methods: Pharmacist-managed clinics, pharmacotherapy consultations, and drug information services are provided for a medically underserved, predominantly African American population. A pharmacy residency director, an ambulatory care pharmacy resident and three PharmD candidate student pharmacists work directly with physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, and social workers to form an interdisciplinary health care team. Providers utilize pharmacy services through consultations and referrals. Collaboration outcomes were evaluated in twenty-two patients with diabetes and thirty hypertensive patients. Patients were retrospectively followed throughout their history with pharmacy service. Hemoglobin A1c (A1C was tracked before referral to pharmacy services, 3 to 6 months after, and as the most current measure after at least 6 months. Blood pressure (BP was observed before pharmacy involvement, 2 to 4 months later, and then currently for at least 4 months with the service. The mean of the most current markers was calculated, and the percent of patients at their goal marker was compared to national averages.Results: Fifty percent of pharmacy service patients met the American Diabetes Association hemoglobin A1c goal of less than 7% in our evaluation compared to the national mean of 49.8% overall and 44% in African Americans. Thirty percent of patients were at their BP goal while 33.1% of patients without diabetes and 33.2% of patients with diabetes nationally are at goal. Conclusion: The medically underserved patients under the care of pharmacy services achieved a higher percentage at their A1C goal than the national mean. The percentage of patients who achieved their BP goals was comparable to the national average. Increasing utilization of pharmacy services in the family practice setting allows for
Raich, Peter C; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Thorland, William; Valverde, Patricia; Fairclough, Diane
Barriers to timely resolution of abnormal cancer screening tests add to cancer health disparities among low-income, uninsured, and minority populations. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate the impact of lay patient navigators on time to resolution and completion of follow-up testing among patients with abnormal screening tests in a medically underserved patient population. Denver Health, the safety-net health care system serving Denver, is one of 10 performance sites participating in the Patient Navigation Research Program. Of 993 eligible subjects with abnormal screening tests randomized to navigation and no-navigation (control) arms and analyzed, 628 had abnormal breast screens (66 abnormal clinical breast examinations, 304 BIRADS 0, 200 BIRADS 3, 58 BIRADS 4 or 5) whereas 235 had abnormal colorectal and 130 had abnormal prostate screens. Time to resolution was significantly shorter in the navigated group (stratified log rank test, P BIRADS 3 (P = 0.0003) and BIRADS 0 (P = 0.09), but not BIRADS 4/5 or abnormal breast examinations. Navigation shortened the time for both colorectal (P = 0.0017) and prostate screening resolution (P = 0.06). Participant demographics included 72% minority, 49% with annual household income less than $10,000, and 36% uninsured. Patient navigation positively impacts time to resolution of abnormal screening tests for breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers in a medically underserved population. By shortening the time to and increasing the proportion of patients with diagnostic resolution patient navigation could reduce disparities in stage at diagnosis and improve cancer outcomes. 2012 AACR
Full Text Available Cardiometabolic diseases affect underserved groups disparately. Participation in health checks is also lower, widening health inequalities in society. Two-stage screening (non-invasive health risk assessment (HRA and GP consultations for high-risk individuals seems cost-effective, provided that drop-out rates are low in both steps. We aimed to explore the process of decision-making regarding HRA participation among underserved groups (45–70 y: native Dutch with a lower socioeconomic status (SES, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese participants. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study. The questionnaire comprised the following determinants: a self-formulated first reaction, a structured set of predefined determinants, and the most important barrier(s and facilitator(s for HRA completion. We used univariable and (stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess which determinants were associated with HRA completion. Of the 892 participants in the questionnaire, 78% (n = 696 also completed the HRA. Moroccans and patients from GP practices with a predominantly non-Western population less often completed the HRA. A lower SES score, wanting to know one's risk, not remembering receiving the invitation (thus requiring a phone call, fear of the test result and/or adjusting lifestyle, perceived control of staying healthy, wanting to participate, and perceiving no barriers were associated with completing the HRA. We conclude that our ‘hard-to-reach’ population may not be unwilling to participate in the HRA. A more comprehensive approach, involving key figures within a community informing people about and providing help completing the HRA, would possibly be more suitable. Efforts should be particularly targeted at the less acculturated immigrants with an external locus of control.
Stanley, Melinda A; Wilson, Nancy; Shrestha, Srijana; Amspoker, Amber B; Armento, Maria; Cummings, Jeremy P; Evans-Hudnall, Gina; Wagener, Paula; Kunik, Mark E
To evaluate the feasibility of the Calmer Life and Enhanced Community Care interventions delivered by community and expert providers and test their preliminary effectiveness on worry, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) severity, anxiety, depression, sleep, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction. Small randomized trial, with measurements at baseline and 3 months. Underserved, low-income, mostly minority communities in Houston, TX. Forty underserved adults 50 years and older, with significant worry and principal or coprincipal GAD or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified. Combination of person-centered, flexible skills training to reduce worry; resource counseling to target unmet basic needs; and facilitation of communication with primary care providers developed through a community-academic partnership with social service and faith-based organizations. Religion/spirituality may be incorporated. worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated), GAD severity (GAD-7), anxiety (Geriatric Anxiety Inventory-Short Form). depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form), sleep (Insomnia Severity Index), health-related quality of life (12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form), satisfaction (Client Satisfaction Questionnaire and exit interviews). Provider training was valid; mean ratings for community providers were well above average, with none less than adequate. Reach was excellent. Participants receiving the Calmer Life intervention had greater improvement in GAD severity and depression than those receiving Enhanced Community Care. Satisfaction with both treatments was equivalent. A larger comparative-effectiveness trial needs to examine outcomes following the Calmer Life intervention relative to standard community-based care and to evaluate more fully issues of implementation potential. Published by Elsevier Inc.
White, Brandi; Ellis, Charles; Jones, Walter; Moran, William; Simpson, Kit
Objective Periods of economic instability may increase preventable hospitalizations because of increased barriers to accessing primary care. For underserved populations such as the homeless, these barriers may be more pronounced due to limited resources in the health care safety net. This study examined the impact of the global financial crisis of 2007-2008 on access to care for the homeless in New York State. Methods Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) were used as a proxy measure for primary care access. Admissions for ACSCs were identified in the New York State Inpatient Database from 2006 to 2012. Hospitalization rates for ACSCs were calculated for the homeless and nonhomeless. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the impact of the financial crisis on hospitalization rates for ACSCs. Results The findings indicate that during the financial crisis, homeless adults had significantly higher preventable hospitalizations than nonhomeless adults, and the uninsured homeless had significantly higher preventable hospitalizations when compared to other homeless subgroups. After the financial crisis, preventable hospitalizations for the homeless stabilized but remained at higher rates than those for the nonhomeless. Conclusions These findings are important to developing health policies designed to provide effective care for underserved population such as the homeless.
2011 International Conference on Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management (BEFM 2011)
A series of papers on business, economics, and financial sciences, management selected from International Conference on Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management are included in this volume. Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources. The proceedings of BEFM2011 focuses on the various aspects of advances in Business, Economics, and Financial Sciences, Management and provides a chance for academic and industry professionals to discuss recent progress in the area of Business, Economics, and Financial Scienc...
Bermejo, P E; Dorado, R; Zea-Sevilla, M A; Sánchez Menéndez, V
Neuroeconomics is a new science that studies the brain processes involved in taking decisions, particularly related to economy and it has experienced an important advance in the recent years due to the development of the new neuroimaging techniques, basically functional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this paper it to carry out a review of the literature on the different neurological mechanisms involved in taking financial decisions, the concerned brain structures and the diseases that can affect them. We made a non systematic review of the literature in primary (PubMed) and secondary (Tripdatabase and Cochrane Library) bibliographic databases. We also used bibliography given by the Asociación Española de Neuroeconomía. Brain reward and loss aversion systems suppose a balance that makes us take one or another decision. Dopamine plays an important role on it and several brain structures have been involved in this balance such as the amygdale, the insula, the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulated cortex, the accumbens nucleus and the ventral tegmental area. The alteration of this balance may produce inappropriate financial behaviors what may occur in common diseases including depression, mania, alcoholism, gambling and several impulse control disorders. Neurologists should define our role in this interdisciplinary field due to the privileged position of our specialty to study how the brain works and due to the potential growing of this science in the near future. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ricour, Olivia; Marguier, Marina; Lartigau, Thierry
The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's financial results for 2012: increase of investments for services to clients, performance results, financial balance, stability of the economical model. RTE's regulated economical model, main financial indicators, 2007-2012 investments, 2012 investments by category, 2012 turnover, 2012 costs structure, taxes, financial balance sheet at the end of 2012, and the share of electricity transport in the electricity price are presented in appendixes
the global spread of financialization: by privileging the rentier–investor within the 15 world economy; by perpetuating a distinctively Anglo-American approach to finance internationally; and by increasing the autonomy of finance vis-a-vis the nation-state. This study shares the primarily descriptive...... and conceptual intent of Krippner’s work on financialization, but extends it in two ways: by comparing trusts to the better- known corporate form of organizing financial activity, and by showing how private 20 capital is implicated in the financialized economy alongside corporate wealth....
Buck, C.D.; Coy, M.E.
This paper describes the Financial Graphics System developed at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), the operation of the system, and the future plans for financial graphics at Sandia. Design objectives for the system were to: provide a means for producing graphs on demand by the Comptroller's staff, which would decrease lapsed time required and reduce direct programming effort, improve Sandia's capabilities for using graphics as a tool for management reporting through evaluation and testing of graphic equipment and software, provide a graphic support system which would be compatible with other company financial reporting tools, and integrate financial statistical analysis with the graphics system.
Full Text Available Economic entities around the world, regardless of their membership - public or private sector - the size, the object of activity, prepare financial statements for presentation of financial information users (investors, creditors, customers, suppliers, public institutions. The financial statements provide information about financial position, performance and changes in financial position of an entity - information underlying to base decision process. For Romania, the financial audit was not a tradition. Recognized as a top area of the accounting profession, financial audit was legislated in 1999. Statutory audit, audit of annual financial statements or consolidated annual statements have been established 9 years later (Emergency Regulation no. 90 June 24, 2008, by transposing Directive 2006/43/EC of 17 May 2006 of the European Parliament and of Council on statutory audit of annual accounts and consolidated accounts, in order to ensure oversight of auditors, in the public interest.
Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel
Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial
We analytically give the financial rogue waves in the nonlinear option pricing model due to Ivancevic, which is nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes model. These rogue wave solutions may he used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for rogue wave phenomenon in financial markets and related fields.
This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) provides a summary of the policy priorities, and main findings intended to assist the Moroccan authorities in evaluating the country's financial system. It reviews the uneasy trade-off between concerns for stability, and development, suggesting Morocco's macroeconomic policies and practices as a whole tend to err more on the side of the concerns of pr...
Owing primarily to extensive investment in new mining projects, Mongolia's economy is on a path of very rapid long-term growth. While financial intermediation in Mongolia has been growing fast, access to finance remains a critical constraint for enterprises, and especially for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Improving access to financial services will require strengthening the legal a...
Wood, Marcia R.
This publication is designed to be a desktop reference and assist financial officers in both public and independent institutions of higher education in the preparation of consolidated financial statements. Chapter 1 covers generally accepted accounting principles and other accounting literature, and summarizes reporting rules of the Financial…
The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. The objective of an audit of financial statements is to enable an auditor to express an opinion as to whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards or another identified financial reporting fr...
Carroll Jennifer K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a clinician training intervention to improve physical activity counseling in underserved primary care settings using the 5As. The 5As (Ask, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange are a clinical tool recommended for health behavior counseling in primary care. Methods/Design The study is a two-arm randomized pilot pragmatic trial to examine a primary care clinician communication intervention on use of the 5As in discussion of physical activity in audio-recorded office visits in an ethnically diverse, low-income patient population. The study setting consists of two federally qualified community health centers in Rochester, NY. Eligible clinicians (n=15 are recruited and randomized into two groups. Group 1 clinicians participate in the training intervention first; Group 2 clinicians receive the intervention six months later. The intervention and its outcomes are informed by self-determination theory and principles of patient-centered communication. Assessment of outcomes is blinded. The primary outcome will be the frequency and quality of 5As discussions as judged by evaluating 375 audio-recorded patient visits distributed over baseline and in the post-intervention period (immediately post and at six months. Secondary outcomes will be changes in patients’ perceived competence to increase physical activity (Aim 2 and patients and clinicians beliefs regarding whether pertinent barriers to promoting exercise have been reduced. (Aim 3. Exploratory outcomes (Aim 4 are potential mediators of the intervention’s effect and whether the intervention affects actual enrollment in the community program recommended for exercise. The analysis will use repeated measures (in the form of recorded office visits from each clinician at each time point and aggregate measures of Groups 1 and 2 over time. Discussion Results will help elucidate the role of 5As communication training for clinicians on
.... With the passage of the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, Congress called for the production of financial statements that fully disclose a federal entity's financial position and results of operations...
Scientists observe the world around them in an attempt to understand it. Artists observe the world around them in an attempt to create a reflection or response to the environment. It is critical for the two fields to work together in order to engage and inform the general population. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership, the International Ocean Discovery Program and a series of collaborators are designing a traveling exhibit that will inspire underserved communities in the excitement of exploration, the process of science, and the people and tools required to get there. The project aims to learn more about how to increase access to and awareness of ocean/earth science by bringing a pop-up style museum exhibit to local libraries and public events. As an artist with a science and education background and the graphic designer for this exhibit, this author will highlight the ways this project utilizes art and design to educate underserved populations in ocean and geosciences.
Kim, Bumyang; Lairson, David R; Chung, Tong Han; Kim, Junghyun; Shokar, Navkiran K
Given the uncertain cost of delivering community-based cancer screening programs, we developed a Markov simulation model to project the budget impact of implementing a comprehensive colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention program compared with the status quo. The study modeled the impacts on the costs of clinical services, materials, and staff expenditures for recruitment, education, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), colonoscopy, follow-up, navigation, and initial treatment. We used data from the Against Colorectal Cancer In Our Neighborhoods comprehensive CRC prevention program implemented in El Paso, Texas, since 2012. We projected the 3-year financial consequences of the presence and absence of the CRC prevention program for a hypothetical population cohort of 10,000 Hispanic medically underserved individuals. The intervention cohort experienced a 23.4% higher test completion rate for CRC prevention, 8 additional CRC diagnoses, and 84 adenomas. The incremental 3-year cost was $1.74 million compared with the status quo. The program cost per person was $261 compared with $86 for the status quo. The costs were sensitive to the proportion of high-risk participants and the frequency of colonoscopy screening and diagnostic procedures. The budget impact mainly derived from colonoscopy-related costs incurred for the high-risk group. The effectiveness of FIT to detect CRC was critically dependent on follow-up after positive FIT. Community cancer prevention programs need reliable estimates of the cost of CRC screening promotion and the added budget impact of screening with colonoscopy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chang, Jean; Guy, Mignonne C.; Rosales, Cecilia; de Zapien, Jill G.; Staten, Lisa K.; Fernandez, Maria L.; Carvajal, Scott C.
Hispanics bear a disproportionate burden of diabetes in the United States, yet relations of structural, socio-cultural and behavioral factors linked to diabetes are not fully understood across all of their communities. The current study examines disparities and factors associated with diabetes in adult Hispanics of Mexican-descent (N = 648) participating in a population survey of an underserved rural U.S.-Mexico border community. The overall rate of diabetes prevalence rate in the sample, bas...
ORENS, Raf; LYBAERT, Nadine
The decline in the relevance of financial statement information to value firms leads to calls from organizational stakeholders to convey non-financial information in order to be able to judge firms' financial performance and value. This literature review aims to report extant literature findings on the use of corporate non-financial information by sell-side financial analysts, the information intermediaries between corporate management and investors. Prior studies highlight that financial ana...
Asongu, Simplice A.; Koomson, Isaac; Tchamyou, Vanessa S.
Purpose – This study assesses the effect of time-dynamic financial globalisation uncertainty on financial development in 53 African countries for the period 2000-2011. Design/methodology/approach – Financial globalisation uncertainty is estimated as time-dynamic to capture business cycle disturbances while all dimensions identified by the Financial Development and Structure Database of the World Bank are employed, namely: financial depth (money supply and liquid liabilities), financial sy...
Nyangara, Florence M; Hai, Tajrina; Zalisk, Kirsten; Ozor, Lynda; Ufere, Joy; Isiguzo, Chinwoke; Abubakar, Ibrahim Ndaliman
Decision makers are searching for reliable data and best practices to support the implementation and scale-up of the integrated community case management (iCCM) programs in underserved areas to reduce under-five mortality in low-income countries. This study assesses data quality and reporting systems of the World Health Organization supported Rapid Access Expansion program implementing iCCM in Abia and Niger States, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study used data from 16 primary health facilities in both states. Data were collected through review of registers and monthly summary reports of 140 community-oriented resource persons (CORPs), assessments of the five dimensions of the data reporting systems and 46 key informant interviews with stakeholders. Data quality was assessed by availability, completeness and consistency. Each component of the reporting system was assessed on a 3-point scale (weak, satisfactory and strong). Results show that both the structure, functions and capabilities, as well as data collection and reporting tools dimensions of the reporting system were strong, scoring (2.80, 2.73) for Abia and (2.88, 2.75) for Niger, respectively. Data management processes and links with national reporting system components scored low 2 s, indicating fair strength. Data availability, completeness and consistency were found to be good, an indication of adequate training and supervision of CORPs and community health extension workers. Indicator definitions and reporting guidelines were the weakest dimension of the system due to lack of data reporting guidelines in both states. In conclusion, the results indicate satisfactory data reporting systems and good quality data during early implementation of iCCM programs in the two states. Hence, countries planning to adopt and implement iCCM programs should first develop structures, establish national standardized tools for collecting and reporting data, provide for adequate training and supervision of community
Osteen, Sissy R.; Auberle, Tricia
Discusses the need for homebuyer education in light of the increasing availability of assistance programs aimed at traditionally underserved groups such as minorities and low income groups. (Contains 10 references.) (JOW)
The paper analyzes financial planning efficiency for enterprise management improvement. The author describes the system of financial tools and considers in detail financial planning methods, their strengths and weaknesses
Bushar, Jessica A; Fishman, Jodie; Garfinkel, Danielle; Pirretti, Amy
Public health practitioners have increasingly leveraged technology-based communication to get health information into the hands of hard-to-reach populations; however, best practices for outreach and enrollment into mobile health (mHealth) programs are lacking. This article describes enrollment results from campaigns focused on enrolling underserved pregnant women and mothers in Text4baby-a free, mHealth service-to inform outreach strategies for mHealth programs. Text4baby participants receive health and safety information, interactive surveys, alerts, and appointment reminders through at least three weekly texts and a free app-timed to users' due date or babies' birth date. Text4baby worked with partners to implement national, state, and community-based enrollment campaigns. Descriptive statistics were used to compare baseline enrollment prior to a campaign with enrollment during a campaign to generate enrollment estimates. Enrollment rates were calculated for campaigns for which the number targeted/reached was available. National television campaigns resulted in more than 10,000 estimated enrollments. Campaigns that were integrated with an existing program and text-based recruitment had the highest enrollment rates, ranging from 7% to 24%. Facebook advertisements and traditional media targeting providers and consumers were least effective. mHealth programs should consider text-based recruitment and outreach via existing programs; additional research is needed on return on investment for different outreach strategies and on the effectiveness of different outreach strategies at reaching and enrolling specific target populations.
Grossberg, Anna L; Carranza, Dafnis; Lamp, Karen; Chiu, Melvin W; Lee, Catherine; Craft, Noah
Dermatologic care in the homeless and impoverished urban underserved populations is rarely described despite the wide prevalence of skin concerns in this population. Because the homeless population may be subject to increased sun exposure compared to the nonhomeless population, they also may be at increased risk for skin cancer. We sought to describe the spectrum of dermatologic diseases seen in a free clinic in Venice, California--the Venice Family Clinic (VFC)--as well as the differences in diagnoses between the homeless and nonhomeless patients seen at this clinic. A retrospective chart review was performed of dermatology patients (N = 82) seen at VFC throughout the 2006 calendar year. The homeless population (n = 22) was found to have more diagnoses of malignant/premalignant growths (25% [16/64] of all homeless diagnoses) compared to their nonhomeless (n = 60) counterparts (6.1% [8/132] of all nonhomeless diagnoses; P < .0001). This difference was sustained when ethnicity was controlled, with 29.6% [16/54] of diagnoses in the homeless white group consisting of malignant/ premalignant growths compared to 8.9% [4/45] of diagnoses in the nonhomeless white cohort (P < .005). Homeless patients may have a higher incidence of skin cancers and precancerous skin lesions due to increased sun exposure and/or limited access to dermatologic care.
R. Bruce Ward
Full Text Available We report early findings on the efficacy of a technology-based project in increasing self-identification for girls and underserved youth to self-select STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. ITEAMS (Innovative Technology- Enabled Astronomy for Middle Schools – an out-of-schooltime program with online, robotic telescopes as its central focus – targets girls and minority students underrepresented in STEMrelated vocations. The participating students attend urban schools in Eastern Massachusetts. ITEAMS’ twofold goal is to: a provide inspiration for the participants to pursue STEM careers, and b increase the students’ mastery of foundational subject matter so they are prepared for the rigor of further STEM study. We use an online system for surveys and assessments, the former to capture attitudinal changes about career choices, and the latter to assess the students’ subject matter knowledge. Participating students take pre-, intermediate, and post subject-matter tests and career-interest surveys. While we find statistically significant gains in subject matter knowledge free of gender, race, or school bias, we also find girls profess less interest than boys in STEM careers as early as grades five and six, although other attitudinal indicators suggest ways to reverse that trend.
Raja, Sheela; Hasnain, Memoona; Vadakumchery, Tracy; Hamad, Judy; Shah, Raveena; Hoersch, Michelle
Patient-centered care is an important goal in the delivery of healthcare. However, many patients do not engage in preventive medical care. In this pilot study, we conducted twenty in depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews at the University of Illinois at Chicago Health Sciences campus in a four month time frame. Many patients were underserved and underinsured, and we wanted to understand their experiences in the healthcare system. Using content analysis, several themes emerged from the interview data. Participants discussed the need for empathy and rapport with their providers. They identified provider behaviors that fostered a positive clinical relationship, including step-by step explanations of procedures, attention to body language and clinic atmosphere, and appropriate time management. Participants identified cost as the most common barrier to engaging in preventive care and discussed children and social support as motivating factors. A long-term relationship with a provider was an important motivator for preventive care, suggesting that the therapeutic alliance was essential to many patients. Conversely, many participants discussed a sense of dehumanization in the healthcare system, reporting that their life circumstances were overlooked, or that they were judged based on insurance status or ethnicity. We discuss implications for provider training and healthcare delivery, including the importance of patient-centered medical homes. PMID:25993110
Brickle, Colleen M; Self, Karl D
The development of dental therapy in the U.S. grew from a desire to find a workforce solution for increasing access to oral health care. Worldwide, the research that supports the value of dental therapy is considerable. Introduction of educational programs in the U.S. drew on the experiences of programs in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, with Alaska tribal communities introducing dental health aide therapists in 2003 and Minnesota authorizing dental therapy in 2009. Currently, two additional states have authorized dental therapy, and two additional tribal communities are pursuing the use of dental therapists. In all cases, the care provided by dental therapists is focused on communities and populations who experience oral health care disparities and have historically had difficulties in accessing care. This article examines the development and implementation of the dental therapy profession in the U.S. An in-depth look at dental therapy programs in Minnesota and the practice of dental therapy in Minnesota provides insight into the early implementation of this emerging profession. Initial results indicate that the addition of dental therapists to the oral health care team is increasing access to quality oral health care for underserved populations. As evidence of dental therapy's success continues to grow, mid-level dental workforce legislation is likely to be introduced by oral health advocates in other states. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
Full Text Available Patient-centered care is an important goal in the delivery of healthcare. However, many patients do not engage in preventive medical care. In this pilot study, we conducted twenty in depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews at the University of Illinois at Chicago Health Sciences campus in a four month time frame. Many patients were underserved and underinsured, and we wanted to understand their experiences in the healthcare system. Using content analysis, several themes emerged from the interview data. Participants discussed the need for empathy and rapport with their providers. They identified provider behaviors that fostered a positive clinical relationship, including step-by step explanations of procedures, attention to body language and clinic atmosphere, and appropriate time management. Participants identified cost as the most common barrier to engaging in preventive care and discussed children and social support as motivating factors. A long-term relationship with a provider was an important motivator for preventive care, suggesting that the therapeutic alliance was essential to many patients. Conversely, many participants discussed a sense of dehumanization in the healthcare system, reporting that their life circumstances were overlooked, or that they were judged based on insurance status or ethnicity. We discuss implications for provider training and healthcare delivery, including the importance of patient-centered medical homes.
Skizim, Meg; Sothern, Melinda; Blaha, Ondrej; Tseng, Tung Sung; Griffiths, Lauren; Joseph, Jonathan; Nuss, Henry
The aim of the present paper is to assess local residents' awareness of utilizing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits to purchase fresh produce at local farmers' markets, and to determine internet use and media preferences of study participants prior to implementation of a social marketing campaign. A needs assessment was conducted to collect baseline data in an underserved neighbourhood in New Orleans (La, USA). The study was carried out August 2014-May 2015. The assessment revealed that 73% of the respondents were unaware that the SNAP benefits could be used to purchase food in farmers' markets; 63% of low-income participants never attended a farmers' market compared to 27% of mid/high-income. Over 50% of the low-income respondents have access to the internet at least once per day. The results show the potential of raising awareness among a wide range of members in the community. This needs assessment will serve as the foundation for a social marketing intervention, which will be disseminated city-wide.
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to assess local residents’ awareness of utilizing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP benefits to purchase fresh produce at local farmers’ markets, and to determine internet use and media preferences of study participants prior to implementation of a social marketing campaign. A needs assessment was conducted to collect baseline data in an underserved neighbourhood in New Orleans (LA, USA. The study was carried out August 2014-May 2015. The assessment revealed that 73% of the respondents were unaware that the SNAP benefits could be used to purchase food in farmers’ markets; 63% of low-income participants never attended a farmers’ market compared to 27% of mid/high-income. Over 50% of the low-income respondents have access to the internet at least once per day. The results show the potential of raising awareness among a wide range of members in the community. This needs assessment will serve as the foundation for a social marketing intervention, which will be disseminated city-wide.
Just, Sine Nørholm; Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.
between competing frames leads to the conclusion that this political “blame game” is related to struggles over how to define the scandal, how to conceptualize its causes, and policy recommendations. Banks may have lost the battle of “Liborgate,” but the war over the meaning of financial culture is far...... from over. Originality/value – The paper is theoretically and methodologically original in its combination of the theories of framing and stasis, and it provides analytical insights into how sense is made of financial culture in the wake of the financial crisis....
Full Text Available Based on the fundamental role of the market in contemporary economic development, in this study we aim to analyse how the financial markets in Romania are regulated, monitored and, especially supervised, compared to developed or developing European countries, close or far away from the national borders. The study highlights the main trends in the existing financial supervision systems abroad after the 2000s and ends with proposals based on the authors' opinion regarding the best option for the Romanian supervisory model of financial markets.
Full Text Available Due to the increased interest for sustainability issues, entities that operate in the areas agriculture, forestry and fishery are exposed to a variety of ecological challenges. Moreover, such fields are generally of strategic importance for a country’s economy, which also increases their exposure to public debate. The present study aims to provide a detailed and accurate description of the financial and non-financial information made available by listed Romanian entities operating in agriculture, forestry and fishery. The research goes beyond the mere description of the content of shareholders’ reports. Its purpose is to assess the financial performance and stability of selected companies and to investigate the relationships between the financial well-being of such companies and the extent to which they disclose non-financial information. The sample consists of companies which operate in the business of fields agriculture, forestry or fishery and are listed at the Bucharest Stock Exchange in Romania.
Grohmann, Antonia; Kouwenberg, Roy; Menkhoff, Lukas
Financial literacy predicts informed financial decisions, but what explains financial literacy? We use the concept of financial socialization and aim to represent three major agents of financial socialization: family, school and work. Thus we compile twelve relevant childhood characteristics in a new survey study and examine their relation to financial literacy, while controlling for established socio-demographic characteristics. We find in a mediation analysis that both family and school pos...
Christopher B. Bumcrot; Judy Lin; Annamaria Lusardi
This paper explores how well equipped today’s households are to make complex financial decisions in the face of often high-cost and high-risk financial instruments. Specifically we focus on financial literacy. Most importantly, we describe the geography of financial literacy, i.e., how financial literacy is distributed across the fifty US states. We describe the correlation of financial literacy and some important aggregate variables, such as state-level poverty rates. Finally, we examine the...
LORENA POPESCU DUDUIALĂ
Full Text Available The emerging markets emerge and develop in the larger context of the international financial market development "is a consequence of the needs expressed by investors and those who wish to place their financial capital." Thus, to achieve a certain level of saturation economic zones and the lack of attractiveness of gains obtainable in certain markets determine the migration of capital to areas that are or may become interesting in terms of the gains that are achieved by investing in these areas in conjunction minimizing market risk assumed.
Eyo Asro Sasmita
Full Text Available This research is aimed to test and identify empirical evidence regarding the effect of capital structure and loan to financial performance of cooperative where the relationship between loan and financial performance is moderated by non-performing loan. The population of this research is 257 Financial Service Cooperative hereinafter referred to as KJK as the abbreviation for Koperasi Jasa Keuangan of Urban Village Community Economic Empowerment hereinafter referred to as PEMK as the abbreviation for Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Masyarakat Kelurahan in Jakarta 2011 to 2013. Sample is determined by using purposive sampling method. The data is secondary data which is obtained from the Revolving Fund Management Unit hereinafter referred to as UPDB as the abbreviation for Unit Pengelola Dana Bergulir Jakarta. Hypothesis is tested by using multiple linear regression analysis with SPSS 20.00. The number of sample used in this research is 120. Research findings explain that 1 Capital Structure hereinafter referred to as SM as the abbreviation for Struktur Modal has positive and significant impact on financial performance hereinafter referred to as KIN as the abbreviation for Kinerja Keuangan because the probability value of 0000 is smaller than amp945 0.05. Calculation shows that if the capital structure rises 1 assuming that the loan and non-performing loan variables remain the same then the financial performance will increase 0.017. 2 Loans hereinafter referred to as PIN as the abbreviation for Pinjaman given has positive and significant impact on KIN because the probability value of 0001 is smaller than amp945 0.05. If the loan rises 1 assuming that the capital structure and non-performing loan variables remain the same then the KIN will increase 0.013. 3 Non-performing loan has negative and significant effect on KIN because the probability value of 0000 is smaller than amp945 0.05. PBR varible increase 1 assuming that the loan and capital structure variables
Hoyle, Debra A; Ryan, Penni M; Hand, Jed S; Damiano, Peter; Schneider, Galen B
Like many other states, Iowa has an aging dental workforce. As this aging population of dentists retires and communities are unable to find new dentists to take over their practices, more small and rural communities lack easy access to oral health care. The University of Iowa College of Dentistry and Dental Clinics established the Office of Iowa Practice Opportunities in 2006 to promote dental practice opportunities in Iowa for its graduates. With this office, an infrastructure connecting the college with practices and communities across the state has been developed. The Office of Iowa Practice Opportunities is the first place many students go to decide what they will do after graduation and to identify practice opportunities in Iowa. The office has exceeded the college's initial expectations and has provided significant assistance in retaining recently graduated dentists in the state of Iowa and ensuring access to oral health care in the state. This article will show that facilitating connections to practice opportunities has a place in a college of dentistry.
Arezo, Gullab; Billingslea, Willie D; Brooks, James V; Brown, Jeffery D; Cotton, Cheryl; Determan, Deborah A; Dzurenko, Monte S; Egentowich, John; Greenwald, Michael N; Keegan, Matthew
.... The financial services industry impacts the daily lives of all Americans. They rely on it to save for their retirement and their children's education, pay their bills, insure against risks, and buy their homes and automobiles...
Jackson, James K
.... The collapse of the banks also raises questions for U.S. leaders and others about supervising banks that operate across national borders, especially as it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish the limits of domestic financial markets...
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The final evaluation of the Financial Services Project (FSP), undertaken by North South Consultants Exchange (NSCE), was undertaken from 17 April to end of September...
Skip to main content Financial Assistance Information Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding ...
This Annex includes financial report of the RA Reactor engineering group from 1987-1988. detailed data concerning operating and continual and investment maintenance costs, amortization related to the reactor, fuel elements and heavy water [sr
This Annex includes financial report of the RA Reactor engineering group from 1981-1985. detailed data concerning operating and continual and investment maintenance costs, amortization related to the reactor, fuel elements and heavy water [sr
These documents include the report from independent auditors balance sheet, the statement of income, the statement of changes in equity, the statement of cash flows and the explanatory notes to the financial statements.
Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.
This document provides financial data on the CEA for the year 2007. The management report (budget, resources, expenditures) and the accounting are detailed. The main management events of the year 2007 are presented. (A.L.B.)
Executive Order 11222 prescribes standards of ethical conduct for Government officials and directs the Civil Service Commission to establish guidelines for agency financial disclosure systems. The financial disclosure system of the U.S. ERDA is discussed in this report. It is felt that the system is effective for detecting and resolving questionable financial interest held by employees. In many cases, however, employees were not advised in writing of potential conflicts and necessary remedial action. Also reviewing officials did not always report to the ethics counselor the results of efforts to resolve potential conflict problems. In addition, although agency regulations require employees to disqualify themselves from working on matters in which they have financial interests, not all reviewing officials have taken action to ensure that such disqualifications occurred. In view of the agency's recent actions to strengthen the system, no official recommendations are made. (RWR)
The book introduces the key ideas behind practical nonlinear optimization. Computational finance - an increasingly popular area of mathematics degree programs - is combined here with the study of an important class of numerical techniques. The financial content of the book is designed to be relevant and interesting to specialists. However, this material - which occupies about one-third of the text - is also sufficiently accessible to allow the book to be used on optimization courses of a more general nature. The essentials of most currently popular algorithms are described, and their performan
Heising, C.D.; George, V.P.
This study examines the economy-wide financial risk associated with reactor accidents as a result of various regulatory response options that might be imposed after a serious accident, including partial or complete nuclear moratoria. The authors find that such risks may be two to three times greater than the plant-specific financial risk estimates that have previously been calculated by others (ie 500 million (1985) dollars per reactor year versus 5 to 50 million dollars). (author)
Saxby, Pridmore; Anil, Reddy
The current Western psychiatric wisdom states that suicide is always or almost always associated with mental disorder. Careful Asian studies are casting doubt on this conclusion. Using information from the public record (newspapers, coroner’s reports, and various web-based sources), we sought evidence that, in the absence of mental disorder, suicide may be associated with major financial loss. Reports of 15 individuals who completed suicide following major financial loss were identified, thus...
Doina Maria Tilea; Vasile Bleotu; Alexandra Ana Maria Serban
Financial reporting using the latest version of IFRS (2011), a result of the IASB research in cooperation with the standardizers of the national accounting standards in order to achieve convergence in accounting standards around the world on the one hand, and on the other hand to provide a set of highly qualitative global accounting standards, requires transparent and comparable information of general purpose financial statements.
Full Text Available Due to the low funding levels registered in recent years in the NGO sector in Romania, many NGOs have faced a number of difficulties, some of them have ceased to carry on business. Financial position of the governmental sector is poor, especially for large organizations that are strictly dependent on foreign funds. For the good functioning of NGOs activity, it is requiring a constant concern for finacial fundraising. The article aims to present the diversity of financial resources of NGOs.
30 juin 2011 ... de précisions sur l'incidence de la transition aux IFRS de même que le rapprochement des données financières ..... En préparant ces états financiers, le Centre a appliqué l'IAS 34, Information financière intermédiaire, et ...... 40 RAPPORT FINANCIER TRIMESTRIEL DU CRDI – JUIN 2011. Note A. En vertu ...
Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This first half financial report provides information on highlights concerning the nuclear power and the connectors, income statement, performance by division (front end division, reactors and services division, back end division and connectors division), cash flow, balance sheet, post-closing events and consolidated financial statements. (A.L.B.)
Mattiacci , Noëllie
Following multiple economic crises, the Chief Financial Officer has become a major player within the company. Its missions have unquestionably evolved. Initially, he performed accounting missions ensuring effective financial management. Today, it occupies the strategic functions necessary to the development of the company. This diversity of skills allows him to have a global and cross-enterprise vision. Despite its leading role, no study was conducted concerning the determination of the legal...
In contemporary economies classic business cycles are increasingly changing their form undergoing a transformation into phenomena that have been nicknamed financial tornados. A generalization of the Lotka-Volterra model can be used to describe these fast-changing processes. Economically speaking, the most useful are such dynamical systems in which wormholes appear. This article features application of a model with one population of prey and two populations of predators in order to explain the global financial crisis and the consequent phenomena.
Three essays on financial system stability. The first paper explores the stability of core-periphery interbank networks in a static simulation framework. The results are then compared to a meanfield approximation. While this proves accurate in early rounds of default, precision of this approximation suffers as the simulation evolves. The second essay contributes to the empirical literature on real-world economic and financial networks. We explore the topology of the Spanish bank-firm credi...
Boot, Arnoud W A; Thakor, Anjan
The main purpose of this paper is to take a step towards building a theory of financial system architecture. We begin with basic assumptions about the types of primitive agents and the nature of informational asymmetries in the economy, and then provide a theory that explains which agents coalesce to form banks and which agents trade in the capital market. Our theory incorporates a model of financial market equilibrium with sufficient richness to enable market prices to convey decision-releva...
Bruno, Valentina G.; Buyuksahin, Bahattin; Robe, Michel A.
Commodity-equity and cross-commodity return co-movements rose dramatically after the 2008 financial crisis. This development took place following what has been dubbed the 'financialization' of commodity markets. We first document changes since 2000 in the intensity of speculative activity in grain and livestock futures. We then use a structural VAR model to establish the role of speculative activity in explaining the strength of co-movements between grain, livestock and equity returns. We fin...
Full Text Available The differences between the decentralized model of the British financial market from the centralized French (continental model emerged after the financial revolution of 1688 in England, which lasted until the end of the XVII century and had an impact on public and private finance. Due to the captivity of the French Huguenots shortly before the "Glorious Revolution" in England, new technologies appeared in the financial sector, and manifested in the creation of the first British banks. After the revolution, with the coming to power of the Dutch Prince, many financiers arrived at London and were spreading the technique of effective Dutch stock transactions. Increased interest of the society to innovation in the financial market and the emergence of new investment opportunities had a positive impact on the development of stock market, government bond market and derivatives market. This, in its turn, led to the appearance of new financial intermediaries such as jobbers, who took over the high risks because of investing of own funds in securities. Such significant changes in the financial system of England became the important prerequisite of the industrial revolution and allowed it to take the leading position in the economic, political and financial area in the world.
The presentation topic is California's approach to license application review in meeting financial assurances for the proposed Ward Valley site. The purpose of the presentation is to provide information on specific financial assurance provisions contained in 10 CFR Part 61 and how California intends to satisfy those requirements. Also, as rate setter, California intends to demonstrate how it will assure allowable costs to the rate base though a financial prudency review. The key provisions of financial assurance are: 10 CFR Section 61.61 - This provision requires an applicant to demonstrate its ability to finance licensed activities; 10 CFR Section 61.62 - This provision requires an applicant to provide assurance that sufficient funds will be available for site closure and stabilization; and 10 CFR Section 61.63 - This provision requires an applicant to provide 'a copy of a binding arrangement, such as a lease, between the applicant and the disposal site owner, so that sufficient funds will be available to cover the costs of the institutional control period.' To assist California in its determination of financial assurance compliance to be demonstrated by the applicant for Part 61 requirements, is NUREG guidance document 1199 'Standard Format and Content of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Disposal Facility.' The detailed financial assurance provisions of NUREG 1199 are then embodied in NUREG 1200, 'Standard Review Plant for the Review of a License Application for a LLRW Disposal Facility.'
The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.
Research that is dealing with financial literacy turns to be such an important thing to be conducted. It is due to the fact that financial literacy level of Indonesian society is still very low. A good financial literacy is necessary for every individual to manage his/her finances to achieve prosperity. To have a good level of financial literacy,…
May 20, 2011 ... Both argue that liberalization of the financial sector- removing interest rate and credit allocation controls will ease the repression of the financial system, which would improve the rate of economic growth through increased efficiency in financial intermediation subject to better financial discipline. The two.
Collins, J. Michael; Olive, Peggy; O'Rourke, Collin M.
Financial coaching is an emerging complement to financial education and counseling. As defined in this article, financial coaching is a process whereby participants set goals, commit to taking certain actions by specific dates, and are then held accountable by the coach. In this way, financial coaching is designed to help participants bridge the…
Full Text Available Broad and narrow approaches of the financial system are obtained. The difference between the financial system and the financial sector (the fi-nancial corporations sector is shown. Organizational and institutional matrix of the financial system of the economy is proposed. Key positions of institutional sectors classification of Ukraine’s economy are analyzed, as well as the System of National Accounts with respect to the financial sec-tor of corporations. The structure of the sector of financial corporations in Ukraine is defined.
Full Text Available Paper work “Financial analysis of the financial institutions sector in Kosovo” treats financial sector in Kosovo. Paper work contains the current position of the economy, economic prospects and macroeconomic projections for the financial sector in Kosovo, future potential and possibilities of financial sector in Kosovo. The main goal of this research is financial analysis of Kosovo financial institutions sector - overview of key indicators. This research evaluates the performances of commercial bank’s profitability, which have operated in the market during the period 2006-2012. This research is conducted through financial analysis coefficients: Return on Equity, Return on assets and Cost to Income. Test t-Student is used to analyze the profitability for the period 2006/2007 before the financial crisis and the period 2011/2012 after financial crisis.
Background High fertility rates, unwanted pregnancies, low modern contraceptive prevalence and a huge unmet need for contraception adversely affect women’s health in Pakistan and this problem is compounded by limited access to reliable information and quality services regarding birth spacing especially in rural and underserved areas. This paper presents a study protocol that describes an evaluation of a demand-side financing (DSF) voucher approach which aims to increase the uptake of modern contraception among women of the lowest two wealth quintiles in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Methods/Design This study will use quasi-experimental design with control arm and be implemented in: six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department; 24 social franchise facilities branded as ‘Suraj’ (Sun), led by Marie Stopes Society (a local non-governmental organization); and 12 private sector clinics in Chakwal, Mianwali and Bhakkar districts. The study respondents will be interviewed at baseline and endline subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. In addition, health service data will record each client visit during the study period. Discussion The study will examine the impact of vouchers in terms of increasing the uptake of modern contraception by engaging private and public sector service providers (mid-level and medical doctors). If found effective, this approach can be a viable solution to satisfying the current demand and meeting the unmet need for contraception, particularly among the poorest socio-economic group. PMID:24885657
Brady, Richard T.
Federal agencies have traditionally prepared financial reports to monitor and report the obligation and expenditure of federal funding. With the passage of the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, Congress called for the production of financial statements that fully disclose a federal entity's financial position and results of operations. The disclosure of this type of information, it was believed, would enable decision-makers to understand the financial implications of budgetary, policy and...
Agyekum, Francis; Locke, Stuart; Hewa-Wellalage, Nirosha
The paper examines the relationship between increasing accessibility to digital financial services (DFS) and financial inclusion in lower income countries (LICs). Banks and non-bank organisations use DFS and the analysis indicates non-bank-based DFS emerges as the most efficient means of delivering cost effective financial services to the previously unbanked. Mobile cellular penetration and internet usage are mutually inclusive means through which digital financial services foster financial ...
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This paper provides an empirical analysis of the role of financial development and financial integration in the growth dynamics of transition countries. We focus on the role of financial integration in determining the impact of financial development on growth, distinguishing “normal times” from periods of financial crises. In addition to confirming the significant positive effect on growth exerted by financial development and financial integration, our estimates show that a higher degree of financial openness tends to reduce the contractionary effect of financial crises, by cushioning the effect on the domestic supply of credit. Consequently, the high reliance on international capital flows by transition countries does not necessarily increase their financial fragility. This implies that financial protectionism is a self-defeating policy, at least for transition countries.
Orkin, Aaron M; Curran, Jeffrey D; Fortune, Melanie K; McArthur, Allison; Mew, Emma J; Ritchie, Stephen D; Van de Velde, Stijn; VanderBurgh, David
The Disease Control Priorities Project recommends emergency care training for laypersons in low-resource settings, but evidence for these interventions has not yet been systematically reviewed. This review will identify the individual and community health effects of educating laypeople to deliver prehospital emergency care interventions in low-resource settings. This systematic review addresses the following question: in underserviced populations and low-resource settings (P), does first aid or emergency care training or education for laypeople (I) confer any individual or community health benefit for emergency health conditions (O), in comparison with no training or other forms of education (C)? We restrict this review to studies reporting quantitatively measurable outcomes, and search 12 electronic bibliographic databases and grey literature sources. A team of expert content and methodology reviewers will conduct title and abstract screening and full-text review, using a custom-built online platform. Two investigators will independently extract methodological variables and outcomes related to patient-level morbidity and mortality and community-level effects on resilience or emergency care capacity. Two investigators will independently assess external validity, selection bias, performance bias, measurement bias, attrition bias and confounding. We will summarise the findings using a narrative approach to highlight similarities and differences between the gathered studies. Formal ethical approval is not required. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and knowledge translation strategy. CRD42014009685. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Xu, Melody J; Su, David; Deboer, Rebecca; Garcia, Michael; Tahir, Peggy; Anderson, Wendy; Kinderman, Anne; Braunstein, Steve; Sherertz, Tracy
Familiarity with principles of palliative care, supportive care, and palliative oncological treatment is essential for providers caring for cancer patients, though this may be challenging in global communities where resources are limited. Herein, we describe the scope of literature on palliative oncological care curricula for providers in resource-limited settings. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Med Ed Portal databases, and gray literature. All available prospective cohort studies, case reports, and narratives published up to July 2017 were eligible for review. Fourteen articles were identified and referenced palliative care education programs in Argentina, Uganda, Kenya, Australia, Germany, the USA, or multiple countries. The most common teaching strategy was lecture-based, followed by mentorship and experiential learning involving role play and simulation. Education topics included core principles of palliative care, pain and symptom management, and communication skills. Two programs included additional topics specific to the underserved or American Indian/Alaskan Native community. Only one program discussed supportive cancer care, and no program reported educational content on resource-stratified decision-making for palliative oncological treatment. Five programs reported positive participant satisfaction, and three programs described objective metrics of increased educational or research activity. There is scant literature on effective curricula for providers treating cancer patients in resource-limited settings. Emphasizing supportive cancer care and palliative oncologic treatments may help address gaps in education; increased outcome reporting may help define the impact of palliative care curriculum within resource-limited communities.
Gazmararian, Julie A; Elon, Lisa; Yang, Baiyu; Graham, Megan; Parker, Ruth
Text4baby was launched in 2010 to promote healthy pregnancies and babies by the use of text messaging. The primary objective of this study was to assess factors related to the enrollment process and reception of text4baby. A prospective cohort study was conducted in two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta (April 2010-July 2011). Randomly selected pregnant and postpartum women (n = 468) were queried on cell phone use and instructed on text4baby enrollment. Self-enrollment issues were assessed at one-week follow-up (n = 351, 75.0 %), and message reception and reading patterns at two-month follow-up (n = 209, 44.7 %). Forty-two percent of the women had some college education and 82 % had household income education (80 % with some college vs. 62 % with less education), with household income above $10,000 (61 % $20,000), and among women living in smaller households (77 % 1-3 members vs. 58 % > 3 members) (all p 90 % reported uninterrupted reception and regular reading of messages, and 88 % planned to continue using text4baby. Results also suggested that respondents who were younger (educated and had lower health literacy skills were more likely to have interrupted messages. Despite substantial interest in the text4baby program in an underserved population, innovative ways to help women with significant disadvantages enroll and receive uninterrupted messages are needed.
Romero, Jorge; Baldinger, Samuel H; Goodman-Meza, David; Engstrom, Krysthel; Valencia, Carolina R; Golive, Anjani; Medrano, Francisco; Rangasamy, Sabarivinoth; Makkiya, Mohammed; Fisher, John D; Gross, Jay; Krumerman, Andrew; Kim, Soo; Garcia, Mario J; Di Biase, Luigi; Ferrick, Kevin J
Although it has been well established that methadone use can result in prolonged QTc/torsades de pointes (TdP) and has been labeled as one of the main drugs that cause TdP, it is still prescribed indiscriminately, and several cases of methadone-associated TdP have been seen in our community. Our objective was to determine the associated factors for prolonged QTc and the development of torsades de pointes (TdP) in our underserved patient population. We found 12,550 ECGs with prolonged QTc between 2002 and 2013. Medical records were reviewed in order to identify precipitating factors for prolonged QTc and to detect incidence of TdP. We identified 2735 patients with prolonged QTc who met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 89 (3%) experienced TdP. There was a greater prevalence of HIV infection in the TdP group (11.2 vs. 3.7%, p methadone, haloperidol, and azithromycin were the drugs most often associated with prolonged QTc (31, 8.2, 7.6, 7.1, 3.9, 3.4 and 3.3%, respectively). However, the agents most commonly associated with TdP were furosemide (39.3%), methadone (27%), SSRIs (19.1%), amiodarone (18%), and dofetilide (9%). The medications with statistical significance in the multivariate analysis for TdP development in descending order were as follows: ranolazine (odds ratios [OR] = 53.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.4-524, p methadone (OR = 9.89, CI 4.05-24.15, p Methadone was by far the leading medication implicated in the development of TdP and an independent predictor in both univariate and multivariate analyses despite the fact that it was not the most common QT-prolonging medication in our population.
Rashid, Shumyla; Carcel, Consuelo; Morphew, Tricia; Amaro, Silvia; Galant, Stanley
Retention in a mobile asthma clinic, the Breathmobile™, of ≥3 visits has previously been shown to be essential for attaining asthma control in underserved children. The objective of this study in primarily Hispanic-American children was to determine the difference in retention between those seen in the Breathmobile™ compared to those receiving an additional promotora-based home visit (HV). Children with asthma in the Breathmobile™ program were evaluated for asthma status and aeroallergen sensitivity. Indication for HV included poor asthma control, educational and environmental control needs. An initial visit consisted of environmental assessment as well as a 3-h interactive educational session covering asthma basics. A follow-up visit 1 month later assessed implementation. The primary outcome measure of retention was ≥6 months in the Breathmobile™ program. Of the 1007 asthmatic children seen between April 2002 and June of 2005, 136 received HV. These children showed significantly greater retention compared to those without HV with a median number of visits (5 visits versus 2 visits), ≥3 Breathmobile™ visits (86.0% versus 38.8%), median number of days in the program (299 versus 63 days) and percentage of patients in the program ≥6 months (67.8% versus 31.3%) p < 0.001. HV and asthma severity were each independent predictors of retention. The addition of a promotora HV program proved effective in providing greater retention in the Breathmobile™ program essential for asthma control. Randomized clinical trials will be needed to show the impact on health care utilization and asthma control.
Maze, Claire D Martino
Health disparities exist and refer to the chasms in health status between the advantaged and disadvantaged. Intense multiculturalism will require different approaches and moral obligations to work with these groups and urgency exists to develop nursing caring strategies when dealing with these populations. Development of nursing curricula which identify prejudicial thinking and intolerance for marginalized groups will help to decrease fears and increase nurses' willingness to provide culturally competent health care for underserved and disenfranchised populations. Caring for members of disenfranchised groups instills fear at some level in nurses who are working with these individuals. This fear may be due, in part, to the potential harm nurses perceive the patient may cause them, or perhaps it is because they feel they could possibly be in the individual's situation at some point in their lives. Prejudice and discrimination continue to exist in society and have adversely affected the health care system and the nursing profession. Discrimination may be based on differences due to age, ability, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or any characteristics by which people differ. Registered Nurses are accountable for nursing decisions and actions regardless of personal preferences. Due to the rapidly changing healthcare system the nurse faces increasing ethical dilemmas and human rights issues. Nurses are individually accountable for caring for each patient and the right to refuse an assignment should be carefully interpreted to avoid patient abandonment. Nurses' objections can be based on moral, ethical, or religious beliefs not on personal preferences and in an emergency the nurse must provide treatment regardless of any personal objections.
... Environmental Financial Advisory Board AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... considered for appointments to fill vacancies on the Environmental Financial Advisory Board. The Board seeks... demonstrate expertise/experience in any of the following areas: Environmental technology; sustainable...
Gail Pearson; Philip N Stoop; Michelle Kelly-Louw
In Australia there is an obligation to promote the informed participation of financial consumers while in South Africa there is an obligation to educate consumers. The Australian obligation is concerned with the financial system as a whole while the South African obligation has generally been focused on general financial education as a tool to promote financial inclusion. There is no obligation for consumers to attain a minimum standard of literacy in credit or finance generally. Financial li...
International Monetary Fund
The Financial System Stability Assessment of Morocco reviews the reform program that is aimed at establishing a modern, market-oriented financial system that optimizes the mobilization of savings and the allocation of financial resources. It reviews the modernization of the banking sector and the development of competition within the sector, development of financial markets, and removal of constraints on financial system activity. It also provides reports on the Observance of Standards and Co...
Menkhoff, Lukas; Kaiser, Tim
A meta-analysis of 126 impact evaluation studies finds that financial education significantly impacts financial behavior and, to an even larger extent, financial literacy. These results also hold for the subsample of randomized experiments (RCTs). However, intervention impacts are highly heterogeneous: financial education is less effective for low-income clients as well as in low- and lowe...
... areas such as (1) risk-management policies and procedures, (2) margin and collateral requirements, (3... designated FMU that is acting as a CSD to institute risk controls that include collateral requirements and... Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act'' or ``Act''), including risk-management standards for financial market...
Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija
according to the date of application for reorganization: the first group of businesses applied for reorganization between 1 and 182 days after the closing of accounts, and the second group between 183 and 365 days after that point. The study findings provide evidence that the financial distress process......The present study adds to our understanding and knowledge of financial distress predictions regarding the usefulness of financial ratios in the late stages of the financial distress process. The study contributes to previous research by generating information concerning: (1) the behavior...... and usefulness of single financial ratios in short-term financial distress prediction when the effect of each different financial distress process stage is considered; (2) the effects of recognition of the financial distress process stage on the financial distress prediction model. The time horizon...
Ossandón, José; Deville, Joe; Lazarus, Jeanne
a lively academic atmosphere for this emerging multidisciplinary and international academic conversation around the place of finance in contemporary life. Second, we expect to demonstrate that what we term domesticizing finance adds a particular modification to the study of finance more generally......In the wake of the financial crisis, there has been an explosion of interest in the place finance occupies in our societies and economies. This paper suggests a different angle from which to study of finance, interested in how finance is domesticized. Domesticizing finance, as a theoretical...... and methodological orientation, is about simultaneously studying the use and practice of finance in domestic settings and the ways in which domestic life is enacted as target of varied financial providers and governed in terms of its financial capabilities. We aim to achieve three things in this article. First...
in the decision making and the magnitude of these constraints does sometimes vary with personal traits. Therefore, to the extent that financial analysts are subjects to behavioral biases their outputs to the investors are likely to be biased by their interpretation of information. Because investors need accuracy....... The primary focus is on financial analysts in the task of conducting earnings forecasts while a secondary focus is on investors’ abilities to interpret and make use of these forecasts. Simply put, financial analysts can be seen as information intermediators receiving inputs to their analyses from firm...... management and providing outputs to the investors. Amongst various outputs from the analysts are forecasts of earnings. According to decision theories mostly from the literature in psychology all humans are affected by cognitive constraints to some degree. These constraints may lead to unintentional biases...
This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...... on this, the paper shows that the Swedish tax officials seek to motivate large construction contractors and municipalities to take preventive measures in relation to their sub-contractors to avoid and abate tax evasion. The paper shows the challenges in engaging and involving these external stakeholders...
Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.
Khorosheva Olena I.
Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of grounds of interconnection of the financial economy and financial system. The study was conducted with consideration of main provisions of the theory of finance and concept of financial economy, which is a set of means used in the process of reproduction of finance by their owner for formation and / or maintenance of the own system of values in the viable state. For the first time ever the structure of the financial system is identified as an aggregate of financial economies and financial market. The article justifies a necessity of expansion of boundaries of perception of the state financial economy, which is offered to include public financial economy of the state level and the set of financial economies of the state as a subject of economic activity. Such an approach forms a base for justification of the synthesis of participation of the state in financial relations as the owner and as the basic macro-economic regulator. Prospects of further study in this direction are: development of classification of financial economies; revelation of specific features of impact of shadow finance on development of the national financial economy; and assessment of possibilities of inclusion of structured financial products into the system of values of financial economies in Ukraine.
Saraiya, Mona; Benard, Vicki B; Greek, April A; Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya; Massad, L Stewart; Sawaya, George F; Unger, Elizabeth R
The primary cervical cancer screening strategy for women over age 30 is high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing combined with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing (cotesting) every 5 years. This combination strategy is a preventive service that is required by the Affordable Care Act to be covered with no cost-sharing by most health insurance plans. The cotesting recommendation was made based entirely on prospective data from an insured population that may have a lower proportion of women with HPV positive and Pap negative results (ie, discordant results). The discordant group represents a very difficult group to manage. If the frequency of discordant results among underserved women is higher, health care providers may perceive the cotesting strategy to be a less favorable screening strategy than traditional Pap testing every 3 years. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Cervical Cancer Study was conducted at 15 clinics in 6 federally qualified health centers across Illinois. Providers at these clinics were given the option of cotesting for routine cervical cancer screening. Type-specific HPV detection was performed on residual extracts using linear array. Pap test results were abnormal in 6.0% and HPV was positive in 7.2% of the underserved women screened in this study (mean age, 45.1 years). HPV prevalence decreased with age, from 10.3% among 30- to 39-year-olds to 4.5% among 50- to 60-year-olds. About 5% of the women had a combination of a positive HPV test and normal Pap test results; HPV 16/18 was identified in 14% of discordant women. The rate of discordant results among underserved women was similar to those reported throughout the US in a variety of populations. Typing for HPV 16/18 appears to assist in the management in a small proportion of women with discordant results. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Fleming Lora E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel low-cost approaches for conducting rapid health assessments and health promotion interventions among underserved worker groups are needed. Recruitment and participation of construction workers is particularly challenging due to their often transient periods of work at any one construction site, and their limited time during work to participate in such studies. In the present methodology report, we discuss the experience, advantages and disadvantages of using touch screen handheld devices for the collection of field data from a largely underserved worker population. Methods In March 2010, a workplace-centered pilot study to examine the feasibility of using a handheld personal device for the rapid health assessment of construction workers in two South Florida Construction sites was undertaken. A 45-item survey instrument, including health-related questions on tobacco exposure, workplace safety practices, musculoskeletal disorders and health symptoms, was programmed onto Apple iPod Touch® devices. Language sensitive (English and Spanish recruitment scripts, verbal consent forms, and survey questions were all preloaded onto the handheld devices. The experience (time to survey administration and capital cost of the handheld administration method was recorded and compared to approaches available in the extant literature. Results Construction workers were very receptive to the recruitment, interview and assessment processes conducted through the handheld devices. Some workers even welcomed the opportunity to complete the questionnaire themselves using the touch screen handheld device. A list of advantages and disadvantages emerged from this experience that may be useful in the rapid health assessment of underserved populations working in a variety of environmental and occupational health settings. Conclusions Handheld devices, which are relatively inexpensive, minimize survey response error, and allow for easy storage of data
Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Clarke, Tainya C; Davila, Evelyn P; Fleming, Lora E; Lee, David J
Novel low-cost approaches for conducting rapid health assessments and health promotion interventions among underserved worker groups are needed. Recruitment and participation of construction workers is particularly challenging due to their often transient periods of work at any one construction site, and their limited time during work to participate in such studies. In the present methodology report, we discuss the experience, advantages and disadvantages of using touch screen handheld devices for the collection of field data from a largely underserved worker population. In March 2010, a workplace-centered pilot study to examine the feasibility of using a handheld personal device for the rapid health assessment of construction workers in two South Florida Construction sites was undertaken. A 45-item survey instrument, including health-related questions on tobacco exposure, workplace safety practices, musculoskeletal disorders and health symptoms, was programmed onto Apple iPod Touch® devices. Language sensitive (English and Spanish) recruitment scripts, verbal consent forms, and survey questions were all preloaded onto the handheld devices. The experience (time to survey administration and capital cost) of the handheld administration method was recorded and compared to approaches available in the extant literature. Construction workers were very receptive to the recruitment, interview and assessment processes conducted through the handheld devices. Some workers even welcomed the opportunity to complete the questionnaire themselves using the touch screen handheld device. A list of advantages and disadvantages emerged from this experience that may be useful in the rapid health assessment of underserved populations working in a variety of environmental and occupational health settings. Handheld devices, which are relatively inexpensive, minimize survey response error, and allow for easy storage of data. These technological research modalities are useful in the
Kirchner, M.; van Wijnbergen, S.
Recent macro developments in the euro area have highlighted the interactions between fiscal policy, sovereign debt, and financial fragility. We take a structural macroeconomic model with frictions in the financial intermediation process, in line with recent research, but introduce asset choice and
This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) is an update of the assessment done in 2001. It discusses progress made in the area of Public Financial Management (PFM) reforms since then, and provides a status-matrix in Appendix 1 on the implementation of the key recommendations of the 2001 CFAA. following are recommendations noteworthy: streamline the requirements in the budget ...
Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick
This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in financial services and risk management. Ohio College Tech Prep Program standards are described, and a key to profile codes is provided. Sample occupations in this career area, such as financial accountant, loan…
... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 6401.102 Prohibited financial... having outside employment with or holding stock or any other financial interest in companies that... apply to companies with subsidiaries in these areas but do not include retail distributors to the...
Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Wong, Wing-Keung
textabstractThis Opinion article briefly reviews some of the literature in behavioural and financial economics that are related to health & medical economics. We then discuss some of the research on behavioural and financial economics that could be extended to health & medical economics beyond the existing areas in theory, statistics and econometrics.
This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects: busin......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis.......This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...
Deville, Joe; Lazarus, Jeanne; Luzzi, Mariana
are affected by their everyday participation in finance. From geographers describing the intimacies of contemporary financial ecologies, to sociological studies comparing personalized and quantified credit assessments, to detailed work within science and technology studies on how monetary devices shape...... practices as well as the precise way financial providers are evaluating, sorting and targeting their consumers. We believe these diverse trends are starting to converge, and the ambitions of this paper are both to organize scattered literature and to reflect upon the consequences of the new field...
Benjamin F. Cummings
Full Text Available This paper reviews economic theory related to investment advice. This theory explains 1 why financial advisors need to be carefully regulated for the benefit of both the investment advice industry and for consumers, 2 why principles-based regulation (e.g., a fiduciary standard is more efficient than rules-based regulation, 3 why dual regulation of financial professionals providing investment or insurance advice is inefficient and inequitable policy, and 4 why the application of a universal and uniform fiduciary standard will be difficult to implement.
Stenfors, Alexis; Clark, Eric; Farahani, Ilia; Hansen, Anders Lund; Passarella, Marco
This study investigates the evolution of the Swedish financial system since the 1980s. The concept of financialisation, with its different elements and perspectives, is used as a lens through which the key historical developments are analysed. The aim of the study is two-fold. First, by highlighting some unique country-specific features, it addresses the profound changes that have taken place in the Swedish financial system during the last decades in relation to the ‘rise and fall’ of the so-...
Tolbert, Sara E.
This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching
Wang, Jianxin; Gochoco-Bautista, Maria Socorro; Sotocinal, Noli
Motivated by the literature on the finance–growth nexus, this paper explores the mechanisms through which finance affects corporate investments and capital accumulation. We separate the effects of financial conditions from those of financial development. Based on a sample of firms from five Asian emerging economies, we find that (1) financial conditions and financial development affect corporate investments through different channels. Financial conditions affect firms' growth opportunities an...
The importance of aquaculture community group (ACG) in social media (Facebook) towards the aquaculture knowledge and financial improvement of small scale fish farmers (SSFF) in rural areas of Central Java
Elfitasari, T.; Nugroho, R. A.; Nugroho, A. P.
Internet is now widely used by people all over the world, including small scale fisheries communities such as fish farmers. Many applications are being created including social media Facebook which are used by small scale fish farmers (SSFF) for its ease and convenience. The objective of this research is to identify the impact of aquaculture community group (ACG) in social media Facebook towards the improvement of aquaculture knowledge and financial condition of small scale fish farmers in Central Java. This research used quantitative approach where questionnaires were distributed into two groups: SSFF who are member of ACG in social media Facebook and who are not. Sampling technique used random sampling, used 60 samples of SSFF in Central Java. Data obtained were tested using the test statistic Independent t-test using SPSS v.20. Result showed a significant effect of group who are member of ACG in social media Facebook and those who are not, towards the aquaculture knowledge (t count -7.424 and sig 0.000) and financial improvement (t -3.775 and sig 0.000). The results of the average value of the SSFF who are ACG member in Facebook are also higher than farmers who are not.
Full Text Available • IFRS for SMEs give the response to an international requirement of the developed and emerging economies in the process of globalization to have a rigorous and common set of international accounting provisions (standard, rule, regulation specifically for SMEs, to be much more simplified than the complete IFRSs. The area where are applicable the IFRS for SMEs includes all the profit-oriented entities that prepare the general financial statements and do not have the public accountability and there are excluded the entities whose securities are publicly traded and the financial institutions like banks and the insurance companies.
The tempestuous rise of finance in contemporary capitalism has incited a frantic search for new conceptual tools to make empirical and theoretical sense of it. Financialization and the theoretical connotations it carries, is one such new conceptual tool. Although a growing number of scholars are
Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam
The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...
Earning, spending, saving and investing, and using credit are important aspects of money management that teens need to understand as they move into adulthood. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals have a long history of addressing this important life skill. This brief article describes the High School Financial Planning Program (HSFPP),…
Hasek, Roman; Petraskova, Vladimira
For most people, including students, it is not easy to have a good grasp of the basic terms in the field of finance and of their interrelations, in particular due to the fact that the offer for financial products keeps changing and its statement is frequently unclear, insincere and confusing. The Pedagogical Faculty of the University of South…
Full Text Available Un nouveau système financier, à la fois concentré et autonome, se met en place. Ses «lieux sacrés» sont cartographiés: «centres universels» majeurs (2 ou 3, centres régionaux, centres «spécialisés» en archipel.
May 18, 1991 ... The financial position of 5th- and 6th-year medical students at the University of Cape Town was analysed. The median annual expenditure for a 6th-year student in private accom- modation is R13790. The trend in applicants to medical school has changed, with proportionally more now coming.
This work provides basic information about consolidation and consolidated financial statements. In the beginning there are definisions of the members of the group under discussion and their relationship. Hereafter concepts of consolidation, accounting methods and methods of consolidation are discussed. It also compares approach of different accounting systems to consolidation.
van Raaij, W.F.
Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic
Poulsen, Rolf; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani
In the basic Markowitz and Merton models, a stock’s weight in efficient portfolios goes up if its expected rate of return goes up. Put differently, there are no financial Giffen goods. By an example from mortgage choice we illustrate that for more complicated portfolio problems Giffen effects do...
Reporting Forms. Forms should simplify and speed the process of financial reporting. An illustration of the forms follows each short description below. Project Information Summary — FR1. This page asks you to identify the project, specify the time period covered by the report, and certify your institution's endorsement of the ...
Taylor, Michael G.
This report synthesizes experiences in a number of countries (United Kingdom, Netherlands, Germany, Australia, Japan) on the market economy in higher education. Considered are market forces, various financial structures (institutional budgets, student funding, research infrastructure, other income, staffing), and implications for the future. (MSE)
Full Text Available The Schools Act, 84 of 1996 (section 42(b, requires that all public schools in South Africa, “as soon as practical, but not later than three months after the end of each financial year, draw up annual financial statements”. These schools must further submit audited financial statements to the Department of Education within six months after the school’s year end (section 43 and according to section 43(6, “at the request of an interested person, the governing body must make the records referred to in section 42, and the audited or examined financial statements referred to in this section, available for inspection”. The compilation, auditing and submission of these statements are therefore legally required and are compulsory for all schools. The study aims firstly to establish whether schools in South Africa comply with the current legislative prescripts and accounting and auditing practices, and secondly to identify possible problem areas in this regard.
Gammon, Earl; Wigan, Duncan
This article advances towards the reconceptualization of financial innovation. It examines the calamitous role of financial innovation in the global financial crisis, developing a non-rational theorization of finance within the social economy that factors in the role of affect. Outlining...... of financial innovation premised on pecuniary expedients and aspirations of market completion. As we argue, in a broader affective economy, contemporary financial innovation serves invidious ends, providing a means of attaining social distinction, constituting a medium for violent expenditure and bestowing...... access to sovereign expression on its purveyors. Highlighting the non-rational dimension of financial markets prompts a reconsideration of the nature of crisis and the means of its redress....
Ayuba A. Aminu
Full Text Available The importance of financial ethics and its application in financial reporting of banks cannot be ignored as it assists in building public confidence and fostering professionalism. However, the non-compliance and conformity with Nigerian Financial Regulatory Authorities prudential guidelines in the preparation of financial statements lead to incomplete or false information. The objective of the study is to examine the application of financial ethics in annual financial reporting of banks. The study employed primary and secondary data and stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used in which 20 questionnaires were administered to respondents. ANOVA and chi-square were in analysis and the findings revealed that there are significant unethical practices in the preparation of financial reports of banks in Nigeria. The study recommends that more emphasis and attention should be given to ethical standards in all banks and banks should give out clear reports of their financial activities to the regulatory authorities.
Eric S. Rosengren
Remarks by Eric S. Rosengren, President and Chief Executive Officer, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, at the Boston University conference on The State of Financial Reform (panel on Lessons Learned from the Global Financial Meltdown), February 28, 2011, Boston, Massachusetts
The article aims at discussing the evolution of the concept of materiality in financial and, more specifically, non-financial reporting. Materiality will play a central role in the next years in order for reports to reach conciseness, which is at present one of the main goals both financial and non-financial reporting (in particular Integrated Reporting) aims to achieve. The article reviews the most relevant materiality frameworks and definitions and provides further insights for the advancem...
Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M; Tolchard, Barry
There are a number of hard to reach and underserved communities who experience inadequate health care. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders peoples experience low life expectancy, higher levels for chronic disease and elevated smoking and drinking. These problems are further exacerbated when living in regional and rural Australia and poverty. There are growing concerns over helping such groups in order to close the health disparity gap. A student-led clinic (SLC) was developed to address clinical placement shortages while providing free health and social services in an underserved community in regional Australia. Health data was collected from 2086 attendees enrolled in the SLC to determine health changes and outcomes of student-delivered services. A series of health data was routinely collected at all contact points. This included physical health care, behavioural health risk, and chronic disease measures. All data was recorded in an electronic monitoring system. Population data identified some significant and positive changes to health patterns-smoking, waist size, and body mass index. Unfortunately, gaps in data entry precluded more robust findings. It was clear that this community suffered from experiences commonly associated with health disparity and poverty. There were higher risks of drinking alcohol and smoking with raised levels of lifestyle disease including diabetes. Some of these issues were mitigated by the community being able to attend a locally situated community driven clinic.
Snowden, Jessica; Darden, Paul; Palumbo, Paul; Saul, Phil; Lee, Jeannette
The institutional development award (IDeA) program was created to increase the competitiveness of investigators in states with historically low success rates for National Institutes of Health (NIH) research funding applications. IDeA states have high numbers of rural and medically underserved residents with disproportionately high rates of infant mortality, obesity, and poverty. This program supports the development and expansion of research infrastructure and research activities in these states. The IDeA States Pediatric Clinical Trials Network (ISPCTN) is part of the environmental influences on child health outcomes program. Its purpose is to build research capacity within IDeA states and provide opportunities for children in IDeA states to participate in clinical trials. This review describes the current and future activities of the network. In its initial year, the ISPCTN created an online series on clinical trials, initiated participation in a study conducted by the pediatric trials network, and proposed two novel clinical trials for obese children. Capacity building and clinical trial implementation will continue in future years. The ISPCTN is uniquely poised to establish and support new pediatric clinical research programs in underserved populations, producing both short and long-term gains in the understanding of child health.
Britt, Sonya L.; Canale, Anthony; Fernatt, Fred; Stutz, Kristen; Tibbetts, Racquel
This study had two distinct purposes. First, to determine the predictors of financial stress among college students who sought free peer-based financial counseling from a large Midwestern university (N = 675). Secondly, to determine the effectiveness of the particular financial counseling center from a subsample of those who sought help (N = 97).…
Prawitz, Aimee D.; Cohart, Judith
Based on the life-cycle theory of consumption, this quasi-experimental study of 995 employees examined changes in financial behaviors following employee-needs-driven workplace financial education. Repeated-measures ANOVA compared participants and non-participants on perceived financial wellness and savings ratios; main effects indicated that both…
Call, Lindsay Larson; Dyer, W. Justin; Wiley, Angela R.; Day, Randal D.
Recently, national attention has turned to the need for increased financial education, particularly for low-income populations. Incarcerated individuals represent a growing low-income group with unique needs that could likely benefit from financial education. However, few studies have examined the specific financial education needs of inmates,…
Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, E.H.; Lensink, Robert
We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the new
Using data on Indian state-owned banks for 1997-2007, the article tests the relationship between financial inclusion and financial fragility. The findings reveal that these variables are intertwined, with each tending to reinforce the other. More importantly, financial fragility is a non-linear determinant of both availability and use of banking services.
Korb, Brian R.
Widows constitute a growing segment of the U.S. population; however, very little has been done to educate them on the basics of personal financial planning. The creation and implementation of financial planning education programs for widows can help them become more financially literate and free them from anxiety and fear. Interviews with eight…
Full Text Available Financial information has, indisputably, an important effect in economics. To form an effective capital market, financial information must be reliable and accurate. Misleading financial information always has a negative impact on economic decision taken by users. It is known that financial information as the cornerstone of financial markets, can improve economic performance in several ways. Nowadays we are facing economic crisis due to irregularities of presentation of financial statements to users. Misunderstandings cause economic recession. Detection of fraudulent financial information, is an important issue facing the auditing profession. Currently, bankruptcy of companies around the world, leaves millions of people without jobs, this is caused by financial information which is manipulated by companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of errors and manipulation committed in the financial information sector on the real economy. Also one of the purposes of this paper is to analyze error and fraud in financial statements how it effects the real economy and the reasons for committing fraud in financial statements. Also, several suggestions are included in this study about actions that can be taken to prevent errors and manipulation in financial information.
Subject areas include: design of financial reporting systems; general accounting techniques in oil and gas industries; current cost evaluation; reserve measurement; transfer pricing; profitability measurement; comparability with FRS data; and field auditing. (GHT)
MSc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija
Full Text Available The most recent developments in economy are a clear indicator of many changes, which are a result of this high rate pacing, which also demonstrates as such. Market economy processes occur as a result of intertwining of many potential technological and human factors, thereby creating a system of numerous diver-gences and turbulences. Economics, a social science, is characteri-sed with movements from a system to another system, and is har-monized with elements or components which have impacted the development and application of economic policies as a result. This example can be illustrated with the passing from a commanded system (centralized to a self-governing (decentrali-zed system, while the movement from a system to another is known as transi-tion. Such transition in its own nature bears a number of problems of almost any kind (political, economic, social, etc., and is charac-terised with differences from a country to another. Financial crisis is a phenomenon consisting of a perception of economic policies and creation of an economic and financial stabi-lity in regional and global structures. From this, one may assume that each system has its own changes in its nature, and as a result of these changes, we have the crisis of such a system. Even in the economic field, if we look closely, we have such a problem, where development trends both in human and technological fields have created a large gap between older times and today, thereby crea-ting dynamics with a high intensity of action. If we dwell on the problem, and enter into the financial world, we can see that the so-called industrialized countries have made giant leaps in deve-lopment, while countries in transition have stalled in many fields, as a result of a high rate of corruption and unemployment in these countries, and obviously these indicators are directly connected, thereby stroking the financial system in these countries. Corruption is an element, which directly and indirectly
Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.
Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.
The audit objective was to determine whether the OASD(C31) methods for preparing FY 1996 CIM, general purpose financial statements will result in auditable and complete general purpose financial statements...
Allison, Douglas; Barry, Kevin; Beaver, Philip; Browne, Michael; Cubillos, Claudio; Hanger, Wallace; Kluchko, Luke; LaDue, Charles; McGhee, Michael; Mitsoff, Gregory
.... The industry includes those firms that provide financial services to organizations or individuals, the government agencies that regulate the industry, and the markets that facilitate the exchange of financial assets...
Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.
Stability in financial institutions and in financial markets are closely intertwined. Banks and other financial institutions need liquid markets through which to conduct risk management. And markets need the back-up liquidity lines provided by financial institutions. Market liquidity depends not only on objective, exogenous factors, but also on endogenous market dynamics. Central banks responsible for systemic stability need to consider how far their traditional responsibility for the health ...
P Martin; H Rey
The paper investigates the impact of financial integration on asset return, risk diversification and breadth of financial markets. We analyse a three-country macroeconomic model in which (i) the number of financial assets is endogenous; (ii) assets are imperfect substitutes; (iii) cross-border asset trade entails some transaction costs; (iv) the investment technology is indivisible. In such an environment, lower transaction costs between two financial markets translate to higher demand for as...
International Monetary Fund
This assessment is a review of the financial environment of Malaysia. Like many other Asian countries, Malaysia experienced financial distress in the late 1990s, but the country’s policy reforms have moved it to a successful economy. A ten-year financial plan (2001–10) by Bank Negara Malaysia restructured the financial sector. Banks were well capitalized, household debts were strengthened, and securities and insurances were developed. Malaysia thus became the global center for Islamic finance...
Hull Kristensen, Peer
This paper is concerned to show how the Danish political elite interpreted and responded to the consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for the Danish economy. In particular, the paper describes how this interpretive construction focused primarily on three features of the Danish context...... and unemployment benefits; thirdly, the adverse effects of the crisis were causing an increase in government expenditure and a decline in government revenues which was rapidly becoming unsustainable. As a consequence, the Danish elite fell into the broader interpretation of the crisis embedded in the dominant view...... within the EU institutions as well as among the international financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank, that a period of austerity and fiscal consolidation was the required remedy, even though this was likely to be pro-cyclical in its effects. However, the paper shows that alternative...
Castiglionesi, Fabio; Feriozzi, F.; Lorenzoni, G.
This paper analyzes the effects of financial integration on the stability of the banking system. Financial integration allows banks in different regions to smooth local liquidity shocks by borrowing and lending on a common interbank market. We show under which conditions financial integration
West, Jeffrey J.
Explanation of the technological setting in which college and university financial systems have developed is provided for financial officers, to aid in devising a plan for the chart of accounts and erecting an efficient, logical, flexible financial structure. Topics include software/hardware advances, understanding the demand for financial…
ABSTRACT. The study examines the impact of the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards. (IFRS) on the quality of financial reporting in Nigeria. The study utilises a period based ap- proach to analyse changes in the degree of financial reporting quality (FRQ) that hinges on three proxies: Value Relevance, ...
Beck, T.; Claessens, S.; Schmukler, S.L.; Caprio, G.; Beck, T.; Claessens, S.; Schmukler, S.L.
Financial globalization, the integration of countries with the global financial system, has increased substantially since the 1970s and particularly with more force since the 1990s. Financial globalization has shown to pose both benefits and risks to developed countries and developing countries
A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment update of Uganda's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) in November, 2004. The purpose of the mission was to help the Ugandan authorities identify financial system strengths and weaknesses with a view to implementing an action plan to increase the system's contribution ...
Conneely, James F.
Strong financial management is a strategy for strategic planning success in student affairs. It is crucial that student affairs professionals understand the necessity of linking their strategic planning with their financial management processes. An effective strategic planner needs strong financial management skills to implement the plan over…
Written in the midst of the Global Financial Crisis, the goal of this dissertation is to investigate causes of financial crises in general in order to provide empirical evidence of the driving forces of various crises types. Specifically, this thesis analyses the most common types of financial
Tikhonov, Yuriy A.; Pudovkina, Olga E.; Permjakova, Juliana V.
The relevance of this research is caused by the need of strengthening a role of monetary regulators to prevent financial bubbles in the financial markets. The aim of the article is the analysis of a problem of crisis phenomena in the markets of financial assets owing to an inadequate growth of their cost, owing to subjective reasons. The leading…
Full Text Available This article includes the latest regulations regarding the financial investments services. After presenting some elements about prudence and conduct rules, the peculiar aspects of the presentation form and of the contract, with all the forms demanded by such transaction, are analyzed. Afterwards, the focus is set on the transparency and integrity of the operations. Another aspect is about the free circulation of services and about the role of the clearing fund, being distinguished all thesensitive elements this fund raises.
This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis....
Christopher Cohen; Stephen Kane
The loophole phenomenon occurs in financial services, bureaucratically controlled marketplaces, as well as in our everyday lives. Whenever an entity writes a rule, that entity simultaneously creates many loopholes (Kane, 1977). Loopholes provide a way to pervert regulations and may even stimulate innovation. Different parties search out loopholes to adapt to changes as processes evolve over time. We discuss how various parties have reacted to specific loopholes. Our discussion seeks to provid...
Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros
This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...
Vitting Andersen, Jørgen; Vrontos, Ioannis; Dellaportas, Petros; Galam, Serge
Since the attribution of the Nobel prize in 2002 to Kahneman for prospect theory, behavioral finance has become an increasingly important subfield of finance. However the main parts of behavioral finance, prospect theory included, understand financial markets through individual investment behavior. Behavioral finance thereby ignores any interaction between participants. We introduce a socio-financial model (Vitting Andersen J. and Nowak A., An Introduction to Socio-Finance (Springer, Berlin) 2013) that studies the impact of communication on the pricing in financial markets. Considering the simplest possible case where each market participant has either a positive (bullish) or negative (bearish) sentiment with respect to the market, we model the evolution of the sentiment in the population due to communication in subgroups of different sizes. Nonlinear feedback effects between the market performance and changes in sentiments are taken into account by assuming that the market performance is dependent on changes in sentiments (e.g., a large sudden positive change in bullishness would lead to more buying). The market performance in turn has an impact on the sentiment through the transition probabilities to change an opinion in a group of a given size. The idea is that if for example the market has observed a recent downturn, it will be easier for even a bearish minority to convince a bullish majority to change opinion compared to the case where the meeting takes place in a bullish upturn of the market. Within the framework of our proposed model, financial markets stylized facts such as volatility clustering and extreme events may be perceived as arising due to abrupt sentiment changes via ongoing communication of the market participants. The model introduces a new volatility measure which is apt of capturing volatility clustering and from maximum-likelihood analysis we are able to apply the model to real data and give additional long term insight into where a market is
game tool Game Tool Interactive Media Element The purpose of this interactive exercise is to help you understand the math in the income statement and balance sheet., Give the proper mathematical computations in order to correctly prepare the income statement and the balance sheet.The exercise is divided into 3 parts: The income Statement, The Balance Sheet - Assets, The Balance Sheet - Liabilities, GB3050 Financial Reporting and Analysis
Full Text Available Recent research about the financial behaviour of Slovenian firms has documented enterprise risk management as being one of its weakest areas. The goal of this article is to present insights into financial risk management, i.e. into the extent of the use of derivatives in the largest Slovenian firms and the related practices. The resultsare confronted with the same types of characteristics of US and German firms (although being much larger revealed in comparable studies. These firms provide relevant benchmarks for assessing the development gap since they operate in more advanced financial environments and are therefore expected to have much morerefined approaches to the use of derivatives than Slovenian firms. A survey points to the much smaller extent of the use of derivatives by Slovenian firms. There is a substantial gap, especially in the area of risk management policies (e.g. documentation, reporting, counterparty risk, valuation etc..
Trivi, Carole; Boissezon, Carine de; Hidra, Kader
EDF's sales in the first quarter of 2014 were euro 21.2 billion, down 3.9% from the first quarter of 2013. At constant scope and exchange rates, sales were down 4.2% due to mild weather conditions, which impacted sales of electricity in France, gas sales abroad and trading activities in Europe. UK sales were nonetheless sustained by B2B sales due to higher realised wholesale market prices. In Italy, sales growth was driven by an increase in electricity volumes sold. The first quarter of 2014 also saw the strengthening of the Group's financial structure with the second phase of its multi-annual hybrid funding programme (nearly euro 4 billion equivalent) as well as the issue of two 100-year bonds in dollars and sterling aimed at significantly lengthening average debt maturity. 2014 outlook and 2014-2018 vision: - EDF Group has confirmed its financial objectives for 2014; - Group EBITDA excluding Edison: organic growth of at least 3%; - Edison EBITDA: recurring EBITDA target of euro 1 billion and at least euro 600 million in 2014 before effects of gas contract re-negotiations; - Net financial debt / EBITDA: between 2x and 2.5x; - Pay-out ratio of net income excluding non-recurring items post-hybrid: 55% to 65%. The Group has reaffirmed its goal of achieving positive cash flow after dividends, excluding Linky, in 2018
Chirica, T.; Havris, A.
European Commission adopted recently two proposals of Directives designed to pave the way for a Community approach to the safety of nuclear power plants and the processing of radioactive waste. Nuclear safety cannot be guaranteed without making available adequate financial resources. With regard, in particular, to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the Directive defines the Community rules for the establishment, management and use of decommissioning funds allocated to a body with legal personality separate from that of the nuclear operator. In order to comply with the acquis communautaire, Romanian Government issued the Emergency Ordinance no. 11/2003 which set up the National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD) and soon will be established the financial mechanism for raising the necessary funds. Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. operates, through one of its branches, Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and has to prepare its decommissioning strategy and to analyze the options to assure the financing for covering the future costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the financial systems' mechanisms to the satisfaction of the nuclear operator obligations, according to the disbursement schedule foreseen by decommissioning projects . The availability of cash to pay for all the decommissioning expenditure must be foreseen by setting up assets and establishing a suitable financing plan. The different practices of assets management shall be presented in this paper on the basis of the international experience. Some calculation samples shall be given as an illustration. (author)
Huang, Wei-Qiang; Zhuang, Xin-Tian; Yao, Shuang; Uryasev, Stan
This study considers the effects of the financial institutions' local topology structure in the financial network on their systemic risk contribution using data from the Chinese stock market. We first measure the systemic risk contribution with the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) which is estimated by applying dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model (DCC-MVGARCH). Financial networks are constructed from dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) with graph filtering method of minimum spanning trees (MSTs). Then we investigate dynamics of systemic risk contributions of financial institution. Also we study dynamics of financial institution's local topology structure in the financial network. Finally, we analyze the quantitative relationships between the local topology structure and systemic risk contribution with panel data regression analysis. We find that financial institutions with greater node strength, larger node betweenness centrality, larger node closeness centrality and larger node clustering coefficient tend to be associated with larger systemic risk contributions.
MacLeod, Stephanie; Musich, Shirley; Hawkins, Kevin; Armstrong, Douglas G
Both financial literacy (managing personal finances) and health literacy (managing personal health) become increasingly important for older adults, potentially impacting their quality of life. Resources in these constructs of literacy tend to be distinct, although the skills and decision-making involved overlap as financial issues impact healthcare choices. Thus the primary purpose of this commentary is to propose a new area of research focus that defines the intersection of financial and health literacy (i.e., financial health literacy). We conducted a limited literature review related to financial, health, and health insurance literacy to demonstrate gaps in the literature and support our position. Online search engines were utilized to identify research in our primary areas of interest. We define the intersection of financial and health literacy as an area of need labeled financial health literacy, with a focus on four domains. These include: 1) the ability to manage healthcare expenses; 2) pay medical bills; 3) determine health needs and understand treatment options; and 4) make sound healthcare decisions with financial resources available. Despite some overlap with health insurance literacy, financial health literacy would define an area of need encompassing health management choices and health plan selections integrated with other financial management issues including living arrangements, financial planning, and retirement planning. Potential initiatives should be considered to help at-risk older adults find resources to improve their financial health literacy, which in turn will enhance their abilities to manage medical choices in the environment of an increasingly complex healthcare system.
Cull, Michelle; Davis, Glenda
In the aftermath of the global financial crisis (GFC), one understandable area of scrutiny and pressure for reform is the educational background and professionalism of personal financial advisers. This Australian study reports on a three-year investigation into students' perceptions of "scaffolded" instruction in financial planning. The…
Full Text Available As a key enabler for development, financial inclusion is firmly placed on the agenda of most governments as a key policy priority. Against this background, this round table provides a global and regional perspective on the policies and practices of financial inclusion. Using macro data, the collection reveals the diversity in the efforts towards achieving financial inclusion and the need for a progressive approach in financial inclusion. Further to this, the round table provides the regional perspectives on the policies and practices of financial inclusion in India, South Africa, and Australia.
Archuleta, Kristy L.; Dale, Anita; Spann, Scott M.
The impact of financial concerns on overall mental health has become a popular topic among researchers and practitioners. In this exploratory study, possible associations of financial anxiety were explored using a sample of 180 college students who sought services at a university peer financial counseling center in a Midwestern state. Of…
Wolff, Marie; Bates, Tovah; Beck, Barbra; Young, Staci; Ahmed, Syed M; Maurana, Cheryl
African Americans suffer significantly more cancer morbidity and mortality than the white population. In order to decrease this differential, it is critical to understand the particular barriers to health and health care that underserved African Americans face. It is also important to identify the critical components of effective cancer prevention programs for this population. The barriers that impede care for underserved African Americans have been identified as: 1) inadequate access to and availability of health care services; 2) competing priorities; 3) lack of knowledge of cancer prevention and screening recommendations; 4) culturally inappropriate or insensitive cancer control materials; 5) low literacy; 6) mistrust of the health care system; and 7) fear and fatalism. Effective programs must incorporate community participation, innovative outreach, use of social networks and trusted social institutions, cultural competence, and a sustained approach. Programs that include these strategies are much more likely to be effective in reducing cancer incidence. Cancer ranks second only to cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death in the United States. For the majority population, cancer incidence and prevalence have declined in recent years and cure rates for certain cancer diagnoses have improved. This can be attributed to progress in the development and implementation of prevention, early detection, and treatment strategies. However, despite these gains, medically underserved African American populations have not fared as well. When African American-white mortality rates are compared, African Americans are 1.3 times more likely to die of cancer than the general population. Data from the Bureau of Health Information, Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services indicate that from 1996 to 2000, cancer accounted for 33% of deaths in African Americans aged 45-64 and 34% of deaths for those aged 65-74. To decrease the disparities in cancer morbidity and
Collins, Sarah A; Yoon, Sunmoo; Rockoff, Maxine L; Nocenti, David; Bakken, Suzanne
Despite of its emotional benefits, communication with family members who live abroad can present a large financial burden for low-income foreign-born individuals. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the current technologies available for low-cost communication with family living abroad and (2) to assess the level of awareness and use of low-cost technologies for family communication as well as related information needs among low-income foreign-born individuals. This mixed-methods study included an environmental scan, survey, and focus groups with low-income foreign-born individuals living in East Harlem in New York City. Low-income individuals who have family members living abroad face financial stress with complicated technology choices for communication with family living abroad and they have many information needs. They would welcome interactive and convenient educational tools that (1) build skills for utilization of various technologies and (2) provide decision support to simplify choosing among the vast array of available communication options. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The article analyses and assesses proposals for changes concerning the objective of financial reportingbased on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, presented in comments on the exposuredraft of the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting (2015. The majority of respondents thinkthat the objective of financial reporting should give more prominence to the importance of providinginformation about management’s stewardship. Moreover, some respondents suggest introducing thedefinition of stewardship into the Conceptual Framework and presenting implications of shifts in theobjective of financial reporting for the future standard setting and for preparing financial statements.Based on the analysis of comment letters and the review of accounting literature, the conclusion is thatthe objective of financial reporting should be changed. It is, however, disputable, if stewardship should bea separate object. There is too little research on the relation between the stewardship and decisionusefulnessobjectives. The findings of this research could show accounting standard-setters the potentialtrade-offs and conflicts between these objectives.
Full Text Available Nowadays, financial globalization as latest stage of financial internationalization process becomes to be the most discussed subject by economic scientists. It has many forms of manifestation and directions of development. One of the main features of financial globalization is increasing the role of the financial sector, linked with the expansion of the scope and complexity of foreign economic relations. The financial system has increasingly become a means of redistribution of financial resources in accordance with the needs and possibilities of development of production not only at national but also at the global level. In this work are presented modern views on financial globalization under aspect of concepts, trends, effects and perspectives.
Considering the current complexity of financial markets and of financial instruments and services, financial education is part of population’s financial literacy and it ranks as paramount factor in the complex for the financial markets development.
Mills, Susan L; Bergeron, Kim; Pérez, Guillermina
Self-management support (SMS) is an essential component of public health approaches to chronic conditions. Given increasing concerns about health equity, the needs of diverse populations must be considered. This study examined potential solutions for addressing the gaps in self-management support initiatives for underserved populations. Stakeholders representing government, nongovernment organizations, Aboriginal communities, health authorities, medical practices, and research institutions generated, sorted, and rated ideas on what could be done to improve self-management support for underserved populations. Concept mapping was used to facilitate the collection and organization of the data and to generate conceptual maps. Participants generated 92 ideas that were sorted into 11 clusters (foster partnerships, promote integrated community care, enhance health care provider training, shift government policy, support community development, increase community education, enable client engagement, incorporate client support systems, recognize client capacity, tailor self-management support programs, and develop client skills, training, and tools) and grouped into system, community, and individual levels within a partnership framework. The strategy can stimulate public health dialogue and be a roadmap for developing SMS initiatives. It has the potential to address SMS and chronic condition inequities in underserved populations in several ways: 1) by targeting populations that have greater inequities, 2) by advocating for shifts in government policies that create and perpetuate inequities, 3) by promoting partnerships that may increase the number of SMS initiatives for underserved groups, and 4) by promoting training and engagement that increase the relevance, uptake, and overall effectiveness of SMS.
Akhtyamov M.K.; Gonchar E.A.
The paper studies an objective appraisal of financial capital value in industrial enterprise development management. The authors draw attention to a limited scope of work in the area of financial management under application of a traditional approach to appraisal of enterprise financial capital value and describe a new advanced approach to this problem solving. The paper focuses on reformation of balance sheet statement, in which economic benefit and reserves of financial capital are included...
Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursson, Thórarinn G.
protracted consumption contraction and a higher risk of a systemic banking or currency crisis. Our results suggest that greater exchange rate flexibility coincided with a smaller and shorter contraction, but at the same time increased the risk of a banking and currency crisis. Countries with exchange rate...... and severity of the crisis. In particular, we find that the pre-crisis rate of inflation is important in explaining the post-crisis experience. Our results also suggest an important role for financial factors. In particular, we find that large banking systems tended to be associated with a deeper and more...
Barron, Darcy; Peticolas, Laura; Multiverse Team at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Lab
The Advancing Space Science through Undergraduate Research Experience (ASSURE) summer REU program is an NSF-funded REU site at the Space Sciences Lab at UC Berkeley that first started in summer 2014. The program recruits students from all STEM majors, targeting underserved students including community college students and first-generation college students. The students have little or no research experience and a wide variety of academic backgrounds, but have a shared passion for space sciences and astronomy. We will describe our program's structure and the components we have found successful in preparing and supporting both the students and their research advisors for their summer research projects. This includes an intensive first week of introductory lectures and tutorials at the start of the program, preparing students for working in an academic research environment. The program also employs a multi-tiered mentoring system, with layers of support for the undergraduate student cohort, as well as graduate student and postdoctoral research advisors.
Gupta, Priya S; Anandarajah, Gowri
Although many studies examine motivators for diabetes self-management, few explore the role spirituality plays in this disease, especially in low-income urban populations. This qualitative, focus group study elicits thoughts of diabetic patients regarding spirituality in diabetes self-care, at an urban primary care practice in Rhode Island. Focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the immersion/crystallization technique. Themes included: significant impact of diabetes on daily life; fear and family as prominent self-care motivators; relationships with self, others, nature and the divine as major sources of hope and strength. Patients varied considerably regarding the role spirituality played in their illness, ranging from minimal to profound impact. All appeared comfortable discussing spirituality within the context of strength and hope. Patients in this urban, underserved population are willing to discuss spirituality related to their diabetes care. They vary in the role spirituality plays in their illness experience.
Xu, Junjun; Williams-Livingston, Arletha; Gaglioti, Anne; McAllister, Calvin; Rust, George
The use of value metrics is often dependent on payer-initiated health care management incentives. There is a need for practices to define and manage their own patient panels regardless of payer to participate effectively in population health management. A key step is to define a panel of primary care patients with high comorbidity profiles. Our sample included all patients seen in an urban academic family medicine clinic over a two-year period. The simplified risk stratification was built using internal electronic health record and billing system data based on ICD-9 codes. There were 347 patients classified as high-risk out of the 5,364 patient panel. Average age was 59 years (SD 15). Hypertension (90%), hyperlipidemia (62%), and depression (55%) were the most common conditions among high-risk patients. Simplified risk stratification provides a feasible option for our team to understand and respond to the nuances of population health in our underserved community.
Full Text Available Financial transaction tax has been proposed already by Keynes; however it has been introduced only in some individual countries and not globally, which would reduce possibilities for tax evasion. Nevertheless, the topic gained importance during the recent financial crisis – the tax is supposed to reduce risky activities of the financial industry and fill the budgets with the means for alleviating the consequences of the crisis, largely caused by the financial industry. Proposal of the European Commission is therefore the first concrete proposal that addresses a wider economic area. This paper investigates economic, theoretical rationale for the introduction of a financial transaction tax and studies its structure and consequences in several European countries: United Kingdom, France, Italy and Sweden. Special emphasis is given to the proposal of the European Commission that would, in case it is confirmed, apply also to Slovenia, although some concerns have arisen recently, weather Slovenia should introduce the tax or not.
Cooper, S. K.; Petronotis, K. E.; Ferraro, C.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Yarincik, K.
The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) is an international marine research collaboration that explores Earth's history and dynamics using ocean-going research platforms to recover data recorded in seafloor sediments and rocks and to monitor subseafloor environments. The JOIDES Resolution is the flagship vessel of IODP and is operated by the National Science Foundation. It is an inspirational hook for STEM Earth and ocean topics for children and the general public of all ages, but is not easily accessible due to its international travels and infrequent U.S. port calls. In response, a consortium of partners has created the Pop-Up/Drill Down Science project. The multi-year project, funded by NSF's Advancing Informal Science Learning program, aims to bring the JR and its science to under-served and rural populations throughout the country. Consisting of an inflatable walk-through ship, a multi-media experience, a giant interactive seafloor map and a series of interactive exhibit kiosks, the exhibit, entitled, In Search of Earth's Secrets: A Pop-Up Science Encounter, will travel to 12 communities throughout the next four years. In each community, the project will partner with local institutions like public libraries and small museums as hosts and to train local Girl Scouts to serve as exhibit facilitators. By working with local communities to select events and venues for pop-up events, the project hopes to bring cutting edge Earth and ocean science in creative new ways to underserved populations and inspire diverse audiences to explore further. This presentation will provide details of the project's goals, objectives and development and provide avenues to become involved.
Stein, Emma M; Kolidas, Evelyn; Moadel, Alyson
This study examines religion and spirituality among advanced cancer patients from an underserved, ethnically-diverse population by exploring patient conceptualizations of religion and spirituality, the role of religion and spirituality in coping with cancer, and patient interest in spiritual support. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients who had participated in a study of a "mind-body" support group for patients with all cancer types. Analysis based on grounded theory was utilized to identify themes and theoretical constructs. With regard to patient conceptualizations of religion and spirituality, three categories emerged: (1) Spirituality is intertwined with organized religion; (2) Religion is one manifestation of the broader construct of spirituality; (3) Religion and spirituality are completely independent, with spirituality being desirable and religion not. Religion and spirituality played a central role in patients' coping with cancer, providing comfort, hope, and meaning. Patients diverged when it came to spiritual support, with some enthusiastic about interventions incorporating their spiritual values and others stating that they already get this support through religious communities. Spirituality plays a central role in the cancer experience of this underserved ethnically-diverse population. While spirituality seems to be a universal concern in advanced cancer patients, the meaning of spirituality differs across individuals, with some equating it with organized religion and others taking a more individualized approach. It is important that psychosocial interventions are developed to address this concern. Future research is needed to further explore the different ways that patients conceptualize spirituality and to develop spiritually-based treatments that are not "one size fits all."
Keshinro, Ajaratu; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Rifkind, Kenneth; Dhage, Shubhada; Joseph, Kathie-Ann
Cancer screening is a key component of primary care, and access to regular screening mammography (SMG) is highly dependent on recommendation and referral by a primary care provider (PCP). Women with no health insurance or who are underinsured often lack access to a regular PCP and thus access to routine screening. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 173 surgical patients diagnosed between January 2012 and December 2013. The main outcome variables were PCP status, method of cancer detection, and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Additional variables included race, age at diagnosis, family history of breast and ovarian cancer, and medical comorbidities. Patients with a PCP received more mammograms (SMG) compared with patients without a PCP (61 vs. 37 %; p = 0.003). The majority (73 %) of patients without a PCP presented symptomatically with a palpable mass versus 42 % of patients with a PCP. A significant difference was noted with regard to final pathologic stage of breast cancer between the two groups (p = 0.019), and Caucasian and African American patients were more likely to have locally advanced breast cancer. Underserved patients with a PCP are more likely to present asymptomatically and at an earlier stage of breast cancer compared with patients without a PCP. Community engagement programs that build relationships with patients may help bring vulnerable patients into the healthcare system for routine screening. Moreover, PCP education regarding the subtleties of breast cancer screening guidelines and referral to a breast specialist is also critical in improving outcomes of underserved patients.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the origin and history of the interpretation of the genesis of «strategy», «financial strategy», its elements and composite types. Scientists studied different views on the concept of strategy. Several specific positions founders of different approaches to define the strategy of schools operating strategies involved in the formulation and implementation of the concept of «strategy». Evaluation of different schools of strategies that deepened understanding of the industry and its strategy in the early stages of formation. Based on the works of various scholars studied by the author actually proposed interpretation of the concept strategy. The general industry and functional strategies which include the following strategies: innovation, resource, financial, production, marketing and human resources. Allocated financial strategy and its significant impact on other strategies. Author developed financial sector strategy and financial strategy of competitive enterprise. The importance of financial strategies under conditions of companies and the industry as a whole, as well as components of development of financial strategy. Deals with the factors that must be considered in the development and implementation of financial strategies. The systems analysis strategies and the impact on financial results, the estimation of their attractiveness and risk. Considered classification on the basis of financial strategies and sectoral orientation of the financial sector strategy based on company size, its form and noted the importance of this trait in systematizing strategies. The expediency of the financial strategy. Defined competitive advantage and efficiency of business and industry through the implementation of various financial strategies.
Full Text Available In our society, the audit is regarded as a branch of financial management conducted to confirm the accuracy of financial reporting in a company, but also to help the company's management, financial and the financial control is regarded as a perfect knowledge of things, a finding practical realities and their comparison. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the picture of the two concepts by presenting the differences and the similarities of them. The paper presents an evolution of the two terms in terms of Romanian organizations.
... are confined to comparable organizations and financial management positions in the services. These positions most often include comptrollers, deputy comptrollers, and budget officers located at operational...
Jenssen, B W
This paper gives an overview of the different clients of the financial system and how their demands for information may influence its development. As an operating unit and a 'prime user' of the financial system we should be in the driving seat to ensure the scarce resources are used and managed in the best possible way. This paper focuses on the importance of a correct use of the financial system, awareness of its functionalities and the importance of knowing potential deviations as soon as possible while one is still able to influence the final cost. It finishes by underscoring the importance of letting our requests be heard when the financial system is developed.
Full Text Available Financial diagnosis is a part of a company’s general diagnosis. The role of the financial diagnosis is to establish the situation of the company at a given time, to see if it is viable, to help the decision-makers to take the best measures to continue or cease the activity, or to sell, buy or liquidate the company. Each entity is unique and arbitrarily applying some analysis models used by other companies can lead to significant errors. One cannot analyze in the same way a company that produces household products and a trade company. In the first one, the working capital must be positive, because permanent capitals must finance the fixed assets which have a high value, and the working capital will finance the operating cycle. In case of a trade company, a negative working capital might represent a positive activity, because the duration of the operating cycle is much shorter, and short term sources can also finance the company’s tangible assets.
Kolesnikov, A. V.; Rühl, T.
We introduce the concept of the ensemble averaging for financial markets. We address the question of equality of ensemble and time averaging in their sequence and investigate if these averagings are equivalent for large amount of equity indices and branches. We start with the model of Gaussian-distributed returns, equal-weighted stocks in each index and absence of correlations within a single day and show that even this oversimplified model captures already the run of the corresponding index reasonably well due to its self-averaging properties. We introduce the concept of the instant cross-sectional volatility and discuss its relation to the ordinary time-resolved counterpart. The role of the cross-sectional volatility for the description of the corresponding index as well as the role of correlations between the single stocks and the role of non-Gaussianity of stock distributions is briefly discussed. Our model reveals quickly and efficiently some anomalies or bubbles in a particular financial market and gives an estimate of how large these effects can be and how quickly they disappear.
Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, labor migration is an important source of remittances and other transfers of migrants to their homeland, which expands the country’s capacity for the development of the national economy and financial markets in particular. Due to the transformational changes in the domestic economy in the 1990th many citizens became migrant workers and their remittances now exceed foreign direct investment in the country. Until 2013 remittances in Ukraine were mainly coming through the banking system, but recently the dominant role is being played by international payment systems, as well as quite a significant amount is incoming by informal channels. In order to increase the role of formal financial market infrastructure in providing capital inflows of migrants first of all the cost of transfer must be reduced.Unfortunately, the capital of Ukrainian migrant workers is directed primarily at the consumer market, real estate market, as well as the shadow economy. The investment focus has actually only investments in real estate and private business (own entrepreneurship. Migrant workers invest in those areas of the economy that are the least compliant to investment and bank lending standards. At the same time, migrants almost do not use capital to purchase shares and bonds, but use it actively to invest in such financial market tool as deposits. Regardless of significant efforts by the Government of Ukraine to attract funds in the state budget by selling different variations of bonds a notable success in modern conditions was not achieved. Nowadays remittances have enabled us to soften financial instability, balance of payments deficit; to strengthen the exchange rate of the national currency and they also have the positive impact on international credit ratings of Ukraine. However, the effectiveness of government policy to direct remittances into investment is very low, and it actualizes the search of effective tools to realize
Full Text Available This study determines the importance of financial education in contemporary societies. A review of various organizations for increasing financial education whose individual and societal importance has been internationally accepted is also offered. Towards this end initiatives undertaken by international organizations and national authorities are examined. Aspects of these initiatives that can be offered as best practices for developing nations are identified. For the Turkish case financial education examples that can be organized under public authority leadership, with NGO participation are collated. Various experiences about measuring and increasing financial literacy are examined. Among these are the implementations in Australia, Japan, England and the United States. It is put forth, in light of international experience, that increasing access to financial education and efficiency of financial services are possible through, informing, education and consulting.
Henye Livia Kovacsne
Full Text Available The recent financial crises that started in the USA and spread all over Europe highlighted the importance of research in the field of financial culture. A variety of research projects pointed out that the general population’s financial literacy is lacking basic knowledge. The ever changing economic climate, demographic changes, tendencies in the financial processing sector and the acceleration in product innovation put considerable pressure on the everyday decision making process of a household. The overview of the international and national research on the subject proves that the improving of the population’s, especially the young people’s financial literacy is a priority both in leading economic countries and in Hungary, too. The idea of financial culture is as complex as the variety of research into the topic proves it. This article aims to point out the complicated nature of the notion and the variety of research that has been inserted into it.
Taniguchi, Masanobu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Taniai, Hiroyuki
This monograph provides the fundamentals of statistical inference for financial engineering and covers some selected methods suitable for analyzing financial time series data. In order to describe the actual financial data, various stochastic processes, e.g. non-Gaussian linear processes, non-linear processes, long-memory processes, locally stationary processes etc. are introduced and their optimal estimation is considered as well. This book also includes several statistical approaches, e.g., discriminant analysis, the empirical likelihood method, control variate method, quantile regression, realized volatility etc., which have been recently developed and are considered to be powerful tools for analyzing the financial data, establishing a new bridge between time series and financial engineering. This book is well suited as a professional reference book on finance, statistics and statistical financial engineering. Readers are expected to have an undergraduate-level knowledge of statistics.
. This research extends prior research by developing a conceptual framework explaining how these constructs affect consumers' trust in their financial service provider. Based on two surveys comprising 764 pension consumers and 892 mortgage consumers, respectively, the results of this study indicate that financial...... healthiness, broad-scope trust, knowledge, and satisfaction positively affect narrow-scope trust in financial services. Furthermore, it is found that broad-scope trust negatively moderates the relationships between financial healthiness and narrow-scope trust and between satisfaction and narrow-scope trust......, respectively. In addition, the results marginally indicate that broad-scope trust negatively moderates the relationship between consumer financial knowledge and narrow-scope trust. This study encourages public policy makers, consumer organizations, and financial service providers to continue, improve, and...
In the 3 day workshop of the Southeast Asian Region on the Financial Management of Population/Family Planning Programs held from March 15 to 17 it was recommended that there by standardization of financial reporting procedures by country programs for population planning. Related to this recommendation was the proposal that measurement of cost benefit and cost effective analysis of country programs be undertaken by the Research and Evaluation Units of the respective population organizations in close coordination with the financial managers. Other major recommendations included: 1) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 2) more exchange of experiences, ideas, technical knowledge on the financial management of country programs in the Inter G overnmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asian countries; and 3) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staff and followup in actual operation. The priority areas identified for the Inter Governmental Coordinating Committee countries (Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines) are financial planning; generation of resources and budgeting and allocation of funds; accounting and disbursement of funds; financial management at the clinic level; use of and control of foreign aid; and cost effectiveness, benefit analysis and financial reporting.
Most doctors complete their medical training without sufficient knowledge of business and finance. This leads to inefficient financial decisions, avoidable losses, and unnecessary anxiety. A big part of the problem is that the existing options for gaining financial knowledge are flawed. The ideal solution is to provide a simple framework of financial literacy to all students: one that can be adapted to their specific circumstances. That framework must be delivered by an objective expert to young physicians before they complete medical training.
Berthold, Jost; Filinski, Andrzej; Henglein, Fritz
auditability of financial institutions, including their software systems. To top it off, increased product variety and customisation necessitates shorter software development cycles and higher development productivity. In this paper, we report about HIPERFIT, a recently etablished strategic research center...... at the University of Copenhagen that attacks this triple challenge of increased performance, transparency and productivity in the financial sector by a novel integration of financial mathematics, domain-specific language technology, parallel functional programming, and emerging massively parallel hardware. HIPERFIT...
The Bachelor's thesis deals with problems of financial literacy. The problem with financial literacy is an extensive topic, therefore the paper focuses only on consumer loans which belong to the most used products by citizens. The thesis gives basic information about companies, which offer consumer loans and warn against incorrect financial institutions and loan sharks. One of the chapters dedicates the indicator of advantages of consumer loans. It shows issues of indicator annual percentage ...
Seidmann, Abraham; Mehta, Tushar
The authors review the role of financial accounting information from the perspective of a radiology executive. They begin by introducing the role of pro forma statements. They discuss the fundamental concepts of accounting, including the matching principle and accrual accounting. The authors then explore the use of financial accounting information in making investment decisions in diagnostic medical imaging. The paper focuses on critically evaluating the benefits and limitations of financial accounting for decision making in a radiology practice.
Tănase Alin-Eliodor; Calotă Traian-Ovidiu
This article is focuses on accounting consolidation techniques and the preparation of consolidation worksheets for the components of financial statements (statement of comprehensive income, statement of changes in equity, and financial position). The presented group includes parent company, two subsidiaries (only one fully controlled by the parent company) and a jointly controlled entity. The financial statements are presented under the following standards IFRS 3 Business Combination, IAS 27 ...
Kozłowska, M.; Denys, M.; Wiliński, M.; Link, G.; Gubiec, T.; Werner, T.R.; Kutner, R.; Struzik, Z.R.
We provide evidence that catastrophic bifurcation breakdowns or transitions, preceded by early warning signs such as flickering phenomena, are present on notoriously unpredictable financial markets. For this we construct robust indicators of catastrophic dynamical slowing down and apply these to identify hallmarks of dynamical catastrophic bifurcation transitions. This is done using daily closing index records for the representative examples of financial markets of small and mid to large capitalisations experiencing a speculative bubble induced by the worldwide financial crisis of 2007-08.
Goote, W.G.; Andersen, S.
An expert system for determining coal vendor financial viability in fuel purchasing contracts at an electric utility is described. The system blends rules, data objects, and financial knowledge to provide a rational basis for accepting or rejecting coal contracts given the financial capability of the coal vendor. The discussion concludes with a critique of managerial issues in the development of the system and its use in decision making. 3 refs., 1 fig
International Monetary Fund
The buffers built in the aftermath of Uruguay’s 2002 banking crisis have shielded the financial sector from the effects of the global financial turmoil. Growth has been robust and the outlook continues to be favorable. However, inflation persists but capital inflows have improved, and policy measures have been taken in response. Uruguay exhibits no obvious signs of near-term domestic macrofinancial vulnerability. The external risks to the economy and the financial system come from a fragile g...
Reinhart, C. M.
Periods of high indebtedness have historically been associated with a rising incidence of default or restructuring of public and private debts. Sometimes the debt restructuring is more subtle and takes the form of 'financial repression'. Consistent negative real interest rates are equivalent to a tax on bond holders and, more generally, savers. In the heavily regulated financial markets of the Bretton Woods system, a variety of financial domestic and international restrictions facilitated a s...
Hans-Werner Sinn; John Hassler; Gilles Saint-Paul; Giancarlo Corsetti; Michael P. Devereux; Tim Jenkinson; Jan-Egbert Sturm; Xavier Vives
The financial turmoil that originated in 2007 and developed into an unprecedented crisis battering financial and real markets is the latest manifestation, on a grand scale and with new attributes, of a welldefined pathology in the process of market liberalization and integration in the post-Bretton Woods era. At the root of the crisis lies a fundamental inconsistency between financial globalisation â€“ the process of liberalization and deregulation driving the impressive growth of world finan...
Robert Lafrance; James Powell
International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...
The present inquiry contributes to extant literature by simultaneously accounting for variations in financial development and financial globalisation in the assessment of hypothetical initial financial development conditions for the rewards of financial globalisation. For this purpose, we examine marginal, threshold and net effects of financial globalisation on financial development throughout the conditional distributions of financial development. The empirical evidence is based on contempor...
Simplice Asongu; Lieven De Moor
The present inquiry contributes to extant literature by simultaneously accounting for variations in financial development and financial globalisation in the assessment of hypothetical initial financial development conditions for the rewards of financial globalisation. The policy relevance for assessing these variations simultaneously builds on the intuition that, thresholds for financial development benefits of financial globalisation may also be contingent on initial levels of financial deve...
Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.
In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…
Murphy, John L
This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to analyze the psychological and social variables associated with financial literacy. The HRS is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of individuals older than age 50 and their spouses. An ordinary least squares linear regression analysis explores the relationship between financial literacy and several economic and psychosocial variables. After controlling for earnings, level of education, and other socioeconomic variables in this exploratory study, I find that financial satisfaction and religiosity are correlated with financial literacy.
Davydenko N. M.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the scientific approaches to the definition of «financial security of entities», advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are highlighted. The own definition of financial security of entities is given. The composition of elements of enterprise financial security and principles of its provision are defined. Тhe role of individual elements of financial security to ensure high efficiency operation and development of enterprises is significant and has a direct impact on their solvency, liquidity and profitability.
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation undertaken included administrative financial data from MFIs and MSMEs which received grants under the Benin Compact as well as survey data...