WorldWideScience

Sample records for undersea surveillance amphibious

  1. Amphibious anthropology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, Annet P.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores how people live amphibiously in dynamic land-sea environments. It is based on eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork (2011 – 2013) in the Makassar Strait maritime region in Indonesia: a complex and amphibious land-sea interface. In Western science little attention is given

  2. Amphibious anthropology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, Annet P.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores how people live amphibiously in dynamic land-sea environments. It is based on eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork (2011 – 2013) in the Makassar Strait maritime region in Indonesia: a complex and amphibious land-sea interface. In Western science little attention is

  3. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  4. Amphibious UAV

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Amphibious UAV, less than 10 meters in length is a perfect scout for Naval Reconnaissance. It can be greatly effective for detecting incoming enemy subs or...

  5. Military amphibious vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Amphibious vehicles are necessary for militaries that need to get men and supplies from sea to shoreline. Readers will learn about the different kinds of amphibious vehicles and how they move over water and land! Big full-bleed photographs, new glossary terms, and a close up look at a vehicle will keep readers wanting more! Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Kids Jumbo is an imprint of Abdo Kids, a division of ABDO.

  6. Undersea vehicles and national needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Advances in guidance and control, communications, sensors, and other technologies for undersea vehicles can provide an opportunity to understand the oceans' influence on the energy and chemical...

  7. Visual Detection and Tracking System for a Spherical Amphibious Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxiang; Pan, Shaowu; Shi, Liwei; Guo, Ping; He, Yanlin; Tang, Kun

    2017-04-15

    With the goal of supporting close-range observation tasks of a spherical amphibious robot, such as ecological observations and intelligent surveillance, a moving target detection and tracking system was designed and implemented in this study. Given the restrictions presented by the amphibious environment and the small-sized spherical amphibious robot, an industrial camera and vision algorithms using adaptive appearance models were adopted to construct the proposed system. To handle the problem of light scattering and absorption in the underwater environment, the multi-scale retinex with color restoration algorithm was used for image enhancement. Given the environmental disturbances in practical amphibious scenarios, the Gaussian mixture model was used to detect moving targets entering the field of view of the robot. A fast compressive tracker with a Kalman prediction mechanism was used to track the specified target. Considering the limited load space and the unique mechanical structure of the robot, the proposed vision system was fabricated with a low power system-on-chip using an asymmetric and heterogeneous computing architecture. Experimental results confirmed the validity and high efficiency of the proposed system. The design presented in this paper is able to meet future demands of spherical amphibious robots in biological monitoring and multi-robot cooperation.

  8. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  9. Amphibious Worlds:Environments, Infrastructures, Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASPER BRUUN JENSEN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Presently, we are witness to a global intensification of water-related disasters related to flooding, sinking erosion, and drought, reflecting changes in global water circulation, rising sea levels and changing weather patterns. Indeed, water is often the medium through which the message of climate change is delivered. Conventionally, water-related engineering projects have managed amphibious spaces through terrestrial approaches premised on removing or controlling water, for example by land reclamation and drainage. They can be contrasted with amphibious approaches that take water flows as a given and organize life around it––as exemplified by living in floating villages or houses on stilts, using water as a primary mode of transportation, or growing crops in water. Yet, the amphibious is gaining new life, as water seems to be increasingly flowing back into land, everywhere giving rise to emergencies that call for creative response. Thus, urban planners, engineers, and architects devise new infrastructures and models adaptive to environments that are becoming amphibious once again, or for the first time, and people living in watery environments everywhere find ways of adapting to increasingly amphibious circumstances. Doing so, they are contributing to the ongoing ontological transformation of amphibious worlds. This introduction to the thematic collection on “Amphibious Worlds: Environments, Infrastructures, Ontologies,” outlines some of the key issues facing STS and anthropological studies of such worlds, and introduces the papers that follow.

  10. Multi-core fiber undersea transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Morioka, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Various potential architectures of branching units for multi-core fiber undersea transmission systems are presented. It is also investigated how different architectures of branching unit influence the number of fibers and those of inline components....

  11. Can undersea voltage measurements detect tsunamis?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Neetu, S.; Harinarayana, T.

    The movement of electrically conducting ocean water in the ambient geomagnetic field induces secondary electric and magnetic fields in the oceans. Ocean water transport is now routinely inferred from undersea cable voltage data. We try to answer...

  12. Amphibious Operations in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacob, W

    2003-01-01

    .... forces ashore anywhere in the world remains a vital capability. As the National Security Strategy evolves the role of the modern day amphibious force evolves with it, morphing to meet the requirements generated by the Department of Defense...

  13. Paramount Interest: Command Relationships in Amphibious Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peabody, Hitch

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, U.S. amphibious forces abandoned sixty years of established command and control doctrine, replacing the traditional senior-subordinate relationship between Navy and Marine commanders with coequal command. Why did it change...

  14. Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-303 Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...28, 2015 Program Information Program Name Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC) DoD Component Navy Responsible Office References SAR...5 Mission and Description Ship to Shore Connector (SSC) is the Landing Craft , Air Cushion (LCAC) replacement. It is an Air Cushion Vehicle with the

  15. Modern Amphibious Operations: Why the United States Must Maintain a Joint Amphibious Forcible Entry Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    carriers, or even hovercraft . While still an assault capable force, modem amphibious forces have vii also beeri highly visible in humanitarian...division across the Taiwan strait. This amphibious fleet includes four of the largest hovercraft ever built, similar to the US Landing Craft, Air

  16. The Army and the Need for an Amphibious Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    54 v Acronyms A2/AD Anti-Access/Area Denial AAV Amphibious Assault Vehicle ACV Amphibious Combat Vehicle ADP Army...budget constraints.134 The vehicle designated as a potential replacement for the AAV, the Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ), is not only is less...amphibious as its predecessor but also holds less Marines. The troop transport compartment of the ACV holds just 13 Marines, compared to the 20 the AAV

  17. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  18. Human productivity experience and undersea habitat design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T. C.; Spencer, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Lessons learned from the Alaskan North Slope construction camps and the Western Regional Undersea Laboratory are analyzed with respect to possible improvements for space station interior space utilization and living areas. The human factors engineering aspects have a direct bearing on the condition of crew and occupants.

  19. Undersea Laser Communication with Narrow Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Underwater Wireless Optical Communications ...Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode," Optics Express, vol. 23, no. 16, pp. 20743-20748, 2015. ... wireless communication with narrow optical beams. The undersea systems analysis herein is inspired by lessons learned in the last few

  20. Amphibious Vehicle Propulsion System. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-30

    1 11 Ti rLE (Include Security Classification) AMPHIBIOUS VE _LE PROPULSION SYSTEM - FINAL REPORT VOL II (U) 12 oRSONAL AUTH .,) 𔃽a TYPE OF REPORT...Bearings shall be sized to support the specified shock loads as well as the specified torsional loads. 2.8.12 Insulation 2. Insulation of the...factor, tric system is designed for Improved efficiency and congiairesfstioe moad. electronic control reliability, as well as reduced using a resistive

  1. The Marine Corps Ability to Conduct Surface Amphibious Transport is at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    replacement, currently named the Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ). Both initiatives face challenges with funding and providing the appropriate...remains capable of supporting the range of amphibious missions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS AAV; Amphibious; ACV ; Replacement; Operations...first is the AAV Upgrade and the second is the decision to acquire its replacement, currently named the Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ). Both

  2. Undersea Feature Place Names as of June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are approximately 5100 undersea features with names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) currently in the Geographic Names Data Base...

  3. Amphibious Quadcopter Swarm for the Exploration of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajguru, A.; Faler, A. C.; Franz, B.

    2014-06-01

    This is a proposal for a low mass and cost effective mission architecture consisting of an amphibious quadcopter swarm flight vehicle system for the exploration of Titan's liquid methane lake, Ligeia Mare. The paper focuses on the EDL and operations.

  4. Species specificity of resistance to oxygen diffusion in thin cuticular membranes from amphibious plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost-Christensen, Henning; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Floto, Franz

    2003-01-01

    oxygen, diffusion, cuticula, amphibious plants, Hygrophila, Berula, Lobelia, Mentha, Potamogeton, Veronica, aquatic plants, submerged plants......oxygen, diffusion, cuticula, amphibious plants, Hygrophila, Berula, Lobelia, Mentha, Potamogeton, Veronica, aquatic plants, submerged plants...

  5. Multi-core Fibers in Submarine Networks for High-Capacity Undersea Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Morioka, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems......Application of multi-core fibers in undersea networks for high-capacity submarine transmission systems is studied. It is demonstrated how different architectures of submerged branching unit affect network component counts in long-haul undersea transmission systems...

  6. LHA 6 America Class Amphibious Assault Ship (LHA 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Group ( ESG )/Amphibious Ready Group (ARG) of the future and will provide the Joint Force Commander options to project expeditionary power. The LHA 6...Landing Marine expeditionary aviation assets in the ESG /ARG, including the MV-22 and the F-35B, the STOVL model of the Joint Strike Fighter. The

  7. Behaviour and habitat of the Indian Ocean amphibious blenny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alticus monochrus Bleeker is an amphibious blenny that inhabits exposed and moderately exposed rocky shores of Mauritius and other islands of the southwestern Indian Ocean. It remains above the water line on moist or wet substrata over which it migrates vertically and/or horizontally with the tide. Rapid terrestrial ...

  8. Living in contained environments: Research implications from undersea habitats. [undersea habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    A cost-reward model is used to frame a discussion of differences in observed behavior of individuals and groups in confined environments. It has been observed that the high cost of functioning in a stressful environment is likely to produce poor performance when anticipated rewards are low but that participants can manage the stress and achieve high performance if they anticipate high rewards. The high-reward environment is exemplified by early undersea habitats such as Sealab and Tektite and by early space missions. Other aspects of behavior occur in all confined environments and point to an important area for future research. Of particular interest are intergroup conflicts arising between the confined group and its external control. Also, individual differences in personality seem always to have an impact in confined environments. Recent research has focused on: (1) predicting performance and adjustment based on instrumental and expressive aspects of the self; (2) the differential predictive power of achievement striving and irritation/irritability in Type A personalities; and (3) the nature and role of leadership in small, isolated groups.

  9. A Study of the Russian Acquisition of the French Mistral Amphibious Assault Warships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    performing some types of amphibious landings without a Mistral. However, the majority of the troops assaulted the beachhead via hovercraft (which were...or for amphibious vehicles to drive off their ramps into the sea. The Ivan Rogov could carry landing craft and assault hovercrafts in its well deck...deck to deploy landing craft, hovercraft or amphibious vehicles. The only option available potentially to the Ivan Gren would be to carry LCU/LCM on

  10. Trace Explosives Signatures from World War II Unexploded Undersea Ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrach, M. R.; Chutjian, A.; Plett, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    Trace explosives signatures of TNT and DNT have been extracted from multiple sediment samples adjacent to unexploded undersea ordnance at Halifax Harbor, Canada. The ordnance was hurled into the harbor during a massive explosion some 50 years earlier, in 1945 after World War II had ended. Laboratory sediment extractions were made using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method in seawater and detection using the Reversal Electron Attachment Detection (READ) technique and, in the case of DNT, a commercial gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Results show that, after more than 50 years in the environment, ordnance that appeared to be physically intact gave good explosives signatures at the parts per billion level, whereas ordnance that had been cracked open during the explosion gave no signatures at the 10 parts per trillion sensitivity level. These measurements appear to provide the first reported data of explosives signatures from undersea unexploded ordnance.

  11. Environmental Support to Amphibious Craft, Patrol Boats, and Coastal Ships: An Annotated Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bachmann, Charles M; Fusina, Robert A; Nichols, C. R; McDermid, Jack

    2008-01-01

    This annotated bibliography is a selection of citations to books, articles, documents, and data bases highlighting environmental conditions that impact the safety and performance of amphibious craft...

  12. Status of Efforts to Initiate an Amphibious Combat Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-10

    the ACV program until 2018. the Department of Defense (DOD) canceled the Marine Corps’ Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle acquisition program due to...concerns regarding its affordability. The Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) is a potential, but not yet initiated, successor program to the Expeditionary...findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. This is the first of the mandated GAO reports. It discusses (1) the current status of the ACV

  13. The Effects of Sea Mining Upon Amphibious Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    afford them. Both the United States and the Soviet Union have exported large numbers as part of their military aid programmes. Italy. in particular...jargon and technical terminology. To aid in understanding and provide clarification the following definition of terms is provided: 1. Amphibious...German crews remained, donning red fezzes to signify their change of allegiance. 7 For three months the ships sat idle in the port of Istanbul. then

  14. Over the Beach. US Army Amphibious Operations in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    selected to do this study; Dr. Richard Sommers; Dr. Arthur Bergeron; Ms. Louise Arnold-Friend; Mr. Richard Baker; Mr. Clif Hyatt; and the Circulation Desk...138 14. Amphibious special operations, July–August 1950 ......................140 15. Incheon coast ...Amphibious raids and demonstrations, June–December 1951 .....295 49. Line of contact and east coast beaches, 10 July 1951 ...................297 50

  15. 33 CFR 334.310 - Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area. 334.310 Section 334.310 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....310 Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; navy amphibious training area. (a) The restricted area. Beginning...

  16. Aluminum-Water Energy System for Autonomous Undersea Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-10

    between the Department of Mechanical Engineering at MIT and Lincoln Laboratory to address the problems inherent in powering autonomous undersea vehicles...Many fuel sources have been considered to power AUVs. Combustible organic fuels, such as gasoline or jet propellant, are energy dense but have not...refuel Safe Low noise Power on demand Eco-friendly Battery       Wave energy N/A N/A    Solar N/A    Docking N/A

  17. Hybrid Locomotion Evaluation for a Novel Amphibious Spherical Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Xing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the novel, multiply gaited, vectored water-jet, hybrid locomotion-capable, amphibious spherical robot III (termed ASR-III featuring a wheel-legged, water-jet composite driving system incorporating a lifting and supporting wheel mechanism (LSWM and mechanical legs with a water-jet thruster. The LSWM allows the ASR-III to support the body and slide flexibly on smooth (flat terrain. The composite driving system facilitates two on-land locomotion modes (sliding and walking and underwater locomotion mode with vectored thrusters, improving adaptability to the amphibious environment. Sliding locomotion improves the stability and maneuverability of ASR-III on smooth flat terrain, whereas walking locomotion allows ASR-III to conquer rough terrain. We used both forward and reverse kinematic models to evaluate the walking and sliding gait efficiency. The robot can also realize underwater locomotion with four vectored water-jet thrusters, and is capable of forward motion, heading angle control and depth control. We evaluated LSWM efficiency and the sliding velocities associated with varying extensions of the LSWM. To explore gait stability and mobility, we performed on-land experiments on smooth flat terrain to define the optimal stride length and frequency. We also evaluated the efficacy of waypoint tracking when the sliding gait was employed, using a closed-loop proportional-integral-derivative (PID control mechanism. Moreover, experiments of forward locomotion, heading angle control and depth control were conducted to verify the underwater performance of ASR-III. Comparison of the previous robot and ASR-III demonstrated the ASR-III had better amphibious motion performance.

  18. Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Undersea Vehicle in Unknown Unstructured Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.

  19. Analysis of Acoustic Effects on Marine Mammals for the Proposed Undersea Warfare Training Range

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jette, Steven D; Cembrola, Joan M; Mitchell, Glenn H; Fetherston, Thomas N

    2005-01-01

    ...) for the proposed Undersea Warfare Training Range (USWTR). The DEIS includes an assessment of the effects of Navy sonars on marine mammals during exercises to occur on the range as required by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA...

  20. An Innovative Approach for the Development of Future Marine Corps Amphibious Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    dashboard, design of experiment, amphibious combat vehicle, MANA , robust solution, simulation, amphibious assault, data farming , ship-to-shore... factorial designs and the bottom row illustrates the near-orthogonality and space-filling properties of NOLH designs (from Sanchez, Sanchez, & Wan, 2014...a full- factorial design that investigates every possible combination, would require 24=16 design points. A full factorial design of four factors

  1. Evolution of a heave control system for an amphibious hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, P. A. T.; Man, K. F.; Cheng, Y. N.; Osbourn, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A heave control system for amphibious hovercraft was designed and tested. The central element in the system being an axial flow, lift fan whose blade angles are continuously varied by means of feedback signals from a pressure transducer located in the front end of the hovercraft cushion and from an accelerometer measuring the heave acceleration are discussed. Results from experiments, conducted on the Cranfield Whirling-Arm facility, have shown that the system provides a rapid and effective means of controlling the heave acceleration, and, in addition, produces a valuable reduction in craft drag whilst traversing waves. An extensive parameter identification program, using a nonlinear optimization algorithm, was constructed and applied to the control subsystem, such that a full mathematical model of the controlled craft was obtained. This was then used to design an optimum control with particular reference to passenger ride comfort.

  2. Guidance of Autonomous Amphibious Vehicles for Flood Rescue Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarachary Ragi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a path-planning algorithm to guide autonomous amphibious vehicles (AAVs for flood rescue support missions. Specifically, we develop an algorithm to control multiple AAVs to reach/rescue multiple victims (also called targets in a flood scenario in 2D, where the flood water flows across the scene and the targets move (drifted by the flood water along the flood stream. A target is said to be rescued if an AAV lies within a circular region of a certain radius around the target. The goal is to control the AAVs such that each target gets rescued while optimizing a certain performance objective. The algorithm design is based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP. In practice, POMDP problems are hard to solve exactly, so we use an approximation method called nominal belief-state optimization (NBO. We compare the performance of the NBO approach with a greedy approach.

  3. Adaptive Locally Optimum Processing for Interference Suppression from Communication and Undersea Surveillance Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    the signal can be reconstructed - + by forming; under the assumption that proju(s) = IsI costo and A0 - A A1+k] z1 proju(n) = InI cosx with 4 and W...state probability. A-2 2+T+p(-))+ Pk() C2 a. b b c b remaining states P2 -(Lc(b - a) + ac +PHa(b - c)) + L p(02) -, &2 abc remaining sLates -rk P 2 .abe

  4. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Diying; Nel, André; Cai, Chenyang; Lin, Qibin; Engel, Michael S

    2013-03-07

    The species of the Strashilidae (strashilids) have been the most perplexing of fossil insects from the Jurassic period of Russia and China. They have been widely considered to be ectoparasites of pterosaurs or feathered dinosaurs, based on the putative presence of piercing and sucking mouthparts and hind tibio-basitarsal pincers purportedly used to fix onto the host's hairs or feathers. Both the supposed host and parasite occur in the Daohugou beds from the Middle Jurassic epoch of China (approximately 165 million years ago). Here we analyse the morphology of strashilids from the Daohugou beds, and reach markedly different conclusions; namely that strashilids are highly specialized flies (Diptera) bearing large membranous wings, with substantial sexual dimorphism of the hind legs and abdominal extensions. The idea that they belong to an extinct order is unsupported, and the lineage can be placed within the true flies. In terms of major morphological and inferred behavioural features, strashilids resemble the recent (extant) and relict members of the aquatic fly family Nymphomyiidae. Their ontogeny are distinguished by the persistence in adult males of larval abdominal respiratory gills, representing a unique case of paedomorphism among endopterygote insects. Adult strashilids were probably aquatic or amphibious, shedding their wings after emergence and mating in the water.

  5. High-Throughput Identification of Antimicrobial Peptides from Amphibious Mudskippers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Widespread existence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs has been reported in various animals with comprehensive biological activities, which is consistent with the important roles of AMPs as the first line of host defense system. However, no big-data-based analysis on AMPs from any fish species is available. In this study, we identified 507 AMP transcripts on the basis of our previously reported genomes and transcriptomes of two representative amphibious mudskippers, Boleophthalmus pectinirostris (BP and Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus (PM. The former is predominantly aquatic with less time out of water, while the latter is primarily terrestrial with extended periods of time on land. Within these identified AMPs, 449 sequences are novel; 15 were reported in BP previously; 48 are identically overlapped between BP and PM; 94 were validated by mass spectrometry. Moreover, most AMPs presented differential tissue transcription patterns in the two mudskippers. Interestingly, we discovered two AMPs, hemoglobin β1 and amylin, with high inhibitions on Micrococcus luteus. In conclusion, our high-throughput screening strategy based on genomic and transcriptomic data opens an efficient pathway to discover new antimicrobial peptides for ongoing development of marine drugs.

  6. An Analysis of Skill Requirements for Operators of Amphibious Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report describes the skills required in the operation of an amphibious air cushion vehicle (ACV) in Army tactical and logistic missions. The research involved analyzing ACV characteristics, operating requirements, environmental effects, and results of a simulation experiment. The analysis indicates that ACV operation is complicated by an…

  7. African amphibious fishes and the invasion of the land by the tetrapods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-01

    Sep 1, 1997 ... high-energy, exposed habitats (many rocks kippers). This phylogenetic, geographic, environmental, and beha- vioural diversity among amphibious fishes provides impor- tant background for the comparable diversity that exists among these organisms in terms of functional morphology and ecophysiology.

  8. Influence of morphology and amphibious lifestyle on the feeding ecology of the mudskipper Periophthalmus argentilineatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruitwagen, G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Lugendo, B.R.; Pratap, H.B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The potential feeding advantages that are offered to the barred mudskipper Periophthalmus argentilineatus by its amphibious life-style were investigated. To this end the feeding ecology of these fish, the position they occupy in the mangrove food web and the importance of different morphological

  9. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Next-Generation Unmanned Undersea Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    of Special Projects & Underwater Robotics, The Applied Research Laboratory -Penn State Other attendees: VADM Paul Sullivan (USN retired), Director ARL...systems, and the Advanced ProcessorBuild/ Acoustic Rapid Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Insertion (APB/ARCI) programs for sonarsignal processing. Each...Communications – The limited range and bandwidth of undersea acoustic links restrict thecommand and control, and manned and unmanned teaming options for

  10. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Chouker, A.; Feuerecker, M.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the use of 14 day undersea missions as a possible analog for short duration spaceflight for the study of immune system dysregulation. Sixteen subjects from the the NASA Extreme Enviro nment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 12, 13 and 14 missions were studied for immune system dysregulation. The assays that are presented in this poster are the Virleukocyte subsets, the T Cell functions, and the intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles. Other assays were performed, but are not included in this presntation.

  11. Amphibious Landing Operations in World War II: Personal Experience in Applying and Developing Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    the sub-task force embarked from Norfolk, the transports moved to the Solomons Island training area in Chesapeake Bay . There, the transport crews and...exercises, deemed unrealistic because they occurred within Chesapeake Bay .86 The third area was the difference between Army and Navy communications systems...described the operation as “higgledy-piggledy.”5 Amphibious landing operations have a firm foundation in the history of warfare and, more particularly

  12. The Role of the Marine Amphibious Unit, Special Operations Capable in Low Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-06

    to "hit the.m where they ain’t," to pit our strength against enemy weakness.. Environmental Verseatility. MAGTFs train in "every clime and place...favor the insurgent who, like a weightlifter , slowly builds his strength on ever-incroasing amounts of weight. Limited War is the involvement of...Marine Corps and its place in the LIC environment. In 19B5 the Marine Corps began training its Marine Amphibious Units (MAU) to be Special Operations

  13. Engineering from the Sea: Establishing How Australian Army Engineers Fit into Australia’s Amphibious Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    LF CONEMP) 10 provide more definition than to state that engineers will be part of the Battle Group (BG), around which the Amphibious Task Force...this has resulted in what is termed ’Complex War’ or asymmetrical warfare. While globalisation has seen growing interdependence between states, the...likely affect Australia’s security interests, both directly and indirectly. Compounding these threats will be factors such as globalisation

  14. Dynamic Modelling of a CPG-Controlled Amphibious Biomimetic Swimming Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the modelling and control problems of a self-propelled, multimodal amphibious robot. Inspired by the undulatory body motions of fish and dolphins, the amphibious robot propels itself underwater by oscillations of several modular fish-like propelling units coupled with a pair of pectoral fins capable of non-continuous 360 degree rotation. In order to mimic fish-like undulating propulsion, a control architecture based on Central Pattern Generator (CPG is applied to the amphibious robot for robust swimming gaits, including forward and backward swimming and turning, etc. With the simplification of the robot as a multi-link serial mechanism, a Lagrangian function is employed to establish the hydrodynamic model for steady swimming. The CPG motion control law is then imported into the Lagrangian-based dynamic model, where an associated system of kinematics and dynamics is formed to solve real-time movements and, further, to guide the exploration of the CPG parameters and steady locomotion gaits. Finally, comparative results between the simulations and experiments are provided to show the effectiveness of the built control models.

  15. Tetanus Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Surveillance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reported tetanus ... date on their 10-year booster shots. National surveillance for tetanus is monitored by the National Notifiable ...

  16. Object-based classification of global undersea topography and geomorphological features from the SRTM30_PLUS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekavalla, Maria; Argialas, Demetre

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of undersea topography and geomorphological features provides necessary information to related disciplines and many applications. The development of an automated knowledge-based classification approach of undersea topography and geomorphological features is challenging due to their multi-scale nature. The aim of the study is to develop and evaluate an automated knowledge-based OBIA approach to: i) decompose the global undersea topography to multi-scale regions of distinct morphometric properties, and ii) assign the derived regions to characteristic geomorphological features. First, the global undersea topography was decomposed through the SRTM30_PLUS bathymetry data to the so-called morphometric objects of discrete morphometric properties and spatial scales defined by data-driven methods (local variance graphs and nested means) and multi-scale analysis. The derived morphometric objects were combined with additional relative topographic position information computed with a self-adaptive pattern recognition method (geomorphons), and auxiliary data and were assigned to characteristic undersea geomorphological feature classes through a knowledge base, developed from standard definitions. The decomposition of the SRTM30_PLUS data to morphometric objects was considered successful for the requirements of maximizing intra-object and inter-object heterogeneity, based on the near zero values of the Moran's I and the low values of the weighted variance index. The knowledge-based classification approach was tested for its transferability in six case studies of various tectonic settings and achieved the efficient extraction of 11 undersea geomorphological feature classes. The classification results for the six case studies were compared with the digital global seafloor geomorphic features map (GSFM). The 11 undersea feature classes and their producer's accuracies in respect to the GSFM relevant areas were Basin (95%), Continental Shelf (94.9%), Trough (88

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIOUS ROBOT FOR VISUAL INSPECTION OF APR1400 NPP IRWST STRAINER ASSEMBLY

    OpenAIRE

    YOU HYUN JANG; JONG SEOG KIM

    2014-01-01

    An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS) is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST) strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and ...

  18. Mudskipper genomes provide insights into the terrestrial adaptation of amphibious fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Xinxin; Bian, Chao; Zan, Qijie

    2014-01-01

    Mudskippers are amphibious fishes that have developed morphological and physiological adaptations to match their unique lifestyles. Here we perform whole-genome sequencing of four representative mudskippers to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations. We discover an expansion...... of innate immune system genes in the mudskippers that may provide defence against terrestrial pathogens. Several genes of the ammonia excretion pathway in the gills have experienced positive selection, suggesting their important roles in mudskippers' tolerance to environmental ammonia. Some vision...... for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying water-to-land transition of vertebrates....

  19. 33 CFR 334.370 - Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads... REGULATIONS § 334.370 Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base. (a... training operations described in Sec. 334.310 along the south shore of the Chesapeake Bay, bounded as...

  20. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRB Leite

    Full Text Available Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae, Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms.

  1. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  2. The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory's 25th Anniversary Expedition to the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Malahoff, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) was established by NOAA at the University of Hawaii 25 years ago as part of its National Undersea Research Program. HURL's mission is to study deep water marine processes in the Pacific Ocean through a competitive proposal and review process. The dual Pisces IV and Pisces V 2000-meter manned submersibles, an RCV-150 1000-meter ROV, and multibeam equipped support ship R/V Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa ( KoK) were largely acquired from the petroleum industry then adapted and upgraded to carry out cutting edge scientific expeditions. These studies range from active submarine volcanoes, delicate precious coral gardens, endangered marine mammal and fisheries management, to engineering surveys and deployment of observatory systems. HURL successfully completed a major 5-month expedition to the South Pacific during March-August 2005, working in the waters of New Zealand, Tonga, American Samoa, and the U.S. Line Islands covering a distance of nearly 14,500 nautical miles. This mission was significant in both the scientific merit and scope of operations, consisting of 8 different cruise legs at 21 study sites, with 12 chief and co-chief scientists, 58 total science team participants, and completing 61 out of 56 scheduled Pisces science dives, 17 ROV dives, 5 multibeam survey areas, 6 CTD rosette deployments, and 7 instrument mooring recoveries. The $3.5 million expedition was funded by an international partnership with New Zealand agencies (GNS & NIWA) and the University of Kiel in Germany along with the NOAA Office of Exploration and National Undersea Research Program. While most of the individual cruise legs focused on active submarine volcanoes of the Tonga-Kermadec Islands Arc and the Samoan hot spot chain with their hydrothermal systems and associated biological communities, others concentrated on marine protected areas including those of American Samoa and the remote atolls of the Line Islands of the Central Pacific. These studies

  3. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  4. Surveillance Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to live in a world full of surveillance? In this documentary film, we take a look at everyday life in Denmark and how surveillance technologies and practices influence our norms and social behaviour. Researched and directed by Btihaj Ajana and Anders Albrechtslund....

  5. Undersea archeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.R.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Curr_Trends_Coastal_Mar_Sci_1990_106.pdf.txt stream_source_info Curr_Trends_Coastal_Mar_Sci_1990_106.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  6. The undersea location of the Swedish Final Repository for reactor waste, SFR - human intrusion aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.

    1989-01-01

    The Swedish Final Repository for reactor waste, SFR, is built under the Baltic sea close to the Forsmark nuclear power plant. Sixty metres of rock cover the repository caverns under the seabed. The depth of the Baltic sea is about 5-6 m at this location. A human intrusion scenario that in normal inland locations has shown to be of great importance, is a well that is drilled through or in the close vicinity of the repository. Since the land uplift in the SFR area is about 6 mm/year the undersea location of SFR ensures that no well will be drilled at this location for a considerable time while the area is covered by the Baltic sea

  7. System modeling of an air-independent solid oxide fuel cell system for unmanned undersea vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. Alan; Carreiro, Louis G.

    To examine the feasibility of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-powered unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV), a system level analysis is presented that projects a possible integration of the SOFC stack, fuel steam reformer, fuel/oxidant storage and balance of plant components into a 21-in. diameter UUV platform. Heavy hydrocarbon fuel (dodecane) and liquid oxygen (LOX) are chosen as the preferred reactants. A maximum efficiency of 45% based on the lower heating value of dodecane was calculated for a system that provides 2.5 kW for 40 h. Heat sources and sinks have been coupled to show viable means of thermal management. The critical design issues involve proper recycling of exhaust steam from the fuel cell back into the reformer and effective use of the SOFC stack radiant heat for steam reformation of the hydrocarbon fuel.

  8. Memory and metacognition in dangerous situations: investigating cognitive impairment from gas narcosis in undersea divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Malcolm; Higham, Philip A; Kneller, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    The current study tested whether undersea divers are able to accurately judge their level of memory impairment from inert gas narcosis. Inert gas narcosis causes a number of cognitive impairments, including a decrement in memory ability. Undersea divers may be unable to accurately judge their level of impairment, affecting safety and work performance. In two underwater field experiments, performance decrements on tests of memory at 33 to 42 m were compared with self-ratings of impairment and resolution. The effect of depth (shallow [I-II m] vs. deep [33-42 m]) was measured on free-recall (Experiment I; n = 41) and cued-recall (Experiment 2; n = 39) performance, a visual-analogue self-assessment rating of narcotic impairment, and the accuracy of judgements-of-learning JOLs). Both free- and cued-recall were significantly reduced in deep, compared to shallow, conditions. This decrement was accompanied by an increase in self-assessed impairment. In contrast, resolution (based on JOLs) remained unaffected by depth. The dissociation of memory accuracy and resolution, coupled with a shift in a self-assessment of impairment, indicated that divers were able to accurately judge their decrease in memory performance at depth. These findings suggest that impaired self-assessment and resolution may not actually be a symptom of narcosis in the depth range of 33 to 42 m underwater and that the divers in this study were better equipped to manage narcosis than prior literature suggested. The results are discussed in relation to implications for diver safety and work performance.

  9. Heave control of amphibious hovercraft by means of an active-fan system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, P. A. T.; Man, K. F.; Osbourn, E. W.; Cheng, Y. N.

    This paper describes the development of a heave control system for amphibious hovercraft, the central element in the system being an axial flow, lift-fan whose blade angles are continuously varied by means of feedback signals from a pressure transducer located in the front end of the hovercraft cushion and from an accelerometer measuring the heave acceleration. Transfer functions associated with the cushion dynamics were obtained by means of parameter identification using coefficient-plane models in which the coefficients were estimated by means of a nonlinear optimization algorithm. Results from experiments, conducted on the Cranfield, Whirling-Arm facility, have shown that the system provides a rapid and effective means of controlling the heave acceleration and, in addition, produces a valuable reduction in craft drag whilst traversing waves.

  10. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) Polymer as Amphibious Buffer Layer for Graphene Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Jianjun; Huo, Shuai; Lu, Haiyan; Kong, Yuecan; Chen, Tangshen; Wu, Wei; Xu, Jingxia

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the scattering and trapping effects, the interfaces of dielectric/graphene or substrate/graphene can tailor the performance of field-effect transistor (FET). In this letter, the polymer of benzocyclobutene (BCB) was used as an amphibious buffer layer and located at between the layers of substrate and graphene and between the layers of dielectric and graphene. Interestingly, with the help of nonpolar and hydrophobic BCB buffer layer, the large-scale top-gated, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene transistors was prepared on Si/SiO2 substrate, its cutoff frequency (fT) and the maximum cutoff frequency (fmax) of the graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) can be reached at 12 GHz and 11 GHz, respectively.

  11. Preventive measures for safety and helth at work with the amphibious transporter PTS-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Kovačević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the knowledge of using the amphibious transporter STM-M ( STM-M is very limited. A small number of professional soldiers in the Serbian Armed Forces know how to use thisvery useful and high-quality military vehicle in a regular way. From the day onethis vehicle has remained in its basic shape without any modifications since it was made in the former Soviet Union. Today, the Serbian Armed Forces have only 12 of these vehicles in the operational use. The Serbian Armed Forces have two amphibious platoons in two pontoon batalions in the River Flotilla. As the author of this article was an officer in charge of maintaining this complex and “unusual” vehicle, the article deals with the provisions from the Regulations on preventive measures for safety and health while using work equipment (Ministry of Labour, 2012, applied to work with STM-Ms, The article makes a parallel between the provisions of the Regulations and the actual situation and specific conditions of using and maintaining STM-Ms . Introduction Some basic information about the STM-M is given here, twith Figure 1 of this vehicle and its tactical and technicalspecifications.The dangerous places onthe vehicle are presented as well. Mesuares and rules for safe work This part ofthe article presents all speciall tools on the STM-M that are used for safe work. Each piece of tool is described in detail -itslocationon the STM-M, its physical characteristics,  and most common mistakes during its use. Some measures for better maintenance and improved safety at work are also proposed. Conclusion The conclusion deals with the misuse and wrong maintenance of STM-Ms and gives some proposals for their better use. A critical commentary about the conditions of safety engineering in the Serbian Armed Forces can be found here as well.  

  12. Amphibious hearing in ringed seals (Pusa hispida): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are semi-aquatic marine mammals with a circumpolar Arctic distribution. In this study, we investigate the amphibious hearing capabilities of ringed seals to provide auditory profiles for this species across the full range of hearing. Using psychophysical methods with two trained ringed seals, detection thresholds for narrowband signals were measured under quiet, carefully controlled environmental conditions to generate aerial and underwater audiograms. Masked underwater thresholds were measured in the presence of octave-band noise to determine critical ratios. Results indicate that ringed seals possess hearing abilities comparable to those of spotted seals (Phoca largha) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and considerably better than previously reported for ringed and harp seals. Best sensitivity was 49 dB re. 1 µPa (12.8 kHz) in water, and -12 dB re. 20 µPa (4.5 kHz) in air, rivaling the acute hearing abilities of some fully aquatic and terrestrial species in their respective media. Critical ratio measurements ranged from 14 dB at 0.1 kHz to 31 dB at 25.6 kHz, suggesting that ringed seals--like other true seals--can efficiently extract signals from background noise across a broad range of frequencies. The work described herein extends similar research on amphibious hearing in spotted seals recently published by the authors. These parallel studies enhance our knowledge of the auditory capabilities of ice-living seals, and inform effective management strategies for these and related species in a rapidly changing Arctic environment. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID) occurs during spaceflight and may represent specific clinical risks for exploration-class missions. An appropriate ground analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation would offer a platform for ground-evaluation of various potential countermeasures. This study evaluated the NASA Undersea Mission Operations ( NEEMO ), consisting of 14 day undersea deployment at the Aquarius station, as an analog for SAID. Sixteen Aquanauts from missions NEEMO-12, 13 and 14 participated in the study. RESULTS Mid-mission alterations leukocyte distribution occurred, including granulocytosis and elevations in central-memory CD8+ T-cells. General T cell function was reduced during NEEMO missions in roughly 50% of subjects. Secreted cytokines profiles were evaluated following whole blood stimulation with CD3/CD28 (T cells) or LPS (monocytes). T cell production of IFNg, IL-5, IL-10, IL-2, TNFa and IL-6 were all reduced before and during the mission. Conversely, monocyte production of TNFa, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1b and IL-8 were elevated during mission, moreso at the MD-14 timepoint. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen and early antigen were increased in approximately 40% of the subjects. Changes in EBV tetramer-positive CD8+ T-cells exhibited a variable pattern. Antibodies against Cytomegalovirus (CMV) were marginally increased during the mission. Herpesvirus reactivation was determined by PCR. EBV viral load was generally elevated at L-6. Higher levels of salivary EBV were found during the NEEMO mission than before and after as well as than the healthy controls. No VZV or CMV was found in any pre, during and after NEEMO mission or control samples. Plasma cortisol was elevated at L-6. CONCLUSION Unfortunately, L-6 may be too near to mission start to be an appropriate baseline measurement. The general immune changes in leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production, virus specific

  14. Amphibious Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-05-20

    waves went astray in the smoke and landed on Beach ORANGE ONE to the south of the pier, which caused an unexpected widening of the front. This was soon...landing support by PHELPS and HALL not prescribed by plan, DOG and DOG plus ONE Days’ firing followed the schedule almost like clockwork . Captured

  15. SPECIES INVENTORY OF AMPHIBIOUS FISH IN INTERTIDAL ZONE OF NGRENEHAN, NGOBARAN AND NGUYAHAN COASTELS, GUNUNG KIDUL, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukiya Sukiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical region is high on faunal diversity including vertebrates and invertebrates. Research on diversity of amphibious fish in Intertidal zone of  Yogyakarta southern coast is still limited so there is no complete records regarding these unique fish. This research aimed to know the diversity of amphibious fish in three beaches of Yogyakarta southern coast, namely pantai Ngrenehan, Ngobaran dan Nguyahan. Fish sampling were conducted using random sampling method combined with observational method. Fish were collected using small nets then identified to species rank. The total length of each fish were measured and recorded. Few individuals of the same species were sacrificed as voucher specimens. The result showed that in pantai Ngrenehan, Ngobaran, and Nguyahan, five different species of amphibius fish were found, which are Cabillus lacertops, Bathygobius fuscus, Enneapterygus sp., Blenniella cyanostigma, and Blenniella caudolineata. Cabillus lacertops was found in all of sampling locations. Enneapterygus sp. was found in pantai Nguyahan while Bathigobius fuscus, and Blenniella caudolineata can only be found in pantai Ngrenehan. Further studies regarding the adaptation, ecological features, taxonomy and biological reproduction of Yogyakarta southern coast’s  amphibious fish are still needed.   Keywords: Inventarization, amphbious fish, intertidal zone, Yogyakarta southern coast

  16. An Undersea Mining Microseism Source Location Algorithm Considering Wave Velocity Probability Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furui Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional mine microseism locating methods are mainly based on the assumption that the wave velocity is uniform through the space, which leads to some errors for the assumption goes against the laws of nature. In this paper, the wave velocity is regarded as a random variable, and the probability distribution information of the wave velocity is fused into the traditional locating method. This paper puts forwards the microseism source location method for the undersea mining on condition of the probability distribution of the wave velocity and comes up with the solving process of Monte Carlo. In addition, based on the simulated results of the Monte Carlo method, the space is divided into three areas: the most possible area (area I, the possible area (area II, and the small probability area (area III. Attached to corresponding mathematical formulations, spherical models and cylindrical models in different areas are, respectively, built according to whether the source is in the sensor arrays. Both the examples and the actual applications show that (1 the method of microseism source location in this paper can highly improve the accuracy of the microseism monitoring, especially for the source beyond the sensor arrays, and (2 the space-dividing method based on occurrence possibilities of the source can recognize and sweep the hidden dangers for it predicts the probable location range of the source efficiently, while the traditional method cannot.

  17. Aiding surveillance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    arashid

    generator in itself.4 Yet surveillance unconstrained by legal frameworks, human rights protections, and the rule of law has the ... Analysis of the potential adverse implications of using personal information is often completely ..... acknowledge the potential of new information technologies to strengthen electoral processes,.

  18. Health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Code includes a number of requirements for the health surveillance of employees associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores. This guideline is particularly directed at determining the level of fitness of employees and prospective employees, detecting any symptom which might contraindicate exposure to the environment encountered in mine/mill situations, examination of any employee who may have been exposed to radiation in excess of defined limits and the accumulation and provision of data on the health of employees

  19. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  20. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensitivity of ventilation in amphibious crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, breathing air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Andrew T; Henry, Raymond P

    2004-05-01

    Amphibious crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, were acclimated to breathing either air or water and exposed to altered levels of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide in the medium. Hypercapnia (22, 36 and 73 torr CO(2)) stimulated a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) in both groups of crabs, with a much greater effect on scaphognathite frequency (Deltaf(SC)=+700%) in air-breathing crabs than water-breathing crabs (Deltaf(SC)=+100%). In contrast, hyperoxia induced significant hypoventilation in both sets of crabs. However, simultaneous hyperoxia and hypercapnia triggered a greater than 10-fold increase in f(SC) in air-breathing crabs but no change in water-breathing crabs. For water-breathing crabs hypoxia simultaneous with hypercapnia triggered the same response as hypoxia alone-bradycardia (-50%), and a significant increase in f(SC) at moderate exposures but not at the more extreme levels. The response of air-breathing crabs to hypoxia concurrent with hypercapnia was proportionally closer to the response to hypercapnia alone than to hypoxia. Thus, C. guanhumi were more sensitive to ambient CO(2) than O(2) when breathing air, characteristic of fully terrestrial species, and more sensitive to ambient O(2) when breathing water, characteristic of fully aquatic species. C. guanhumi possesses both an O(2)- and a CO(2)-based ventilatory drive whether breathing air or water, but the relative importance switches when the respiratory medium is altered.

  1. Synchrotron scanning reveals amphibious ecomorphology in a new clade of bird-like dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Andrea; Beyrand, Vincent; Voeten, Dennis F. A. E.; Fernandez, Vincent; Tafforeau, Paul; Stein, Koen; Barsbold, Rinchen; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav; Currie, Philip J.; Godefroit, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    Maniraptora includes birds and their closest relatives among theropod dinosaurs. During the Cretaceous period, several maniraptoran lineages diverged from the ancestral coelurosaurian bauplan and evolved novel ecomorphologies, including active flight, gigantism, cursoriality and herbivory. Propagation X-ray phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography of a well-preserved maniraptoran from Mongolia, still partially embedded in the rock matrix, revealed a mosaic of features, most of them absent among non-avian maniraptorans but shared by reptilian and avian groups with aquatic or semiaquatic ecologies. This new theropod, Halszkaraptor escuilliei gen. et sp. nov., is related to other enigmatic Late Cretaceous maniraptorans from Mongolia in a novel clade at the root of Dromaeosauridae. This lineage adds an amphibious ecomorphology to those evolved by maniraptorans: it acquired a predatory mode that relied mainly on neck hyperelongation for food procurement, it coupled the obligatory bipedalism of theropods with forelimb proportions that may support a swimming function, and it developed postural adaptations convergent with short-tailed birds.

  2. The critical role of personality and organizational factors as determinants of reactions to restricted and stressful environments. [undersea habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Research into the impact of personality factors on groups in various settings is reviewed as an introduction to a brief discussion of personality and group behavior research needs relevant to the space program. Significant findings of some earlier research are summarized, and methodological problems are touched on. The study of intergroup and intragroup conflict in a stressful environment, as exemplified particularly by undersea habitats, is seen as being of consequence for long-term space missions. It is concluded that adequate research can only be conducted as an adjunct to data collection from operational stressful environments, and not from laboratory experiments.

  3. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  4. A Kinect-based real-time compressive tracking prototype system for amphibious spherical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shaowu; Shi, Liwei; Guo, Shuxiang

    2015-04-08

    A visual tracking system is essential as a basis for visual servoing, autonomous navigation, path planning, robot-human interaction and other robotic functions. To execute various tasks in diverse and ever-changing environments, a mobile robot requires high levels of robustness, precision, environmental adaptability and real-time performance of the visual tracking system. In keeping with the application characteristics of our amphibious spherical robot, which was proposed for flexible and economical underwater exploration in 2012, an improved RGB-D visual tracking algorithm is proposed and implemented. Given the limited power source and computational capabilities of mobile robots, compressive tracking (CT), which is the effective and efficient algorithm that was proposed in 2012, was selected as the basis of the proposed algorithm to process colour images. A Kalman filter with a second-order motion model was implemented to predict the state of the target and select candidate patches or samples for the CT tracker. In addition, a variance ratio features shift (VR-V) tracker with a Kalman estimation mechanism was used to process depth images. Using a feedback strategy, the depth tracking results were used to assist the CT tracker in updating classifier parameters at an adaptive rate. In this way, most of the deficiencies of CT, including drift and poor robustness to occlusion and high-speed target motion, were partly solved. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a Microsoft Kinect sensor, which combines colour and infrared depth cameras, was adopted for use in a prototype of the robotic tracking system. The experimental results with various image sequences demonstrated the effectiveness, robustness and real-time performance of the tracking system.

  5. A Kinect-Based Real-Time Compressive Tracking Prototype System for Amphibious Spherical Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowu Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A visual tracking system is essential as a basis for visual servoing, autonomous navigation, path planning, robot-human interaction and other robotic functions. To execute various tasks in diverse and ever-changing environments, a mobile robot requires high levels of robustness, precision, environmental adaptability and real-time performance of the visual tracking system. In keeping with the application characteristics of our amphibious spherical robot, which was proposed for flexible and economical underwater exploration in 2012, an improved RGB-D visual tracking algorithm is proposed and implemented. Given the limited power source and computational capabilities of mobile robots, compressive tracking (CT, which is the effective and efficient algorithm that was proposed in 2012, was selected as the basis of the proposed algorithm to process colour images. A Kalman filter with a second-order motion model was implemented to predict the state of the target and select candidate patches or samples for the CT tracker. In addition, a variance ratio features shift (VR-V tracker with a Kalman estimation mechanism was used to process depth images. Using a feedback strategy, the depth tracking results were used to assist the CT tracker in updating classifier parameters at an adaptive rate. In this way, most of the deficiencies of CT, including drift and poor robustness to occlusion and high-speed target motion, were partly solved. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a Microsoft Kinect sensor, which combines colour and infrared depth cameras, was adopted for use in a prototype of the robotic tracking system. The experimental results with various image sequences demonstrated the effectiveness, robustness and real-time performance of the tracking system.

  6. Investigating Miocene Mediterranean-Atlantic Gateway Exchange (IMMAGE) - an amphibious drilling proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecker, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Today Mediterranean seawater flows out through the Gibraltar Straits, forming a saline plume at intermediate depths in the Atlantic. The plume's sedimentary record of distinctive, contouritic deposits has recently been recovered during IODP Leg 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz documenting a Mediterranean contribution to Atlantic thermohaline circulation since the Pliocene. However, before the Pliocene, the conduit for Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange is unclear. Gibraltar may have already been open, but two additional marine corridors also existed through northern Morocco and southern Spain. The restriction and closure of these Miocene connections resulted in extreme salinity fluctuations in the Mediterranean, leading to the precipitation of thick evaporites. This event is known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and recovering a complete record of the MSC is the target of current IODP drilling proposals (e.g. DREAM). Understanding both the causes of high-amplitude salinity change in the Mediterranean and its global consequences for thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic is dependent on recovering a complete record of Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange before, during and after the MSC. This key objective of the IMMAGE drilling proposal requires core recovery on-shore at the mouths of the Betic and Rifian corridors which are now exposed on land, as well as offshore, in the Alborán Sea and on the Atlantic continental margin. Consequently to meet this objective, an amphibious drilling strategy is necessary, involving both IODP and ICDP targets. In addition to allowing us to reconstruct Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange during high amplitude salinity fluctuations and identify the conduit through which exchange occurred, the sediments recovered from IMMAGE drilling will also provide us with a unique and explicit test for ocean physics hypotheses describing the location, size and velocity of overflow plumes under conditions where the density contrast between the two water

  7. Design and Modeling of High Power Density Acoustic Transducer Materials for Autonomous Undersea Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Adam Arthur

    Advances in piezocrystal transducer materials technology has opened new avenues to impact the size, weight, and power consumption of sonar systems for deployment in autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs). Although piezocrystals exhibit exceptional electromechanical properties, they have low ferroelectric Curie temperatures, small electrical coercivities, and exhibit temperature, electrical field, and/or stress induced phase transitions between ferroelectric phases with differing electromechanical properties. New piezocrystal materials are required that can provide the compositional tailoring capability needed to increase the Curie temperature and coercive field, ameliorate the deleterious effects of ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions, and enable property optimization for specific transducer applications. Currently, new piezocrystal systems and compositions are selected almost exclusively by empirical 'make and measure' approaches guided by past experiences. These empirical processes can be time and labor intensive and as a result there exists only limited predictive capability for finding new piezocrystal compositions even in known piezocrystal systems. In this study we seek to develop a comprehensive phenomenological theory and a unified parameterization scheme applicable to binary and ternary ferroelectric solid solution systems in order to enable the accelerated development and characterization of new piezocrystal systems for optimized transducer performance. A modified form of the classical Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire theory of weak first-order transitions is applied to perovskite-structured ferroelectric systems based on the ternary oxide compounds, barium titanate and lead titanate, which places special emphasis on the role played by the crystallographic anisotropy of polarization. It is shown that the theory produces excellent qualitative agreement with the experimentally measured phase diagram topologies, crystal lattice parameters, and

  8. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  9. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-03-01

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants.

  10. Development of an amphibious robot for visual inspection of APR1400 Npp IRWST strainer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, You Hyun; Kim, Jong Seog [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS) is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST) strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and 4 legs for walking on the top of the strainer. An inverse kinematic algorithm was implemented in the robot controller for exact walking on the top of the IRWST strainer. The IRWST strainer has several top cross braces that are extruded on the top of the strainer, which can be obstacles of walking on the strainer, to maintain the frame of the strainer. Therefore, a robot leg should arrive at the position beside the top cross brace. For this reason, we used an image processing technique to find the top cross brace in the sole camera image. The sole camera image is processed to find the existence of the top cross brace using the cross edge detection algorithm in real time. A 5-DOF robot arm that has multiple camera modules for simultaneous inspection of both sides can penetrate narrow gaps. For intuitive presentation of inspection results and for management of inspection data, inspection images are stored in the control PC with camera angles and positions to synthesize and merge the images. The synthesized images are then mapped in a 3D CAD model of the IRWST strainer with the location information. An IRWST strainer mock-up was fabricated to teach the robot arm scanning and gaiting. It is important to arrive at the designated position for inserting the robot arm into all of the gaps. Exact position control without anchor under the water is not easy. Therefore, we designed the multi leg robot for the role of anchoring and positioning. Quadruped robot design of installing sole

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIOUS ROBOT FOR VISUAL INSPECTION OF APR1400 NPP IRWST STRAINER ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU HYUN JANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and 4 legs for walking on the top of the strainer. An inverse kinematic algorithm was implemented in the robot controller for exact walking on the top of the IRWST strainer. The IRWST strainer has several top cross braces that are extruded on the top of the strainer, which can be obstacles of walking on the strainer, to maintain the frame of the strainer. Therefore, a robot leg should arrive at the position beside the top cross brace. For this reason, we used an image processing technique to find the top cross brace in the sole camera image. The sole camera image is processed to find the existence of the top cross brace using the cross edge detection algorithm in real time. A 5-DOF robot arm that has multiple camera modules for simultaneous inspection of both sides can penetrate narrow gaps. For intuitive presentation of inspection results and for management of inspection data, inspection images are stored in the control PC with camera angles and positions to synthesize and merge the images. The synthesized images are then mapped in a 3D CAD model of the IRWST strainer with the location information. An IRWST strainer mock-up was fabricated to teach the robot arm scanning and gaiting. It is important to arrive at the designated position for inserting the robot arm into all of the gaps. Exact position control without anchor under the water is not easy. Therefore, we designed the multi leg robot for the role of anchoring and positioning. Quadruped robot design of

  12. Development of an amphibious robot for visual inspection of APR1400 Npp IRWST strainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, You Hyun; Kim, Jong Seog

    2014-01-01

    An amphibious inspection robot system (hereafter AIROS) is being developed to visually inspect the in-containment refueling storage water tank (hereafter IRWST) strainer in APR1400 instead of a human diver. Four IRWST strainers are located in the IRWST, which is filled with boric acid water. Each strainer has 108 sub-assembly strainer fin modules that should be inspected with the VT-3 method according to Reg. guide 1.82 and the operation manual. AIROS has 6 thrusters for submarine voyage and 4 legs for walking on the top of the strainer. An inverse kinematic algorithm was implemented in the robot controller for exact walking on the top of the IRWST strainer. The IRWST strainer has several top cross braces that are extruded on the top of the strainer, which can be obstacles of walking on the strainer, to maintain the frame of the strainer. Therefore, a robot leg should arrive at the position beside the top cross brace. For this reason, we used an image processing technique to find the top cross brace in the sole camera image. The sole camera image is processed to find the existence of the top cross brace using the cross edge detection algorithm in real time. A 5-DOF robot arm that has multiple camera modules for simultaneous inspection of both sides can penetrate narrow gaps. For intuitive presentation of inspection results and for management of inspection data, inspection images are stored in the control PC with camera angles and positions to synthesize and merge the images. The synthesized images are then mapped in a 3D CAD model of the IRWST strainer with the location information. An IRWST strainer mock-up was fabricated to teach the robot arm scanning and gaiting. It is important to arrive at the designated position for inserting the robot arm into all of the gaps. Exact position control without anchor under the water is not easy. Therefore, we designed the multi leg robot for the role of anchoring and positioning. Quadruped robot design of installing sole

  13. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication...

  14. SEACAT CTD data of the Hawaii Undersea Research Program from 593 dives of the remotely operated vehicle and the submersibles Pisces IV and V during 1995-2012 in the North and South Pacific (NODC Accession 0116373)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) was established by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Hawaii. Its...

  15. Summary of Research 1995, Interdisciplinary Academic Groups (Command, Control & Communications Academic Group, Electronic Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic Group and Undersea Warfare Academic Group)

    OpenAIRE

    Faculty of the Academic Groups

    1995-01-01

    The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. This report contains information of research projects in the four interdisciplinary groups, Command, Control & Communications Academic Group, Electronic Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic Group and Undersea Warfare Academic Group, which were carried out under funding of the Naval Postgraduate School Research...

  16. Analysis of the Effect of Environmental Conditions in Conducting Amphibious Assaults Using a Ship Simulator/Vessel-Response Model Proof-of-Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 4 Analysis of the Effect of Environmental Conditions in Conducting Amphibious Assaults Using a Ship Simulator...unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges...ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army

  17. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  18. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  19. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...... of activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor...... visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  20. Surveillance and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Albrechtslund, Anders; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    eyes of cameras are but one of many important aspects of the surveillance society. In particular, surveillance has become intrinsic to our digitally mediated communication. Many are constantly engaged in forms of social surveillance as they observe what friends, family, celebrities, love interests......, and acquaintances are up to on social media. In turn, they also leave trails of digital footprints that may be collected and analyzed by governments, businesses, or hackers. The imperceptible nature of this new surveillance raises some pressing concerns about our digital lives as our data doubles increasingly...... are particularly relevant to this topic and audience. The fourth section outlines a variety of themes in which surveillance of communication is being studied. Organized under the headings Tracking; Mass Surveillance; Media; and Art, Fiction, and Popular Culture, this section provides a survey in surveillance...

  1. 20,000 In League Under the Sea: Anonymous Communication, Trust, MLATs, and Undersea Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaggard Aaron D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the effectiveness of correlation attacks against Tor, the censorship arms race, and observations of malicious relays in Tor, we propose that Tor users capture their trust in network elements using probability distributions over the sets of elements observed by network adversaries. We present a modular system that allows users to efficiently and conveniently create such distributions and use them to improve their security. To illustrate this system, we present two novel types of adversaries. First, we study a powerful, pervasive adversary that can compromise an unknown number of Autonomous System organizations, Internet Exchange Point organizations, and Tor relay families. Second, we initiate the study of how an adversary might use Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs to enact surveillance. As part of this, we identify submarine cables as a potential subject of trust and incorporate data about these into our MLAT analysis by using them as a proxy for adversary power. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results that show the potential for our trust framework to be used by Tor clients and services to improve security.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of undersea seismic surveys. Part 1.: Legislations and reference guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanfredi, C.; Azzellino, A.; Vismara, R.

    2009-01-01

    Noise effects on marine ecosystems are an increasing concern to the public, research organizations and environmental management agencies. Recent observations of marine mammal strandings coincident with loud, anthropogenic sounds have focused attention on the potential impact of such sounds on sensitive species and populations. The sound sources that have been coincident with marine mammal strandings are air gun arrays, and military, mid-frequency (2-10 kHz) sonars, both of which are widely used throughout the world respectively for geophysical exploration and for surveillance and defence at sea. Alternative technologies are not readily available. Acoustic impacts on marine environment need to be addressed through a comprehensive and transparent management and regulatory system. Even if the underwater noise is now included in the E U Marine Directive (16976/06), specific laws about the management of underwater noise are not yet available in the European contest. As a first step is needed to adopt the basic mitigation procedures (guide-lines) suggested by international organisations (IWC, ACCOBAMS) and regulate the rules to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of sound producer activities. [it

  3. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  4. Photosynthetic characteristics of an amphibious plant, Eleocharis vivipara: Expression of C4 and C3 modes in contrasting environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Osamu; Samejima, Muneaki; Muto, Shoshi; Miyachi, Shigetoh

    1988-01-01

    Eleocharis vivipara Link, a freshwater amphibious leafless plant belonging to the Cyperaceae can grow in both terrestrial and submersed aquatic conditions. Two forms of E. vivipara obtained from these contrasting environments were examined for the characteristics associated with C 4 and C 3 photosynthesis. In the terrestrial form, the culms, which are photosynthetic organs, possess a Kranz-type anatomy typical of C 4 plants, and well-developed bundle-sheath cells contain numerous large chloroplasts. In the submersed form, the culms possess anatomical features characteristic of submersed aquatic plants, and the reduced bundle-sheath cells contain only a few small chloroplasts. 14 C pulse- 12 C chase experiments showed that the terrestrial form and the submersed form fix carbon by way of the C 4 pathway, with aspartate (40%) and malate (35%) as the main primary products, and by way of the C 3 pathway, with 3-phosphoglyceric acid (53%) and sugar phosphates (14%) as the main primary products, respectively. The terrestrial form showed photosynthetic enzyme activities typical of the NAD-malic enzyme-C 4 subtype, whereas the submersed form showed decreased activities of key C 4 enzymes and an increased ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity. These data suggest that this species can differentiate into the C 4 mode under terrestrial conditions and into the C 3 mode under submersed conditions

  5. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  6. Redefining syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Katz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field’s capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries.

  7. Surveillance Avoidance Technique Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-02

    path and, using the evaluation module for feedback , alter the path until acceptable surveil- lance avoidance performance is achieved. The current ISAS...Nmber Diselav Stage Containing - Date: I I Time ( GIlT ): Figure 3-46: Textual Display for GRAPHICAL Module 3-64 Surveillance Avoidance Final Report System

  8. The NEEMO Project: A Report on how NASA Utilizes the "Aquarius" Undersea Habitat as an Analog for Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Marc; Todd, William

    2003-01-01

    NEEMO is the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations, a cooperative project between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NEEMO was created and is managed by the Mission Operations Directorate at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. On the NOAA side, the National Undersea Research Center (NURC) in Key Largo, FL, with the help of the University of North Carolina at Wilmington, manages and operates the Aquarius Program. NEEMO was developed by astronaut training specialists to utilize an undersea research habitat as a multi-objective mission analog for long-duration space flight. Each mission was designed to expose astronauts to extreme environments for training purposes and to research crew behavior, habitability, and space analog life sciences. All of this was done much in the model of a space mission utilizing specific crew procedures, mission rules and timelines. Objectives of the missions were very diverse and contained many of the typical space mission type activities such as EV As (also known as extra vehicular activities), in-habitat science and research, and educational, public outreach, and media events. Five missions, dubbed NEEMO 1-5, were conducted between October 2001 and July 2003, the longest of which (NEEMO 5) lasted 14 days.

  9. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  11. Detection of Repeating Earthquakes within the Cascadia Subduction Zone Using 2013-2014 Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefic, L.; Morton, E.; Bilek, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that subduction zones create the largest earthquakes in the world, like the magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake in 1960, or the more recent 9.1 magnitude Japan earthquake in 2011, both of which are in the top five largest earthquakes ever recorded. However, off the coast of the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S., the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) remains relatively quiet and modern seismic instruments have not recorded earthquakes of this size in the CSZ. The last great earthquake, a magnitude 8.7-9.2, occurred in 1700 and is constrained by written reports of the resultant tsunami in Japan and dating a drowned forest in the U.S. Previous studies have suggested the margin is most likely segmented along-strike. However, variations in frictional conditions in the CSZ fault zone are not well known. Geodetic modeling indicates that the locked seismogenic zone is likely completely offshore, which may be too far from land seismometers to adequately detect related seismicity. Ocean bottom seismometers, as part of the Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Network, were installed directly above the inferred seismogenic zone, which we use to better detect small interplate seismicity. Using the subspace detection method, this study looks to find new seismogenic zone earthquakes. This subspace detection method uses multiple previously known event templates concurrently to scan through continuous seismic data. Template events that make up the subspace are chosen from events in existing catalogs that likely occurred along the plate interface. Corresponding waveforms are windowed on the nearby Cascadia Initiative ocean bottom seismometers and coastal land seismometers for scanning. Detections that are found by the scan are similar to the template waveforms based upon a predefined threshold. Detections are then visually examined to determine if an event is present. The presence of repeating event clusters can indicate persistent seismic patches, likely corresponding to

  12. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  13. Advanced Undersea Warfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    search mode, software modifications may be needed to give the LD- UUV weapon a line-of- bearing search capability. ◦ Max Range: 8 NM69 ◦ Warhead Size: 45...Glider can self-destruct or enter a hibernation state to be retrieved at a future time. Figure 4.19: Glider Recovery Assisted by Helicopter Retrieval 97...functions of the system. It does not have any bearing on the weighting of the remaining six functions. 127 between desires and capabilities using

  14. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  15. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... page: About CDC.gov . 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms ...

  16. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1991-09-01

    Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) is a beam of laser light which scans a plane above the water or under-water in a spent-fuel pond. The system can detect different objects and estimates its coordinates and distance as well. LASSY can operate in stand-alone configuration or in combination with a video surveillance to trigger signal to a videorecorder. The recorded information on LASSY computer's disk comprises date, time, start and stop angle of detected alarm, the size of the disturbance indicated in number of deviated points and some other information. The information given by the laser system cannot be fully substituted by TV camera pictures since the scanning beam creates a horizontal surveillance plan. The engineered prototype laser system long-term field test has been carried out in Soluggia (Italy) and has shown its feasibility and reliability under the conditions of real spent fuel storage pond. The verification of the alarm table on the LASSY computer with the recorded video pictures of TV surveillance system confirmed that all alarm situations have been detected. 5 refs

  17. Conic surveillance evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, J.; Olsder, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A surveillance-evasion differential game of degree with a detection zone in the shape of a two-dimensional cone is posed. The nature of the optimal strategies and the singular phenomena of the value function are described and correlated to subsets of the space of all possible parameter combinations,

  18. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The development progress during the reporting period 1988 of the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools is summarized. The present engineered system comes close to a final version for field application as all technical questions have been solved in 1988. 14 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project

  20. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  1. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  2. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    members seeking care for the condition or resulted in increased screening for the condition , which would subsequently increase the number of cases...R E S P A G E 2 2 Deployment-related conditions of special surveillance interest MSMR Vol. 23 No. 10 October 2016 Page 2 Obstructive sleep apnea...OSA) is a growing health concern in both civilian and military populations. Individuals who suffer from OSA have increased rates of cardiovascular

  3. Transports under surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouette, I.

    2016-01-01

    Each year 770.000 nuclear transports are performed in France representing less than 3% of the transport of dangerous materials. This article review various aspects of nuclear transport: modes of transportation, packages, current legislation, safety and surveillance. A map presents the transport route of vitrified wastes from Sellafield plant to the Zwilag storing center in Switzerland at one moment this transport crosses France and another map presents the transport routes involved in the nuclear fuel cycle in France. (A.C.)

  4. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  5. The Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory: Applying Innovative Deep-sea Technologies Toward Research, Service, and Stewardship in Marine Protected Areas of the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) is the only U.S. deep submergence facility in the Pacific Rim tasked with supporting undersea research necessary to fulfill the mission, goals, and objectives of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), along with other national interests of importance. Over 30 years of submersible operations have resulted in nearly 1900 dives representing 9300 hours underwater, and a benthic ecology database derived from in-house video record logging of over 125,000 entries based on 1100 unique deep-sea animal identifications in the Hawaiian Archipelago. As a Regional Center within the Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), HURL conducts undersea research in offshore and nearshore waters of the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and waters of the central, southern, and western Pacific. HURL facilities primarily support marine research projects that require data acquisition at depths greater than wet diving methods. These consist of the research vessel Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK), human occupied submersibles Pisces IV and Pisces V (2000 m), a new remotely operated vehicle (6000 m), and a multibeam bathymetric sonar system (11,000 m). In addition, HURL has also supported AAUS compliant wet diving since 2003, including technical mixed gas/rebreather work. While ecosystem studies of island, atoll, and seamount flanks are the largest component of the HURL science program, many other thematic research areas have been targeted including extreme and unique environments, new resources from the sea, episodic events to long term changes, and the development of innovative technologies. Several examples of HURL's contributions to marine protected areas (MPAs) include: (a) A long term presence in the pristine ecosystems of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Researchers from National Marine Fisheries have used HURL assets to study endangered Hawaiian Monk Seal habitat

  6. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  7. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  9. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in this context. With such platforms comes the massive provision and storage of personal data that are systematically evaluated, marketed, and used for targeting users with advertising. In a world of global economic competition, economic crisis, and fear of terrorism after 9/11, both corporations and state...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...

  10. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  11. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  12. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  13. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, Robert W.; Poston, Ted M.

    2000-01-01

    Shows and explains certain procedures needed for surface environmental surveillance. Hanford Site environmental surveillance is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The basic requirements for site surveillance are set fourth in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements. Guidance for the SESP is provided in DOE Order 5484.1, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. Guidelines for environmental surveillance activities are provided in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. An environmental monitoring plan for the Hanford Site is outlined in DOE/RL 91-50 Rev. 2, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual. Personnel training requirements are documented in SESP-TP-01 Rev.2, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project Training Program.

  14. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School, Whole Community, Whole Child Tools Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (HECAT) HECAT FAQs Health Education Teacher ... Button type="submit" value="Submit" /> Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance ...

  15. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  16. Police surveillance and driving speed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Although speed plays a large part in the occurrence of crashes, drivers often exceed the speed limit. The police use various methods when carrying out their speed surveillance. In the Netherlands positive effects have been found of speed surveillance with radar cars (without stopping). It is to be

  17. Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program CDC Feature: Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks Top ...

  18. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise; Yeung, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  19. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self......Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked...

  20. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  1. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Gitzinger, C.; Jaunet, P.; Eberbach, F.; Clavel, B.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Perrier, G.; Kiper, Ch.; Peres, J.M.; Josset, M.; Calvez, M.; Leclerc, M.; Leclerc, E.; Aubert, C.; Levelut, M.N.; Debayle, Ch.; Mayer, St.; Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Monfort, M.; Baron, Y.; Target, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  2. Secure surveillance videotapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P.; Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K.; Pepper, S.

    1995-01-01

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system's tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal

  3. Identification et surveillance des individus

    OpenAIRE

    Aghroum, Christian; Alberganti, Michel; Bonelli, Laurent; Ceyhan, Ayse; Denis, Vincent; Dufief, Vincent; Laurent, Sébastien; Piazza, Pierre; Preuss-Laussinotte, Sylvia; Rousselin, Thierry; Thorel, Jérôme; Tsoukala, Anastassia; Vitran, Jean-Claude; Alberganti, Michel; Alberganti, Michel

    2014-01-01

    « Big Brother is watching you ! » Cet avertissement placardé sur les murs de la cité imaginaire d'Océania dans le roman 1984 de Georges Orwell peut-il s'appliquer à nos sociétés contemporaines ? Passeport biométrique, fichage informatisé des individus, multiplication des caméras de surveillance, utilisation de puce dans des objets de la vie quotidienne, ou pour suivre les criminels en liberté surveillée, les mesures d'identification, de fichage et de surveillance des individus par des techniq...

  4. Amphibious Shelter-Builder Oniscidea Species from the New World with Description of a New Subfamily, a New Genus and a New Species from Brazilian Cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed. PMID:25992909

  5. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in this context. With such platforms comes the massive provision and storage of personal data that are systematically evaluated, marketed, and used for targeting users with advertising. In a world of global economic competition, economic crisis, and fear of terrorism after 9/11, both corporations and state...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...

  6. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A systematic aircraft program to monitor changes in the thermal emission from volcanoes of the Cascade Range has been initiated and is being carried out in conjunction with ERTS-1 thermal surveillance experiments. Night overflights by aircraft equipped with thermal infrared scanners sensitive to terrestrial emission in the 4-5.5 and 8-14 micron bands are currently being carried out at intervals of a few months. Preliminary results confirm that Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Mount Saint Helens, Mount Shasta, and the Lassen area continue to be thermally active, although with the exception of Lassen which erupted between 1914 and 1917, and Mount Saint Helens which had a series of eruptions between 1831 and 1834, there has been no recent eruptive activity. Excellent quality infrared images recorded over Mount Rainier, as recently as April, 1972, show similar thermal patterns to those reported in 1964-1966. Infrared images of Mount Baker recorded in November 1970 and again in April 1972 revealed a distinct array of anomalies 1000 feet below the crater rim and associated with fumaroles or structures permitting convective heat transfer to the surface.

  7. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This lecture discusses stockpile stewardship efforts and the role surveillance plays in the process. Performance of the RTGs is described, and the question of the absence of anticipated He is addressed.

  8. [Active surveillance of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploussard, G; Hennequin, C; Rozet, F

    2017-10-01

    Several prospective studies have demonstrated the safety of active surveillance as a first treatment of prostate cancer. It spares many patients of a useless treatment, with its potential sequelae. Patients with a low-risk cancer are all candidates for this approach, as recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Some patients with an intermediate risk could be also concerned by active surveillance, but this is still being discussed. Currently, the presence of grade 4 lesions on biopsy is a contra-indication. Modalities included a repeated prostate specific antigen test and systematic rebiopsy during the first year after diagnosis. MRI is now proposed to better select patients at inclusion and also during surveillance. No life style changes or drugs are significantly associated with a longer duration of surveillance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  10. Health surveillance - myth and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles, health benefit and cost-effectiveness of health surveillance in the occupational setting, which apply to exposure to ionising radiations in the same manner as to other hazards in the workplace. It highlights the techniques for undertaking health surveillance, discusses their relative advantages and disadvantages and illustrates these in relation to specific hazards. The responsibilities of the medical staff and of the worker are also discussed. (author)

  11. Video Surveillance in the Cloud?

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, DJ; Rahman, Shawon

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution video surveillance management system incurs huge amounts of storage and network bandwidth. The current infrastructure required to support a high resolution video surveillance management system (VMS) is expensive and time consuming to plan, implement and maintain. With the recent advances in cloud technologies, opportunity for the utilization of virtualization and the opportunity for distributed computing techniques of cloud storage have been pursued on the basis to find out ...

  12. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  13. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari......This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach......, the model is established by first considering the social function of privacy in everyday life, which in turn lets us determine which different domains will be considered as private, and finally identify the different types of privacy invasion. This underlying model (function – domain – invasion) then serves...

  14. Elementary Surveillance (ELS) and Enhanced Surveillance (EHS) Validation via Mode S Secondary Radar Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grappel, Robert D; Harris, Garrett S; Kozar, Mark J; Wiken, Randall T

    2008-01-01

    ...) and Enhanced Surveillance (ERS) data link applications. The intended audience for this report is an engineering staff assigned the task of implementing a monitoring system used to determine ELS and EHS compliance...

  15. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  16. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the [guidance] to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Health surveillance of radiological work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauw, H.; Vliet, J.V.D.; Zuidema, H.

    1988-01-01

    Shielding x-ray devices and issuing film badges to radiological workers in 1936 can be considered the start of radiological protection in the Philips enterprises in the Netherlands. Shielding and equipment were constantly improved based upon the dosimetry results of the filmbadges. The problem of radioactive waste led to the foundation of a central Philips committee for radiological protection in 1956, which in 1960 also issued an internal license system in order to regulate the proper precautions to be taken : workplace design and layout, technological provisions and working procedures. An evaluation of all radiological work in 1971 learnt that a stricter health surveillance program was needed to follow up the precautions issued by the license. On one hand a health surveillance program was established and on the other hand all types of radiological work were classified. In this way an obligatory and optimal health surveillance program was issued for each type of radiological work

  18. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  19. High Quality Camera Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Helaakoski, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Oulu University of Applied Sciences Information Technology Author: Ari Helaakoski Title of the master’s thesis: High Quality Camera Surveillance System Supervisor: Kari Jyrkkä Term and year of completion: Spring 2015 Number of pages: 31 This master’s thesis was commissioned by iProtoXi Oy and it was done to one iProtoXi customer. The aim of the thesis was to make a camera surveillance system which is using a High Quality camera with pan and tilt possibility. It should b...

  20. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetters, F.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  1. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on ... demographic characteristics and laboratory tests – Enhanced Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Sites*, 2014 Category MA No. % MI No. % NYS† ...

  2. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  3. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  4. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  5. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  6. Mechanical surveillance of French PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puyal, C.; Brillon, A.; Aupied, J.; Bernard, P.; Carre, J.C.; Epstein, A.

    1981-08-01

    It is expected that, by the end of 1986, almost forty 900 MWe nuclear power plants would be operating in France. In order to increase their availability, a surveillance has been set from the startup of the first unit Fessenheim 1. Mechanical surveillance is only considered here, that is, the surveillance of internal structures vibrations, and the detection of loose parts. The surveillance of vibrations aims to detect an anomaly in internals vibratory behaviour. For that, signals are used from accelerometers located on the pressure vessel and from ex core ion chambers. Signatures of these signals (Power Spectral Densities) are obtained periodically on site and automatically compared with the initial reference signature. Their interpretation is based on theoretical and experimental studies. Early detection of loose parts also is important to maintain the integrity of internal structures. We use the impulses obtained by accelerometers located on the primary circuit, due to shocks of metallic parts and surface wave propagation. Tests have been performed on site to determine the system sensitivity: the detection of a loose part inside a steam generator hot box during the preoperational test and the malfunction of a valve. Now, the progressive commissioning of new 900 and 1300 MWe nuclear power plants has lead us to automatize on site anomaly detection, in order to reduce the operator's work. Other developments are being carried out, such as the realization of specific devices, the development of a data bank, including data from each reactor, from each family of identical reactors and data related to particular incidents

  7. Birth defects surveillance·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-01

    Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.

  8. Surveillance by diagnostic microbiology laboratories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    account for almost threequarters of all Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infections, supporting the decision to include colistin or tobramycin as empirical treatment options for ICU patients with suspected Gramnegative sepsis. The dissemination and utilisation of surveillance data is crucial if they are to impact on patient ...

  9. Tower controller surveillance system parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    A brief study of airport ground traffic control surveillance parameters has been conducted. The study addressed the following questions by means of a set of simple experiments: (1) Can vehicle ID be displayed in a suitable format; (2) What size displ...

  10. Conceptualising the Surveillance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Schools are risky places: the risk of a poor Ofsted report, the risk of sliding down league tables, the risk of teachers abusing children, the risk of teachers being falsely accused of abuse. As a result of risk anxiety and the ever-increasing sophistication of technology, the surveillance of teachers has proliferated, becoming a future-oriented…

  11. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  12. Approaches to canine health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Effective canine health surveillance systems can be used to monitor disease in the general population, prioritise disorders for strategic control and focus clinical research, and to evaluate the success of these measures. The key attributes for optimal data collection systems that support canine disease surveillance are representativeness of the general population, validity of disorder data and sustainability. Limitations in these areas present as selection bias, misclassification bias and discontinuation of the system respectively. Canine health data sources are reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses for supporting effective canine health surveillance. Insurance data benefit from large and well-defined denominator populations but are limited by selection bias relating to the clinical events claimed and animals covered. Veterinary referral clinical data offer good reliability for diagnoses but are limited by referral bias for the disorders and animals included. Primary-care practice data have the advantage of excellent representation of the general dog population and recording at the point of care by veterinary professionals but may encounter misclassification problems and technical difficulties related to management and analysis of large datasets. Questionnaire surveys offer speed and low cost but may suffer from low response rates, poor data validation, recall bias and ill-defined denominator population information. Canine health scheme data benefit from well-characterised disorder and animal data but reflect selection bias during the voluntary submissions process. Formal UK passive surveillance systems are limited by chronic under-reporting and selection bias. It is concluded that active collection systems using secondary health data provide the optimal resource for canine health surveillance.

  13. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  15. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  16. 2024 Unmanned Undersea Warfare Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    the cheaper option. The 242 second method, improving sensor quality, has the disadvantage of higher cost, but the advantage of being able to... Auckland , New Zealand: Operation Analysis Section, Defense Technology Agency. Michaels, Jack, and William Wood. 1989. Design to Cost. New York: Wiley

  17. Undersea vehicles and national needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    The United States faces decisions requiring information about the oceans in vastly expanded scales of time and space and from oceanic sectors not accessible with the suite of tools now used by scientists and engineers...

  18. Undersea vehicles and national needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created cannot be files XML from however, formatting, recomposed typesetting...

  19. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a) Urine...

  20. 40 CFR 52.12 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.12 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.12 Source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth the...

  1. 10 CFR 34.51 - Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveillance. 34.51 Section 34.51 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.51 Surveillance. During each radiographic operation... direct visual surveillance of the operation to protect against unauthorized entry into a high radiation...

  2. 48 CFR 44.304 - Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surveillance. 44.304... SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews 44.304 Surveillance. (a) The ACO shall maintain a sufficient level of surveillance to ensure that the contractor is effectively managing...

  3. 10 CFR 850.34 - Medical surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical surveillance. 850.34 Section 850.34 Energy... Medical surveillance. (a) General. (1) The responsible employer must establish and implement a medical surveillance program for beryllium-associated workers who voluntarily participate in the program. (2) The...

  4. 49 CFR 192.613 - Continuing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continuing surveillance. 192.613 Section 192.613... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.613 Continuing surveillance. (a) Each operator shall have a procedure for continuing surveillance of its facilities to determine and take...

  5. An Analysis of Undersea Glider Architectures and an Assessment of Undersea Glider Integration into Undersea Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    71 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. SLOCUM Glider Dive Profile, from (P. Simonetti, 1992...ANT-LLC, 2010) .................................. 11 Figure 5. Glider #3 - Slocum Electric after (Webb Research, 2012a) ................ 12 Figure 6... Glider #4 - Slocum Thermal after (Webb Research, 2012b) ................ 13 Figure 7. Glider #6 - Sea Glider after (iRobot, 2012

  6. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive usage of video surveillance is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Continuous security threats to public safety demand use of such systems. Contemporary video surveillance systems offer advanced functionalities which threaten the privacy of those recorded in the video. There is a......Pervasive usage of video surveillance is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Continuous security threats to public safety demand use of such systems. Contemporary video surveillance systems offer advanced functionalities which threaten the privacy of those recorded in the video....... There is a need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction...

  7. Negotiating privacy in surveillant welfare relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom

    The Danish welfare system is dependent on surveillance practices. Health authorities screen for diseases, tax authorities surveil financial flows, and social services are surveillant to vulnerable families. Such state surveillance is often related to, and opposed to, the privacy of citizens....... However, while privacy is central to debates of surveillance, it has proven less productive as an analytical resource for studying surveillance in practice. Consequently, this paper reviews different conceptualisations of privacy in relation to welfare and surveillance and argues for strengthening...... the analytical capacity of the concept by rendering it a situated and relational concept. The argument is developed through a research and design project called Teledialogue meant to improve the relation between case managers and children placed at institutions or in foster families. Privacy in Teledialogue...

  8. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  9. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...... in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative...... sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission...

  10. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Source of ionizing radiations have innumerable applications in the work place. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not manifestly harmful. This Module explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit it if forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  11. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington

  12. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalesky, K.; Svarny, J.; Novak, L.; Rosol, J.; Horanes, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Halden Project has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. So far the system has only been implemented on western PWRs but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactor including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO was initiated in cooperation with the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system will be installed at the Dukovany NPP. (author)

  13. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities. However, ongoing S and M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  15. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa

  16. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site

  17. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  18. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  20. Attaching Hollywood to a Surveillant Assemblage: Normalizing Discourses of Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy K Lippert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines video surveillance images in Hollywood film. It moves beyond previous accounts of video surveillance in relation to film by theoretically situating the use of these surveillance images in a broader “surveillant assemblage”. To this end, scenes from a sample of thirty-five (35 films of several genres are examined to discern dominant discourses and how they lend themselves to normalization of video surveillance. Four discourses are discovered and elaborated by providing examples from Hollywood films. While the films provide video surveillance with a positive associative association it is not without nuance and limitations. Thus, it is found that some forms of resistance to video surveillance are shown while its deterrent effect is not. It is ultimately argued that Hollywood film is becoming attached to a video surveillant assemblage discursively through these normalizing discourses as well as structurally to the extent actual video surveillance technology to produce the images is used.

  1. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  2. How to: Surveillance of Clostridium difficile infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, M; Kinross, P; Barbut, F; Hajdu, A; Wilcox, M H; Kuijper, E J

    2017-12-20

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in healthcare settings in Europe since 2003 has affected both patients and healthcare systems. The implementation of effective CDI surveillance is key to enable monitoring of the occurrence and spread of C. difficile in healthcare and the timely detection of outbreaks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of key components of effective CDI surveillance and to provide some practical recommendations. We also summarize the recent and current national CDI surveillance activities, to illustrate strengths and weaknesses of CDI surveillance in Europe. For the definition of key components of CDI surveillance, we consulted the current European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) CDI-related guidance documents and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) protocol for CDI surveillance in acute care hospitals. To summarize the recent and current national CDI surveillance activities, we discussed international multicentre CDI surveillance studies performed in 2005-13. In 2017, we also performed a new survey of existing CDI surveillance systems in 33 European countries. Key components for CDI surveillance are appropriate case definitions of CDI, standardized CDI diagnostics, agreement on CDI case origin definition, and the presentation of CDI rates with well-defined numerators and denominators. Incorporation of microbiological data is required to provide information on prevailing PCR ribotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility to first-line CDI treatment drugs. In 2017, 20 European countries had a national CDI surveillance system and 21 countries participated in ECDC-coordinated CDI surveillance. Since 2014, the number of centres with capacity for C. difficile typing has increased to 35 reference or central laboratories in 26 European countries. Incidence rates of CDI, obtained from a standardized CDI surveillance system, can be used as an important

  3. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  4. Introduction – an amphibious anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagné, Karine; Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    Amid global climate change and an uneven global political economy that preys on natural resources, landscapes are reshaped at the confluence of land and water, concretely and abstractly. Focusing on the production of place, we suggest that at their point of convergence, there is relational ontolo...

  5. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide adequate training, instruction or information on health effects and medical surveillance for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiations have a large number of applications in the workplace. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not harmful. Some applications involve sources that could deliver more significant radiation doses, particularly when poor methods are practised or an accident occurs. The radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way and excessive exposures may cause detriment to the health of a worker in a way that is not immediately apparent. When the symptoms occur, weeks or possibly years later, an untrained worker or inexperienced medical staff probably cannot recognize the effects to be due to the radiation exposure. This Manual explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  6. Editorial of the special issue ;Surveillance conference;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    During the 25 last years, the Surveillance conference has been a place where many passionate discussions have taken place and many new ideas or techniques have been discussed. These lively meetings have always been supported by MSSP, so that the idea of a special issue based on a selection of papers in the proceedings of Surveillance 7 (2013) and Surveillance 8 (2015) has naturally arisen. Here is how everything begun, as reported by Simon Braun and Ménad Sidahmed …

  7. Laboratory of environmental radiological surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Marcial M, F.; Giber F, J.; Montiel R, E.; Leon del V, E.; Rivas C, I.; Leon G, M.V.; Lagunas G, E.; Aragon S, R.; Juarez N, A.; Alfaro L, M.M.

    1991-12-01

    The department of radiological protection of the ININ requests the collaboration of the Engineering Unit for the elaboration of the work project of the laboratory of environmental radiological surveillance. The emission of radioactive substances to the atmosphere like consequence of the normal operation of the Nuclear Center, constitutes an exhibition source from the man to the radiations that it should be appropriately watched over and controlled to be able to determine the population's potential exhibition that it lives in the area of influence of the installation. (Author)

  8. Next generation surveillance system (NGSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Development of 'functional requirements' for transparency systems may offer a near-term mode of regional cooperation. New requirements under development at the IAEA may provide a foundation for this potential activity. The Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS) will become the new IAEA remote monitoring system Under new requirements the NGSS would attempt to use more commercial components to reduce cost, increase radiation survivability and further increase reliability. The NGSS must be available in two years due to rapidly approaching obsolescence in the existing DCM family. (author)

  9. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  10. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  11. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  12. Video surveillance using distance maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    2006-02-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors. To obtain fully controlled test environments, an artificial development center for robot navigation is introduced in which several parameters can be set (e.g., number of objects, trajectories and type and amount of noise). In the videos, for each following frame, movement of stationary objects is detected and pixels of moving objects are located from which moving objects are identified in a robust way. An Exact Euclidean Distance Map (E2DM) is utilized to determine accurately the distances between moving and stationary objects. Together with the determined distances between moving objects and the detected movement of stationary objects, this provides the input for detecting unwanted situations in the scene. Further, each intelligent object (e.g., a robot), is provided with its E2DM, allowing the object to plan its course of action. Timing results are specified for each program block of the processing chain for 20 different setups. So, the current paper presents extensive, experimentally controlled research on real-time, accurate, and robust motion detection for video surveillance, using E2DMs, which makes it a unique approach.

  13. Hanford Site surface environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is a multimedia environmental monitoring program conducted to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the environment and assess the integrated effects of these contaminants on the environment and the public. The monitoring program includes sampling air, surface water, sediments, soil, natural vegetation, agricultural products, fish, and wildlife. Functional elements inherent in the operation of the SESP include project management, quality assurance/control, training, records management, environmental sampling network design and implementation, sample collection, sample analysis, data management, data review and evaluation, exposure assessment, and reporting. The SESP focuses on those contaminant/media combinations calculated to have the highest potential for contributing to off-site exposure. Results of the SESP indicate that contaminant concentrations in the Hanford environs are very low, generally below environmental standards, at or below analytical detection levels, and indicative of environmental levels. However, areas of elevated contaminant concentrations have been identified at Hanford. The extent of these areas is generally limited to past operating areas and waste disposal sites

  14. Radioactivity surveillance in Peruvian fishmeal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Edith; Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana; Martinez, Jorge; Jara, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Fishmeal is a derived product of fish which is widely used to feed livestock. It is the brown flour obtained after cooking, pressing, drying and milling whole fish and food fish trimmings. Use of whole fish is almost exclusively from small, bony species of pelagic fish (generally living in the surface waters or middle depths of the sea), for which there is little or no demand for human consumption. In many cases, it constitutes the main source of protein in the diet of livestock. Traditionally, Peru has been a producer and exporter country of fish and its derived products. It is considered one of the top producers of fish worldwide. In Peru, anchovy (Engraulis ringens) is by far the most important species for fishmeal production. As part of the Peruvian national program of environmental surveillance, samples of fishmeal taken from different places of sampling (plants of production located in the northern coast of Peru) were measured and analyzed by HpGe gamma spectrometry. This study shows the results of radioactivity surveillance in Peruvian fishmeal, focusing in the contents of 137 Cs, which indicates that the levels of this radionuclide in the samples are below the order of the minimum detectable concentration (Bq/kg). These results are consistent with those obtained by the UK Food Standards Agency in 1999. According to many international regulations, the level of 137 Cs in foodstuff must be below 600 Bq/kg. (author)

  15. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-22

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  16. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornaes, A.; Bodal, T.; Sunde, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Institutt for energiteknikk has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO, which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators, which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety, as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. The system has been implemented on western PWRs, but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactors including VVERs. The main differences between VVERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a VVER version of SCORPIO has been done in co-operation with the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system is installed at Dukovany NPP, where the Site Acceptance Test was completed 6. March 1998.(author)

  17. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  20. Counter-Mapping Surveillance : A Critical Cartography of Mass Surveillance Technology After Snowden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, F.N.

    2017-01-01

    This article critically examines mass surveillance technology revealed by Snowden’s disclosures. It addresses that we do not only live in a society where surveillance is deeply inscribed but more urgently, that it is increasingly difficult to study surveillance when its technologies and practices

  1. Using Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance as a Platform for Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilak, Steven G F; Williams, Cheryl L; Murrill, Christopher S; Dahl, Benjamin A; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Tangermann, Rudolf H

    2017-07-01

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a fundamental cornerstone of the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Active surveillance (with visits to health facilities) is a critical strategy of AFP surveillance systems for highly sensitive and timely detection of cases. Because of the extensive resources devoted to AFP surveillance, multiple opportunities exist for additional diseases to be added using GPEI assets, particularly because there is generally 1 district officer responsible for all disease surveillance. For this reason, integrated surveillance has become a standard practice in many countries, ranging from adding surveillance for measles and rubella to integrated disease surveillance for outbreak-prone diseases (integrated disease surveillance and response). This report outlines the current level of disease surveillance integration in 3 countries (Nepal, India, and Nigeria) and proposes that resources continue for long-term maintenance in resource-poor countries of AFP surveillance as a platform for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and other outbreak-prone diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Limits on surveillance: frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2004-01-01

    Public video surveillance tends to be discussed in either utopian or dystopian terms: proponents maintain that camera surveillance is the perfect tool in the fight against crime, while critics argue that the use of security cameras is central to the development of a panoptic, Orwellian surveillance

  3. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbart, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of techniques used to control the development of five invasive amphibious plant species: Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticum. A review. Among rapidly spreading invasive species in Europe, amphibious plants are particularly problematic. These plants are capable of developing a photosynthetic activity both below and above the water surface, and they typically form dense floating populations. Controlling amphibious plants, whether for the purposes of total eradication or for the regulation of their spread, represents an important challenge for managers. A literature review of existing control methods for Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticu was carried out, taking into account efficiency and costs. Of the 87 studies analyzed, a great variation was evident in the research efforts undertaken (number and spatial scale of studies between species and between control methods. However, overall, the different control methods described showed a similar level of efficiency between species. Reports of total eradication of amphibious plants were rare. Such cases resulted from the application of mechanical or chemical methods, most often coupled with complementary methods such as manual finishing. The use of chemical control methods (less laborious and costly than others was found to be frequently documented in the literature. However, except in the case of some active substances, such chemical methods were found to provide low control efficiency. Similarly, to date, biological control has not been found to provide convincing results. In addition, it should be noted that several biological control agents are considered as invasive species in Europe. On the other hand, although little related research has been carried out, methods such as manual or mechanical removal with manual finishing have often

  4. Rare disease surveillance: An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, E.J.; Nicoll, A.; Lynn, R.; Marchessault, V.; Hirasing, R.A.; Ridley, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and met formally for the first time in Ottawa, Ontario in June 2000. Objectives: To document the methodology and activities of existing national paediatric surveillance units; the formation of

  5. 40 CFR 52.130 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.130 Section 52.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.130 Source surveillance. (a) The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2075 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2075 Section 52.2075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2075 Source surveillance...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1479 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1479 Section 52.1479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1479 Source surveillance. (a) The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2684 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2684 Section 52.2684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2684 Source surveillance. (a) The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.794 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.794 Section 52.794 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.794 Source surveillance. (a) The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.479 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.479 Section 52.479 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.479 Source surveillance. (a...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2427 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2427 Section 52.2427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2427 Source surveillance. (a...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source surveillance...

  13. Video Surveillance: All Eyes Turn to IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    Many university officials recognize the need to upgrade their older analog video surveillance systems. In a 2010 survey by "Campus Safety" magazine, half of university respondents expressed dissatisfaction with the quality and coverage of their current video surveillance systems. Among the limitations of analog closed-circuit television…

  14. 40 CFR 52.1077 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.1077 Section 52.1077 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1077 Source surveillance. (a...

  15. National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992. H. G. v. KUSTNER, J. P. SWANEVELDER, A. VAN MIDDELKOOP. 195. Abstract The findings of three annual surveys of WOInen attending antenatal clinics (at the end of 1990,1991 and 1992) are presented here. These surveys for= part ofthe National mv Surveillance ...

  16. 40 CFR 52.533 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.533 Section 52.533 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.533 Source surveillance. The plan lacks test...

  17. 48 CFR 244.304 - Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surveillance. 244.304 Section 244.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Reviews 244.304 Surveillance. (b) The ACO, or the purchasing system analyst (PSA) with the concurrence of...

  18. 40 CFR 52.234 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.234 Section 52.234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.234 Source surveillance. (a) Except in...

  19. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs

  20. Ambient Surveillance by Probabilistic-Possibilistic Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2013-01-01

    A method for quantifying ambient surveillance is presented, which is based on probabilistic-possibilistic perception. The human surveillance of a scene through observing camera sensed images on a monitor is modeled in three steps. First immersion of the observer is simulated by modeling perception

  1. Surveillance as public matter : Revisiting sousveillance through devices and leaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, L.C.

    2018-01-01

    Our conceptual understanding of surveillance is continuously challenged by digital innovations. Projects that render (digital) surveillance visible and knowable become interesting analytic starting points. Since surveillance consists of technical and often secret processes, this ‘rendering visible’

  2. 76 FR 6475 - Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... NIOSH-223] Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance AGENCY: National Institute for... comment. The document is entitled, ``Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance.'' The draft... and conducting surveillance of their health and safety during the entire cycle of emergency response...

  3. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  4. Optimizing provider recruitment for influenza surveillance networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel V Scarpino

    Full Text Available The increasingly complex and rapid transmission dynamics of many infectious diseases necessitates the use of new, more advanced methods for surveillance, early detection, and decision-making. Here, we demonstrate that a new method for optimizing surveillance networks can improve the quality of epidemiological information produced by typical provider-based networks. Using past surveillance and Internet search data, it determines the precise locations where providers should be enrolled. When applied to redesigning the provider-based, influenza-like-illness surveillance network (ILINet for the state of Texas, the method identifies networks that are expected to significantly outperform the existing network with far fewer providers. This optimized network avoids informational redundancies and is thereby more effective than networks designed by conventional methods and a recently published algorithm based on maximizing population coverage. We show further that Google Flu Trends data, when incorporated into a network as a virtual provider, can enhance but not replace traditional surveillance methods.

  5. Microprocessor-based integrated LMFBR core surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmeiner, L.

    1984-06-01

    This report results from a joint study of KfK and INTERATOM. The aim of this study is to explore the advantages of microprocessors and microelectronics for a more sophisticated core surveillance, which is based on the integration of separate surveillance techniques. Due to new developments in microelectronics and related software an approach to LMFBR core surveillance can be conceived that combines a number of measurements into a more intelligent decision-making data processing system. The following techniques are considered to contribute essentially to an integrated core surveillance system: - subassembly state and thermal hydraulics performance monitoring, - temperature noise analysis, - acoustic core surveillance, - failure characterization and failure prediction based on DND- and cover gas signals, and - flux tilting techniques. Starting from a description of these techniques it is shown that by combination and correlation of these individual techniques a higher degree of cost-effectiveness, reliability and accuracy can be achieved. (orig./GL) [de

  6. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1978. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances is conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1978 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and groundwater, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs

  7. Surveillance cues enhance moral condemnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrat, Pierrick; Baumard, Nicolas; McKay, Ryan

    2011-05-05

    Humans pay close attention to the reputational consequences of their actions. Recent experiments indicate that even very subtle cues that one is being observed can affect cooperative behaviors. Expressing our opinions about the morality of certain acts is a key means of advertising our cooperative dispositions. Here, we investigated how subtle cues of being watched would affect moral judgments. We predicted that participants exposed to such cues would affirm their endorsement of prevailing moral norms by expressing greater disapproval of moral transgressions. Participants read brief accounts of two moral violations and rated the moral acceptability of each violation. Violations were more strongly condemned in a condition where participants were exposed to surveillance cues (an image of eyes interposed between the description of the violation and the associated rating scale) than in a control condition (in which the interposed image was of flowers). We discuss the role that public declarations play in the interpersonal evaluation of cooperative dispositions.

  8. Surveillance Cues Enhance Moral Condemnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Bourrat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans pay close attention to the reputational consequences of their actions. Recent experiments indicate that even very subtle cues that one is being observed can affect cooperative behaviors. Expressing our opinions about the morality of certain acts is a key means of advertising our cooperative dispositions. Here, we investigated how subtle cues of being watched would affect moral judgments. We predicted that participants exposed to such cues would affirm their endorsement of prevailing moral norms by expressing greater disapproval of moral transgressions. Participants read brief accounts of two moral violations and rated the moral acceptability of each violation. Violations were more strongly condemned in a condition where participants were exposed to surveillance cues (an image of eyes interposed between the description of the violation and the associated rating scale than in a control condition (in which the interposed image was of flowers. We discuss the role that public declarations play in the interpersonal evaluation of cooperative dispositions.

  9. Digital dashboard design using multiple data streams for disease surveillance with influenza surveillance as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K Y; Ip, Dennis K M; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H Y

    2011-10-14

    Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public health actions.

  10. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  11. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila's Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila's AssetLAN trademark asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN trademark technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed

  12. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Optimal use of antibiotic resistance surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, I A; Karlowsky, J A

    2004-06-01

    Increasing concern about the emergence of resistance in clinically important pathogens has led to the establishment of a number of surveillance programmes to monitor the true extent of resistance at the local, regional and national levels. Although some programmes have been operating for several years, their true usefulness is only now being realised. This review describes some of the major surveillance initiatives and the way in which the data have been used in a number of different settings. In the hospital, surveillance data have been used to monitor local antibiograms and determine infection control strategies and antibiotic usage policies. In the community, surveillance data have been used to monitor public health threats, such as infectious disease outbreaks involving resistant pathogens and the effects of bioterrorism countermeasures, by following the effects of prophylactic use of different antibiotics on resistance. Initially, the pharmaceutical industry sponsored surveillance programmes to monitor the susceptibility of clinical isolates to marketed products. However, in the era of burgeoning resistance, many developers of antimicrobial agents find surveillance data useful for defining new drug discovery and development strategies, in that they assist with the identification of new medical needs, allow modelling of future resistance trends, and identify high-profile isolates for screening the activity of new agents. Many companies now conduct pre-launch surveillance of new products to benchmark activity so that changes in resistance can be monitored following clinical use. Surveillance data also represent an integral component of regulatory submissions for new agents and, together with clinical trial data, are used to determine breakpoints. It is clear that antibiotic resistance surveillance systems will continue to provide valuable data to health care providers, university researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and government and regulatory agencies.

  14. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e......-report measures, are currently under validation. In this paper, we do not review indices designed to measure plaque or residual accumulation around the tooth, indices focussed only on gingival inflammation or radiographic approaches with limited applicability in surveillance systems. Finally, we review current...

  15. Can human rights law bend mass surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Frank Joergensen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing gap between the right to privacy and contemporary surveillance schemes. As a concrete example, the US surveillance operation PRISM and its impact on European citizens’ right to privacy is discussed. This paper provides a brief introduction to PRISM, continues with an outline of the right to privacy as stipulated in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, the European Convention on Human Rights and the EU Directive on Data Protection, and moves on to discuss whether international human rights law may be used to bend mass surveillance.

  16. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  17. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  18. Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise the need for ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy for treatment of nosocomial infections in a trauma intensive care unit: An audit of an evidence-based empiric antimicrobial policy.

  19. Surveillance, privacy and the ethics of librarianship

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    A presentation by Lauren Smith (Knowledge Manager, Institute for Research and Innovation in Social Services). Presented at Cambridge Libraries Conference 2018. The presentation discusses forms of surveillance in higher education, how this effects freedom of expression and possible professional responses.

  20. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  1. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An authoritative source for cancer statistics in the US. We collect incidence, prevalence and survival data and publish reports on these and cancer mortality. For those interested in cancer statistics and surveillance methods.

  2. Prospective surveillance of multivariate spatial disease data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corberán-Vallet, A

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance systems are often focused on more than one disease within a predefined area. On those occasions when outbreaks of disease are likely to be correlated, the use of multivariate surveillance techniques integrating information from multiple diseases allows us to improve the sensitivity and timeliness of outbreak detection. In this article, we present an extension of the surveillance conditional predictive ordinate to monitor multivariate spatial disease data. The proposed surveillance technique, which is defined for each small area and time period as the conditional predictive distribution of those counts of disease higher than expected given the data observed up to the previous time period, alerts us to both small areas of increased disease incidence and the diseases causing the alarm within each area. We investigate its performance within the framework of Bayesian hierarchical Poisson models using a simulation study. An application to diseases of the respiratory system in South Carolina is finally presented. PMID:22534429

  3. Future Airportal Surveillance and Prediction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in airport surface surveillance and other sensor, automation, and data sharing technologies now allow the consideration of a significant change in...

  4. Reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.F.; Henderson, J.T.; MacDiarmid, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Security surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television are being deployed with increasing frequency for the protection of property and other valuable assets. A need exists to demonstrate the reliability of such systems before their installation to assure that the deployed systems will operate when needed with only the scheduled amount of maintenance and support costs. An approach to the reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television is described. Failure definitions based on industry television standards and imaging alarm assessment criteria for surveillance systems are discussed. Test methods which allow 24 hour a day operation without the need for numerous test scenarios, test personnel and elaborate test facilities are presented. Existing reliability demonstration standards are shown to apply which obviate the need for elaborate statistical tests. The demonstration methods employed are shown to have applications in other types of imaging surveillance systems besides closed circuit television

  5. Future Airportal Surveillance and Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in airport surface surveillance and other sensor, automation, and data sharing technologies now allow the consideration of a significant change in...

  6. [Health surveillance: foundations, interfaces and tendencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreaza, Antonio Luis Vicente; de Moraes, José Cássio

    2010-07-01

    The present article rescues initially the forms, content and operational projection of the epidemiological surveillance as indispensable tool for the knowledge field and public health practices. After that, we verify that the health surveillance model establishes an enlargement of this operational concept of surveillance by integrating the collectives and individuals practices in different health necessities dimensions, which includes beyond of the risks and damages control also the eco-socials determinants. In the sequence, we search to dimension the distinct levels of actuation of this sanitary practice articulated to the interventions of promotion, protection and recovery under a located and integrated logic of the unique system of Brazilian health. Finally, we argue that all the conceptual-operational model framework of public health surveillance itself constitutes as a politics and sanitary base for the consolidation of the health promotion paradigm in the collective health field.

  7. Science and engineering intelligent surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huihuan, Qian; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-01-01

    As shortcomings such as high labor costs make intelligent surveillance systems more desirable, this practical book focuses on detecting abnormal behavior based on learning and the analysis of dangerous crowd behavior based on texture and optical flow.

  8. [Evaluation on Hepatitis B surveillance models at surveillance pilot points in China, 2013-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, N; Wang, F Z; Zhang, L J; Zheng, H; Sun, X J; Wang, F; Zhang, G M

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To evaluate the effects on Hepatitis B surveillance models at the surveillance pilot points in China. Methods: Hepatitis B related records kept at the surveillance pilot points were downloaded from NNDRS. Data concerning proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases, consistency of additional records and the accuracy of reported acute Hepatitis B cases were evaluated. Results: The proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases was decreasing year by year ( P surveillance could be applied elsewhere in the nation to improve the quality of report system on Hepatitis B.

  9. Human features detection in video surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Patrícia Margarida Silva de Castro Neves

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Eletrónica Industrial e Computadores Human activity recognition algorithms have been studied actively from decades using a sequence of 2D and 3D images from a video surveillance. This new surveillance solutions and the areas of image processing and analysis have been receiving special attention and interest from the scientific community. Thus, it became possible to witness the appearance of new video compression techniques, the tr...

  10. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  11. Customer Surveillance: Consumer Attitudes and Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Plangger, Kirk Anton

    2015-01-01

    Due to technological advances, customer surveillance (i.e., the collection, capture, use, or storage of customers’ personal data) is becoming less expensive and more covert. Brands use these personal data that contain needs, preferences, characteristics, behavior, attitudes, or other customer attributes (i.e., market intelligence) to develop more competitive products and services. Customer surveillance also can put stress on customer relationships with brands, thus brands must conduct custome...

  12. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities

  13. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance.

  14. INTERPOL's Surveillance Network in Curbing Transnational Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gardeazabal, Javier; Sandler, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that INTERPOL surveillance – the Mobile INTERPOL Network Database (MIND) and the Fixed INTERPOL Network Database (FIND) – played in the War on Terror since its inception in 2005. MIND/FIND surveillance allows countries to screen people and documents systematically at border crossings against INTERPOL databases on terrorists, fugitives, and stolen and lost travel documents. Such documents have been used in the past by terrorists to transit borders. By applyi...

  15. Can human rights law bend mass surveillance?

    OpenAIRE

    Joergensen (Rikke Frank)

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing gap between the right to privacy and contemporary surveillance schemes. As a concrete example, the US surveillance operation PRISM and its impact on European citizens’ right to privacy is discussed. This paper provides a brief introduction to PRISM, continues with an outline of the right to privacy as stipulated in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the European Convention on Human Rights and the EU Directive on Data Protection, and moves ...

  16. 48 CFR 237.172 - Service Contracts Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Surveillance. 237.172 Section 237.172 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS...-General 237.172 Service Contracts Surveillance. Ensure that quality assurance surveillance plans are....) Retain quality assurance surveillance plans in the official contract file. See https://sam.dau.mil, Step...

  17. Optimal surveillance and eradication of invasive species in heterogeneous landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca S. Epanchin-Niell; Robert G. Haight; Ludek Berec; John M. Kean; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective surveillance strategies are needed for efficient responses to biological invasions and must account for the trade-offs between surveillance effort and management costs. Less surveillance may allow greater population growth and spread prior to detection, thereby increasing the costs of damages and control. In addition, surveillance strategies are usually...

  18. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  19. Crypto and empire: the contradictions of counter-surveillance advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürses, S.; Kundnani, A.; Van Hoboken, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since Edward Snowden’s revelations of US and UK surveillance programs, privacy advocates, progressive security engineers, and policy makers have been seeking to win majority support for countering surveillance. The problem is framed as the replacement of targeted surveillance with mass surveillance

  20. The Need for European Surveillance of CDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiuff, Camilla; Banks, A-Lan; Fitzpatrick, Fidelma; Cottom, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Since the turn of the millennium, the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has continued to challenge. Over the last decade there has been a growing awareness that improvements to surveillance are needed. The increasing rate of CDI and emergence of ribotype 027 precipitated the implementation of mandatory national surveillance of CDI in the UK. Changes in clinical presentation, severity of disease, descriptions of new risk factors and the occurrence of outbreaks all emphasised the importance of early diagnosis and surveillance.However a lack of consensus on case definitions, clinical guidelines and optimal laboratory diagnostics across Europe has lead to the underestimation of CDI and impeded comparison between countries. These inconsistencies have prevented the true burden of disease from being appreciated.Acceptance that a multi-country surveillance programme and optimised diagnostic strategies are required not only to detect and control CDI in Europe, but for a better understanding of the epidemiology, has built the foundations for a more robust, unified surveillance. The concerted efforts of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) CDI networks, has lead to the development of an over-arching long-term CDI surveillance strategy for 2014-2020. Fulfilment of the ECDC priorities and targets will no doubt be challenging and will require significant investment however the hope is that both a national and Europe-wide picture of CDI will finally be realised.

  1. Reviewing surveillance activities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    This document provides guidance to Operational Safety Review Teams (OSARTs) for reviewing surveillance activities at a nuclear power plant. In addition, the document contains reference material to support the review of surveillance activities, to assist within the Technical Support area and to ensure consistency between individual reviews. Drafts of the document have already been used on several OSART missions and found to be useful. The document first considers the objectives of an excellent surveillance programme. Investigations to determine the quality of the surveillance programme are then discussed. The attributes of an excellent surveillance programme are listed. Advice follows on how to phrase questions so as to obtain an informative response on surveillance features. Finally, specific equipment is mentioned that should be considered when reviewing functional tests. Four annexes provide examples drawn from operating nuclear power plants. They were selected to supplement the main text of the document with the best international practices as found in OSART reviews. They should in no way limit the acceptance and development of alternative approaches that lead to equivalent or better results. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Liberal luxury: Decentering Snowden, surveillance and privilege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piro Rexhepi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the continued potency of veillance theories to traverse beyond the taxonomies of surveillance inside liberal democracies. It provides a commentary on the ability of sousveillance to destabilise and disrupt suer/violence by shifting its focus from the centre to the periphery, where Big Data surveillance is tantamount to sur/violence. In these peripheral political spaces, surveillance is not framed by concerns over privacy, democracy and civil society; rather, it is a matter of life and death, a technique of both biopolitical and thanatopolitical power. I argue that the universalist, and universalizing, debates over surveillance cannot be mapped through the anxieties of privileged middle classes as they would neither transcend nor make possible alternative ways of tackling the intersection of surveillance and violence so long as they are couched in the liberal concerns for democracy. I call this phenomenon “liberal luxury,” whereby debates over surveillance have over-emphasised liberal proclivities at the expense of disengaging those peripheral populations most severely affected by sur/violence.

  3. Governing Surveillance Infrastructure: as performed in the Snowden Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Winther, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Governing Surveillance Infrastructure is a study that discusses how governance and surveillance are performed in the Snowden documents. This thesis is performed in the intersection between ‘Surveillance Studies’ and ‘Science and Technology Studies’ (STS), with the aim to contribute to the discussions within the field of ‘Surveillance Studies’. In an ongoing debate about how surveillance affects security and our privacy this thesis takes a step away from this dominating narrative and discusses...

  4. Organization of surveillance in GI practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senore, Carlo; Bellisario, Cristina; Hassan, Cesare

    2016-12-01

    Several reports documented an inefficient utilisation of available resources, as well as a suboptimal compliance with surveillance recommendations. Although, evidence suggests that organisational issues can influence the quality of care delivered, surveillance protocols are usually based on non-organized approaches. We conducted a literature search (publication date: 01/2000-06/2016) on PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for guidelines, or consensus statements, for surveys of practice, reporting information about patients, or providers attitudes and behaviours, for intervention studies to enhance compliance with guidelines. Related articles were also scrutinised. Based on the clinical relevance and burden on endoscopy services this review was focused on surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus, IBD and post-polypectomy surveillance of colonic adenomas. Existing guidelines are generally recognising structure and process requirements influencing delivery of surveillance interventions, while less attention had been devoted to transitions and interfaces in the care process. Available evidence from practice surveys is suggesting the need to design organizational strategies aimed to enable patients to attend and providers to deliver timely and appropriate care. Well designed studies assessing the effectiveness of specific interventions in this setting are however lacking. Indirect evidence from screening settings would suggest that the implementation of automated standardized recall systems, utilisation of clinical registries, removing financial barriers, could improve appropriateness of use and compliance with recommendations. Lack of sound evidence regarding utility and methodology of surveillance can contribute to explain the observed variability in providers and patients attitudes and in compliance with the recommended surveillance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  5. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  6. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  7. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  8. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the (guidance) to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Quality surveillance at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviney, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Quality surveillance (QS) of nuclear power plants has been occurring for a number of years and is growing in importance as a management tool for assuring that power plants are operated and maintained safely. Quality surveillance can be identified by many terms, such as monitoring, assessment, technical audits, and others. The name given to the function is not important. Quality surveillance at nuclear power plants developed out of a need. Historically, audits were performed to verify compliance to quality program requirements. Verification of day-to-day implementation of activities was not being performed. This left a void in verification activities since inspections were mainly directed at hardware verification. Quality surveillance, therefore, was born out of a need to fill this void in verification. This paper discusses quality surveillance definition; objectives of QS, activities considered for QS, personnel performing QS. As in any human endeavor, people and the attitudes of those people make a program succeed or fail. In the case of QS this is even more critical because of the overview and exposure given to the nuclear industry. Properly trained and experienced personnel performing QS combined with the right attitude contribute to the successful performance of a QS. This is only one side of the success equation, however; acceptance of and actions taken by plant management establish the total success of a QS program

  11. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  12. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  13. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Shah, Jill; Mandel, Michele G; Krashin, Jamie W; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2017-11-24

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2014. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2014, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 48 areas that reported data every year during 2005-2014. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 652,639 abortions were reported to CDC for 2014. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 48 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2005-2014. Among these 48 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2014 was 12.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 186 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2013 to 2014, the total number and rate of reported abortions decreased 2%, and the ratio decreased 7%. From 2005 to 2014, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 21%, 22%, and 21%, respectively. In 2014, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2005-2014). In 2014 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2014, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.2% and 26.7% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.3 and 18.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 17.1%, 9.7%, and 3.6% of all reported abortions

  14. Effective surveillance for homeland security balancing technology and social issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...

  15. SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 441.1-­1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE 2008), requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.”This 2017 update reflects changes to the surveillance plan resulting from surveillance findings as documented in Reeves et al. 2016. These findings include observations of corrosion in SAVY and Hagan containers and the indication (in one SAVY container) of possible filter membrane thermal degradation. This surveillance plan update documents the rationale for selecting surveillance containers, specifies the containers for 2017 surveillance, and identifies a minimum set of containers for 2018 surveillance. This update contains important changes to the previous surveillance plans.

  16. A comprehensive review on intelligent surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Warsono Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent surveillance system (ISS has received growing attention due to the increasing demand on security and safety. ISS is able to automatically analyze image, video, audio or other type of surveillance data without or with limited human intervention. The recent developments in sensor devices, computer vision, and machine learning have an important role in enabling such intelligent system. This paper aims to provide general overview of intelligent surveillance system and discuss some possible sensor modalities and their fusion scenarios such as visible camera (CCTV, infrared camera, thermal camera and radar. This paper also discusses main processing steps in ISS: background-foreground segmentation, object detection and classification, tracking, and behavioral analysis.

  17. Surveillance systems for nuclear materials in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron Hawkins; Tom Williams; Lee ReFalo; Rod Martin

    1999-01-01

    The goal for the use of surveillance systems is the real time event detection and subsequent anomaly identification and investigation. The objective to be addressed by surveillance system include: timely and localized detection of changes in the status of nuclear materials (NM) whether from normal operations, unauthorized and unplanned incidents, or diversion of materials, or providing assurance that no changes have occurred; verifying that operations involving special NM were conducted in accordance with established procedures and assuring the quality of NM accounting and control data. There two general approaches to establishing a monitoring and surveillance system. In one case, containment of the materials is based on boundary and pathway control. The other approach is material and container oriented [ru

  18. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Martorell, S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    To address the concerns about nuclear power plant surveillance tests, i.e., their adverse safety impact due to negative effects and too burdensome requirements, it is necessary to evaluate the safety significance or risk effectiveness of such tests explicitly considering both negative and positive effects. This paper defines the negative effects of surveillance testing from a risk perspective, and then presents a methodology to quantify the negative risk impact, i.e., the risk penalty or risk increase caused by the test. The method focuses on two important kinds of negative effects, namely, test-caused transients and test-caused equipment degradations. The concepts and quantitative methods for the risk evaluation can be used in the decision-making process to establish the safety significance of the tests and to screen the plant-specific surveillance test requirements. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures

  1. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  2. Industrial espionage and technical surveillance counter measurers

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    This book examines technical aspects of industrial espionage and its impact in modern companies, organizations, and individuals while emphasizing the importance of intellectual property in the information era. The authors discuss the problem itself and then provide statistics and real world cases. The main contribution provides a detailed discussion of the actual equipment, tools and techniques concerning technical surveillance in the framework of espionage. Moreover, they present the best practices and methods of detection (technical surveillance counter measures) as well as means of intellectual property protection.

  3. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  4. Current Western Reactions to Mass Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The chapter investigates social mobilisation going beyond our traditional understandings of social movement in a German context. Since the summer of 2013, an extensive system of surveillance came to the attention of the general public. It was learned that the American NSA, the British GCHQ...... and other Western agencies are extensively surveying billions of Internet users worldwide, employing a so-called 'collect-it-all' approach. The reaction was protests by a heterogeneity of different actors, however, a movement against surveillance is not to be found. This chapter conducts a ‘test’ of ten...

  5. Surveillance in stage I testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Treatment results on 695 stage I testicular cancer patients followed with surveillance are described. Seminoma (SGCT) was present in 394 patients and nonseminoma (NSGCT) in 301 patients. Relapses were detected in 155 patients (22%), in 69 patients with SGCT (17%) and 86 with NSGCT (29%). In patie......Treatment results on 695 stage I testicular cancer patients followed with surveillance are described. Seminoma (SGCT) was present in 394 patients and nonseminoma (NSGCT) in 301 patients. Relapses were detected in 155 patients (22%), in 69 patients with SGCT (17%) and 86 with NSGCT (29...

  6. Syndromic surveillance: A necessary public health tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach to using electronic Emergency Department data for syndromic surveillance.

  7. Quality of endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Jes Sefland; Larsen, Anders Christian; Sommer, Thorbjørn

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence to Barrett's esophagus (BE) surveillance guidelines in Denmark. METHODS: The Danish Pathology Registry was used to identify 3692 patients. A total of 300 patients were included by drawing a simple random sample. Description of the BE seg......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence to Barrett's esophagus (BE) surveillance guidelines in Denmark. METHODS: The Danish Pathology Registry was used to identify 3692 patients. A total of 300 patients were included by drawing a simple random sample. Description...

  8. Centralized surveillance and control of satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewnicki, S. E.; McBeath, J. W.; Brostrup-Jensen, P.

    Satellite based services and networks are increasing in number. This paper describes how such networks can be operated efficiently using software based systems to do satellite transmission surveillance and remote earth station status, alarm and control monitoring at a centralized operations control center. Arrangements are available to accomplish real time, customer controlled configuration of space segments and earth station equipment. Application of the system elements satellite transmission surveillance, alarm and control central, earth station remote, and customer control terminals - to a number of typical networks is described.

  9. Active surveillance for clinically localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Brasso, Klaus; Klotz, Laurence H

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection for the AS stra......Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection...

  10. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  11. Risk based surveillance test interval optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1995-01-01

    First step towards the risk based regulation is to determine the optimal surveillance test intervals for the safety equipment which is tested at nuclear power plant operation. In the paper we have presented the process of optimal surveillance test interval optimization from our perspective. It consist of three levels: component level, system level and plant level. It bases on the results of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment and is focused to minimize risk. At component and system level the risk measure is component or system mean unavailability respectively. At plant level the risk measure is core damage frequency. (author)

  12. Creating a global dialogue on infectious disease surveillance: connecting organizations for regional disease surveillance (CORDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Louise S; Smolinski, Mark S; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Kimball, Ann Marie; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS) is an international non-governmental organization focused on information exchange between disease surveillance networks in different areas of the world. By linking regional disease surveillance networks, CORDS builds a trust-based social fabric of experts who share best practices, surveillance tools and strategies, training courses, and innovations. CORDS exemplifies the shifting patterns of international collaboration needed to prevent, detect, and counter all types of biological dangers - not just naturally occurring infectious diseases, but also terrorist threats. Representing a network-of-networks approach, the mission of CORDS is to link regional disease surveillance networks to improve global capacity to respond to infectious diseases. CORDS is an informal governance cooperative with six founding regional disease surveillance networks, with plans to expand; it works in complement and cooperatively with the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Animal Organization of the United Nations (FAO). As described in detail elsewhere in this special issue of Emerging Health Threats, each regional network is an alliance of a small number of neighboring countries working across national borders to tackle emerging infectious diseases that require unified regional efforts. Here we describe the history, culture and commitment of CORDS; and the novel and necessary role that CORDS serves in the existing international infectious disease surveillance framework.

  13. Evaluation of the novel respiratory virus surveillance program: Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Patricia A; Nguyen, Linh M; Lutman, Michelle L; Middaugh, John P

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by respiratory viruses are associated with recurrent epidemics and widespread morbidity and mortality. Routine surveillance of these pathogens is necessary to determine virus activity, monitor for changes in circulating strains, and plan for public health preparedness. The Southern Nevada Health District in Las Vegas, Nevada, recruited five pediatric medical practices to serve as sentinel sites for the Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS) program. Sentinel staff collected specimens throughout the year from ill children who met the influenza-like illness case definition and submitted specimens to the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory for molecular testing for influenza and six non-influenza viruses. Laboratory results were analyzed and reported to the medical and general communities in weekly bulletins year-round. PEWSS data were also used to establish viral respiratory seasonal baselines and in influenza vaccination campaigns. The surveillance program was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. PEWSS met three of six program usefulness criteria and seven of nine surveillance system attributes, which exceeded the CDC Guidelines evaluation criteria for a useful and complete public health surveillance program. We found that PEWSS is a useful and complete public health surveillance system that is simple, flexible, accessible, and stable.

  14. Measles Surveillance Attributes Assessment Based on The Puskesmas Surveilance Officers’ Perception in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilqis Elfira Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Measles is one of infectious diseases that potentially lead to death when complications occur. Based on the data from East Java Health Department, Surabaya is the area where the most measles cases occur in East Java and increase in the last three years. As one of measles controlling efforts, surveillance has been expected to provide qualified data and information as the basis for any decision making for a treatment or intervention. Therefore, an evaluation is needed in order to assure the effectiveness and efficiency of the surveillance application in achieving the goals. This study is a descriptive research aiming at evaluating the attributes of measles epidemiology surveillance system in Surabaya on 2012. The evaluation was done by assessing the attributes of surveillance then compared to Technical Guide for Measles Surveillance 2012, The Decree of The Health Ministry of The Republic of Indonesia No.1116/MENKES/SK/VIII/2003 On Guide for Conducting Surveillance System of Health Epidemiology and Guidelines for Evaluating Surveillance Systems from Center for Disease Control and Prevention 2001. The data collection method employed interview and observation or study documentation. The respondents of this study were 39 surveillance officers at 39 Puskesmas in Health Department Surabaya working area. The variabels of this study were simplicity, flexibility, data quality, acceptability, sensitivity, predictive value positive, representativeness, timeliness, and stability. The results of this study showed that the simplicity is complicated. The flexibility from CBMS is not flexible whereas the flexibility from EWARS is flexible. The data quality, acceptability, sensitivity and representativeness are low. The predictive value positive has not been able to be scored. The stability is high and the timeliness is punctual. Keywords: surveillance, evaluation, attribute, measles

  15. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  16. Extended surveillance as a support to PLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, Eric van

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The safe exploitation of the reactor pressure vessel was and is always a major concern in nuclear power plant life management. At present, issues like Plant Life Extension, where utilities look into the possibility of license renewal after 40 years of operation, are becoming relevant in the USA. In other countries PLIM beyond the design life of the NPP could also be desirable from the economic viewpoint. The limiting factor could, however, be the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The reactor pressure vessel surveillance procedures as defined by regulatory legislation is limited and can be supplemented with valuable information that can be extracted in parallel to conventional surveillance testing or through additional testing on surveillance material. This is justified for several reasons: 1. The current methodology is semi-empirical, contains flaws and is in a number of cases over conservative. Without giving in on safety, we need to try and understand the material behavior more fundamentally; 2. Some reactor surveillance materials demonstrate inconsistent behavior with respect to the overall trend. These materials are called 'outlier' materials. But are they really outliers or is this connected to the indexing methodology used? 3. Additional data, for example the results of instrumented Charpy-V impact tests, have been obtained on many surveillance test specimens and are not adequately exploited in the actual surveillance methodology; 4. Scientific research provides substantial information and understanding of degradation mechanisms in reactor pressure vessel steels. Although we will not concentrate on this topic, the development of powerful microscopic investigation techniques, like FEGSTEM, APFIM, SANS, positron annihilation, internal friction, ... led to an intensified development of radiation damage modelling and are an input to micromechanical modelling. Moreover, due to the ever increasing computer power, additional multi-scale (time and

  17. Conceptual evaluation of population health surveillance programs: method and example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary and public health surveillance programs can be evaluated to assess and improve the planning, implementation and effectiveness of these programs. Guidelines, protocols and methods have been developed for such evaluation. In general, they focus on a limited set of attributes (e.g., sensitivity and simplicity), that are assessed quantitatively whenever possible, otherwise qualitatively. Despite efforts at standardization, replication by different evaluators is difficult, making evaluation outcomes open to interpretation. This ultimately limits the usefulness of surveillance evaluations. At the same time, the growing demand to prove freedom from disease or pathogen, and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement and the International Health Regulations require stronger surveillance programs. We developed a method for evaluating veterinary and public health surveillance programs that is detailed, structured, transparent and based on surveillance concepts that are part of all types of surveillance programs. The proposed conceptual evaluation method comprises four steps: (1) text analysis, (2) extraction of the surveillance conceptual model, (3) comparison of the extracted surveillance conceptual model to a theoretical standard, and (4) validation interview with a surveillance program designer. This conceptual evaluation method was applied in 2005 to C-EnterNet, a new Canadian zoonotic disease surveillance program that encompasses laboratory based surveillance of enteric diseases in humans and active surveillance of the pathogens in food, water, and livestock. The theoretical standard used for evaluating C-EnterNet was a relevant existing structure called the "Population Health Surveillance Theory". Five out of 152 surveillance concepts were absent in the design of C-EnterNet. However, all of the surveillance concept relationships found in C-EnterNet were valid. The proposed method can be used to improve the design and documentation of surveillance programs. It

  18. The development of passive health surveillance by a sentinel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SASPREN), a volunteer network of family practitioners in South Africa, to develop a health surveillance system through the surveillance of important health events. Motivation. The incidence of important preventable diseases and the burden of disease ...

  19. Surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the potential for improvements in surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection and paratuberculosis in dairy herds was investigated, leading to a reduction in surveillance costs whilst continuing to meet specific quality targets. In particular,

  20. 76 FR 71430 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) AGENCY: Department of.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Doug Arbuckle, Chief Scientist, Surveillance & Broadcast Services Pgm...

  1. Dominant object detection for autonomous vision-based surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, H.

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of visual surveillance and monitoring systems has reached massive proportions. Consequently, a need to automate the processes involved in retrieving useful information from surveillance videos, such as detecting and counting objects, and interpreting their individual and joint

  2. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described

  3. Toward the effective surveillance of hypospadias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, H; Vrijheid, M; Scott, JES; Addor, MC; Botting, B; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Garne, E; Loane, M; Pierini, A; Garcia-Minaur, S; Physick, N; Tenconi, R; Wiesel, A; Calzolari, E; Stone, D

    Concern about apparent increases in the prevalence of hypospadias-a congenital male reproductive-tract abnormality-in the 1960s to 1980s and the possible connection to increasing exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals have underlined the importance of effective surveillance of hypospadias

  4. Gastrointestinal Infections Annual Surveillance Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Agency (PHA)�has a lead role in protecting the population from infection and environmental hazards through a range of core functions including communicable disease surveillance and monitoring, operational support & advice, and education, training and research.�

  5. Hereditary & familial colorectal cancer : Identification, characteristics, surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 15-20% is related to familial or hereditary factors. Diagnosing familial and hereditary CRC syndromes is important for several reasons. One of these is that surveillance colonoscopies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality importantly. A complete family history

  6. Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Underpinned by a Foucauldian analysis of sporting practices, this paper identifies the disciplinary mechanism of surveillance at work in competitive youth swimming. It highlights the ways in which swimmers and their coaches are subject to and apply this mechanism to produce embodied conformity to normative behaviour and obedient, docile bodies.…

  7. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Berg, Kasper D; Røder, M Andreas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence supports active surveillance (AS) as a means to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The consequences of close and long-standing follow-up with regard to outpatient visits, tests and repeated biopsies are widely unknown. This study investigated the trajectory...

  8. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... production surveillance on the basis of (1) the criticality (degree of importance to the Government) assigned by the contracting officer (see 42.1105) to the supplies or services and (2) consideration of the... contractor's financial capability. (vii) Any supplementary written instructions from the contracting office...

  9. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...

  10. Managing Maritime Environment Surveillance And Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines critically the conceptual appraisal of managing maritime environment surveillance and information control in the Port Concession regime. Operating in a maritime environment is a very difficult task as the industry itself, is a secretive, volatile and fraudulent in nature. There are various restrictions that ...

  11. Surveillance Privacy and Technology: Contemporary Irish Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance is typically envisaged as the act of a person being physically watched, their movements and behaviour monitored in a given space and time. While this type of watching undoubtedly takes place, there is also the more subtle and pervasive monitoring of people through the data they accumulate in their daily lives. Contemporary Irish…

  12. Detection of Cast Shadows in Surveillance Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren G.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarne Dissing; Stage, Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    Cast shadows from moving objects reduce the general ability of robust classification and tracking of these objects, in outdoor surveillance applications. A method for segmentation of cast shadows is proposed, combining statistical features with a new similarity feature, derived from a physics...

  13. Advantages and disadvantages of storage with surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchowitz, M.

    1985-01-01

    After the shut-down decision, the technical effort necessary to place a reactor facility in the ''storage with surveillance'' condition is relatively minor. The operating costs during the storage time depend on whether a second power plant unit is located or is being constructed at the site. If the reactor facility is totally removed after the decision to shut it down, the resulting costs are at first not comparable to those incurred by the bringing about of ''storage with surveillance''. Because the nuclear power plant ''stored with surveillance'' will have to be removed at the end of the storage time, enormously high costs once again are the result here too. The savings resulting because the need for remotely controlled dismantling and packing of parts with higher activity (reactor vessel, core fixtures, etc.) is eliminated, do not, from a technical point of view, outweigh the disadvantages of the surveillance and maintenance necessary during a storage time of 40 years. It is to be noted, however, that during a total removal, large quantities of radioactive waste result and suitable repositories or storage possibilities must be available

  14. Privacy information management for video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Cheung, Sen-ching S.

    2013-05-01

    The widespread deployment of surveillance cameras has raised serious privacy concerns. Many privacy-enhancing schemes have been proposed to automatically redact images of trusted individuals in the surveillance video. To identify these individuals for protection, the most reliable approach is to use biometric signals such as iris patterns as they are immutable and highly discriminative. In this paper, we propose a privacy data management system to be used in a privacy-aware video surveillance system. The privacy status of a subject is anonymously determined based on her iris pattern. For a trusted subject, the surveillance video is redacted and the original imagery is considered to be the privacy information. Our proposed system allows a subject to access her privacy information via the same biometric signal for privacy status determination. Two secure protocols, one for privacy information encryption and the other for privacy information retrieval are proposed. Error control coding is used to cope with the variability in iris patterns and efficient implementation is achieved using surrogate data records. Experimental results on a public iris biometric database demonstrate the validity of our framework.

  15. Atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartoux, Gerard.

    1980-11-01

    The atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device of the Saclay Nuclear Research Center can, by its conception (autonomy, rapid put into service, multiplicity of sampling and measurements), be used for all kind of measuring campains: pollution radioactive or not, routine or accidental situation, technical and logistic support and as a coordination or investigation vehicle [fr

  16. Short Communication: Participatory disease surveillance as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under-reporting of animal disease outbreak is a common feature in most developing countries with poor disease reporting system including Nigeria, where majority of animals are held by rural livestock farmers. Participatory Animal Disease Surveillance (PDS) a participatory epidemiology/epizootiology method which ...

  17. Assessment of infant mortality surveillance: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Maria de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: assess the implementation of child mortality surveillance in Recife/PE. Methods: an analytical evaluative study was conducted on its implementation. It was a single-case study that correlated degree of implementation with the of the result indicators surveillance. A logic model on this strategy and a matrix of indicators and judgments according to model components were drawn up. The degree of implementation was obtained from structure and process indicators and this was then correlated with result indicators, in a deductive approach based on intervention theory. Results: the structure approach presented superior results to the process in all evaluated components. This strategy was considered to have been partially implemented (75. 7%, however, the components of 'identification of deaths' (85.7%, 'epidemiological research' (88.1% and 'referral of proposals for promotion and health care and correction of official statistics' (95.8% were classified implemented. Regarding the relation of the degree of implantation of the surveillance and its results with the logical model, only one of the 17 indicators was considered inconsistent. Conclusions: this strategy was considered to have been partially implemented. The model of child mortality surveillance and its assessment were shown to be adequate for signaling the consistency of the interrelations between the activities proposed and the effects expected, and would be reproducible within other scenarios.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma: risk groups, surveillance and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, S

    2016-01-01

    The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has changed in the past few decades. Although the majority of HCC cases develops in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, HCC has become an increasing problem in Western countries such as the Netherlands. Surveillance for HCC is controversial because of

  19. Laboratorium Surveillance Infectieziekten - 1989-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esveld MI; van Pelt W; van Leeuwen WJ; Banffer JRJ; CIE; LIS

    1996-01-01

    Voor planning m.b.t. bestrijding van infectieziekten moeten overheid en betrokken instanties keuzen maken over de ontwikkeling en implementatie van beheersprogramma's en epidemiologisch en diagnostisch onderzoek. Surveillance is hiertoe een onmisbare ondersteuning. Door het LSI-project wordt

  20. Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response Reporting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 216 primary healthcare workers in. Mangu and Jos South Local ... The intervention group received the training throughout the study and the control at the end. ... Key Words: Training, Integrated Disease Surveillance Response Reporting. Correspondence: Dr Lar, LA ...

  1. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  2. Marginal Expense Oil Well Wireless Surveillance (MEOWWS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Donald G.

    2002-03-11

    The objective of this study was to identify and field test a new, low cost, wireless oil well surveillance system. A variety of suppliers and technologies were considered. One supplier and system was chosen that was low cost, new to the oil field, and successfully field tested.

  3. Atucha I nuclear power plant surveillance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinchuk, D.

    1993-01-01

    After a review of the main characteristics of the Atucha I nuclear power plant and its pressure vessel, the embrittlement surveillance capsules and the irradiation conditions are described; Charpy impact tests and tensile tests were performed on the irradiated samples, and results are discussed and compared to theoretical calculations: transition temperature shifts, displacement per atom values. 6 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, C N

    1999-12-01

    This article reviews the rationale and approach to dysplasia surveillance colonoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease. Recent developments in the field are also highlighted, including approaches to polyps that arise in patients with colitis and new diagnostic markers that may complement morphologic assessment for dysplasia.

  5. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems...... and models for interpreting surveillance data as part of ongoing control or eradication programmes. Two Danish examples are outlined. The first illustrates how models were used in documenting country freedom from disease (trichinellosis) and the second demonstrates how models were of assistance in predicting...

  6. Enhanced Surveillance during the Democratic National Convention, Charlotte, NC

    OpenAIRE

    Deyneka, Lana; Ising, Amy; Li, Meichun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe how the existing state syndromic surveillance system (NC DETECT) was enhanced to facilitate surveillance conducted at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina from August 31, 2012 to September 10, 2012. Introduction North Carolina hosted the 2012 Democratic National Convention, September 3?6, 2012. The NC Epidemiology and Surveillance Team was created to facilitate enhanced surveillance for injuries and illnesses, early detection of outbreaks durin...

  7. Epidemic Intelligence. Langmuir and the Birth of Disease Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Lyle Fearnley

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the SARS and influenza epidemics of the past decade, one public health solution has become a refrain: surveillance systems for detection of disease outbreaks. This paper is an effort to understand how disease surveillance for outbreak detection gained such paramount rationality in contemporary public health. The epidemiologist Alexander Langmuir is well known as the creator of modern disease surveillance. But less well known is how he imagined disease surveillance as one part o...

  8. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Verbruggen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings.

  9. Monitoring and evaluation of Integrated Disease Surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring and evaluation of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response in selected districts in Tanzania. ... grouped into three key areas: surveillance reporting, use of surveillance data and management of the IDSR system. In general, reporting systems are weak, both in terms of receiving all reports from all facilities in ...

  10. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rivers State has been reported to have the highest HIV prevalence of all the thirty-six states in Nigeria. HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the surveillance system is vital in ensuring that the purpose of the surveillance system is being met.

  11. Challenges of implementing an Integrated Disease Surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania adopted an Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 in order to strengthen its infectious disease surveillance system. During that time, the country had 5 separate surveillance systems to monitor infectious disease trends and disease control programmes. The systems included the ...

  12. 40 CFR 62.08 - Emission inventories and source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surveillance. 62.08 Section 62.08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... General Provisions § 62.08 Emission inventories and source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth the Administrator's...

  13. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in hospitalised South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In 2012, the South African (SA) National Department of Health mandated surveillance of healthcare-associated infection (HAI), but made no recommendations of appropriate surveillance methods. Methods. Prospective clinical HAI surveillance (the reference method) was conducted at Tygerberg Children's ...

  14. 40 CFR 763.92 - Training and periodic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training and periodic surveillance... surveillance. (a) Training. (1) The local education agency shall ensure, prior to the implementation of the O&M... attended EPA-approved asbestos training or received equivalent training for O&M and periodic surveillance...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each... continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of its inspection program and the...

  16. 14 CFR 135.431 - Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing analysis and surveillance. 135... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.431 Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each certificate holder shall establish and maintain a system for the continuing analysis and surveillance of the...

  17. 14 CFR 121.373 - Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing analysis and surveillance. 121... Alterations § 121.373 Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each certificate holder shall establish and maintain a system for the continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of its...

  18. 32 CFR 643.21 - Policy-Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Surveillance. 643.21 Section 643.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.21 Policy—Surveillance. Installation Commanders will maintain constant surveillance...

  19. 42 CFR 71.33 - Persons: Isolation and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons: Isolation and surveillance. 71.33 Section...: Isolation and surveillance. (a) Persons held in isolation under this subpart may be held in facilities suitable for isolation and treatment. (b) The Director may require isolation where surveillance is...

  20. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor authorized personnel of the same sex as the...

  1. Counselees’ expressed level of understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation are not associated with breast cancer surveillance adherence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Dulmen, S. van; Dijkstra, H.; Wieffer, I.; Witkamp, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    We studied counselees’ expressed understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation in the final consultation for breast cancer genetic counseling in relation with their risk perception, worry and cancer surveillance adherence 1 year post-counseling. Consecutive counselees were

  2. Converging requirements and emerging challenges to public health diseases surveillance and bio surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.; Abel, T.

    2009-01-01

    Disease surveillance systems are a critical component of an early warning system for public health agencies to prepare and respond to major public health catastrophes. With a growing emphasis for more robust early indicator and warning systems to track emerging and dangerous diseases of suspicious nature, considerable emphasis is now placed on deployment of more expanded electronic disease surveillance systems. The architectural considerations for bio surveillance information system are based on collection, analysis and dissemination of human, veterinary and agricultural related disease surveillance to broader regional areas likely to be affected in the event of an emerging disease, or due to bioterrorism and better coordinate plans, preparations and response by governmental agencies and multilateral forums. The diseases surveillance systems architectures by intent and design could as well support biological threat monitoring and threat reduction initiatives. As an illustrative sample set, this paper will describe the comparative informatics requirements for a disease surveillance systems developed by CSC for the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) currently operational nationwide, and biological weapons threat assessment developed as part of the Threat Agent Detection and Response (TADR) Network under the US Biological Threat Reduction Program and deployed at Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.(author)

  3. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  4. Towards one health disease surveillance: the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Sayalel, Kuya; Beda, Eric; Short, Nick; Wambura, Philemon; Mboera, Leonard G; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2012-06-20

    Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for 'fit-for- purpose' approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH) approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT) servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  5. Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response (GEIS)- Avian Influenza Pandemic Influenza (AI/PI) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae , Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp. Identification and antibiotic ...include respiratory illness surveillance (particularly influenza), acute febrile illness surveillance, malaria resistance surveillance, diarrhea...etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building. KEMRI maintained surveillance

  6. Paediatric active enhanced disease surveillance: a new surveillance system for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurynski, Yvonne; McIntyre, Peter; Booy, Robert; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2013-07-01

    The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) is described. PAEDS is active in four tertiary children's hospitals in four states of Australia and aims to address gaps in surveillance for severe vaccine-preventable diseases and adverse events following immunisation. From August 2007 to December 2010, surveillance nurses actively identified and recruited children admitted with: acute flaccid paralysis, varicella infection, intussusception, seizures in infants and pandemic influenza (June-October 2009). Details of presentation, medical and immunisation history, outcome and laboratory results were collected. Completeness of ascertainment was estimated through audits of International Classification of Diseases 10th edition-coded medical records where possible. Seven hundred thirty-three cases matching case definition criteria for the four conditions were recruited. In addition, 601 cases of influenza were recruited during the 2009 pandemic. PAEDS enhanced acute flaccid paralysis surveillance by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit; the World Health Organization surveillance target was met when Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit and PAEDS cases were combined. Among 133 children hospitalised for varicella, only 16 were vaccinated; samples of vesicle scrapings were collected in 57% for genotyping. Of 122 infants presenting with seizures, only six (12%) had received a vaccine in the last 7 days. Intussusception was more frequent among infants receiving their first dose of either of the rotavirus vaccines. Results informed policy and education for parents and health professionals. Preliminary audits of medical records suggest excellent ascertainment through PAEDS. PAEDS provides important, previously unavailable data to inform public health policy, clinical practice and community confidence. It has potential to respond quickly during outbreaks and epidemics. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child

  7. Current Management Strategy for Active Surveillance in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jamil S; Javier-Desloges, Juan; Tatzel, Stephanie; Bhagat, Ansh; Nguyen, Kevin A; Hwang, Kevin; Kim, Sarah; Sprenkle, Preston C

    2017-02-01

    Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings. Novel tools which include imaging, biomarkers, and genetic assays have been investigated as potential prognostic adjuncts; however, their role in active surveillance remains institutionally dependent. Although 30-50% of patients on active surveillance ultimately undergo delayed treatment, the vast majority will remain free of metastasis with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. The optimal method for patient selection into active surveillance is unknown; however, cancer-specific mortality rates remain excellent. New prognostication tools are promising, and long-term prospective, randomized data regarding their use in active surveillance will be beneficial.

  8. Corrosion surveillance in spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In mid-1991, corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel was observed in the light-water filled basins at the Savannah River site. A corrosion surveillance program was initiated in the P, K, L-Reactor basins and in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This program verified the aggressive nature of the pitting corrosion and provided recommendations for changes in basin operations to permit extended longer term interim storage. The changes were implemented during 1994--1996 and have resulted in significantly improved basin water quality with conductivity in the 1--3 microS/cm range. Under these improved conditions, no new pitting has been observed over the last three years. This paper describes the corrosion surveillance program at SRS and what has been learned about the corrosion of aluminum-clad in spent fuel storage pools

  9. The Argentine remote monitoring and surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, A.; Roca, J.L.; Perez, A.; Pizarro, L.; Krimer, M.; Teira, R.; Higa, Z.; Saettone, S.; Monzon, J.; Moroni, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Scientific and Technical Support Department of the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN) has developed a Remote Monitoring and Surveillance System (RMSS) that provides a media to verify state of variables related to the monitoring and surveillance activities of nuclear facilities, mainly safeguard applications. RMSS includes a variety of on site installed sensors, an authenticated radiofrequency communication link, a receiver processing unit, an active vision set and a user friendly personal computer interface to collect, view and store pertinent histories of events. A real time data base allows consulting, maintenance, updating and checking activities. RMSS could be integrated into a LAN or WAN via modem for use in a remote operation scheme. In this paper a description of the RMSS is provided. Also, an overview of the RMSS operation at one facility under safeguards belonging to the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) is presented. Results and conclusions of the system associated with this facility are given. (author). 37 figs

  10. Guidance for UMTRA project surveillance and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-01

    The Guidance for UMTRA Project Surveillance and Maintenance describes the procedures that will be used to verify that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal sites continue to function as designed. The approach of this guidance document is to identify surveillance requirements and maintenance procedures that will be used to comply with NRC license requirements. This document addresses five primary activities: Definition and characterization of final site conditions. Site inspections; Ground-water monitoring; Aerial photography; and Custodial maintenance and contingency repair. Final site conditions will be defined and characterized prior to the completion of remedial actions at a site. As-built drawings will be compiled, a final topographic survey will be performed, a vicinity map will be prepared, and ground and aerial photographs will be taken. Survey monuments, site markers, and signs will be established as will a network of monitoring wells.

  11. Advanced neutron source materials surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavilin, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be composed of several different materials, one of which is 6061-T6 aluminum. Among other components, the reflector vessel and the core pressure boundary tube (CPBT), are to be made of 6061-T6 aluminum. These components will be subjected to high thermal neutron fluences and will require a surveillance program to monitor the strength and fracture toughness of the 6061-T6 aluminum over their lifetimes. The purpose of this paper is to explain the steps that were taken in the summer of 1994 toward developing the surveillance program. The first goal was to decide upon standard specimens to use in the fracture toughness and tensile testing. Second, facilities had to be chosen for specimens representing the CPBT and the reflector vessel base, weld, and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) metals. Third, a timetable had to be defined to determine when to remove the specimens for testing

  12. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  13. Market power mitigation, monitoring and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, H.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation described the working of the Independent Market Operator (IMO) in Ontario in terms of its function and structure, competencies, operating principles, and interagency coordination in the electricity sector. An independent market surveillance panel (MSP) appointed by the IMO Board empowers the IMO to monitor, investigate and request information from market participants regarding power system operations, market and strategic development and industrial economics. The six operating principles of the MSP are efficiency, consistency, fairness, transparency, timeliness and confidentiality

  14. New England States environmental radiation surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the environmental radiation surveillance programs in the New England States from the viewpoint of their organization and administration is provided. Moreover, the specific monitoring and analytical programs conducted at selected sites in each state is detailed with emphasis on sample types, collection frequencies, and analysis. Also, a comparison is made between the programs of all the states in order to determine the reasons for their differences

  15. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew M.; Gross, Kenny C.; Kubic, William L.; Wigeland, Roald A.

    1996-01-01

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions.

  16. Irresistible bargains: Navigating the surveillance society

    OpenAIRE

    Pallitto, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    Agents in contemporary societies are faced continually with choices regarding engagement with technological artifacts. They can choose to engage or decline engagement after considering the costs and benefits in each case. However, certain aspects of the surveillance society may be irresistible in a number of ways, so that refusal to engage with them is not a realistic option. The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), particularly as embedded in “smart city” initiatives, helps to make...

  17. Power and Surveillance in Video Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Puente Bienvenido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we explore the history of video games (focusing on multiplayer ones, from the perspective of power relationships and the ways in which authority has been excesiced by the game industry and game players over time. From a hierarchical system of power and domain to the increasing flatness of the current structure, we address the systems of control and surveillance. We will finish our display assessing the emergent forms of production and relationships between players and developers.

  18. Triazole resistance surveillance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendiz Sharpe, Agustin; Lagrou, Katrien; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Lockhart, Shawn R; Verweij, Paul E

    2018-04-01

    Triazole resistance is an increasing concern in the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Resistance can develop through exposure to azole compounds during azole therapy or in the environment. Resistance mutations are commonly found in the Cyp51A-gene, although other known and unknown resistance mechanisms may be present. Surveillance studies show triazole resistance in six continents, although the presence of resistance remains unknown in many countries. In most countries, resistance mutations associated with the environment dominate, but it remains unclear if these resistance traits predominately migrate or arise locally. Patients with triazole-resistant aspergillus disease may fail to antifungal therapy, but only a limited number of cohort studies have been performed that show conflicting results. Treatment failure might be due to diagnostic delay or due to the limited number of alternative treatment options. The ISHAM/ECMM Aspergillus Resistance Surveillance working group was set up to facilitate surveillance studies and stimulate international collaborations. Important aims are to determine the resistance epidemiology in countries where this information is currently lacking, to gain more insight in the clinical implications of triazole resistance through a registry and to unify nomenclature through consensus definitions.

  19. Using funnel plots in public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dover Douglas C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health surveillance is often concerned with the analysis of health outcomes over small areas. Funnel plots have been proposed as a useful tool for assessing and visualizing surveillance data, but their full utility has not been appreciated (for example, in the incorporation and interpretation of risk factors. Methods We investigate a way to simultaneously focus funnel plot analyses on direct policy implications while visually incorporating model fit and the effects of risk factors. Health survey data representing modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors are used in an analysis of 2007 small area motor vehicle mortality rates in Alberta, Canada. Results Small area variations in motor vehicle mortality in Alberta were well explained by the suite of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors. Funnel plots of raw rates and of risk adjusted rates lead to different conclusions; the analysis process highlights opportunities for intervention as risk factors are incorporated into the model. Maps based on funnel plot methods identify areas worthy of further investigation. Conclusions Funnel plots provide a useful tool to explore small area data and to routinely incorporate covariate relationships in surveillance analyses. The exploratory process has at each step a direct and useful policy-related result. Dealing thoughtfully with statistical overdispersion is a cornerstone to fully understanding funnel plots.

  20. Market surveillance for the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. We define market surveillance as the collection of information about variables which will allow inferences about the attractiveness of a company's present and future offerings. The attractiveness, in turn, will depend on the value customers perceive in a product relative to ....... For competitors, decision-makers' cognitive structures refer to their subjective key success factors, intraorganizational decision processes to managerial decision-making, and organizational resources to companies' scores on the market's key success factors.......Executive Summary: 1. We define market surveillance as the collection of information about variables which will allow inferences about the attractiveness of a company's present and future offerings. The attractiveness, in turn, will depend on the value customers perceive in a product relative...... to competing products and relative to its price. Such information on determinants of value perception and costs can be used in the strategy formulation of the company. 2. We define a market surveillance system as a set of methods/instruments to regularly select, collect, and process data about a market and its...

  1. Using funnel plots in public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, Douglas C; Schopflocher, Donald P

    2011-11-10

    Public health surveillance is often concerned with the analysis of health outcomes over small areas. Funnel plots have been proposed as a useful tool for assessing and visualizing surveillance data, but their full utility has not been appreciated (for example, in the incorporation and interpretation of risk factors). We investigate a way to simultaneously focus funnel plot analyses on direct policy implications while visually incorporating model fit and the effects of risk factors. Health survey data representing modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors are used in an analysis of 2007 small area motor vehicle mortality rates in Alberta, Canada. Small area variations in motor vehicle mortality in Alberta were well explained by the suite of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors. Funnel plots of raw rates and of risk adjusted rates lead to different conclusions; the analysis process highlights opportunities for intervention as risk factors are incorporated into the model. Maps based on funnel plot methods identify areas worthy of further investigation. Funnel plots provide a useful tool to explore small area data and to routinely incorporate covariate relationships in surveillance analyses. The exploratory process has at each step a direct and useful policy-related result. Dealing thoughtfully with statistical overdispersion is a cornerstone to fully understanding funnel plots.

  2. Inferring epidemic network topology from surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wan

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases can be affected by many or even hidden factors, making it difficult to accurately predict when and where outbreaks may emerge. One approach at the moment is to develop and deploy surveillance systems in an effort to detect outbreaks as timely as possible. This enables policy makers to modify and implement strategies for the control of the transmission. The accumulated surveillance data including temporal, spatial, clinical, and demographic information, can provide valuable information with which to infer the underlying epidemic networks. Such networks can be quite informative and insightful as they characterize how infectious diseases transmit from one location to another. The aim of this work is to develop a computational model that allows inferences to be made regarding epidemic network topology in heterogeneous populations. We apply our model on the surveillance data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. The inferred epidemic network displays significant effect on the propagation of infectious diseases.

  3. LLNL Livermore site Groundwater Surveillance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 establishes environ-mental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities for DOE operations to assume compliance with federal, state, and local environmental protection laws and regulations; Federal Executive Orders; and internal DOE policies. ne DOE Order contains requirements and guidance for environmental monitoring programs, the objectives of which are to demonstrate compliance with legal and regulatory requirements imposed by federal, state, and local agencies; confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection polices; and support environmental management decisions. The environmental monitoring programs consist of two major activities: (1) measurement and monitoring of effluents from DOE operations, and (2) surveillance through measurement, monitoring, and calculation of the effects of those operations on the environment and public health. The latter concern, that of assessing the effects, if any, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations and activities on on-site and off-site surface waters and groundwaters is addressed by an Environmental Surveillance Program being developed by LLNL. The Groundwater Surveillance Plan presented here has been developed on a sitespecific basis, taking into consideration facility characteristics, applicable regulations, hazard potential, quantities and concentrations of materials released, the extent and use of local water resources, and specific local public interest and concerns

  4. Development of Reconstitution Technology for Surveillance Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasushi Atago; Shunichi Hatano; Eiichiro Otsuka

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carrying out the project titled 'Nuclear Power Plant Integrated Management Technology (PLIM)' consigned by Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) since 1996FY as a 10-years project. As one of the project themes, development of reconstitution technology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV/RV) surveillance specimens, which are installed in RPVs to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement on RPV/RV materials, is now on being carried out to deal with the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. The target of this theme is to establish the technical standard for applicability of reconstituted surveillance specimens including the reconstitution of the Charpy specimens and Compact Tension (CT) specimens. With the Charpy specimen reconstitution, application of 10 mm length inserts is used, which enables the conversion of tests from the LT-direction to the TL-direction. This paper presents the basic data from Charpy and CT specimens of RPV materials using the surveillance specimens obtained for un-irradiated materials including the following. 1) Reconstitution Technology of Charpy Specimens. a) The interaction between plastic zone and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). b) The effects of the possible deviations from the standard specimens for the reconstituted specimens. 2) Reconstitution Technology of CT specimens. a) The correlation between fracture toughness and plastic zone width. Because the project is now in progress, this paper describes the outline of the results obtained as of the end of 2000 FY. (authors)

  5. HIV surveillance methods for the incarcerated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Hazel D; Lansky, Amy; Fleming, Patricia L

    2002-10-01

    In the United States, monitoring the HIV/AIDS epidemic among the incarcerated population is done by (a) conducting a census of persons in prisons and jails reported to be infected with HIV or diagnosed with AIDS, (b) seroprevalence surveys in selected correctional facilities, and (c) population-based HIV/AIDS case surveillance by state health departments. We describe methods for HIV/AIDS case surveillance in correctional settings and present data from the HIV/AIDS Reporting System (HARS) and the Supplement to HIV and AIDS Surveillance (SHAS) to describe the demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected persons who were incarcerated at the time of diagnosis. HARS data showed a higher proportion of females and a lower proportion of injection drug users for incarcerated persons diagnosed with HIV (not AIDS) compared to those initially diagnosed with AIDS. The SHAS data showed a high prevalence of injection drug use, crack use, alcohol abuse, and exchanging sex for money or drugs. Together, HARS and SHAS collect fairly comprehensive information of risk behaviors from persons with HIV infection and AIDS. Advances in HIV prevention and care for the incarcerated community will require an accurate and timely description of the magnitude of the HIV epidemic in correctional settings. These data are needed to guide programmatic efforts to reduce HIV transmission in prisons and jails and in the general community upon release and ensure needed risk reduction and health care services for incarcerated persons.

  6. Twitter Influenza Surveillance: Quantifying Seasonal Misdiagnosis Patterns and their Impact on Surveillance Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Influenza (flu) surveillance using Twitter data can potentially save lives and increase efficiency by providing governments and healthcare organizations with greater situational awareness. However, research is needed to determine the impact of Twitter users' misdiagnoses on surveillance estimates. This study establishes the importance of Twitter users' misdiagnoses by showing that Twitter flu surveillance in the United States failed during the 2011-2012 flu season, estimates the extent of misdiagnoses, and tests several methods for reducing the adverse effects of misdiagnoses. Metrics representing flu prevalence, seasonal misdiagnosis patterns, diagnosis uncertainty, flu symptoms, and noise were produced using Twitter data in conjunction with OpenSextant for geo-inferencing, and a maximum entropy classifier for identifying tweets related to illness. These metrics were tested for correlations with World Health Organization (WHO) positive specimen counts of flu from 2011 to 2014. Twitter flu surveillance erroneously indicated a typical flu season during 2011-2012, even though the flu season peaked three months late, and erroneously indicated plateaus of flu tweets before the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 flu seasons. Enhancements based on estimates of misdiagnoses removed the erroneous plateaus and increased the Pearson correlation coefficients by .04 and .23, but failed to correct the 2011-2012 flu season estimate. A rough estimate indicates that approximately 40% of flu tweets reflected misdiagnoses. Further research into factors affecting Twitter users' misdiagnoses, in conjunction with data from additional atypical flu seasons, is needed to enable Twitter flu surveillance systems to produce reliable estimates during atypical flu seasons.

  7. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  8. ANTARES : The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, Ph; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J. -J.; Di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J. -L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J. -F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J-C; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; LeVanSuu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Leveque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Patioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J. -F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the

  9. ACUMEN 2012: Atlantic Canyons Undersea Mapping Expeditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between February and August 2012, a team of NOAA and external partners will conduct a mapping ‘blitz’ focused on deepwater canyons off the northeastern...

  10. Human and Computer Control of Undersea Teleoperators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-15

    transferring lead bricks in a nuclear hot cell , Vertut (1976) has shown that the time to move one block (cycle time) depends on the type of hand grip used...lations (which can be graphed as planes in hyperspace , lines if only two trade- off variables are included such as are shown in Figure 8.2 ). For each

  11. Navy Operational Planner - Undersea Warfare Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540–01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2–89) Prescribed by ANSI...Convergence Zone DP Direct Path HVU High Value Unit MCM Mine Sweeper MIW Mine Warfare NMP Navy Mission Planner NOP Navy Operational Planner NOP–USW...Illustrated in Figure 1 is a piecewise linear from of the equation 1 tAchievement e   , where Achievement is the probability that a mine field

  12. Coordinated U. S. PWR Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program: Surveillance Data to Support Long Term Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, Ryan; Troyer, Greg; Davidsaver, Sarah; Hardin, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance data is used as the basis for embrittlement trend correlations (ETCs) which predict decreases in RP fracture toughness due to irradiation embrittlement. A limited amount of data exists today at fluences that many U. S. PWR RPVs will reach in 60 or more years of operation. However, there is a significant amount of test reactor data available at high fluences, which shows higher embrittlement shifts than the power reactor data-based correlations. A coordinated plan for withdrawal and testing of the U. S. PWR RPV surveillance capsules has been developed, with the intent of filling high fluence gaps in existing PWR data. This paper summarizes the methodology, optimization strategy, and current results of this coordinated U. S. PWR reactor vessel surveillance program (CRVSP). The Coordinated RVSP has been optimized to maximize the quantity and quality of high fluence data while minimizing the burden on the industry

  13. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, J.M.; Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L.; McMaster, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy

  14. Adherence to physician recommendations for surveillance in opportunistic colorectal cancer screening: the necessity of organized surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists on the utilization of surveillance colonoscopy in colorectal cancer (CRC screening programs. We assessed adherence to physician recommendations for surveillance in opportunistic CRC screening in Germany. METHODS: A follow-up study of screening colonoscopy participants in 2007-2009 in Saarland, Germany, was conducted using health insurance claims data. Utilization of additional colonoscopies through to 2011 was ascertained. Adherence to surveillance intervals of 3, 6, 12 and 36 months, defined as having had colonoscopy at 2.5 to 4, 5 to 8, 10.5 to 16 and 33 to 48 months, respectively (i.e., tolerating a delay of 33% of each interval was assessed. Potential predictors of non-adherence were investigated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 20,058 screening colonoscopy participants were included in the study. Of those with recommended surveillance intervals of 3, 6, 12 and 36 months, 46.5% (95%-confidence interval [CI]: 37.3-55.7%, 38.5% (95%-CI: 29.6-47.3%, 25.4% (95%-CI: 21.2-29.6% and 28.0% (95%-CI: 25.5-30.5%, respectively, had a subsequent colonoscopy within the specified margins. Old age, longer recommended surveillance interval, not having had polypectomy at screening and negative colonoscopy were statistically significant predictors of non-adherence. CONCLUSION: This study suggests frequent non-adherence to physician recommendations for surveillance colonoscopy in community practice. Increased efforts to improve adherence, including introduction of more elements of an organized screening program, seem necessary to assure a high-quality CRC screening process.

  15. Outcome of 24 years national surveillance in different hereditary colorectal cancer subgroups leading to more individualised surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Lars Joachim; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Smith-Hansen, Lars; Bernstein, Inge

    2017-05-01

    Individuals with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The benefits of colonic surveillance in Lynch syndrome and Amsterdam-positive (familial CRC type X familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX)) families are clear; only the interval between colonoscopies is debated. The potential benefits for families not fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria are uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of colonic surveillance in different hereditary subgroups and to evaluate the surveillance programmes. A prospective, observational study on the outcome of colonic surveillance in different hereditary subgroups based on 24 years of surveillance data from the national Danish HNPCC register. We analysed 13 444 surveillance sessions, including 8768 incidence sessions and 20 450 years of follow-up. CRC was more incident in the Lynch subgroup (2.0%) than in any other subgroup (0.0-0.4%, psurveillance. We suggest less frequent and more individualised surveillance in non-Lynch families. Individuals from families with a strong history of CRC could be offered 5-year surveillance colonoscopies (unless findings at the preceding surveillance session indicate shorter interval) and individuals from moderate-risk families could be handled with the population-based screening programme for CRC after an initial surveillance colonoscopy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Security and Privacy in Video Surveillance: Requirements and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    observed by the system. Several techniques to protect the privacy of individuals have therefore been proposed, but very little research work has focused on the specific security requirements of video surveillance data (in transit or in storage) and on authorizing access to this data. In this paper, we...... present a general model of video surveillance systems that will help identify the major security and privacy requirements for a video surveillance system and we use this model to identify practical challenges in ensuring the security of video surveillance data in all stages (in transit and at rest). Our......Use of video surveillance has substantially increased in the last few decades. Modern video surveillance systems are equipped with techniques that allow traversal of data in an effective and efficient manner, giving massive powers to operators and potentially compromising the privacy of anyone...

  17. Surveillance in von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, E; Bisgaard, M L

    2010-01-01

    von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL) is a hereditary multisystem cancer syndrome requiring lifelong prophylactic surveillance. Current surveillance recommendations rely on best medical judgement and no evidence of effect exists. We aimed to evaluate the capability of surveillance in manifestation...... detection, before these turn symptomatic, in order to prevent disabling or even fatal outcomes. We focus on surveillance of central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas, retinal hemangiomas and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as these have the most severe consequences. On the basis of full medical records from...... 54 living vHL-mutation carriers, risks of intercurrent manifestations in-between surveillance examinations were determined and clinical consequences of surveillance findings evaluated. Current recommendations of annual ophthalmic and abdominal examinations corresponded to acceptably low intercurrent...

  18. Market-Based Approach to Mobile Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elmogy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The active surveillance of public and private sites is increasingly becoming a very important and critical issue. It is, therefore, imperative to develop mobile surveillance systems to protect these sites. Modern surveillance systems encompass spatially distributed mobile and static sensors in order to provide effective monitoring of persistent and transient objects and events in a given area of interest (AOI. The realization of the potential of mobile surveillance requires the solution of different challenging problems such as task allocation, mobile sensor deployment, multisensor management, cooperative object detection and tracking, decentralized data fusion, and interoperability and accessibility of system nodes. This paper proposes a market-based approach that can be used to handle different problems of mobile surveillance systems. Task allocation and cooperative target tracking are studied using the proposed approach as two challenging problems of mobile surveillance systems. These challenges are addressed individually and collectively.

  19. Using genomics for surveillance of veterinary infectious agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijs, E; Vandenbussche, F; Van Borm, S

    2016-04-01

    Factors such as globalisation, climate change and agricultural intensification can increase the risk of microbial emergence. As a result, there is a growing need for flexible laboratory-based surveillance tools to rapidly identify, characterise and monitor global (re-)emerging diseases. Although many tools are available, novel sequencing technologies have launched a new era in pathogen surveillance. Here, the authors review the potential applications of high-throughput genomic technologies for the surveillance of veterinary pathogens. They focus on the two types of surveillance that will benefit most from these new tools: hazard-specific surveillance (pathogen identification and typing) and early-warning surveillance (pathogen discovery). The paper reviews how the resulting sequencing data can be used to improve diagnosis and concludes by highlighting the major challenges that hinder the routine use of this technology in the veterinary field.

  20. Routine airway surveillance in pediatric tracheostomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergin, Ozgul; Adil, Eelam; Kawai, Kosuke; Watters, Karen; Moritz, Ethan; Rahbar, Reza

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review airway findings in children with tracheostomies who underwent surveillance direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy (DLB) to determine the yield of routine airway evaluation in these patients. Retrospective chart review at tertiary referral children's hospital. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all of the children with tracheostomies who underwent DLB after tracheostomy between 1984 and 2015. A total of 303 patients met inclusion criteria. The median time interval between tracheostomy and first follow-up DLB was 12.0 months (IQR 4.8-28.9 months). There was no significant difference in the incidence of airway lesions between patients who underwent endoscopy tracheostomy versus those who had a longer time interval between tracheostomy and DLB (p = 0.16). One hundred sixty seven patients (55.1%) were diagnosed with lesions, with suprastomal granulation (39.9%) being the most common. Symptomatic patients were significantly more likely to have an airway lesion identified (69.9% versus 42.0%; p tracheostomy were significantly more likely to have an airway lesion (p = 0.01). The high incidence of airway lesions noted during surveillance DLB support the utility of routine airway endoscopy in pediatric tracheostomy patients. Symptomatic patients, those with ventilator dependence, or cardiopulmonary or trauma indications for tracheostomy are more likely to have airway lesions and should be monitored closely. The ideal time interval between surveillance endoscopies needs to be examined further. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Giardiasis surveillance - United States, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathan S; Harral, Courtney; Beach, Michael J

    2010-06-11

    Giardiasis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. 2006-2008. State, commonwealth, territorial, and two metropolitan health departments voluntarily report cases of giardiasis through CDC's National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. During 2006--2008, the total number of reported cases of giardiasis increased slightly from 19,239 for 2006 to 19,794 for 2007 and decreased slightly to 19,140 for 2008. During this period, 49 jurisdictions reported giardiasis cases; giardiasis is a reportable condition in 45 states (not reportable in Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Texas). A greater number of case reports were received for children aged 1-9 years and for adults aged 35-44 years compared with other age groups. Incidence of giardiasis was highest in northern states. Peak onset of illness occurred annually during early summer through early fall. Transmission of giardiasis occurs throughout the United States, with more frequent diagnosis or reporting occurring in northern states. However, state incidence figures should be compared with caution because individual state surveillance systems have varying capabilities to detect cases. The seasonal peak in age-specific case reports coincides with the summer recreational water season and likely reflects increased outdoor activities and exposures such as camping and use of communal swimming venues (e.g., lakes, rivers, swimming pools, and water parks) by young children. Local and state health departments can use giardiasis surveillance data to better understand the epidemiologic characteristics and the disease burden of giardiasis in the United States, design efforts to prevent the spread of disease, and establish research priorities.

  2. [Foodborne disease outbreaks surveillance in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Andrea; Díaz, Janepsy; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Vaquero, Alejandra; García, Maritza

    2012-10-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are one of the main health problems globally, having an extensive impact on human welfare. The World Health Organization considers them as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and responsible for high levels of loss of productivity in developed countries. To describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks according to data contained in an automated surveillance system. Descriptive observational study of notified outbreaks from the surveillance system, between 2005 and 2010 in Chile. The information was based on etiology, temporal and spatial distribution, and epidemiologic description of outbreaks during this period. There were 5,689 notified outbreaks. Most of them occurred during 2006 (1,106 outbreaks, rate 6.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) and 2008 (1,316 outbreaks, rate 7.9 per 100, 000 inhabitants) with an increase during summer. Fifty four percent occurred in the Metropolitan region. The group aged 15 to 44 years old, was the most affected one. Sixty four percent of the outbreaks had the food involved registered, of which fish and fishery products reached 42%. An 81% of the outbreaks did not have a precise etiologic diagnosis. Of all patients involved, 97% were outpatients, 3,2% were hospitalized patients, and 0,1% died. Only 49% of the outbreaks had information about the lack of food safety, with a 34,1% related to food handling procedures. Through the information on the epidemiology of foodborne diseases obtained by the Chilean surveillance system, appropriate control measures could be taken.

  3. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  4. Authentication Approaches for Standoff Video Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, G.; Sweatt, W.; Thomas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Video surveillance for international nuclear safeguards applications requires authentication, which confirms to an inspector reviewing the surveillance images that both the source and the integrity of those images can be trusted. To date, all such authentication approaches originate at the camera. Camera authentication would not suffice for a ''standoff video'' application, where the surveillance camera views an image piped to it from a distant objective lens. Standoff video might be desired in situations where it does not make sense to expose sensitive and costly camera electronics to contamination, radiation, water immersion, or other adverse environments typical of hot cells, reprocessing facilities, and within spent fuel pools, for example. In this paper, we offer optical architectures that introduce a standoff distance of several metres between the scene and camera. Several schemes enable one to authenticate not only that the extended optical path is secure, but also that the scene is being viewed live. They employ optical components with remotely-operated spectral, temporal, directional, and intensity properties that are under the control of the inspector. If permitted by the facility operator, illuminators, reflectors and polarizers placed in the scene offer further possibilities. Any tampering that would insert an alternative image source for the camera, although undetectable with conventional cryptographic authentication of digital camera data, is easily exposed using the approaches we describe. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-programme laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Support to Sandia National Laboratories provided by the NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is gratefully acknowledged. SAND2014-3196 A. (author)

  5. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. Internal Audits and Quality Assurance Surveillance in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavajda, M.; Bracic, I.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is describing establishment of the requirements for the development and execution of the Internal Audit and Quality Assurance Surveillance Program in the NPP Krsko, to identify relevant regulatory commitment and other documents, and to exhibit different functional areas, levels and work categories and factors that impact selecting and scheduling an audit or surveillance. It is not intention of this paper to explain how and by whom an audit or surveillance has to be done. (author)

  7. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    , be longitudinal, and cover a sufficiently large and representative population. However, many fall short of these requirements that define good surveillance studies. Moreover, current efforts are dispersed among many, mostly small, initiatives with different objectives. These studies must be tailored...... the diagnosis of hospitalised patients, and the DANMAP programme, which collects data in the veterinary sector. As already noted by the WHO, genetic studies that include both the typing of isolates and the characterisation of resistance determinants are necessary to understand fully the spread and development...

  8. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Michelle; Brady, Doug

    2008-07-01

    Each year, LANL produces an Environmental Surveillance Report (ESR) in compliance with a Department of Energy (DOE) order. The ESR aims to summarize the environmental impacts of the Laboratory, the efforts to minimize these impacts, and LANL’s compliance with environmental regulations. This Summary Report presents the methods and results of environmental monitoring done in 2007 in a form that is more understandable and inviting to the public. Though other DOE sites have done Summary Reports in the past, this is LANL’s first for the ESR, and the authors were privileged to write this report from the perspective of students.

  9. Biotest method in Rhine river surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, M.

    1994-01-01

    Against the background of the 1986 Sandoz chemical accident the national and international commission for the protection of the Rhine river was prompted to construct, a continuous supra-regional surveillance of the river. Its aim is a biological warning system which encompasses the exising chemical-physical monitoring of the water. The Biotest method was newly developed in a joint plan of eight separate projects. The bio-monitors are continuous or semi-continuous systems which make up for the time delay of chemical analyses. (BWI) [de

  10. GHOST: global hepatitis outbreak and surveillance technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, Atkinson G; Sims, Seth; Rytsareva, Inna; Campo, David S; Skums, Pavel; Dimitrova, Zoya; Ramachandran, Sumathi; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Thai, Hong; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia; Lin, Yulin; Punkova, Lili T; Sue, Amanda; Mirabito, Massimo; Wang, Silver; Tracy, Robin; Bolet, Victor; Sukalac, Thom; Lynberg, Chris; Khudyakov, Yury

    2017-12-06

    Hepatitis C is a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections associated with unsafe injection practices, drug diversion, and other exposures to blood are difficult to detect and investigate. Effective HCV outbreak investigation requires comprehensive surveillance and robust case investigation. We previously developed and validated a methodology for the rapid and cost-effective identification of HCV transmission clusters. Global Hepatitis Outbreak and Surveillance Technology (GHOST) is a cloud-based system enabling users, regardless of computational expertise, to analyze and visualize transmission clusters in an independent, accurate and reproducible way. We present and explore performance of several GHOST implemented algorithms using next-generation sequencing data experimentally obtained from hypervariable region 1 of genetically related and unrelated HCV strains. GHOST processes data from an entire MiSeq run in approximately 3 h. A panel of seven specimens was used for preparation of six repeats of MiSeq libraries. Testing sequence data from these libraries by GHOST showed a consistent transmission linkage detection, testifying to high reproducibility of the system. Lack of linkage among genetically unrelated HCV strains and constant detection of genetic linkage between HCV strains from known transmission pairs and from follow-up specimens at different levels of MiSeq-read sampling indicate high specificity and sensitivity of GHOST in accurate detection of HCV transmission. GHOST enables automatic extraction of timely and relevant public health information suitable for guiding effective intervention measures. It is designed as a virtual diagnostic system intended for use in molecular surveillance and outbreak investigations rather than in research. The system produces accurate and reproducible information on HCV transmission clusters for all users, irrespective of their level of bioinformatics

  11. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  12. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, Mathias; Thomsen, Frederik B; Iversen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of active surveillance (AS) is to reduce overtreatment of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) without compromising survival. The objective of this study was to update a large Scandinavian single-center AS cohort. Furthermore, the use of curative treatment and subsequent...... risk of biochemical recurrence were investigated and compared in men with very low-risk, low-risk and intermediate-risk PCa in the cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 451 men were followed on AS and monitored with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations and rebiopsies...

  13. Continuous surveillance of reactor coolant circuit integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Continuous surveillance is important to assuring the integrity of a reactor coolant circuit. It can give pre-warning of structural degradation and indicate where off-line inspection should be focussed. These proceedings describe the state of development of several techniques which may be used. These involve measuring structural vibration, core neutron noise, acoustic emission from cracks, coolant leakage, or operating parameters such as coolant temperature and pressure. Twenty three papers have been abstracted and indexed separately for inclusion in the data base

  14. Intelligent multimedia surveillance current trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Atrey, Pradeep K; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent multimedia surveillance concerns the analysis of multiple sensing inputs including video and audio streams, radio-frequency identification (RFID), and depth data. These data are processed for the automated detection and tracking of people, vehicles, and other objects. The goal is to locate moving targets, to understand their behavior, and to detect suspicious or abnormal activities for crime prevention. Despite its benefits, there is societal apprehension regarding the use of such technology, so an important challenge in this research area is to balance public safety and privacy.

  15. Role of immunological surveillance in radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, Toshihiko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The immune system is known to be highly susceptible to various physical, chemical, and biological insults. The studies on the immediate and long-term effects of radiation on immune system of mice indicated very clearly that there was a dose-dependent reduction in the number of T and B cells, depression of antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses as well as proliferative responses of spleen cells to T and B cell mitogens shortly after irradiation, but they all recovered to the control level within a few months. Immunosuppression observed shortly after irradiation had little influence on the development of radiogenic tumors. The effects of radiation on the incidence of Friend leukemia virus (FLV)-induced leukemias are examined by using young adult B6C3F{sub 1} male mice which are normally resistant to FLV-induced leukemogenesis. There was a clear threshold dose of 2 Gy below which the development of FLV induced leukemias was not observed but after exposure to >3 Gy high incidence of leukemias was observed. Fractionated, weekly exposure of young C57BL strain mice to 1.6 Gy of X-rays for four successive weeks causes most of the exposed mice to develop thymic lymphomas between 3 and 10 months. However, when the exposed mice are grafted with bone marrow cells from normal donors, the development of thymic lymphomas on the exposed mice is greatly inhibited. There was a clear dose response relationship between the number of bone marrow cells injected and the inhibition of the development of thymic lymphomas. It now appears clear that T cell-mediated immunological surveillance against newly arising neoplasms conceived by Thomas and Burnet does not hold true anymore in the original form, although virus-infected host cells and other host cells expressing altered-self' markers on their cell surfaces are constantly monitored by the immunological surveillance mechanism. A surveillance function against newly arising neoplasms may be a property of surrounding normal tissue

  16. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  17. The Ontario Hydro mortality surveillance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Ontario Hydro mortality surveillance programme was the first such study established in any group of radiation workers. Copies of annual reports are available to senior officials of both management and union and to members of the general public. Apart from an elevated Standardized Mortality Ratio in the 15.0 - 19.9 cSv range, there is no suggestion of any rising cancer death rate with increased lifetime radiation dose. It should be noted that employees who had left before pensionable age were not included in the study. Results of the study are presented in tabular form

  18. Surveillance for Stage I Nonseminoma Testicular Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Mortensen, Mette Saksø

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe treatment results in a large cohort with stage I nonseminoma germ cell cancer (NSGCC) treated in a surveillance program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2007, 1,226 patients with stage I NSGCC, including high-risk patients with vascular invasion....... Relapses after 5 years were seen in 0.5% of the whole cohort or in 1.6% of relapsing patients. The majority of relapses (94.4%) belonged to the good prognostic group according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification. The disease-specific survival at 15 years was 99...

  19. Surveillance of rare diseases: a public health evaluation of the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel L; Friend, Helen; Lynn, Richard; Mitchell, Simon; Michie, Colin; Ihekweazu, Chikwe

    2012-06-01

    The British Paediatric Surveillance Unit (BPSU), a joint undertaking between the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, Institute of Child Health and Health Protection Agency, undertakes nationwide surveillance of rare paediatric disorders. In 2007-09, formal evaluation to examine its effectiveness commenced. Centres of Disease Control guidelines for appraising public health surveillance systems were applied. Data sources included BPSU databases, published and unpublished reports. Questionnaires were sent to 600 participating paediatricians and 27 researchers. Half of the questionnaires were administered online to assess the feasibility of electronic reporting. Three thousand UK paediatricians report monthly to the BPSU (94% return) and eighty BPSU studies have been published. These studies have influenced immunization and screening policy, altered clinical practice and informed health service configuration. Surveillance operations are simple, stable, representative and responsive to changing demands. Returns from the paediatricians' survey were 75%; investigators 89%. Paediatricians valued the BPSU and did not find participation burdensome. Most supported online questionnaires (56%) but not monthly electronic reporting (35%). Evaluation demonstrated the effectiveness of the BPSU as a valuable resource for clinicians and policy-makers. Opportunities identified for future development include secure online reporting, improved responsiveness to urgent health threats and promoting public involvement.

  20. Spaces of Surveillance: A Study of Newspaper Articles on School Surveillance Cameras from 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannäs, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Today, school fires, vandalism, graffiti and bullying in school environments are common occurrences in Sweden. As a result, schools are faced with significant tangible and intangible costs for different types of measures, of which surveillance technology is one. This paper presents a study of newspaper articles mapping the occurrence and…

  1. Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampath, Rangarajan; Russell, Kevin L; Massire, Christian; Eshoo, Mark W; Harpin, Vanessa; Blyn, Lawrence B; Melton, Rachael; Ivy, Cristin; Pennella, Thuy; Li, Feng

    2007-01-01

    Effective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating...

  2. An Optimization Framework for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Leyuan

    2007-01-01

    This project is to investigate and verify the feasibility for development of a methodological approach and corresponding tools for the management of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) systems...

  3. Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services (CSELS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services (CSELS) is to provide scientific service, expertise, skills, and tools in support of...

  4. The value of information: Current challenges in surveillance implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Animal health surveillance is a complex activity that involves multiple stakeholders and provides decision support across sectors. Despite progress in the design of surveillance systems, some technical challenges remain, specifically for emerging hazards. Surveillance can also be impacted by political interests and costly consequences of case reporting, particularly in relation to international trade. Constraints on surveillance can therefore be of technical, economic and political nature. From an economic perspective, both surveillance and intervention are resource-using activities that are part of a mitigation strategy. Surveillance provides information for intervention decisions and thereby helps to offset negative effects of animal disease and to reduce the decision uncertainty associated with choices on disease control. It thus creates monetary and non-monetary benefits, both of which may be challenging to quantify. The technical relationships between surveillance, intervention and loss avoidance have not been established for most hazards despite being important consideration for investment decisions. Therefore, surveillance cannot just be maximised to minimise intervention costs. Economic appraisals of surveillance need to be done on a case by case basis for any hazard considering both surveillance and intervention performance, the losses avoided and the values attached to them. This can be achieved by using an evaluation approach which provides a systematic investigation of the worth or merit of surveillance activities. Evaluation is driven by a specific evaluation question which for surveillance systems commonly considers effectiveness, efficiency, implementation and/or compliance issues. More work is needed to provide guidance on the appropriate selection of evaluation attributes and general good practice in surveillance evaluation. Due to technical challenges, economic constraints and variable levels of capacity, the implementation of surveillance systems

  5. Using Google Trends for influenza surveillance in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate influenza activity in many countries; however there is currently no Google Flu Trends or other Internet search data used for influenza surveillance in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Influenza surveillance data from 2008 through 2011 were obtained from provincial CDC influenza-like illness and virological surveillance systems of Guangdong, a province in south China. Internet search data were downloaded from the website of Google Trends. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to compare surveillance data and internet search trends. The correlation between CDC ILI surveillance and CDC virus surveillance was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.66. The strongest correlation was between the Google Trends term of Fever and ILI surveillance with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.79. When compared with influenza virological surveillance, the Google Trends term of Influenza A had the strongest correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.79 in the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that Google Trends in Chinese can be used as a complementary source of data for influenza surveillance in south China. More research in the future should develop new models using search trends in Chinese language to estimate local disease activity and detect early signals of outbreaks.

  6. Probabilistic safety assessment improves surveillance requirements in technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1997-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment is widely becoming the standard method for assessing, maintaining, assuring and improving the nuclear power plant safety. To achieve one of its many potential benefits, the optimization approach of surveillance requirements in technical specifications was developed. Surveillance requirements in technical specifications define the surveillance test intervals for the equipment to be tested and the testing strategy. This optimization approach based mainly on probabilistic safety assessment results consists of three levels: component level, system level and plant level. The application of this optimization approach on system level has shown that the risk based surveillance requirements differ from existing ones in technical specifications

  7. Surveillance extension experience at WWER-440 type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.; Uri, G.; Oszwald, F.; Trampus, P.

    1993-01-01

    In WWER-440 reactors, the surveillance specimens are located in accelerated irradiation positions. After 5 years, all specimens are withdrawn and the operational changes are not monitored. At Paks NPP a new surveillance program extension has been settled in order to avoid these original program disadvantages and generate further data for plant lifetime management. This paper includes: research performed to prepare the surveillance extension programme, the evaluation method for the surveillance extension, and first results (Charpy and tensile tests). (authors). 6 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  8. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance. PMID:24278752

  9. Improving influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, C; Debellut, F; Gessner, B D; Kasolo, F C; Yahaya, A A; Ayebazibwe, N; Bassong, O; Cardoso, Y; Kebede, S; Manoncourt, S; Vandemaele, K A; Mounts, A W

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about the burden of influenza in sub-Saharan Africa. Routine influenza surveillance is key to getting a better understanding of the impact of acute respiratory infections on sub-Saharan African populations. A project known as Strengthening Influenza Sentinel Surveillance in Africa (SISA) was launched in Angola, Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Zambia to help improve influenza sentinel surveillance, including both epidemiological and virological data collection, and to develop routine national, regional and international reporting mechanisms. These countries received technical support through remote supervision and onsite visits. Consultants worked closely with health ministries, the World Health Organization, national influenza laboratories and other stakeholders involved in influenza surveillance. Influenza surveillance systems in the target countries were in different stages of development when SISA was launched. Senegal, for instance, had conducted virological surveillance for years, whereas Sierra Leone had no surveillance activity at all. Working documents such as national surveillance protocols and procedures were developed or updated and training for sentinel site staff and data managers was organized. Targeted support to countries can help them strengthen national influenza surveillance, but long-term sustainability can only be achieved with external funding and strong national government leadership.

  10. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.

  11. Using Google Trends for influenza surveillance in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Rutherford, Shannon; Yang, Fen

    2013-01-01

    Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate influenza activity in many countries; however there is currently no Google Flu Trends or other Internet search data used for influenza surveillance in China. Influenza surveillance data from 2008 through 2011 were obtained from provincial CDC influenza-like illness and virological surveillance systems of Guangdong, a province in south China. Internet search data were downloaded from the website of Google Trends. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data and internet search trends. The correlation between CDC ILI surveillance and CDC virus surveillance was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.66). The strongest correlation was between the Google Trends term of Fever and ILI surveillance with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.79). When compared with influenza virological surveillance, the Google Trends term of Influenza A had the strongest correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) in the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic period. This study shows that Google Trends in Chinese can be used as a complementary source of data for influenza surveillance in south China. More research in the future should develop new models using search trends in Chinese language to estimate local disease activity and detect early signals of outbreaks.

  12. Health protection in Brazil: the National Sanitary Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Marismary Horsth De; Oliveira, Catia Veronica Dos Santos; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais

    2017-10-01

    This essay presents the singular arrangement named Health Surveillance in Brazil and the specificities of its components: public Health Surveillance, Worker's Surveillance, Environmental Surveillance, Sanitary Surveillance, as well as the constitutional determination to carry out the actions of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and Worker's Surveillance. The two national systems of protection and promote health are also presented - National Public Health Surveillance System and National Sanitary Surveillance System, with an emphasis on the regulatory issues in health made by the latter and some constraints to its action by the Legislative Branch. It reaffirms the Brazilian State's constitutional duty to protect health, and to provide the means for adequate functioning of the two systems, bearing in mind that defense of the public interest in health products and services means confronting oligopolies of transnational economic interests. This paper states the opinion that the financial constraints facing the Brazilian State from time to time cannot be allowed to prevail over the rights of citizenship, independently of the public underfunding of health in Brazil.

  13. Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS) is a repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee accident data. Many types of...

  14. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental protection Program,'' and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.'' The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY1999 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes the sampling location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 1999 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing approximate sampling locations

  15. Hanford site environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1 open-quotes General Environmental Protection Program,close quotes and DOE Order 5400.5, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.close quotes The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the 1998 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section of this document describes the planned sampling schedule for a specific media (air, surface water, biota, soil and vegetation, sediment, and external radiation). Each section includes the sample location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be planned for 1998 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing sample locations

  16. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program: and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling design is described in the Operations Office, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY 2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2000 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map showing approximate sampling locations is included for each media scheduled for collection

  17. Monitors for the surveillance of NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giera, H.D.; Grabner, A.; Hessel, G.; Koeppen, H.E.; Liewers, P.; Schumann, P.; Weiss, F.P.; Kunze, U.; Pfeiffer, G.

    1985-01-01

    Noise diagnostics have reached a level where it is possible and efficient to integrate this method as far as possible into the control and safety system of the NPP. The communication between the noise diagnostic system and the plant operator is the main problem of integration. It is necessary to refine the diagnostic results in such a manner that the operator can use them without being skilled in noise analysis respectively without contacting a noise specialist. Moreover, in this way the noise specialist can be released from routine surveillance. For selected processes which have already intensively been investigated because of their inherent risk this can be achieved by means of autonomously working monitors. Independently the monitors perform signal processing and diagnosis. In general this means that they classify the technical condition of the monitored component into one of the two categories: ''normal'' or ''anomalous''. The result will be annunciated to the plant operator who will in the first step of the development contact the noise specialist only if anomalies have occurred in order to clarify the cause. At the NPP ''Bruno Leuschner'' Greifswald, three hardware monitors for loose parts detection, control rod surveillance and main coolant pump diagnosis are being tested. Additionally a so-called software monitor for diagnosing the pressure vessel vibrations is in preparation. The techniques and the hardware used for the monitors as well as planned further improvements of the integration of noise diagnostics into the control and safety system are discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cecconi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.

  19. Culture-independence for surveillance and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkup, Benjamin C

    2013-09-24

    Culture-independent methods in microbiology (quantitative PCR (qPCR), sequencing, microarrays, direct from sample matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS), etc.) are disruptive technology. Rather than providing the same results as culture-based methods more quickly, more cheaply or with improved accuracy, they reveal an unexpected diversity of microbes and illuminate dark corners of undiagnosed disease. At times, they overturn existing definitions of presumably well-understood infections, generating new requirements for clinical diagnosis, surveillance and epidemiology. However, current diagnostic microbiology, infection control and epidemiology rest principally on culture methods elegantly optimized by clinical laboratorians. The clinical significance is interwoven; the new methods are out of context, difficult to interpret and impossible to act upon. Culture-independent diagnostics and surveillance methods will not be deployed unless the reported results can be used to select specific therapeutics or infection control measures. To cut the knots surrounding the adoption of culture-independent methods in medical microbiology, culture-dependent methods should be supported by consistent culture-independent methods providing the microbial context. This will temper existing biases and motivate appropriate scrutiny of the older methods and results.

  20. Culture-Independence for Surveillance and Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Kirkup

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture-independent methods in microbiology (quantitative PCR (qPCR, sequencing, microarrays, direct from sample matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS, etc. are disruptive technology. Rather than providing the same results as culture-based methods more quickly, more cheaply or with improved accuracy, they reveal an unexpected diversity of microbes and illuminate dark corners of undiagnosed disease. At times, they overturn existing definitions of presumably well-understood infections, generating new requirements for clinical diagnosis, surveillance and epidemiology. However, current diagnostic microbiology, infection control and epidemiology rest principally on culture methods elegantly optimized by clinical laboratorians. The clinical significance is interwoven; the new methods are out of context, difficult to interpret and impossible to act upon. Culture-independent diagnostics and surveillance methods will not be deployed unless the reported results can be used to select specific therapeutics or infection control measures. To cut the knots surrounding the adoption of culture-independent methods in medical microbiology, culture-dependent methods should be supported by consistent culture-independent methods providing the microbial context. This will temper existing biases and motivate appropriate scrutiny of the older methods and results.

  1. Poliovirus Laboratory Based Surveillance: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Asghar, Humayun; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor

    2016-01-01

    World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988 encouraged the member states to launch Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (resolution WHA41.28) against "the Crippler" called poliovirus, through strong routine immunization program and intensified surveillance systems. Since its launch, global incidence of poliomyelitis has been reduced by more than 99 % and the disease squeezed to only three endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) out of 125. Today, poliomyelitis is on the verge of eradication, and their etiological agents, the three poliovirus serotypes, are on the brink of extinction from the natural environment. The last case of poliomyelitis due to wild type 2 strain occurred in 1999 in Uttar Pradesh, India whereas the last paralytic case due to wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) was seen in November, 2012 in Yobe, Nigeria. Despite this progress, undetected circulation cannot fully rule out the eradication as most of the poliovirus infections are entirely subclinical; hence sophisticated environmental surveillance is needed to ensure the complete eradication of virus. Moreover, the vaccine virus in under-immunized communities can sometimes revert and attain wild type characteristics posing a big challenge to the program.

  2. Continuous sequential boundaries for vaccine safety surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongxia; Stewart, Brock; Weintraub, Eric; McNeil, Michael M

    2014-08-30

    Various recently developed sequential methods have been used to detect signals for post-marketing surveillance in drug and vaccine safety. Among these, the maximized sequential probability ratio test (MaxSPRT) has been used to detect elevated risks of adverse events following vaccination using large healthcare databases. However, a limitation of MaxSPRT is that it only provides a time-invariant flat boundary. In this study, we propose the use of time-varying boundaries for controlling how type I error is distributed throughout the surveillance period. This is especially useful in two scenarios: (i) when we desire generally larger sample sizes before a signal is generated, for example, when early adopters are not representative of the larger population; and (ii) when it is desired for a signal to be generated as early as possible, for example, when the adverse event is considered rare but serious. We consider four specific time-varying boundaries (which we call critical value functions), and we study their statistical power and average time to signal detection. The methodology we present here can be viewed as a generalization or flexible extension of MaxSPRT. Published 2014. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Savannah River Site 1997 epidemiologic surveillance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1997. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1997 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 199 7 report includes a section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1997

  4. INTERPOL's Surveillance Network in Curbing Transnational Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardeazabal, Javier; Sandler, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the role that International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) surveillance—the Mobile INTERPOL Network Database (MIND) and the Fixed INTERPOL Network Database (FIND)—played in the War on Terror since its inception in 2005. MIND/FIND surveillance allows countries to screen people and documents systematically at border crossings against INTERPOL databases on terrorists, fugitives, and stolen and lost travel documents. Such documents have been used in the past by terrorists to transit borders. By applying methods developed in the treatment‐effects literature, this paper establishes that countries adopting MIND/FIND experienced fewer transnational terrorist attacks than they would have had they not adopted MIND/FIND. Our estimates indicate that, on average, from 2008 to 2011, adopting and using MIND/FIND results in 0.5 fewer transnational terrorist incidents each year per 100 million people. Thus, a country like France with a population just above 64 million people in 2008 would have 0.32 fewer transnational terrorist incidents per year owing to its use of INTERPOL surveillance. This amounts to a sizeable average proportional reduction of about 30 percent.

  5. Chinese social media analysis for disease surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Yang, Nanhai [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Wang, Zhibo [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang (China); Hu, Cheng [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Zhu, Weiping [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Li, Hanjie [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Ji, Yujie [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China); Liu, Cheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-11

    Here, it is reported that there are hundreds of thou- sands of deaths caused by seasonal flu all around the world every year. More other diseases such as chickenpox, malaria, etc. are also serious threats to people’s physical and mental health. There are 250,000–500,000 deaths every year around the world. Therefore proper techniques for disease surveillance are highly demanded. Recently, social media analysis is regarded as an efficient way to achieve this goal, which is feasible since growing number of people have been posting their health information on social media such as blogs, personal websites, etc. Previous work on social media analysis mainly focused on English materials but hardly considered Chinese materials, which hinders the application of such technique to Chinese peo- ple. In this paper, we proposed a new method of Chinese social media analysis for disease surveillance. More specifically, we compared different kinds of methods in the process of classification and then proposed a new way to process Chinese text data. The Chinese Sina micro-blog data collected from September to December 2013 are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that a high classification precision of 87.49 % in average has been obtained. Comparing with the data from the authority, Chinese National Influenza Center, we can predict the outbreak time of flu 5 days earlier.

  6. Savannah River Site 1996 epidemiologic surveillance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1996 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 1996 report includes a new section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1996

  7. Surveillance of poliomyelitis in Northern Italy: Results of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and environmental surveillance, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Bubba, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Pariani, Elena; Battistone, Andrea; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Stefano; Binda, Sandro

    2017-02-01

    Although in the last years poliovirus (PV) transmission has been reported at the lowest levels ever recorded, the spread of virus from endemic countries endures; the high levels of immigration flows across the Mediterranean Sea jeopardize Italy for PV reintroduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for global poliomyelitis (polio) eradication indicates the nationwide surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as the gold standard for detecting cases of polio. In addition, the Environmental Surveillance (ES), seeking the presence of PV and Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) in sewage, is recognized as a powerful tool to confirm PV circulation in absence of AFP cases, especially in polio-free countries. Here we report the results of AFP surveillance (AFPS) and ES in Lombardy (Northern Italy) from 2012 to 2015. Forty-eight AFP cases were identified during the study period. No AFP case was caused by PV infection. NPEVs were identified in 6.3% (3/48) of AFP cases. The annual AFP incidence rate was 0.87/100'000 children <15 y in 2012, 1.42/100'000 in 2013, 1.02/100'000 in 2014, and 0.47/100'000 in 2015; according to WHO indicators, the sensitivity of AFPS was adequate in 2013 and 2014. Completeness of case investigation raised progressively during the study period to achieve the WHO standards in 2014 (92.3%) and 2015 (100%). Completeness of follow-up increased from 72.7% in 2012 to 100% in 2014. In the framework of the ES conducted in Milan, 268 wastewater samples were collected from 2012 to 2015 and no PVs were isolated. In contrast, NPEVs were detected in 65.3% (175/268) of samples. All NPEVs characterized belonged to enterovirus species B: echovirus type 11, 6 and 3 were the most frequently detected viruses, representing 29.1% (41/141), 20.6% (29/141) and 9.2% (13/141) of genotyped NPEVs, respectively. Keeping strong and encouraging both AFPS and ES is crucial to ensure that PV will not return unnoticed in Italy - as well as in other polio

  8. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2007. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water

  9. The Future of USMC Amphibious Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Staff College Thesis : Operations ashore during the last ten years have committed the Marine Corps to protracted operations, caused us to operate as a...landing craft air cushion (LCAC). It is a type of air-cushion platform ( hovercraft ) that is used by assault craft units. These transport weapons systems

  10. Recapitalization of Amphibious Operation and Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    incorporating that technology into a system or subsystem. When a new technology is first invented or conceptualized, it is not suitable for immediate...the directed tasking. 5.2.1. Sustain Habitability: The vessel will provide shelter from the weather, provide running water, access to a toilets and

  11. Preliminary Design of an Autonomous Amphibious System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    cutting off control from either the autonomy subsystem or teleoperation. This feature is an addition to safety features already implemented at the...hardware and electrical level that can cut off control independently of the software, e.g., cutting power to motors or turning off the engine. The...bucket. The reverse bucket moves a reflector “bucket” in front of the waterjet on the vehicle to redirect water thrust, allowing the vehicle to move

  12. Strengthening foodborne diseases surveillance in the WHO African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) cover events of international importance including contaminated food and outbreaks of foodborne disease. The IHR (2005) and other international as well as regional agreements require Member States to strengthen surveillance systems including surveillance for ...

  13. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ''Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System'' is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides

  14. Strengthening foodborne disease surveillance in the WHO African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMS

    2012-06-04

    Jun 4, 2012 ... surveillance is the preferred system for foodborne disease surveillance since it allows early detection of ... food safety systems remain fragmented resulting in duplication of efforts and inefficient use of ... estimate burden of disease and the size of the problem; monitor trends and determine whether the ...

  15. Detection of Novel Rotavirus Strain by Vaccine Postlicensure Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Teel, Elizabeth N.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Payne, Daniel C.; Roy, Sunando; Foytich, Kimberly; Parashar, Umesh D.; Gentsch, Jon R.; Bowen, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for rotavirus-associated diarrhea after implementation of rotavirus vaccination can assess vaccine effectiveness and identify disease-associated genotypes. During active vaccine postlicensure surveillance in the United States, we found a novel rotavirus genotype, G14P[24], in a stool sample from a child who had diarrhea. Unusual rotavirus strains may become more prevalent after vaccine implementation.

  16. Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flock-based surveillance for lowpathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial breeders and layers, southwest Nigeria. ... African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... Background: Flock surveillance systems for avian influenza (AI) virus play a critical role in countries where vaccination is not practiced so as to establish the ...

  17. Risk analysis of a video-surveillance system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.; Lefter, I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a surveillance system of cameras installed at lamppost of a military area. The surveillance system has been designed to detect unwanted visitors or suspicious behaviors. The area is composed of streets, building blocks and surrounded by gates and water. The video recordings are

  18. Developing a Statewide Childhood Body Mass Index Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David R.; Scruggs, Philip W.; Goc Karp, Grace; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Robinson, Clay; Lester, Michael J.; Gao, Yong; Petranek, Laura J.; Brown, Helen; Shimon, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several states have implemented childhood obesity surveillance programs supported by legislation. Representatives from Idaho wished to develop a model for childhood obesity surveillance without the support of state legislation, and subsequently report predictors of overweight and obesity in the state. Methods: A coalition comprised of…

  19. Structural analysis of 177-FA redesigned surveillance specimen holder tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, C.W.; Thoren, D.E.; Vames, G.J.; Harris, R.J.

    1976-08-01

    Because of in-service operational problems, the surveillance specimen holder tubes described in B and W topical report BAW-10051 have been redesigned. This report describes the new design and structural analysis for normal operation and upset loading conditions. The results of the analysis demonstrate the adequacy of the new surveillance specimen holder tubes for their design life of 40 years

  20. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in hospitalised South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilities should individualise HAI surveillance, selecting a method suited to available resources and practice context. S Afr Med J 2017;107(1):56-63. ... HAI accounting for just 1.5% of paediatric HAI at our institution).[24]. Utilising laboratory surveillance data ..... antibiotic consumption patterns for HAI at the institution; can ...

  1. Evaluation of two surveillance methods for surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical wound infection surveillance is an important facet of hospital infection control processes. There are several surveillance methods for surgical site infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two different surgical site infection surveillance methods. Methods: In this prospective cross sectional study 3020 undergoing surgey in general surgical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were included. Surveillance methods consisted of review of medical records for postoperative fever and review of nursing daily note for prescription of antibiotics postoperatively and during patient’s discharge. Review of patient’s history and daily records and interview with patient’s surgeon and the head-nurse of the ward considered as a gold standard for surveillance. Results: The postoperative antibiotic consumption especially when considering its duration is a proper method for surgical wound infection surveillance. Accomplishments of a prospective study with postdischarge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that postoperative antibiotic surveillance method specially with consideration of the antibiotic usage duration is a proper method for surgical site infection surveillance in general surgery wards. Accomplishments of a prospective study with post discharge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended.

  2. Syndromic Surveillance: Enhancing Detection of Disease Outbreaks in Urban China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilot, E.; Schwarz, C.; Wang, L.; Krafft, T.; Wang, W.; Krafft, T.; Rosenberg, M.; Pilot, E.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a number of innovative surveillance approaches have been piloted or implemented in several parts of the country. Though Chinese cities have usually a sufficient health infrastructure that is included in the national surveillance system, the differences in treatment seeking behavior of a

  3. The omni-directional image assisted optical surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Wang, Wei-Chung; Lin, Chun-Fu

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a high resolution optical surveillance system which integrated an omni-directional imager as an event finder/ system trigger. The omni-directional optics, a fish-eye camera in this study, provides a wider field of view (FOV) which can monitor widely range continuously without scanning mechanism but offers sufficient information which includes sign of field event and direction and then drive high resolution surveillance camera for detail imaging. To archive an optical triggering surveillance system, the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is implemented to detect features both from images taken by omni-directional imager and the high resolution surveillance camera. Considering the FOV of high resolution surveillance system is narrow, to ensure the pointing of high resolution surveillance system, feature matching is also implemented in this system to identify the images obtained by high resolution surveillance system are identical to the existing omni-directional image obtained from fish-eye camera. This provides a robust and accurate solution to the problem of optical radar surveillance system localization in unknown environments. An experiment is performed on outdoor image sequences with demonstrating the efficiency of our algorithm.

  4. Knowledge and Practice of Disease Surveillance and Notification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and Practice of Disease Surveillance and Notification among Resident Doctors in a Tertiary Health Institution in Benin City: Implications for Health ... Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) should be included in the orientation programme for doctors coming into the residency programme, as they ...

  5. The South African national non-natural mortality surveillance system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. While individual mortuaries have recorded data for non-natural deaths in time-limited studies, there have been no systematic efforts to draw forensic-medical services and state mortuaries into a nationwide fatal injury surveillance system. Beginning in June 1998, the National Non-Natural Mortality Surveillance ...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682 Section 52.2682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... surveillance. (a) The requirements of § 51.27(a)(2) of this chapter as of December 19, 1978 (43 FR 59067), are...

  7. Strengthening HIV surveillance: measurements to track the epidemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveillance for HIV as a public health initiative requires timely, detailed and robust data to systematically understand burden of infection, transmission patterns, direct prevention efforts, guide funding, identify new infections and predict future trends in the epidemic. The methods for HIV surveillance have evolved to reliably ...

  8. Use of pattern recognition methods for nuclear reactor surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubuisson, B.; Lavison, P.

    1979-01-01

    The principles of pattern recognition are recalled. During the past several years, a team of the University of Compiegne has been working to adapt this method to surveillance of technologically complex systems poblems. In the second part of this article, the previous groundwork study, done in collaboration with CEN-Cadarache, on the surveillance problem of the Rapsodie reactor is described [fr

  9. WHO-Supported Injury Surveillance Activities in Africa: Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To help address this issue, the World Health Organisation (WHO), working with its partners, has taken important steps to build capacity for injury surveillance in low- and middle-income countries. This short report outlines the organisation and methodology for injury surveillance in Ethiopia and Mozambique: two examples of ...

  10. Economic optimization of surveillance in livestock production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is an essential activity that is usually conducted by surveillance organizations. Its importance has been highlighted by the major crises that occurred in the field of livestock production and food safety during

  11. Power, surveillance and digital network media in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    With the focus on organizations, this article describes power in relation to mediated surveillance using Luhmann’s systems theory, poststructuralist theory and theory of media sociography. It aims to sketch out the main issues in contemporary surveillance discourse and illustrate the current...

  12. Surveillance, Snowden, and Big Data: Capacities, consequences, critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lyon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Snowden revelations about National Security Agency surveillance, starting in 2013, along with the ambiguous complicity of internet companies and the international controversies that followed provide a perfect segue into contemporary conundrums of surveillance and Big Data. Attention has shifted from late C20th information technologies and networks to a C21st focus on data, currently crystallized in “Big Data.” Big Data intensifies certain surveillance trends associated with information technology and networks, and is thus implicated in fresh but fluid configurations. This is considered in three main ways: One, the capacities of Big Data (including metadata intensify surveillance by expanding interconnected datasets and analytical tools. Existing dynamics of influence, risk-management, and control increase their speed and scope through new techniques, especially predictive analytics. Two, while Big Data appears to be about size, qualitative change in surveillance practices is also perceptible, accenting consequences. Important trends persist – the control motif, faith in technology, public-private synergies, and user-involvement – but the future-orientation increasingly severs surveillance from history and memory and the quest for pattern-discovery is used to justify unprecedented access to data. Three, the ethical turn becomes more urgent as a mode of critique. Modernity's predilection for certain definitions of privacy betrays the subjects of surveillance who, so far from conforming to the abstract, disembodied image of both computing and legal practices, are engaged and embodied users-in-relation whose activities both fuel and foreclose surveillance.

  13. Rumor surveillance and avian influenza H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, Gina; Patel, Mahomed; Olowokure, Babatunde; Roces, Maria C; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2005-03-01

    We describe the enhanced rumor surveillance during the avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in 2004. The World Health Organization's Western Pacific Regional Office identified 40 rumors; 9 were verified to be true. Rumor surveillance informed immediate public health action and prevented unnecessary and costly responses.

  14. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Hendrikx, P.; Enoe, Claes; Kirkeby, Karsten; Hoinville, Linda; Lindberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and

  15. Covariance and Uncertainty Realism in Space Surveillance and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Assignments MHT Multiple Hypothesis Tracking ML maximum likelihood MMSE Minimum Mean Squared Error NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration...surveillance tasks including data association , uncorrelated track (UCT) resolution, catalog maintenance, sensor tasking and scheduling as well as space ...This distinction is important due to the current state of affairs of the US Space Surveillance Network and the associated commanding and tasking systems

  16. HIV surveillance in MENA: recent developments and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia

    2013-11-01

    To provide an overview of the current level of development and results from the national HIV surveillance systems of the 23 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to assess the quality of HIV surveillance systems in the period 2007-2011. A questionnaire was used to collect the information about the structure, activities and the results of HIV surveillance systems from the National AIDS Programmes. Assessment of the quality was based on four indicators: timeliness of data collection, appropriateness of populations under surveillance, consistency of the surveillance sites and groups measured over time, and coverage of the surveillance system. Only in four countries did surveillance systems enable assessment of epidemic trends in the same populations and locations over time, such as in pregnant women (Morocco, Iran), injecting drug users (Iran, Pakistan), female sex workers (Djibouti, Morocco) and male sex workers (Pakistan). There is increasing evidence of HIV infection being firmly established in at least one of the populations most at risk of HIV in nine MENA countries, while lower risk populations show elevated HIV prevalence in South Sudan, Djibouti and some parts of Somalia. The performance of HIV surveillance systems in several of the MENA countries has improved in recent years. The extent of HIV epidemics in the populations most at risk of HIV is still largely unknown in 10 countries. Multiple data sources that most of the countries still lack would enable indirectly estimation not only of the patterns of HIV epidemics but also the effectiveness of HIV responses.

  17. Evaluation of the adverse drug reaction surveillance system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Medicines Control Authority of Zimbabwe monitors reactions to medicines through the Adverse Drugs Reactions Surveillance System. The system relies on health professionals to report adverse drug reactions to maximize patient safety. We report results of an evaluation of the Adverse Drugs Reactions Surveillance ...

  18. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: in Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and ...

  19. Application of DNA barcoding in forest biosecurity surveillance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland M. Humble; Jeremy R. deWaard

    2011-01-01

    The ability to distinguish non-indigenous species from the background diversity of native taxa is critical to the success of surveillance programs for detecting new introductions. Surveillance programs for alien taxa rely on the precise diagnosis of species, which can be complicated by sizable trap samples, damaged specimens, immature life stages, and incomplete...

  20. Malaria surveillance and use of evidence in planning and decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Three district officials and 17 health facility workers from both public and private health facilities were interviewed. Of the 17 informants, 15 were familiar with disease surveillance functions. A good percentage (47%, 8/17) received training on disease surveillance during the previous two years. Public transport and ...

  1. Oilfield Production Surveillance as a Management Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oilfield production surveillance is the effective monitoring of petroleum reservoirs, producing wells, flow station facilities and flow lines. Through surveillance, the production of unwanted effluents (formation water, excess gas, etc.) can be controlled. Production problems such as sand production, emulsion, corrosion, scale ...

  2. Mound Laboratory's Air Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfagno, D. G.

    1974-12-31

    A comprehensive air surveillance system was developed. The system includes surveillance of the source, transport conditions, and concentration at the receptor sites. An unusual aspect of the system is the implementation of off-site sampling programs through local governmental agencies. Background levels of radioactivity are routinely determined.

  3. Under observation : The interplay between eHealth and surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purtova, Nadezhda; Adams, Samantha; Leenes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The essays in this book clarify the technical, legal, ethical, and social aspects of the interaction between eHealth technologies and surveillance practices. The book starts out by presenting a theoretical framework on eHealth and surveillance, followed by an introduction to the various ideas on

  4. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  5. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sony Computer (Iby)

    Private health facilities should be included in the HIV surveillance system to ensure better representativeness. Key words: HIV, surveillance, Rivers State. INTRODUCTION. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a chronic viral infection that attacks the immune system of the infected individual and rapidly progresses to ...

  6. Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factor Surveillance: Experience and Challenge from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Deepa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and in India. Surveillance of NCD risk factors are therefore needed as they could help in policy planning and implementation of preventive measures. This article will focus on the experiences gained, and challenges faced, in conducting NCD risk factor surveillance studies in India. Two major surveillance studies on NCDs were conducted in India - the World Health Organization (WHO - Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR NCD risk factor surveillance study and the Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP. The WHO-ICMR study was a six-site pilot study representing six different geographical locations in India with a sample size of 44,537 including rural, peri-urban/slum and urban. Phase 1 of the IDSP was completed and included seven states in India with a sample size of 5000 per state. The NCD risk factor surveillance showed that high prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and obesity in urban areas with slightly lower prevalence rates in semi-urban and rural areas. There are several challenges in obtaining data on NCD risk factors, which include challenges in obtaining anthropometric and blood pressure measures and in assessing tobacco consumption, diet and physical activity. The challenges in field operations include contacting and convincing subjects, creating rapport, tracking subjects, climatic conditions, recall ability and interviewer skills. Success in surveillance studies depends on anticipating and managing these challenges. Conclusion: Improving country-level surveillance and monitoring is a valuable step in prevention and control of NCDs in India.

  7. Noncommunicable diseases risk factor surveillance: experience and challenge from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, M; Pradeepa, R; Anjana, Rm; Mohan, V

    2011-12-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and in India. Surveillance of NCD risk factors are therefore needed as they could help in policy planning and implementation of preventive measures. This article will focus on the experiences gained, and challenges faced, in conducting NCD risk factor surveillance studies in India. Two major surveillance studies on NCDs were conducted in India - the World Health Organization (WHO) - Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) NCD risk factor surveillance study and the Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP). The WHO-ICMR study was a six-site pilot study representing six different geographical locations in India with a sample size of 44,537 including rural, peri-urban/slum and urban. Phase 1 of the IDSP was completed and included seven states in India with a sample size of 5000 per state. The NCD risk factor surveillance showed that high prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and obesity in urban areas with slightly lower prevalence rates in semi-urban and rural areas. There are several challenges in obtaining data on NCD risk factors, which include challenges in obtaining anthropometric and blood pressure measures and in assessing tobacco consumption, diet and physical activity. The challenges in field operations include contacting and convincing subjects, creating rapport, tracking subjects, climatic conditions, recall ability and interviewer skills. Success in surveillance studies depends on anticipating and managing these challenges Improving country-level surveillance and monitoring is a valuable step in prevention and control of NCDs in India.

  8. 30 CFR 250.1616 - Supervision, surveillance, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision, surveillance, and training. 250.1616 Section 250.1616 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Supervision, surveillance, and training. (a) The lessee shall provide onsite supervision of drilling...

  9. Compliance with periodic surveillance for Von-Hippel-Lindau disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, Chantal R. M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Hes, Frederik J.; Links, Thera P.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; Majoor-Krakauer, Danielle; van Os, Theo A. M.; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna B.; de Herder, Wouter; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Hest, Liselot P.; Verhoef, Senno; Bleiker, Eveline M. A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess compliance with a periodic surveillance regimen for Von Hippel-Lindau disease. In this nationwide study, Von Hippel-Lindau disease mutation carriers and those at 50% risk were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing (compliance with) advice given for periodic surveillance. Medical

  10. Time series modeling for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandl Kenneth D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency department (ED based syndromic surveillance systems identify abnormally high visit rates that may be an early signal of a bioterrorist attack. For example, an anthrax outbreak might first be detectable as an unusual increase in the number of patients reporting to the ED with respiratory symptoms. Reliably identifying these abnormal visit patterns requires a good understanding of the normal patterns of healthcare usage. Unfortunately, systematic methods for determining the expected number of (ED visits on a particular day have not yet been well established. We present here a generalized methodology for developing models of expected ED visit rates. Methods Using time-series methods, we developed robust models of ED utilization for the purpose of defining expected visit rates. The models were based on nearly a decade of historical data at a major metropolitan academic, tertiary care pediatric emergency department. The historical data were fit using trimmed-mean seasonal models, and additional models were fit with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA residuals to account for recent trends in the data. The detection capabilities of the model were tested with simulated outbreaks. Results Models were built both for overall visits and for respiratory-related visits, classified according to the chief complaint recorded at the beginning of each visit. The mean absolute percentage error of the ARIMA models was 9.37% for overall visits and 27.54% for respiratory visits. A simple detection system based on the ARIMA model of overall visits was able to detect 7-day-long simulated outbreaks of 30 visits per day with 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Sensitivity decreased with outbreak size, dropping to 94% for outbreaks of 20 visits per day, and 57% for 10 visits per day, all while maintaining a 97% benchmark specificity. Conclusions Time series methods applied to historical ED utilization data are an important tool

  11. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lert France

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance system and on surveillance in the general population, youth, men having sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU, sex workers (SW, migrants, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics patients. Requested data included information on system organisation (e.g. sustainability, funding, institutionalisation, topics covered in surveys and main indicators. Results Twenty-eight of the 31 countries contacted supplied data. Sixteen countries reported an established behavioural surveillance system, and 13 a second generation surveillance system (combination of biological surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STI with behavioural surveillance. There were wide differences as regards the year of survey initiation, number of populations surveyed, data collection methods used, organisation of surveillance and coordination with biological surveillance. The populations most regularly surveyed are the general population, youth, MSM and IDU. SW, patients of STI clinics and PLWHA are surveyed less regularly and in only a small number of countries, and few countries have undertaken behavioural surveys among migrant or ethnic minorities populations. In many cases, the identification of populations with risk behaviour and the selection of populations to be included in a BS system have not been formally conducted, or are incomplete. Topics most frequently covered are similar across countries, although many different indicators are used. In most

  12. Surveillance Systems to Track and Evaluate Obesity Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ranjit, Nalini; Pérez, Adriana

    2017-03-20

    To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives. Our recommendations include adding environmental and policy measures to surveillance efforts with a focus on addressing underserved populations, harmonizing existing surveillance systems, including more sensitive measures of obesity outcomes, and developing a knowledgeable workforce. In addition, the widespread use of electronic health records and new technologies that allow self-quantification of behaviors offers opportunities for innovative surveillance methods.

  13. Semi-automated reviewing station for IAEA optical surveillance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, R.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    A study is underway on the use of computer vision technology to assist in visual inspection of optical surveillance data. The IAEA currently uses optical surveillance as one of its principle Containment and Surveillance (C/S) measures. The review process is a very time-consuming and tedious task, due to the large amount of optical surveillance data to be reviewed. For some time, the IAEA has identified as one of its principle needs an automated optical surveillance data reviewing station that assists the reviewer in identifying activities of safeguards interest, such as the movement of a very large spent fuel cask. The present development reviewing station consists of commercially available digital image processing hardware controlled by a personal computer. The areas under study include change detection, target discrimination, tracking, and classification. Several algorithms are being evaluated in each of these areas using recorded video tape of safeguards relevant scenes. The computer vision techniques and current status of the studies are discussed

  14. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs 3 (ESNIP 3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Scott M.; Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars Erik

    Objectives: The “European surveillance network for influenza in pigs (ESNIP) 3” continues a surveillance network previously established during concerted actions ESNIP 1 and ESNIP 2. Running from 2010-2013, ESNIP 3 represents the only organised surveillance network for influenza in pigs in Europe...... influenza virus (SIV) experimentally and in the field. Three work packages aim to increase knowledge of the epidemiology and evolution of SIV in European pigs to inform changes in disease trends and variation in contemporary viruses through organised field surveillance programmes. Results: An inventory...... of the programmes that are currently active in fifteen of the partners showed that passive surveillance was primarily used. Detected virus strains will be characterised by antigenic cartography (informing better evidence-based approaches for selection of vaccine strains) and genetically through full genome...

  15. Transparency and surveillance as sociotechnical accountability a house of mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and transparency are both significant and increasingly pervasive activities in neoliberal societies. Surveillance is taken up as a means to achieving security and efficiency; transparency is seen as a mechanism for ensuring compliance or promoting informed consumerism and informed citizenship. Indeed, transparency is often seen as the antidote to the threats and fears of surveillance. This book adopts a novel approach in examining surveillance practices and transparency practices together as parallel systems of accountability. It presents the house of mirrors as a new framework for understanding surveillance and transparency practices instrumented with information technology. The volume centers around five case studies: Campaign Finance Disclosure, Secure Flight, American Red Cross, Google, and Facebook. A series of themed chapters draw on the material and provide cross-case analysis. The volume ends with a chapter on policy implications.

  16. Design Science Methodology Applied to a Chemical Surveillance Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhuanyi; Han, Kyungsik; Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Henry, Michael J.

    2017-05-11

    Public health surveillance systems gain significant benefits from integrating existing early incident detection systems,supported by closed data sources, with open source data.However, identifying potential alerting incidents relies on finding accurate, reliable sources and presenting the high volume of data in a way that increases analysts work efficiency; a challenge for any system that leverages open source data. In this paper, we present the design concept and the applied design science research methodology of ChemVeillance, a chemical analyst surveillance system.Our work portrays a system design and approach that translates theoretical methodology into practice creating a powerful surveillance system built for specific use cases.Researchers, designers, developers, and related professionals in the health surveillance community can build upon the principles and methodology described here to enhance and broaden current surveillance systems leading to improved situational awareness based on a robust integrated early warning system.

  17. USBcat - Towards an Intrusion Surveillance Toolset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Chapman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies an intrusion surveillance framework which provides an analyst with the ability to investigate and monitor cyber-attacks in a covert manner. Where cyber-attacks are perpetrated for the purposes of espionage the ability to understand an adversary's techniques and objectives are an important element in network and computer security. With the appropriate toolset, security investigators would be permitted to perform both live and stealthy counter-intelligence operations by observing the behaviour and communications of the intruder. Subsequently a more complete picture of the attacker's identity, objectives, capabilities, and infiltration could be formulated than is possible with present technologies. This research focused on developing an extensible framework to permit the covert investigation of malware. Additionally, a Universal Serial Bus (USB Mass Storage Device (MSD based covert channel was designed to enable remote command and control of the framework. The work was validated through the design, implementation and testing of a toolset.

  18. African rotavirus surveillance network: a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenda, Jason M; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Mihigo, Richard; Agócs, Mary; Serhan, Fatima; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2014-01-01

    With the imminent availability of new and prospective rotavirus vaccines, reliable information on burden of rotavirus diseases in the different African countries was required to enable evidence-based decision making regarding introduction of rotavirus vaccines. World Health Organization has been supporting Member States since 2006 to establish sentinel surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea in children <5 years of age using standardized guidelines. African countries are using this platform to generate high quality country specific data to document and demonstrate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis. The data gathered are being used by policy makers to guide decisions on appropriate intervention strategies for diarrhea control including the value and timing of the introduction of new rotavirus vaccines in the national immunization programs.

  19. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohen, K.; Stoker, A.; Stone, G.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1992. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1992 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, laboratory employees, or the environment

  20. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1979. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances was conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1979 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs.