WorldWideScience

Sample records for underrepresented student populations

  1. Princeton University Materials Academy for underrepresented students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daniel; Rodriguez Martinez, Sara; Cody, Linda

    Summer 2016 gave underrepresented high school students from Trenton New Jersey the opportunity to learn materials science, sustainability and the physics and chemistry of energy storage from Princeton University professors. New efforts to place this curriculum online so that teachers across the United States can teach materials science as a tool to teach ``real'' interdisciplinary science and meet the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The Princeton University Materials Academy (PUMA) is an education outreach program for underrepresented high school students. It is part of the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (PCCM), a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Materials Research Engineering and Science Center (MRSEC). PUMA has been serving the community of Trenton New Jersey which is only eight miles from the Princeton University campus. We reached over 250 students from 2003-2016 with many students repeating for multiple years. 100% of our PUMA students have graduated high school and 98% have gone on for college. This is compared with overall Trenton district graduation rate of 48% and a free and reduced lunch of 83%. We discuss initiatives to share the curriculum online to enhance the reach of PCCM' PUMA and to help teachers use materials science to meet NGSS and give their students opportunities to learn interdisciplinary science. MRSEC, NSF (DMR-1420541).

  2. Higher Education and Disability: Past and Future of Underrepresented Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, David W.; Stodden, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past half century higher education in the United States has been challenged to develop and implement policies and practices that effectively promote the access, retention, and graduation of diverse underrepresented populations. One of these populations is comprised of individuals with disabilities, whose equal access to higher education…

  3. Inclusive STEM High Schools Increase Opportunities for Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Nancy K.; Lynch, Sharon J.; Ford, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on a study of eight inclusive STEM high schools that are designed to increase the numbers of students in demographic groups underrepresented in STEM. As STEM schools, they have had broader and deeper STEM coursework (taken by all students) than required by their respective states and school districts; they also had outcome…

  4. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Success for Underrepresented Students in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine A.; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2016-01-01

    To recruit underrepresented students with demonstrated financial need into STEM disciplines, Lock Haven University established the interdisciplinary Nano Scholars Program, offering National Science Foundation-funded scholarships, academic support, and social support. Small cohort sizes, a student-led science learning community (the Nano Club), and…

  5. Team-Based Learning in a Pipeline Course in Medical Microbiology for Under-Represented Student Populations in Medicine Improves Learning of Microbiology Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, K C; Murphy, M M; Mitchell-Williams, J; Rogers-McQuade, H; Lopez, O J

    2016-12-01

    As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and pre-course examination scores. Teaching techniques included engaged lectures using an audience response system, TBL, and guided self-directed learning. We hypothesized that more active learning exercises, irrespective of the amount of lecture time, would help students master course content. In year 2 as compared with year 1, TBL exercises were decreased from six to three with a concomitant increase in lecture time, while in year 3, TBL exercises were increased from three to six while maintaining the same amount of lecture time as in year 2. As we hypothesized, there was significant ( p < 0.01) improvement in performance on the post-course examination in years 1 and 3 compared with year 2, when only three TBL exercises were used. In contrast to the students' perceptions that more lecture time enhances learning of course content, our findings suggest that active learning strategies, such as TBL, are more effective than engaged lectures in improving student understanding of course content, as measured by post-course examination performance. Introduction of TBL in pipeline program courses may help achieve better student learning outcomes.

  6. Team-Based Learning in a Pipeline Course in Medical Microbiology for Under-Represented Student Populations in Medicine Improves Learning of Microbiology Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn C. Behling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA and pre-course examination scores. Teaching techniques included engaged lectures using an audience response system, TBL, and guided self-directed learning. We hypothesized that more active learning exercises, irrespective of the amount of lecture time, would help students master course content. In year 2 as compared with year 1, TBL exercises were decreased from six to three with a concomitant increase in lecture time, while in year 3, TBL exercises were increased from three to six while maintaining the same amount of lecture time as in year 2. As we hypothesized, there was significant (p < 0.01 improvement in performance on the post-course examination in years 1 and 3 compared with year 2, when only three TBL exercises were used. In contrast to the students’ perceptions that more lecture time enhances learning of course content, our findings suggest that active learning strategies, such as TBL, are more effective than engaged lectures in improving student understanding of course content, as measured by post-course examination performance. Introduction of TBL in pipeline program courses may help achieve better student learning outcomes.

  7. Disseminated Museum Displays and Participation of Students from Underrepresented Populations in Polar Research: Education and Outreach for Joint Projects in GPS and Seismology Solid Earth Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Wilson, T. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Johns, B.; Anderson, K.; Taber, J.

    2006-12-01

    Two Antarctic projects developed by solid earth scientists in the GPS and seismology communities have rich education and outreach activities focused on disseminating information gleaned from this research and on including students from underrepresented groups. Members of the UNAVCO and IRIS research consortia along with international partners from Australia, Canada, Chile, Germany, Italy, New Zealand and the U.K. aim to deploy an ambitious GPS/seismic network to observe the Antarctic glaciological and geologic system using a multidisciplinary and internationally coordinated approach. The second project supports this network. UNAVCO and IRIS are designing and building a reliable power and communication system for autonomous polar station operation which use the latest power and communication technologies for ease of deployment and reliable multi-year operation in severe polar environments. This project will disseminate research results through an IPY/POLENET web-based museum style display based on the next-generation "Museum Lite" capability primarily supported by IRIS. "Museum Lite" uses a standard PC, touch-screen monitor, and standard Internet browsers to exploit the scalability and access of the Internet and to provide customizable content in an interactive setting. The unit is suitable for research departments, public schools, and an assortment of public venues, and can provide wide access to real-time geophysical data, ongoing research, and general information. The POLENET group will work with members of the two consortia to provide content about the project and polar science in general. One unit is to be installed at Barrow's Ilisagvit College through the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium, one at McMurdo Station in Antarctica, and two at other sites to be determined (likely in New Zealand/Australia and in the U.S.). In January, 2006, Museum Lite exhibit was installed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Evaluation of this prototype is underway. These

  8. Building Bridges: College to Career for Underrepresented College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Darris R.; Bryant, Immanuel; Crutchfield, Stacey; Jones, Michelle; Wade, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Colleges and universities have increased institutional outreach to diversify their campuses, however, campus leaders, faculty, and staff, particularly at predominantly White institutions (PWIs), must provide more and different support services as their institutional demographics shift to include more underrepresented students. The shift in…

  9. Topologies of an Effective Mentoring Model: At the Intersection of Community Colleges, Underrepresented Students, and Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Janet Lee

    2012-01-01

    This evidenced-based study was conducted using a systemic review of the literature to verify scholarly consensus about the effectiveness of mentoring as an intervention to impact college completion for underrepresented students in a community college setting. The study explored the impact of having access to mentors for the target population:…

  10. Examining issues of underrepresented minority students in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jessica Ellen

    In this dissertation we examine several issues related to the retention of under-represented minority students in physics and science. In the first section, we show that in calculus-based introductory physics courses, the gender gap on the FCI is diminished through the use of interactive techniques, but in lower-level introductory courses, the gap persists, similar to reports published at other institutions. We find that under-represented racial minorities perform similar to their peers with comparable academic preparation on conceptual surveys, but their average exam grades and course grades are lower. We also examine student persistence in science majors; finding a significant relationship between pedagogy in an introductory physics course and persistence in science. In the second section, we look at student end-of-semester evaluations and find that female students rate interactive teaching methods a full point lower than their male peers. Looking more deeply at student interview data, we find that female students report more social issues related to the discussions in class and both male and female students cite feeling pressure to obtain the correct answer to clicker questions. Finally, we take a look an often-cited claim for gender differences in STEM participation: cognitive differences explain achievement differences in physics. We examine specifically the role of mental rotations in physics achievement and problem-solving, viewing mental rotations as a tool that students can use on physics problems. We first look at student survey results for lower-level introductory students, finding a low, but significant correlation between performance on a mental rotations test and performance in introductory physics courses. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship for students in the upper-level introductory course. We also examine student problem-solving interviews to investigate the role of mental rotations on introductory problems.

  11. Assessing the efficacy of advancing underrepresented minority groups through AGU's Student Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, L.; Hurtado, C.; Gottschall, H.; Meisenhelder, K.; Hankin, E. R.; Harwell, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to cultivate a diverse and inclusive organization that uses its position to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science. To cultivate a diverse talent pool, AGU must also foster a diverse student member population. The two largest AGU programs serving students are the Outstanding Student Paper Award (OSPA) and the Student Grants programs. OSPA allows students to practice their presentation skills and receive valuable feedback from experienced scientists. Over 3,000 students participated in OSPA at Fall Meeting 2016. The Student Grants program includes a suite of 14 travel and research grant opportunities. Over 2,000 students applied for grant opportunities in 2016 and 246 grants and fellowships were awarded. The OSPA and Student Grants programs also engage non-student members through volunteering opportunities for program roles, such as OSPA judge or grant reviewer. This presentation will look at the temporal participation trends of underrepresented minority groups in AGU's OSPA and Student Grants programs. The participation of underrepresented minority groups will also be compared before and after the implementation of policy changes to the Student Grants program in 2012.

  12. Research Microcultures as Socialization Contexts for Underrepresented Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Dustin B; Muragishi, Gregg A; Smith, Jessi L

    2017-06-01

    How much does scientific research potentially help people? We tested whether prosocial-affordance beliefs (PABs) about science spread among group members and contribute to individual students' motivation for science. We tested this question within the context of research experience for undergraduates working in faculty-led laboratories, focusing on students who belong to underrepresented minority (URM) groups. Longitudinal survey data were collected from 522 research assistants in 41 labs at six institutions. We used multilevel modeling, and results supported a socialization effect for URM students: The aggregate PABs of their lab mates predicted the students' own initial PABs, as well as their subsequent experiences of interest and their motivation to pursue a career in science, even after controlling for individual-level PABs. Results demonstrate that research labs serve as microcultures of information about the science norms and values that influence motivation. URM students are particularly sensitive to this information. Efforts to broaden participation should be informed by an understanding of the group processes that convey such prosocial values.

  13. Campus Climate and the Underrepresented Minority Engineering Student Experience: A Critical Race Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Terrance

    In the current technological era, the number of minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a crucial factor in predetermining the economic growth of the United States. Since the minority population is growing at much faster rates than the non-minority population, the lack of proportionate production of minority engineers poses a threat to the United States' ability to remain a global competitor in technological innovation. Sixty-three per cent (63%) of undergraduate students who enter engineering majors continue on to graduate in that major. The graduation rate, however, for African-American, Hispanic, and Native-American students in engineering is significantly lower at 39%. As this group represents only a small fraction of the annual student enrollment, engineering programs are graduating these minority groups at rates that are greatly disproportionate to United States demographics. Therefore, researchers are thoroughly investigating certain initiatives that promote academic success among underrepresented minority students in engineering. Colleges and universities have attempted to address the growing achievement gap between underrepresented minority and non-minority engineering students, predominately through various deficit-based interventions, focusing on the student's flaws and problems. As the pipeline for minorities in engineering continues to narrow, it begs the question of whether institutions are focusing on the right solutions to the problem. Critical Race Theory scholars argue that colleges and universities must address institutional climate issues around students, such as racism, microaggressions, and marginalization, before members of oppressed groups can truly succeed. This dissertation explored the unique experiences of underrepresented minority engineering students in a predominately White and Asian campus.

  14. Research and Education Program for Underrepresented Minority Engineering Students in the JIAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, John L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a final report on Research and Education Program for Underrepresented Minority Engineering Students in the JIAFS (Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences). The objectives of the program were to conduct research at the NASA Langley Research Center and to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in aerospace engineering.

  15. The Deaf Mentoring Survey: A Community Cultural Wealth Framework for Measuring Mentoring Effectiveness with Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Derek C.; Gormally, Cara; Clark, M. Diane

    2017-01-01

    Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not…

  16. A Study of The Influence of Advising on Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate Student Persistence in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Michael J.

    In the United States, undergraduate underrepresented minority (URM) students tend to change out of declared majors in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines at a rate of nearly sixty percent prior to earning a post secondary degree. This phenomenon contributes to a general concern that the United States is not producing enough STEM trained skilled workers to meet future employment needs of industry and government. Although there has been research developed to examine how to increase the numbers of URM students enrolling in STEM programs at higher education institutions, retention of these students remains critical. One area of increasing focus for researchers is to understand how multiple factors impact the college experience of URM students and how those factors may contribute to the student decision to persist in earning a STEM disciple degree. This research study is a phenomenological mixed method study that examines how students experience the phenomenon of advising and the influence of the advising experience of undergraduate URM students on their likelihood of persisting in STEM at a northeast US technology oriented post secondary institution. Persistence, from the perspective of the student, is driven by cognitive psychological attributes such as confidence, motivation and self-efficacy. Utilizing a Social Cognitive theoretical framework, this study examines how three distinct undergraduate URM student populations enrolled in; an Academic Services Program, Honors College, and the general undergraduate population at this institution experience advising and how their experiences may influence their propensity to persist in earning a STEM oriented degree.

  17. Understanding Underrepresented Populations in the Business School Pipeline. GMAC® Research Report RR-16-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Rhonda; Caruthers, Devina

    2016-01-01

    This white paper, "Understanding Underrepresented Populations in the Business School Pipeline," examines the shifting US racial and ethnic demographics and projected growth among US minority populations and the challenges--and incentives--these developments pose for US business schools to increase the opportunities for minority students…

  18. The Impact of Career Exploration upon the Success of Underrepresented Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Elaine J.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that contribute to college student success are multiple. Career exploration as a student success strategy was explored in this study. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study was to explore whether there was a relationship between career exploration and the success of underrepresented students in higher education. Quantitative…

  19. Engaging Diverse Students in Statistical Inquiry: A Comparison of Learning Experiences and Outcomes of Under-Represented and Non-Underrepresented Students Enrolled in a Multidisciplinary Project-Based Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierker, Lisa; Alexander, Jalen; Cooper, Jennifer L.; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2016-01-01

    Introductory statistics needs innovative, evidence-based teaching practices that support and engage diverse students. To evaluate the success of a multidisciplinary, project-based course, we compared experiences of under-represented (URM) and non-underrepresented students in 4 years of the course. While URM students considered the material more…

  20. A Success Story: Recruiting & Retaining Underrepresented Minority Doctoral Students in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William M.

    2006-01-01

    There are various ways to succeed in recruiting and retaining underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students; but key to them all is the creation of real student-faculty relationships, which demonstrate by example that diversity and excellence can and should coexist. This cannot be delegated or done indirectly, and no amount of outreach, campus…

  1. Exploring the Impacts of School Reforms on Underrepresented Urban Students' College Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Olcay

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal quantitative study investigates how participation in the Comprehensive College Readiness Access and Success Program (CCRASP) affects underrepresented urban students' college persistence. Results revealed that CCRASP participation was associated with higher percentages of students enrolling in both 2- and 4-year colleges as…

  2. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were

  3. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students' Science Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew C.; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life…

  4. Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L.; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E.; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning…

  5. A Pre-Engineering Program Using Robots to Attract Underrepresented High School and Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Pauline Helen; Liu, Yun; Hargrove, S. Keith; Doswell, Jayfus T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a new pre-engineering program--Robotics Technician Curriculum--that uses robots to solicit underrepresented students pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The curriculum uses a project-based learning environment, which consists of part lecture and part laboratory. This program…

  6. Crack in the Pipeline: Why Female Underrepresented Racial Minority College Students Leave Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Akim, Jenny Amanda

    Female and underrepresented racial minority (URM) students are indicating their interest in STEM fields at increasing rates, yet when examining the engineering discipline specifically disparities in degree completion rates between female URM students and others in the racial or gender majority are even more severe. This study explored female URM college student perceptions of school and classroom climate and the impact these factors had on their decision to persist or to leave engineering. Through a qualitative interview methodology grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study explored factors including self-efficacy, perceived barriers and supports, other-group orientation and outcome expectations that influenced students' academic decision-making. Interview participants consisted of 5 female URM students that matriculated into an engineering major at a top tier, private university but subsequently left the discipline in pursuit of another field of study. The perceptions of this target population were juxtaposed with interview data from 4 male non-URM, 4 female non-URM, and 4 male URM leavers in addition to 7 female URM engineering persisters. As a final component in the research design, 9 undergraduate engineering faculty were interviewed to understand their perceptions of why female URM students leave engineering in pursuit of other disciplines. With faculty being a central component of the academic environment, their perceptions of female URM students, as well as how they view their role in these students' retention, provided insight on this other side of retention question. Salient findings emerged that differentiated female URM leavers' experiences in engineering from other student populations. Female URM leavers were less likely to call upon self-directed learning strategies in response to academic challenges. Perceived academic barriers such as heavy course loads, lack of connection between material and application, and perceived academic

  7. Transfer adjustment experiences of underrepresented students of color in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, June C.

    Two-year colleges have long served as the starting point for many students in higher education and particularly those of underrepresented backgrounds. In recent years, these institutions have been called upon to help address the high attrition rates facing the science and mathematics disciplines by promoting interest development and transfer of underrepresented students in these fields. This study examined the adjustment experiences of underrepresented students of color after transferring from community colleges to a four-year university in the sciences. By employing qualitative interviews with students of African, Latino, Pacific Island, and Southeast Asian descent, students' perceptions of the sciences at the two- and four-year campus, adjustment process, and benefits and detriments of taking the transfer route were the focus of this research. The findings show that transfer students experience a very different science culture at each institutional type in terms of pedagogy and curriculum and interactions with classmates and faculty. While students witnessed a collaborative science culture at the community college, they faced a highly competitive and individualistic environment at the university. The greater the difference encountered, the more difficult were students' adjustment. Adjustment was aided in two primary ways: socialization experiences before transferring and the development of common identity groups with other students who shared similar backgrounds, goals, and struggles. These groups formed organically at the two-year college but were more difficult to forge at the university. When present, however, they served as niches, sites of validation, and counter spaces within the larger university setting. It appears that starting at the community college benefited most participants by providing a nurturing environment that fostered their commitment to science. Some students felt that they would have been dissuaded from pursuing their majors had they only

  8. Medical School Outcomes, Primary Care Specialty Choice, and Practice in Medically Underserved Areas by Physician Alumni of MEDPREP, a Postbaccalaureate Premedical Program for Underrepresented and Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Anneke M

    2017-01-01

    Minorities continue to be underrepresented as physicians in medicine, and the United States currently has a number of medically underserved communities. MEDPREP, a postbaccalaureate medical school preparatory program for socioeconomically disadvantaged or underrepresented in medicine students, has a stated mission to increase the numbers of physicians from minority or disadvantaged backgrounds and physicians working with underserved populations. This study aims to determine how MEDPREP enhances U.S. physician diversity and practice within underserved communities. MEDPREP recruits disadvantaged and underrepresented in medicine students to complete a 2-year academic enhancement program that includes science coursework, standardized test preparation, study/time management training, and emphasis on professional development. Five hundred twenty-five disadvantaged or underrepresented students over 15 years completed MEDPREP and were tracked through entry into medical practice. MEDPREP accepts up to 36 students per year, with two thirds coming from the Midwest region and another 20% from nearby states in the South. Students complete science, test preparation, academic enhancement, and professionalism coursework taught predominantly by MEDPREP faculty on the Southern Illinois University Carbondale campus. Students apply broadly to medical schools in the region and nation but are also offered direct entry into our School of Medicine upon meeting articulation program requirements. Seventy-nine percent of students completing MEDPREP became practicing physicians. Fifty-eight percent attended public medical schools, and 62% attended medical schools in the Midwest. Fifty-three percent of program alumni chose primary care specialties compared to 34% of U.S. physicians, and MEDPREP alumni were 2.7 times more likely to work in medically underserved areas than physicians nationally. MEDPREP increases the number of disadvantaged and underrepresented students entering and graduating

  9. Society of Pediatric Psychology Diversity Award: Training Underrepresented Minority Students in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Monica J.; Crosby, Lori E.

    2016-01-01

    Improving diversity, particularly among trainees and professionals from underrepresented ethnic minority backgrounds, has been a long-stated goal for the field of Psychology. Research has provided strategies and best practices, such as ensuring cultural sensitivity and relevance in coursework, clinical and research training, promoting a supportive and inclusive climate, providing access to cultural and community opportunities, and increasing insight and cultural competence among professionals (Rogers & Molina, 2006). Despite this, the rates of psychologists from ethnically diverse and underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds remain low and few published studies have described programmatic efforts to increase diversity within the field. This paper describes the INNOVATIONS training model, which provides community and culturally related research experiences, graduate-school related advising, and mentoring to high school and college students. The paper also examines how the model may support enrollment of URM students in doctoral programs in psychology. Findings indicate that INNOVATIONS supported students’ transition from high school and college to graduate programs (with approximately 75% of students enrolling in Master’s and Doctoral programs). INNOVATIONS also supported students, including those from URM backgrounds, enrolling in doctoral programs (41.7%). Students who were trained in the research assistant track were most likely to enroll in psychology doctoral programs, perhaps as a result of the intensive time and training committed to research and clinical experiences. Data support the importance of research training for URM students pursuing psychology graduate study and the need to ensure cultural relevance of the training. Implications for clinical and pediatric psychology are discussed. PMID:28603680

  10. Increasing persistence in undergraduate science majors: a model for institutional support of underrepresented students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toven-Lindsey, Brit; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Barber, Paul H; Hasson, Tama

    2015-01-01

    The 6-yr degree-completion rate of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at U.S. colleges and universities is less than 40%. Persistence among women and underrepresented minorities (URMs), including African-American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students, is even more troubling, as these students leave STEM majors at significantly higher rates than their non-URM peers. This study utilizes a matched comparison group design to examine the academic achievement and persistence of students enrolled in the Program for Excellence in Education and Research in the Sciences (PEERS), an academic support program at the University of California, Los Angeles, for first- and second-year science majors from underrepresented backgrounds. Results indicate that PEERS students, on average, earned higher grades in most "gatekeeper" chemistry and math courses, had a higher cumulative grade point average, completed more science courses, and persisted in a science major at significantly higher rates than the comparison group. With its holistic approach focused on academics, counseling, creating a supportive community, and exposure to research, the PEERS program serves as an excellent model for universities interested in and committed to improving persistence of underrepresented science majors and closing the achievement gap. © 2015 B. Toven-Lindsey et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Effectiveness of a formal post-baccalaureate pre-medicine program for underrepresented minority students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, B; Edwards, A S; Segal, S S; Gillum, L H; Lindsay, A; Johnson, N

    2001-08-01

    To address the effectiveness of a formal postbaccalaureate (PB) experience for underrepresented minority (URM) students before medical school. The program provided an intense year-long experience of course work, research, and personal development. There were 516 participants from one medical school: 15 URM medical students had completed the formal PB program, 58 students had done independent PB work before matriculation, and 443 students were traditional matriculants. Cognitive and academic indicators [college science and non-science grade-point averages (GPAs); biology, physics, and verbal MCAT scores; and percentage scores from first-year medical school courses] were compared for the three groups. Both groups of students with PB experience demonstrated competency in the first year of medical school consistent with traditional students even though the students who had completed the formal PB program had lower MCAT scores and lower college GPAs than did the traditional students. Traditional predictors of academic performance during the first year of medical school did not significantly contribute to actual academic performances of students from the formal PB program. The results support the use of a formal PB program to provide academic readiness and support for URM students prior to medical school. Such a program may also improve retention. Noncognitive variables, however, may be important to understanding the success of such students in medical school.

  12. Doctors of tomorrow: An innovative curriculum connecting underrepresented minority high school students to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derck, Jordan; Zahn, Kate; Finks, Jonathan F; Mand, Simanjit; Sandhu, Gurjit

    2016-01-01

    Racial minorities continue to be underrepresented in medicine (URiM). Increasing provider diversity is an essential component of addressing disparity in health delivery and outcomes. The pool of students URiM that are competitive applicants to medical school is often limited early on by educational inequalities in primary and secondary schooling. A growing body of evidence recognizing the importance of diversifying health professions advances the need for medical schools to develop outreach collaborations with primary and secondary schools to attract URiMs. The goal of this paper is to describe and evaluate a program that seeks to create a pipeline for URiMs early in secondary schooling by connecting these students with support and resources in the medical community that may be transformative in empowering these students to be stronger university and medical school applicants. The authors described a medical student-led, action-oriented pipeline program, Doctors of Tomorrow, which connects faculty and medical students at the University of Michigan Medical School with 9th grade students at Cass Technical High School (Cass Tech) in Detroit, Michigan. The program includes a core curriculum of hands-on experiential learning, development, and presentation of a capstone project, and mentoring of 9th grade students by medical students. Cass Tech student feedback was collected using focus groups, critical incident written narratives, and individual interviews. Medical student feedback was collected reviewing monthly meeting minutes from the Doctors of Tomorrow medical student leadership. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two strong themes emerged from the Cass Tech student feedback: (i) Personal identity and its perceived effect on goal achievement and (ii) positive affect of direct mentorship and engagement with current healthcare providers through Doctors of Tomorrow. A challenge noted by the medical students was the lack of structured curriculum beyond the 1st

  13. The social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority medical students: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Semalulu, Teresa; Underwood, Willie

    2013-11-01

    To review the literature on the social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority (URM) medical students to determine what type of interventions are needed to eliminate potential barriers to enrolling and retaining URM students. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid HealthStar, and Web of Science, and the reference lists of included studies, published between January 1, 1980, and September 15, 2012. Studies of the learning and social environments and of students' satisfaction, experiences with discrimination or unfair practices, and academic performance or progress, as well as assessments of programs or interventions to improve URM students' academic performance, were eligible for inclusion. The authors identified 28 studies (27 unique data sets) meeting the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies indicated that URM students experienced less supportive social and less positive learning environments, were subjected to discrimination and racial harassment, and were more likely to see their race as having a negative impact on their medical school experiences than non-URM students. Academic performance on standardized exams was worse, progress less timely, and attrition higher for URM students as well. For URM students, an adverse climate may be decreasing the attractiveness of careers in medicine, impairing their academic performance, and increasing attrition. Improvements to the social and learning environments experienced by URM students are needed to make medicine a more inclusive profession. The current environment of health care reform creates an opportunity for institutions to implement strategies to achieve this goal.

  14. Exploring Counseling Services and Their Impact on Female, Underrepresented Minority Community College Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Elizabeth

    The economic future of the United States depends on developing a workforce of professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (Adkins, 2012; Mokter Hossain & Robinson, 2012). In California, the college population is increasingly female and underrepresented minority, a population that has historically chosen to study majors other than STEM. In California, community colleges provide a major inroad for students seeking to further their education in one of the many universities in the state. The recent passage of Senate Bill 1456 and the Student Success and Support Program mandate increased counseling services for all California community college students (California Community College Chancellors Office, 2014). This dissertation is designed to explore the perceptions of female, underrepresented minority college students who are majoring in an area of science, technology, engineering and math, as they relate to community college counseling services. Specifically, it aims to understand what counseling services are most effective, and what community college counselors can do to increase the level of interest in STEM careers in this population. This is a qualitative study. Eight participants were interviewed for the case study, all of whom are current or former community college students who have declared a major in a STEM discipline. The semi-structured interviews were designed to help understand what community college counselors can do to better serve this population, and to encourage more students to pursue STEM majors and careers. Through the interviews, themes emerged to explain what counseling services are the most helpful. Successful STEM students benefited from counselors who showed empathy and support. Counselors who understood the intricacies of educational planning for STEM majors were considered the most efficacious. Counselors who could connect students with enrichment activities, such as internships, were highly valued, as were counseling

  15. New Media and Models for Engaging Under-Represented Students in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Laurel M.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2008-10-01

    We describe the University of Colorado Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) program in which university students participate in classroom and after school science activities with local precollege children. Across several different formal and informal educational environments, we use new technological tools, such as stop action motion (SAM) movies [1] to engage children so that they may develop an understanding of science through play and "show and tell". This approach provides a complementary avenue for reaching children who are otherwise underrepresented in science and under-supported in more formal educational settings. We present the model of university community partnership and demonstrate its utility in a case study involving an African American third grade student learning about velocity and acceleration.

  16. The pipeline training program in maternal and child health: interdisciplinary preparation of undergraduate students from underrepresented groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Rhyner, Paula M; Lund, Shelley

    2010-05-01

    The Preparing Academically Successful Students in Maternal and Child Health (MCH PASS) training program provided financial support and specialized training to occupational therapy (OT) and speech-language pathology (SLP) undergraduate students from underrepresented groups in maternal and child health. The project assisted undergraduate trainees to matriculate into graduate programs in their respective fields and facilitated application into long-term maternal and child health training programs. Sixteen trainees (8 OT and 8 SLP) participated in an undergraduate training program with an emphasis on interdisciplinary teaming, family mentoring, leadership development, public health and population-based research. Instruction occurred in community and classroom settings through didactic instruction and small group discussions. Fifteen of the trainees applied to and were accepted in graduate programs in their respective fields. Two trainees applied to a long-term MCH training program. Students reported increased knowledge about programs that serve women and children, the effects of poverty on health, interdisciplinary teaming and the daily routines of families who have a child with a special health care need. The MCH PASS program provided a unique opportunity for undergraduate students in OT and SLP to learn about public health with an emphasis on maternal and child health. The specialized preparation enabled students to understand better the health concerns of underserved families whose children have special health care needs.

  17. Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat. Specifically, we introduced a values affirmation exercise that counters stereotype threat by reinforcing a student's feelings of integrity and self-worth in three iterations of an intensive active-learning college biology course. On average, this exercise reduced the achievement gap between URM and white students who entered the course with the same incoming grade point average. This result suggests that achievement gaps resulting from the underperformance of URM students could be mitigated by providing students with a learning environment that removes psychological and emotional impediments of performance through short psychosocial interventions. © 2017 H. Jordt et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. WVU--community partnership that provides science and math enrichment for underrepresented high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, J A; Chester, A L

    1999-04-01

    In response to the need to help West Virginia secondary school students overcome educational and economic barriers and to increase the number of health professionals in the state, the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (hereafter, "the Academy") was established in 1994. The Academy is a partnership between West Virginia University (WVU)--including the Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, and the College of Human Resources and Education--and members of the community, including secondary-school teachers, health care professionals, and other community leaders. The Academy targets students from underrepresented groups (mainly African Americans and financially disadvantaged whites) in grades nine through 12. By November 1997, 290 students (69% girls and 33% African American) from 17 counties were Academy participants. Funding is from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Coca-Cola Foundation, and other sources. Academy programs are an on-campus summer institute and community-based clubs, where students engage in activities for science and math enrichment, leadership development, and health careers awareness. In the Academy's clubs, students carry out extended investigations of problems related to human health and local communities. Most students report that the Academy has increased their interest in health care careers, and almost all who have continued to participate in Academy programs through their senior year have been accepted into college.

  19. An Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Computer Engineering and Mathematics/Bilingual Education to Develop a Curriculum for Underrepresented Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón-Pattichis, Sylvia; LópezLeiva, Carlos Alfonso; Pattichis, Marios S.; Llamocca, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There is a strong need in the United States to increase the number of students from underrepresented groups who pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Drawing from sociocultural theory, we present approaches to establishing collaborations between computer engineering and mathematics/bilingual education faculty to…

  20. Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE: Engaging Underrepresented Students in Physics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE Teams

    2018-01-01

    We describe two programs, Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, creating a national impact on their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.In 8 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 112 students, >80% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of 14 major research institutions throughout the country. Of the CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor’s degree, almost two-thirds (65%) have completed or are pursuing graduate education in physics, astronomy, or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, UC Riverside, UC Irvine, UC Santa Barbara, USC, Stanford, Univ. of Arizona, Univ. of Washington, Univ. of Rochester, Michigan State Univ., Georgia Tech, Georgia State Univ., Kent State, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Oregon, Syracuse Univ., Montana State Univ., and the Fisk-Vanderbilt Master’s-to-PhD program.Now entering its fourth year, the Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of >140 physics and astronomy faculty from 9 University of California (UC), 15 California State University (CSU), and 30 California Community College (CCC) campuses throughout California. In the first four years, 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars have been selected, including 22 Hispanic, 3 African-American and 13 women students, 10 of whom are from URM groups. Thirty (30) of the 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars are first generation college students. In the last two years, 11 of 13 Cal-Bridge Scholars have begun PhD programs in physics or astronomy at top PhD programs nationally. Three (3) of these 11 scholars have won NSF Graduate Research Fellowships; one more received an Honorable Mention. The next cohort applies this fall.Cal-Bridge provides much deeper mentoring and professional development experiences over the last

  1. Increasing Underrepresented Students in Geophysics and Planetary Science Through the Educational Internship in Physical Sciences (EIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, S.; Olgin, J. G.; Enriquez, F.

    2017-12-01

    The number of underrepresented minorities pursuing STEM fields, specifically in the sciences, has declined in recent times. In response, the Educational Internship in Physical Sciences (EIPS), an undergraduate research internship program in collaboration with The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) Geological Sciences Department and El Paso Community College (EPCC), was created; providing a mentoring environment so that students can actively engage in science projects with professionals in their field so as to gain the maximum benefits in an academic setting. This past year, interns participated in planetary themed projects which exposed them to the basics of planetary geology, and worked on projects dealing with introductory digital image processing and synthesized data on two planetary bodies; Pluto and Enceladus respectively. Interns harnessed and built on what they have learned through these projects, and directly applied it in an academic environment in solar system astronomy classes at EPCC. Since the majority of interns are transfer students or alums from EPCC, they give a unique perspective and dimension of interaction; giving them an opportunity to personally guide and encourage current students there on available STEM opportunities. The goal was to have interns gain experience in planetary geology investigations and networking with professionals in the field; further promoting their interests and honing their abilities for future endeavors in planetary science. The efficacy of these activities toward getting interns to pursue STEM careers, enhance their education in planetary science, and teaching key concepts in planetary geophysics are demonstrated in this presentation.

  2. Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE: Engaging Underrepresented Students in Physics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Cal-Bridge Team; CAMPARE Team

    2018-06-01

    We describe two programs, Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, creating a national impact on their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field. In 9 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 150 students, >80% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of 14 major research institutions throughout the country. Of the CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor’s degree, almost two-thirds (65%) have completed or are pursuing graduate education in physics, astronomy, or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, UC Riverside, UC Irvine, UC Santa Barbara, USC, Stanford, Univ. of Arizona, Univ. of Washington, Univ. of Rochester, Michigan State Univ., Georgia Tech, Georgia State Univ., Kent State, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Oregon, Syracuse Univ., Montana State Univ., and the Fisk- Vanderbilt Master’s-to-PhD program. Now in its fourth year, the Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of physics and astronomy faculty from 9 University of California (UC), 15 California State University (CSU), and more than 30 California Community College (CCC) campuses throughout California. In the first four years, 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars have been selected, including 22 Hispanic, 3 African-American and 13 women students, 10 of whom are from URM groups. Thirty (30) of the 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars are first generation college students. In the last three years, 17 of 21 Cal-Bridge Scholars have begun or been accepted PhD programs in physics or astronomy at top PhD programs nationally. Three (3) of these scholars have won NSF Graduate Research Fellowships; one more received an Honorable Mention. Once selected, Cal-Bridge Scholars benefit from substantial financial support, intensive, joint mentoring by CSU

  3. Partnering with a Community College and Research University to attract Underrepresented Students to the Geosciences: The Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, J. S.; Saunders, D.; Smith, G.

    2015-12-01

    A NSF sponsored partnership between the University of Texas at Arlington and the Tarrant County College District aimed to attract underrepresented lower-division students interested in STEM to the geosciences. The program recruited 32 students over 3 years, developed an innovative field course, provided tutoring and mentoring programs, and offered research assistantships for students to work with the research university faculty on funded projects. Under-represented students were 66% of the group. The data was gathered via a web-based survey from April 2nd to April 17th, 2015, using both open ended and item-level responses. Out of 32 participants, the response rate was a significant 50%. Some of the survey results include: 1) Most students heard about the program from faulty who recruited them in introductory level classes; 2) Almost all agreed that the geosciences were interesting, fun, important and a good career path; 3) 92% of the community college respondents found transferring to a research university somewhat or not too difficult; 4) The most helpful parts of the program included faculty mentors, the field course, research assistant experiences and relationships with faculty. The least helpful parts included the tutoring services, relationships with other students, and the semester kickoff meetings; 5) over 60% of the students felt very confident in research skills, formulating research questions, lab skills, quantitative skills, time management, collaborating and working independently. They were less confident in planning research, graphing results, writing papers and making oral presentations; 6) most found the faculty very helpful in advising and mentoring, and 86% said they were comfortable asking at least one faculty member for a reference letter; 7) 93% said they were likely to pursue a geoscience career and 86% were confident or somewhat confident they would be successful.

  4. Appraisal Support from Natural Mentors, Self-worth, and Psychological Distress: Examining the Experiences of Underrepresented Students Transitioning Through College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle

    2018-05-01

    The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.

  5. A pre-admission program for underrepresented minority and disadvantaged students: application, acceptance, graduation rates and timeliness of graduating from medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, G

    2000-04-01

    To determine whether students' performances in a pre-admission program predicted whether participants would (1) apply to medical school, (2) get accepted, and (3) graduate. Using prospectively collected data from participants in the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Medical Education Development Program (MEDP) and data from the Association of American Colleges Student and Applicant Information Management System, the author identified 371 underrepresented minority (URM) students who were full-time participants and completed the program between 1984 and 1989, prior to their acceptance into medical school. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether MEDP performance significantly predicted (after statistically controlling for traditional predictors of these outcomes) the proportions of URM participants who applied to medical school and were accepted, the timeliness of graduating, and the proportion graduating. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the associations between the independent and outcome variables. In separate logistic regression models, MEDP performance predicted the study's outcomes after statistically controlling for traditional predictors with 95% confidence intervals. Pre-admission programs with similar outcomes can improve the diversity of the physician workforce and the access to health care for underrepresented minority and economically disadvantaged populations.

  6. The Development of a Communication Tool to Facilitate the Cancer Trial Recruitment Process and Increase Research Literacy among Underrepresented Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Samantha; de la Riva, Erika E; Tom, Laura S; Clayman, Marla L; Taylor, Chirisse; Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A

    2015-12-01

    Despite increasing need to boost the recruitment of underrepresented populations into cancer trials and biobanking research, few tools exist for facilitating dialogue between researchers and potential research participants during the recruitment process. In this paper, we describe the initial processes of a user-centered design cycle to develop a standardized research communication tool prototype for enhancing research literacy among individuals from underrepresented populations considering enrollment in cancer research and biobanking studies. We present qualitative feedback and recommendations on the prototype's design and content from potential end users: five clinical trial recruiters and ten potential research participants recruited from an academic medical center. Participants were given the prototype (a set of laminated cards) and were asked to provide feedback about the tool's content, design elements, and word choices during semi-structured, in-person interviews. Results suggest that the prototype was well received by recruiters and patients alike. They favored the simplicity, lay language, and layout of the cards. They also noted areas for improvement, leading to card refinements that included the following: addressing additional topic areas, clarifying research processes, increasing the number of diverse images, and using alternative word choices. Our process for refining user interfaces and iterating content in early phases of design may inform future efforts to develop tools for use in clinical research or biobanking studies to increase research literacy.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy student research participation programs. Underrepresented minorities in U.S. Department of Energy student research participation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify those particular aspects of US Department of Energy (DOE) research participation programs for undergraduate and graduate students that are most associated with attracting and benefiting underrepresented minority students and encouraging them to pursue careers in science, engineering, and technology. A survey of selected former underrepresented minority participants, focus group analysis, and critical incident analysis serve as the data sources for this report. Data collected from underrepresented minority participants indicate that concerns expressed and suggestions made for conducting student research programs at DOE contractor facilities are not remarkably different from those made by all participants involved in such student research participation programs. With the exception of specific suggestions regarding recruitment, the findings summarized in this report can be interpreted to apply to all student research participants in DOE national laboratories. Clearly defined assignments, a close mentor-student association, good communication, and an opportunity to interact with other participants and staff are those characteristics that enhance any educational program and have positive impacts on career development.

  8. Medical School Performance of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Underrepresented Minority Students Matriculating after a Multiple Mini-Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Henderson, Mark C; Griffin, Erin; Talamantes, Efrain; Fancher, Tonya; Sousa, Francis; Franks, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMIs) are increasingly used in medical school admissions. We previously reported that while under-represented minority (URM) status was not associated with MMI scores, self-designated disadvantaged applicants had lower MMI scores, possibly affecting their matriculation prospects. No studies have examined how URM status or socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) are associated with academic performance following admission through an MMI. We examined the adjusted associations of MMI scores, SED, and URM status with U.S. Medical Licensing Examination Steps 1 and 2 performance and third-year clerkship Honors, measures affecting residency matching. While URM status was not associated with the measures, students with greater SED had lower Step 1 scores and fewer Honors. Students with higher MMI scores had more Step 1 failures, but more Honors. The findings identify areas to address in medical school admissions, student support, and evaluation processes, which is important given the need for a more representative physician workforce.

  9. Underrepresented minority students' experiences at Baylor College of Dentistry: perceptions of cultural climate and reasons for choosing to attend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ann L; Lacy, Ernestine S; Miller, Barbara H

    2014-03-01

    A study was conducted at Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry (TAMBCD) in fall 2011 to identify the reasons underrepresented minority (URM) students chose to attend TAMBCD, the factors that supported their success as enrolled students, and their perceptions of the institution's cultural climate. A survey distributed online to all URM students received a 79 percent response rate (129/164). The respondents were primarily Hispanic (62 percent Mexican American and other Hispanic) and African American (33 percent) and had attended a college pipeline program (53 percent). The top reasons these students chose TAMBCD were reputation, location, and automatic acceptance or familiarity from being in a predental program. Alumni had most influenced them to attend. Regarding support services, the largest percentage reported not using any (44 percent); personal advising and tutoring were reported to be the most commonly used. In terms of climate, discrimination was reported by 22 percent (n=29), mostly from classmates and clinical faculty. The majority (87 percent) reported their cultural competence program was "effective" and agreed that faculty (83 percent), staff (85 percent), and students (75 percent) were culturally competent. Overall, the students were "satisfied" with how they were treated (88 percent), their education (91 percent), and the services/resources (92 percent). This information is being used to continue to improve the school's cultural climate and to conduct a broader assessment of all students.

  10. GeoX: A New Pre-college Program to Attract Underrepresented Minorities and First Generation Students to the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. C.; Garcia, S. J.; Houser, C.; GeoX Team

    2011-12-01

    An emerging challenge in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education is the recruitment of underrepresented groups in those areas of the workforce. This paper describes the structure and first-year results of the Geosciences Exploration Summer Program (GeoX) at Texas A&M University. Recent evidence suggest that pipeline programs should target junior and senior high school students who are beginning to seriously consider future career choices and appropriate college programs. GeoX is an overnight program that takes place during the summer at Texas A&M University. Over the course of a week, GeoX participants interact with faculty from the College of Geosciences, administrators, current students, and community leaders through participation in inquiry-based learning activities, field trips, and evening social events. The aim of this project is to foster a further interest in pursuing geosciences as an undergraduate major in college and thereby increase participation in the geosciences by underrepresented ethnic minority students. With funding from industry and private donors, high achieving rising junior and rising senior students, with strong interest in science and math, were invited to participate in the program. Students and their parents were interviewed before and after the program to determine if it was successful in introducing and enhancing awareness of the: 1) various sub-disciplines in the geosciences, 2) benefits of academia and research, 3) career opportunities in each of those fields and 4) college admission process including financial aid and scholarship opportunities. Results of the survey suggest that the students had a very narrow and stereotypical view of the geosciences that was almost identical to the views of their parents. Following the program, the students had a more expanded and positive view of the geosciences compared to the pre-program survey and compared to their parents. While it remains to be seen how many of those

  11. Encouraging and Attracting Underrepresented Racial Minorities to the Field of Geosciences-A Latin American Graduate Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve

  12. Managing Asthma in Low-Income, Underrepresented Minority, and Other Disadvantaged Pediatric Populations: Closing the Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisias, Margee; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-09-15

    In this article, we review current understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of disparities in asthma. We also highlight current and emerging literature on solutions to tackle disparities while underscoring gaps and pressing future directions. Tailored, multicomponent approaches including the home, school, and clinician-based interventions show great promise. Managing asthma in disadvantaged populations can be challenging as they tend to have disproportionately worse outcomes due to a multitude of factors. However, multifaceted, innovative interventions that are sustainable and scalable are key to improving outcomes.

  13. Providing Social Support for Underrepresented Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Career Coaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Improvement in the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions has been unsatisfactory. Although this is a complex problem, one key issue is that graduate students often rely on research mentors for career-related support, the effectiveness of which can be variable. We present results from a novel…

  14. Equity and Excellence: Proactive Efforts in the Identification of Underrepresented Students for Gifted and Talented Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Scott J.; Engerrand, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of gifted and talented students and the accompanying fact that most identification systems result in the underrepresentation of students from African American, Hispanic, Native American, English language learning, and low-income families are two of the most discussed and hotly debated topics in the field. This article provides…

  15. Minority-Serving Institutions and the Education of U.S. Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ginelle; Stage, Frances K.

    2014-01-01

    Numbers of students of color enrolling in higher educational institutions is expected to increase across all racial groups. With continued increases in minority enrollments, minority-serving institutions have and will continue to play a major role in educating student of color. A large national data set was used to examine the numbers of…

  16. A Scholarship Workshop Program to Improve Underrepresented Student Access to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a scholarship workshop program to better prepare low socio-economic and minority students to compete for collegiate scholarships. The study involves 1,367 high risk 9th to 12th grade students in Texas. Analysis of the pre- and post tests, using a t-test for dependent variables, indicates a statistically…

  17. Uncovering Barriers to Financial Capability: Underrepresented Students' Access to Financial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Brenda; Mattioli, Heather; Foxhoven, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Financial aid is designed to increase access to postsecondary education at all socioeconomic levels; however, college students are not always knowledgeable about personal finances or capable of making sound decisions regarding complex college and program choices, debt options, and long-term spending. This article reviews previous research on the…

  18. Hartnell College's Academic Learning Center: Recommitting to Underrepresented Student Access and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael A.; Henderson, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Hartnell College is a Hispanic-serving institution serving the Salinas Valley in California, a vast 1,000-square-mile agricultural region. The district includes large numbers of migrant workers and their families, chronically high unemployment, high rates of poverty, and low educational attainment. A review of student performance data in 2002…

  19. Creating Authentic Geoscience Research Experiences for Underrepresented Students in Two-Year Undergraduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.

    2014-12-01

    With community college and two-year program students playing pivotal roles in advancing the nation's STEM agenda now and throughout the remainder of this young millennia, it is incumbent on educators to devise innovative and sustainable STEM initiatives to attract, retain, graduate, and elevate these students to four-year programs and beyond. Involving these students in comprehensive, holistic research experiences is one approach that has paid tremendous dividends. The New York City College of Technology (City Tech) was recently awarded a National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) supplemental grant to integrate a community college/two-year program component into its existing REU program. The program created an inviting and supportive community of scholars for these students, nurtured them through strong, dynamic mentoring, provided them with the support structures needed for successful scholarship, and challenged them to attain the same research prominence as their Bachelor degree program companions. Along with their colleagues, the community college/two-year program students were given an opportunity to conduct intensive satellite and ground-based remote sensing research at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (NOAA-CREST) at City College and its CREST Institute Center for Remote Sensing and Earth System Science (ReSESS) at City Tech. This presentation highlights the challenges, the rewards, and the lessons learned from this necessary and timely experiment. Preliminary results indicate that this paradigm for geoscience inclusion and high expectation has been remarkably successful. (The program is supported by NSF REU grant #1062934.)

  20. New Tools for Examining Undergraduate Students' STEM Stereotypes: Implications for Women and Other Underrepresented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Wyer, Mary; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Schneider, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although both domestic U.S. and international statistics on population demographics within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields indicate overall gains and more even representation among various groups, caution must be taken to interpret these gains as suggesting blanket improvement in underrepresentation issues. When…

  1. A National Partnership-Based Summer Learning Initiative to Engage Underrepresented Students with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Leland

    2010-01-01

    In response to the White House Educate to Innovate campaign, NASA developed a new science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education program for non-traditional audiences that also focused on public-private partnerships and nationwide participation. NASA recognized that summer break is an often overlooked but opportune time to engage youth in STEM experiences, and elevated its ongoing commitment to the cultivation of diversity. The Summer of Innovation (SoI) is the resulting initiative that uses NASA's unique missions and resources to boost summer learning, particularly for students who are underrepresented, underserved and underperforming in STEM. The SoI pilot, launched in June 2010, is a multi-faceted effort designed to improve STEM teaching and learning through partnership, multi-week summer learning programs, special events, a national concluding event, and teacher development. The SoI pilot features strategic infusion of NASA content and educational resource materials, sustainability through STEM Learning Communities, and assessments of effectiveness of SoI interventions with other pilot efforts. This paper examines the inception and development of the Summer of Innovation pilot project, including achievements and effectiveness, as well as lessons learned for future efforts.

  2. Early Opportunities Research Partnership Between Howard University, University of Maryland Baltimore County and NASA Goddard for Engaging Underrepresented STEM Students in Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P.; Venable, D. D.; Hoban, S.; Demoz, B.; Bleacher, L.; Meeson, B. W.; Farrell, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Howard University, University of Maryland Baltimore County and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) are collaborating to engage underrepresented STEM students and expose them to an early career pathway in NASA-related Earth & Space Science research. The major goal is to instill interest in Earth and Space Science to STEM majors early in their academic careers, so that they become engaged in ongoing NASA-related research, motivated to pursue STEM careers, and perhaps become part of the future NASA workforce. The collaboration builds on a program established by NASA's Dynamic Response of the Environments of Asteroids, the Moon and the moons of Mars (DREAM2) team to engage underrepresented students from Howard in summer internships. Howard leveraged this program to expand via NASA's Minority University Research and Education Project (MUREP) funding. The project pairs Howard students with GSFC mentors and engages them in cutting-edge Earth and Space Science research throughout their undergraduate tenure. The project takes a multi-faceted approach, with each year of the program specifically tailored to each student's strengths and addressing their weaknesses, so that they experience a wide array of enriching research and professional development activities that help them grow both academically and professionally. During the academic year, the students are at Howard taking a full load of courses towards satisfying their degree requirements and engaging in research with their GSFC mentors via regular telecons, e-mail exchanges, video chats & on an average one visit per semester to GSFC for an in-person meeting with their research mentor. The students extend their research with full-time summer internships at GSFC, culminating in a Capstone Project and Senior Thesis. As a result, these Early Opportunities Program students, who have undergone rigorous training in the Earth and Space Sciences, are expected to be well-prepared for graduate school and the NASA workforce.

  3. International Students: A Vulnerable Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Mark; Thomas, Peter; Chui, Wing Hong

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of international students at The University of Toledo, where international students comprise approximately 10% of the student population. It highlights problems international students experience such as adapting to a new culture, English language problems, financial problems and lack of understanding from the…

  4. Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Disciplines: A Cross Institutional Analysis of their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Tanya

    Considering the importance of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) research workforce for our country's future, it is troubling that many underrepresented racial minority (URM) students start graduate STEM programs, but do not finish. However, some institutional contexts better position students for degree completion than others. The purpose of this study was to uncover the academic and social experiences, power dynamics, and programmatic/institutional structures URM students face within their graduate STEM programs that hinder or support degree progression. Using a critical socialization framework applied in a cross-comparative qualitative study, I focused on how issues of race, ethnicity, and underrepresentation within the educational contexts shape students' experiences. Data was collected from focus group interviews involving 53 URM graduate students pursuing STEM disciplines across three institution types -- a Predominately White Institution, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, and a Historically Black University. Results demonstrate that when students' relationships with faculty advisors were characterized by benign neglect, students felt lost, wasted time and energy making avoidable mistakes, had less positive views of their experiences, and had more difficulty progressing through classes or research, which could cause them to delay time to degree completion or to leave with a master's degree. Conversely, faculty empowered students when they helped them navigate difficult processes/milestones with regular check-ins, but also allowed students room to make decisions and solve problems independently. Further, faculty set the tone for the overall interactional culture and helping behavior in the classroom and lab contexts; where faculty modeled collaboration and concern for students, peers were likely to do the same. International peers sometimes excluded domestic students both socially and academically, which had a negative affect on

  5. Fostering Under-represented Minority Student Success and Interest in the Geosciences: Outcomes of the UNC-Chapel Hill Increasing Diversity and Enhancing Academia (IDEA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M. H.; Gray, K.; Drostin, M.

    2016-12-01

    For under-represented minority (URM) students, opportunities to meaningfully participate in academic communities and develop supportive relationships with faculty and peers influence persistence in STEM majors (Figueroa, Hurtado, & Wilkins, 2015; PCAST, 2012; Tsui, 2007). Creating such opportunities is even more important in the geosciences, where a lower percentage of post-secondary degrees are awarded to URM students than in other STEM fields (NSF, 2015; O'Connell & Holmes, 2011; NSF, 2011). Since 2011, Increasing Diversity and Enhancing Academia (IDEA), a program of the UNC-Chapel Hill Institute for the Environment (UNC-IE), has provided 39 undergraduates (predominantly URM and female students) with career-relevant research experiences and professional development opportunities, including a culminating experience of presenting their research at a campus-wide research symposium. External evaluation data have helped to characterize the effectiveness of the IDEA program. These data included pre- and post-surveys assessing students' interest in geosciences, knowledge of career pathways, and perceptions of their abilities related to a specific set of scientific research skills. Additionally, progress towards degrees and dissemination outcomes were tracked. In this presentation, we will share quantitative and qualitative data that demonstrate that participation in the IDEA program has influenced students' interest and persistence in geosciences research and careers. These data range from self-reported competencies in a variety of scientific skills (such as organizing and interpreting data and reading and interpreting science literature) to documentation of student participation in geoscience study and professions. About 69% of participants continued research begun during their internships beyond the internship; and about 38% pursued graduate degrees and secured jobs in geoscience and other STEM fields. (Nearly half are still in school.) Overall, these evaluation data

  6. Why Are Native Hawaiians Underrepresented in Hawai‘i's Older Adult Population? Exploring Social and Behavioral Factors of Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Sue Ka‘opua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Native Hawaiians comprise 24.3% of Hawai‘i's population, but only 12.6% of the state's older adults. Few published studies have compared health indicators across ethnicities for the state's older adult population or focused on disparities of Native Hawaiian elders. The current study examines data from two state surveillance programs, with attention to cause of death and social-behavioral factors relevant to elders. Findings reveal that Native Hawaiians have the largest years of productive life lost and the lowest life expectancy, when compared to the state's other major ethnic groups. Heart disease and cancer are leading causes of premature mortality. Native Hawaiian elders are more likely to report behavioral health risks such as smoking and obesity, live within/below 100–199% of the poverty level, and find cost a barrier to seeking care. Indicated is the need for affordable care across the lifespan and health services continuum. Future research might explain behavioral factors as influenced by social determinants, including historical trauma on Native Hawaiian longevity.

  7. Experiences of Underrepresented Minorities in Doctoral Nursing Programs at Predominantly White Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Linda D.

    2017-01-01

    The representation of racial and ethnic minorities in the nursing workforce is disproportionately low in comparison with their representation in the general population in the United States. Despite diversity initiatives, the slight increase in enrollment of under-represented minority (URM) students in graduate schools of nursing at predominantly…

  8. Mentoring Through Research as a Catalyst for the Success of Under-represented Minority Students in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K.; Simila, G.; Pedone, V.; Yule, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Catalyst Program of the Department of Geological Sciences at California State University Northridge has been developed by four faculty members who were the recipients of a three-year award (2002-2005) from the National Science Foundation. The goal of the program is to increase minority participation and success in the geosciences. The program seeks to enrich the educational experience by introducing students at all levels (individual and team) to research in the geosciences (such as data analysis for earthquake hazards for 1994 Northridge event, paleoseismology of San Andreas fault, Waipaoa, New Zealand sedimentary system and provenance studies, and the Barstow formation geochronology and geochemistry), and to decrease obstacles that affect academic success. Both these goals are largely achieved by the formation of integrated high school, undergraduate, and graduate research groups, which also provide fulfilling and successful peer mentorship. New participants first complete a specially designed course that introduces them to peer-mentoring, collaborative learning (think-pair share), and research on geological data sets. Students of all experience levels then become members of research teams and conduct four mini-projects and associated poster presentations, which deepens academic and research skills as well as peer-mentor relationships. This initial research experience has been very beneficial for the student's degree requirements of a senior research project and oral presentation. Evaluation strategies include the student research course presentations, summer field projects, and external review of student experiences. The Catalyst Program provides significant financial support to participants to allow them to focus their time on their education. A component of peer-tutoring has been implemented for promoting additional student success. The program has been highly successful in its two year development. To date, undergraduates and graduate students have

  9. Preparing Future Geoscientists at the Critical High School-to-College Junction: Project METALS and the Value of Engaging Diverse Institutions to Serve Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. D.; Maygarden, D.; Serpa, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2010, the Minority Education Through Traveling and Learning in the Sciences (METALS) program, a collaboration among San Francisco State Univ., the Univ. of Texas at El Paso, the Univ. of New Orleans, and Purdue Univ., has created meaningful, field-based geoscience experiences for underrepresented minority high school students. METALS activities promote excitement about geoscience in field settings and foster mutual respect and trust among participants of different backgrounds and ethnicities. These gains are strengthened by the collective knowledge of the university partners and by faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, scientists, and science teachers who guide the field trips and who are committed to encouraging diversity in the geosciences. Through the student experiences it provides, METALS has helped shape and shift student attitudes and orientation toward geoscience, during and beyond their field experience, just as these students are poised at the critical juncture from high school to college. A review of the METALS findings and summative evaluation shows a distinct pattern of high to moderately high impact on most students in the various cohorts of the program. METALS, overall, was perceived by participants as a program that: (1) opens up opportunities for individuals who might not typically be able to experience science in outdoor settings; (2) offers high-interest geology content in field contexts, along with social and environmental connections; (3) promotes excitement about geology while encouraging the development of mutual respect, interdependence, and trust among individuals of different ethnicities; (4) influences the academic choices of students, in particular their choice of major and course selection in college. Summative data show that multiple aspects of this program were highly effective. Cross-university collaborations create a dynamic forum and a high-impact opportunity for students from different backgrounds to meet and develop

  10. Area Health Education Center (AHEC) programs for rural and underrepresented minority students in the Alabama Black Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashruta; Knox, Regina J; Logan, Alicia; Summerville, Katie

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluated the implementation West Central Alabama Area Health Education Center programs for high school students in grades 9-12 through participant-reported evaluations and feedback during the  September 1st, 2013 to August 31st, 2014 fiscal year. The programs targeted racial/ethnic minorities and/or rural individuals interested in pursuing a career as a healthcare provider in medically underserved counties of Alabama. Students participated in enrichment activities related to prospective health careers that included: successful college preparedness, knowledge about health careers, and the types of primary care health professions that are needed in underserved Alabama communities. The curriculum studied 593 (ACT preparation: n  = 172, AHEC 101: n  = 56, FAFSA: n  = 109, Health Career Exploration: n  = 159, College Career Readiness: n  = 67, Dixie Scholars NERD: n  = 30) baseline measures for the programs to evaluate effectiveness when rated by participants both quantitatively and qualitatively. Interactive activities with video incorporation, hands-on experiences, and group discussions paired with student motivation and interest in specific health career-related activities provided the highest program ratings. It is important to use a variety of successful program strategies when forming healthcare workforce development interventions. Student evaluations can help adapt methods for future program implementation to ultimately achieve strategies for health professional recruitment, training, and retention in areas that lack access to quality healthcare.

  11. Navigating STEM-Worlds: Applying a Lens of Intersectionality to the Career Identity Development of Underrepresented Female Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the term intersectional trap. This is defined as the act of saying blanket statements to describe a race or group of individuals without considering variations of experience within the population. The paper will end with recommendations for research focusing on qualitative studies that explore the lived…

  12. Characteristics of health professions schools, public school systems, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the numbers of underrepresented minority students entering health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, Jan D; Patterson, Davis G

    2003-05-01

    To identify characteristics of health professions schools, public schools, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the number of underrepresented minority students entering health professions. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation funded the Health Professions Partnership Initiative program developed from Project 3000 by 2000 of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Semi-structured interviews were completed with awardees and representatives of the funding agencies, the national program office, and the national advisory committee between the fall of 2000 and the summer of 2002. Site visits were conducted at ten sites, with representatives of partner institutions, teachers, parents, and children. Characteristics that supported and hindered development of successful partnerships were identified using an iterative qualitative approach. Successful partnerships included professional schools that had a commitment to community service. Successful leaders could work in both cultures of the professional and public schools. Attitudes of respect and listening to the needs of partners were essential. Public school governance supported innovation. Happenstance and convergence of interests played significant roles in partnership development. The most telling statement was "We did it, together." This study identifies characteristics associated with smoothly working partnerships, and barriers to successful program development. Successful partnerships can form the basis on which educational interventions are built. The study is limited by the definition of success used, and its focus on one funded program. The authors were unable to identify outcomes in terms of numbers of children influenced by programs or instances in which lasting changes in health professions schools had occurred.

  13. Bayer Facts of Science Education XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer Corporation

    2012-06-01

    Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students. Annual public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine science education and science literacy issues. The 15th in the series and the fifth to explore diversity and underrepresentation, this research is a direct outgrowth of last year's results which found 40 percent of the country's female and underrepresented minority (URM) chemists and chemical engineers working today were discouraged from pursuing their STEM career at some point in their lives. US colleges were cited as places where this discouragement most often happened and college professors as the individuals most likely responsible. Does such discouragement still occur in American colleges today? To answer this and other questions about the undergraduate environment in which today's students make their career decisions, the survey polls 413 STEM department chairs at the nation's 200 top research universities and those that produce the highest proportion of female and URM STEM graduates. The survey also asks the chairs about their institutions track record recruiting and retaining female and URM STEM undergraduates, preparedness of these students to study STEM, the impact of traditional introductory STEM courses on female and URM students and barriers these students face pursuing their STEM degrees.

  14. Demographics of undergraduates studying games in the United States: a comparison of computer science students and the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.; Settle, Amber; Decker, Adrienne

    2013-06-01

    Our study gathered data to serve as a benchmark of demographics of undergraduate students in game degree programs. Due to the high number of programs that are cross-disciplinary with computer science programs or that are housed in computer science departments, the data is presented in comparison to data from computing students (where available) and the US population. Participants included students studying games at four nationally recognized postsecondary institutions. The results of the study indicate that there is no significant difference between the ratio of men to women studying in computing programs or in game degree programs, with women being severely underrepresented in both. Women, blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and heterosexuals are underrepresented compared to the US population. Those with moderate and conservative political views and with religious affiliations are underrepresented in the game student population. Participants agree that workforce diversity is important and that their programs are adequately diverse, but only one-half of the participants indicated that diversity has been discussed in any of their courses.

  15. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in the Pursuit of Health Science-Related Careers among Youth from Underrepresented Low Socioeconomic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley O; Jones, Chandria; Bhagat, Krishna; Siddiqui, Junaed; Wang, Min Qi

    2015-10-01

    A more diverse health science-related workforce including more underrepresented race/ethnic minorities, especially from low socioeconomic backgrounds, is needed to address health disparities in the USA. To increase such diversity, programs must facilitate youth interest in pursuing a health science-related career (HSRC). Minority youth from low socioeconomic families may focus on the secondary gains of careers, such as high income and status, given their low socioeconomic backgrounds. On the other hand, self-determination theory suggests that it is the intrinsic characteristics of careers which are most likely to sustain pursuit of an HSRC and lead to job satisfaction. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for pursuing an HSRC (defined in this study as health professional, health scientist, and medical doctor) was examined in a cohort of youth from the 10th to 12th grade from 2011 to 2013. The sample was from low-income area high schools, had a B- or above grade point average at baseline, and was predominantly: African American (65.7 %) or Hispanic (22.9 %), female (70.1 %), and children of foreign-born parents (64.7 %). In longitudinal general estimating equations, intrinsic motivation (but not extrinsic motivation) consistently predicted intention to pursue an HSRC. This finding provides guidance as to which youth and which qualities of HSRCs might deserve particular attention in efforts to increase diversity in the health science-related workforce.

  16. Doctoral Programs Need Changes to Attract and Retain Underrepresented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, R. E.; Mayfield, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience is currently recognized as the least diverse of all STEM fields. While attention typically focuses on K-12 and undergraduate populations, the extreme lack of diversity among graduate students, and doctoral students in particular, should be examined and addressed. In 2016, members of underrepresented minority (URM) groups made up only 6% of those graduating with geoscience PhDs. In all STEM fields, only 48% of Hispanic/Latino and 38% of Black/African American doctoral studies had earned doctorates within 7 years, with 36% of members of these groups leaving the program entirely. Recent studies suggest that these high attrition rates can be attributed, in part, to a mismatch between motivations of URM members and PhD-granting institutions while students are pursuing scientific education and careers. Traditional STEM doctoral programs do not offer, facilitate, or incentivize substantial opportunities to integrate social justice issues, community involvement, and altruism—factors which have been found to be of more importance to these populations than to male members of well-represented groups. URM members are also less likely to be interested in purely academic research careers, so doctoral programs may be failing to attract (and failing to prepare) diverse populations by not offering experiences beyond typical research and TA duties. In this presentation, trends in motivation and persistence among URM students in STEM will be discussed, in addition to highlighting education and outreach activities that can be successfully incorporated for a more fulfilling, balanced, attractive, and preparatory education experience. Specific activities undertaken and recommended by the presenter in her PhD experience include the following: a federal research internship, a state government policy internship, a formal partnership with a local K-12 teacher though a former NSF GK-12 program, a two-week education workshop aboard a scientific research drillship, and attending a

  17. Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.): Collaborative Action Education in Building and Guiding the Future Under-represented Geosciences Workforce Through Tribal Foundations, Mentorship and Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.) was created as an Indian Self-Determination Organization to meet the every growing Tribal and under-represented minorities (URM) geosciences workforce needs. I.S.S. is one of only a few Indian Self-Determined Organizations in the U.S. with a distinct focused on buidling the Tribal and URM geosciences and natural resources workforces. In past three years, I.S.S has worked in partnership with U.S. colleges/universities, state/federal agencies (Bureau of Indian Affairs), private and International organizations and most importantly U.S. Tribal Nations to ensure emerging high school students, undergraduates, graduate students and post doctorates have the opportunities for training in supportive and unique environments, navigational mentoring, and broad professional development to build and practice the skills required for blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions. I.S.S. has been highly successful in filling workforce opportunities within the broad range of geosciences positions. I.S.S. students are proficient in understanding and maneuvering the complex landscapes of interdisciplinary research, multidisciplinary multi-partner projects, traditional/western philosophies as well as being highly proficient in all areas of problem solving and communications. Research and on-site projects have heightened the educational experiences of all participants, in addition to addressing a perplexing geosciences challenge grounded in a Tribal environment. A number of the I.S.S. participants and students have found geosciences positions in Tribes, state/federal agencies, enterprize as well as International organizations. I.S.S. practices and has infused all research and projects with intergenerational teaching/learning, participation solution-focused initiatives, and holistic/multicultural mentoring. The presentation will highlight the vision, design, implementation, outcomes and future directions of I.S.S and participants.

  18. Mentoring Through Research as a Catalyst for the Success of Under-represented Minority Students in the Geosciences at California State University Northridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Pedone, V.; Simila, G. W.; Yule, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    The Catalyst Program of the Department of Geological Sciences at California State University Northridge has been developed by four faculty members who were the recipients of a three-year award (2002-2005) from the National Science Foundation. The goal of the program is to increase minority participation and success in the geosciences. The program seeks to enrich the educational experience by introducing students at all levels to research in the geosciences and to decrease obstacles that affect academic success. Both these goals are largely achieved by the formation of integrated high school, undergraduate, and graduate research groups, which also provide fulfilling and successful peer mentorship. The Catalyst Program provides significant financial support to participants to allow them to focus their time on their education. New participants first complete a specially designed course that introduces them to peer-mentoring, collaborative learning, and geological research. Students of all experience levels then become members of research teams, which deepens academic and research skills as well as peer-mentor relationships. The program was highly successful in its inaugural year. To date, undergraduates and graduate students in the program coauthored six abstracts at professional meetings and one conference paper. High-school students gained first hand experience of a college course and geologic research. Perhaps the most important impacts of the program are the close camaraderie that has developed and the increased ability of the Catalyst students to plan and execute research with greater confidence and self-esteem.

  19. Retention of underrepresented groups in corporate agribusinesses: Assessing the intentions of underrepresented groups to remain working for corporate agribusinesses

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Brielle Simone

    2014-01-01

    It is projected that the majority population will become the minority population by 2050. In order to serve the needs of an ethnically diverse U.S. population, corporate agribusinesses are encouraged to employ an ethnically diverse workforce. The purpose of this research was to understand how attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the workplace affects the intent of underrepresented groups to remain in working for their current corporate agribusiness. In current agr...

  20. Programs for attracting under-represented minority students to graduate school and research careers in computational science. Final report for period October 1, 1995 - September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, James C. Jr.; Mason, Thomas; Guerrieri, Bruno

    1997-10-01

    Programs have been established at Florida A & M University to attract minority students to research careers in mathematics and computational science. The primary goal of the program was to increase the number of such students studying computational science via an interactive multimedia learning environment One mechanism used for meeting this goal was the development of educational modules. This academic year program established within the mathematics department at Florida A&M University, introduced students to computational science projects using high-performance computers. Additional activities were conducted during the summer, these included workshops, meetings, and lectures. Through the exposure provided by this program to scientific ideas and research in computational science, it is likely that their successful applications of tools from this interdisciplinary field will be high.

  1. Underrepresented minority high school and college students report STEM-pipeline sustaining gains after participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Salto

    Full Text Available An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS and undergraduate (UG student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical

  2. Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in two groups: biological science and engineering (S/E) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive variables (math/science academic self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations), along with the influence of ethnic variables (ethnic identity, other-group orientation) and perceptions of campus climate to their math/science interests and goal commitment to earn an S/E degree. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model provided good overall fit to the data, revealing significant relationships from outcome expectations to interests and to goals. Paths from academic self-efficacy to S/E goals and from interests to S/E goals varied for students in engineering and biological science. For both groups, other-group orientation was positively related to self-efficacy and support was found for an efficacy-mediated relationship between perceived campus climate and goals. Theoretical and practical implications of the study's findings are considered as well as future research directions.

  3. The Orientation Student Profile Card: Improving the Collection of Student Demographic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Marlene; Young, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Bridgewater State University (BSU) is a public institution that falls under the Carnegie classification of Master's Colleges and Universities. BSU is committed to serving students in the New England region. This student population includes a sizeable number of underrepresented students. BSU is dealing with intense pressure to serve these students…

  4. A Research Experiences for Undergraduates program (REU) Program Designed to Recruit, Engage and Prepare a Diverse Student Population for Careers in Ocean Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.

    2016-02-01

    The problem of improving diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce—still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines—can only be addressed by first recruiting and engaging a more diverse student population into the discipline, then retaining them in the workforce. California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) is home to the Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. As an HSI with strong ties to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system, the Monterey Bay REU is uniquely positioned to address the crucial recruitment and engagement of a diverse student body. Eleven sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students develop scientific self-efficacy and literacy skills through rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two

  5. A Longitudinal Study of How Quality Mentorship and Research Experience Integrate Underrepresented Minorities into STEM Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2018-01-01

    African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree earners. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that URMs do not integrate into the STEM academic community at the same rate as non-URM students.…

  6. Characteristics of the General Physics student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    2006-12-01

    Are pre-medical students different than the other students in a General physics class? They often appear to be different, based on how often they seek help from the instructor or how nervous they are about 2 points on a lab report. But are these students different in a measurable characteristic? The purpose of this study is to better understand the characteristics of the students in the introductory physics classes. This is the first step toward improving the instruction. By better understanding the students the classroom, the organization and pedagogy can be adjusted to optimize student learning. The characteristics to be investigated during this study are: · student epistemological structure, · student attitudes, · science course preparation prior to this course, · study techniques used, · physics concepts gained during the class · performance in the class. The data will be analyzed to investigate differences between groups. The groups investigated will be major, gender, and traditional/nontraditional students.

  7. Successes, Challenges and Lessons Learned for Recruiting, Engaging and Preparing a Diverse Student Population for 21st Century Careers in Ocean Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.

    2015-12-01

    Diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce is still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines, a problem that will be only be solved by recruiting, engaging and retaining a more diverse student population. The Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates program is housed at California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), an HSI with strong connections to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system. From this unique position, 11 sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students engage in rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two cohorts (2014, 2015) and here we present successes, challenges and lessons learned for a program designed to prepare students for 21st century Ocean Science careers.

  8. Developing Middle School Students' Interests in STEM via Summer Learning Experiences: See Blue STEM Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr-Schroeder, Margaret J.; Jackson, Christa; Miller, Maranda; Walcott, Bruce; Little, David L.; Speler, Lydia; Schooler, William; Schroeder, D. Craig

    2014-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that, in general, many students have a lack of interest and proficiency in mathematics and science. Therefore, it is imperative that we prepare and inspire all students, specifically students of underrepresented populations, to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content. Now in its fourth year,…

  9. A critical exploration of science doctoral programs: Counterstories from underrepresented women of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Senetta F.

    Most studies exploring the experiences of underrepresented doctoral students of color in science fields focus on their socialization into predominantly white institutions. While the socialization process is fundamental to doctoral success and consequently deserves attention, it is critical to inquire into how the widespread and lasting perception of people of color as socioculturally deficient shapes underrepresented students` socialization into science doctoral programs. Further, the existing research literature and educational policies addressing the persistent underrepresentation of students of color in science doctorates remain fixated on increasing racial diversity for U.S. economic security rather than racial equity. In view of the limitation of existing research literature, in this study, drawing from critical race theories, fictive-kinship, and forms of capital, I use counterstorytelling to recast racial inequities in the education of science doctorates as a problem of social justice, not as an issue of the students' sociocultural deficits or as a matter of economic security. Through interviews I examined the experiences, from elementary school to current careers, of three women of color who were science doctoral students. Participants' counterstories revealed institutionalized racism embedded in doctoral programs exploited their identities and dismissed their lived experiences, thereby, relegating them to outsiders-within academe. This marginalization precluded the inclusive socialization of participants into their doctoral programs and ultimately set up barriers to their pursuit of scientific careers. This study divulges the academic and career consequences of the sustained privilege disparities between underrepresented students of color's experience and the experiences of their white and Asian counterparts. In light of the participants' experiences, I recommend that, in order to change the existing policy of socially integrating students into oppressive

  10. A Mentoring Program in Environmental Science for Underrepresented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    We developed a four-year program, combining educational and career support and research activities, to recruit and retain students from underrepresented groups in environmental sciences. Specifically, the program: ○ Assigns each student a faculty or graduate student mentor with whom the student conducts research activities. ○ Includes a weekly group meeting for team building and to review professional development and academic topics, such as time management and research ethics. ○ Requires students to make multiple formal presentations of their research proposals and results. ○ Provides scholarships and stipends for both the academic year and to engage students in summer research. The program seeks to achieve several goals including: ● Enhance academic performance. ● Encourage continued study in environmental science. ● Facilitate students completing their studies at UVM. ● Increase students’ interest in pursuing science careers. ● Create a more welcoming academic environment. To assess progress toward achievement of these goals, we conducted individual structured interviews with participating undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty members at two points in time. First, interviews were conducted in the fall of 2007 after two years, and again in spring 2009, after four years. An independent research consultant, Dr. Livingston, conducted the interviews. In 2009, over the course of three days, the interviews included three graduate student and two faculty mentors, and six of the seven undergraduate students. Of the six students, three were juniors and three were graduating seniors. Results of the 2009 interviews echoed those of 2007. Both students and their mentors are quite satisfied with the program. The student presentations, weekly meetings, mentoring relationships, and summer research experiences all get high ratings from program participants. Students give high praise to their mentors and the program directors for providing

  11. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES: EXAMPLES AND LESSONS FROM CROATIAN STUDENT POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Matic; Hrvoje Serdarusic; Maja Vretenar Cobovic

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the results of their research related to financial involvement and management of personal finances of the student population on the territory of eastern Croatia. The research focused on the reasons for the entrance of student population into the financial system, the amount of their use of credit institutions’ services as well as their motives for choosing a certain credit institution

  12. Understanding Sleep Disorders in a College Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dallas R.

    2003-01-01

    College students' sleep habits are changing dramatically, and related sleep problems are increasing. Reviews the current literature on sleep problems, focusing on the college student population. The unique challenges of college settings are discussed as they apply to understanding sleep problems, and suggestions are made for professionals who work…

  13. Adapting Institutional Research to Changing Student Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    Institutional research (IR) in community/junior colleges in past years has been limited to gathering data for external agencies, concentrating on raw demographic data and student flow studies. IR should be directed toward providing data for administrative decisions and for successful maintenance of college operations. In spite of the heavy demands…

  14. Transformed Science: Overcoming Barriers of Inequality and Mistrust to Pursue the Agenda of Underrepresented Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Renee

    Educational programs created to provide opportunities for all, in reality often reflect social inequalities. Such is the case for Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR) Projects. PPSR projects have been proposed as an effective way to engage more diverse audiences in science, yet the demographics of PPSR participants do not correspond with the demographic makeup of the United States. The field of PPSR as a whole has struggled to recruit low SES and underrepresented populations to participate in project research efforts. This research study explores factors, which may be affecting an underrepresented community's willingness to engage in scientific research and provides advice from PPSR project leaders in the field, who have been able to engage underrepresented communities in scientific research, on how to overcome these barriers. Finally the study investigates the theoretical construct of a Third Space within a PPSR project. The research-based recommendations for PPSR projects desiring to initiate and sustain research partnerships with underrepresented communities well align with the theoretical construct of a Third Space. This study examines a specific scientific research partnership between an underrepresented community and scientific researchers to examine if and to what extent a Third Space was created. Using qualitative methods to understand interactions and processes involved in initiating and sustaining a scientific research partnership, this study provides advice on how PPSR research partnerships can engage underrepresented communities in scientific research. Study results show inequality and mistrust of powerful institutions stood as participation barriers for underrepresented community members. Despite these barriers PPSR project leaders recommend barriers can be confronted by open dialogue with communities about the abuse and alienation they have faced, by signaling respect for the community, and by entering the community through someone the

  15. CU-STARs: Promoting STEM Diversity by Addressing First-year Attrition of Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cara; Silvia, Devin W.; Ellingson, Erica; Sturner, Andrew P.; Peck, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Upon first entering university, the fraction of students interested in pursuing a STEM major are distributed according to societal demographics (with 25% being underrepresented minorities), but by graduation, the fraction of students receiving STEM degrees is unbalanced, with underrepresented minorities receiving only 15% of STEM bachelor's degrees. The CU-STARs (CU Science, Technology, and Astronomy Recruits) program at the University of Colorado, Boulder is targeted to address the main triggers of early career attrition for underrepresented minorities in STEM disciplines. A select group of students are given financial support through work-study at the Fiske planetarium on campus, while resources to address other triggers of attrition are available to the entire cohort of interested students (typically ~5-10 per year). These resources are designed to promote social engagement and mentorship, while also providing a support network and resources to combat inadequate high school preparation for STEM courses. We achieve these goals through activities that include social events, mentor meetings, free tutoring, and special events to meet and talk with scientists. The culmination of the program for the recruits are a series of high school outreach events in underserved areas (inner city and rural alike), in which they become the expert. The STARs are paid for their time and take the lead in planning, teaching, and facilitating programs for the high school students, including classroom presentations, interactive lab activities, solar observing, and star parties. The high school outreach events provide role models and STEM exposure for the underserved high school community while simultaneously cementing the personal achievements and successes for the STARs. CU-STARs is now in its 4th year and is still growing. We are beginning the process of formal assessments of the program's success. We present details of the program implementation, a discussion of potential obstacles

  16. Student and School Staff Strategies to Combat Cyberbullying in an Urban Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrey, William V., Jr.; Weber, Nicole L.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that cyberbullying is occurring among middle and high school student populations at increasing rates. There is limited research, however, on strategies students use to combat cyberbullying, as well as how schools implement policies, intervention tactics, and prevention strategies. This qualitative study aimed to explore, among a…

  17. Broadening Awareness and Participation in the Geosciences Among Underrepresented Minorities in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.

    2012-12-01

    An acute STEM crisis exists nationally, and the problem is even more dire among the geosciences. Since about the middle of the last century, fewer undergraduate and graduate degrees have been granted in the geosciences than in any other STEM fields. To help in ameliorating this geoscience plight, particularly from among members of racial and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in STEM fields, the New York City College of Technology (City Tech) launched a vibrant geoscience program and convened a community of STEM students who are interested in learning about the geosciences. This program creates and introduces geoscience knowledge and opportunities to a diverse undergraduate student population that was never before exposed to geoscience courses at City Tech. This geoscience project is funded by the NSF OEDG program, and it brings awareness, knowledge, and geoscience opportunities to City Tech's students in a variety of ways. Firstly, two new geoscience courses have been created and introduced. One course is on Environmental Remote Sensing, and the other course is an Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters. The Remote Sensing course highlights the physical and mathematical principles underlying remote sensing techniques. It covers the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques, interferometric and lidar systems, and an introduction to image processing. Guest lecturers are invited to present their expertise on various geoscience topics. These sessions are open to all City Tech students, not just to those students who enroll in the course. The Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters course is expected to be offered in Spring 2013. This highly relevant, fundamental course will be open to all students, especially to non-science majors. The course focuses on natural disasters, the processes that control them, and their devastating impacts to human life and structures. Students will be introduced to the nature, causes, risks

  18. Population-based initiatives in college mental health: students helping students to overcome obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Daniel J; Pinder-Amaker, Stephanie L; Morse, Charles; Ellison, Marsha L; Doerfler, Leonard A; Riba, Michelle B

    2014-12-01

    College students' need for mental health care has increased dramatically, leaving campus counseling and mental health centers struggling to meet the demand. This has led to the investigation and development of extra-center, population-based interventions. Student-to-student support programs are but one example. Students themselves are a plentiful, often-untapped resource that extends the reach of mental health services on campus. Student-to-student programs capitalize on students' natural inclination to assist their peers. A brief review of the prevalence and effects of mental disorders in the college population is provided, followed by a broad overview of the range of peer-to-peer programs that can be available on college campuses. Two innovative programs are highlighted: (1) a hospital- and community-based program, the College Mental Health Program (CMHP) at McLean Hospital, and 2) the Student Support Network (SSN) at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The subsequent section reviews the literature on peer-to-peer programs for students with serious and persistent mental illness for which there is a small but generally positive body of research. This lack of an empirical basis in college mental health leads the authors to argue for development of broad practice-research networks.

  19. Myth 3: A Family of Identification Myths--Your Sample Must Be the Same as the Population. There Is a "Silver Bullet" in Identification. There Must Be "Winners" and "Losers" in Identification and Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of several interrelated myths reflects a combination of misinterpretation of statistics, the commendable intention of ensuring that bias and prejudice do not play roles in the provision of services to underrepresented populations of gifted students, and misapplication of programming options for gifted students. Separately, these…

  20. STREAMS - Supporting Underrepresented Groups in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Knighton, K.; Johnson, A.

    2009-12-01

    In Fall 2008, STREAMS (Supporting Talented and Remarkable Environmental And Marine Science students) Scholarship initiative began at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg, the only public university in Pinellas County. STREAMS is a partnership between the University of South Florida St. Petersburg’s (USFSP) Environmental Science and Policy Program and University of South Florida’s (USF) College of Marine Science. The STREAMS Student Scholarship Program has facilitated increased recruitment, retention, and graduation of USFSP environmental science and USF marine science majors. The STREAMS program has increased opportunities for minorities and women to obtain undergraduate and graduate degrees, gain valuable research experience and engage in professional development activities. STREAMS scholars have benefited from being mentored by USFSP and USF faculty and as well as MSPhDs students and NSF Florida-Georgia LSAMP Bridge to Doctorate graduate fellows. In addition, STREAMS has facilitated activities designed to prepare student participants for successful Earth system science-related careers. We will elucidate the need for this initiative and vision for the collaboration.

  1. Final Report National Laboratory Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Valerie [Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The 2013 CMD-IT National Laboratories Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants (CMD-IT NLPDev 2013) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus in Oak Ridge, TN. from June 13 - 14, 2013. Sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Scientific Computing Research Program, the primary goal of these workshops is to provide information about career opportunities in computational science at the various national laboratories and to mentor the underrepresented participants through community building and expert presentations focused on career success. This second annual workshop offered sessions to facilitate career advancement and, in particular, the strategies and resources needed to be successful at the national laboratories.

  2. Smooth Transition for Advancement to Graduate Education (STAGE) for Underrepresented Groups in the Mathematical Sciences Pilot Project: Broadening Participation through Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks-Turner, Christina; Beaulieu, Patricia; Pal, Nabendu

    2018-01-01

    The Smooth Transition for Advancement to Graduate Education (STAGE) project was a three-year pilot project designed to mentor undergraduate students primarily from under-represented groups in the mathematical sciences. The STAGE pilot project focused on mentoring students as they transitioned from undergraduate education to either graduate school…

  3. Why Are Women Underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender Differences in Stereotypes, Self-Efficacy, Values, and Interests and Predictors of Future CS Course-Taking and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their…

  4. Number of Minority Students in Colleges Rose by 9% from 1990 to 1991, U.S. Reports; Fact File: State-by-State Enrollment by Racial and Ethnic Group, Fall 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1993-01-01

    A national survey shows that total minority enrollment in colleges is at an all-time high at 20.6 percent of overall enrollment. Despite this, minority groups continue to be underrepresented in college student populations. Enrollments by state indicate wide geographic variation in percentages of students from ethnic and racial minorities. (MSE)

  5. Emotional Management and Motivation: A Case Study of Underrepresented Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of emotions in the workplace rarely has been examined within the context of higher education (Neumann, 2006; Smith and Witt, 1993). Through a qualitative approach, the purpose of this chapter is to offer a perspective of faculty work that examines the role that emotions play in the academic life of 15 underrepresented faculty members…

  6. Women's Self-Efficacy Perceptions in Mathematics and Science: Investigating USC-MESA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rebecca C.; Jun, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions have struggled with the underrepresentation of female students in the STEM majors. The authors investigate the USC-MESA program and the role of women's self-efficacy perceptions in mathematics and science. It is crucial to understand the theory of self-efficacy in examining historically underrepresented populations in…

  7. Hispanics: A Diverse Population of Students to Influence the Landscape of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic students are a growing and pervasive population within higher education. This position paper examines population characteristics and educational patterns of Hispanic students that underscore failures of the higher education system in serving these students, in addition to institutional issues and cultural values that further complicate…

  8. Relation Between Near Work and Myopia Progression in Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamedagic, Lejla; Muhamedagic, Belma; Halilovic, Emina Alimanovic; Halimic, Jasmina Alajbegovic; Stankovic, Aleksa; Muracevic, Bedrana

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine relation between near work and myopia progression in student population. Causes of myopia occurrence are not sufficiently explained. Methods This retrospective-prospective, descriptive research included 100 students with verified myopia up to -3 Dsph. Ophthalmological examination and measurement diopter-hours variable (Dh) were done twice, in the period from January 2011 until January 2012. Results A multivariate regression analysis of impact on the difference of distance visual acuity without correction to the right and left eye and difference of automatic computer refractometry in cycloplegia of both eyes indicates that, diopter-hours variable (Dh) had statistically significant impact on increase of distance visual acuity difference (right eye OR: I measurement–Dh 1.489, II measurement–Dh 1.544, prefractometry in cycloplegia (right eye OR: I measurement 1.361, II measurement 1.493, p<0.05; left eye OR: I measurement 0.931, II measurement 1.019, p<0.05) during both measurements. Conclusion Near work cause the increase of myopia. This research opened a perspective for other researches on the impact of near work on myopia. PMID:24944532

  9. Intervention to Improve Engineering Self-Efficacy and Sense of Belonging of First-Year Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kari L.

    The percentage of bachelor's degrees in STEM awarded to women and underrepresented minority students needs to increase dramatically to reach parity with their majority counterparts. While three key underrepresented minority (URM) groups, African Americans, Hispanic/Latinos, and Native Americans constitute some 30 percent of the overall undergraduate student population in the United States, the share of engineering degrees earned by members of these groups declines as degree level increases. Underrepresented minority students accounted for about 12% of engineering bachelor's degrees awarded in 2009, 7% of master's degrees and 3% of doctorates (NSF Science Resource Statistics, 2009). The percent in engineering has been steadily decreasing, while overall participation in higher education among these groups has increased considerably. Keeping those thoughts in mind it is important to examine the historical theories and frameworks that will help us not only understand why underrepresented minority students pursue and persist in STEM majors in low numbers, but to also develop interventions to improve the alarming statistics that hamper engineering diversity. As indicated by our past two U.S. Presidents, there has been an increased discussion on the national and state level regarding the number of students entering engineering disciplines in general and underrepresented minority students in particular. Something happens between a student's freshman year and the point they decide to either switch their major or drop out of school altogether. Some researchers attribute the high dropout rate of underrepresented minority students in engineering programs to low engineering self-efficacy (e.g. Jordan et al., 2011). A student's engineering self-efficacy is his/her belief that he/she can successfully navigate the engineering curriculum and eventually become a practicing engineer. A student's engineering self-efficacy is formed by mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, his

  10. Motivation and career outcomes of a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Robbie Ray

    Minorities continue to be underrepresented in professional science careers. In order to make Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers more accessible for underrepresented minorities, informal science programs must be utilized to assist in developing interest in STEM for minority youth. In addition to developing interest in science, informal programs must help develop interpersonal skills and leadership skills of youth, which allow youth to develop discrete social behaviors while creating positive and supportive communities thus making science more practical in their lives. This study was based on the premise that introducing underrepresented youth to the agricultural and life sciences through an integrated precollege experience of leadership development with university faculty, scientist, and staff would help increase youths' interest in science, while also increasing their interest to pursue a STEM-related career. Utilizing a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities, known as the Ag Discovery Camp, 33 middle school aged youth were brought to the Purdue University campus to participate in an experience that integrated a leadership development program with an informal science education program in the context of agriculture. The week-long program introduced youth to fields of agriculture in engineering, plant sciences, food sciences, and entomology. The purpose of the study was to describe short-term and intermediate student outcomes in regards to participants' interests in career activities, science self-efficacy, and career intentions. Youth were not interested in agricultural activities immediately following the precollege experience. However, one year after the precollege experience, youth expressed they were more aware of agriculture and would consider agricultural careers if their first career choice did not work out for them. Results also showed that the youth who participated in the precollege experience were

  11. Concepts first: A course with improved educational outcomes and parity for underrepresented minority groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Two active learning physics courses were taught and compared. The "concepts first" course was organized to teach only concepts in the first part of the class, the ultimate goal being to increase students' problem-solving abilities much later in the class. The other course was taught in the same quarter by the same instructor using the same curricular materials, but covered material in the standard (chapter-by-chapter) order. After accounting for incoming student characteristics, students from the concepts-first course scored significantly better in two outcome measures: their grade on the final exam and the grade received in their subsequent physics course. Moreover, in the concepts-first class course, students from groups underrepresented in physics had final exam scores and class grades that were indistinguishable from other students. Finally, students who took at least one concepts-first course in introductory physics were found to have significantly higher rates of graduation with a STEM major than students from this cohort who did not.

  12. Retaining Underrepresented Minority Undergraduates in STEM through Hands-on Internship Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzai, A.; Mcpherson, R. A.; DeLong, K. L.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Zak, J.; Earl, J.; Owens, K.; Wilson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior's South Central Climate Science Center (SCCSC) hosts an annual 3-week summer internship opportunity for undergraduate students of underrepresented minorities interested in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. Internship participants travel across the south-central U.S. to visit university campuses and field locations. The students interact with faculty conducting cutting edge research and with resource managers facing decision-making under uncertainty. This internship format allows the participants to see the direct impacts of climate variability and change on the Texas Hill Country, prairie and forest ecosystems and tribal cultures in Oklahoma, and the bayous, delta and coastline of Louisiana. Immersive experiences are key for exposing students to academic research and providing them with the skills and experiences needed to continue on in their professional careers. The SCCSC's program introduces students to how research is conducted, gives them a broad perspective on how collaborations form, and starts each student on the path to building a large and diverse professional network. By providing participants with a "buffet" of options, our internship serves as a launching pad from which each student can move forward towards experiences such as participating in a Research Experiences for Undergraduates program, gaining employment in a STEM-related career path, and being accepted into a graduate degree program. This presentation will describe the components of the SCCSC's internship program and provide a summary of post-internship student successes.

  13. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students’ Science Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew C.; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life sciences across ethnic groups of freshman college students, as moderated by generational status. Results from a longitudinal survey (N = 249) demonstrated that freshman URM students who enter with a greater belief that science can be used to help their communities identified as scientists more strongly over time, but only among first-generation college students. Analysis of the survey data were consistent with content analysis of 11 transcripts from simultaneously conducted focus groups (N = 67); together, these studies reveal important differences in motivational characteristics both across and within ethnicity across educational generation status. First-generation URM students held the strongest prosocial values for pursuing a science major (e.g., giving back to the community). URM students broadly reported additional motivation to increase the status of their family (e.g., fulfilling aspirations for a better life). These findings demonstrate the importance of culturally connected career motives and for examining intersectional identities to understand science education choices and inform efforts to broaden participation. PMID:27543631

  14. Accommodative insufficiency in a student population in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Nabovati, Payam; Shahraki, Fatemeh Azad; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Faghihi, Mohammad; Aghamirsalim, Mohamadreza; Doostdar, Asgar; Yekta, Abbasali

    2018-05-22

    To determine the prevalence of accommodative insufficiency (AI) and its relation with age, gender, and refractive errors in a college-age student population in Iran. The present study was conducted cross-sectionally in 2017. All students had optometric tests including measurement of visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction, as well as binocular vision and accommodative examinations. Amplitude of accommodation was measured with the Donders' push-up method using the Royal Air Force (RAF) rule. Monocular accommodative facility was measured with ±2.00diopter flipper lenses. The accommodative response was tested using dynamic retinoscopy with the monocular estimation method (MEM). The prevalence of AI in the studied population was 4.07% (95% CI: 2.61-5.52). The rate was 6.04% (95% CI: 3.58-8.50) in females and 2.01% (95% CI: 0.53-3.48) in males, and logistic regression showed a significantly higher odds of AI in females (OR=3.14, 95% CI: 1.33-7.45, p-value=0.009). The prevalence of AI was 2.59% (95% CI: 0.55-7.56) in the 18-19-year-old age group and 4.08% (95% CI: 0.09-8.07) in the 24-25-year-old group (p-value=0.848). The prevalence of AI among emmetropic, myopic, and hyperopic individuals was 3.74% (95% CI: 1.88-5.61), 4.44% (95% CI: 2.07-6.81), and 5.26% (95% CI: 4.79-16.32), respectively (p-value=0.869). In the multiple regression model, only gender showed significant relationship with AI (Odds ratio=3.14, 95% CI: 1.33-7.45; p-values=0.009). The prevalence of AI in the present study is lower than the most prevalence rates reported in previous studies. In the present study, gender and AI showed a strong association, such that AI prevalence was significantly higher in females than males. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Do students with mild-intellectual disability mimic students in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacoricona Alfaro, Dibia Liz; Ehlinger, Virginie; Spilka, Stanislas; Ross, Jim; Sentenac, Mariane; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2017-04-01

    Education policies encourage inclusion of students with mild-intellectual disability (mild-ID) in community/school life. However, such policies potentially increase exposure to substance use. This article examines tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among French students enrolled in special units for students with disabilities (ULIS) at mainstream junior high schools compared to those of general population of the equivalent age; and explores factors associated with substance use among ULIS students, known to present mostly mild-ID. In 2014, a questionnaire adapted from the international HBSC/WHO study was administered to 700 ULIS students (mean-age 14.2). Comparative data were gathered from 7023 junior high-school students (mean-age 13.6) in the general population. Among students <14 years-old, tobacco and alcohol use rates were similar between ULIS and general population. For students ≥14, alcohol use remained comparable, while tobacco and cannabis use were higher in general population. Among ULIS students, low perceived health/life satisfaction, divorced/separated parents and high perceived academic demands were associated with tobacco use. Bullying, not liking school very much and attending schools outside a deprived area were associated with alcohol use. Having had sexual intercourse and not perceiving one's health as excellent were associated with cannabis use. Having dated was associated with using all three substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Programs for Increasing the Engagement of Underrepresented Ethnic Groups and People with Disabilities in HPC. Final assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Valerie

    2012-12-23

    Given the significant impact of computing on society, it is important that all cultures, especially underrepresented cultures, are fully engaged in the field of computing to ensure that everyone benefits from the advances in computing. This proposal is focused on the field of high performance computing. The lack of cultural diversity in computing, in particular high performance computing, is especially evident with respect to the following ethnic groups – African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans – as well as People with Disabilities. The goal of this proposal is to organize and coordinate a National Laboratory Career Development Workshop focused on underrepresented cultures (ethnic cultures and disability cultures) in high performance computing. It is expected that the proposed workshop will increase the engagement of underrepresented cultures in HPC through increased exposure to the excellent work at the national laboratories. The National Laboratory Workshops are focused on the recruitment of senior graduate students and the retention of junior lab staff through the various panels and discussions at the workshop. Further, the workshop will include a community building component that extends beyond the workshop. The workshop was held was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory campus in Livermore, CA. from June 14 - 15, 2012. The grant provided funding for 25 participants from underrepresented groups. The workshop also included another 25 local participants in the summer programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Below are some key results from the assessment of the workshops: 86% of the participants indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I am more likely to consider/continue a career at a national laboratory as a result of participating in this workshop." 77% indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I plan to pursue a summer internship at a national laboratory." 100% of the participants indicated strongly

  17. New England's Disadvantaged Populations Struggle the Most with Student Debt Repayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saas, Darcy Rollins

    2016-01-01

    Regularly reported statistics about high and growing student-loan debt levels, combined with increased rates of delinquency and default, have prompted calls to address the student-debt "crisis." For New England, with its highly educated population and large higher education industry, student-loan debt is an important economic policy…

  18. The Presentation Assignment: Creating Learning Opportunities for Diverse Student Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.; Bartle-Angus, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    Finds the presentation assignment to be an effective method of providing students with the opportunity to apply the literacy skills they are learning in ways that are personally meaningful. Describes the presentation assignment framework and provides an example of an assignment that required students to analyze and interpret works of literature…

  19. Retention of Underrepresented Minority Faculty: Strategic Initiatives for Institutional Value Proposition Based on Perspectives from a Range of Academic Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Joseph A; Montgomery, Beronda L; Martinez Acosta, Veronica G

    2015-01-01

    The student and faculty make-up of academic institutions does not represent national demographics. Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately underrepresented nationally, and particularly at predominantly white institutions (PWIs). Although significant efforts and funding have been committed to increasing points of access or recruitment of under-represented minority (URM) students and faculty at PWIs, these individuals have not been recruited and retained at rates that reflect their national proportions. Underrepresentation of URMs is particularly prevalent in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. This reality represents a national crisis given a predicted shortage of workers in STEM disciplines based on current rates of training of all individuals, majority and URM, and the intersection of this limitation with persistent challenges in the recruitment, training, retention and advancement of URMs who will soon represent the largest pool of future trainees. An additional compounding factor is the increasingly disproportionate underrepresentation of minorities at higher professorial and administrative ranks, thus limiting the pool of potential mentors who are correlated with successful shepherding of URM students through STEM training and development. We address issues related to improving recruitment and retention of URM faculty that are applicable across a range of academic institutions. We describe challenges with recruitment and retention of URM faculty and their advancement through promotion in the faculty ranks and into leadership positions. We offer specific recommendations, including identifying environmental barriers to diversity and implementing strategies for their amelioration, promoting effective and innovative mentoring, and addressing leadership issues related to constructive change for promoting diversity.

  20. With Educational Benefits for All: Campus Inclusion through Learning Communities Designed for Underserved Student Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, John E.; Hummel, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the practices of learning communities designed for specific, underserved student populations, highlighting on-campus examples and culminating with a synthesized list of core practices from these "inclusive" learning communities.

  1. Exposing Underrepresented Groups to Climate Change and Atmospheric Science Through Service Learning and Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, D.

    2016-12-01

    Tennessee State University (TSU) is among seven partner institutions in the NASA-funded project "Mission Earth: Fusing Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) with NASA Assets to Build Systemic Innovation in STEM Education." The primary objective at the TSU site is to expose high school students from racial and ethnic groups traditionally underrepresented in STEM to atmospheric science and physical systems associated with climate change. Currently, undergraduate students enrolled in TSU's urban and physical courses develop lessons for high school students focused upon the analysis of global warming phenomena and related extreme weather events. The GLOBE Atmosphere Protocols are emphasized in exercises focused upon the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon and air quality measurements. Pre-service teachers at TSU, and in-service teachers at four local high schools are being certified in the Atmosphere Protocols. Precipitation, ambient air temperature, surface temperature and other data are collected at the schools through a collaborative learning effort among the high school students, TSU undergraduates, and high school teachers. Data collected and recorded manually in the field are compared to each school's automated Weatherbug station measurements. Students and teachers engage in analysis of NASA imagery as part of the GLOBE Surface Temperature Protocol. At off-campus locations, US Clean Air Act (CAA) criteria air pollutant and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) air pollutant sampling is being conducted in community-based participatory research (CBPR) format. Students partner with non-profit environmental organizations. Data collected using low-cost air sampling devices is being compared with readings from government air monitors. The GLOBE Aerosols Protocol is used in comparative assessments with air sampling results. Project deliverables include four new GLOBE schools, the enrollment of which is nearly entirely comprised of students

  2. An Analysis of Supports for Persistence for the Military Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Bruce; Black, Ellen Lowrie; Spohn, R. Terry

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to describe the correlation of academic, financial, and social supports to the persistence of a military student population: veterans, active duty and their families. The study also contrasted these relationships with those of nonmilitary students and looked at the results of both groups together to determine how supports…

  3. Geography, the Integrating Discipline: Explaining China's Population-Driven Geopolitics to Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchat, Clarence J.

    2008-01-01

    This article demonstrates geography's role as an integrative discipline and its utility in connecting students to the world around them. A case study links China's demography and its geopolitics to the lives of U.S. students. The relationship of China's population pressures to its resulting economic growth, need for economic resources, and…

  4. Self-efficacy beliefs of underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay, Guadalupe

    The purpose of this study is to understand the self-perceptions, confidence, and self-efficacy of underrepresented minorities (URMs) as they undertake Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) courses during their K-12 years in urban-public schools. Through the lens of Bandura's self-efficacy theory, this study analyzed self-efficacious behaviors as they revealed themselves in K-12 classrooms. The participants were 11th- and 12th-grade students, their parents, their STEM teachers, and their mentor. The goal was to understand what has been inhibiting the growth of URM representation in STEM majors and in STEM fields. This qualitative study was designed to understand the participants' stories and uncover personal characteristics such as grit, perseverance, and determination in the face of obstacles. The instruments used in this study were interviews, observations, and self-efficacy surveys. The findings revealed that the participants' perceptions of the students' abilities to succeed in a STEM field were all tentatively positive. The participants focused on the many obstacles already overcome by the students and used it as precedent for future success. All the student-participants shared a similar set of adult types in their lives--adults who believed not only in their STEM abilities, but also in their abilities to face obstacles, who were willing to give their time and expertise when necessary, and who shared similar experiences in terms of the lack of educational resources or of economic struggles. It was these shared experiences that strengthened the beliefs that, if the adult participants could succeed in education or succeed in spite of poverty, the student participants could succeed, as well.

  5. Treatment of Bipolar Disorder in the University Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Russ

    2011-01-01

    University counseling centers are faced with the challenge of effectively treating bipolar students while also utilizing brief treatment frameworks and managing high patient volumes. Potential destabilization, particularly within the elevated mood phase, poses significant behavioral management issues for university clinicians and administrators,…

  6. Dimensions of Assertiveness in an Asian-American Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Mary A.; Greenfield, Tom K.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzed components of assertiveness, assessed by the College Self-Expression Scale, for Asian-American (N=105) and Caucasian (N=135) students. Results showed a significant difference in full-scale assertion scores indicating lower levels of overall assertion in Asian Americans, interpreted as consistent with value differences between…

  7. Deconstructing "Bistro 24" for a Traditionally Underserved Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    The "Journal of Legal Studies Education" article, "Step Away from the Syllabus: Engaging Students on the First Day of Legal Environment," encouraged instructors to rethink their approaches to the initial class session. The exercise offers an opportunity to introduce the relevance of the legal environment course within the…

  8. Sleep and Food Choice in a Dutch Student Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, Cathalijn H. C.; Klinkenberg, Inge P. M.; Aussems, Audrey; Borger, Nedim; Faatz, Vivian; Hak, Anneloes; Houben, Ellen; Ramackers, Joyce; Snackers, Daphne; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2015-01-01

    The increased risk of obesity among short sleepers is most likely explained by increased energy intake. However, food intake could not only be altered quantitavely but also qualitatively. Therefore, we performed a correlational analysis on self-reported food intake and sleep in 51 students from

  9. Product News versus Advertising: An Exploration within a Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Kirk

    An exploratory survey (part of a larger study) examined the relative effectiveness of news versus advertising as sources of product information. Subjects, 140 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory public speaking course or a course in visual communication, completed a 5-page media interest survey. Results indicated that news rates…

  10. Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

  11. The Importance of MS PHD'S and SEEDS Mentoring and Professional Development Programs in the Retenion of Underrepresented Minorities in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.

    2012-12-01

    According to a recent study by the National Academy of Sciences, underrepresented minority (URM) participation in STEM disciplines represents approximately one third of the URM population in the U.S. Thus, the proportion of URM in STEM disciplines would need to triple in order to reflect the demographic makeup in the U.S. Individual programs targeting the recruitment and retention of URM students in STEM have demonstrated that principles of mentoring, community building, networking, and professional skill development are crucial in encouraging URM students to remain in STEM disciplines thereby reducing this disparity in representation. However, to paraphrase an old African proverb, "it takes a village to nurture and develop a URM student entering into the STEM community." Through programs such as the Institute for Broadening Participation's Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science and the Ecological Society of America's Strategies for Ecology Education, Diversity and Sustainability (SEEDS), URM students are successfully identifying and benefitting from meaningful opportunities to develop the professional skills and strategies needed to achieve their academic and career goals. Both programs share a philosophy of professional development, reciprocal mentoring, field trips, internships, employment, research partnerships, collaborations, fellowships, scholarships, grants, and professional meeting travel awards to support URM student retention in STEM. Both programs share a mission to bring more diversity and inclusivity into STEM fields. Both programs share a history of success at facilitating the preparation and advancement of URM students. This success has been documented with the multitude of URM students that have matriculated through the programs and are now actively engaged in the pursuit of advanced degrees in STEM or entering the STEM workforce. Anonymous surveys from

  12. Increasing student diversity and cultural competence as part of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry's service mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Margie R; Forde, Ron

    2012-06-01

    For many years, studies have identified a need for greater racial and ethnic diversity among dental professionals. However, the ability of the field to collectively address the problem has been hindered by the low numbers of underrepresented minority students who apply to dental school. Over the past two decades, college attendance rates have increased and U.S. dental school applications have tripled, but the number of underrepresented minority dental applicants has remained about the same. With the increasing diversity of the U.S. population and specifically that of the state of California, the dental workforce would be enhanced by the presence of more underrepresented minority dentists. Additionally, curricular changes should be implemented to better prepare dental students to meet the oral health care needs of diverse populations. There is general agreement that these workforce and curricular changes would enhance access to care for underserved populations. For seven years, Loma Linda University School of Dentistry participated in the Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program. The first phase of this national program addressed deficiencies in diversity in dentistry and in access to oral health care. In the second phase, Loma Linda University continued to collaborate with other California dental schools on specific state initiatives. This article provides an overview of the school's efforts to enroll a more diverse student body, enhance all its students' cultural competence, and expand care to underserved populations.

  13. Achieving student diversity in dental schools: a model that works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Ernestine S; McCann, Ann L; Miller, Barbara H; Solomon, Eric; Reuben, Jayne S

    2012-05-01

    It is well known that there is a large disparity between the proportions of African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians in the general U.S. population and in the nation's dental profession. While these underrepresented minorities (URMs) together make up almost 30 percent of the population, they comprise only about 6 percent of U.S. dentists. For years, the American Dental Education Association has been diligently working with U.S. dental schools to reduce this disparity by increasing the diversity of their student bodies. However, with approximately 13 percent of first-year dental students coming from URM groups, the proportion of URM students entering dental school continues to remain significantly below that of the general population. Diversifying the dental profession is important for improving access to care for underrepresented groups, and student diversity provides better educational experiences for all students. Texas A&M Health Science Center Baylor College of Dentistry's strategy for increasing the number of URM dentists was to create a series of initiatives that together form a successful comprehensive program addressing students' awareness of and attraction to a dental career, academic enrichment, admissions, and graduation. The cumulative impact of this program is that the college enrolled greater numbers and proportions of URM students than any other non-minority U.S. dental school from 2006 to 2009. This article describes the program that led to these successes.

  14. Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Student Field Research Experiences in Special Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Amr S; Chamberlain, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Global health education and training of biomedical students in international and minority health research is expending through U.S. academic institutions. This study addresses the short- and long-term outcomes of an NCI-funded R25 short-term summer field research training program. This program is designed for MPH and Ph.D. students in cancer epidemiology and related disciplines, in international and minority settings (special populations) in a recent 7-year period. Positive short-term outcome of 73 students was measured as publishing a manuscript from the field research data and having a job in special populations. Positive long-term outcome was measured as having a post-doc position, being in a doctoral program, and/or employment in special populations at least 3 years from finishing the program. Significant factors associated with both short- and long-term success included resourcefulness of the student and compatibility of personalities and interests between the student and the on-campus and off-campus mentors. Short-term-success of students who conducted international filed research was associated with visits of the on-campus mentor to the field site. Short-term success was also associated with extent of mentorship in the field site and with long-term success. Future studies should investigate how field research sites could enhance careers of students, appropriateness of the sites for specific training competencies, and how to maximize the learning experience of students in international and minority research sites.

  15. Social Media and Population Health Virtual Exchange for Senior Nursing Students: An International Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Paula M; Brixey, Juliana J; Honey, Michelle L L; Todhunter, Fern

    2016-01-01

    The authors have all engaged in using social media with students as a means for collaboration across national and international boundaries for various educational purposes. Following the explosion of big data in health the authors are now moving this concept forward within undergraduate and postgraduate nursing curricula for the development of population health virtual exchanges. Nursing has a global presence and yet it appears as though students have little knowledge of the health and social care needs and provision outside their local environment. This development will allow for explorative exchange amongst students in three countries, enhancing their understanding of their own and the selected international population health needs and solutions through asking and responding to questions amongst the learning community involved. The connection of the students will be recorded for their use in reflection; of particular interest will be the use of information included by the students to answer questions about their locality.

  16. Developing a Diverse Professoriate - Preliminary Outcomes from a Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, H. R.; Keane, C. M.; Seadler, A. R.; Wilson, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    A professional development workshop for underrepresented minority, future and early-career faculty in the geosciences was held in April of 2012. Twenty seven participants traveled to the Washington DC metro area and attended this 2.5 day workshop. Participants' career levels ranged from early PhD students to Assistant Professors, and they had research interests spanning atmospheric sciences, hydrology, solid earth geoscience and geoscience education. Race and ethnicity of the participants included primarily African American or Black individuals, as well as Hispanic, Native American, Native Pacific Islanders and Caucasians who work with underrepresented groups. The workshop consisted of three themed sessions led by prestigious faculty members within the geoscience community, who are also underrepresented minorities. These sessions included "Guidance from Professional Societies," "Instructional Guidance" and "Campus Leadership Advice." Each session lasted about 3 hours and included a mixture of presentational materials to provide context, hands-on activities and robust group discussions. Two additional sessions were devoted to learning about federal agencies. For the morning session, representatives from USGS and NOAA came to discuss opportunities within each agency and the importance of promoting geoscience literacy with our participants. The afternoon session gave the workshop attendees the fortunate opportunity to visit NSF headquarters. Participants were welcomed by NSF's Assistant Director for Geosciences and took part in small group meetings with program officers within the Geosciences Directorate. Participants indicated having positive experiences during this workshop. In our post-workshop evaluation, the majority of participants revealed that they thought the sessions were valuable, with many finding the sessions extremely valuable. The effectiveness of each session had similar responses. Preliminary results from 17 paired sample t-tests show increased

  17. Supporting Success for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.; Weissmann, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    The geoscience student population in the United States today does not reflect the diversity of the US population. Not only does this challenge our ability to educate sufficient numbers of students in the geosciences, it also challenges our ability to address issues of environmental justice, to bring geoscience expertise to diverse communities, and to pursue a research agenda reflecting the needs and interests of our nation as a whole. Programs that are successful in supporting students from underrepresented groups attend to the whole student (Jolly et al, 2004) as they develop not only knowledge and skills, but a sense of belonging and a drive to succeed in geoscience. The whole student approach provides a framework for supporting the success of all students, be they members of underrepresented groups or not. Important aspects of support include mentoring and advising, academic support, an inclusive learning community, and opportunities to learn about the profession and to develop geoscience and professional skills. To successfully provide support for the full range of students, it is critical to consider not only what opportunities are available but the barriers different types of students face in accessing these opportunities. Barriers may arise from gaps in academic experiences, crossing into a new and unfamiliar culture, lack of confidence, stereotype threat, implicit bias and other sources. Isolation of geoscience learning from its application and social context may preferentially discourage some groups. Action can be taken to increase support for all students within an individual course, a department or an institution. The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges program and the On the Cutting Edge Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty program all provide resources for individuals and departments including on line information, program descriptions, and workshop opportunities.

  18. Internet addiction disorder: prevalence in an Italian student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Roberto; Agrimi, Emilia

    2012-02-01

    Internet addiction is one of the latest forms of addiction that has attracted the attention of popular media and researchers in these last few years. Several authors think Internet addiction is a separate disorder that merits inclusion in DSM-V. There is considerable controversy about this opinion. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction in a representative sample of high school students attending secondary institutions in the district of Cremona and to assess any difference concerning variables such as gender, age, place of residence and kind of school attended. The Italian version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) has been administered to a sample of 2533 students from different kinds of school. The survey also required social and demographic data. The majority of respondents were classified as normal users of the Internet (n = 2386, 94.19%), with 127 (5.01%) moderately addicted and 20 (0.79%) seriously addicted. Significant differences in gender and in kinds of school were found. No statistical differences were revealed in age and urban or rural conditions. Our study has confirmed the general use of the Internet among youngest people, the emergence of Internet addiction and the male preponderance of this phenomenon.

  19. Women underrepresented on editorial boards of 60 major medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Karin; Langmann, Andrea; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Pieber, Thomas R; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2011-12-01

    Although there has been a continuous increase in the number of women working in the field of medicine, women rarely reach the highest academic positions as full professors or editorial board members. We aimed to determine the proportion of women on the editorial boards of top-ranked medical journals in different medical specialties. We analyzed the gender of editorial board members of 60 top-ranked journals of 12 Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports categories. A total of 4175 editors were included in our analysis. Only 15.9% (10 of 63) editors-in-chief were female. In the 5 categories, critical care, anesthesiology, orthopedics, ophthalmology and radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging, currently not 1 woman holds the position of editor-in-chief. Less than one fifth (17.5%, 719 of 4112) of all editorial board members were women. There were significant differences among the evaluated categories, with the highest percentage of women in the category of medicine, general and internal and the lowest in the category critical care, followed by orthopedics. In every category, the proportion of women as editorial board members was substantially lower than that of men. Women are underrepresented on the editorial boards of major medical journals, although there is a great variability among the journals and categories analyzed. If more women are nominated to serve on editorial boards, they will be a visible sign of continuing progress and serve as important role models for young women contemplating a career in academic medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Women are underrepresented on the editorial boards of journals in environmental biology and natural resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa H. Cho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite women earning similar numbers of graduate degrees as men in STEM disciplines, they are underrepresented in upper level positions in both academia and industry. Editorial board memberships are an important example of such positions; membership is both a professional honor in recognition of achievement and an opportunity for professional advancement. We surveyed 10 highly regarded journals in environmental biology, natural resource management, and plant sciences to quantify the number of women on their editorial boards and in positions of editorial leadership (i.e., Associate Editors and Editors-in-Chief from 1985 to 2013. We found that during this time period only 16% of subject editors were women, with more pronounced disparities in positions of editorial leadership. Although the trend was towards improvement over time, there was surprising variation between journals, including those with similar disciplinary foci. While demographic changes in academia may reduce these disparities over time, we argue journals should proactively strive for gender parity on their editorial boards. This will both increase the number of women afforded the opportunities and benefits that accompany board membership and increase the number of role models and potential mentors for early-career scientists and students.

  1. Varied Student Perception of E-Text Use among Student Populations in Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Kerrie; Daday, Jerry

    2018-01-01

    The faculty in a biology department at a four-year public comprehensive university adopted e-texts for all 100 and 200 level biology courses with the primary motivation of reducing textbook costs to students. This study examines the students' perceptions of the e-texts adopted for these 100 and 200 level biology courses. An online questionnaire…

  2. Eating and body attitudes related to noncompetitive bodybuilding in military and general Hungarian male student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Liza; Murányi, István; Túry, Ferenc

    2007-02-01

    Pathological eating attitudes and extreme weight control practices occur most commonly in certain female populations. In some young male occupation groups, such as in the armed forces, the appearance of physical strength and muscularity has particular importance. We studied body and eating attitudes and the prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse in 480 military college and 752 general college male students. The Eating Disorder Inventory was used for all subjects. General college students had higher body mass index values than did military students. The prevalence of bodybuilding and steroid abuse was significantly greater in the military population. Comparisons between the study groups and within groups showed significantly different scores on certain Eating Disorder Inventory subscales. The study revealed that male military college students have some protective factors against the psychopathological features of eating disorders.

  3. ‘AN INCREDIBLY STEEP HILL:’ HOW GENDER, RACE, AND CLASS SHAPE PERSPECTIVES ON ACADEMIC CAREERS AMONG BEGINNING BIOMEDICAL PHD STUDENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christine V.; Campbell, Patricia B.; McGee, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes perspectives on academic careers among 60 beginning PhD students in the biomedical sciences. It presents seven perspectives on academic careers articulated by the students in the sample and explains the way that race/ethnicity, gender, and students’ family education backgrounds are tied to those perspectives. The findings show that traditionally underrepresented students find the academic career path less navigable than students from well-represented groups. Among underrepresented students, even those from higher family education backgrounds, experiences related to race/ethnicity and gender often inform perceptions of the academic career even before they start their graduate research training. As the composition of the graduate population changes to include more women and underrepresented racial and ethnic minority men, it is important to note that not all graduate students enter with the same perspectives and views of the academic career and that there are meaningful differences in perspectives across demographic lines. Graduate programs can play a critical role in providing information and support for graduate students as they navigate their career choices, particularly at the earliest stages of training. By becoming sensitive to students’ perspectives on career options, and understanding how differences in perspectives arise, mentors and others can align advising strategies with the experiences and views of students. PMID:28239250

  4. The Sangre Por Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; de Oca, Gregorio Montes; Levey, Sharon; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims The Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Methods Latino adults (ages 18–85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center’s internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. Results During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Conclusion Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in

  5. The Sangre Por Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; Montes de Oca, Gregorio; Levey, Sharon; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Latino adults (ages 18-85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center's internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in precision medicine initiatives and biomedical

  6. Mentoring programs for underrepresented minority faculty in academic medical centers: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M; Calles-Escandon, Jorge; Hairston, Kristen G; Langdon, Sarah E; Latham-Sadler, Brenda A; Bell, Ronny A

    2013-04-01

    Mentoring is critical for career advancement in academic medicine. However, underrepresented minority (URM) faculty often receive less mentoring than their nonminority peers. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of published mentoring programs designed for URM faculty to identify "promising practices." Databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, PsychLit, Google Scholar, Dissertations Abstracts International, CINHAL, Sociological Abstracts) were searched for articles describing URM faculty mentoring programs. The RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) formed the model for analyzing programs. The search identified 73 citations. Abstract reviews led to retrieval of 38 full-text articles for assessment; 18 articles describing 13 programs were selected for review. The reach of these programs ranged from 7 to 128 participants. Most evaluated programs on the basis of the number of grant applications and manuscripts produced or satisfaction with program content. Programs offered a variety of training experiences, and adoption was relatively high, with minor changes made for implementing the intended content. Barriers included time-restricted funding, inadequate evaluation due to few participants, significant time commitments required from mentors, and difficulty in addressing institutional challenges faced by URM faculty. Program sustainability was a concern because programs were supported through external funds, with minimal institutional support. Mentoring is an important part of academic medicine, particularly for URM faculty who often experience unique career challenges. Despite this need, relatively few publications exist to document mentoring programs for this population. Institutionally supported mentoring programs for URM faculty are needed, along with detailed plans for program sustainability.

  7. A comparison between scores on Kirton's inventory for nursing students and a general student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, A C; King, M O

    1993-08-01

    This study compared scores on the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory of 60 first-year nursing students with scores of 73 nonnursing majors of approximately the same age to test the hypothesis that, in general, individuals selecting nursing as a major tend to show a more adaptive style of creativity in problem solving than their nonnursing peers. Analysis indicated the nursing students were significantly more "adaptive" in problem solving and less "innovative" than the nonnursing control group.

  8. A Pedagogical Note: Use of Telepractice to Link Student Clinicians to Diverse Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Stacy Gallese; Hadley Edd, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    Telepractice is the application of telecommunications technology to the delivery of telehealth services via the online connection of clinicians, clients, and patients for assessment, intervention, or consultation. This article describes a pilot project in which speech-language pathology students in a university training program gained experience in working with culturally diverse preschool students using telepractice technology. The preschool students benefited by making gains in communication skills, while the university students acquired competency in the use of telepractice and in working with children whose cultural and linguistic backgrounds were outside of their experience. To assess the training experience, a Likert-scale survey administered to student clinicians revealed a high degree of satisfaction and improved familiarity with the use of telepractice, and an increased comfort level working with multi-cultural populations.

  9. A Pedagogical Note: Use of Telepractice to Link Student Clinicians to Diverse Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Gallese Cassel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Telepractice is the application of telecommunications technology to the delivery of telehealth services via the online connection of clinicians, clients, and patients for assessment, intervention, or consultation.  This article describes a pilot project in which speech-language pathology students in a university training program gained experience in working with culturally diverse preschool students using telepractice technology. The preschool students benefited by making gains in communication skills, while the university students acquired competency in the use of telepractice and in working with children whose cultural and linguistic backgrounds were outside of their experience.  To assess the training experience, a Likert-scale survey administered to student clinicians revealed a high degree of satisfaction and improved familiarity with the use of telepractice, and an increased comfort level working with multi-cultural populations.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of How Quality Mentorship and Research Experience Integrate Underrepresented Minorities into STEM Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Hernandez, Paul R; Schultz, P Wesley

    2018-01-01

    African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree earners. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that URMs do not integrate into the STEM academic community at the same rate as non-URM students. Estrada and colleagues recently showed that Kelman's tripartite integration model of social influence (TIMSI) predicted URM persistence into science fields. In this paper, we longitudinally examine the integration of URMs into the STEM community by using growth-curve analyses to measure the development of TIMIS's key variables (science efficacy, identity, and values) from junior year through the postbaccalaureate year. Results showed that quality mentorship and research experience occurring in the junior and senior years were positively related to student science efficacy, identity, and values at that same time period. Longitudinal modeling of TIMSI further shows that, while efficacy is important, and perhaps a necessary predictor of moving toward a STEM career, past experiences of efficacy may not be sufficient for maintaining longer-term persistence. In contrast, science identity and values do continue to be predictive of STEM career pathway persistence up to 4 years after graduation. © 2018 M. Estrada et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Teaching Population Balances for Chemical Engineering Students: Application to Granulation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucala, Veronica; Pina, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) is a useful tool to predict particle size distributions in granulation processes. When PBE is taught to advanced chemical engineering students, the internal coordinates (particle properties) are particularly hard to understand. In this paper, the flow of particles along different coordinates is carefully…

  12. The Distribution of and Relationship between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety in a UK Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeth, Megan; Bullock, Tom; Milne, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Traits associated with autism and social anxiety were assessed in a UK student population (n = 1325) using the Autism-spectrum Quotient and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Clinically relevant levels of autistic traits were observed in 3.3% of the cohort; 10.1% of the cohort reported clinically relevant levels of social anxiety; 1.8% of the…

  13. Alternate Reality Games as an Informal Learning Tool for Generating STEM Engagement among Underrepresented Youth: a Qualitative Evaluation of the Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Fabiyi, Camille; Lyman, Phoebe; Wilson, Claire; Hill, Brandon; Bouris, Alida

    2017-06-01

    This project developed and studied The Source, an alternate reality game (ARG) designed to foster interest and knowledge related to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) among youth from populations underrepresented in STEM fields. ARGs are multiplayer games that engage participants across several media such as shared websites, social media, personal communications, and real-world settings to complete activities and collaborate with team members. The Source was a five-week summer program with 144 participants from Chicago aged 13 to 18 years. The Source incorporated six socio-contextual factors derived from three frameworks: Chang's (ERIC Digest, 2002) recommendations for engaging underrepresented populations in STEM careers, Lave and Wenger's (Cambridge University Press, 1991) situated learning model, and Barron's (Human Development, 49(4); 193-224, 2006) learning ecology perspective. These factors aligned with the program's aims of promoting (1) social community and peer support, (2) collaboration and teamwork, (3) real-world relevance and investigative learning, (4) mentoring and exposure to STEM professionals, (5) hands-on activities to foster transferable skill building, and (6) interface with technology. This paper presents results from 10 focus groups and 10 individual interviews conducted with a subset of the 144 youth participants who completed the game. It describes how these six factors were realized through The Source and uses them as a lens for considering how The Source functioned pedagogically. Qualitative findings describe youth's perception of The Source's potential influence on STEM interest, engagement, and identity formation. Despite limitations, study results indicate that underrepresented youth can engage in an immersive, narrative, and game-based experience as a potential mechanism for piquing and developing STEM interest and skills, particularly among underrepresented youth.

  14. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Diverse Student Populations: Meeting the Mental Health Needs of All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tachelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health curriculum should be delivered in classroom settings to address and remediate the socio-emotional needs of students with and without disabilities. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a comprehensive, universal, and humanistic approach that focuses on the emotional distress manifested by individuals has been used with children…

  15. Sleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Hannah G; Reider, Brian D; Whiting, Annie B; Prichard, J Roxanne

    2010-02-01

    To characterize sleep patterns and predictors of poor sleep quality in a large population of college students. This study extends the 2006 National Sleep Foundation examination of sleep in early adolescence by examining sleep in older adolescents. One thousand one hundred twenty-five students aged 17 to 24 years from an urban Midwestern university completed a cross-sectional online survey about sleep habits that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Subjective Units of Distress Scale, and questions about academic performance, physical health, and psychoactive drug use. Students reported disturbed sleep; over 60% were categorized as poor-quality sleepers by the PSQI, bedtimes and risetimes were delayed during weekends, and students reported frequently taking prescription, over the counter, and recreational psychoactive drugs to alter sleep/wakefulness. Students classified as poor-quality sleepers reported significantly more problems with physical and psychological health than did good-quality sleepers. Students overwhelmingly stated that emotional and academic stress negatively impacted sleep. Multiple regression analyses revealed that tension and stress accounted for 24% of the variance in the PSQI score, whereas exercise, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and consistency of sleep schedule were not significant predictors of sleep quality. These results demonstrate that insufficient sleep and irregular sleep-wake patterns, which have been extensively documented in younger adolescents, are also present at alarming levels in the college student population. Given the close relationships between sleep quality and physical and mental health, intervention programs for sleep disturbance in this population should be considered. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Gender differences and prevalence in a Pakistani medical student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaqar Talha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Few studies have assessed gender differences in BDD in a non clinical population. Also no study assessed BDD in medical students. This study was designed to determine the point prevalence of BDD in Pakistani medical students and the gender differences in prevalence of BDD, body foci of concern and symptoms of BDD. Methods The medical students enrolled in a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan filled out a self-report questionnaire which assessed clinical features of BDD. BDD was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results Out of the 156 students, 57.1% were female. A total of 78.8% of the students reported dissatisfaction with some aspect of their appearance and 5.8% met the DSM-IV criteria for BDD. The male to female ratio for BDD was 1.7. Regarding gender differences in body foci of concern, the top three reported foci of concern in male students were head hair (34.3%, being fat (32.8%, skin (14.9% and nose(14.9%, whereas in females they were being fat (40.4%, skin (24.7% and teeth (18%. Females were significantly more concerned about being fat (p = 0.005. Male students were significantly more concerned about being thin (p = 0.01 and about head hair (p = 0.012. Conclusion BDD is fairly common in our medical student population, with a higher prevalence in males. Important gender differences in BDD symptomatology and reported body foci of concern were identified which reflected the influence of media on body image perception. The impact of cultural factors on the prevalence as well as gender differences in BDD symptomatology was also established.

  17. Prevalence, Knowledge and Attitudes Concerning Dietary Supplements among a Student Population in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pavičić Žeželj

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of usage and the knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements among medical sciences and nonmedical sciences students from Croatia. The study was conducted based on a questionnaire about dietary supplement usage, knowledge and attitudes. The prevalence of dietary supplement use, among 910 university students was 30.5%. The most-used dietary supplements were vitamins (18.0% in medical sciences students and 9.8% in non-medical sciences students. For all students, the internet (66.1% was the most common source of information, followed by healthcare professionals (33.2%. The most common reason for taking dietary supplements was to maintain good health (26.4%. Use of the internet rather than health professionals as a trusted information source should be revised among this young population. Supplement intake was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (p = 0.016 and physical activity (p = 0.050. Students with normal BMI (61.5% and the most physically active students (37.7% took significantly more dietary supplements. Results of this study could help medicine faculties to improve their curriculum and support the development of public health messages aimed at wise and safe use of dietary supplements.

  18. Mentoring the Mentors of Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minorities Who are Conducting HIV Research: Beyond Cultural Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Jane M.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa (Tessa); Udell, Wadiya; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Pearson, Cynthia R.; MacDonald, Meg M.; Duran, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    The majority of literature on mentoring focuses on mentee training needs, with significantly less guidance for the mentors. Moreover, many mentoring the mentor models assume generic (i.e. White) mentees with little attention to the concerns of underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities (UREM). This has led to calls for increased attention to diversity in research training programs, especially in the field of HIV where racial/ethnic disparities are striking. Diversity training tends to address the mentees' cultural competency in conducting research with diverse populations, and often neglects the training needs of mentors in working with diverse mentees. In this article, we critique the framing of diversity as the problem (rather than the lack of mentor consciousness and skills), highlight the need to extend mentor training beyond aspirations of cultural competency toward cultural humility and cultural safety, and consider challenges to effective mentoring of UREM, both for White and UREM mentors. PMID:27484060

  19. Attitude of the population and students to further construction of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machacek, Ladislav

    1993-01-01

    This presentation shows the public opinion poll young people on NPP in the Slovakia i.e. comparative research results on Attitude of the Slovak population (1991 - a sample 1104 respondents, and Slovak students 1992 - a sample 291 respondents) to the nuclear energy and NPP; Source of information about NE and NPP, motivation of apprehensions of young people concerning NE; what meaning for young people have the arguments FOR and AGAINST construction of NPP in Slovakia; whom students from Bratislava believe during discussions about NE

  20. IMPROVING THE ELASTICITY OF HIP MUSCLES AMONG THE POPULATION OF DEBRECEN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Nagy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing tendency of daily physical activity can be observed in the population of Debrecen University students. We started a physical education at the University of Debrecen which was called spine gymnastic. At the beginning of the semester we surveyed the health status and the health behaviour of the students focused on physical activity. The elasticity of hip muscles was also measured at the beginning and the end of the semester. After completing a 14-week spine gymnastic course, which included auto stretching and strengthening exercises, we found that all measured hip muscles improved.

  1. Persistence of mental health problems and needs in a college student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; Eisenberg, Daniel; Gollust, Sarah E; Golberstein, Ezra

    2009-10-01

    Cross-sectional studies indicate a high prevalence of mental health problems among college students, but there are fewer longitudinal data on these problems and related help-seeking behavior. We conducted a baseline web-based survey of students attending a large public university in fall 2005 and a two-year follow-up survey in fall 2007. We used brief screening instruments to measure symptoms of mental disorders (anxiety, depression, eating disorders), as well as self-injury and suicidal ideation. We estimated the persistence of these mental health problems between the two time points, and determined to what extent students with mental health problems perceived a need for or used mental health services (medication or therapy). We conducted logistic regression analyses examining how baseline predictors were associated with mental health and help-seeking two years later. Over half of students suffered from at least one mental health problem at baseline or follow-up. Among students with at least one mental health problem at baseline, 60% had at least one mental health problem two years later. Among students with a mental health problem at both time points, fewer than half received treatment between those time points. Mental health problems are based on self-report to brief screens, and the sample is from a single university. These findings indicate that mental disorders are prevalent and persistent in a student population. While the majority of students with probable disorders are aware of the need for treatment, most of these students do not receive treatment, even over a two-year period.

  2. Frequency of use and attitudes about drinking alcohol in the student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our culture, consuming of alcohol drinks is generally tolerated. The alcohol drinks is easily available and even represent a particular pattern of behavior. Young populations are at risk for alcohol abuse while most of them are beginning to experiment with alcohol in early adolescence and early creates a habit of drinking. To determine the frequency of alcohol consumption and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students of the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Economics in Kosovska Mitrovica and their association with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of students of Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Economics in Kosovska Mitrovica, in the period from 26th to 30th November 2012. As the survey instrument was used Questionnaire about behavior and health. From the statistical methods were used chi-square and Man-Whitney test, with a significance level of 0.05. In the week preceding the survey alcohol had consumed significantly higher part of students of economics (55.2% than medical students (29.9%. More often alcohol consumed males, older students and students of higher years of study. Most of the students declared that tried alcohol for the first time at home in the presence of their parents (37.6%, alcohol consumption is socially acceptable in the communities in which they live (76.1% and where they study (81.6%, and that they would not be embarrassed when in the company of fellow ordered a drink that is not alcoholic (87%.Nearly one of three medical students and half of students of economics in Kosovska Mitrovica had tried alcohol in the previous week, while the majority concluded that the consumption of alcohol is socially acceptable in the communities in which they live and study.

  3. Tribology Based Research and Training for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    unlimited. Major Goals: The major goal of this project is provide the research tools necessary to train the next generation of scientists and engineers ...for successful and productive careers in tribology and related fields. Tribology is an exciting research area that plays an important role in...have no exposure to tribology in their standard engineering curriculum. This project aims to motivate students to pursue STEM degrees and then give

  4. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara B. Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

  5. Gender differences in metabolic risk factor prevalence in a South African student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carine; Essop, M Faadiel

    2009-01-01

    We determined selected risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and assessed the metabolic risk status (using IDF criteria) of third-year physiology students at Stellenbosch University (88 males and 178 females). Outcome measures included anthropometry [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio], blood pressure (BP), resting pulse rate, and fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, students completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A number of gender-based differences were found, with male students displaying a greater incidence of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: 6% of males versus 3% of females displayed a cluster of three risk factors. Twenty-five per cent of female students (but only 14% of males) exhibited waist circumferences above the accepted range, which was positively correlated, for males and females, with both systolic and diastolic BP, and in females only, also with total cholesterol levels. Male students on average exercised more than their female counterparts, but also exhibited poorer eating habits. Average blood triglyceride levels for both male and female students exceeded the accepted threshold (1.85 +/- 1.62 mmol/l and 2.15 +/- 1.79 mmol/l, respectively). We concluded that metabolic risk factors were evident in a much younger population than commonly expected. Moreover, the gender-specific differences observed may impact on future risk assessment and preventative measures adopted.

  6. Why are women underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender differences in stereotypes, self-efficacy, values, and interests and predictors of future CS course-taking and grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their first CS course, they had a stronger intention to take another CS course. A subset of 128 students (68 females and 60 males) took a CS course up to one year later. Students who were interested in CS, had high computer self-efficacy, were low in family orientation, low in conscientiousness, and low in openness to experiences were more likely to take CS courses. Furthermore, individuals who were highly conscientious and low in relational-interdependent self-construal earned the highest CS grades. Efforts to improve women's representation in CS should bear these results in mind.

  7. Mentoring Interventions for Underrepresented Scholars in Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences: Effects on Quality of Mentoring Interactions and Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vivian; Martina, Camille A; McDermott, Michael P; Chaudron, Linda; Trief, Paula M; LaGuardia, Jennifer G; Sharp, Daryl; Goodman, Steven R; Morse, Gene D; Ryan, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Mentors rarely receive education about the unique needs of underrepresented scholars in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. We hypothesized that mentor-training and peer-mentoring interventions for these scholars would enrich the perceived quality and breadth of discussions between mentor-protégé dyads (i.e., mentor-protégé pairs). Our multicenter, randomized study of 150 underrepresented scholar-mentor dyads compared: 1) mentor training, 2) protégé peer mentoring, 3) combined mentor training and peer mentoring, and 4) a control condition (i.e., usual practice of mentoring). In this secondary analysis, the outcome variables were quality of dyad time and breadth of their discussions. Protégé participants were graduate students, fellows, and junior faculty in behavioral and biomedical research and healthcare. Dyads with mentor training were more likely than those without mentor training to have discussed teaching and work-life balance. Dyads with peer mentoring were more likely than those without peer mentoring to have discussed clinical care and career plans. The combined intervention dyads were more likely than controls to perceive that the quality of their time together was good/excellent. Our study supports the value of these mentoring interventions to enhance the breadth of dyad discussions and quality of time together, both important components of a good mentoring relationship. © 2017 V. Lewis et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. School Enrollment--Social and Economic Characteristics of Students: October 2003. Population Characteristics, P20-554

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyon B.

    2005-01-01

    This report highlights school enrollment trends of the population aged 3 and older and the social and economic characteristics of the large and diverse student population, based on data collected in the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the Census Bureau in October 2003. (Contains 5 figures and 5 tables.)

  9. "That's so gay!" Exploring college students' attitudes toward the LGBT population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Laurel; Matthews, Todd L; Schott, Melinda R

    2013-01-01

    Traditional students are often introduced to unfamiliar subcultures for the first time on the college campus. Recent high school graduates find themselves transitioning from an atmosphere in which homophobia is likely to be tolerated and possibly even expected to an educational setting in which diversity is promoted. Research shows that the college years are influential in the re-socialization of core values, yet very little work focuses on the ideological shifts that may take place in attitudes toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) population. The research presented in this study includes a modified version of LaMar and Kite's Component Measure, which has been broken down into 6 distinctive components of tolerance. In addition to examining religion, gender, and race--factors that have been correlated in past research with differing levels of tolerance toward the LGBT community--this study adds politics, sexual orientation, academic class standing, and college of major--variables that have received little or no attention in this literature. Higher levels of LGBT tolerance are consistently observed across the indexes among women, more liberal Christian traditions, non-Christian faiths, the non-religious, and those who self-identify as LGBT. The distinctive contribution of this study is that students in the College of Arts and Sciences and students further along in their college careers are also more tolerant. Based on these findings, recommendations are made for inter-college curriculum changes that integrate students in all disciplines and students of all classifications.

  10. The adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles to a Peruvian population of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Sánchez López

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was the adaptation of the MIPS (1994 toa population of 390 university students of Lima ( 188 men and 202 women. The inventory was adapted to the Spanishs poken in Peru. The psychometrical analysis revealed a reliability index of .70 as well as astructural internal validity. Most of the scales presented acceptable levels of internal consistency.The comparison with the studies carried out in Spain and USA showed that the levels of internal-consistency were similar to those found in the Spanish population and slightly below tothose found in the North American population. The analysis of the differences between the averages in each one of the se al es indicated greater discrepancies between the Peruvian populationand the Spanish, than between the Peruvian popular ion and the Nonh American.

  11. Willingness to participate in genomics research and desire for personal results among underrepresented minority patients: a structured interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Diefenbach, Michael A; Zinberg, Randi; Horowitz, Carol R; Smirnoff, Margaret; Zweig, Micol; Streicher, Samantha; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richardson, Lynne D

    2013-10-01

    Patients from traditionally underrepresented communities need to be involved in discussions around genomics research including attitudes towards participation and receiving personal results. Structured interviews, including open-ended and closed-ended questions, were conducted with 205 patients in an inner-city hospital outpatient clinic: 48 % of participants self-identified as Black or African American, 29 % Hispanic, 10 % White; 49 % had an annual household income of personal results to be returned was not mentioned, 82 % of participants were willing to participate in genomics research. Reasons for willingness fell into four themes: altruism; benefit to family members; personal health benefit; personal curiosity and improving understanding. Reasons for being unwilling fell into five themes: negative perception of research; not personally relevant; negative feelings about procedures (e.g., blood draws); practical barriers; and fear of results. Participants were more likely to report that they would participate in genomics research if personal results were offered than if they were not offered (89 vs. 62 % respectively, p personal genomic risk results for cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes than obesity (89, 89, 91, 80 % respectively, all p personal results was disease-specific worry. There was considerable willingness to participate in and desire for personal results from genomics research in this sample of predominantly low-income, Hispanic and African American patients. When returning results is not practical, or even when it is, alternatively or additionally providing generic information about genomics and health may also be a valuable commodity to underrepresented minority and other populations considering participating in genomics research.

  12. "Going Going....." Why Are Males Underrepresented in Pre-Service Primary Education Courses at University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    This sociological qualitative study identifies reasons why female pre-service teachers believe males are underrepresented in primary education courses at Australian universities. The findings of the study suggest that the nineteenth century naturalistic discourse of nurturance continues to sustain the notion that primary school teaching is a…

  13. Summer research training provides effective tools for underrepresented minorities to obtain doctoral level degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity of the USA is not reflected in its healthcare and biomedical workforce. Undergraduate research programs are used to encourage underrepresented minorities to pursue training for biomedical careers, but there is limited published data on doctoral degree compl...

  14. Mutual Mentoring for Early-Career and Underrepresented Faculty: Model, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jung H.; Baldi, Brian; Sorcinelli, Mary Deane

    2016-01-01

    In the beginning, "Mutual Mentoring" was little more than an idea, a hopeful vision of the future in which a new model of mentoring could serve as a medium to better support early-career and underrepresented faculty. Over time, Mutual Mentoring evolved from an innovative idea to an ambitious pilot program to a fully operational,…

  15. Leadership Competencies: Do They Differ for Women and Under-Represented Minority Faculty Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Levine, Rachel B.; Yang, Wan Rou; González-Fernández, Marlís; Bodurtha, Joann; Barone, Michael A.; Fivush, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The literature on leadership competencies does not include an understanding of how stakeholders perceive competencies for women and under-represented minority faculty members. We surveyed three groups of leaders (N = 113) to determine their perceptions of the importance of 23 leadership competencies. All three groups endorsed the same five…

  16. Predictors of sexual bother in a population of male North American medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F; Breyer, Benjamin N; Shindel, Alan W

    2011-12-01

    The prevalence and associations of sexual bother in male medical students has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study is to analyze predictors of sexual bother in a survey of male North American medical students. Students enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February 2008 and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexuality and sexual function. The principle outcome measure was a single-item question inquiring about global satisfaction with sexual function. The survey also consisted of a questionnaire that included ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and a validated scale for the assessment of depression. Respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function, the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool, and the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality survey (SEAR). Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. There were 480 male subjects (mean age 26.3 years) with data sufficient for analysis. Forty-three (9%) reported sexual bother. Sexual bother was significantly more common in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), high risk of premature ejaculation (HRPE), depressive symptoms, and lower sexual frequency. However, after multivariate analysis including SEAR scores, ED, and HRPE were no longer independently predictive of sexual bother. Higher scores for all domains of the SEAR were associated with lower odds of sexual bother. ED and HRPE are associated with sexual bother in this young and presumably healthy population. However, after controlling for relationship factors neither ED nor HRPE independently predicted sexual bother. It is plausible to hypothesize that sexual dysfunction from organic causes is rare in this population and is seldom encountered outside of relationship perturbations. Attention to relationship and psychological factors is likely of key importance in

  17. Awareness of Risk Factors for Breast, Lung and Cervical Cancer in a UK Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M; Lane, Emily L

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to identify levels of risk awareness for breast, lung and cervical cancer, in a UK student population. A sample of male (N=62) and female (N=58) university students, mean age 21.62 years completed a questionnaire identifying which risk factors they knew for each cancer. Analysis of variance was used to compare differences in risk awareness across gender and cancer types. Risk factor awareness was highest for lung cancer (0.78), mid-range for breast cancer (0.61) and lowest for cervical cancer (0.47). Women had greater risk factor awareness (0.67) than males (0.57) across all three cancers. There is also significant belief in mythic risk factors such as stress (from 14 to 40% across the three cancers). Previous research has demonstrated that risk factor awareness increases with educational status, yet even in a university student population, in which the majority of females would have been offered the HPV vaccination, risk factor awareness for cancers is variable. More health education is needed particularly around the risk factors for cervical cancer.

  18. The quality of life of medical students studying in New Zealand: a comparison with nonmedical students and a general population reference group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Marcus A; Krägeloh, Christian U; Hawken, Susan J; Zhao, Yipin; Doherty, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life is an essential component of learning and has strong links with the practice and study of medicine. There is burgeoning evidence in the research literature to suggest that medical students are experiencing health-related problems such as anxiety, depression, and burnout. The aim of the study was to investigate medical students' perceptions concerning their quality of life. Two hundred seventy-four medical students studying in their early clinical years (response rate = 80%) participated in the present study. Medical students were asked to fill in the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire to elicit information about their quality of life perceptions in relation to their physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Subsequently, their responses were compared with two nonmedical students groups studying at a different university in the same city and an Australian general population norm. The findings were compared using independent group's t tests, confidence intervals, and Cohen's d. The main finding of the study indicated that medical students had similar quality of life perceptions to nonmedical students except in relation to the environment domain. Furthermore, the medical student group scored lower than the general population reference group on the physical health, psychological health, and environment quality of life domains. The results suggest that all university students are expressing concerns related to quality of life, and thus their health might be at risk. The findings in this study provided no evidence to support the notion that medical students experience lower levels of quality of life compared to other university students. When compared to the general population, all student groups examined in this study appeared to be experiencing lower levels of quality of life. This has implications for pastoral support, educationalists, student support personnel, and the

  19. Eating habits and preferences among the student population of the Complutense University of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Álvarez, Jesús-Román; García Alcón, Rosa; Villarino Marín, Antonio; Marrodán Serrano, M Dolores; Serrano Morago, Lucia

    2015-10-01

    Studying eating habits can aid in the design of specific measures that reduce the negative effects of an unhealthy diet on health. In this context, the aim of the present study was to examine the eating habits and food preferences of students and their level of satisfaction with the catering services of the university. Survey conducted during 2011 using a questionnaire that asked participants abut their sex, age and frequency of use of catering services placed on campus. Participants were also asked about their level of satisfaction with five aspects (hygiene, quality, taste of food, price and convenience of facilities) of the university catering services, what their preferred dishes were and whether they followed a special diet. Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. Nine hundred and sixty-four students (381 males; 583 females). The students used the university food service 2·3 (sd 1·3) times/week. With respect to satisfaction level, 44·1 % gave an average score (3) to the combination of surveyed aspects (hygiene, quality, taste of food, price and comfort of the dining rooms). Regarding food choices, 61·0 % of students preferred pasta dishes, followed by meat (59·1 %) and salads (32·5 %). The least popular dishes were vegetables (16·8 %), fruits (13·6 %), milk products (12·2 %) and legumes (9·8 %). Of the students, 20·1 % followed special diets. The degree of satisfaction with the university meal service was low and the most common choices of dishes and foods among students were far from the guidelines of the Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to extend policies related to diet to this sector of the population and also to the management and food offer of university canteens.

  20. What impact does community service learning have on medical students' appreciation of population health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa-Hadad, J; Murdoch-Eaton, D; Rudolf, M C J

    2015-11-01

    The Bar Ilan Faculty of Medicine places public health as a priority in its medical curriculum, emphasizing its importance by strategically placing the required course as first on entry into medical school. Students are introduced to the importance of population health and community engagement through participatory community learning experiences. This study aims to examine how participatory community teaching methods impact students' understanding and attitudes towards community health. Mixed quantitative and qualitative design. 75 first year students completed the required public health course utilizing participatory community methods, including community visits, Team Based Learning, an ethnic forum, and lifestyle medicine. Evaluation comprised skills assessment through project work, analysis of reflective notes and comparison of assessment scores with students in the previous year who experienced a formal lecture-only based curriculum. Students acquired public health skills, including conducting a needs assessment, searching for research evidence and designing an evaluation framework. Reflective notes revealed in-depth understanding not only of course aims, but an appreciation of the social determinants of health and the local community. Test marks indicated public health knowledge reached a comparable standard (83 ± 7.3) to the previous year (85 ± 9.3; P = 0.431). Participatory community learning equips students with public health skills, knowledge, and enhanced understanding of communities. It offers a way to effectively teach public health, while emphasizing the extended role and societal responsibilities of doctors. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of a student-run smoking cessation clinic for a medically underserved population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbert Jon O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is common among medically underserved populations. Accessible resources to encourage and support smoking cessation among these patients are limited. Volunteer medical student-run free smoking cessation clinics may provide an effective option to help these individuals achieve smoking abstinence. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a student-run clinic, we analyzed a case series of patients receiving care in a medical student-run Smoking Cessation Clinic (SCC at the Rochester, Minnesota Salvation Army Good Samaritan Health Clinic (GSHC. Findings Between January 2005 and March 2009, 282 cigarette smokers seeking care at the SCC were analyzed. Student providers at the SCC conducted 1652 weekly individual counseling sessions averaging 18 minutes per encounter. Patients were offered a choice of pharmacotherapies including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline for up to 12 weeks. Smoking abstinence was confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO. Thirty-two patients completed the entire 12-week program (11.3%. At last contact, 94 patients (33.3% abstained from smoking for ≥ 7 days and 39 patients (13.8% were continuously abstinent for ≥ 4 weeks. The 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at last contact were 58.6% for varenicline, 41.2% for bupropion, 33.9% for NRT, and 23.5% for bupropion and NRT. Analyzing missing patients as smoking, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 7.1%, 8.9%, and 8.2%, at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after program enrollment, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusions Our medical student-run smoking cessation clinic provided an effective and safe experience for medically underserved patients who might not otherwise have access to conventional smoking cessation programs because of high cost, lack of insurance, or other disparities. Similar medical student initiatives focusing on healthy lifestyles

  2. African-American Female Students and STEM: Principals' Leadership Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Kristin Morgan

    As the U.S. becomes more diverse, school leaders, major corporations, and areas of national defense continue to investigate science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education issues. African-American female students have historically been underrepresented in STEM fields, yet educational leadership research, examining this population is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how principals support African-American female students in schools with a STEM program. The Critical Race Theory (CRT)was used as a theoretical framework to highlight the inadequacies to support educational inequalities. The application of the CRT in this study is due to the embedded inequality practices within the educational system, that have resulted in the underrepresentation of African-American female students in STEM. To complement CRT, the transformative leadership model was also utilized to examine the emancipatory leadership practices principals utilized. These theories framed the context of this study by recognizing the need to address how support is actualized to African-American female students in STEM by their principals. A case study approach was an appropriate method to answer the two research questions, 1) How do principals feel they support African-American female students in their STEM programs? and 2) What practices do principals engage in that support underrepresented students in STEM? This approach intended to uncover how a principal leads a multifaceted population of underrepresented students in STEM programs. Two principals of STEM schools, where more than 50% of the population were African-American, were interviewed and observed completing daily operations at community-wide events. The STEM Coordinators and a teacher were also interviewed, and test scores were examined to provide further information about the STEM program, and public records were obtained to analyze the principals' means of communication. I found that principals supported

  3. [POPULATION MONITORING OF THE HEALTH SHAPING ENVIRONMENT OF THE STUDENTS OF NAGORNO KARABAKH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galstyan, H

    2016-10-01

    The study of the health shaping environment of students is one of the actual biomedical tasks, it is also the scientific founding for conducting health-preventive and health-preserving measures. Despite the importance of the proposed problem, this study is a pioneering attempt in Nagorno Karabakh. The objective of the work is the scientific grounding of regional peculiarities and the contemporary level of health shaping environment of students on the basis of population monitoring system. The results of the study prove that the studied health criteria are within limits of physiological norm. The most wide-spead risk factors are lack of physical activity, in the group of young boys - also tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The analysis of daily diet of examinees attests ''fat'' nutrition model. The data on the impact of physical effort reveal high tension in the cardiac activity in the group of physically untrained students. The study of the impact of educational and mental strain on the functional state of the organism of the students revealed that daily academic leads to fatigue. The examination session is characterized by strongly expressed sympatotonia sympathicotonia, mental strain - by parasympatotonia. The obtained results point to the necessity of the enhanced control in preserving and strengthening the health of the younger generation considering the above-brought regional peculiarities.

  4. INTERDISCIPLINARY MODULE IN PREVENTION AND HEALTH PROMOTION IN POPULATION HEALTH FOR OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY AND PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jørgen

    -operate towards appropriate solutions. The groups suggest and present preventive and health promotion solutions and strategies especially designed for this particular situation. The groups are supervised by an interdisciplinary team of occupational therapy and physiotherapy lecturers. In addition......PURPOSE: The purpose is to provide physiotherapy and occupational therapy students at the University College Cvu vita in Holstebro, Denmark, the opportunity to develop competences for interdisciplinary working situations concerning promotion of population health. RELEVANCE: The Danish Ministry...... of the Interior and Health participates in co-operation within the European Union on health areas, which focuses on efforts with respect to public health (Article 152 of the Treaty on EU). The curricula for both educations underline the importance of preparing the students for interdisciplinary co...

  5. Culturally Diverse and Underserved Populations of Gifted Students in the United States and in Taiwan: Equitable Access to Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ya-Ting

    2014-01-01

    There is a continuing increase in the African American and Hispanic student populations in public schools. The students who are invited to gifted programs are overwhelmingly White. This is the situation in schools in the United States and also in Taiwan. Misunderstanding or unawareness of culture difference among educators might contribute to…

  6. The Values and Attitudes of Selected College Students on Some Topics Relevant to Human Population. Monograph No. 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Jose Luis O.; And Others

    Results of a study on attitudes of Filipino college students concerning human population issues are reported. A total of 74 University of the Philippines students, half of whom were enrolled in a natural science course, answered a 15-part questionnaire on dating, friendship, premarital sex, marital expectations, and birth control. Several…

  7. Can Welfare Mothers Hack It in College? A Comparison of Achievement between TANF Recipients and General Population Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Judy

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of a group of undergraduate students enrolled in a pilot program for welfare recipients in the form of TANF (Temporary Aid to Needy Families) was compared with the achievement of general population students at an urban community college. Grades attained in a basic level, introductory Psychology course were used to measure academic…

  8. Genetic Polymorphisms of 15 STR Loci within Turkish Student Population Living in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Serkan; Kovačević, Lejla; Marjanović, Damir

    2013-01-01

    Allele frequencies of 15 STRs included in the PowerPlex 16 System (D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, VWA, D8S1179, TPOX and FGA) were calculated from the referent sample of 100 unrelated individuals of both sexes from Turkish student population living in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Buccal swab, as a source of DNA, was collected from the volunteers from whom the informed consent form was obtained. DNA extraction was performed using...

  9. The fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of multiple mini interview in an internationally diverse student population- a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Maureen E.; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P.; Murphy, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Background International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. Methods This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 we...

  10. Sexual health literacy of the student population of the University of Tasmania: results of the RUSSL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Steve; Clifford, Christine; Ross, Kaz; Sefton, Neil; Owen, Louise; Blizzard, Leigh; Turner, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Background Evidence suggests a varied level of sexual health literacy (SHL) among university student populations, so we evaluated the SHL among students at the University of Tasmania. Students were invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire during August/September 2013. SHL was assessed using the ARCSHS National Survey of Australian Secondary Students & Sexual Health (ARC) and the Sexual Health Questionnaire (SHS). Predictors of literacy scores were evaluated by linear regression. The study recruited 1786 participants (8.2% of 2013 student population), of similar composition to the general university population. Female sex, older age, sexual education, and sexual experience were significant predictors of SHL. As hypothesised, students in medical/nursing disciplines had the highest SHL. Less expected were the significant differences by birthplace and religious affiliation, many of which persisted on adjustment for confounders. Compared with Australian/New Zealander students, overseas-born students had significantly lower ARC (-3.6%, Patheist-identifying students, those of Buddhist (ARC: -5.4%, P=0.014; SHS: -6.7%, P=0.002), Hindu (ARC: -8.8%, P=0.098; SHS: -12.2%, P=0.027), Muslim (ARC: -16.5%, Preligious affiliation. These findings have applications in orientation and education programs at Australian universities.

  11. Increasing the Presence of Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences: The Woods Hole Partnership Education Program Model and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A.; Gutierrez, B.; Jearld, A.; Liles, G.; Scott, O.; Harden, B.

    2017-12-01

    Launched in 2009, the Partnership Education Program (PEP) is supported by six scientific institutions in Woods Hole, Massachusetts through the Woods Hole Diversity Initiative. PEP, which was shaped by experience with other diversity programs as well as input from scientists in Woods Hole, is designed to promote a diverse scientific community by recruiting talent from minority groups that are under-represented in marine and environmental sciences. Focused on college juniors and seniors with course work in marine and/or environmental sciences, PEP is comprised of a four-week course, "Ocean and Environmental Sciences: Global Climate Change," and a six to eight week individual research project under the guidance of a research mentor. Investigators from the six science institutions serve as course faculty and research mentors. Course credit is through PEP's academic partner, the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. PEP students also participate in seminars, workshops, field trips, at-sea experiences, career development activities, and attend lectures at participating science institutions throughout the summer. Students present their research results at the end of the summer with a 15-minute public presentation. A number of PEP participants then presented their work at professional and scientific meetings, such as AGU, using the program as a gateway to graduate education and career opportunities in the marine and environmental sciences. From 2009 through 2017, 138 students from 86 colleges and universities, including many that previously had sent few or no students or faculty to Woods Hole, have participated in the program. Participating organizations are: Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NOAA Fisheries), Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Sea Education Association (SEA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), and University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES) - academic partner.

  12. Mentoring, Training, and Scholarly Productivity Experiences of Cancer-Related Health Disparities Research Trainees: Do Outcomes Differ for Underrepresented Scientists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Tisha M; Braun, Kathryn L; Wigfall, Lisa; Sevoyan, Maria; Vyas, Shraddha; Khan, Samira; Brandt, Heather M; Rogers, Charles; Tanjasiri, Sora; Armstead, Cheryl A; Hébert, James R

    2018-02-12

    The study aims to explore variation in scholarly productivity outcomes by underrepresented status among a diverse sample of researchers in a community-engaged training program. We identified 141 trainees from a web-based survey of researchers in the National Cancer Institute-funded, Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs) (2011-2016). We conducted a series of multiple logistic regression models to estimate the effect of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-defined underrepresented status on four, self-reported, scholarly productivity outcomes in the previous 5 years: number of publications (first-authored and total) and funded grants (NIH and any agency). Sixty-five percent (n = 92) indicated NIH underrepresented status. In final adjusted models, non-NIH underrepresented (vs. underrepresented) trainees reported an increased odds of having more than the median number of total publications (> 9) (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.21-8.65) and any grant funding (OR = 5.10, 95% CI 1.77-14.65). Reporting ≥ 1 mentors (vs. none) was also positively associated (p < 0.05) with these outcomes. The CNPC underrepresented trainees had similar success in first-authored publications and NIH funding as non-underrepresented trainees, but not total publications and grants. Examining trainees' mentoring experiences over time in relation to scholarly productivity outcomes is needed.

  13. The prevalence of victimization and the internet abuse in student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltezarević Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of modern information technology has contributed to the creation of new media and virtual tools that contribute to mass social interaction. The Internet has enabled networking communicator, associating in virtual communities and the creation of parallel communication space. However, despite all the good things they bring with them, new technologies are leading to the emergence of various forms of victimization in the virtual space. The ability to communicate anonymously or through a fictitious identity on the new media platforms created a favorable climate for the operation of the “dark side” of the Internet. Violence on the Internet, known as the cyberbullying is becoming a topic for many researchers mainly focusing on research and description of the phenomenon in adolescent population. The paper aims to examine the theoretical aspects of cyberbullying and to present the existing research, as well as the results of the pilot research work on the social networks behavior of final year students of the Faculty of Culture and Media, conducted by the authors. The paper shows that violence on the Internet exists in this part of the student population.

  14. Undetected rheumatic heart disease revealed using portable echocardiography in a population of school students in Tairawhiti, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Geoffrey; Stonehouse, Mary; Webb, Rachel; Webb, Rachel; Chaffey-Aupouri, Gina; Wilson, Nigel

    2012-10-12

    The aim of this programme was to find undetected rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in students from selected schools in the Tairawhiti region (eastern part of the North Island) of New Zealand. Portable echocardiography was used to scan students in 5 urban and rural schools in Tairawhiti where the population is predominantly Maori. The age range of students in the urban schools was 10-13 years and in the rural schools 5-17 years. Those with abnormal echocardiograms were referred for a paediatric consultation, with hospital-based echocardiography if required for the clarification of diagnoses and further management. A total of 685 students, representing over 95% of the schools' students, consented to having echocardiographic scanning. After repeat hospital based echocardiography for 11 students, a total of 52 scans were regarded as abnormal. In this population definite (n=4) or probable (n=7) RHD was found in 11 students a prevalence of 1.61% (95%CIs 0.80-2.85). Possible RHD was found in 19 students. Previously undetected confirmed (n=1) or probable (n=7) RHD was found in 8 students a prevalence of 1.17% (95%CIs 0.51-2.29). Congenital heart defects (CHD) were found in 22 students a prevalence of 3.21% (95%CIs 2.02-4.83). Echocardiography was a popular modality and detected a significant burden of previously unknown RHD in this young Maori population who are now receiving penicillin. However, echocardiography detected a greater prevalence of possible RHD for which optimum management is at present uncertain. Echocardiography also detected students with a range of severity of CHD. Screening with echocardiography for RHD would involve a significant use of public health, paediatric and cardiac resources with 7.6% of students and their families requiring clinical consultations and ongoing management of the abnormal echocardiographic results.

  15. Women Are Underrepresented in Fields Where Success is Believed to Require Brilliance

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith eMeyer; Andrei eCimpian; Sarah-Jane eLeslie

    2015-01-01

    Women’s underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a prominent concern in our society and many others. Closer inspection of this phenomenon reveals a more nuanced picture, however, with women achieving parity with men at the PhD level in certain STEM fields, while also being underrepresented in some non-STEM fields. It is important to consider and provide an account of this field-by-field variability. The Field-specific Ability Beliefs (FAB) hypo...

  16. Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS): A Kansas City Minority Student Recruitment Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Niemi, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) is a multi-year project funded by the National Science Foundation to address gaps in teacher preparation, improve teacher content in geosciences and help raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. The project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). In this presentation we discuss strategies that we have successfully used to provide credible pathways into the discipline for minorities that have led to a significant increase in the number of underrepresented minority students who are interested in and majoring in geoscience fields at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

  17. MS PHD'S: A Successful Model Promoting Inclusion, Preparation and Engagement of Underrepresented Minorities within the Geosciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, E.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J. T.; Ricciardi, L.; Guzman, W. I.; Braxton, L.; Williamson, V.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    According to 2014 findings of the National Research Council, geoscience and related industries indicate an anticipated 48,000 blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions to be filled by underrepresented minority (URM) workers in the next 15 years. An Information Handling Services (IHS) report prepared for the American Petroleum Institute forecasts even greater numbers estimating upward of 408,000 opportunities for URM workers related to growth in accelerated development of oil, gas and petroleum industries. However, many URM students lack the training in both the hard sciences and craft skills necessary to fill these positions. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program uses integrative and holistic strategies to better prepare URM students for entry into all levels of the geoscience workforce. Through a three-phase program of mentoring, community building, networking and professional development activities, MS PHD'S promotes collaboration, critical thinking, and soft skills development for participants. Program activities expose URM students to education, training and real-life geoscience workforce experiences while maintaining a continuity of supportive mentoring and training networks via an active virtual community. MS PHD'S participants report increased self-confidence and self-efficacy in pursuing geoscience workforce goals. To date, the program supports 223 participants of who 57, 21 and 16 have received Doctorate, Masters and Baccalaureate degrees respectively and are currently employed within the geoscience and related industries workforce. The remaining 129 participants are enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs throughout the U.S. Geographic representation of participants includes 35 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and two international postdoctoral appointments - one in Saudi Arabia and the other in France.

  18. John Wheatley Award Talk: Promoting Under-Represented Physicists in Asian and Arab Countries and Muslim Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana

    2013-04-01

    Physics fascinates people's minds regardless of their geographic location. Often the best students choose the challending profession of physics. Physicists in developing countries in Asia and Arab countries work mostly on their own with limited resources or external collaboration and some do extraordinarily well. However, these dedicated individuals need the support and interactive modalities with their fellow physicists, particularly from developed countries, for coherent and rapid advances in knowledge, discoveries and inventions. My main objective is to promote and motivate physics education and research in developing and Arab countries to a level of excellence commensurate with that at U.S. institutions, and to facilitate connection through the strong network of APS. I have developed a general STEM based program. Another focus of this initiative is the very weak community of Muslim women in science, who have have remained behind owing to surrounding circumstances. To encourage them in scientific professions, and to enable them to nurture their intellectuality, we have formed a network called the International Society of Muslim Women in Science. It now has 85 enthusiastic and aspiring members from 21 countries. I will discuss these and the special needs of the these under-represented scientists, and how APS might lend them its valuable support.

  19. Designing the Game: How a Project-Based Media Production Program Approaches STEAM Career Readiness for Underrepresented Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Kristin M.; Hu Dahl, Ingrid; Panahandeh, Shirin

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a need for a diverse workforce that is more highly educated in STEM and ICT fields, and one that is capable of responding creatively to demands for continual innovation. This paper, in response, chronicles the implementation of the Digital Pathways (DP) program, a two-time ITEST recipient and an ongoing initiative of the Bay Area Video Coalition. DP has provided low-income, underrepresented minority young people with 180 contact hours of activities in digital media production to prepare them to pursue higher education and technology careers. A design-based research approach synthesizes staff interviews with student observations, interviews and artifacts to identify a set of generalizable best practices or design principles for empowering young people to move from being consumers of digital media to producers. These principles are illustrated with a case study of the 3D Animation and Gaming track from the second ITEST grant. Researchers argue for the importance of attending to the noncognitive elements of learning and illustrate ways in which instructors encouraged creative expression, personal agency, and collaboration through long-term projects. They also identify strategies for sustaining young people's participation through the establishment of a supportive community environment.

  20. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  1. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  2. The Attainment of a Science Degree by African American College Students at Arizona State University: An Investigation to Identify the Barriers and Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Quintin

    2012-01-01

    Historically, African American students have been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). If African American students continue to be underrepresented in STEM fields, they will not have access to valuable and high-paying sectors of the economy. Despite the number of African Americans in these…

  3. The Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS-62): Acceptance, feasibility, and initial psychometric properties in a UK student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglia, Emma; Millings, Abigail; Barkham, Michael

    2017-09-01

    all contextual measures of student psychological distress. It is advantageous for university counselling services to administer a student-specific clinical measure over measures intended for the general clinical population. CCAPS-62 is an acceptable, feasible, and psychometrically valid measure of student psychological distress that can be used in the UK without revision. It is important for university counselling services to continue to provide support from therapists that are trained and experienced in the university context over services intended for the general clinical population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. "Fort Valley State University Cooperative Developmental Energy Program: Broadening the Participation of Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbly, I.; Hodges, J.; Kar, A.; Rashidi, L.

    2015-12-01

    According to the American Geological Institute's Status of Recent Geoscience Graduates, 2014, underrepresented minorities (URMs) make up only 7%, 5%, and 2% of graduates at the BS/BA, MA/MS, and Ph.D levels, respectively. Recruiting academically-talented URMs to major in the geosciences instead of majoring in other fields such as medicine, law, business, or engineering is a major undertaking. Numerous factors may contribute as to why few URMs choose geoscience careers. To address the underrepresentation of URMs in the geosciences 1992, the Cooperative Developmental Energy Program (CDEP) of Fort Valley State University (FVSU) and the College of Geosciences at the University of Oklahoma (OU) implemented a 3 + 2 dual degree program specifically in geology and geophysics. Since 1992, FVSU-CDEP has added the University of Texas at Austin (2004), Pennsylvania State University (2005), University of Arkansas (2010), and the University of Nevada at Las Vegas (2015) as partners to offer degrees in geology and geophysics. The dual degree programs consist of students majoring in chemistry or mathematics at FVSU for the first three years and transferring to one of the above partnering universities for years four and five to major in geology or geophysics. Upon completion of the program, students receive a BS degree in chemistry or mathematics from FVSU and a BS degree in geology or geophysics from a partnering university. CDEP has been responsible for recruiting 33 URMs who have earned BS degrees in geology or geophysics. Females constitute 50% of the graduates which is higher than the national average. Also, 56% of these graduates have earned the MS degree and 6% have earned the Ph.D. Currently, 60% of these graduates are employed with oil and gas companies; 20% work for academia; 12% work for governmental agencies; 6 % are professionals with environmental firms; and 2% of the graduate's employment is unknown.

  5. From the Margins to the Spotlight: Diverse Deaf and Hard of Hearing Student Populations and Standardized Assessment Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Designing assessments and tests is one of the more challenging aspects of creating an accessible learning environment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), particularly for deaf students with a disability (DWD). Standardized assessments are a key mechanism by which the educational system in the United States measures student progress, teacher effectiveness, and the impact of school reform. The diversity of student characteristics within DHH and DWD populations is only now becoming visible in the research literature relating to standardized assessments and their use in large-scale accountability reforms. The purpose of this article is to explore the theoretical frameworks surrounding assessment policy and practice, current research related to standardized assessment and students who are DHH and DWD, and potential implications for practice within both the assessment and instruction contexts.

  6. Building Mobile Apps for Underrepresented Mental Health care Consumers: A Grounded Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ricky; Hastings, Julia F; Keefe, Robert H; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Chan, Keith T; Mullick, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Cell phone mobile application ("app") use has risen dramatically within the past several years. Many individuals access apps to address mental health issues. Unlike individuals from privileged backgrounds, individuals from oppressed backgrounds may rely on apps rather than costly mental health treatment. To date, very little research has been published evaluating mental health apps' effectiveness. This paper focuses on three methods through which grounded theory can facilitate app development and evaluation for people underrepresented in mental health care. Recommendations are made to advance mobile app technology that will help clinicians provide effective treatment, and consumers to realize positive treatment outcomes.

  7. Building Mobile Apps for Underrepresented Mental Health care Consumers: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ricky; Hastings, Julia F.; Keefe, Robert H.; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Chan, Keith T.; Mullick, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Cell phone mobile application (“app”) use has risen dramatically within the past several years. Many individuals access apps to address mental health issues. Unlike individuals from privileged backgrounds, individuals from oppressed backgrounds may rely on apps rather than costly mental health treatment. To date, very little research has been published evaluating mental health apps’ effectiveness. This paper focuses on three methods through which grounded theory can facilitate app development and evaluation for people underrepresented in mental health care. Recommendations are made to advance mobile app technology that will help clinicians provide effective treatment, and consumers to realize positive treatment outcomes. PMID:29056878

  8. The Impact of the Great Recession on Student Achievement: Evidence from Population Data. CEPA Working Paper No. 17-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, Kenneth; Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Great Recession was the most severe economic downturn in the United States since the Great Depression. Using newly available population-level achievement data from the Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA), we estimate the impact of the Great Recession on the math and English language arts (ELA) achievement of all grade 3-8 students in the…

  9. Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning in an Introductory Anatomy and Physiology Course with a Diverse Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL), a pedagogical technique initially developed for college chemistry courses, has been implemented for 2 yr in a freshman-level anatomy and physiology course at a small private college. The course is populated with students with backgrounds ranging from no previous college-level science to junior and…

  10. Aggressive and chronic periodontitis in a population of Moroccan school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissa, Jamila; Chemlali, Sihame; El Houari, Bouchra; Amine, Khadija; Khlil, Nadia; Mikou, Salwa; Nadifi, Sellama; Albandar, Jasim M

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and demographics of chronic and aggressive periodontitis in a representative sample drawn from a subpopulation in Morocco. Eight hundred and thirty students representative of 12+ years old attending schools in the Province of Benslimane, Morocco were selected by a multi-phased, probability sampling. Their age was 12-25 years (mean: 16.1 years) and comprised of 50% males and 50% females. Chronic and aggressive periodontitis were determined clinically. A total of 31% and 10.1% of the subjects had ≥4 mm and ≥6 mm attachment loss, respectively; 4.9% had aggressive periodontitis, and 6.4% had chronic periodontitis. Subjects with chronic periodontitis typically had 4-5 mm attachment loss affecting a few molars or premolars. Subjects with aggressive periodontitis had ≥5 mm attachment loss affecting multiple teeth, and 68% and 73% of these subjects had ≥6 mm attachment loss affecting maxillary and mandibular molars respectively. Attachment loss and periodontitis were significantly more prevalent in the 19-25 years group, than the 12-18 years age group. There were no significant differences in disease prevalence by gender or ethnic groups (Arab versus Berber). This young Moroccan population is at high risk of destructive periodontal disease, and further studies are indicated to investigate the biological and environmental factors that may contribute to the increased risk of disease in this population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An outbreak of mumps with genetic strain variation in a highly vaccinated student population in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willocks, L J; Guerendiain, D; Austin, H I; Morrison, K E; Cameron, R L; Templeton, K E; DE Lima, V R F; Ewing, R; Donovan, W; Pollock, K G J

    2017-11-01

    An outbreak of mumps within a student population in Scotland was investigated to assess the effect of previous vaccination on infection and clinical presentation, and any genotypic variation. Of the 341 cases, 79% were aged 18-24. Vaccination status was available for 278 cases of whom 84% had received at least one dose of mumps containing vaccine and 62% had received two. The complication rate was 5·3% (mainly orchitis), and 1·2% were admitted to hospital. Genetic sequencing of mumps virus isolated from cases across Scotland classified 97% of the samples as genotype G. Two distinct clusters of genotype G were identified, one circulating before the outbreak and the other thereafter, suggesting the virus that caused this outbreak was genetically different from the previously circulating virus. Whilst the poor vaccine effectiveness we found may be due to waning immunity over time, a contributing factor may be that the current mumps vaccine is less effective against some genotypes. Although the general benefits of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine should continue to be promoted, there may be value in reassessing the UK vaccination schedule and the current mumps component of the MMR vaccine.

  12. Influence of Precollege Experience on Self-Concept among Community College Students in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos

    Female and minority students have historically been underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, and engineering at colleges and universities. Although a plethora of research has focused on students enrolled in 4-year colleges or universities, limited research addresses the factors that influence gender differences in community college students in science, mathematics, and engineering. Using a target population of 1,599 aspirants in science, mathematics, and engineering majors in public community colleges, this study investigates the determinants of self-concept by examining a hypothetical structural model. The findings suggest that background characteristics, high school academic performance, and attitude toward science have unique contributions to the development of self-concept among female community college students. The results add to the literature by providing new theoretical constructs and the variables that predict students' self-concept.

  13. Research training of students in minority and international settings: lessons learned from cancer epidemiology education in special populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Amr S; Mullan, Patricia B; Chamberlain, Robert M

    2010-06-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an NCI-sponsored short-term summer cancer research education program. The study questions examined: the feasibility of conducting a cancer education program in special populations at multiple US and international field sites for masters students; the merit and worth that students and faculty attribute to the program; and students' scholarly and cancer-related career outcomes. Developing a new curriculum, increasing the pool of mentors, utilizing and increasing the number of field sites, and program dissemination were also evaluated. Evidence of the program's success included students' completion of field experiences at multiple sites and their subsequent 70% project-related publication rate, with 79% of trainees reporting themselves as likely to pursue future cancer-related careers. Evaluation-guided future plans for the program include implementing faculty development to further enhance the program outcomes.

  14. The Unique Leadership Needs of Minority Student Populations: Crafting a Leadership Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Kristen N.; Bruce, Jacklyn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how college-level minority student leaders make meaning of those leadership experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 students. Major findings noted a strong personal motivation to participate in student leadership positions. Further research on the impact of familial…

  15. Burnout among U.S. medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrbye, Liselotte N; West, Colin P; Satele, Daniel; Boone, Sonja; Tan, Litjen; Sloan, Jeff; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of burnout and other forms of distress across career stages and the experiences of trainees and early career (EC) physicians versus those of similarly aged college graduates pursuing other careers. In 2011 and 2012, the authors conducted a national survey of medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians (≤ 5 years in practice) and of a probability-based sample of the general U.S. population. All surveys assessed burnout, symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation, quality of life, and fatigue. Response rates were 35.2% (4,402/12,500) for medical students, 22.5% (1,701/7,560) for residents/fellows, and 26.7% (7,288/27,276) for EC physicians. In multivariate models that controlled for relationship status, sex, age, and career stage, being a resident/fellow was associated with increased odds of burnout and being a medical student with increased odds of depressive symptoms, whereas EC physicians had the lowest odds of high fatigue. Compared with the population control samples, medical students, residents/fellows, and EC physicians were more likely to be burned out (all P prevalence of burnout, depressive symptoms, and recent suicidal ideation are relatively small. At each stage, burnout is more prevalent among physicians than among their peers in the U.S. population.

  16. Alcohol Trajectories over Three Years in a Swedish Residence Hall Student Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriettae Ståhlbrandt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that college students have a high alcohol consumption, less is known about the long-term drinking trajectories amongst college students and, in particular, students living in residence halls, known to be high-risk drinkers. Over four consecutive years, the drinking habits of 556 Swedish residence hall students were analyzed. The main instruments for measuring outcome were AUDIT (Alcohol Use Identification Disorders Test, SIP (Short Index of Problems and eBAC (estimated Blood Alcohol Concentration. The drinking trajectories among Swedish residence hall students showed stable and decreasing drinking patterns, with age and gender being predictors of group membership.

  17. Diversity in the US Infectious Diseases Workforce: Challenges for Women and Underrepresented Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Judith A; Blankson, Joel; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-09-15

    Research documents significant gender-based salary inequities among physicians and ongoing inadequacies in recruitment and promotion of physicians from underrepresented minority groups. Given the complexity of the social forces that promote these disparities, their elimination will likely require quantitative and qualitative research to understand the pathways that lead to them and to develop effective solutions. Interventions to combat implicit bias will be required, and structural interventions that hold medical school leadership accountable are needed to achieve and maintain salary equity and racial and gender diversity at all levels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Choosing to lead the motivational factors of underrepresented minority librarians in higher education

    CERN Document Server

    Olivas, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Choosing to Lead: The Motivational Factors of Underrepresented Minority Librarians in Higher Education takes a positive inquiry approach by providing first-hand accounts of success stories, best practices, and practical advice from a collection of diverse authors. Instead of looking at academic library "failures" when it comes to diversifying the leadership workforce, this book highlights what's going right and how to implement it across the profession-with an emphasis on building strengths and fully leveraging one's interests, behaviors, and passions, while never ignoring or deemphasizing the prevailing challenges that exist for diverse LIS professionals who wish to advance their leadership skills. Through case studies, promising practices, and specific strategies for cultivating diversity in academic library leadership, this is a resource for both librarians of color who wish to seek leadership positions and current library leaders who want to nurture these future leaders.

  19. ‘Speaking Truth’ Protects Underrepresented Minorities’ Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Avi; Paluy, Yula; Milless, Katlyn L.; Goldstein, Emily J.; Wallace, Lyndsey; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Estrada, Mica

    2017-01-01

    We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities’ (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a ‘knowledge as power’ approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]. STEP protected URMs’ abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA]) as well as decreased URMs’ worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP’s two-pronged approach—explicating the effects of structural ‘isms’ while harnessing URMs’ existing assets—shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM. PMID:28835879

  20. 'Speaking Truth' Protects Underrepresented Minorities' Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Avi; Paluy, Yula; Milless, Katlyn L; Goldstein, Emily J; Wallace, Lyndsey; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Estrada, Mica

    2017-06-01

    We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities' (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a 'knowledge as power' approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]. STEP protected URMs' abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA]) as well as decreased URMs' worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP's two-pronged approach-explicating the effects of structural 'isms' while harnessing URMs' existing assets-shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM.

  1. Analyzing Student Aid Packaging To Improve Low-Income and Minority Student Access, Retention and Degree Completion. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Porter, John D.; DuBrock, Caryl P.

    This study examined the persistence of and financial aid to needy students, underrepresented minority students, and women students, especially those majoring in science, engineering, and mathematics at a large public research university. An institutional student tracking and student financial aid database was used to follow four freshmen cohorts…

  2. Women Are Underrepresented in Fields Where Success is Believed to Require Brilliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith eMeyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Women’s underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields is a prominent concern in our society and many others. Closer inspection of this phenomenon reveals a more nuanced picture, however, with women achieving parity with men at the PhD level in certain STEM fields, while also being underrepresented in some non-STEM fields. It is important to consider and provide an account of this field-by-field variability. The Field-specific Ability Beliefs (FAB hypothesis aims to provide such an account, proposing that women are likely to be underrepresented in fields thought to require raw intellectual talent—a sort of talent that women are stereotyped to possess less of than men. In two studies, we provide evidence for the FAB hypothesis, demonstrating that the academic fields believed by laypeople to require brilliance are also the fields with lower female representation. We also found that the field-specific ability beliefs of participants with college-level exposure to a field were more predictive of its female representation than those of participants without college exposure, presumably because the former beliefs mirror more closely those of the field’s practitioners (the direct gatekeepers. Moreover, the field-specific ability beliefs of participants with college exposure to a field predicted the magnitude of the field’s gender gap above and beyond their beliefs about the level of mathematical and verbal skills required. Finally, we found that beliefs about the importance of brilliance to success in a field may predict its female representation in part by fostering the impression that the field demands solitary work and competition with others. These results suggest new solutions for enhancing diversity within STEM and across the academic spectrum.

  3. Women are underrepresented in fields where success is believed to require brilliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meredith; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2015-01-01

    Women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a prominent concern in our society and many others. Closer inspection of this phenomenon reveals a more nuanced picture, however, with women achieving parity with men at the Ph.D. level in certain STEM fields, while also being underrepresented in some non-STEM fields. It is important to consider and provide an account of this field-by-field variability. The field-specific ability beliefs (FAB) hypothesis aims to provide such an account, proposing that women are likely to be underrepresented in fields thought to require raw intellectual talent-a sort of talent that women are stereotyped to possess less of than men. In two studies, we provide evidence for the FAB hypothesis, demonstrating that the academic fields believed by laypeople to require brilliance are also the fields with lower female representation. We also found that the FABs of participants with college-level exposure to a field were more predictive of its female representation than those of participants without college exposure, presumably because the former beliefs mirror more closely those of the field's practitioners (the direct "gatekeepers"). Moreover, the FABs of participants with college exposure to a field predicted the magnitude of the field's gender gap above and beyond their beliefs about the level of mathematical and verbal skills required. Finally, we found that beliefs about the importance of brilliance to success in a field may predict its female representation in part by fostering the impression that the field demands solitary work and competition with others. These results suggest new solutions for enhancing diversity within STEM and across the academic spectrum.

  4. Medicine and Physiotherapy students: are they physically active? Comparative research on Spanish and German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeńczak-Praga, Krystyna; Pluto-Prondzinska, Joanna; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata

    2017-05-23

    Despite the fact that regular physical activity is beneficial to human life, there are still more and more overweight and obese people throughout the world today. Healthy habits taken from home or socioeconomic situation are factors which might influence on regular physical activity. People who lead a healthy lifestyle in childhood are also active during adulthood. On the other hand academic life might promote less healthy lifestyle. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the level of physical activity of both German and Spanish students of Medicine and Physiotherapy. The study involved 100 Spanish and 100 German students aged from 19 to 24 years. Based on Eurobarometer 72.3, the respondents were asked a set of questions regarding physical activity. The chi-squared test (χ2) and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the statistical analysis. The vast majority of students presented a normal BMI value, but it was not related to high physical activity. More than one-third of all students seldom practised any sports. The Spanish students usually did some form of physical activity outdoors, whereas the German students exercised in a fitness centre. Lack of time was to the Medicine and Physiotherapy students the most significant factor that did not allow them to be more physically active. Medicine and Physiotherapy students should be more physically active in order to promote a good, healthy lifestyle model to society and there should be more physical activity education to encourage more students to practise sports.

  5. Youth Engagement through Science (YES!) - Engaging Underrepresented Minorities in Science through High School Internships at the National Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G.; Cruz, E.; Selvans, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Smithsonian's Youth Engagement through Science (YES!) program at the National Museum of Natural History gives young people from the Washington, D.C. area the opportunity to engage in science out of school through 16-week internships. We will present the program's successful strategies and lessons learned around recruiting and engaging young people from underserved communities, and maintaining relationships that help to support their pursuit of STEM and other career paths. The YES! program connects Smithsonian collections, experts, and training with local DC youth from communities traditionally underrepresented in science careers. YES! is now in its fifth year and has directly served 122 students; demographics of alumni are 67% female, and 51% Latino, 31% African-American, 7% Asian, 5% Caucasian and 6% other. The program immerses students in science research by giving them the opportunity to work side-by-side with scientists and staff from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Gardens, and National Zoo. In addition to working on a research project, students have college preparatory courses, are trained in science communication, and apply their skills by interacting with the public on the exhibit floor.

  6. Demographic Changes of Hispanic Populations and Hispanic Student Enrollment in Texas Community Colleges: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jack; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

    2015-01-01

    In this literature review, Hispanic demographic changes in the United States and in Texas are examined. Hispanics have accounted for large changes in population, population change, and proportion of population. Accordingly, the literature was reviewed regarding Hispanic immigrants, both authorized and non-authorized immigrants. The issue of…

  7. Stigma in the context of schools: analysis of the phenomenon of stigma in a population of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingani, Luca; Catellani, Sara; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Ellefson, Sarah E; Rigatelli, Marco; Fiorillo, Andrea; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-02-09

    Students have stereotyped views about people with mental illness. In particular, they believe that these persons are incurable, dangerous, unpredictable and responsible for their condition. This study aims to investigate the levels of public stigma in an Italian university population. The Attribution Questionnaire 27 - Italian Version (AQ-27-I) was administered to a sample of students from the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. After examining the psychometric characteristics of the AQ-27-I (Cronbach's Alpha and Confirmatory Factor Analysis), multiple linear regression analyses were carried out to identify the predictors of stigmatizing attitudes in this population. Three hundred and eleven students completed the questionnaire, with a response rate of 32.81 % (out of the 948 contacted by email). The AQ-27-I showed good psychometric properties with an α = .68, and the fit indices of the models that partially supported the factor structure and paths. The two variables identified as possible predictors of stigmatizing attitudes (total score of AQ-27-I) were age and time spent reading newspapers. Antistigma campaigns are needed in university contexts, targeted in particular to students in health professions.

  8. Using biomedical engineering and "hidden capital" to provide educational outreach to disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazan, John F; Scott, John M; Hoke, Jahkeen I; Ledet, Eric H

    2014-01-01

    A hands-on learning module called "Science of the Slam" is created that taps into the passions and interests of an under-represented group in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). This is achieved by examining the use of the scientific method to quantify the biomechanics of basketball players who are good at performing the slam dunk. Students already have an intrinsic understanding of the biomechanics of basketball however this "hidden capital" has never translated into the underlying STEM concepts. The effectiveness of the program is rooted in the exploitation of "hidden capital" within the field of athletics to inform and enhance athletic performance. This translation of STEM concepts to athletic performance provides a context and a motivation for students to study the STEM fields who are traditionally disengaged from the classic engineering outreach programs. "Science of the Slam" has the potential to serve as a framework for other researchers to engage under-represented groups in novel ways by tapping into shared interests between the researcher and disadvantaged populations.

  9. Differences in the Emotional Intelligence between Undergraduate Therapy and Business Students and the Population Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Nigel; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.; Parsons, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Students occasionally experience difficulties during work-integrated learning and clinical placements. The authors reasoned that these placement difficulties might be related to the students' emotional intelligence (EI) being underdeveloped before they commence full-time clinical placements. A cross-sectional survey design was used to measure the…

  10. A Neglected Population: Media Consumption, Perceived Risk, and Fear of Crime Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Luzi

    2018-03-01

    The 4.5 million international students worldwide bring in multifold benefits to the advancement of culture, economy, and national security in education host countries. Surprisingly, few prior studies have explored international students' fear of crime, which may harm their mental and physical health and undermine their educational achievements. The current study aims to fill in this research void by investigating international students' fear of crime in line with the cultivation theoretical framework, which postulates that media consumption cultivates fear of crime. The analyses draw on a sample of 398 international students attending nine different public and private universities across the United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), I investigate the extent and correlates of students' fear of crime. The findings reveal that international students are more fearful in the United States than in their home countries. SEM results show that controlling for students' fear in their home countries, attention paid to crime news is positively related to fear in the United States, through perceived victimization risk. The SEM results also suggest that exposure to non-U.S. social media (e.g., WeChat and Weibo) is positively related to respondents' fear of crime, whereas exposure to U.S. social media (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) is not related to fear of crime. The current study highlights the importance of studying the impact of fear of crime and social media use on international students.

  11. Population Characteristics and Student Outcomes. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 3, May/June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Sue; Topper, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Colleges can gain a better understanding of their students' progress by comparing themselves to peers. Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community College Count, this issue of "Data Notes" focuses on Achieving the Dream colleges that serve high percentages of Hispanic, black, and low-income students. This analysis reveals the noteworthy result…

  12. The Relationship between Teaching Presence and Student Course Outcomes in an Online International Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Jillian; Courduff, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    A causal comparative research design was utilized in this study to examine the relationship between international students' perceptions of teacher presence in the online learning environment and students' achievement as measured by end of course grades. Spearman's analysis indicated no statistically significant correlation between the composite…

  13. Mentoring Interventions for Underrepresented Scholars in Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences: Effects on Quality of Mentoring Interactions and Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vivian; Martina, Camille A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Chaudron, Linda; Trief, Paula M.; LaGuardia, Jennifer G.; Sharp, Daryl; Goodman, Steven R.; Morse, Gene D.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Mentors rarely receive education about the unique needs of underrepresented scholars in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. We hypothesized that mentor-training and peer-mentoring interventions for these scholars would enrich the perceived quality and breadth of discussions between mentor-protégé dyads (i.e., mentor-protégé pairs). Our…

  14. Increasing Graduate Management Education Candidate Diversity: Improving Attraction to Underrepresented Segments. GMAC® Research Report RR-16-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sabrina; Rea, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This white paper, "Increasing Graduate Management Education Candidate Diversity: Improving Attraction to Underrepresented Segments," presents findings from a research study that GMAC commissioned from globalsojourn, a market strategy and research firm, to gain insights into the dynamics of the perceptions and interest of U.S.…

  15. Is "Race-Neutral" Really Race-Neutral?: Disparate Impact towards Underrepresented Minorities in Post-209 UC System Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jose L.; Cabrera, Nolan L.; Fosnacht, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Authors examine the proportion of undergraduate applications, admissions, and enrollments preceding, during, and after Proposition 209 while accounting for the relative growth in University of California eligibility for underrepresented minorities (URMs). They employed standard deviation analyses to measure dispersion of the URMs to non-URMs.…

  16. A Mentor Training Program Improves Mentoring Competency for Researchers Working with Early-Career Investigators from Underrepresented Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O.; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective…

  17. Factors associated with illicit drugs' lifetime and frequent/heavy use among students results from a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitancourt, Tânia; Tissot, Maria Cristina Ribeiro Grilli; Fidalgo, Thiago Marques; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes; da Silveira Filho, Dartiu Xavier

    2016-03-30

    Substance use among teenage students and factors associated were investigated through a survey using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO's Program on Research and Reporting on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence, additional questions on family factors and personal risks, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, adapted to Brazil. The target population consisted of 3891 10-22-year-old students from the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil. The prevalence of lifetime substance use was 26.7%. Most commonly used substances were energy drinks combined with alcohol (19%), solvents (11.2%) and marijuana (4.8%). Almost 60% of the students had already tried alcohol and 18.2% had tried tobacco. Factors associated to lifetime substance use were: lower self-esteem, going to nightclubs at least twice a week, use of alcohol, trying tobacco, bad relationship with the mother, permissive mothers, practicing sports as an obligation, working, and higher socioeconomic level. Concerning frequent/heavy substance use, chances were found to be higher among students who had use tobacco and alcohol, going to nightclubs at least twice a week, and those with lower self-esteem. Preventive actions concerning drug use should focus on avoiding the first experimentation, approaching family relationships, and improving students' self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The development of the program of voluntary blood donation promotion in students population of the University of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Srzentić Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Given that in each country students represent the most progressive population group, as of 2001, the Blood Transfusion Institute of Serbia (BTIS has been carrying the program of voluntary blood donation promotion and education of volunteers at the University of Belgrade (UB. In 2011, the BTIS intensified all activities at the UB. The aim of this study was to present activities performed from 2001 at the Blood Donors` Motivation Department (DMD of the BTIS related with increasing the level of awareness on voluntary blood donation in the Belgrade students` population, enhancing their motivation to become voluntary blood donors (VBDs, increasing the number of blood donations at faculties of the UB, and increasing the number of blood donations in the UB students population compared with the total number of blood units collected by BTIS in Belgrade, with the emphasis on the year 2013. Methods. Initially, the applied methodology was based on encouraging students to donate blood through discussions and preparatory lectures, followed by organized blood drives. Appropriate selection of volunteers at each faculty was crucial. Besides their recognisable identity, they had to have remarkable communication skills and ability to positivly affect persons in their environment. The applied principle was based on retention of volunteers all through the final academic year, with the inclusion of new volunteers each year and 1,000 preparatory lectures on the annual basis. The activities were realized using two Facebook profiles, SMS messages and continuous notification of the public through the media. Results. There was an increase in the average number of students in blood drives at the faculties from 2011, when the average number of the students per blood drive was 39, followed by 43 in 2012 and 46 in 2013. The number of students who donated blood in 2013 increased by 21.3% compared with 2012 data. Conclusion. The applied concept highly

  19. Supporting the emergence of female student entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Kruse, Merethe

    2011-01-01

    intends to activate unused entrepreneurial potential at the AAA and increase the number of female design students who start their own business, during or after completion of study. The aim is that an independent career is made available for all, and not only for groups of particularly resourceful 'born......' entrepreneurs, where female students are underrepresented. This paper will show how enterprising elements...

  20. A Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Study of Pharmacy Student Perceptions of Readiness to Serve Diverse Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y; Awé, Clara; Tawk, Rima H; Simon Pickard, A

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To examine students' self-perceptions at different stages in a pharmacy curriculum of competence related to serving culturally diverse patients and to compare self-reported competence of a student cohort near the beginning and end of the degree program. Methods. Student perceptions across four pharmacy class years were measured in a cross-sectional survey, with a follow-up longitudinal survey of one cohort three years later. Results. Based on an 81.9% response rate (537/656), scores showed no attitude changes. Reported knowledge, skills, comfort in clinical encounters, and curricular preparedness increased across program years. Fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students reported the highest scores. Scores differed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Students in the fourth year scored lower on importance of diversity training. Conclusion. Improved perceptions of readiness (ie, knowledge and behavior) to serve diverse groups suggest the curriculum impacts these constructs, while the invariance of student attitudes and association of self-reports with programmatic outcomes warrant further investigation.

  1. Exploring the Academic and Social Experiences of Latino Engineering Community College Transfer Students at a 4-Year Institution: A Qualitative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, LaTesha R.

    As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.

  2. Awareness of knowledge and practice regarding physical activity: A population-based prospective, observational study among students in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA promotion has proven effectiveness in preventing childhood obesity. Increasing children's health knowledge is the most frequently used approach in PA intervention programs targeting childhood obesity prevention. However, little is known about the specific association between the change in a child's knowledge awareness and their PA practice.A one-year follow-up study was conducted among primary and junior high school students in Nanjing, China. At baseline students' knowledge of healthy behavior, and their PA levels, were assessed. Students who were unaware of the association between PA and obesity were followed for one academic year. After nine-months their knowledge and PA levels were re-measured using the same validated questionnaire. Mixed effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between awareness of knowledge about the link between PA and obesity and PA changes.Of the 1899 students who were unaware of the association between PA and obesity at baseline, 1859 (follow-up rate = 97.9% were successfully followed-up. After nine months 1318 (70.9% participants had become aware of PA-obesity association. Compared to their counterparts who remained unaware, students who became aware of the PA-obesity association were more likely to increase both the frequency (odds ratio (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.64 and duration (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.65 of PA, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables.Becoming aware of the known link between PA and obesity led to positive behavior modification regarding PA in this cohort of Chinese students. This is of particular importance that knowledge disimination and health education may be a useful approach for population-based physical activity promotion aiming at childhood obesity prevention in China.

  3. Diabetic macular oedema: under-represented in the genetic analysis of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadgate, Suzanne; Kiire, Christine; Halford, Stephanie; Chong, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, a complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, is a complex disease and is one of the leading causes of blindness in adults worldwide. It can be divided into distinct subclasses, one of which is diabetic macular oedema. Diabetic macular oedema can occur at any time in diabetic retinopathy and is the most common cause of vision loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the large number of genetic association studies that have been performed in cohorts of patients with type 2 diabetes and published in English-language journals up to February 2017. Many of these studies have produced positive associations with gene polymorphisms and diabetic retinopathy. However, this review highlights that within this large body of work, studies specifically addressing a genetic association with diabetic macular oedema, although present, are vastly under-represented. We also highlight that many of the studies have small patient numbers and that meta-analyses often inappropriately combine patient data sets. We conclude that there will continue to be conflicting results and no meaningful findings will be achieved if the historical approach of combining all diabetic retinopathy disease states within patient cohorts continues in future studies. This review also identifies several genes that would be interesting to analyse in large, well-defined cohorts of patients with diabetic macular oedema in future candidate gene association studies. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. ‘Speaking Truth’ Protects Underrepresented Minorities’ Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Ben-Zeev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP, designed to protect underrepresented minorities’ (URMs intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM. STEP takes a ‘knowledge as power’ approach by: (a providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit and (b encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American]. STEP protected URMs’ abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA] as well as decreased URMs’ worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP’s two-pronged approach—explicating the effects of structural ‘isms’ while harnessing URMs’ existing assets—shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM.

  5. Project-Based Learning and Agile Methodologies in Electronic Courses: Effect of Student Population and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zapater

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Project-Based Learning (PBL and Agile methodologies have proven to be very interesting instructional strategies in Electronics and Engineering education, because they provide practical learning skills that help students understand the basis of electronics. In this paper we analyze two courses, one belonging to a Master in Electronic Engineering and one to a Bachelor in Telecommunication Engineering that apply Agile-PBL methodologies, and compare the results obtained in both courses with a traditional laboratory course. Our results support previous work stating that Agile-PBL methodologies increase student satisfaction. However, we also highlight some open issues that negatively affect the implementation of these methodologies,such as planning overhead or accidental complexity. Moreover,we show how differences in the student population, mostly related to the time spent on-campus, their commitment to the course or part-time dedication, have an impact on the benefits of Agile-PBL methods. In these cases, Agile-PBL methodologies by themselves are not enough and need to be combined with other techniques to increase student motivation.

  6. Positive mental health and well-being among a third level student population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Davoren

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS. METHODS: Undergraduate students from one large third level institution were sampled using probability proportional to size sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to students attending lectures in the randomly selected degrees. A total of 2,332 self-completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a response rate of 51% based on students registered to relevant modules and 84% based on attendance. One-way ANOVAs and multivariate logistic regression were utilised to investigate factors associated with positive mental health and well-being. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly female (62.66%, in first year (46.9% and living in their parents' house (42.4% or in a rented house or flat (40.8%. In multivariate analysis adjusted for age and stratified by gender, no significant differences in WEMWBS score were observed by area of study, alcohol, smoking or drug use. WEMWBS scores were higher among male students with low levels of physical activity (p=0.04. Men and women reporting one or more sexual partners (p<0.001 were also more likely to report above average mental health and well-being. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to examine positive mental health and well-being scores in a third level student sample using WEMWBS. The findings suggest that students with a relatively adverse health and lifestyle profile have higher than average mental health and well-being. To confirm these results, this work needs to be replicated across

  7. Positive mental health and well-being among a third level student population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS) was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS.

  8. Broadening Participation: Mentoring Community College Students in a Geoscience REU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Osborn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly, REUs are recruiting from community colleges as a means of broadening participation of underrepresented minorities, women, and low-income students in STEM. As inclusion of community college students becomes normalized, defining the role of science faculty and preparing them to serve as mentors to community college students is a key component of well-designed programs. This session will present empirical research regarding faculty mentoring in the first two years of an NSF-REU grant to support community college students in a university's earth and environmental science labs. Given the documented benefits of undergraduate research on students' integration into the scientific community and their career trajectory in STEM, the focus of the investigation has been on the processes and impact of mentoring community college STEM researchers at a university serving a more traditionally privileged population; the degree to which the mentoring relationships have addressed community college students needs including their emotional, cultural and resource needs; and gaps in mentor training and the mentoring relationship identified by mentors and students.

  9. The Relationship between Academic Entitlement, Academic Performance, and Satisfaction with Life in a College Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Rebekah H.

    2013-01-01

    Although academic entitlement (AE) has become a popular topic of discussion in the media, it has received very little scholarly focus in the higher education literature to date. AE has been defined as a belief held by students that they deserve high grades in school despite a lack of effort put forth into their work (Chowning & Campbell,…

  10. Examining the Academic Motivation of a Diverse Student Population: A Consideration of Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdan, Tim; Bruchmann, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we review research that has examined the association between race, ethnicity, culture, and student motivation. We begin by describing potential problems regarding how race, ethnicity, and culture are defined in research. Next, we review some of the methods that have been used to examine the associations among race, ethnicity,…

  11. (Self) Evaluation of Knowledge in Students' Population in Higher Education in Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevereski, Ljupco

    2017-01-01

    Students' assessment, in general, observed through a socio-historical prism, has always been treated as an extremely sensitive, current, significant, indicative and continuously present phenomenon. In that respect, what is especially relevant is that for a very long time docimological procedures and their effects have been focused on following…

  12. The potential for e-biking among the younger population: a study of Dutch students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plazier, Paul; Weitkamp, Gerd; Berg, van den A. E.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the benefits and limitations of e-bike use for students participating in a pilot in a university town in the Netherlands. It targets a gap in the literature regarding e-bike use in early adulthood. Thirty-seven pilot participants completed a survey on their e-bike experiences,

  13. Prevalence of Residential Dampness and Mold Exposure in a University Student Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lanthier-Veilleux

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of residential dampness or mold on respiratory health is well established but few studies have focused on university students. This study aims to: (a describe the prevalence of exposure to residential dampness or mold in university students according to socio-geographic factors and (b identify associated housing characteristics. A web survey was conducted in 2014 among the 26,676 students registered at the Université de Sherbrooke (QC, Canada. Residential dampness and mold being closely intertwined, they were considered as a single exposure and assessed using a validated questionnaire. Exposure was compared according to socio-geographic and housing characteristics using chi-square tests and logistic regressions. Among the 2097 participants included in the study (response rate: 8.1%, over 80% were tenants. Residential exposure to dampness or mold was frequent (36.0%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.1. Marked differences for this exposure were noted according to home ownership (39.7% vs. 25.5% among tenants and owners respectively; OR = 1.92%, 95% CI: 1.54–2.38. Campus affiliation, household composition and the number of residents per building were associated with exposure to dampness or mold (p < 0.01, while sex and age were not. Exposure was also associated with older buildings, and buildings in need of renovations and lacking proper ventilation (p < 0.001. This study highlights the potential risk of university students suffering from mold-related health effects given their frequent exposure to this agent. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the mold-related health impact in this at risk group.

  14. Simulating Population Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  15. Effects of Student Population Density on Academic Achievement in Georgia Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Diane O'Rourke

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between school density and achievement test scores. The study utilized a bipolar sample in order to include schools whose achievement scores were at the top and bottom of the population spectrum when considering Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) scores. Based on comparing test scores and…

  16. [How educating students in depression among older people can affect their motivation to work with this population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, S; Izaute, M; Teissèdre, F

    2017-04-01

    Negative representations of ageing are conveyed in our society. We see that people frequently avoid working with older people, due to a lack of motivation. Depressive signs in older people are more frequently associated with normal ageing, rather than a pathology, giving health professionals the feeling that therapeutic efforts are likely to be unproductive. Yet, depression is a major public health problem, particularly among older people. It is a real pathology, affecting 20% of people aged 65 and older. In retirement homes the percentage can be as high as 45%. To study and evaluate how theoretical knowledge about older people and depression affects the motivation of 2nd year psychology students to work with this population. The study involves two groups. One of the groups (experimental group) followed an 8hour course on depression in older people, whereas the other (control group) followed an 8hour course on a different topic. The study was conducted in two parts. First, the two groups answered an initial questionnaire which measured how motivated they were to work with older people and what they knew about depression in older people. Then, after the experimental phase, all of the students answered the same questionnaire a second time. The comparison shows a significant decline in knowledge between T1 and T2 for the control group (Pdepression, students are more motivated to work with older people. Moreover, we observe that the more knowledge students have in this field, the more motivated they will be to work with older people. Whereas there were no differences in knowledge before the course, we observed that the knowledge of the group who took part in the course about older people improved. Also, the evaluation showed that students who took the course were significantly more knowledgeable. Regarding motivation, our results vary according to the type of motivation. Overall, as regards intrinsic motivation, we observed an increase in motivation, insofar as the

  17. Are the eating habits of university students different to the rest of the Spanish population? Food availability, consumption and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amo, E.; Escribano, F.; Garcia-Meseguer, M.J.; Pardo, I.

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge of the eating habits of young people is highly relevant to understand the demand for food. The objectives of this paper are to identify and analyze the eating habits of a section of young people in relation to the food habits of the rest of the Spanish population, to evaluate the influence of food prices on eating habits and the relevance of those food products related to the Mediterranean diet. The three food surveys used in this study were the Food Balance Sheet (FBS), designed by the FAO, the Household Budget Survey (HBS), designed by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics and an individual survey given to enrolled students at the University of Castilla-La Mancha. The cross-sectional study which was carried out allowed us to discover the cost of food and the consumption habits of a section of young people. A change in food availability and consumption was identified between 2009 and 2012. The average availability per capita and day for food expenditure was €6.19, while the average consumption in the two surveys was €4. The average food availability was 125.58 g per capita and day with an average price of 0.0022 €/g. The behavior of these university students is different from that of the rest of the population. Fruits, legumes, vegetables and greens are the cheapest groups of food; however, the consumption of these food groups is the lowest whereas meat is one of the more expensive groups and is consumed in greater quantities by students. These results are relevant in order to encourage the dietary habits of young people towards the products included in the Mediterranean diet. (Author)

  18. Are the eating habits of university students different to the rest of the Spanish population? Food availability, consumption and cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Amo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the eating habits of young people is highly relevant to understand the demand for food. The objectives of this paper are to identify and analyze the eating habits of a section of young people in relation to the food habits of the rest of the Spanish population, to evaluate the influence of food prices on eating habits and the relevance of those food products related to the Mediterranean diet. The three food surveys used in this study were the Food Balance Sheet (FBS, designed by the FAO, the Household Budget Survey (HBS, designed by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics and an individual survey given to enrolled students at the University of Castilla-La Mancha. The cross-sectional study which was carried out allowed us to discover the cost of food and the consumption habits of a section of young people. A change in food availability and consumption was identified between 2009 and 2012. The average availability per capita and day for food expenditure was €6.19, while the average consumption in the two surveys was €4. The average food availability was 125.58 g per capita and day with an average price of 0.0022 €/g. The behavior of these university students is different from that of the rest of the population. Fruits, legumes, vegetables and greens are the cheapest groups of food; however, the consumption of these food groups is the lowest whereas meat is one of the more expensive groups and is consumed in greater quantities by students. These results are relevant in order to encourage the dietary habits of young people towards the products included in the Mediterranean diet.

  19. Contextual influences affecting patterns of overweight and obesity among university students: a 50 universities population-based study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Yu, Lingwei; Barnett, Ross; Jiang, Shuhan; Peng, Sihui; Fan, Yafeng; Li, Lu

    2017-05-08

    Many studies have examined childhood and adolescent obesity, but few have examined young adults and the effect of their home and current living environments on prevalence rates. The present study explores contextual factors affecting overweight and obesity among university students in China and, in particular, focuses on how the SES-obesity relationship varies across different geographical contexts. Participants were 11,673 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities. Individual data was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in overweight and obesity. Overall the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the study sample was 9.5% (95% CI 7.7, 11.3%). After controlling for individual factors, both attributes of the home location (regional GDP per capita and rurality) and the current university location (city population) were found to be important, thus suggesting that the different origins of students affect current levels of obesity. At the individual level, while students with more financial resources were more likely to be obese, the extent of this relationship was highly dependent upon area income and city size. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting overweight and obesity among young adults and indicate a need to take into account both past as well as present environmental influences when considering the role of contextual factors in models of the nutrition transition.

  20. Comparison of different methods to estimate BMR in adoloscent student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Suchitra R; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing clinical emphasis for the measurement of BMR and energy expenditure in clinical and research investigation such as obesity, exercise, cancer, under-nutrition, trauma and infections. Hence, there is a motivation towards calculating basal metabolic rate using standard equations. The objective of the present work is to identify an appropriate equation in Indian environment for the estimation of calorie needs and basal metabolic rate using the measured height, weight, age and skin fold parameters of an individual. Basal metabolic rates of adolescent male and female population aged between 17-20 years were estimated using equations proposed by FAO, ICMR, Cunningham, Harris Benedict, Fredrix and Miffin. Calorie needs were calculated using factorial approach which involves the multiplication of basal metabolic rate with appropriate physical activity factor. Basal metabolic rates estimated by FAO, Cunningham, Harris-Benedict, Fredrix and Miffin are reduced by 5%. These reduced basal metabolic rates and calorie needs are compared with that obtained by Cunningham's equation which is considered as accurate equation. Comparison of the basal metabolic rates and calorie needs obtained by Cunningham equation with all equations such as Harris-Benedict, FAO, Fredrix and Miffin after 5% reduction and ICMR equation without reduction indicates that Harris-Benedict, Fredrix, Miffin and FAO equations can be used for male and female adolescent populations for Indian environment. In conclusion, Harris-Benedict equation is an appropriate equation for both male and female adolescent population for Indian environment.

  1. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings.

  2. Hierarchy of Identities in the Macedonian Multicultural Society. Findings from a Survey of Student Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristova, Lidija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In multicultural societies as the Macedonian one, the attachment of citizens to particular identity traits is important for the democratic stability and peace. The aim of this paper is to find out how students from different ethnic origins in the R. Macedonia relate to their identity traits, especially to their national and ethnic identities, and relative to other identity traits. The basic assumptions are based on a phenomenon called "minority effect", according to which members of minority groups tend to attach greater importance to minority affiliations that are particularly important for their group identity (language, religion, ethnicity, tradition, etc.. Aside from importance of identity traits, the emotional and behavioural components of these attachments were also examined. The research results show that regardless of the ethnic origin, students attach greatest importance to their identities connected to their immediate social environment (family, friends, but also religion. In accordance with the “minority effect” hypothesis, religion and then ethnicity, are perceived by the ethnic Albanians as a strong cohesive and mobilising factor, whereas that is not the case with the ethnic Macedonians. When it comes to nationality, the responses suggest that for ethnic Albanians it has marginal importance (through the cognitive, emotional and the action component, while ethnic Macedonians show controversial relation to their national identity.

  3. The Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms (ASC) curriculum: focusing upon diverse students and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino de la Rubia, Leigh S

    2012-09-01

    The Minority Institution Astrobiology Collaborative (MIAC) began working with the NASA Goddard Center for Astrobiology in 2003 to develop curriculum materials for high school chemistry and Earth science classes based on astrobiology concepts. The Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms (ASC) modules emphasize interdisciplinary connections in astronomy, biology, chemistry, geoscience, physics, mathematics, and ethics through hands-on activities that address national educational standards. Field-testing of the Astrobiology in Secondary Classrooms materials occurred over three years in eight U.S. locations, each with populations that are underrepresented in the career fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Analysis of the educational research upon the high school students participating in the ASC project showed statistically significant increases in students' perceived knowledge and science reasoning. The curriculum is in its final stages, preparing for review to become a NASA educational product.

  4. Poor sleep quality and insufficient sleep of a collegiate student-athlete population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Cheri D; Kezirian, Eric J; Marcello, Brandon M; Dement, William C

    2018-06-01

    Poor and inadequate sleep negatively impact cognitive and physical functioning and may also affect sports performance. The study aim is to examine sleep quality, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness in collegiate student-athletes across a wide range of sports. Questionnaire. University setting. 628 athletes across 29 varsity teams at Stanford University. Athletes completed a questionnaire inquiring about sleep quality via a modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness via Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep quality on campus and while traveling for competition was rated on a 10-point scale. Collegiate athletes were classified as poor sleepers (PSQI 5.38 ± 2.45), and 42.4% of athletes experience poor sleep quality (reporting PSQI global scores >5). Athletes reported lower sleep quality on campus than when traveling for competition (7.1 vs 7.6, Pquality, regularly obtain insufficient sleep, and commonly exhibit daytime sleepiness. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. All rights reserved.

  5. First-Generation College Students and Undergraduate Research: Narrative Inquiry into the University of Arizona's Ronald E. McNair Achievement Program and the Phenomenon of Student Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of first-generation college students enrolling in colleges and universities across the US, so too is the need to begin preparing such underrepresented students for graduate school and a career in academia. As a phenomenological case study of student transformation, this dissertation examines the experience of nine…

  6. Elemental data on human hair sampled from Indian student population and their interpretation for studies in environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.; Gangadharan, S.; Yegnasubramanian, S.

    1979-01-01

    The head hair samples from 260 students distributed over the country have been analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry through a combination of short and long irradiations. The elemental abundances for 21 elements (Na, Cl, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cd, Sb, I, La, Ce and Au) computed using a secondary standard, developed in this laboratory, as a comparator are presented and compared with some of the published data. The elemental concentration data have been analysed to look for statistically significant differences between groups based on sex, diet, geographical location, section of hair, etc., and the trace element features have been processed through pattern recognition approach using principal components analysis and minimal spanning tree. The vegetarians and non-vegetarians form clearly distinct groups, while the clusters for general population seem to be based on geographical location. (author)

  7. First Generation Students and Post-Undergraduate Aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Teressa Carlton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Equal access to education is a growing concern throughout the nation. With an increasing amount of programs aimed to support the underrepresented populations on college campuses, first generation college students have grown to be a target population of particular interest. This study examined the relationships between first generation college seniors and applications to graduate or professional programs. The goal of this study was to determine if first generation students are pursuing advanced degrees at lower rates than non-first generation students and if so, attempt to uncover factors contributing to that evidence. Data were gathered from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshman data set, and variables were analyzed using a binary logistic regression. The results of the study indicate that first generation students are significantly less likely to pursue an advanced degree, even when controlling for race, gender, family income, and cumulative grade point average, suggesting a distinctive impact of first generation status on post-undergraduate aspirations. However, after controlling for the impact of self-reported undergraduate loans, the effect of first generation status was no longer significant. The findings in this study provide an important new perspective in the field of sociology.

  8. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program (MPP): Thirty Years of Improving Access to Opportunities in the Geosciences Through Undergraduate and Graduate Scholarships for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, C. N.; Byerly, G. R.; Smith, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. AGI promotes its MPP efforts primarily through its web pages, which are very successful in attracting visitors; through its publications, especially Geotimes; and through its Corporate Associates and Member Societies. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources over the past 30 years. Industry, non-profit organizations, and individuals have been the primary source of funding for graduate scholarships. The NSF has regularly funded the undergraduate scholarships. AGI Corporate Associates have contributed to both scholarship programs. The MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. AGI currently has 29 MPP scholars, including 11 undergraduate and 18 graduate students. Undergraduate scholarships range from \\1000 to \\5000, with an average award of approximately \\2500. Graduate scholarships range from \\500 to \\4000, with an average award of approximately \\1300. In addition to financial assistance, every MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars, and with writing evaluation reports that

  9. Consumer preferences of student population as a determinant of successful milk quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kristić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The final result of milk quality management is a superior product with high quality levels of all intrinsic and extrinsic components. To achieve this, most activities in the management process should be directed towards the quality components that are recognized by the average consumer of milk. To determine these factors, an indicative research was carried out on a sample of 1,157 respondents among the young population. Regarding the intrinsic components, the results indicate that young consumers mostly appreciate the taste and milk fat content in the range 2.8-3.2 %, whereas regarding the extrinsic components they value price and the origin of products, that is, the origin of milk. The last component has not been fully used in promotional efforts of producers in their advertising of milk, especially in a sub segment of urban young consumers. A stronger emphasis of this would help producers to differentiate themselves, and achieve competitive advantage on domestic and international markets.

  10. Preparing and Supporting Black Students to Enroll and Achieve in Advanced Mathematics Classes in Middle School: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cobbs, Joyce Bernice

    2015-01-01

    The literature on minority student achievement indicates that Black students are underrepresented in advanced mathematics courses. Advanced mathematics courses offer students the opportunity to engage with challenging curricula, experience rigorous instruction, and interact with quality teachers. The middle school years are particularly significant for mathematics education since the courses students pursue during those years affect later access to rigorous mathematics coursework at the high ...

  11. The Determinants of College Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Adam A.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to add to the college student dropout literature by examining persistence decisions at private, non-selective university using previously unstudied explanatory variables and advanced econometric methods. Three main contributions are provided. First, proprietary data obtained from a type of university that is underrepresented in…

  12. High school students as science researchers: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. R.; Grannas, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    Today's K-12 students will be the scientists and engineers who bring currently emerging technologies to fruition. Existing research endeavors will be continued and expanded upon in the future only if these students are adequately prepared. High school-university collaborations provide an effective means of recruiting and training the next generation of scientists and engineers. Here, we describe our successful high school-university collaboration in the context of other models. We have developed an authentic inquiry-oriented environmental chemistry research program involving high school students as researchers. The impetus behind the development of this project was twofold. First, participation in authentic research may give some of our students the experience and drive to enter technical studies after high school. One specific goal was to develop a program to recruit underrepresented minorities into university STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) programs. Second, inquiry-oriented lessons have been shown to be highly effective in developing scientific literacy among the general population of students. This collaboration involves the use of local resources and equipment available to most high schools and could serve as a model for developing high school- university partnerships.

  13. Quantifying population preferences around vaccination against severe but rare diseases: A conjoint analysis among French university students, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seanehia, Joy; Treibich, Carole; Holmberg, Christine; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Casin, Valerie; Raude, Jocelyn; Mueller, Judith E

    2017-05-09

    Several concepts are available to explain vaccine decision making by individual and inter-individual factors, including risk perception, social conformism and altruism. However, only a few studies have quantified the weight of these determinants in vaccine acceptance. Using a conjoint analysis tool, we aimed at eliciting preferences in a student population regarding vaccination against a rare, severe and rapidly evolving hypothetical disease, similar to meningococcal serogroup C meningitis or measles. During March-May 2016, we conducted an emailing survey among university students aged 18-24years (N=775) in Rennes, France. Participants were asked to decide for or against immediate vaccination in 24 hypothetical scenarios, containing various levels of four attributes: epidemic situation, adverse events, information on vaccination coverage, and potential for indirect protection. Data were analysed using random effect estimator logit models. Participants accepted on average 52% of scenarios and all attributes significantly impacted vaccination acceptance. The highest positive effects were seen with an epidemic situation (OR 3.81, 95%-CI 3.46-4.19), 90% coverage in the community (3.64, 3.15-4.20) and potential for disease elimination from the community (2.87, 2.53-3.26). Information on "insufficient coverage" was dissuasive (vs. none of friends vaccinated: 0.65, 0.56-0.75). Controversy had a significantly greater negative effect than a confirmed risk of severe adverse events (OR 0.05 vs. 0.22). In models including participant characteristics, preference weights were unchanged, while trust in health authorities and vaccination perceptions strongly influenced acceptance themselves. The greatest significant variation of preference weights between subgroups was observed with controversy among students using alternative medicine daily (OR 0.28) and among students relying on scientific vaccine information (OR 0.02). Among young adults, potential for indirect protection and

  14. Solar cell and photonics outreach for middle school students and teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Pamela O.; Alexander, Alonzo B.

    2017-08-01

    This paper will describe the curriculum development process employed to develop a solar cell and photonics curriculum unit for students underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields. Information will explain how the curriculum unit was piloted with middle and high school teachers from public schools in North Carolina, high school students from underrepresented groups in an informal science program, and workshop settings. Measures used to develop the curriculum materials for middle school students will be presented along with program findings documenting students' urban versus rural interest in STEM, career aspirations, and 21st century learning skills in informal learning settings.

  15. Providing Co-Curricular Support: A Multi-Case Study of Engineering Student Support Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Walter C., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the student retention and diversity issues that have been persistent in undergraduate engineering education, many colleges have developed Engineering Student Support Centers (ESSCs) such as Minority Engineering Programs (MEPs) and Women in Engineering Programs (WEPs). ESSCs provide underrepresented students with co-curricular…

  16. Closing the Social Class Achievement Gap for First-Generation Students in Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Giffen, Cynthia J.; Blair, Seth S.; Rouse, Douglas I.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students,…

  17. Results of Summer Enrichment Program to Promote High School Students' Interest in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Brenda; McAnulty, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, personnel from the University of Louisville J.B. Speed School of Engineering have presented a summer program targeting high school students historically underrepresented in engineering fields. INSPIRE provides these students with an introduction to careers in engineering and assists the students in planning their…

  18. Funds of Knowledge in 21st Century Societies: Inclusive Educational Practices for Under-Represented Students. A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopart, Mariona; Esteban-Guitart, Moisès

    2018-01-01

    Although the first educational applications of the "funds of knowledge" (FoK) concept were carried out in the late 1980s, there have been numerous developments and proposals since then, many of which have been made within the last few years. It continues to be, therefore, a valid, cutting-edge educational approach; one which seeks to…

  19. A Social Cognitive Approach to Understanding Engineering Career Interest and Expectations among Underrepresented Students in School-Based Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dika, Sandra L.; Alvarez, Jaquelina; Santos, Jeannette; Suárez, Oscar Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Interest in engineering at early stages of the educational career is one important precursor to choosing to study engineering in college, and engineering-related clubs are designed to foster such interest and diversify the engineering pipeline. In this study, the researchers employed a social cognitive career theory framework to examine level of…

  20. Fostering Non-Cognitive Development of Underrepresented Students through Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Recommendations for School Counselor Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Hale, Robyn W.

    2016-01-01

    The non-cognitive factors (NCFs) endorsed by Sedlacek (2004) appear to align with the core values of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). This article explores theoretical and empirical evidence that suggests REBT fosters the development of NCFs. School counselors can promote non-cognitive development by embedding REBT throughout direct and…

  1. AP® STEM Participation and Postsecondary STEM Outcomes: Focus on Underrepresented Minority, First-Generation, and Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kara; Jagesic, Sanja; Wyatt, Jeff; Ewing, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    Projections by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (2012) point to a need for approximately one million more Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) professionals than the U.S. will be able to produce considering the current rate of STEM postsecondary degree completions (Executive Office of the President of…

  2. Prevalence and impact of primary headache disorders among students and working population in 18-25 years age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Aishwarya S, Eswari N, Chandrasekar M, Chandra Prabha J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache or cephalalgia is defined as pain in the head. Headache is an extremely common symptom that may have a profound impact on peoples’ functioning and quality of life. According to International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD, they are Primary and Secondary headaches. Primary Headaches are triggered by stress, alcohol, changes in sleep pattern, anxiety, poor posture, all of which are part and parcel our day-to-day life. The study was performed to investigate the prevalence of primary headache disorders and its severity of impact among students and working population in the age group 18-25. Methods: The study was conducted on 718 subjects of which 483 subjects were medical and engineering students from the age group 18-21 and 235 subjects were working people from the age group 22-25. Written consent was taken from each of them. Headache Impact Test-6 (version 1.1 and the HARDSHIP Questionnaire by Timothy Steiner et al. were the questionnaires used to diagnose the severity of impact and the type of headache respectively. The study was ethically approved by Ethical Clearance Board of MAHER University. People suffering from psychiatric illness were excluded from the study. Result: There was increased prevalence of migraine in the age group 18-21 and tension type headache in the age group 22-25.Over 50%of subjects from both the age groups had headaches that have substantial to severe impact on their lives. There was no significant gender variation in headache prevalence.

  3. GLOBE-al Impact through Diversity Bootcamps and Student Research Symposia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, J.; Murphy, T.; Johnson, J.; Sparrow, E. B.; Czajkowski, K. P.; Herron, S.; Falcon, P.

    2016-12-01

    Inclusion, diversity, underrepresented groups, underserved populations...the key words and phrases that represent the students, we, as science education professionals, want to reach and encourage to enter the geoscience pipeline. Wanting to do this is one thing and having the skills to succeed is very different. It is also one that the GLOBE Program, an international science and education program, is working on as a community. GLOBE encourages students from around the world to participate in authentic scientific research of the Earth system. Students use scientific protocols to explore their local environments, compare their findings with other GLOBE schools both in the U.S. and in other participating countries, and then share their findings via the GLOBE.gov website. In the last year, two initiatives, six face-to-face Student Research Symposia and two diversity-focused GLOBE Partner Bootcamps, set the GLOBE community of Partners, teachers and students on the path to being able to address this challenge. This presentation will include the framework for the student research symposia, the barriers the leadership team faced when recruiting and getting students there and the lessons learned. Agendas for the GLOBE Partner Bootcamps will be shared to demonstrate how facilitators supplemented a standard GLOBE Partner workshop to model a more inclusive environment, along with future improvements to the format.

  4. Collaborative Testing as a Model for Addressing Equity in Student Success in STEM Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileonardo, C.; James, B. R.

    2016-12-01

    Introductory Earth science classes at two-year colleges play a critical role as "gateway courses" for underrepresented student populations into undergraduate STEM programs. Students entering college underprepared in math and science typically receive their only exposure to science at the undergraduate level in introductory courses in the Earth and space sciences. In many colleges a huge disparity exists in these classes between success rates amongst students from groups traditionally represented in the STEM fields and those from underrepresented populations. Closing the equity gap in success in these courses is a major focus of many pilot projects nationally. This concern has also led to the adoption of new teaching and learning practices, based on research in learning, in introductory Earth science pedagogy. Models of teaching practices including greater engagement, active learning approaches, and collaborative learning structures seem to help with student achievement in introductory courses. But, whereas these practices might increase overall student success they have not proven to close the equity gap in achievement. De Anza a two-year college in the San Francisco bay area has a long history in the geology department of incorporating and testing teaching practices developed out of research in learning. Collaborative learning has infused every aspect of our learning approaches in the Earth sciences, including laboratory, fieldwork, and test preparation. Though these approaches seemed to have educational benefit the huge equity gap department-wide persisted between targeted and non-targeted populations. Three years ago collaborative testing models were introduced into our geology and meteorology classes. The mechanism included methods for directly comparing collaborative to individual testing. The net result was that targeted populations including African Americans, Latinos, and Filipinos increased steadily at around 3.5% per year from 66% to 73%. The overall

  5. The Nation's Report Card: Mega-States--An Analysis of Student Performance in the Five Most Heavily Populated States in the Nation. NCES 2013-450

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    California, Florida, Illinois, New York, and Texas enroll close to 40 percent of the nation's public school students. The importance of these "Mega-States" goes beyond the sheer size of their population. They now serve more than half of the nation's English language learners (ELL), as well as some of the largest concentrations of…

  6. Including everyone: A peer learning program that works for under-represented minorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques van der Meer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer learning has long been recognised as an effective way to induct first-year students into the academic skills required to succeed at university. One recognised successful model that has been extensively researched is the Supplemental Instruction (SI model; it has operated in the US since the mid-1970s. This model is commonly known in Australasia as the Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS program. Although there is a considerable amount of research into SI and PASS, very little has been published about the impact of peer learning on different student groups, for example indigenous and other ethnic groups. This article reports on the results from one New Zealand university of the effectiveness of PASS for Māori and Pasifika students. The questions this article seeks to address are whether attendance of the PASS program results in better final marks for these two groups of students, and whether the number of sessions attended has an impact on the final marks.

  7. The future of warfarin pharmacogenetics in under-represented minority groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Larisa H; Perera, Minoli A

    2012-01-01

    Genotype-based dosing recommendations are provided in the US FDA-approved warfarin labeling. However, data that informed these recommendations were from predominately Caucasian populations. Studies show that variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in Caucasians provide similar contributions to dose requirements in US Hispanics, but significantly lesser contributions in African–Americans. Further data demonstrate that variants occurring commonly in individuals of African ancestry, but rarely in other racial groups, significantly influence dose requirements in African–Americans. These data suggest that it is important to consider variants specific for African–Americans when implementing genotype-guided warfarin dosing in this population. PMID:22871196

  8. The Impact of Engagement with Extracurricular Activities on the Student Experience and Graduate Outcomes for Widening Participation Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mary; Lido, Catherine; Morgan, Jessica; Solomon, Lucy; May, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This research examined extracurricular activity (ECA) effects on students' experiences, outcomes and future job prospects. A survey of diverse undergraduate students, along with alumni and potential employer interviews, revealed differences in students' engagement with ECAs beyond the classroom. Variations between "traditional" and…

  9. Socialization and Information Horizons: Source Use Behavior of First-Generation and Continuing-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tien-I

    2013-01-01

    First-generation college (FGC) students have been described as an underrepresented group in comparison to their continuing-generation counterparts (non-FGC students). Studying college students' socialization experiences and their use of academic resources can help us understand how to facilitate their academic success. Incorporating…

  10. Preparing and Supporting Black Students to Enroll and Achieve in Advanced Mathematics Classes in Middle School: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbs, Joyce Bernice

    2014-01-01

    The literature on minority student achievement indicates that Black students are underrepresented in advanced mathematics courses. Advanced mathematics courses offer students the opportunity to engage with challenging curricula, experience rigorous instruction, and interact with quality teachers. The middle school years are particularly…

  11. Thai PhD Students and Their Supervisors at an Australian University: Working Relationship, Communication, and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomnian, Singhanat

    2017-01-01

    PhD supervision is crucial for higher degree research students in western academic contexts. Despite an increasing body of literature regarding the international student-supervisor relationship, Thai students in Australian higher education are under-represented. This qualitative study aims to explore discursive practices that impact on Thai…

  12. Developing a Hybrid Model to Predict Student First Year Retention in STEM Disciplines Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasawneh, Ruba; Hargraves, Rosalyn Hobson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a hybrid framework to model first year student retention for underrepresented minority (URM) students comprising African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Identifying inputs that best contribute to student retention provides significant information for institutions to learn about…

  13. To Grab and To Hold: Cultivating communal goals to overcome cultural and structural barriers in first generation college students' science interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jill M; Muragishi, Gregg A; Smith, Jessi L; Thoman, Dustin B; Brown, Elizabeth R

    2015-12-01

    Homogeneity within science limits creativity and discovery, and can feed into a perpetuating cycle of underrepresentation. From enhancing social justice to alleviating health and economic disadvantages, broadening participation in science is imperative. We focus here on first-generation students (FGS) and identify factors which grab and hold science interest among this underrepresented group. Might the culture and norms within science unintentionally limit FGS' participation? We argue that two distinct aspects of communal goals contribute to FGS' underrepresentation at different stages of the STEM pipeline: cultural perceptions of science as uncommunal (little emphasis on prosocial behavior and collaboration) and the uncommunal structure of STEM graduate education and training. Across 2 studies we investigated factors that catch (Study 1) and hold (Study 2) FGS' science interest. In Study 1, we find only when FGS believe that working in science will allow them to fulfill prosocial communal purpose goals are they more intrinsically interested in science. Yet, later in the pipeline science education devalues prosocial communal goals creating a structural mobility barrier among FGS. Study 2 found that FGS generally want to stay close to home instead of relocating to pursue a graduate education. For FGS (versus continuing-generation students), higher prosocial communal goal orientation significantly predicted lower residential mobility. We discuss implications for interventions to counteract the uncommunal science education and training culture to help improve access to FGS and other similarly situated underrepresented populations.

  14. Biosphere Reserve for All: Potentials for Involving Underrepresented Age Groups in the Development of a Biosphere Reserve through Intergenerational Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanenko, Tamara; Snajdr, Julia; Muhar, Andreas; Penker, Marianne; Schauppenlehner-Kloyber, Elisabeth

    2018-05-22

    Stakeholder participation is of high importance in UNESCO biosphere reserves as model regions for sustainable development; however, certain groups remain underrepresented. The paper proposes Intergenerational Practice (IP) as a means of involving youth and elderly women and explores its options and barriers, using the example of the Salzburger Lungau and Kärntner Nockberge Biosphere Reserve in Austria. Case study analysis is used involving mixed methods. The results reveal obstacles and motivations to participating in biosphere reserve implementation and intergenerational activities for the youth and the elderly women and imply that much potential for IP exists in the biosphere reserve region. The authors propose suitable solutions from the intergenerational field to overcome identified participation obstacles and suggest benefits of incorporating IP as a management tool into biosphere reserve activities. Suggestions for future research include evaluating applications of IP in the context of protected areas, testing of methods used in other contexts, and contribution to theory development.

  15. The Virtual Poster Showcase: Opportunities for students to present their research from anywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, P. M.; Furukawa, H.; Williams, B. M.; Holm Adamec, B.

    2015-12-01

    Although many students conduct research with faculty in organized summer programs or as part of their course work or their degree work, they often face barriers to traveling to present that research, especially at national or international conferences. This is especially true for students who are members of underrepresented minority populations and students studying outside of the United States. A new and exciting opportunity for undergraduate as well as graduate students to showcase their work is now available. AGU piloted three opportunities for an undergraduate and graduate virtual poster showcase in the fall of 2015. Student participants were recruited from a diverse array of groups including minority-serving organizations, two-year colleges, and internship programs at federal agencies and national laboratories. Students uploaded an abstract, poster, and short video explain their research, and then participated in Q&A sessions with peers as well as expert judges. This presentation will share characteristics of participating groups, lessons learned from this new program, and preliminary evaluation findings as well as plans for the future.

  16. Promoting careers in health care for urban youth: What students, parents and educators can teach us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Lynne; Rumala, Bernice; Carson, Patricia; Siegel, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    There are many obstacles that urban youth experience in pursuing health careers, but the benefits of diversifying the classroom and workforce are clear. This is especially true today as educators and policymakers seek to enhance underrepresented minority students' access to health careers, and also achieve the health workforce needed to support the Affordable Care Act. The creation of student pipeline programs began more than 40 years ago, but success has been equivocal. In 2008, Mentoring in Medicine (MIM) conducted a research project to identify how students learn about health careers; develop strategies for an integrated, experiential learning program that encourages underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health; and translate these into best practices for supporting students through their entire preparatory journey. Six focus groups were conducted with educators, students, and their parents. The inclusion of parents was unusual in studies of this kind. The outcome yielded important and surprising differences between student and parent knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. They informed our understanding of the factors that motivate and deter underrepresented minority students to pursue careers in health care. Specific programmatic strategies emerged that found their place in the subsequent development of new MIM programming that falls into the following three categories: community-based, school-based and Internet based. Best practices derived from these MIM programs are summarized and offered for consideration by other health career education program developers targeting underrepresented minority students, particularly those located in urban settings.

  17. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students from Diverse Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda A. Price

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students ( N = 61 by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks.

  18. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ahmed K; Kelly, Shona J; Challenor, Emily C; Glazebrook, Cris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zag...

  19. Opportunity Knocks: Pipeline Programs Offer Minority Students a Path to Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Minority students have traditionally been underrepresented in dental schools, which is why enrichment and pipeline programs aimed at helping minority students are necessary. That reality is reflected in their woeful underrepresentation among practicing dentists. Hispanics made up only 5.8 percent of practicing dentists in 2011, according to the…

  20. Urban High School Student Engagement through CincySTEM iTEST Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Gulbahar H.; Hemmings, Annette; Maltbie, Catherine; Wright, Kathy; Sherman, Melissa; Sersion, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notable heightening of underrepresented students' engagement in STEM education through project-based learning CincySTEM iTEST projects. The projects, funded by an iTEST NSF grant, were designed and facilitated by teachers at a new STEM urban public high school serving low-income African-American students. Student…

  1. Brandeis Science Posse: Talented Students Bring Diversity to the Field. Carnegie Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Science Posse program at Brandeis University aims to increase the recruitment and retention of students from disadvantaged and underrepresented backgrounds in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) disciplines. A grant from Carnegie Corporation helped support the development of the program, which has brought 50 students from…

  2. Entry-Level Employment Prospects for Women in College-Student Personnel Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, George D.

    1979-01-01

    Women are no longer underrepresented in student personnel preparation programs. However, an increased number of female master's degree graduates are seeking a limited number of entry-level positions. Women (and men) should be made aware of the inherent free-market employment risks when contemplating a career in student personnel work. (Author)

  3. Moving Toward an Anti-Deficit Perspective: African American Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) Students at Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Melissa M.

    The increased demand for qualified STEM workers, necessitates addressing the bachelor's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) degree achievement among African Americans and other underrepresented populations. Using inquiry derived from Harper's (2010) Anti-Deficit Achievement Framework, this study sought to explore the factors that contribute to the successful degree completion of African American STEM students within a large comprehensive university system. Coding of the twelve semi-structured interviews revealed six major themes: a) K-12/precollege educational experiences, b) motivation to complete a STEM degree, c) systems of social support, d) extracurricular activities and out-of-class experiences, e) addressing stereotyping and discrimination, and f) faculty behaviors and dispositions. All themes were intertwined at each phase of participants' academic careers, thereby, highlighting the complexity of this population's experience and what is needed to address their low STEM degree attainment. Findings indicated that this student population benefits from positive, sustained faculty-student interactions, holistic STEM success programming, and genuine networks of social support. Furthermore, Harper's framework can be modified to explore the motivation of African American STEM students as well as the African American student's relationship with disability support services.

  4. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents.

  5. Perceptions of problem-based learning (PBL) group effectiveness in a socially-culturally diverse medical student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaram, V S; Dolmans, D H J M; Lachman, N; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2008-07-01

    A key aspect of the success of a PBL curriculum is the effective implementation of its small group tutorials. Diversity among students participating in tutorials may affect the effectiveness of the tutorials and may require different implementation strategies. To determine how students from diverse backgrounds perceive the effectiveness of the processes and content of the PBL tutorials. This study also aims to explore the relationship between students' perceptions of their PBL tutorials and their gender, age, language, prior educational training, and secondary schooling. Data were survey results from 244 first-year student-respondents at the Nelson Mandela School of Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to verify scale constructs in the questionnaire. Relationships between independent and dependent variables were investigated in an analysis of variance. The average scores for the items measured varied between 3.3 and 3.8 (scale value 1 indicated negative regard and 5 indicated positive regard). Among process measures, approximately two-thirds of students felt that learning in a group was neither frustrating nor stressful and that they enjoyed learning how to work with students from different social and cultural backgrounds. Among content measures, 80% of the students felt that they learned to work successfully with students from different social and cultural groups and 77% felt that they benefited from the input of other group members. Mean ratings on these measures did not vary with students' gender, age, first language, prior educational training, and the types of schools they had previously attended. Medical students of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, regardless of their backgrounds, generally have positive perceptions of small group learning. These findings support previous studies in highlighting the role that small group tutorials can play in overcoming cultural barriers and promoting unity and

  6. Singaporean college students overpour drinks similar to Western populations: influence of peer presence in a simulated alcohol-pouring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandy, Shannon L; Pang, Joyce S; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Matthews, Douglas B

    2013-11-01

    College drinking is a global health concern. However, most studies originate from countries with high alcohol consumption. In the United States, college students overpour a standard alcoholic drink, yet it is unclear if this remains true in countries with low alcohol consumption. Additionally, in college, peer influence is the greatest predictor of drinking behavior, yet it is unknown if social norms affect how students pour drinks. This study examined how male college students, in a country with low alcohol consumption, define standard drinks, and if the presence of an unfamiliar peer affects how students pour during a simulated alcohol-pouring task. Male undergraduate students (n = 105) underwent baseline assessments of impulsivity, self-monitoring, religiosity, and drinking characteristics. Participants poured fluid into empty cups of different sizes to equal a standard serving of beer or shot of liquor. There were 2 groups based on gender of experimenter. Within each group, participants were randomly assigned to Alone or Dyad condition. In the Alone condition, students were instructed to pour only for themselves. In the Dyad condition, students were instructed to pour for themselves and the experimenter. The volumes poured by the students were compared with standards used in Singapore and the United States. Collapsed across container size, students overpoured shots by 50% and beer by 100% when compared to the standard drink definition in Singapore. When using a more liberal definition, students overpoured beer by 25%, but did not overpour shots. In the presence of an unfamiliar peer, overpouring decreased by 10% for beer. The current data show that college students, in a country with low alcohol consumption, overestimate standard alcoholic drinks similar to their Western counterparts and use social norms to determine how much to pour for a drink when confronted with an unfamiliar peer. Efforts toward creating internationally recognized standard drink

  7. Integrating Identities: Ethnic and Academic Identities among Diverse College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lovey H. M.; Syed, Moin

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Students of Color continue to be underrepresented at the undergraduate level. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of non-academic psychosocial factors for understanding college experiences. One factor, identity, is a broad, multidimensional construct that comprises numerous distinct domains, including political,…

  8. Barriers and Perceptions of Natural Resource Careers by Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Nia A.; Jacobson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Using a framework based on social cognitive career theory, we conducted 38 interviews and four focus groups with college students to identify motivations and barriers faced by underrepresented groups to natural resource careers. Interviews revealed career satisfaction as the most important goal for both natural resource and a comparison of liberal…

  9. From the Margins to the Spotlight: Diverse Deaf and Hard of Hearing Student Populations and Standardized Assessment Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Designing assessments and tests is one of the more challenging aspects of creating an accessible learning environment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH), particularly for deaf students with a disability (DWD). Standardized assessments are a key mechanism by which the educational system in the United States measures student…

  10. Characteristics and Predictors of Health Problems from Use among High-Frequency Cannabis Users in a Canadian University Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Dawe, Meghan; Mcguire, Fraser; Shuper, Paul A; Jones, Wayne; Rudzinski, Katherine; Rehm, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Assess key cannabis use, risk and outcome characteristics among high-frequency cannabis users within a university student sample in Toronto, Canada. Methods: N = 134 active universities students (ages of 18-28) using cannabis at least three times per week were recruited by mass advertisement, telephone-screened and anonymously assessed by an…

  11. The retention of first-generation college students in STEM: An extension of Tinto's longitudinal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, Ada Rosemary

    In the current technologically advanced global economy, the role of human capital and education cannot be over-emphasized. Since almost all great inventions in the world have a scientific or technological foundation, having a skilled workforce is imperative for any nation's economic growth. Currently, large segments of the United States' population are underrepresented in the attainment of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) degrees, and in the STEM professions. Scholars, educators, policy-makers, and employers are concerned about the decline in student enrollment and graduation from STEM disciplines. This trend is especially problematic for first-generation college students. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the factors that predict the retention of first-generation college students in the STEM majors. It employs Tinto's longitudinal model (1993) as a conceptual framework to predict STEM retention for first-generation college students. The analysis uses the Beginning Post-secondary Students study (BPS 04/09) data and Roots of STEM qualitative data to investigate the role of first-generation status in STEM major retention. Results indicate that upper levels of achievement in high school math have a significant effect on first-generation status in STEM outcomes.

  12. Influencing College and Higher Education Choices in Disadvantaged Hispanic High School Students Through a School-Based Health Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harsimran; Matza, Maria; Latham, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Statistics representing professional health care providers do not adequately reflect the shift in the nation's diverse population. Latinos are significantly underrepresented at all levels of appropriate academic programs critical for entry to health profession careers. This project describes the implementation of a student-run, faculty-facilitated Future Nurse and Health Club at a school (with majority Latino students) to emphasize the importance of higher education in health care. Demographic and psychosocial profiles of club members were also developed to understand community needs. The Future Nurse and Health Club was established in partnership with faculty and researchers representing a university-based nursing program, school officials, and community leaders. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from club members and their parents using a variety of techniques including questionnaires and focus groups. The findings of the study highlighted a variety of student- and parent-related factors including poor lifestyle habits and perceptions of support that could potentially influence Latino high school students' interest and progress in health care-related higher education. A school-based health career club involving active participation of parents and students with support from health care professionals such as academic nursing faculty has the potential to simultaneously raise student interest in health-related careers and health needs of their community.

  13. Promoting the Geosciences for Minority Students in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Creating and Sustaining Diversity in the Geo-Sciences among Students and Teachers in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City' project was awarded to New York City College of Technology (City Tech) by the National Science Foundation to promote the geosciences for students in middle and high schools and for undergraduates, especially for those who are underrepresented minorities in STEM. For the undergraduate students at City Tech, this project: 1) created and introduced geoscience knowledge and opportunities to its diverse undergraduate student population where geoscience is not currently taught at City Tech; and 2) created geoscience articulation agreements. For the middle and high schools, this project: 1) provided inquiry-oriented geoscience experiences (pedagogical and research) for students; 2) provided standards-based professional development (pedagogical and research) in Earth Science for teachers; 3) developed teachers' inquiry-oriented instructional techniques through the GLOBE program; 4) increased teacher content knowledge and confidence in the geosciences; 5) engaged and intrigued students in the application of geoscience activities in a virtual environment; 6) provided students and teachers exposure in the geosciences through trip visitations and seminars; and 7) created community-based geoscience outreach activities. Results from this program have shown significant increases in the students (grades 6-16) understanding, participation, appreciation, and awareness of the geosciences. Geoscience modules have been created and new geosciences courses have been offered. Additionally, students and teachers were engaged in state-of-the-art geoscience research projects, and they were involved in many geoscience events and initiatives. In summary, the activities combined geoscience research experiences with a robust learning community that have produced holistic and engaging stimuli for the scientific and academic growth and development of grades 6

  14. USMLE performances in a predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander population of medical students in a problem-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Richard T; Naguwa, Gwen S; Guerrero, Anthony P S; Hishinuma, Earl S; Lindberg, Marlene A; Judd, Nanette K

    2003-05-01

    To compare the USMLE performances of students of various ethnicities, predominantly Pacific Islander and Asian, at one medical school and to examine the predictive validity of MCAT scores for USMLE performance. A total of 258 students in the graduating classes of 1996-2000 at the University of Hawai'i School of Medicine were classified by ethnicity. Demographic and performance characteristics of the groups were examined, and MCAT scores with and without undergraduate science GPA were used to predict USMLE performance. Under- and over-prediction rates were computed for each ethnic group. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly by gender or undergraduate GPA. Chinese, Caucasian, and Other Asian students tended to have higher MCAT scores than Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and Filipino students. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly in prediction of USMLE Step 1 performance. For Step 2, MCAT scores significantly over-predicted performance of Filipino students and tended to under-predict performance of Caucasian students. Although MCAT scores and science GPA were good predictors of USMLE performance, ethnic differences were found in the degrees of their predictive validity. These findings both replicate and extend results of earlier studies, and again point to the importance of exploring additional predictor variables. The authors encourage future research on the effects of the following factors on success in medical school: reading and test-taking skills, socio-cultural and environmental influences on learning, communication styles, primary language use, family support, and family responsibilities.

  15. Women are underrepresented in computational biology: An analysis of the scholarly literature in biology, computer science and computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Kevin S; Stefan, Melanie I

    2017-10-01

    While women are generally underrepresented in STEM fields, there are noticeable differences between fields. For instance, the gender ratio in biology is more balanced than in computer science. We were interested in how this difference is reflected in the interdisciplinary field of computational/quantitative biology. To this end, we examined the proportion of female authors in publications from the PubMed and arXiv databases. There are fewer female authors on research papers in computational biology, as compared to biology in general. This is true across authorship position, year, and journal impact factor. A comparison with arXiv shows that quantitative biology papers have a higher ratio of female authors than computer science papers, placing computational biology in between its two parent fields in terms of gender representation. Both in biology and in computational biology, a female last author increases the probability of other authors on the paper being female, pointing to a potential role of female PIs in influencing the gender balance.

  16. Women are underrepresented in computational biology: An analysis of the scholarly literature in biology, computer science and computational biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S Bonham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While women are generally underrepresented in STEM fields, there are noticeable differences between fields. For instance, the gender ratio in biology is more balanced than in computer science. We were interested in how this difference is reflected in the interdisciplinary field of computational/quantitative biology. To this end, we examined the proportion of female authors in publications from the PubMed and arXiv databases. There are fewer female authors on research papers in computational biology, as compared to biology in general. This is true across authorship position, year, and journal impact factor. A comparison with arXiv shows that quantitative biology papers have a higher ratio of female authors than computer science papers, placing computational biology in between its two parent fields in terms of gender representation. Both in biology and in computational biology, a female last author increases the probability of other authors on the paper being female, pointing to a potential role of female PIs in influencing the gender balance.

  17. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program.

  18. Enhancing the Careers of Under-Represented Junior Faculty in Biomedical Research: The Summer Institute Program to Increase Diversity (SIPID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Treva K; Liu, Li; Jeffe, Donna B; Jobe, Jared B; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Pace, Betty S; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2014-01-01

    The Summer Institute Program to Increase Diversity (SIPID) in Health-Related Research is a career advancement opportunity sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Three mentored programs address difficulties experienced by junior investigators in establishing independent research careers and academic advancement. Aims are to increase the number of faculty from under-represented minority groups who successfully compete for external research funding. Data were collected using a centralized data-entry system from three Summer Institutes. Outcomes include mentees' satisfaction rating about the program, grant and publications productivity and specific comments. Fifty-eight junior faculty mentees (38% male) noticeably improved their rates of preparing/submitting grant applications and publications, with a 18-23% increase in confidence levels in planning and conducting research. According to survey comments, the training received in grantsmanship skills and one-on-one mentoring were the most valuable program components. The SIPID mentoring program was highly valued by the junior faculty mentees. The program will continue in 2011-2014 as PRIDE (PRogram to Increase Diversity among individuals Engaged in health-related research). Long-term follow-up of current mentees will be indexed at five years post training (2013). In summary, these mentoring programs hope to continue increasing the diversity of the next generation of scientists in biomedical research.

  19. #Me_Who: Anatomy of Scholastic, Leadership, and Social Isolation of Underrepresented Minority Women in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michelle A

    2018-05-22

    In academic medicine, under-represented minority women physician-scientists (URMWP)* are uncommon, particularly in leadership positions. Data from the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) show that among internal medicine chairs, there are 12 Asian males, 10 African/American (blacks; 9 men), 7 Hispanics (2 females) and 137 whites (21 females). In the top 40 ranked cardiology programs, there are no female cardiology chiefs, whereas there are at least 10, 2, 1 and 24 Asian, black, Hispanic and white males respectively. There are more URMWP than URM males, yet URMWP are less likely to be professors and occupy leadership positions in academia. Specifically, among United States medical school faculty, relative proportions at assistant, associate and full professor levels according to race/ethnicity and gender have remained essentially unchanged over the past 20 years. AAMC information demonstrates that only 11%, 9%, 11% and 24% of Asian, black, Hispanic and white women are full professors compared with 21%, 18%, 19% and 36% of Asian, black, Hispanic and white men. Additionally, while there are representative proportions of women and Asians at the lowest faculty levels, they have not equitably progressed in academic medicine, likely reflecting discrimination and structural/organizational barriers that are also applicable to black and Hispanic females 1 .

  20. Diversity of United States medical students by region compared to US census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark M Smith,1 Steven H Rose,1 Darrell R Schroeder,2 Timothy R Long1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Purpose: Increasing the diversity of the United States (US physician workforce to better represent the general population has received considerable attention. The purpose of this study was to compare medical student race data to that of the US general population. We hypothesized that race demographics of medical school matriculants would reflect that of the general population. Patients and methods: Published race data from the United States Census Bureau (USCB 2010 census and the 2011 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC allopathic medical school application and enrollment by race and ethnicity survey were analyzed and compared. Race data of enrolled medical students was compared to race data of the general population within geographic regions and subregions. Additionally, race data of medical school applicants and matriculants were compared to race data of the overall general population. Results: Race distribution within US medical schools was significantly different than race distribution for the overall, regional, and subregional populations of the US (P<0.001. Additionally, the overall race distribution of medical school applicants differed significantly to the race distribution of the general population (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that race demographics of US medical school applicants and matriculants are significantly different from that of the general population, and may be resultant of societal quandaries present early in formal education. Initiatives targeting underrepresented minorities at an early stage to enhance health care career interest and provide academic support and mentorship will be required to address the racial disparity that exists in US

  1. Determining Persistence of Community College Students in Introductory Geology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Katrien van der Hoeven

    2014-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) careers have been touted as critical to the success of our nation and also provide important opportunities for access and equity of underrepresented minorities (URM's). Community colleges serve a diverse population and a large number of undergraduates currently enrolled in college, they are…

  2. Developing Dental Students' Awareness of Health Care Disparities and Desire to Serve Vulnerable Populations Through Service-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Feng, Xiaoying; Roberts, Kellie W; Gibbs, Micaela; Catalanotto, Frank A; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse M

    2015-10-01

    Service-learning in dental education helps students integrate knowledge with practice in an underserved community setting. The aim of this study was to explore how a service-learning experience affected a small group of dental students' beliefs about cultural competence, professionalism, career development, desire to practice in a community service setting, and perceptions about access and disparities issues. Prior to beginning their first year of dental school, five first-year dental students at one U.S. dental school participated in a six-week service-learning program in which they interned at one of three at-risk settings in order to experience health care delivery there. After the program, 60 reflective writing assignments completed by the participants were analyzed using grounded theory methods; interviews with the students were used to corroborate the findings from that analysis. Seven themes identified in the journal reflections and interview findings showed enhanced awareness of social health care issues and patient differences, as well as a social justice orientation and desire to address disparities. Building on this study, future research should explore the curricular components of service-learning programs to ensure students receive ample opportunity to reflect upon their experiences in order to integrate previously held assumptions with their newfound knowledge.

  3. Introducing High School Students to Chemical Engineering Kinetics with a Simple Experiment-Based Smartphone Education Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Simone; Ymele-Leki, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    A community outreach project was integrated in a District of Columbia public schools summer internship program for students from underrepresented minorities in STEM. The project introduced these students to fundamental engineering principles by leveraging a smartphone application (App) so readily accessible and attractive to them that it boosted…

  4. Underrepresentation of Ethiopian-Israeli Minority Students in Programmes for the Gifted and Talented: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Chen C.; Katz, Chana

    2015-01-01

    Students from disadvantaged or minority backgrounds are often underrepresented in public educational programmes for the gifted and talented (G&T), a phenomenon that has concerned educators for the last two decades. Ethiopian-Israeli minority students (EIMS) are a good example of this phenomenon, as more than 95% of the vast resources allocated…

  5. Social Support: Main and Moderating Effects on the Relation between Financial Stress and Adjustment among College Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Lombardi, Allison; Bender, Franklin; Gerdes, Hillary

    2013-01-01

    Students with disabilities are underrepresented in 4-year colleges and universities in the United States and those that do attend are at an increased risk of performing poorly in these settings. These difficulties for college students with disabilities may be compounded by additional stress related to financial concerns. The current study was…

  6. Voices of Hispanic College Students: A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research within the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    2014-01-01

    As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…

  7. Access and Aspirations: Careers in Teaching As Seen by Canadian University Students of Chinese and Punjabi-Sikh Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynon, June; Toohey, Kelleen

    1995-01-01

    Students of Chinese and Punjabi-Sikh ancestry are underrepresented in teacher education programs in British Columbia. Interviews with 34 college students from these ethnic groups found that career choice was influenced most strongly by parental expectations, and was also affected by cultural sex role attitudes, English language proficiency, and…

  8. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challenor Emily C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. Methods The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Results Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%. Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894. For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05, with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value Conclusion The strong, significant correlation between the PHQ and ZDS, along with high internal consistency of the ZDS as a whole provides evidence that ZDS is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study.

  9. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed K; Kelly, Shona J; Challenor, Emily C; Glazebrook, Cris

    2010-12-10

    It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%). Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894). For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05), with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study.

  10. Older cancer patients in cancer clinical trials are underrepresented. Systematic literature review of almost 5000 meta- and pooled analyses of phase III randomized trials of survival from breast, prostate and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Cita; Wilson, Andrew; Sitas, Freddy

    2017-12-01

    Older people represent increasing proportions of the population with cancer. To understand the representivity of cancer treatments in older people, we performed a systematic literature review using PRISMA guidelines of the age distribution of clinical trial participants for three leading cancer types, namely breast, prostate, and lung. We used PubMed to identify articles detailing meta or pooled-analyses of phase III, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of survival for breast, prostate and lung cancer, published ≤5 years from 2016. We compared the age distribution of participants to that of these cancers for "More developed regions". 4993 potential papers were identified, but only three papers on breast cancer, three on lung cancer, and none on prostate cancer presented the age distribution of their participants. Except for one paper of breast cancer, participants ≥70 years in all other papers were underrepresented. We recommend the age distribution of patients be clearly reported in all clinical trials, as per guidelines. Clinical trials ought to be more representative of the populations most affected by the disease for which treatments are being tested. This should lead to better knowledge of effectiveness of treatments and better translation of trial results to optimal care of older cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Challenges for Persistence with Two-Year College Student Transfers and How One Survey Attempts to Identify Pathways of Success for Geoscience Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Van Der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Wolfe, B.

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid growth in enrollments at two-year colleges (2YCs), these institutions provide a rich talent pool for future science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduates at four-year universities, particularly students from underrepresented groups (American Geosciences Institute [AGI], 2014). This is particularly true for the geosciences because over 25% of recent geoscience graduates with a bachelor's degree attended a 2YC for at least one semester (AGI, 2013). However, it is difficult to successfully track 2YC transfers because many 2YC students do not complete an associate's degree and very few institutions offer a geoscience-specific associate's degree. In order to recruit future geoscientists from this pool of students, researchers need to better understand the barriers these students face when trying to transfer and how they are able to successfully navigate these barriers. During spring 2014 graduation, AGI surveyed students completing their bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees about their educational background, experiences and future plans after graduation. Those graduates who attended a 2YC for at least one semester provided insight into their enrollment decisions as they transferred into a four-year university. The sample from this survey represents 154 responses from a total of 596 responses. General demographics reveal an older population (average age: 30, median: 27), a higher percent of male students (54% male, 40% female) and Caucasians (76%, 10% non Caucasian) than a traditional 2YC student. Students attending 2YC nationally are on average 28 years old (median: 24), are 57% women, and are 51% Caucasian (AACC Fast Facts, 2014). In addition, responses indicated some of the factors that influenced their ability to successfully transfer into 4-year geoscience programs including personal motivation and successful transfer of credits.

  12. The fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of multiple mini interview in an internationally diverse student population--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maureen E; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P; Murphy, Andrew W

    2014-12-21

    International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 were eligible to sit a previously validated 10 station MMI. Quantitative data comprised: demographics, selection tool scores and First Year Assessment scores. Qualitative data comprised separate focus groups with MMI Assessors, EU and Non-EU students. 109 students participated (45% of class). Of this 41.3% (n = 45) were Non-EU and 35.8% (n = 39) did not have English as first language. Age, gender and socioeconomic class did not impact on MMI scores. Non-EU students and those for whom English was not a first language achieved significantly lower scores on MMI than their EU and English speaking counterparts (difference in mean 11.9% and 12.2% respectively, PIELTS) (r = 0.5, PIELTS (r = 0.44; p = 0.006; n = 38) and EU school exit exam (r = 0.52; p<0.001; n = 56). MMI predicted EU student OSCE performance (r = 0.27; p = 0.03; n = 64). In the analysis of focus group data two overarching themes emerged: Authenticity and Cultural Awareness. MMI was considered a highly authentic assessment that offered a deeper understanding of the applicant than traditional tools, with an immediate relevance to clinical practice. Cultural specificity of some stations and English language proficiency were seen to disadvantage international students. Recommendations included cultural awareness training for MMI assessors, designing and piloting culturally neutral stations, lengthening station duration and providing high quality advance information to candidates. MMI is a welcome addition to assessment armamentarium for

  13. Parental Opinion Concerning School Sexuality Education in a Culturally Diverse Population in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to expand upon previous research related to parental opinion concerning school sexuality education by sampling a culturally diverse, low-income population that has been traditionally under-represented in the literature. A total of 191 parents attending an urban community college completed a written questionnaire about what topics…

  14. Use of Trans Fat Information on Food Labels and Its Determinants in a Multiethnic College Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Sunitha; Kovacs, Szilvia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the correlates of trans fat knowledge and trans fat label use; to examine the influence of trans fat knowledge, trans fat label use, and dietary attitudes on intake of high trans fat food. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: An urban commuter college. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-two college students. Variables…

  15. Gender differences in alcohol-related non-consensual sex; cross-sectional analysis of a student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunby Clare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual offences are a global public health concern. Recent changes in the law in England and Wales have dramatically altered the legal landscape of sexual offences, but sexual assaults where the victim is voluntarily intoxicated by alcohol continue to have low conviction rates. Worldwide, students are high consumers of alcohol. This research aimed to compare male and female students in relation to their knowledge and attitudes about alcohol and sexual activity and to identify factors associated with being the victim of alcohol-related non-consensual sex. Methods 1,110 students completed an online questionnaire. Drinking levels were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Non-consensual sexual experiences were measured using the Sexual Experience Survey. Univariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken using chi square and backwards stepwise logistic regression respectively. Results A third of respondents had experienced alcohol-related non-consensual sex. Male and female students differed in the importance they gave to cues in deciding if a person wished to have sex with them and their understanding of the law of consent. 82.2% of women who had experienced alcohol-related non-consensual sex were hazardous drinkers compared to 62.9% who drank at lower levels (P Conclusions Alcohol-related coerced sexual activity is a significant occurrence among students; attitudinal and knowledge differences between males and females may explain this. Educational messages that focus upon what is deemed acceptable sexual behaviour, the law and rape myths are needed but are set against a backdrop where drunkenness is commonplace.

  16. The experience of minority faculty who are underrepresented in medicine, at 26 representative U.S. medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T; Gibbs, Brian K; Krupat, Edward; Brennan, Robert T; Civian, Janet T

    2013-09-01

    A diverse medical school faculty is critical to preparing physicians to provide quality care to an increasingly diverse nation. The authors sought to compare experiences of underrepresented in medicine minority (URMM) faculty with those of non-URMM faculty in a nationally representative sample of medical schools. In 2007-2009, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 4,578 MD and PhD full-time faculty from 26 U.S. medical schools. Multiple regression models were used to test for differences between URMM and other faculty on 12 dimensions of academic culture. Weights were used to adjust for oversampling of URMM and female faculty. The response rate was 52%, or 2,381 faculty. The analytic sample was 2,218 faculty: 512 (23%) were URMM, and 1,172 (53%) were female, mean age 49 years. Compared with non-URMM faculty, URMM faculty endorsed higher leadership aspirations but reported lower perceptions of relationships/inclusion, gave their institutions lower scores on URMM equity and institutional efforts to improve diversity, and more frequently engaged in disparities research. Twenty-two percent (115) had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination. For both values alignment and institutional change for diversity, URMM faculty at two institutions with high proportions (over 50%) of URMM faculty rated these characteristics significantly higher than their counterparts at traditional institutions. Encouragingly, for most aspects of academic medicine, the experiences of URMM and non-URMM faculty are similar, but the differences raise important concerns. The combination of higher leadership aspirations with lower feelings of inclusion and relationships might lead to discouragement with academic medicine.

  17. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

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    Emily M. Mader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU and Puerto Rico (PR on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method: AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results: Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024 and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005 positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016 compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011 and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001 positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001 and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001 positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions: Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions.

  18. Student Engagement in a Computer Rich Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jeffrey C.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the student lived experience when using computers in a rural science classroom. The overarching question the project sought to examine was: How do rural students relate to computers as a learning tool in comparison to a traditional science classroom? Participant data were collected using a pre-study survey, Experience Sampling during class and post-study interviews. Students want to use computers in their classrooms. Students shared that they overwhelmingly (75%) preferred a computer rich classroom to a traditional classroom (25%). Students reported a higher level of engagement in classes that use technology/computers (83%) versus those that do not use computers (17%). A computer rich classroom increased student control and motivation as reflected by a participant who shared; "by using computers I was more motivated to get the work done" (Maggie, April 25, 2014, survey). The researcher explored a rural school environment. Rural populations represent a large number of students and appear to be underrepresented in current research. The participants, tenth grade Biology students, were sampled in a traditional teacher led class without computers for one week followed by a week using computers daily. Data supported that there is a new gap that separates students, a device divide. This divide separates those who have access to devices that are robust enough to do high level class work from those who do not. Although cellular phones have reduced the number of students who cannot access the Internet, they may have created a false feeling that access to a computer is no longer necessary at home. As this study shows, although most students have Internet access, fewer have access to a device that enables them to complete rigorous class work at home. Participants received little or no training at school in proper, safe use of a computer and the Internet. It is clear that the majorities of students are self-taught or receive guidance

  19. Recruiting Diverse Students and Enabling Them to Succeed in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, Michael J.; Pre-Major in Astronomy Program

    2015-01-01

    Improving the diversity within the rapidly growing fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has become a forefront issue facing collegiate departments today. It is well known that there are large gaps in the participation and performance of minorities, women, and low-income students within these fields and that special attention must be paid in order to close this gap. Since 2005, the Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) at the University of Washington (UW) Department of Astronomy has made a concentrated effort to recruit and retain underrepresented undergraduates in STEM, at which it has been very successful. Of course, recruiting these students can be a challenge, as is creating a curriculum and atmosphere that enables undergraduates to successfully participate in real astronomy research during their first or second year at a four-year college. Pre-MAP recruits a significant population of minorities and women into the program. The structure of the seminar is intended to not only provide necessary skills and experience, but also create a collaborative and supportive atmosphere among each cohort. I will discuss the recruitment practices of Pre-MAP as well as the structure of the seminar and how it addresses the goal of early participation and success in STEM research and course work.The intent of this talk is to share our methods so that more programs like Pre-MAP can be adopted successfully in other institutions.

  20. What else are psychotherapy trainees learning? A qualitative model of students' personal experiences based on two populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Rodriguez-Rubio, Beatriz; Metler, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    After an introductory course in experiential-integrative psychotherapy, 21 graduate students provided personal narratives of their experiences, which were analyzed using the grounded theory method. Results produced 37 hierarchically organized experiences, revealing that students perceived multiple changes in both professional (i.e., skill acquisition and learning related to the therapeutic process) and personal (i.e., self growth in a more private sphere) domains. Analysis also highlighted key areas of difficulties in training. By adding the personal accounts of graduate trainees, this study enriches and extends Pascual-Leone et al.'s (2012) findings on undergraduates' experiences, raising the number of cases represented in the model to 45. Findings confirm the model of novice trainee experiences while highlighting the unique experiences of undergraduate vs. graduate trainees.

  1. Latina high school students figured world of STEM: Identity formation in formal and informal communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Minosca Victoria

    In the United States, the education and skill levels of the American population are not measuring up to the growing demands of the STEM workplace. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) (2007) projects that over the next 20 years, there will be an estimated shortage of 21 million skilled workers. STEM professions (those in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), will continue to lead this workforce growth. However, fewer students are majoring in these areas of critical need, particularly women and minorities. Only a small fraction of U.S.-born scientists and engineers training to fill these positions are members of underrepresented minorities (Latino, Black, and American Indian/Native Alaskan students), yet this same population is expected to experience the greatest growth over the next several decades. Using qualitative methods, I explore the role formal and informal communities of practice play in either motivating or hindering Latinas' interest in STEM career. I use the narratives of 16 low-income, urban Latina high school seniors to provide a counternarrative as to the reasons for these underrepresentation. Teachers in the U.S. play a significant role in the reproduction of the culturally prototypical conception of math and science students; the best and brightest in the school. Teachers' role in positioning Latina students in honors/gifted programs based on their perceptions of students' characteristics and their recommendations for placement in honors classes/ programs, STEM extracurricular activities and summer programs are critical to Latina's "good student" identity formation which has a significant role in their motivation or erasure of STEM identities. Latinas in this study strongly identified with their school and were very concerned in maintaining their good student identities. They defined academic success based on the grades they obtained and the colleges they were accepted into. I propose an identity model, L-STEM which highlight the power

  2. An administrative concern: Science teachers' instructional efficacy beliefs regarding racially, culturally, economically, and linguistically diverse student populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck Bonner, Natalie Christine

    A teacher's sense of {instructional} efficacy has been considered a critical variable in student academic performance. Researchers Tschannen-Moran and Hoy Woolfolk (2001, p.783) defined teachers' {instructional} efficacy as a teacher's judgment of his or her capabilities to bring about desired outcomes of student engagement and learning, even among those students who may be difficult or unmotivated. There has been a substantial amount of research which reveals a strong correlation among teacher efficacy, teaching performance, and student achievement (Goddard & Goddard, et.al., 2000; Hackett; Hackett, 1995; Pajares, 1997 as cited in Villereal, 2005). This research study explored the content area of science and teacher's personal perception of their competency level in teaching science to all learners regardless of socio-economic, ethnicity/race or gender for grade levels Pre-K to 12. Lewthwaite states that a science teacher's personal teacher attributes or intrinsic factors such as science teaching self-efficacy, professional science knowledge, science teaching, instructional methodologies, interest in science, and motivation to teach science are critical dimensions and noted barriers in the delivery of science programs on elementary level campuses (Lewthwaite, Stableford & Fisher, 2001). This study focused on teacher instructional efficacy issues which may affect diverse learners' classroom and state-mandated assessment academic performance outcomes. A SPSS analysis of data was obtained from the following teacher survey instruments: The Bandura Teacher Efficacy Scale, the SEBEST, and the SETAKIST. Research findings revealed that a majority of science teachers surveyed believe they can effectively teach learners of diverse backgrounds, but responded with a sense of lower efficaciousness in teaching English Language Learners. There was also a statistically significant difference found between a state science organization and a national science organization

  3. Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wen-Chi; Luu, Shyuemeng; Luh, Dih-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to invest...

  4. Title: The Impact of 2006-2012 CReSIS Summer Research Programs that Influence Student's Choice of a STEM Related Major in College Authors: Dr. Darnell Johnson Djohnson@mail.ecsu.edu Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina 27909 Dr. Linda Hayden Haydenl@mindspring.com Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina, 27909

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a future shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this impending shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of females and minorities in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of underrepresented students in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the motivational factors that impact underrepresented students' interest in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). In this paper, the mathematics research team examined the role of practical research experience during the summer for talented minority secondary students studying in STEM fields. An undergraduate research mathematics team focused on the link between summer research and the choice of an undergraduate discipline. A Chi Square Statistical Test was used to examine Likert Scale results on the attitude of students participating in the 2006-2012 Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Summer Research Programs for secondary students. This research was performed at Elizabeth City State University located in northeastern North Carolina about the factors that impact underrepresented students' choices of STEM related majors in college. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of underrepresented students. Index Terms: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), Underrepresented students

  5. Beyond the Classroom: The Impact of Informal STEM Experiences on Student Attitudes and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scinski, Lidia

    A lack of social capital can be a critical factor impeding underrepresented minority (URM) students from obtaining the mathematical and scientific background required to achieve educational and career success in STEM fields. In this study, the effects of generating and utilizing social capital within an informal STEM outreach summer camp are examined as resources in strengthening the academic pipeline for Hispanic students towards careers in STEM. Empirical studies have shown that economically disadvantaged and minority students experience larger learning losses during "unschooled" periods of time than their middle-class and White counterparts. The "faucet theory" explains how the achievement gap widens during unschooled periods of time when the resource faucet is turned off and families of students from disadvantaged backgrounds are unable to make up for these resources. Consequently, minority and students of disadvantaged backgrounds are quickly shortcircuited in taking advantage of opportunities to pursue careers in STEM fields. To address the research questions, this study employed a qualitative research design, specifically an instrumental case study design using mixed methods within a bounded program. The methods included multiple measures to collect and analyze data from focus group interviews, electronic documents, observations, and survey administrations. The sample population included forty-nine Hispanic 7th and 8th grade students from middle schools in San Diego County. Results of the study demonstrated that the informal STEM outreach summer camp positively impacted Hispanic students and increased interest and attitudes toward STEM choices. STEM programs offered during out-of-school time need to be relationship based to support young students' social and emotional development (Goldstein, Lee, & Chung, 2010). The resource faucet continued to flow during the summer for iQUEST science camp participants because they were able to tap into social capital in

  6. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration.

  7. Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chi; Luu, Shyuemeng; Luh, Dih-Ling

    2016-10-10

    Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders. Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety), and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13-15 years old.) from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models. Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies. The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events.

  8. Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chi Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders. Methods Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety, and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13–15 years old. from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models. Results Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies. Conclusions The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events.

  9. The Role of Leaders in AVID Schools and the Impact on Student Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Noone, Colleen Callahan

    2010-01-01

    The Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) program is designed to provide resources and strategies to enable underrepresented minority students to attend four-year colleges. Research indicates that the success of the students enrolled in AVID depends on the strict adherence to the AVID components. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the principal and administratorâ s understanding of, commitment to and involvement in AVID accounted for the difference in student achi...

  10. Recent admissions trends at UNLV-SDM: perspectives on recruitment of female and minority students at a new dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Jeremy; Hawley, Nathan; Kingsley, Karl; O'Malley, Susan; Ancajas, Christine C

    2008-11-01

    As the U.S. population continues to become more diverse, there has been a movement toward the recruitment of more diverse students into the dental profession. The purpose of this study was to assess the current and historical trends in diversity among dental school applicants and enrollees at a new dental institution, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, School of Dental Medicine (UNLV-SDM). Applicant and enrollment data for the first four cohorts, sorted by gender and ethnicity, were retrieved and summarized by the Office of Admissions and Student Affairs at UNLV-SDM. The principal findings of this analysis revealed enrollment of females at UNLV-SDM was relatively consistent during this time interval, although significantly lower than the U.S. average of all dental schools. The enrollment of minorities at UNLV-SDM, however, was consistent and comparable to the U.S. average, although these percentages were disproportionately smaller than the percentage of minorities in the general population. Based upon these findings, a new model for outreach and recruitment of females and minorities was recently created, based in part upon evidence of successful strategies by dental educators at other institutions, in order to increase the enrollment of female and underrepresented minority students.

  11. Insomnia, Nightmares, and Chronotype as Markers of Risk for Severe Mental Illness: Results from a Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaves, Bryony; Porcheret, Kate; Tsanas, Athanasios; Espie, Colin A; Foster, Russell G; Freeman, Daniel; Harrison, Paul J; Wulff, Katharina; Goodwin, Guy M

    2016-01-01

    To group participants according to markers of risk for severe mental illness based on subsyndromal symptoms reported in early adulthood and evaluate attributes of sleep across these risk categories. An online survey of sleep and psychiatric symptomatology (The Oxford Sleep Survey) was administered to students at one United Kingdom university. 1403 students (undergraduate and postgraduate) completed the survey. The median age was 21 (interquartile range = 20-23) and 55.60% were female. The cross-sectional data were used to cluster participants based on dimensional measures of psychiatric symptoms (hallucinations, paranoia, depression, anxiety, and (hypo)mania). High, medium, and low symptom groups were compared across sleep parameters: insomnia symptoms, nightmares, chronotype, and social jet lag. Insomnia symptoms, nightmares frequency, and nightmare-related distress increased in a dose-response manner with higher reported subsyndromal psychiatric symptoms (low, medium, and high). The high-risk group exhibited a later chronotype (mid sleep point for free days) than the medium- or low-risk group. The majority of participants (71.7%) in the high-risk group screened positive for insomnia and the median nightmare frequency was two per 14 days (moderately severe pathology). Insomnia, nightmares, and circadian phase delay are associated with increased subsyndromal psychiatric symptoms in young people. Each is a treatable sleep disorder and might be a target for early intervention to modify the subsequent progression of psychiatric disorder. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students: insights into the wider English-speaking Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Bachew, Raecho; Bodie, Dalecia; Leach, Richanna; Morris, Kevin; Sherma, Glenderia

    2014-02-01

    Mental illness is a significant contributor to global disease burden and this is expected to increase over the coming decades. Traditionally mental illness has not been well understood by the general public, resulting in poor attitudes towards persons with mental illness and stigmatization. Such conditions are common in the Caribbean where less than 5% of the health budget is allocated to mental illness. To assess knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students within the English-speaking Caribbean. A self-report questionnaire was adapted from previous studies designed to measure knowledge and attitudes of mental illness. Students were sampled from the University of the West Indies campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago. Responses were collected from 673 persons with a response rate of 84%. While participants were agreed that particular diseases were mental illnesses, overall knowledge scores were low. Knowledge was higher among those persons who knew someone with a mental illness. Attitude scores were suggestive of stigmatization, with drug abuse and schizophrenia seen in a particularly poor light. These results suggest that widespread educational campaigns need to be implemented across the region, designed to both increase knowledge about mental illness and reduce discrimination towards persons suffering with mental illness.

  13. Student Affairs Administrators & Well-Being: Examining Time in Field, Position Level and Factors That Have the Strongest Relationship to Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessman, Hollie M.

    2015-01-01

    The voice of higher education student affairs professionals is under-represented in the well-being literature even though these campus community members are responsible for providing key programs and services that facilitate the holistic development of students. In order to understand the role of well-being in the work-life of these professionals,…

  14. Using ePortfolios to Assess Applied and Collaborative Learning and Academic Identity in a Summer Research Program for Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-Freeman, Karen; Bastone, Linda; Skrivanek, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the extent to which ePortfolios can be used to assess applied and collaborative learning and academic identity among community college students from underrepresented minority groups who participated in a summer research program. Thirty-eight students were evaluated by their research sponsor and two or three naïve faculty evaluators.…

  15. Anxious for Answers: A Meta-Analysis of the E!ects of Anxiety on African American K-12 Students' Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamaal Rashad; Young, Jemimah Lea

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety is recognized as a significant performance impediment that affects students across multiple ethnic and economic backgrounds. However, research has yet to fully examine the possible differential effect of mathematics anxiety on underrepresented K-12 students. Specifically, given the long-standing achievement gap between African…

  16. Chemistry and Students with Blindness: The Hurdles Are Not What You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy L. Micklos

    2012-01-01

    Statistics have shown that individuals with disabilities are underrepresented in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This work focused on exploring how three students with blindness enrolled in a full-inclusion high-school chemistry class experienced and conceptualized content in order to inform educators,…

  17. Preparing University Students to Lead K-12 Engineering Outreach Programmes: A Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Anika B.; Greene, Howard; Post, Paul E.; Parkhurst, Andrew; Zhan, Xi

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an engineering outreach programme designed to increase the interest of under-represented youth in engineering and to disseminate pre-engineering design challenge materials to K-12 educators and volunteers. Given university students' critical role as facilitators of the outreach programme, researchers conducted a two-year…

  18. How First-Generation Students Learn to Navigate Education Systems: A Case Study of First Graduate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Ben; Saldivar, Manuel Gerardo; Tracy, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Students from underrepresented groups who seek to become the first in their family to attend college confront economically and racially stratified education systems. This article reports findings from an evaluation of First Graduate, an organization that offers college advising, mentoring, tutoring, and case management to first-generation students…

  19. School Counselors' Professional Experience and Practices Working with Students Who Self-Harm: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ellen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…

  20. How does grazing relate to body mass index, self-compassion, mindfulness and mindful eating in a student population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzios, Michail; Egan, Helen; Bahia, Henna; Hussain, Misba; Keyte, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary research investigating obesity has focused on grazing (i.e. an uncontrolled and repetitive consumption of small amounts of food). Meanwhile, constructs such as mindfulness, mindful eating and self-compassion have received much attention in assisting individuals with eating behaviours and weight regulation. The association between those constructs and grazing, however, has not been explored. In a cross-sectional study, university students ( n  = 261) were recruited to explore the relationship of mindfulness, mindful eating and self-compassion with current weight and grazing. Results indicated that all constructs were negatively related to grazing, but only mindful eating related negatively to current weight. In addition, mindful eating mediated the relationship between grazing and current weight. Possible explanations and future directions are discussed further with an emphasis on the need for more empirical work.

  1. The perception amongst a population of high school students in South Africa about ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Melwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV and AIDS can result in visual impairment, therefore it is important that those who have or atrisk of contracting the disease have a basic knowledge of its ocular manifestations, so that they may seek eye care early. This study assessed the per-ceptions of a sample of senior high school students at the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa about the ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS and its management. Questionnaires were distributed to the students in their classrooms after school hours and upon completion were collected the same day. Data analysis revealed that 27.8% of the participants agreed that HIV/AIDS can affect the eyes. Another 27.8% responded that HIV/AIDS could cause dry eyes. Less than a third (31.4% indicated that the disease could cause red eyes, 31.5% and 38.1% respectively indicated that HIV/AIDS could cause cancer of the eyelids and the eyeball.  About half of the respondents (52% agreed that the disease could cause swollen eyelids; while about 46% agreed that vision loss or blindness could occur in HIV/AIDS.  Many (65.6% indicated that an ophthalmologist or an optometrist should be consulted for HIV/AIDS-related eye problems and only 16.5% reported that traditional healers could be consulted. Perception about the ocular manifestations of HIV and AIDS is poor among the participants, suggesting a need for awareness campaigns and education.  (S Afr Optom 2012 71(3 117-122

  2. New Careers in Nursing: Optimizing Diversity and Student Success for the Future of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitty, Vernell P; Huerta, Carolina G; Downing, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation collaborated with the American Association of Colleges of Nursing to create the New Careers in Nursing (NCIN) scholarship program. Two goals of the program were to alleviate the nursing shortage and to increase diversity of the workforce. During this 7-year program (i.e., seven funding cycles), 130 schools of nursing in 41 states and the District of Columbia were selected as grantees, and they awarded 3,517 scholarships to second-degree accelerated nursing students who were members of groups underrepresented in nursing or who were economically disadvantaged. This article describes the demographic characteristics of the NCIN students, degree of satisfaction with their learning environment, perceptions of their mentoring experiences, and self-identified facilitators and barriers to program completion. Data sources for this article resulted from three surveys completed by scholars during their academic programs: the beginning, the midpoint, and within 6 months postgraduate. Results of analysis indicated that NCIN scholars are significantly more diverse compared with the national nurse population, and they reported high levels of satisfaction with their learning environments. Student relationships with peers and faculty improved during the period of program enrollment. Faculty support was the greatest facilitator for program completion, and competing priorities of finances and family responsibilities were the greatest challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effectiveness of courses developed to recruit and retain minority students in the geology major at California State University, Sacramento

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    The lack of diversity in the geosciences has long been recognized as a problem. While improvements have been made, the proportion of Bachelor's degrees in the earth sciences awarded to Hispanic students in 2012 was only 5.6%, a huge disparity with the 17% of the U.S. population that is Hispanic. At California State University, Sacramento, 19% of the student population is Hispanic but, of the 61 students that earned an undergraduate degree in geology between 2005 and 2010, only four were Hispanic. In response to the lack of diversity in the geology major, we developed a new Geology of Mexico course with the goal of recruiting Hispanic students to the major. We present a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of this course in attracting Hispanic students, encouraging them to take more geology courses, and recruiting them to the major. Data was collected in the Geology of Mexico course and in the equivalent Physical Geology course. During the period evaluated, 93% of enrollment in Geology of Mexico was Hispanic compared with 18.5% in Physical Geology. We found that Hispanic students in Physical Geology earned lower grades than did nonminority students, while Hispanic students in Geology of Mexico earned grades comparable with nonminority students in Physical Geology. Overall, Geology of Mexico students also showed more positive attitude changes to the geosciences and were more likely to take another geology course. The recruitment rate into the major for Hispanic students in Geology of Mexico was comparable to the recruitment rate for nonminority students in Physical Geology. Since 2008, the proportion of Hispanic geology majors has risen from 4.5% to 14.1% and, notably, the proportion of underrepresented minorities has increased from 4.5% to 22.2%, reflecting a significant overall increase in diversity of the major. In order to increase retention of minority students, we developed a field course for new majors who were not yet ready for upper division courses

  4. Theory-Informed Research Training and Mentoring of Underrepresented Early-Career Faculty at Teaching-Intensive Institutions: The Obesity Health Disparities PRIDE Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M; Bruce, Marino A; Thorpe, Roland J; Heitman, Elizabeth; Griffith, Derek M; Norris, Keith C

    2018-01-01

    Mentoring has been consistently identified as an important element for career advancement in many biomedical and health professional disciplines and has been found to be critical for success and promotion in academic settings. Early-career faculty from groups underrepresented in biomedical research, however, are less likely to have mentors, and in general, receive less mentoring than their majority-group peers, particularly among those employed in teaching-intensive institutions. This article describes Obesity Health Disparities (OHD) PRIDE, a theoretically and conceptually based research training and mentoring program designed for early-career faculty who trained or are employed at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

  5. Peer-Led Team Learning Helps Minority Students Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J; Sloane, Jeremy D; Dunk, Ryan D P; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-03-01

    Active learning methods have been shown to be superior to traditional lecture in terms of student achievement, and our findings on the use of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) concur. Students in our introductory biology course performed significantly better if they engaged in PLTL. There was also a drastic reduction in the failure rate for underrepresented minority (URM) students with PLTL, which further resulted in closing the achievement gap between URM and non-URM students. With such compelling findings, we strongly encourage the adoption of Peer-Led Team Learning in undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses.

  6. Problematic Internet use, excessive alcohol consumption, their comorbidity and cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress in a student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbey, Adam; Phillips, Anna C; Ginty, Annie T; Carroll, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Problematic Internet use and excessive alcohol consumption have been associated with a host of maladaptive outcomes. Further, low (blunted) cardiovascular and stress hormone (e.g. cortisol) reactions to acute psychological stress are a feature of individuals with a range of adverse health and behavioural characteristics, including dependencies such as tobacco and alcohol addiction. The present study extended this research by examining whether behavioural dependencies, namely problematic Internet use, excessive alcohol consumption, and their comorbidity would also be associated with blunted stress reactivity. A large sample of university students (N = 2313) were screened using Internet and alcohol dependency questionnaires to select four groups for laboratory testing: comorbid Internet and alcohol dependence (N = 17), Internet dependence (N = 17), alcohol dependence (N = 28), and non-dependent controls (N = 26). Cardiovascular activity and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising of mental arithmetic and public speaking tasks. Neither problematic Internet behaviour nor excessive alcohol consumption, either individually or in combination, were associated with blunted cardiovascular or cortisol stress reactions. Discussion It is possible that problematic Internet behaviour and excessive alcohol consumption in a student population were not related to physiological reactivity as they may not reflect ingrained addictions but rather an impulse control disorder and binging tendency. The present results serve to indicate some of the limits of the developing hypothesis that blunted stress reactivity is a peripheral marker of the central motivational dysregulation in the brain underpinning a wide range of health and behavioural problems.

  7. [Evaluation of thermal comfort in a student population: predictive value of an integrated index (Fanger's predicted mean value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, G; Terzi, R; Marcaletti, G; Tringali, S

    1989-01-01

    Practical applications and predictive values of a thermal comfort index (Fanger's PRV) were verified on a sample school population (1236 subjects) by studying the relationships between thermal sensations (subjective analysis), determined by means of an individual questionnaire, and the values of thermal comfort index (objective analysis) obtained by calculating the PMV index individually in the subjects under study. In homogeneous conditions of metabolic expenditure rate and thermal impedence from clothing, significant differences were found between the two kinds of analyses. At 22 degrees C mean radiant and operative temperature, the PMV values averaged 0 and the percentage of subjects who experienced thermal comfort did not exceed 60%. The high level of subjects who were dissatisfied with their environmental thermal conditions confirms the doubts regarding the use of the PMV index as a predictive indicator of thermal comfort, especially considering that the negative answers were not homogeneous nor attributable to the small thermal fluctuations (less than 0.5 degree C) measured in the classrooms.

  8. Factors associated with commencing smoking in 12-year-old students in Catalonia (Spain: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basora Josep

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade notable progress has been made in developed countries on monitoring smoking although experimenting with cigarettes and smoking in young people remains a serious public health problem. This paper reports a cross-sectional study at the beginning of the 3-year follow-up community study TA_BES. The aim was to study the prevalence of smoking in addition to determining predictive factors for when smoking commences in a representative population of 12-year-old first year compulsory secondary education students. Methods Twenty-nine secondary schools (N = 29 from an area of Catalonia participated in the study. In these schools 2245 students answered a questionnaire to study the attitudes, behaviors, and tobacco consumption in the subject's surrounding circle and family in relation to smoking; carbon monoxide measurements were taken by means of co-oximetry on 2 different occasions. A smoker was defined as a student who had smoked daily or occasionally in the last 30 days. For non-smokers the criteria of not considering was set up for those who answered that in the future they would not be smokers and considering those who answered that they did not rule out becoming a smoker in the future. Results Among the total 2245 students included in the analysis 157(7% were classified as smokers. Among non-smokers we differentiated between those not considering smoking 1757 (78.3% and those considering smoking 288 (12.8%. Age is among the factors related to commencing smoking. The risk of becoming a smoker increases 2.27 times/year. The influence of the group of friends with a very high risk for boys OR 149.5 and lower, albeit high, in girls OR 38.1. Tobacco consumption of parents produces different effects in young people. A smoking father does not produce alterations in the smoking behavior of young people. However having a smoking mother or former smoking is a risk factor for boys and a protective factor for girls. We

  9. Genetic composition of captive panda population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiandong; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Da, Yang

    2016-10-03

    A major function of the captive panda population is to preserve the genetic diversity of wild panda populations in their natural habitats. Understanding the genetic composition of the captive panda population in terms of genetic contributions from the wild panda populations provides necessary knowledge for breeding plans to preserve the genetic diversity of the wild panda populations. The genetic contributions from different wild populations to the captive panda population were highly unbalanced, with Qionglai accounting for 52.2 % of the captive panda gene pool, followed by Minshan with 21.5 %, Qinling with 10.6 %, Liangshan with 8.2 %, and Xiaoxiangling with 3.6 %, whereas Daxiangling, which had similar population size as Xiaoxiangling, had no genetic representation in the captive population. The current breeding recommendations may increase the contribution of some small wild populations at the expense of decreasing the contributions of other small wild populations, i.e., increasing the Xiaoxiangling contribution while decreasing the contribution of Liangshan, or sharply increasing the Qinling contribution while decreasing the contributions of Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan, which were two of the three smallest wild populations and were already severely under-represented in the captive population. We developed three habitat-controlled breeding plans that could increase the genetic contributions from the smallest wild populations to 6.7-11.2 % for Xiaoxiangling, 11.5-12.3 % for Liangshan and 12.9-20.0 % for Qinling among the offspring of one breeding season while reducing the risk of hidden inbreeding due to related founders from the same habitat undetectable by pedigree data. The three smallest wild panda populations of Daxiangling, Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan either had no representation or were severely unrepresented in the current captive panda population. By incorporating the breeding goal of increasing the genetic contributions from the smallest wild

  10. Issues of College Persistence between Asian and Asian Pacific American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Theresa Ling

    2004-01-01

    This article offers an exploration of the Asian Pacific American (APA) ethnic groups that show high rates of departure, and presents strategies and approaches to improving their persistence and graduation rates. A detailed examination of the APA population is presented to identify the subgroups that are underrepresented in higher education and who…

  11. Access and Equity Denied: Key Theories for School Psychologists to Consider When Assessing Black and Hispanic Students for Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donna Y.; Wright, Brian L.; Washington, Ahmad; Henfield, Malik S.

    2016-01-01

    Black and Hispanic students are consistently underrepresented in gifted education. Several factors contribute to their low identification and lack of access to such programs and services. While teacher underreferral is a significant contributing factor, problematic also is testing and assessment, which is often administered by school…

  12. How Does the Choice of A-level Subjects Vary with Students' Socio-Economic Status in English State Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnot, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The reasons why students from lower socio-economic groups are under-represented at high status universities are not yet entirely understood, but evidence suggests that part of the gap may be a consequence of differential choice of A-levels by social background. The Russell Group of universities has since 2011 published guidance on A-level subject…

  13. A Phenomenological Study Highlighting the Voices of Students with Mental Health Difficulties Concerning Barriers to Classroom Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Mental Health Foundation (2012) stating that each year, one in four people in the United Kingdom (UK) will have some kind of mental health difficulty, students from this group are underrepresented in further education (FE) colleges. In light of this, the purpose of this exploratory research, which was rooted in the phenomenological…

  14. The Impact of Social Capital on the Access, Adjustment, and Success of Southeast Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2015-01-01

    Given that Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students are severely underrepresented in higher education and less likely to persistence to graduation compared to other ethnic groups in the Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) community, this study explored critical factors to their college success. Indeed, several themes emerged from this national…

  15. Careers "From" but Not "In" Science: Why Are Aspirations to Be a Scientist Challenging for Minority Ethnic Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The importance of science to the economy and for the progression of society is widely acknowledged. Yet, there are concerns that minority ethnic students in the UK are underrepresented, and even excluded, from post-compulsory science education and careers "in" science. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 semi-structured interviews with…

  16. An Educational Program for Underserved Middle School Students to Encourage Pursuit of Pharmacy and Other Health Science Careers

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Carroll-Ann; Tran, Thao T.; Tran, Linh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To develop and implement an active, hands-on program for underrepresented minority (URM) seventh grade students and to determine if participation in the program increased interest in health care careers and understanding of pharmacy and physician assistant (PA) professions.

  17. A day of immersive physiology experiments increases knowledge and excitement towards physiology and scientific careers in Native American students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bryan K; Schiller, Alicia M; Zucker, Irving H; Eager, Eric A; Bronner, Liliana P; Godfrey, Maurice

    2017-03-01

    Underserved minority groups are disproportionately absent from the pursuit of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. One such underserved population, Native Americans, are particularly underrepresented in STEM fields. Although recent advocacy and outreach designed toward increasing minority involvement in health care-related occupations have been mostly successful, little is known about the efficacy of outreach programs in increasing minority enthusiasm toward careers in traditional scientific professions. Furthermore, very little is known about outreach among Native American schools toward increasing involvement in STEM. We collaborated with tribal middle and high schools in South Dakota and Nebraska through a National Institutes of Health Science Education Partnership Award to hold a day-long physiology, activity-based event to increase both understanding of physiology and enthusiasm to scientific careers. We recruited volunteer biomedical scientists and trainees from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska Wesleyan University, and University of South Dakota. To evaluate the effectiveness of the day of activities, 224 of the ~275-300 participating students completed both a pre- and postevent evaluation assessment. We observed increases in both students self-perceived knowledge of physiology and enthusiasm toward scientific career opportunities after the day of outreach activities. We conclude that activity-based learning opportunities in underserved populations are effective in increasing both knowledge of science and interest in scientific careers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. South Asians are Under-Represented in a Clinic Treating Atrial Fibrillation in a Multicultural City in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebjee, M H; Tyndall, K; Holding, S; Russell, C; Graham, L N; Pepper, C B

    2012-01-01

    The Leeds rapid access atrial fibrillation (AF) clinic was set up to streamline and standardise management of patients with newly diagnosed AF. Anecdotal evidence suggests that there is under-representation of south Asians in these clinics.All patient attendances between June 2007 and June 2011 were documented and combined with ethnicity data from patient administration records. Local population demographics for 2009 were obtained from the office of national statistics. This was used to estimate the expected prevalence of AF across the different ethnic groups in Leeds taking age into account. One thousand two hundred and ten patients were referred. The study sample included 992 patients, and the number of south Asians attending was 88% less than expected (Chi squared analysis; pcosmopolitan population. Potential reasons for this discrepancy including barriers to accessing treatment for this population or a lower prevalence of AF in south Asians due to an as yet unidentified genetic factor.

  19. The increasing prevalence of myopia in junior high school students in the Haidian District of Beijing, China: a 10-year population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Jia; Qi, Pengcheng

    2017-06-12

    Myopia is a leading cause of preventable blindness. Although, multiple cross-sectional epidemiological studies have confirmed that there is a high prevalence of myopia in high school-aged students in China. However, few longitudinal studies have been performed to assess junior high school students. In the present study, we investigate changes in the prevalence of myopia in third year junior high school (grade 9) students in the Haidian District of Beijing, China, from 2006 to 2015. A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study was performed over 10 years. A total of 37,424 third-year middle school (grade 9) students from 8 junior high schools in Haidian district, Beijing, were included. Participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination in which they were evaluated using autorefraction under cycloplegia and submitted to retinoscopy to assess accuracy. According to the spherical equivalent refraction (SER) of the right eye, subjects were separated into the following groups: non-myopia, -0.5 ≤ SER diopters (D); low myopia, -3.0 ≤ SER  -6.0 D. The following characteristics were measured: refractive error; the proportion of subjects with non- myopia, low myopia, moderate myopia and high myopia; and the difference in the prevalence of myopia between male and female subjects. From 2006 to 2015, the prevalence of non-myopia (from 44.05% to 34.52%) and low myopia (from 32.27% to 20.73%) decreased, while the prevalence of moderate myopia (from 19.72% to 38.06%) and high myopia (from 3.96% to 6.69%) significantly increased. For refractive error, the worse eye was -2.23 ± 2.42 D (median, -1.75; range - 12.75 to +8.50) in 2006 and -3.13 ± 2.66 D (median, -2.75; range - 12.75 to +8.50) in 2015. When the entire population was considered, the overall prevalence of myopia increased from 55.95% in 2005 to 65.48% in 2015. There was a significant positive relationship between the year and the prevalence of myopia in both girls and boys. Girls were more

  20. Validity of self-reported weight, height, and body mass index among university students in Thailand: Implications for population studies of obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lynette Ly; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2009-09-25

    Large-scale epidemiological studies commonly use self-reported weights and heights to determine weight status. Validity of such self-reported data has been assessed primarily in Western populations in developed countries, although its use is widespread in developing countries. We examine the validity of obesity based on self-reported data in an Asian developing country, and derive improved obesity prevalence estimates using the "reduced BMI threshold" method. Self-reported and measured heights and weights were obtained from 741 students attending an open university in Thailand (mean age 34 years). Receiver operator characteristic techniques were applied to derive "reduced BMI thresholds." Height was over-reported by a mean of 1.54 cm (SD 2.23) in men and 1.33 cm (1.84) in women. Weight was under-reported by 0.93 kg (3.47) in men and 0.62 kg (2.14) in women. Sensitivity and specificity for determining obesity (Thai BMI threshold 25 kg/m2) using self-reported data were 74.2% and 97.3%, respectively, for men and 71.9% and 100% for women. For men, reducing the BMI threshold to 24.5 kg/m2 increased the estimated obesity prevalence based on self-reports from 29.1% to 33.8% (true prevalence was 36.9%). For women, using a BMI threshold of 24.4 kg/m2, the improvement was from 12.0% to 15.9% (true prevalence 16.7%). Young educated Thais under-report weight and over-report height in ways similar to their counterparts in developed countries. Simple adjustments to BMI thresholds will overcome these reporting biases for estimation of obesity prevalence. Our study suggests that self-reported weights and heights can provide economical and valid measures of weight status in high school-educated populations in developing countries.

  1. Preparation of Underrepresented Males for Scientific Careers: A Study of the Dr. John H. Hopps Jr. Defense Research Scholars Program at Morehouse College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rahmelle C; Monroe-White, Thema; Xavier, Jeffrey; Howell, Courtney; Moore, Myisha Roberson; Haynes, J K

    Equal representation within higher education science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and the STEM workforce in the United States across demographically diverse populations is a long-standing challenge. This study uses two-to-one nearest-neighbor matched-comparison group design to examine academic achievement, pursuit of graduate science degree, and classification of graduate institution attended by students participating in the Hopps Scholars Program (Hopps) at Morehouse College. Hopps is a highly structured enrichment program aimed at increasing participation of black males in STEM fields. Morehouse institutional records, Hopps Program records, and National Student Clearinghouse data were used to examine differences between Hopps and non-Hopps STEM graduates of Morehouse. Two-way sample t tests and chi-square tests revealed significant differences in academic achievement, likelihood of STEM degree pursuit, and the classification of graduate institutions attended by Hopps versus non-Hopps students. Hopps Scholars were significantly more likely than non-Hopps STEM graduates both to pursue STEM doctoral degrees and to attend doctoral-granting institutions with higher research activity. The Hopps Program's approach to training black male students for scientific careers is a model of success for other programs committed to increasing the number of black males pursuing advanced degrees in STEM. © 2016 R. C. Thompson et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Population Issues. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents information about the problems caused by increasing population. Discusses the environmental impact and the ways that technology can be used to solve problems of overpopulation. Includes possible student outcomes and a student quiz. (JOW)

  3. Faculty and Student Teams and National Laboratories: Expanding the Reach of Research Opportunities and Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn,N.; White, K.; Stegman, M.

    2009-08-05

    The Faculty and Student Teams (FaST) Program, a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and the National Science Foundation (NSF), brings together collaborative research teams composed of a researcher at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and a faculty member with two or three undergraduate students from a college or university. Begun by the Department of Energy in 2000 with the primary goal of building research capacity at a faculty member's home institution, the FaST Program focuses its recruiting efforts on faculty from colleges and universities with limited research facilities and those institutions that serve populations under-represented in the fields of science, engineering and technology, particularly women and minorities. Once assembled, a FaST team spends a summer engaged in hands-on research working alongside a laboratory scientist. This intensely collaborative environment fosters sustainable relationships between the faulty members and BNL that allow faculty members and their BNL colleagues to submit joint proposals to federal agencies, publish papers in peer-reviewed journals, reform local curriculum, and develop new or expand existing research labs at their home institutions.

  4. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Figueroa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM. This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments.

  5. "Pee-in-a-Pot": acceptability and uptake of on-site chlamydia screening in a student population in the Republic of Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, Deirdre

    2010-11-11

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to explore the acceptability and uptake of on-campus screening using a youth friendly approach in two Third Level higher education institutions (HEIs). This study is part of wider research exploring the optimal setting for chlamydia screening in Ireland. Methods Male and female students were given the opportunity to take a free anonymous test for chlamydia during a one week programme of "pee-in-a-pot" days at two HEI campuses in the West of Ireland. The study was set up after extensive consultation with the two HEIs and advertised on the two campuses using a variety of media in the two weeks preceding the screening days. Screening involved the provision and distribution of testing packs at communal areas and in toilet facilities. In Ireland, chlamydia notifications are highest amongst 20-29 year olds and hence the screening criterion was aimed at 18-29 year olds. Urine samples were tested using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Following the screening days, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with participants about their experiences of the event. Results Out of 1,249 test kits distributed in two HEIs, 592 specimens were collected giving a return rate of 47.5%. Tests excluded (54) were due to labelling errors or ineligibility of participants\\' age. Two thirds of those tested were females and the mean age was 21 years. Overall,3.9% (21\\/538) of participants tested positive, 5% (17\\/336) among females and 2% (4\\/191) among males. Participant interviews identified factors which enhanced student participation such as anonymity, convenience, accessibility of testing, and the informal and non-medical approach to testing. Conclusions Screening for chlamydia using on-campus "pee-in-a-pot" days is an acceptable strategy in this population. This model can detect and treat asymptomatic cases of chlamydia and avoid many of the barriers associated with testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in

  6. A Synthesis of Instructional Strategies in Geoscience Education Literature That Address Barriers to Inclusion for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, Ivan G.; Marshall, Anita M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2017-01-01

    People with disabilities make up the largest minority population in the U.S. yet remain sorely underrepresented in scientific disciplines that require components of field-based training such as the geosciences. This paper provides a critical analysis of broadening participation within geoscience education literature through the use of accessible…

  7. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition among Referred Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Selena; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The Native American population is severely underrepresented in empirical test validity research despite being overrepresented in special education programs and at increased risk for psychoeducational evaluation. The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a sample of 176,…

  8. Characterization of the genetic variation present in CYP3A4 in three South African populations

    OpenAIRE

    Drögemöller, Britt; Plummer, Marieth; Korkie, Lundi; Agenbag, Gloudi; Dunaiski, Anke; Niehaus, Dana; Koen, Liezl; Gebhardt, Stefan; Schneider, Nicol; Olckers, Antonel; Wright, Galen; Warnich, Louise

    2013-01-01

    TThe CYP3A4 enzyme is the most abundant human cytochrome P450 and is regarded as the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Inter-individual and inter-population variability in gene expression and enzyme activity are thought to be influenced, in part, by genetic variation. Although Southern African individuals have been shown to exhibit the highest levels of genetic diversity, they have been under-represented in pharmacogenetic research to date. Therefore, the aim of this study wa...

  9. The World Population Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This book is the third in a series published by the Population Reference Bureau aimed at illuminating the facts and consequences of human population dynamics for secondary and college-age students. Many illustrations, charts and graphs are included in this volume to help the reader grasp a number of the current ideas and concepts that are used in…

  10. Factors affecting the matriculation of African American undergraduate students in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alfred L., II

    Previous research studies indicated that African Americans remain severely underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), making up only 3% of that workforce, while representing 11.1% of all professional and related workers and 12.6% of the general population. As this country moves towards a more culturally diverse population, then representation of African Americans in SMET-related fields must be addressed in order to ensure our nation's competitiveness in a global market. This research study analyzed characteristics of African American undergraduate SMET majors participating in the Alliance for Minority Participation (AMP) program in six different states located in the Southeast region of the United States. These states consisted of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. AMP program participants completed a survey questionnaire, which collected information about potential factors that could affect their matriculation in SMET programs of studies at their respective institutions. Follow-up interviews and focus group sessions were also conducted with AMP participants to provide supplemental information to the survey data. The results of student responses were analyzed according to the type of institution the students attended (Historically Black College or University and Majority White Institution) as well as by the statewide Alliance program in which the students were involved. The students responded to survey questions that asked for their reasons for majoring in their field of study, their level of satisfaction with their institution, their impressions of student support programs and persons, their impressions of faculty and advisors, their reasons for thinking of switching majors, and their level of high school preparation. Statistical analyses of the student responses found that African American AMP students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities differed from those

  11. Geoscience at Community Colleges: Availability of Programs and Geoscience Student Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.; Houlton, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    Community colleges served over 7.5 million students in 2009, and have a more diverse student population than four-year institutions. In 2008, 58% of community college students were women and 33% of students were underrepresented minorities. Community colleges provide a large diverse pool of untapped talent for the geosciences and for all science and engineering disciplines. The most recent data from NSF's 2006 NSCRG database indicate that within the physical sciences, 43% of Bachelor's, 31% of Master's and 28% of Doctoral recipients had attended community college. Until recently, fine-grained datasets for examining the prevalence of community college education in geoscience students' academic pathways has not been available. Additionally, there has been limited information regarding the availability of geoscience programs and courses at community colleges. In 2011, the American Geological Institute (AGI) expanded its Directory of Geoscience Departments (DGD) to cover 434 community colleges that offer either geoscience programs and/or geoscience curriculum, and launched the first pilot of a standardized National Geoscience Exit Survey. The survey collects information not only about students' pathways in the university system and future academic and career plans, but also about community college attendance including geoscience course enrollments and Associate's degrees. The National Geoscience Exit Survey will be available to all U.S. geoscience programs at two- and four-year colleges and universities by the end of the 2011-2012 academic year, and will also establish a longitudinal survey effort to track students through their careers. Whereas the updated DGD now provides wider coverage of geoscience faculty members and programs at community colleges, the Exit Survey provides a rich dataset for mapping the flow of students from community colleges to university geoscience programs. We will discuss the availability of geoscience courses and programs at community

  12. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF DIVERSIFIED MENTORING RELATIONSHIPS AMONG GRADUATE STUDENTS AND THEIR ADVISORS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bodden, Krystin R.

    2014-01-01

    Minorities and women continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. In graduate education, factors such as racism, prejudice, discrimination, sexism, stereotypes, tokenism, and a lack of role models can all plague students and contribute to uncompleted degrees and non-entrance into STEM fields. One of the tools being used to combat these barriers is effective mentoring. Graduate students and their advisors generally have close working relat...

  13. Thermodynamics and Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordry, Sean M.

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses a Fermi-problem exercise through which I take students in several of my college courses. Students work in teams, determining the average daily Caloric needs per person. Then they use insolation values to determine the size of a collection area needed to absorb the previously determined daily energy requirements. Adjustments to the size of the collection area are made based on energy absorption per biological trophic level, as well as the consideration that most diets are a mixture of plant- and animal-derived elements. Finally, using the total amount of farmland available on the planet, students calculate a maximum population value. Although the maximum population values derived herewith should not be considered authoritative, the exercise has three beneficial purposes: 1) a chance to talk about the modeling process and extrapolations, 2) an unexpected application of physics to social contexts, and 3) raising student awareness of population and energy issues.

  14. Climate change in the classroom: Reaching out to middle school students through science and math suitcase lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo, A. C.; Collay, R.; Harris, R. N.; de Silva, L.

    2011-12-01

    We have formed a link between the Increasing Diversity in Earth Sciences (IDES) program with the Science and Math Investigative Learning Experiences (SMILE) program, both at Oregon State University. The IDES mission is to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population and the SMILE mission is to provide science and math enrichment for underrepresented and other educationally underserved students in grades 4-12. Traditionally, underserved schools do not have enough time or resources to spend on science and mathematics. Furthermore, numerous budget cuts in many Oregon school districts have negatively impacted math and science cirriculum. To combat this trend we have designed suitcase lessons in climate change that can be carried to a number of classrooms. These lesson plans are scientifically rich and economically attractive. These lessons are designed to engage students in math and science through climate change presentations, group discussions, and hands-on activities. Over the past year we have familiarized ourselves with the academic ability of sixth and seventh graders through in-class observation in Salem Oregon. One of the suit case lessons we developed focuses on climate change by exploring the plight of polar bears in the face of diminishing sea ice. Our presentation will report the results of this activity.

  15. RU SciTech: Weaving Astronomy and Physics into a University-sponsored Summer Camp for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Quyen N.

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful model for organizing a small University-sponsored summer camp that integrates astronomy and physics content with other science disciplines and computer programming content. The aim of our science and technology camp is to engage middle school students in a wide array of critical thinking tasks and hands-on activities centered on science and technology. Additionally, our program seeks to increase and maintain STEM interest among children, particularly in under-represented populations (e.g., Hispanic, African-American, women, and lower socioeconomic individuals) with hopes of decreasing disparities in diversity across many STEM fields.During this four-day camp, organized and facilitated by faculty volunteers, activities rotated through many STEM modules, including optics, telescopes, circuit building, computer hardware, and programming. Specifically, we scaffold camp activities to build upon similar ideas and content if possible. Using knowledge and skills gained through the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors program, we were able to integrate several astronomy activities into the camp, leading students through engaging activities, and conduct educational research. We present best practices on piloting a similar program in a university environment, our efforts to connect the learning outcomes common across all the modules, specifically in astronomy and physics, outline future camp activities, and the survey results on the impact of camp activities on attitudes toward science, technology, and science careers.

  16. The U.S. Homeless Student Population: Homeless Youth Education, Review of Research Classifications and Typologies, and the U.S. Federal Legislative Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mai Abdul; Turner, J. Fidel; Elbedour, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Background: The drastic surge in the number of homeless families in the United States (U.S.) has resulted in an increase in the number of homeless students attending U.S. public schools. Meanwhile, the U.S. public school system is struggling to meet the educational needs of their homeless students. Objective: This study examined the historical…

  17. Investigation of students' experiences of gendered cultures in engineering workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Sally A.; Gardner, Anne; Figueroa, Eugenia; Bennett, Dawn

    2018-05-01

    Women remain severely under-represented in engineering in Australia as in all Western countries. This limits the pool of talent, standpoints and approaches within the profession. Furthermore, this under-representation equates to restriction of the benefits of being an engineer mainly to men. Gendered workplace experiences have been found to contribute to women leaving the profession. In this study we explore students' experiences of gendered cultures in engineering workplaces, using interviews with a purposive sample of 13 students (4 male) recruited following a previous survey. Although the overall experience of workplace learning is positive for many students, male and female engineering students reported experiences consistent with masculine cultures. Educators and employers must proactively lead improvements to the culture in engineering workplaces, prepare students for gendered workplaces and support students to reflect during and after workplace experiences. The experiences presented here could be adapted to enhance inclusivity training.

  18. Getting Students Outside: Using Technology as a Way to Stimulate Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Carrie J.; Mishra, Chandrani; Halverson, Kristy L.; Thomas, Aimée K.

    2014-12-01

    Informal environments provide students with unique experiences that allow them to actively participate in activities while promoting a positive attitude toward and an increased interest in science. One way to enhance informal science experiences is through the integration of mobile technologies. This integration is particularly useful in engaging underrepresented students in learning science. Our informal environmental science program engages underrepresented, fifth-grade students in an informal learning environment supplemented with mobile tablet technology (iPads). The purpose of this study was to explore how fifth-grade students interacted with nature using mobile technology during a nature hike series. Participants included 55 fifth-grade students from two low-income schools. We found that students used the mobile technology to explore nature and stay engaged throughout the hike. The iPads were used as references, data collectors, and engagement tools. Students had an intense desire in returning to the site and responded positively toward interacting with nature. Prior research has indicated that students in this age group are likely to lose interest in science and the incorporation of field-friendly technology that engages students with nature, not technology alone, is a useful tool for keeping students interested in science.

  19. Stereotype Threat? Male and Female Students in Advanced High School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corra, Mamadi

    Propositions of stereotype threat theory imply that the social consequences of academic distinction in advanced quantitative areas (such as math and the physical sciences) for women may promote the under representation of female students in advanced quantitative academic courses. The hypothesis that female students will be underrepresented in advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses is tested using academic performance and enrollment data for high school students in a "Student/Parent Informed Choice" (open registration) school district in North Carolina. Results show female students to be overrepresented in both advanced verbal/writing intensive (honors and advanced placement English, foreign language, and social science) and advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses compared to their proportion of the student body. More surprisingly, results also indicate female students (compared to male students) to be overrepresented in advanced courses compared to their proportion of high-performing students. Furthermore, as with patterns observed at the district level, additional analysis of enrollment data for the entire state reveals similar results. Taken together, the findings call into question the prevailing presumption that female students continue to be underrepresented in math and physical science courses. Instead, the changing social context within which females and males experience schooling may provide an explanation for the findings.

  20. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail..

  1. Walking the Path Together from High School to STEM Majors and Careers: Utilizing Community Engagement and a Focus on Teaching to Increase Opportunities for URM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Liza

    2017-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to increase the participation of women and people from underrepresented minority groups (URM) in science and math majors and careers, and despite the increasing diversification of the US population as a whole (Planty et al. in National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of…

  2. Choosing Science: A Mixed-Methods Study of Factors Predicting Latino and Latina High School Students' Decisions to Pursue Science Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Rachel S.

    Latino/as are an increasingly large subset of the United States population; however, they continue to be underrepresented in science careers. Because of this increase, research regarding Latino/as has improved, but there are still many gaps in regards to gender-specific predictors to pursue science careers. To address this lack of literature, the purpose of this study is to extend previous research and to develop a model of variables that significantly contribute to science career choice among Latino and Latina students when they graduate from high school. In particular the study addressed the following research questions: (1) What are the differences in science outcomes for Latino and Latina students? (2) What are the differences in factors involved in science outcomes for Latino and Latina students? (3) For Latino and Latina students what are the differences in the factors that predict students' choice to pursue a science degree and/or high scores on the Future Plans in Science Scale? (4) What are the differences in how Latino and Latina students experience science, which account for high achieving students to choose to pursue a science major? This study utilized an explanatory mixed-method approach to examine how cognitive, institutional, and motivational factors may be interrelated and play a role in Latino/as choice to pursue science. The first phase of the study incorporated the collection of survey and database information from 12th grade students at two Southern California high schools. The second phase of the study utilized follow-up focus group interviews to explore the specific differential experiences and views of Latino and Latina students. The results of the study demonstrated multiple significant predictors. Science self-concept and views towards science outside of school were the most significant predictors of students' choice to pursue science. Male students also had major predictors of Spanish proficiency, teacher encouragement, religious views

  3. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Fava

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural ba...

  4. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Fava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural backgrounds.

  5. Medical student surgery elective in rural Haiti: a novel approach to satisfying clerkship requirements while providing surgical care to an underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Quee, Anthony; White, Laura; Leeds, Ira; MacLeod, Jana; Master, Viraj A

    2011-04-01

    The addition of global health programs to medical school training results in graduates with enhanced clinical skills and increased sensitivity to cost issues. Funding from U.S. medical schools has been unable to meet student demand, and therefore it is often a critical limiting factor to the lack of development of these programs. We describe an alternative approach for global health surgical training for medical students. Emory University medical students and faculty, in collaboration with Project Medishare for Haiti, planned, raised funds, and executed a successful short-term surgical camp to supplement available surgical services in rural Haiti. Learning objectives that satisfied Emory University School of Medicine surgery clerkship requirements were crafted, and third-year students received medical school credit for the trip. In the absence of house staff and placed in an under-resourced, foreign clinical environment, the surgical elective described here succeeded in meeting learning objectives for a typical third-year surgical clerkship. Objectives were met through a determined effort to ensure that home institution requirements were aligned properly with learning activities while students were abroad and through a close collaboration between medical students, faculty members, and the administration. Emory University's international surgery elective for medical students demonstrates that opportunities for supervised, independent student-learning and global health service can be integrated into a traditional surgical clerkship. These opportunities can be organized to meet the requirements and expectations for third-year surgery clerkships at other medical colleges. This work also identifies how such trips can be planned and executed in a manner that does not burden strained academic budgets with further demands on resources.

  6. Measuring motivation and volition of nursing students in nontraditional learning environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelsmith, Laurie; Bryer, Jason; Yan, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the best fitting model to represent interrelationships between motivation, volition, and academic success for adult nursing students learning in nontraditional environments. Participants (N=297) completed a survey that incorporated two measures: the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the academic volitional strategies inventory (AVSI) as well as demographic information. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used for data analysis. In phase 1, EFA resulted in factors that generally aligned with previous theoretical factors as defined by the psychometrics used. In Phase 2 of the analysis, CFA validated the use of predefined factor structures. In Phase 3, SEM analysis revealed that motivation has a larger effect on grade point average (GPA; beta = .28, p motivation and volition (r = .42, p motivation, volition, and academic success for adult learners studying in nontraditional learning environments. These findings are consistent with and elaborate the relationship between motivation and volition with a population and setting underrepresented in the research.

  7. Evaluation of Game-Based Learning in Cybersecurity Education for High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Ge; Tu, Manghui; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Heffron, Justin; White, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The increasing demand for global cybersecurity workforce made it a critical mission for universities and colleges to attract and train next generation of cybersecurity professionals. To address this issue, Purdue University Northwest (PNW) launched high school summer camps to 181 high school students, with 51.3% underrepresented minority ratio. PNW summer camp activities were delivered in the format of game based learning and hands-on labs. Four cybersecurity education games were developed to...

  8. Perceived Barriers to Success for Minority Nursing Students: An Integrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Loftin, Collette; Newman, Susan D.; Dumas, Bonnie P.; Gilden, Gail; Bond, Mary Lou

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify barriers to successful program completion faced by underrepresented minority nursing students. This paper reveals that minority nursing student’s face multiple barriers to success including lack of financial support, inadequate emotional and moral support, as well as insufficient academic advising, program mentoring, technical support, and professional socialization. An additional theme—a resolve to succeed in spite of the identified barriers—was id...

  9. Evaluating Student Success and Outcomes in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography REU Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranes, J. L.; Kohne, L.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF foundation-wide REU program exists to help attract and retain a diverse pool of talented undergraduate students in STEM fields. These goals are particularly relevant in earth and marine sciences because relatively few minority students traditionally seek careers in these fields and only account for an extremely small percentage of Ph.D. degrees earned. The Scripps Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) REU program is a 10-week summer program currently in its third year of funding. The SURF program invites 10-15 undergraduate students from across the country to Scripps to participate in high quality collaborative research with Scripps faculty and researchers. Program components also include research seminars, career and graduate school preparation, GRE-prep courses, field trips and social activities. The project's goal, broadly, is to increase the participation of underrepresented minorities in marine science and related disciplines at a national level. Our program includes a comprehensive evaluation and assessment plan to help us understand the impact of this REU experience on the student participant. Our assessment consists of paired pre- and post-survey questions to estimate student growth in the following areas as related to earth and marine sciences: (1) increased knowledge and skills (2) increased confidence in ability to conduct research (3) improved attitudes and interest in the field and (4) more ambitious career goals. Assessment results from the last two cohorts have helped refine our recruitment and selection strategies. In the first year of our program, we focused almost exclusively on recruiting underrepresented minority students; over of the participants represented ethic groups considered to be underrepresented in STEM fields. However, participants did not demonstrate overall significant pre/post gains in any of the goal areas, mostly because pre-survey scores indicated that the students were already very strong in all goal areas. In years

  10. The impact of nursing students on the health-related quality of life and perceived social support of a rural population in Ecuador: effects of a service-based learning course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Rebecca L; Murcia, Angela M; Berry, Gloria M; Juna, Christian F; Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra S

    2018-02-02

    Students seeking degrees in healthcare in Ecuador participate in community improvement projects and provide free health services under the supervision of faculty health professionals. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of a community-based intervention delivered by nursing students on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and perceived social support of a rural population in Ecuador. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design study was conducted in two rural communities in Tumbaco, Ecuador. Families from one rural community were invited to participate in the intervention, receiving 8 weekly home visits from nursing students. Families from a neighboring community were similarly recruited as wait-list controls. One member of each family was consented into the study; the final sample included 43 intervention participants and 55 control participants. HRQoL and perceived social support were assessed before and after the intervention in both groups. The SF-12 was used to measure HRQoL, including eight domain scores and two composite scores, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List was used as an indicator of perceived social support. Difference-in-differences (DD) analyses were conducted to mitigate the effects of any baseline differences in the non- equivalent control group design. When compared to the control group, the intervention group realized significant improvements in the physical component summary score of the SF-12 (4.20, p based learning on recipient populations.

  11. Difference in Career Attitudes of Elementary Minority Female Students after Participation in a STEM Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumphrey, Karyn Christine

    Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) professionals are responsible for the development of new technologies and breaking scientific discoveries. However, in the United States, racial minorities and females are vastly underrepresented in STEM professions. This problem is multiplied for individuals falling into both categories. Educators in must develop effective strategies to increase the number of minority females in STEM jobs. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate if there was a difference in attitudes about future STEM educational choices and career opportunities after participation in a theme-based STEM event. The significant points reflected in the literature are statistics that demonstrate the extreme underrepresentation of this population and the importance of having all segments of the population represented in these important jobs. A descriptive non-experimental design study utilizing survey data taken before and after a STEM day at a public school was employed. The analysis tool was the Hopes and Goals Survey which has been found valid and reliable with similar samples of students. The data sets were pre-event and post-event surveys from minority females in grades 3, 4, and 5. The two data sets were compared using descriptive statistics to investigate any differences in opinions before and after the event. The results showed a difference in minority female student's attitudes regarding future STEM educational opportunities and careers after participation in a theme-based STEM event. The results indicate a need for increasing the number of STEM events in public schools. Future research may explore the differences between the opinion changes of males versus females to ascertain which gender responded most positively to STEM day.

  12. Think 500, not 50! A scalable approach to student success in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCourse, William R; Sutphin, Kathy Lee; Ott, Laura E; Maton, Kenneth I; McDermott, Patrice; Bieberich, Charles; Farabaugh, Philip; Rous, Philip

    2017-01-01

    UMBC, a diverse public research university, "builds" upon its reputation in producing highly capable undergraduate scholars to create a comprehensive new model, STEM BUILD at UMBC. This program is designed to help more students develop the skills, experience and motivation to excel in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This article provides an in-depth description of STEM BUILD at UMBC and provides the context of this initiative within UMBC's vision and mission. The STEM BUILD model targets promising STEM students who enter as freshmen or transfer students and do not qualify for significant university or other scholarship support. Of primary importance to this initiative are capacity, scalability, and institutional sustainability, as we distill the advantages and opportunities of UMBC's successful scholars programs and expand their application to more students. The general approach is to infuse the mentoring and training process into the fabric of the undergraduate experience while fostering community, scientific identity, and resilience. At the heart of STEM BUILD at UMBC is the development of BUILD Group Research (BGR), a sequence of experiences designed to overcome the challenges that undergraduates without programmatic support often encounter (e.g., limited internship opportunities, mentorships, and research positions for which top STEM students are favored). BUILD Training Program (BTP) Trainees serve as pioneers in this initiative, which is potentially a national model for universities as they address the call to retain and graduate more students in STEM disciplines - especially those from underrepresented groups. As such, BTP is a research study using random assignment trial methodology that focuses on the scalability and eventual incorporation of successful measures into the traditional format of the academy. Critical measures to transform institutional culture include establishing an extensive STEM Living and Learning Community to

  13. Growing Community Roots for the Geosciences in Miami, Florida, A Program Aimed at High School and Middle School Students to Increase Awareness of Career and Educational Opportunities in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, D.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Gebelein, J.; Draper, G.; Rego, R.

    2013-12-01

    Growing Community Roots for the Geosciences is a 2-year pilot recruitment project run by the Department of Earth and Environment at Florida International University (FIU) and funded by the NSF OEDG (Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences) program. FIU, the State University of Florida in Miami is a federally recognized Minority Serving Institution with over 70% of the undergraduate population coming from groups underrepresented in the geoscience workforce. The goal of this project is to inform students enrolled in the local middle and high schools to career opportunities in the geosciences and to promote pathways for underrepresented groups to university geoscience degree programs. The first year's program included a 1-week workshop for middle school teachers and a 2-week summer camp aimed at high school students in the public school system. The teacher workshop was attended by 20 teachers who taught comprehensive and physical science in grades 6-8. It included lectures on geoscience careers, fundamental concepts of solid earth and atmospheric science, hands on exercises with earth materials, fossils and microscopy, interpretation of landform with Google Earth imagery, and a field trip to a local working limestone quarry. On the first day of the workshop, participants were surveyed on their general educational background in science and their familiarity and comfort with teaching basic geoscience concepts. On the final day, the teachers participated in a group discussion where we discussed how to make geoscience topics and careers more visible in the school curriculum. The 2-week summer camp was attended by 21 students entering grades 9-12. The program included hands on exercises on geoscience and GIS concepts, field trips to local barrier islands, the Everglades, a limestone quarry and a waste to energy facility, and tours of the NOAA National Hurricane Center and the FIU SEM lab. Participants were surveyed on their general educational background

  14. [Association of the meaning of life with satisfaction, the occurrence of subjective complaints and the family's economic status in the population of lower secondary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Dorota; Stalmach, Magdalena; Oblacińska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela

    Feeling of meaning in life is extremely crucial factor of mental health. The lack of it can result in various disorders. Many authors, especially those connected with current of humanistic psychology underline the teenagers' life sense. The aim of the paper was to examine the level of satisfaction with life, the frequency of psychosomatic complaints by junior high school students as well as the estimation of economical status of family and the analysis of meaning in life with above mentioned factors. The research was carried out in 2015 at 70 schools from all over the country, in group of 3695 lower secondary school students of I-III classes at the age of 13-17 (M=14,9; SD=0,87). The analysis connected with meaning in life using the shorten version of Purpose in Life Test (PIL) as well as analysis of life satisfaction using Cantril scale were taken up. What is more, the subjective physical complaints using single-factor shorten scale and economic status of family with the usage of material resources FAS scale (Family Affluence Scale) were examined. The statistical analysis included a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-student test post-hoc test as well as multivariate logistic regression model. The average level of meaning in life among the examined students was 24,7 points (the summary scale 0-36 points), the boys achieved higher score than girls. The students satisfied with life (t=28,0; plife than students who were dissatisfied with their life, often or fairly suffer from health complaints and live in families of at most average level of affluence. The meaning in life is positively connected with satisfaction with life, lack of subjective complaints and family affluence. Because there is a lack of analysis linked with school teenagers' meaning in life in Polish literature, another research involved not only shorten but also full version of this tool should be conducted.

  15. Altruism revisited: a comparison of medical, law and business students' altruistic attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Ian D; Wilkes, Michael; Der-Martirosian, Claudia

    2007-04-01

    Although the concept of altruism in medicine has a long tradition in Western thought, little empirical research has been carried out recently in this area. This study compares the altruistic attitudes of medical, legal and business students. We used a cross-sectional survey to compare the altruistic attitudes of 3 types of contemporary 'professional' students, those in medicine, law and business. The results suggest that medical students report more altruistic attitudes than legal students, but not than business students. Overall, female students reported stronger attitudes consistent with altruism compared with males; African-American and Hispanic students reported more altruistic attitudes compared with White students. Our results suggest that the recent trend in recruiting more women and under-represented minority group members into medicine may have a positive impact on altruism in the profession, if we can assume that attitudes correlate with behaviours.

  16. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  17. A Staff Development Program Designed To Reach the Partnership School's Goals: Cooperative Learning Strategies, Coaching Sessions and a Narrowed Academic Performance Gap among Student Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kathy; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a staff-development program at Vivian Field Junior High School in Carrollton, Texas. The school is a member of the Texas Partnership School Initiative, which was created to give schools latitude in raising student achievement. The goal of the staff-development program was to identify gains in…

  18. Comparing Linear Relationships between E-Book Usage and University Student and Faculty Populations: The Differences between E-Reference and E-Monograph Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Alain R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a quantitative study examining the strength of linear relationships between Laurentian University students and faculty members and the J. N. Desmarais Library's reference and monograph e-book collections. The number of full-text items accessed, searches performed, and undergraduate, graduate, and faculty…

  19. Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA): A Method for Evaluating Changes in Understanding and Visualization of the Scientific Process in a Multidisciplinary Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Rigakos, Bessie

    2016-01-01

    The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology,…

  20. The Elementary School Classroom. The Study of the Built Environment Through Student and Teacher Responses. The Elementary School and Its Population, Phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinian, Vrej-Armen

    An extensive investigation of elementary school classrooms was conducted through the collection and statistical analysis of student and teacher responses to questions concerning the educational environment. Several asepcts of the classroom are discussed, including the spatial, thermal, luminous, and aural environments. Questions were organized so…

  1. Esthetic effect of the buccal corridor size and amount of tooth-gingival display on smile attractiveness in two student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Zarif Najafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3- Dentist   Background and Aims: An attractive, well-balanced smile is a paramount treatment objective of the modern orthodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the buccal corridor size and tooth-gingival display on the smile esthetics as perceived by two groups of the students.   Materials and Methods: A colored image of a woman frontal posed smile was selected. The image was altered digitally to produce different buccal corridor sizes (6%, 12.5% and 20% and different tooth-gingival displays (maxillary central incisors and 2 mm of gingival, maxillary central incisors and dental papilla and 80% of the maxillary central incisors. The different buccal corridor sizes and tooth-gingival displays were combined to produce 9 images. These altered images were rated by 120 medical and dental students using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, Pairwise comparison LSD test, Repeated measure MANOVA and ICC (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient.   Results: The smile which had the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and complete incisor display without gingival display received the highest rates among the nine smile images in the dental students group. But in the medical students group the smile with the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and 2 mm gingival display, received the highest rates among the nine smile images. There was no significant difference in judging between the male and female raters for the both groups (P>0.05. The dental students were more critical about the increasing of the gingival display.   Conclusion: In the treatment procedure that may lead to the combination of wide buccal corridor and more tooth-gingival show, more caution should be considered.

  2. Undergraduate Research Involving Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Interdisciplinary Science Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Pagano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific undergraduate research in higher education often yields positive outcomes for student and faculty member participants alike, with underrepresented students often showing even more substantial gains (academic, professional, and personal as a result of the experience. Significant success can be realized when involving deaf and hard-of-hearing (d/hh undergraduate students, who are also vastly underrepresented in the sciences, in interdisciplinary research projects. Even d/hh Associate degree level students and those in the first two years of their postsecondary careers can contribute to, and benefit from, the research process when faculty mentors properly plan/design projects. We discuss strategies, including the dissemination/communication of research results, for involving these students in research groups with different communication dynamics and share both findings of our research program and examples of successful chemical and biological research projects that have involved d/hh undergraduate students. We hope to stimulate a renewed interest in encouraging diversity and involving students with disabilities into higher education research experiences globally and across multiple scientific disciplines, thus strengthening the education and career pipeline of these students.

  3. P450 Pharmacogenetics in Indigenous North American Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Henderson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous North American populations, including American Indian and Alaska Native peoples in the United States, the First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples in Canada and Amerindians in Mexico, are historically under-represented in biomedical research, including genomic research on drug disposition and response. Without adequate representation in pharmacogenetic studies establishing genotype-phenotype relationships, Indigenous populations may not benefit fully from new innovations in precision medicine testing to tailor and improve the safety and efficacy of drug treatment, resulting in health care disparities. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate what is currently known about cytochrome P450 genetic variation in Indigenous populations in North America and to highlight the importance of including these groups in future pharmacogenetic studies for implementation of personalized drug therapy.

  4. Community-based participatory research to decrease smoking prevalence in a high-risk young adult population: an evaluation of the Students Against Nicotine and Tobacco Addiction (SANTA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Tai J; Harper, Peter G; Henn, Lisa; Rudser, Kyle D; Schoeller, Bill P

    2014-03-01

    Students Against Nicotine and Tobacco Addiction is a community-based participatory research project that engages local medical and mental health providers in partnership with students, teachers, and administrators at the Minnesota-based Job Corps. This intervention contains multiple and synchronous elements designed to allay the stress that students attribute to smoking, including physical activities, nonphysical activities, purposeful modifications to the campus's environment and rules/policies, and on-site smoking cessation education and peer support. The intent of the present investigation was to evaluate (a) the types of stress most predictive of smoking behavior and/or nicotine dependence, (b) which activities students are participating in, and (c) which activities are most predictive of behavior change (or readiness to change). Quantitative data were collected through 5 campus-wide surveys. Response rates for each survey exceeded 85%. Stressors most commonly cited included struggles to find a job, financial problems, family conflict, lack of privacy or freedom, missing family or being homesick, dealing with Job Corps rules, and other-unspecified. The most popular activities in which students took part were physically active ones. However, activities most predictive of beneficent change were nonphysical. Approximately one third of respondents were nicotine dependent at baseline. Nearly half intended to quit within 1 month and 74% intended to quit within 6 months. Interventions perceived as most helpful toward reducing smoking were nonphysical in nature. Future efforts with this and comparable populations should engage youth in advancing such activities within a broader range of activity choices, alongside conventional education and support.

  5. Science Education and ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heather; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    The number of students who learn English as a second language (ESL) in U.S. schools has grown significantly in the past decade. This segment of the student population increased by 56% between the 1994-95 and 2004-05 school years (NCLR 2007). As the ESL student population increases, many science teachers struggle to tailor instructional materials,…

  6. Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA): A Method for Evaluating Changes in Understanding and Visualization of the Scientific Process in a Multidisciplinary Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J; Rigakos, Bessie

    The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology, Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA), consisted of a prompt and rubric that was designed to assess students' understanding of the scientific process. Forty flowcharts representing a multidisciplinary group without intervention and 26 flowcharts representing pre- and postinstruction were evaluated over five dimensions: connections, experimental design, reasons for doing science, nature of science, and interconnectivity. Pre to post flowcharts showed a statistically significant improvement in the number of items and ratings for the dimensions. Comparison of the terms used and connections between terms on student flowcharts revealed an enhanced and more nuanced understanding of the scientific process, especially in the areas of application to society and communication within the scientific community. We propose that SPFA can be used in a variety of circumstances, including in the determination of what curricula or interventions would be useful in a course or program, in the assessment of curriculum, or in the evaluation of students performing research projects. © 2016 K. J. Wilson and B. Rigakos. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Using Evolution as a Context for Teaching the Nature of Science to Diverse Student Populations: A High School Unit of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Angela C.

    Teaching evolution provides teachers with the opportunity to educate students on how science aims to understand the natural world. Rooted in research, the purpose of this project was to create NGSS-aligned curriculum focused on teaching the nature of science (NOS) within the context of biological evolution. Field testing and review of the unit resulted in revisions aimed at creating more comprehensive teacher resource materials and explicit inclusion of NOS. Emphasizing NOS in curriculum development and teaching scientific qualities through an evolutionary context has taken the focus off belief or disbelief, keeping the attention on the scientific concept at hand. Designing curriculum around compelling subject matter and embracing student-led learning increased and maintained student interest in the classroom. Implementation of this curriculum not only requires the teacher to be knowledgeable in conventional educational pedagogy, but also the subjects of NGSS and NOS. Additional training and support centered around NGSS is recommended for science educators interested in integrating NOS into their curriculum and instruction.

  8. Population and Development Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

  9. Cofactors associated with Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration Syndrome: 151 dogs within a reference population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auten, Candace R; Thomasy, Sara M; Kass, Philip H; Good, Kathryn L; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Maggs, David J

    2018-05-01

    To determine factors associated with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) diagnosed within one referral population. 151 dogs diagnosed with SARDS. Breed, age, sex, and body weight were compared between dogs with electroretinogram-confirmed SARDS and dogs presented to the UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (UCD-VMTH) from 1991 to 2014. SARDS was diagnosed in 151 dogs, representing 1.3% of dogs presented to the UCD-VMTH for ophthalmic disease. Although dogs of 36 breeds were affected, the Dachshund (n = 31, 21%), Schnauzer (16, 11%), Pug (11, 7%), and Brittany (5, 3%) were significantly overrepresented, and the Labrador Retriever (3, 2%) was significantly underrepresented vs. the reference population (P < 0.001). Median (range) age and body weight of affected vs. reference dogs were 8.9 (3-20) vs. 6.8 (0.1-26) years and 12.4 (2.8-52.7) vs. 22.3 (0.1-60) kg, respectively. Dogs 6-10 years of age and between 10-20 kg in body weight were significantly overrepresented in the SARDS population, while dogs <6 years of age were significantly underrepresented (P < 0.01). Spayed females (59% of affected dogs) were significantly overrepresented compared to the reference population, whereas intact females (1% of affected dogs) were significantly underrepresented. Consistent with previous studies, smaller, middle-aged, spayed female dogs may be at increased risk of developing SARDS. Unlike previous studies, this is the first study comparing a variety of SARDS-affected breeds to a reference population. Potentially increased risk of SARDS in several breeds, particularly Dachshunds, suggests a familial factor that warrants further investigation using genetic techniques. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Overcoming Barriers in Access to High Quality Education after Matriculation: Promoting Strategies and Tactics for Engagement of Underrepresented Groups in Undergraduate Research via Institutional Diversity Action Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierszalowski, Sophie; Vue, Rican; Bouwma-Gearhart, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Considerable work is still required to eliminate disparities in postsecondary STEM persistence and success across student groups. Engagement in faculty-mentored research has been employed as one strategy to promote personal, professional, and academic gains for undergraduate students, although barriers exist that make it more difficult for some to…

  11. The Effect of Volunteering at a Student-Run Free Healthcare Clinic on Medical Students' Self-Efficacy, Comfortableness, Attitude, and Interest in Working with the Underserved Population and Interest in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kelvin; Kovalskiy, Aleksandr; Desai, Anand; Imran, Amna; Ismail, Rahim; Hernandez, Caridad

    2017-02-23

    The number of primary care physicians in the United States continues to lag behind the number of uninsured people. There has been a growing demand for medical students to improve their self-efficacy, comfortableness, attitude, and interest in working with the underserved and in primary care. This study aims to discern whether volunteering at a student-run, free healthcare clinic has a positive impact on these five variables of interest or not. A 95-item survey was distributed through Qualtrics Survey Software (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA) to medical students from the Class of 2018 and Class of 2019 at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine. They were recruited via emails, Facebook, and in-classroom announcements. Mean responses on a Likert-like scale to different survey items were collected and compared between two study cohorts: Keeping Neighbors In Good Health Through Service (KNIGHTS) Clinic volunteers and non-volunteers. Results from 128 students showed no significant differences in the means between the two cohorts (p-values were not significant). When volunteers were asked the survey item, "KNIGHTS Clinic positively influenced my attitude towards working with underserved patients," 62% strongly agreed, 26% agreed, 10% were neutral, and 2% disagreed. Based on the results, volunteering at KNIGHTS Clinic may not have a positive impact on the five variables of interest. However, the lack of significance may also be due to certain limitations of this study addressed elsewhere in this paper. With the majority of KNIGHTS Clinic volunteers agreeing that "KNIGHTS Clinic positively influenced […their] attitude towards working with underserved patients," there may be a positive impact of volunteering on volunteers' attitude towards working with the underserved.

  12. Evaluation Of Investments In Science, Technology And Innovation: Applying Scientific and Technical Human Capital Framework For Assessment of Doctoral Students In Cooperative Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonchuk, Olena

    This dissertation builds on an alternative framework for evaluation of science, technology and innovation (STI) outcomes - the scientific & technical (S&T) human capital which was developed by Bozeman, Dietz and Gaughan (2001). At its core, this framework looks beyond simple economic and publication metrics and instead focuses on scientists' social capital. The premise of the framework is that science does not happen in vacuum and that resources embedded in scientists' social networks are important and enduring outcomes of the scientific process that were not being captured by traditional metrics. This dissertation examines social capital of science and engineering (S&E) graduate students, an underrepresented group of stakeholders in STI evaluations. S&E graduate students are unique for several reasons. In comparison with students in other disciplines, S&E graduate students have a greater proportion of international students; are widely employed by industry in numbers exceeded only by business graduates. And, most importantly, S&E graduates pursue education in fields that contribute the most to the US innovation capacity. This dissertation introduces a multidimensional measure of social capital based on the network theory of social capital proposed by Nan Lin (1999). According to Lin, social capital consists of three components: availability of resources and social embeddedness in one's network and mobilization of these resources. In order to address these elements, the dissertation employs two studies that focus on different components of social capital. Study 1 looks at accessibility of resources in students' social networks and whether students would be likely to mobilize them by using a proxy measure of norms and values about collaborations. The study also addresses the effect of social capital on students' experiences and outcomes, specifically, on their satisfaction and perceived career preparedness. The researcher investigates the mechanisms that explain

  13. Giving Context to the Physician Competency Reference Set: Adapting to the Needs of Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L.; Potter, Jennifer; Bayer, Carey Roth; Englander, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Delineating the requisite competencies of a 21st-century physician is the first step in the paradigm shift to competency-based medical education. Over the past two decades, more than 150 lists of competencies have emerged. In a synthesis of these lists, the Physician Competency Reference Set (PCRS) provided a unifying framework of competencies that define the general physician. The PCRS is not context or population specific; however, competently caring for certain underrepresented populations or specific medical conditions can require more specific context. Previously developed competency lists describing care for these populations have been disconnected from an overarching competency framework, limiting their uptake. To address this gap, the Association of American Medical Colleges Advisory Committee on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Sex Development adapted the PCRS by adding context- and content-specific qualifying statements to existing PCRS competencies to better meet the needs of diverse patient populations. This Article describes the committee’s process in developing these qualifiers of competence. To facilitate widespread adoption of the contextualized competencies in U.S. medical schools, the committee used an established competency framework to develop qualifiers of competence to improve the health of individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; gender nonconforming; or born with differences in sexual development. This process can be applied to other underrepresented populations or medical conditions, ensuring that relevant topics are included in medical education and, ultimately, health care outcomes are improved for all patients inclusive of diversity, background, and ability. PMID:26796092

  14. Undergraduate Students as Climate Communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.; Mullendore, G. L.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) are partnering with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students will have the opportunity to participate in guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. An integral part of the learning process will include training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of a webcast about investigating aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Several departments are involved in the educational program.

  15. Stigma among Singaporean youth: a cross-sectional study on adolescent attitudes towards serious mental illness and social tolerance in a multiethnic population

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Shirlene; Liu, Jianlin; Mahesh, Mithila; Chua, Boon Yiang; Shahwan, Shazana; Lee, Siau Pheng; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Stigma against mental illnesses is one of the significant obstacles faced by mental health service users and providers. It can develop at a young age and is also influenced by culture. Youths in Southeast Asian countries are under-represented in mental health research, thus this study aims to explore the dimensions of stigma and social tolerance and examine its correlates in the younger, multiethnic population of Singapore. Design An online survey collected data with sociodemograph...

  16. A 1000 Arab genome project to study the Emirati population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Mariam; Osman, Wael; Tay, Guan K; AlSafar, Habiba S

    2018-04-01

    Discoveries from the human genome, HapMap, and 1000 genome projects have collectively contributed toward the creation of a catalog of human genetic variations that has improved our understanding of human diversity. Despite the collegial nature of many of these genome study consortiums, which has led to the cataloging of genetic variations of different ethnic groups from around the world, genome data on the Arab population remains overwhelmingly underrepresented. The National Arab Genome project in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) aims to address this deficiency by using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to provide data to improve our understanding of the Arab genome and catalog variants that are unique to the Arab population of the UAE. The project was conceived to shed light on the similarities and differences between the Arab genome and those of the other ethnic groups.

  17. Stakeholder assessment of comparative effectiveness research needs for Medicaid populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael A; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Farrell, Stephen F; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Patients, providers and policy-makers rely heavily on comparative effectiveness research (CER) when making complex, real-world medical decisions. In particular, Medicaid providers and policy-makers face unique challenges in decision-making because their program cares for traditionally underserved populations, especially children, pregnant women and people with mental illness. Because these patient populations have generally been underrepresented in research discussions, CER questions for these groups may be understudied. To address this problem, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality commissioned our team to work with Medicaid Medical Directors and other stakeholders to identify relevant CER questions. Through an iterative process of topic identification and refinement, we developed relevant, feasible and actionable questions based on issues affecting Medicaid programs nationwide. We describe challenges and limitations and provide recommendations for future stakeholder engagement. PMID:26388438

  18. The association between mental health problems and inflammatory conditions across gender and immigrant status: a population-based cross-sectional study among 10th-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and investigate the association between mental health problems, asthma, allergy and eczema in Norwegian and immigrant youths. A cross-sectional study was performed of all 10th-grade students in Oslo, Norway, in two school years; 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. Of the 8316 eligible students, 7345 (88.3%) participated. Internalized mental problems were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Check List 10-version, and two subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to study externalizing mental health problems. All questions are based on self-report, and 25% of the sample had an immigrant background. Immigrant boys had higher scores on internalizing problems than Norwegian boys. First-generation immigrants reported less asthma and eczema than Norwegians. The strongest association between mental health problems and inflammatory conditions was for allergy and internalizing problems for boys (odds ratio (OR)=2.5 for immigrants and OR=1.8 for Norwegians). For girls, it was allergy in Norwegians (OR=1.6) and asthma for immigrants (OR=2.2). For externalizing problems, the association was strongest for asthma in boys and eczema in girls. Immigrant boys had stronger associations between number of inflammatory conditions and internalizing mental health problems than Norwegians (OR=3.2 vs. OR=2.4). Among girls, the figures were 1.7 for Norwegians and 1.8 for immigrants. There is a strong association between number of inflammatory conditions and internalizing mental health problems, especially among boys with an immigrant background. The association with externalizing mental health problems was less prominent.

  19. Clinical psychology students' perceptions of diversity training: a study of exposure and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Debbie; Callands, Tamora A; Radcliffe, Alison M; Luebbe, Aaron M; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2009-10-01

    This study examined clinical psychology graduate students' definitions of diversity and their perceptions of their exposure to and satisfaction regarding their level of diversity training. Four hundred and ninety-one students from Counsel of University Directors of Clinical Psychology (CUDCP) member programs completed an online survey. Overall, students perceived that their programs considered diversity narrowly, concentrating primarily on ethnicity, race, and culture to the neglect of sexual orientation, religion, language, and physical disability. Likewise, students expressed greater satisfaction with training regarding ethnicity/race and gender than broader areas of diversity, but rated the importance of addressing all areas of diversity as high. Although this study underscores the limited experience that students perceive they have had with various underrepresented groups, programs appear to have incorporated a variety of diversity training modalities that could be expanded upon to meet the interests of psychology students.

  20. Avaliação auditiva em uma população de estudantes da rede pública municipal Assessment of hearing in a municipal public school student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para que haja um aprendizado adequado, a criança necessita ter audição satisfatória. A triagem auditiva escolar é importante, pois permite a detecção de casos que passaram despercebidos pela família. OBJETIVO: Avaliar audição de crianças na faixa etária de 4 a 15 anos, estudantes do pré-1 ao quinto ano, do ensino público do município de Cabedelo/PB. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo com 98 alunos, encaminhados pelos professores, de 18 escolas rede pública do município de Cabedelo, no período de junho de 2007 a junho de 2010. Estes alunos foram examinados pelo otorrinolaringologista e submetidos a exame audiométrico. RESULTADOS: Dezoito escolas participaram do estudo, a idade dos alunos variou de 4 a 15 anos, sendo 62% do sexo masculino e 38% do sexo feminino. Exame otorrinolaringológico foi normal em 85% dos casos, com 15% de alteração, sendo mais frequente cerume e retração de membrana timpânica. O exame audiométrico demonstrou audição normal bilateral em 66% das crianças, com perda auditiva em 34%. CONCLUSÃO: A triagem escolar torna-se um meio importante para diagnóstico de perda auditiva, sobretudo em populações de baixa renda.Children need good hearing for adequate learning. Hearing screening in students is important because it allows cases that go unnoticed by the family may be detected. AIM: To evaluate hearing in children aged 4-15 years - public school students from pre-first to the fifth grade in the city of Cabedelo, Paraíba state. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study of 98 students referred by teachers of 18 public schools in Cabedelo, from June 2007 to June 2010. Students were examined by an otolaryngologist and underwent audiometric testing. RESULTS: Eighteen schools were enrolled in this study. The student's age ranged from 4 to 15 years; 62% were male and 38% were female. Otolaryngological tests were normal in 85% of cases, and abnormal in 15% of cases. The most frequent

  1. Population Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  2. Understanding Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothner, Ira

    Activities and concerns of Ford Foundation supported population research and training centers are described in this report. The centers are concerned with population growth, consequences of growth for human welfare, forces that determine family planning, interrelations among population variables, economics of contraceptive distribution, and…

  3. Caracterización de los accidentes por exposición a agente biológico en una población de estudiantes de medicina de Bucaramanga Characterization of biological accidents in medical students population from Bucaramanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Eduardo Lozano

    2012-12-01

    . Objective: To characterize biological accidents in medical students of a private university in Bucaramanga during the first semester of 2011. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study with a survey applied to all student population. Univariate and bivariate analysis was done comparing age, sex, academic level, biosafety training and vaccination, with suffering a biological accident during the first semester of 2011. Results: In this population the prevalence of biological accidents was 6.8%, which means 3.42 events for every thousand weeks per student. Of the 23 events found, 9 (39.1% were prick, 7 (30.4% non-intact skin splash, 5 (21.7% mucosal splash, and two (8.7% cutting. 277 (66.4% respondents have full hepatitis B vaccination schedule, and 33.6% have at least one dose. Only 251 (59.9% responders have some degree of training in biosafety. No association between age, sex or academic level was found in the bivariate analysis. However, 5 students from basic levels and 5 from medical practice levels suffered more than one event in the academic period, situation that didn't happened on the surgical levels students. Conclusion: Biological accidents prevalence has decreased. However, basic academic levels have a high prevalence and recidivism, which requires new intervention strategies to further decrease the risk.

  4. Psychosocial and cessation-related differences between tobacco-marijuana co-users and single product users in a college student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Matthew N; Haardörfer, Regine; Windle, Michael; Berg, Carla

    2018-02-01

    Limited research has examined psychosocial factors that differ among cigarette users, marijuana users, and co-users and influence their cessation efforts. We examined: 1) sociodemographic, mental health, and other substance use in relation to user category; and 2) associations among these factors in relation to recent quit attempts and readiness to quit among single product versus co-users. We used a cross-sectional design to study college students aged 18-25 from seven Georgia campuses, focusing on the 721 reporting cigarette and/or marijuana use in the past 4months (238 cigarette-only; 331 marijuana-only; 152 co-users). Multinomial logistic regression showed that correlates (p'susers were more likely to report readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes versus marijuana (p'susers reported readiness to quit, 41.18% of cigarette-only and 21.75% of marijuana-only users reported recent quit attempts (p's<0.001). Binary logistic regressions indicated distinct correlates of readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes and marijuana. Cessation efforts of the respective products must attend to co-use with the other product to better understand relative perceptions of importance and confidence in quitting and actual cessation efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Replacing lecture with peer-led workshops improves student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszler, Ralph W

    2009-01-01

    Peer-facilitated workshops enhanced interactivity in our introductory biology course, which led to increased student engagement and learning. A majority of students preferred attending two lectures and a workshop each week over attending three weekly lectures. In the workshops, students worked in small cooperative groups as they solved challenging problems, evaluated case studies, and participated in activities designed to improve their general learning skills. Students in the workshop version of the course scored higher on exam questions recycled from preworkshop semesters. Grades were higher over three workshop semesters in comparison with the seven preworkshop semesters. Although males and females benefited from workshops, there was a larger improvement of grades and increased retention by female students; although underrepresented minority (URM) and non-URM students benefited from workshops, there was a larger improvement of grades by URM students. As well as improving student performance and retention, the addition of interactive workshops also improved the quality of student learning: Student scores on exam questions that required higher-level thinking increased from preworkshop to workshop semesters.

  6. Funding Student Scholarships to the Richard Tapia Celebration of Diversity in Computing Conference 2013, February 7-10, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, Richard

    2013-02-07

    This Basic Award allowed for the funding of student scholarships to the Richard Tapia Celebration of Diversity in Computing Conference which took place in Washington, D.C. from February 7-10, 2013. The conference was the seventh in a series and included a stellar array of invited speakers, compelling panel discussions, a student poster competition, a daylong Doctoral Consortium, a session featuring a choice of attractions unique to Washington, D.C., a gala banquet and dance, and many exciting networking opportunities. The conference created a welcoming environment for STEM students, especially underrepresented minority and female students, who were provided the highest quality of learning, networking, and social experiences to empower their educational experience and enhance their ability to succeed with a rigorous STEM degree. The networking and mentoring opportunities available at the conference were also designed to empower students to succeed in STEM careers and ultimately serve in leadership in industry and the professoriate. A key step in attracting underrepresented students into STEM fields and paving the way for their success in influential positions is to create a nurturing and supportive network and community for them to rely upon. It is also critical to educate leaders in corporations, government and academia about the benefits to be gained from increasing the percentage of STEM professionals from underrepresented groups. To this end, The Tapia Conference serves both functions, as it connects STEM students with STEM professionals, leaders, and academics who share the vision of a STEM workforce and community that is truly representative of the community in which we live.

  7. A map of copy number variations in Chinese populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyi Lou

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the human genome contains extensive copy number variations (CNVs. Investigating the medical and evolutionary impacts of CNVs requires the knowledge of locations, sizes and frequency distribution of them within and between populations. However, CNV study of Chinese minorities, which harbor the majority of genetic diversity of Chinese populations, has been underrepresented considering the same efforts in other populations. Here we constructed, to our knowledge, a first CNV map in seven Chinese populations representing the major linguistic groups in China with 1,440 CNV regions identified using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Array. Considerable differences in distributions of CNV regions between populations and substantial population structures were observed. We showed that ∼35% of CNV regions identified in minority ethnic groups are not shared by Han Chinese population, indicating that the contribution of the minorities to genetic architecture of Chinese population could not be ignored. We further identified highly differentiated CNV regions between populations. For example, a common deletion in Dong and Zhuang (44.4% and 50%, which overlaps two keratin-associated protein genes contributing to the structure of hair fibers, was not observed in Han Chinese. Interestingly, the most differentiated CNV deletion between HapMap CEU and YRI containing CCL3L1 gene reported in previous studies was also the highest differentiated regions between Tibetan and other populations. Besides, by jointly analyzing CNVs and SNPs, we found a CNV region containing gene CTDSPL were in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium between flanking SNPs in Tibetan while not in other populations except HapMap CHD. Furthermore, we found the SNP taggability of CNVs in Chinese populations was much lower than that in European populations. Our results suggest the necessity of a full characterization of CNVs in Chinese populations, and the CNV map we constructed serves as a

  8. A Map of Copy Number Variations in Chinese Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajun; Kang, Longli; Zhang, Xin; Jin, Wenfei; Wu, Bailin; Jin, Li; Xu, Shuhua

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that the human genome contains extensive copy number variations (CNVs). Investigating the medical and evolutionary impacts of CNVs requires the knowledge of locations, sizes and frequency distribution of them within and between populations. However, CNV study of Chinese minorities, which harbor the majority of genetic diversity of Chinese populations, has been underrepresented considering the same efforts in other populations. Here we constructed, to our knowledge, a first CNV map in seven Chinese populations representing the major linguistic groups in China with 1,440 CNV regions identified using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Array. Considerable differences in distributions of CNV regions between populations and substantial population structures were observed. We showed that ∼35% of CNV regions identified in minority ethnic groups are not shared by Han Chinese population, indicating that the contribution of the minorities to genetic architecture of Chinese population could not be ignored. We further identified highly differentiated CNV regions between populations. For example, a common deletion in Dong and Zhuang (44.4% and 50%), which overlaps two keratin-associated protein genes contributing to the structure of hair fibers, was not observed in Han Chinese. Interestingly, the most differentiated CNV deletion between HapMap CEU and YRI containing CCL3L1 gene reported in previous studies was also the highest differentiated regions between Tibetan and other populations. Besides, by jointly analyzing CNVs and SNPs, we found a CNV region containing gene CTDSPL were in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium between flanking SNPs in Tibetan while not in other populations except HapMap CHD. Furthermore, we found the SNP taggability of CNVs in Chinese populations was much lower than that in European populations. Our results suggest the necessity of a full characterization of CNVs in Chinese populations, and the CNV map we constructed serves as a useful resource in

  9. Using the University Student Depression Inventory to Investigate the Effect of Demographic Variables on Students' Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Duncanson, Krystle

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a problem in the student population and may impact students of any age, gender and ethnicity. Previous studies have indicated student demographic characteristics are associated with depression; however, these studies have not utilised scales specifically designed to measure depression in the student population. The aim of the present…

  10. Imaginary populations

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002) wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002), that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologis...

  11. Recruiting a Diverse Set of Future Geoscientists through Outreach to Middle and High School Students and Teachers in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, D.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Draper, G.; Rego, R.; Gebelein, J.

    2014-12-01

    Florida International University (FIU), the State University of Florida in Miami is a large enrollment, federally recognized Minority Serving Institution with over 70% of the undergraduate population coming from groups underrepresented in the geoscience workforce. Recruiting local students into the geosciences is challenging because geology is not well integrated into the local school curriculum, the geology is poorly exposed in the low-relief south Florida region and many first generation college students are reluctant to enter unfamiliar fields. We describe and present preliminary findings from Growing Community Roots for the Geosciences in Miami, FL, a 2-year, NSF funded project run by the Department of Earth and Environment at FIU which aims to inform students enrolled in the local middle and high schools to educational and career opportunities in the geosciences. The project takes a multi-faceted approach which includes direct outreach through social media platforms and school visits, a 1-week workshop for middle school teachers and a 2-week summer camp aimed at high school students. An outreach team of undergraduate geoscience majors were recruited to build and maintain informational resources on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Google Plus and to accompany FIU faculty on visits to local middle schools and high schools. Both the teacher workshop and the summer camp included lectures on geoscience careers, fundamental concepts of solid earth and atmospheric science, hands on exercises with earth materials, fossils and microscopy, exercises with Google Earth imagery and GIS, and field trips to local geological sites and government facilities. Participants were surveyed at the beginning of the programs on their general educational background in math and science and their general attitudes of and interest in geoscience careers. Post program surveys showed significant increases in the comfort of teaching topics in geoscience among teachers and an increased

  12. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Superior State University (LSSU) developed the GRANITE (Geological Reasoning And Natives Investigating The Earth) to engage high school students in the geosciences. The GRANITE program's target audience is Native American high school students and other populations underrepresented in the geosciences. Through the GRANITE program students undertake a variety of field and laboratory geosciences activities that culminates in a two week summer geoscience field experience during which they travel from Michigan to Wyoming. The sites students visit were selected because of their interesting and diverse geologic features and because in many cases they have special significance to Native American communities. Examples of the processes and localities studied by GRANITE students include igneous processes at Bear Butte, SD (Mato Paha) and Devil's Tower, WY (Mato Tipila); sedimentary processes in the Badlands, SD (Mako Sica) and Black Hills, SD (Paha Sapa); karst processes at Wind Cave, SD (Wasun Niye) and Vore Buffalo Jump; structural processes at Van Hise rock, WI and Dillon normal fault Badlands, SD; hydrologic and laucustrine processes along the Great Lakes and at the Fond du Lac Reservation, MN; fluvial processes along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; geologic resources at the Homestake Mine, SD and Champion Mine, MI; and metamorphic processes at Pipestone, MN and Baraboo, WI. Through the GRANITE experience students develop an understanding of how geoscience is an important part of their lives, their communities and the world around them. The GRANITE program also promotes each student's growth and confidence to attend college and stresses the importance of taking challenging math and science courses in high school. Geoscience career opportunities are discussed at specific geologic localities and through general discussions. GRANITE students learn geosciences concepts and their application to Native communities and society in general through activities and

  13. The Characteristics and Experiences of Successful Undergraduate Latina Students Who Persist in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carrie

    Females and underrepresented ethnic minorities earn a small percentage of engineering and computer science bachelor's degrees awarded in the United States, earn an even smaller proportion of master's and doctoral degrees, and are underrepresented in the engineering workforce (Engineering Workforce Commission, [2006], as cited in National Science Foundation, 2012; United States Department of Education, [2006], as cited in National Science Foundation, 2009a; United States Department of Education, [2006], as cited in National Science Foundation, 2009b). Considerable research has examined the perceptions, culture, curriculum, and pedagogy in engineering that inhibits the achievement of women and underrepresented ethnic minorities. This action research study used a qualitative approach to examine the characteristics and experiences of Latina students who pursued a bachelor's degree in the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering at Arizona State University (ASU) as part of the 2008 first-time full-time freshman cohort. The researcher conducted two semi-structured individual interviews with seven undergraduate Latina students who successfully persisted to their fourth (senior) year in engineering. The researcher aimed to understand what characteristics made these students successful and how their experiences affected their persistence in an engineering major. The data collected showed that the Latina participants were motivated to persist in their engineering degree program due to their parents' expectations for success and high academic achievement; their desire to overcome the discrimination, stereotyping, and naysayers that they encountered; and their aspiration to become a role model for their family and other students interested in pursuing engineering. From the data collected, the researcher provided suggestions to implement and adapt educational activities and support systems within the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering to improve the retention and graduation rates

  14. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  15. Critical Components of a Successful Undergraduate Research Experience in the Geosciences for Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Chukuigwe, C.

    2013-12-01

    For the past five years, the New York City College of Technology has administered a successful National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. The program provides rich, substantive, academic and life-transformative STEM educational experiences for students who would otherwise not pursue STEM education altogether or would not pursue STEM education through to the graduate school level. The REU Scholars are provided with an opportunity to conduct intensive satellite and ground-based remote sensing research at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (NOAA-CREST). Candidates for the program are recruited from the City University of New York's twenty-three separate campuses. These students engage in a research experience that spans the summer and the fall and spring semesters. Eighty-four percent (84%) of the program participants are underrepresented minorities in STEM, and they are involved in a plethora of undergraduate research best practice activities that include: training courses in MATLAB programming, Geographic Information Systems, and Remote Sensing; workshops in Research Ethics, Scientific Writing, and Oral and Poster Research Presentations; national, regional, and local conference presentations; graduate school support; and geoscience exposure events at national laboratories, agencies, and research facilities. To enhance their success in the program, the REU Scholars are also provided with a comprehensive series of safety nets that include a multi-tiered mentoring design specifically to address critical issues faced by this diverse population. Since the inception of the REU program in 2008, a total of 61 undergraduate students have finished or are continuing with their research or are pursuing their STEM endeavors. All the REU Scholars conducted individual satellite and ground-based remote sensing research projects that ranged from the study of

  16. Population crises and population cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  17. Engaging secondary students in geoscience investigations through the use of low-cost instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A. L.; Hansen, W.; Healy, S.

    2010-12-01

    Many of the future challenges facing the United States, such as climate change, securing energy resources, soil degradation, water resources, and atmospheric pollution, are part of the domain of geosciences. Currently, our colleges and universities are not graduating enough geoscience majors to meet this demand, with only 0.27% of all bachelor's degrees granted in geoscience fields in 2006, the fewest in any scientific field (NSF 2008). Moreover, undergraduate recruitment in geosciences from traditionally underrepresented groups is significantly poorer than other STEM fields, with underrepresented groups comprising just 5% of total geoscience bachelor’s degrees awarded (Czujko 2004). Undergraduate geoscience programs therefore have a critical need to not just grow in size, but to expand the spectrum of students within their programs to better reflect the country’s diversity. In 2009, Worcester State College (WSC) initiated an effort as part of NSF's Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences Program to address this problem on a local scale. Through this program, we are creating a pipeline for diversity in the geosciences through a multi-faceted approach involving teacher training, high school internships, and a co-enrollment and scholarship program between Worcester Public Schools and WSC. Worcester, Massachusetts has a median household income of 43,779, 13,902 below the median household income for Massachusetts, and 24% of the city’s children live below the poverty line. Worcester is a diverse city: 19% of the population is Latino, 9% African-American, and 7% Asian-American, with over 18% foreign-born residents. This diversity is reflected in the city’s school system, where over 80 languages are spoken. In July 2010, the program was initiated with a week-long teacher training workshop. The participants were middle and high school science teachers from Worcester and the surrounding area. The workshop focused on issues of sustainability related

  18. Retention and Mentorship of Minority Students via Undergraduate Internship Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P.

    2004-12-01

    The School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology at the University of Hawaii is undertaking an Undergraduate Research Internship project to address the lack of full representation of women and underrepresented minorities in the geosciences. The overarching educational objective is to provide education and career development guidance and opportunities for students from underrepresented minorities. In collaboration with industry partners, we hope to prepare undergraduate students for life and careers in today's complex and dynamic technological world by encouraging them to attain high standards in the geosciences, thereby enabling them to compete successfully for positions in graduate programs. To achieve his goal, the project focuses on the following objectives: (1) Creating a high-quality integrated on-campus teaching and off-campus learning environment, and (2) providing an intensive introduction to geoscience careers through the guidance of experienced faculty and workplace mentors. The program will start small, collaborating with one or two companies over the next two years, offering paid summer internships. Opportunities for students include participation in geoscience-related research, obtaining experience in interpreting observations and providing information to end-users, working to improve technology and field methods, and developing the expertise to maintain, operate and deploy equipment. Program participants are assigned individual projects that relate to their academic majors, their career goals, and the ongoing research missions of our industry partners. In addition to their research activities, participants attend a series of seminars and tours dealing with current topics in geoscience to expose them to the wide variety of scientific and technical activities that occur in the workplace. The expected outcomes of this experience will be scientific growth and career development. Given that a very small percentage of all students go on to graduate

  19. Imaginary populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez–Abraín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002 wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002, that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologists often forget "to acknowledge that many study units are neither natural nor even units in terms of constituting a population system", and hence claimed that we "require much more accuracy than in past decades in order to be more effective to characterize populations and predict their behaviour". They stated that this is especially necessary "in disciplines such as conservation biology or resource pest management, to avoid reaching wrong conclusions or making inappropriate decisions". As a population ecologist and conservation biologist I totally agree with these authors and, like them, I be¬lieve that greater precision and care is needed in the use and definition of ecological terms. The point I wish to stress here is that we ecologists tend to forget that when we use statistical tools to infer results from our sample to a population we work with what statisticians term "imaginary", "hypothetical" or "potential" popula¬tions. As Zar (1999 states, if our sample data consist of 40 measurements of growth rate in guinea pigs "the population about which conclusions might be drawn is the growth rates of all the guinea pigs that conceivably might have been administered the same food supplement under identical conditions". Such a population does not really exist, and hence it is considered a hypothetical or imaginary population. Compare that definition with the population concept that would be in our minds when performing such measurements. We would probably

  20. Ocean FEST and TECH: Inspiring Hawaii's Students to Pursue Ocean, Earth and Environmental Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Wren, J. L.; Ayau, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean TECH (Technology Expands Career Horizons) is a new initiative funded by NSF/GeoEd to stimulate interest in ocean, earth and environmental science careers - and the college majors that lead to such careers - among Hawaii's underrepresented students in grades 6-14. The Ocean TECH project features hands-on ocean science and technology and interactions with career professionals. Ocean TECH builds upon Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together), a previous NSF/OEDG project aimed at teaching fun hands-on science in culturally and locally relevant ways to Hawaii's elementary school students and their families. Ocean FEST was rigorously evaluated (including cognitive pre-testing developed in partnership with external evaluators) and shown to be successful both in teaching science content and changing attitudes toward ocean, earth and environmental science careers. Over the course of the four-year grant, Ocean FEST reached 20,99 students and adults, including 636 classroom teachers and other volunteers who assisted with program delivery, most of whom were from underrepresented groups. For more info on Ocean FEST: http://oceanfest.soest.hawaii.edu/ Ocean TECH events have various formats, but common themes include: (1) Using technology as a hook to engage students in ocean, earth and environmental science. (2) Bringing middle school through community college students to college campuses, where they engage in hands-on science activities and learn about college majors. (3) Drawing direct links between the students' hands-on science activities and the research currently occurring at the UH Manoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), such as C-MORE and HOT research. (4) Respecting and valuing students' local knowledge and experiences. (5) Explicitly showing, through concrete examples, how becoming an ocean, earth or environmental scientist addresses would beneit Hawaii (6) Having graduate students from diverse backgrounds serve as instructors and

  1. Navigating the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics pipeline: How social capital impacts the educational attainment of college-bound female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca Elizabeth

    Despite the proliferation of women in higher education and the workforce, they have yet to achieve parity with men in many of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors and careers. The gap is even greater in the representation of women from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. This study examined pre-college intervention strategies provided by the University of Southern California's Math, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) program, as well as the relationships and experiences that contributed to the success of underrepresented female high school students in the STEM pipeline. A social capital framework provided the backdrop to the study. This qualitative study takes an ethnographic approach, incorporating 11 interviews, 42 hours of observation, and document analysis to address the research questions: How does involvement in the MESA program impact female students' decisions to pursue a mathematics or science major in college? What is the role of significant others in supporting and encouraging student success? The findings revealed a continuous cycle of support for these students. The cycle started in the home environment, where parents were integral in the early influence on the students' decisions to pursue higher education. Relationships with teachers, counselors, and peers provided critical networks of support in helping these students to achieve their academic goals. Participation in the MESA program empowered the students and provided additional connections to knowledge-based resources. This study highlights the interplay among family, school, and the MESA program in the overall support of underrepresented female students in the STEM pipeline.

  2. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  3. Population, 54 Activities: An Experimental Unit, First Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver Univ., CO. Center for Teaching International Relations.

    Supplementary teaching activities at the junior- and senior-high school level on issues and topics involving population factors are provided. Topics include population growth, demography, graphing, population distribution, and population control. Community and national census factors as well as world population are studied. Students are helped to…

  4. How Do Interaction Experiences Influence Doctoral Students' Academic Pursuits in Biomedical Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaoqing; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Jeffe, Donna B; Andriole, Dorothy A; Wathington, Heather D; Tai, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study investigated how doctoral students reported their personal and professional interaction experiences that they believed might facilitate or impede their academic pursuits in biomedical research. We collected 19 in-depth interviews with doctoral students in biomedical research from eight universities, and we based our qualitative analytic approach on the work of Miles and Huberman. The results indicated that among different sources and types of interaction, academic and emotional interactions from family and teachers in various stages essentially affected students' persistence in the biomedical science field. In addition, co-mentorship among peers, departmental environment, and volunteer experiences were other essential factors. This study also found related experiences among women and underrepresented minority students that were important to their academic pursuit.

  5. University Students with Dyslexia: A Qualitative Exploratory Study of Learning Practices, Challenges and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCullagh, Lois; Bosanquet, Agnes; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2017-02-01

    People with dyslexia are vastly under-represented in universities (Katusic et al., , Richardson & Wydell, ; Stampoltzis & Polychronopoulou, ). This situation is of concern for modern societies that value social justice. This study was designed to explore learning experiences of university students with dyslexia and factors that could contribute to their success. Thirteen students with dyslexia and 20 non-dyslexic peers were interviewed about their university learning experiences using a semi-structured qualitative approach. Students with dyslexia described engaging in learning activities intensively, frequently and strategically. They reported challenges and strengths relating to study skills, lectures, assessments, technology and support services. They also described helpful strategies including self-directed adaptive techniques, provisions from lecturers and assistance from the university. These findings suggest that students with dyslexia experience broad challenges at university, but helpful strategies may be available. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Population catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankomah, B

    1990-07-01

    UNFPA estimates predict that Africa's population will be 1.5 billion by 2025. In the next 10 years the growth rate will be 3%, the highest for any region in human history. Nigeria is expected to have 301 million people in 35 years, making it the 3rd largest country behind India and China. Currently the economies of African countries can not provide enough jobs or food for the current population. What is going to happen in 35 years when the population will almost double? In 1950 Africa only made up 9% of the world population, but by 2025 it will be 18.4% of a global population of 8.4 billion. Currently half of Africa's population is under 15. This means that there is still time to affect change. There is time to convince this generation not to behave like their parents. A 2 child limit per family is an absolute limit if any progress is to be made that will actually have an effect. Many have suggested that the young people should go back to the land instead of living in poverty in the city. However, currently the land distribution is 0.4 hectares/rural person. This figure is going to drop to 0.29/rural person. Migration is simply not the solution. Many rural farmers want to have enough children to ensure that their land is inherited and stays in the family. The same goal can be achieved, with less children. According to the UNFPA 77% of married women who do not want to have more children do not use contraceptives. Only 14% of African women use contraceptives, so that by age 20 50% of African women have had 1 birth. The only way to seriously cut down the birth rate is to get the men of Africa involved in contraceptive use.

  7. Direction discovery: A science enrichment program for high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Suzanne S; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D

    2009-03-01

    Launch into education about pharmacology (LEAP) is an inquiry-based science enrichment program designed to enhance competence in biology and chemistry and foster interest in science careers especially among under-represented minorities. The study of how drugs work, how they enter cells, alter body chemistry, and exit the body engages students to conceptualize fundamental precepts in biology, chemistry, and math. Students complete an intensive three-week course in the fundamentals of pharmacology during the summer followed by a mentored research component during the school year. Following a 5E learning paradigm, the summer course captures student interest by introducing controversial topics in pharmacology and provides a framework that guides them to explore topics in greater detail. The 5E learning cycle is recapitulated as students extend their knowledge to design and to test an original research question in pharmacology. LEAP students demonstrated significant gains in biology and chemistry knowledge and interests in pursuing science. Several students earned honors for the presentation of their research in regional and state science fairs. Success of the LEAP model in its initial 2 years argues that coupling college-level coursework of interest to teens with an authentic research experience enhances high school student success in and enthusiasm for science. Copyright © 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  9. Geriatric and Student Perceptions following Student-led Educational Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Janzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to measure the effect of student-led educational events on geriatric patient and student participant perceptions in a community setting. Methods: Students led three events at a senior community center, focusing on learning and memory, sleep hygiene, and arthritis pain. The participants were geriatric patients who themselves were providers of support to homebound peers (“clients” through an independently organized program. Geriatric participants completed pre- and post-event surveys to measure changes in familiarity with the topics. Student participants also completed pre- and post-event surveys that tracked changes in their comfort in working with the geriatric population. Results: Each event demonstrated at least one positive finding for geriatric patients and/or their clients. Students reported increased comfort in working with and teaching the geriatric population following the first and third events, but not the second. Conclusion: Student-led educational sessions can improve perceived health-related knowledge of geriatric participants while simultaneously exposing students to the geriatric patient population. Overall, both students and geriatric participants benefited from these events. Practice Implications: Incorporation of single, student-led educational events could be mutually beneficial to students and the elderly population in the community and easily incorporated into any healthcare curriculum. Funding:This work was supported by a Butler University Innovation Fund Grant. Treatment of Human Subjects: IRB review/approval required and obtained   Type: Original Research

  10. Four years of REU in South Texas: Fostering the Participation of Hispanic Students in Marine Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, E. J.; Erdner, D.

    2011-12-01

    Our REU site is a ten-week summer program that is currently in its fourth year and has served 37 undergraduate students in that time. The range of environments present in south Texas, including barrier islands, estuaries and hypersaline lagoons, and the inherent climatic variability of the region make it an excellent natural laboratory for studying the effects of both natural and human-driven change. REU projects to date have focused on many of the pressing environmental concerns in the region, including the impacts of land use and freshwater demand on the transport of water and waterborne constituents to coastal waters, harmful algal blooms, effects of nutrient loads on coastal ecosystems, and hypoxia. The program begins with a 2 day research cruise that serves as an immediate introduction to local biota and methods in marine science, and it brings the students and mentors together as a group in a more informal setting. The students then carry out independent research projects under the mentorship of a faculty member, and attend workshops on responsible research, graduate school, and science careers. Our program also benefits from a close interaction with the Mission-Aransas National Estuarine Research Reserve, exposing the students to applied research of relevance to coastal management issues. One of the primary goals of our program is to foster the retention of underrepresented groups, particularly Hispanics, in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields by increasing their participation in undergraduate research experiences. We have targeted Hispanic students because our institute is located in a state where 37% of the population is Hispanic, and in a region where the proportion of Hispanic students is even higher. Our recruiting efforts have included advertising the program via in-person presentations at minority serving institutions (UT El Paso, UT San Antonio), and on list-serves for professional societies and sites at minority serving

  11. The Science Standards and Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Samantha L.

    2017-01-01

    In a 2014 report, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) projected that by the year 2022, minority students will outnumber non-Hispanic white students enrolled in public schools. As the diversity of the student population in the United States increases, concerns arise about student performance in science classes, especially among…

  12. Suicidal Behavior among Latina College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesin, Megan S.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    Latina college students are one of the fastest-growing segments of the college student population. Although there is evidence suggesting Latina high school students are at increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior, it is unclear Bwhether this risk continues in college. Over the course of 3 years, 554 Latina college students, the majority of…

  13. Nigerian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transverse thoracic diameter in frontal chest radiographs of an adult. Nigerian population. *E. N. Obikili and I. J. Okoye. Department of Radiation Medicine. University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital,. Enugu, Nigeria. Email: enobikili @ yahoo. com. Summary. Background: Normal standards for thoracic dimensions that are ...

  14. Populations games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 14-19 ISSN 2367-5233. [Featuring International Conferences Biomath 2015. Blagoevgrad, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : populations dynamics

  15. Population success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families

  16. Stigma among Singaporean youth: a cross-sectional study on adolescent attitudes towards serious mental illness and social tolerance in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shirlene; Liu, Jianlin; Mahesh, Mithila; Chua, Boon Yiang; Shahwan, Shazana; Lee, Siau Pheng; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-10-16

    Stigma against mental illnesses is one of the significant obstacles faced by mental health service users and providers. It can develop at a young age and is also influenced by culture. Youths in Southeast Asian countries are under-represented in mental health research, thus this study aims to explore the dimensions of stigma and social tolerance and examine its correlates in the younger, multiethnic population of Singapore. An online survey collected data with sociodemographic questions, the Attitudes Towards Serious Mental Illness (Adolescent version) Scale, Social Tolerance Scale and an open-text question on words or phrases participants associated with the term 'mental illness'. Principal component analysis and multiple regression models were conducted to investigate the factor structure of the attitudes and social tolerance scales and their sociodemographic correlates. Participants included 940 youths aged 14-18 years old who were residing in Singapore at the time of the survey and were recruited through local schools. About a quarter of the students (22.6%) reported participating in mental health awareness campaigns while nearly half (44.5%) associated pejorative words and phrases with the term mental illness. The Attitudes Towards Serious Mental Illness (Adolescent version) Scale yielded five factors while the Social Tolerance Scale yielded two. Ethnicity, gender and nationality were significantly correlated with factors of both scales. Chinese youths showed higher sense of 'physical threat' and lower 'social tolerance' than those of other ethnicities. Females showed more 'wishful thinking', 'social concern' and 'social responsibility' towards the mentally ill than males. The dimensions of stigma and social tolerance are different in Asian cultures compared with Western cultures. Sociodemographic differences in attitudes towards the mentally ill were found among youths living in Singapore. Misconceptions and negative attitudes towards mental illness are

  17. Situação vacinal da população discente da Universidade de São Paulo Vaccinal condition of the student population of the S. Paulo University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lima Gonçalves

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados aspectos da situação vacinal dos alunos dos Institutos da Universidade de São Paulo, situados na capital e nos "campi" do interior em Ribeirão Preto, São Carlos, Bauru e Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foi realizado inquérito preliminar mediante a aplicação de questionário especial a uma amostra de 13.139 alunos (42,3% do total de matriculados, sendo 1.707 alunos no interior (38,3% dos matriculados e 11.432 na capital (43% dos matriculados. Os principais dados sobre vacinação antivariólica foram: 20% dos alunos do interior e 30% dos da capital informaram não ter a cicatriz ou não saber de sua existência; 50% dos alunos do interior e 75% dos da capital informaram ter sido vacinados há menos de 5 anos; 35% do total de alunos afirmaram que o resultado da última vacina recebida foi positivo. Não foram vacinados contra o tétano ou não receberam a vacina de acordo com o esquema preconizado pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde, 2/3 dos alunos. Os dados sobre vacinação antimeningocócica revelaram que 17% dos alunos do interior e 80% dos da capital declaravam ter sido vacinados. Foram examinados 3.113 estudantes, definindo-se pela vacinação antivariólica de 405 deles (13% do total; destes, 253 (62,5% retornaram para leitura, que foi positiva em 221 (87,3 deles. Em relação à vacina antitetânica, 1 .118 alunos da USP receberam as duas doses programadas, o que dá um índice de 66,9%; considerados separadamente os alunos de graduação e de pós-graduação, esse índice foi respectivamente de 66,1% e 80,2%.Some aspects regarding the vaccinal situation of students in the various "campi" of the São Paulo University (USP are presented. At first an inquest was made, by means of a questionnaire which was answered by 13.139 people (42.3% of the total university population. With respect to amallpox immunization, 20% of pupils from upcountry and 30% from São Paulo said they had no vaccination scar; 50% of

  18. THE LINK BETWEEN STUDENTS' SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY, OVERALL STUDENTS' SATISFACTION WITH STUDENT LIFE AND STUDENT PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mihanović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction has long been recognized as a central concept of all business activities. Satisfaction can serve as an indicator of success of the company, both in the past and present, as well as an indicator of future performance. High quality service to students is a prerequisite of maintaining competitiveness in the market of higher education. A relationship that is created between the expectations of students and their satisfaction with the quality of service that provides educational institution plays an important role in shaping the reputation of academic institutions. Academic institutions are becoming aware of the importance of student satisfaction, because satisfaction positively influences their decision to continue their education at this institution, and the positive word of mouth that will attract prospective students. Satisfaction will affect student motivation, and therefore their performance. This paper provides insight into the marketing aspects of customer satisfaction, primarily insight into the satisfaction of students in the educational sector. The aim is to establish the influence of satisfaction various factors related to the university and higher education to the satisfaction of student life, and does student life satisfaction affect the overall happiness and student performance. The research was conducted on the student population of the University of Split, on a sample of 191 respondents. The research was conducted with the help of online survey questionnaire. The claim that student’s satisfactions with housing affect the satisfaction with the quality of student life is rejected. The results confirmed that the student’s satisfaction with university contents, university bodies and services, teaching, teaching methods and academic reputation affects the satisfaction of student life and student life satisfaction affect the student performance.

  19. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Population Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nwokediuko, Sylvester

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease varies in different parts of the world. There are no population based studies in Nigeria. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in a population of Nigerian medical students. Methods The Carlsson-Dent questionnaire was administered to medical students in the clinical phase of their training at the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Some putative risk ...

  20. Stickleback Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Candolin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced eutrophication has increased offspring production in a population of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea. Here, we experimentally investigated the effects of an increased density of juveniles on behaviours that influence survival and dispersal, and, hence, population growth—habitat choice, risk taking, and foraging rate. Juveniles were allowed to choose between two habitats that differed in structural complexity, in the absence and presence of predators and conspecific juveniles. In the absence of predators or conspecifics, juveniles preferred the more complex habitat. The preference was further enhanced in the presence of a natural predator, a perch Perca fluviatilis (behind a transparent Plexiglas wall. However, an increased density of conspecifics relaxed the predator-enhanced preference for the complex habitat and increased the use of the open, more predator-exposed habitat. Foraging rate was reduced under increased perceived predation risk. These results suggest that density-dependent behaviours can cause individuals to choose suboptimal habitats where predation risk is high and foraging rate low. This could contribute to the regulation of population growth in eutrophicated areas where offspring production is high.

  1. The C-MORE Scholars Program: Engaging minority students in STEM through undergraduate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, B. A.; Bruno, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    There have been several studies that show how undergraduate research experiences (REU) have a positive impact on a student’s academic studies and career path, including being a positive influence toward improving the student's lab skills and ability to work independently. Moreover, minority students appear to relate to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) concepts better when they are linked with (1) a service learning component, and (2) STEM courses that include a cultural and social aspect that engages the student in a way that does not distract from the student’s technical learning. It is also known that a “place-based” approach that incorporates traditional (indigenous) knowledge can help engage underrepresented minority groups in STEM disciplines and increase science literacy. Based on the methods and best practices used by other minority serving programs and described in the literature, the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) has successfully developed an academic-year REU to engage and train the next generation of scientists. The C-MORE Scholars Program provides undergraduate students majoring in an ocean or earth science-related field, especially underrepresented students such as Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, the opportunity to participate in unique and cutting edge hands-on research experiences. The program appoints awardees at one of three levels based on previous research and academic experience, and students can progress through the various tiers as their skills and STEM content knowledge develop. All awardees receive guidance on a research project from a mentor who is a scientist at the university and/or industry. A key component of the program is the inclusion of professional development activities to help the student continue towards post graduation education or prepare for career opportunities after they receive their undergraduate STEM degree.

  2. Graduate student driven efforts to increase diversity of department lecture series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R.; Keisling, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    It is well documented that women and people of color (and especially women of color) remain underrepresented in the geoscience community. As graduate students we noticed this underrepresentation in our department lecture series. Since 2013, 40% of the invited speakers were women and 5% URM, with the majority of the URM scientists coming to campus for an annual special lecture that highlights the work of black geoscientists. Our goals for the 2017-18 lecture series are the following: 1) to increase the percentage of women speakers from 40% to 50% or higher, 2) to increase the participation of URM scientists from one per year to at least one per semester, 3) to expand the established annual special lecture highlighting contributions from black geoscientists from one lecture to four, and 4) to motivate a department-wide conversation surrounding the issues and significance of inclusion and equity in our departmental geoscience community and beyond. Our focus on gender, race, and ethnicity in diversifying the lecture series unfortunately falls short of capturing the full range of perspectives from groups that are underrepresented as defined by the NSF. We see our work as a first step and hope to encourage more conversations about broader diversity. To accomplish our goals, we will seek advice and counsel from scholars in fields like Sociology and Education, as well as pursue external funding to bolster the budget allocated by our department. As graduate students, it is important for us to envision facets of our peers and ourselves reflected in the perspectives, experiences and narratives of prominent speakers brought to campus. We find it therefore important that our department lecture series, a highly visible venue, be more inclusive and representative. Our efforts show that seeking external support and setting achievable goals can lead to better representation of underrepresented groups in such spaces.

  3. Dental Student, Resident, and Faculty Attitudes Toward Treating Medicaid Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Feng, Xiaoying

    2017-11-01

    Failure to receive proper oral health care including both prevention and maintenance is influenced by myriad and complex social, economic, and dental factors, including access to care. Reducing oral health disparities requires changes in the preparation of future dentists as well as measuring and influencing the attitudes and knowledge of practicing dentists. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that future dentists (students and residents) and faculty members at one U.S. dental school would treat Medicaid participants. Attitudes were measured using the Deamonte Driver scenario survey, which assesses factors affecting dentists' participation in Medicaid. In October 2012, all 113 full-time faculty members were invited to participate, and 60 completed the survey, for a response rate of 53.1%. In January and February 2013, all 18 residents in the dental clinics and university hospital were invited to participate, and 16 completed the survey, for a response rate of 88.9%. From 2013 to 2015, all 267 students in three classes were invited to participate: first-year students in the Classes of 2017 and 2018 and fourth-year students in the Class of 2015. A total of 255 students completed the survey, for an overall student response rate of 95.5%. The results showed that the students were more likely to participate in caring for Medicaid patients than the faculty and residents. The white and male students had stronger negative stereotypes about Medicaid patients than the females and underrepresented minority students, while residents had stronger negative stereotypes about Medicaid patients than the students and faculty. Overall, the cultural competency skills, beliefs, and attitudes of these faculty members and residents were less developed than those of their students, signaling a need for broad educational and faculty development programs to fully prepare the future dental workforce to care for these patients.

  4. Bacteriophage populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klieve, A.V.; Gilbert, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are ubiquitous to the rumen ecosystem; they have a role in nitrogen metabolism through bacterial lysis in the rumen, they may help to regulate bacterial population densities, be an agent for genetic exchange and be of use in biocontrol of bacterial populations through phage therapy. In Chapter 2.1, classical methodologies to enable the isolation, enumeration, storage and morphological characterization of phages were presented. In addition to these classic procedures, molecular biological techniques have resulted in a range of methodologies to investigate the type, topology and size of phage nucleic acids, to fingerprint individual phage strains and to create a profile of ruminal phage populations. Different phage families possess all the currently identified combinations of double-stranded or single-stranded RNA or DNA and may also possess unusual bases such as 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (found in T-even phage) or 5- hydroxymethyluracil and uracil in place of thymidine. In all morphological groups of phage except the filamentous phages, the nucleic acid is contained within a head or polyhedral structure, predominantly composed of protein. Filamentous phages have their nucleic acid contained inside the helical filament, occupying much of its length. Many of the procedures used with phage nucleic acids and double-stranded (ds) DNA, in particular, are not specific to ruminal phages but are the same as in other areas where nucleic acids are investigated and are covered elsewhere in the literature and this chapter. Most applications with rumen phages are similar to those reported for phages of non-ruminal bacteria and are covered in general texts such as Maniatis et al. In this chapter, we will concentrate on aspects of methodology as they relate to ruminal phages

  5. Indian populations

    CERN Multimedia

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  6. Influences on final year medical students' attitudes to general practice as a career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Johanna E; Hudson, Ben; Wilkinson, Tim J

    2014-03-01

    General practice is under-represented in student career choices. This study aimed to identify and explore factors that influence the attitudes of final year medical students to general practice as a career. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews of focus groups of final year undergraduate medical students at the University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand. Thematic analysis and grounded theory were used to interpret the data. General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in influencing medical students' attitudes to general practice as a career. Students identified their general practice placement during medical school training and personal contact with their own GP as principal factors. The media portrayal of general practice and the attitudes of friends and family were also influential. Students were positively influenced when they were made to feel part of the team, involved with consultations, allowed to carry out practical procedures under supervision, and witnessed what they perceived as good medical practice during clinical placements. Positive experiences often occurred later in training, when students felt more confident of their clinical abilities. While students reported occasional negative comments about general practice by some hospital doctors, these had a lesser role in influencing their perceptions of general practice compared with their own experiences, both as students and patients. GPs have a strong influence, positively and negatively, on the attitudes of medical students to general practice as a career. Effective influences include being made to feel welcome, involved, valued, and given legitimate roles during clinical placements.

  7. Engaging Underrepresented High School Students in Data Driven Storytelling: An Examination of Learning Experiences and Outcomes for a Cohort of Rising Seniors Enrolled in the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierker, Lisa; Ward, Nadia; Alexander, Jalen; Donate, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Upward trends in data-oriented careers threaten to further increase the underrepresentation of both females and individuals from racial minority groups in programs focused on data analysis and applied statistics. To begin to develop the necessary skills for a data-oriented career, project-based learning seems the most promising given…

  8. Listeria monocytogenes Strains Underrepresented during Selective Enrichment with an ISO Method Might Dominate during Passage through Simulated Gastric Fluid and In Vitro Infection of Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilelidou, Evangelia; Karmiri, Christina-Vasiliki; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Drosinos, Eleftherios

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Various Listeria monocytogenes strains may contaminate a single food product, potentially resulting in simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains. However, due to bias in strain recovery, L. monocytogenes strains isolated from foods by selective enrichment (SE) might not always represent those that can better survive the immune system of a patient. We investigated the effect of cocultivation in tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract (TSB-Y) at 10°C for 8 days on (i) the detection of L. monocytogenes strains during SE with the ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 protocol and (ii) the in vitro virulence of strains toward the Caco-2 human colon epithelial cancer cell line following exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF; pH 2.0)-HCl (37°C). We determined whether the strains which were favored by SE would be effective competitors under the conditions of challenges related to gastrointestinal passage of the pathogen. Interstrain competition of L. monocytogenes in TSB-Y determined the relative population of each strain at the beginning of SE. This in turn impacted the outcome of SE (i.e., favoring survival of competitors with better fitness) and the levels exposed subsequently to SGF. However, strong growth competitors could be outcompeted after SGF exposure and infection of Caco-2 cells by strains outgrown in TSB-Y and underdetected (or even missed) during enrichment. Our data demonstrate a preferential selection of certain L. monocytogenes strains during enrichments, often not reflecting a selective advantage of strains during infection. These findings highlight a noteworthy scenario associated with the difficulty of matching the source of infection (food) with the L. monocytogenes isolate appearing to be the causative agent during listeriosis outbreak investigations. IMPORTANCE This report is relevant to understanding the processes involved in selection and prevalence of certain L. monocytogenes strains in different environments (i.e., foods or

  9. Multicontext Diversity: The critical dimension of diversity that can attract students and help them thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, G. S.; Ibarra, R.; Howland-Davis, M.

    2017-12-01

    Diversity programs on college campuses have expanded over the past several decades, bringing a broad range of students to academia; however, these programs have not resulted in diversification of faculty or PhD students. Current diversity programs generally focus on two dimensions of diversity: (1) structural diversity, which aims to bring in students from underrepresented groups to college campuses through scholarships, admissions policies, and targeted marketing; and (2) multicultural diversity, which uses programs designed to give students from underrepresented groups homes on campus and programs designed to study cultural aspects of different groups. Though these programs are important, something else must be controlling the lack of minority participation in STEM at advanced levels. We posit that a third dimension of diversity, context diversity, is lacking in university education, especially in STEM fields, and without accessing this form of diversity, programs will never benefit from the broader diversity of society. Context diversity results through application of Multicontext theory, which both explains and predicts the inclusion of exclusion of people within an institutional culture. It describes how different cultures approach understanding the world around them. This "cultural ways of knowing and doing" has been described using a binary system, consisting of "Low Context" and "High Context" cultures. Ibarra (2001) described how a spectrum exists between these end members, and thus individuals brought up in different cultures will understand the world from somewhere along this context diversity spectrum. Academic culture tends to fall on the low context side of the spectrum. Thus, students (and faculty) who come from cultures that tend toward the high context side of the spectrum often feel excluded from the academic setting, especially in STEM fields which tend to be strongly low context in nature. A high percentage of students from underrepresented

  10. Evaluation of Game-Based Learning in Cybersecurity Education for High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Jin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for global cybersecurity workforce made it a critical mission for universities and colleges to attract and train next generation of cybersecurity professionals. To address this issue, Purdue University Northwest (PNW launched high school summer camps to 181 high school students, with 51.3% underrepresented minority ratio. PNW summer camp activities were delivered in the format of game based learning and hands-on labs. Four cybersecurity education games were developed to teach social engineering, cyber-attack and defense methods, secure online behavior, and cybersecurity principles. Survey result of 154 camp participants indicated that the cybersecurity education games were very effective in cybersecurity awareness training. Further analysis of survey data revealed that the gamification of cybersecurity education to raise students’ interests in computer science and cybersecurity was more effective in male high school students than in female students.

  11. Engaging Scientists in Meaningful E/PO: How the NASA SMD E/PO Community Addresses the needs of Underrepresented Audiences through NASA Science4Girls and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Bonnie K.; Smith, Denise A.; Bleacher, Lora; Hauck, Karin; Soeffing, Cassie; NASA SMD E/PO Community

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) coordinates the work of individual NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO projects and their teams to bring the NASA science education resources and expertise to libraries nationwide. The Astrophysics Forum assists scientists and educators with becoming involved in SMD E/PO (which is uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise) and makes SMD E/PO resources and expertise accessible to the science and education communities. The NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families. As such, the initiative engages girls in all four NASA science discipline areas (Astrophysics, Earth Science, Planetary Science, and Heliophysics), which enables audiences to experience the full range of NASA science topics and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging this particular underserved and underrepresented audience in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences.

  12. The effects of computer-based mindfulness training on Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains in a healthy student population (SMASH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Zarah; Wenzel, Mario; Kubiak, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Self-control is an important ability in everyday life, showing associations with health-related outcomes. The aim of the Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains (SMASH) study is twofold: first, the effectiveness of a computer-based mindfulness training will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Second, the SMASH study implements a novel network approach in order to investigate complex temporal interdependencies of self-control networks across several domains. The SMASH study is a two-armed, 6-week, non-blinded randomized controlled trial that combines seven weekly laboratory meetings and 40 days of electronic diary assessments with six prompts per day in a healthy undergraduate student population at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany. Participants will be randomly assigned to (1) receive a computer-based mindfulness intervention or (2) to a wait-list control condition. Primary outcomes are self-reported momentary mindfulness and self-control assessed via electronic diaries. Secondary outcomes are habitual mindfulness and habitual self-control. Further measures include self-reported behaviors in specific self-control domains: emotion regulation, alcohol consumption and eating behaviors. The effects of mindfulness training on primary and secondary outcomes are explored using three-level mixed models. Furthermore, networks will be computed with vector autoregressive mixed models to investigate the dynamics at participant and group level. This study was approved by the local ethics committee (reference code 2015_JGU_psychEK_011) and follows the standards laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki (2013). This randomized controlled trial combines an intensive Ambulatory Assessment of 40 consecutive days and seven laboratory meetings. By implementing a novel network approach, underlying processes of self-control within different health domains will be identified. These results will

  13. Considering the needs of English language learner populations: an examination of the population validity of reading intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brooke A; Klingner, Janette K

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a total of 67 reading intervention studies targeting at-risk elementary students. Findings revealed that many current research studies fail to adequately describe the sample, including the accessible and target populations, and to disaggregate their findings based on demographic characteristics. When population validity issues are not addressed, researchers cannot generalize findings to other populations of students, and it becomes unclear what intervention strategies work, especially with English language learner student populations. However, 25 studies did specifically recognize and address the needs of English language learners, indicating more researchers are taking into consideration the diverse needs of other struggling student populations. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.

  14. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes. Learning in medical practice includes a socialisation process in which some learning outcomes may be valued, but others neglected or discouraged. This study describes students' learning goals (prior to a Year 1 nursing attachment) and learning outcomes (after the attachment) in relation to institutional educational goals, and evaluates associations between learning outcomes, student characteristics and place of attachment. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions about learning goals and learning outcomes was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n = 347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in either a hospital or a nursing home. Two confirmatory focus group interviews were conducted and data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. Students' learning goals corresponded with educational goals with a main emphasis on communication and empathy. Other learning goals included gaining insight into the organisation of health care and learning to deal with emotions. Self-reported learning outcomes were the same, but students additionally mentioned reflection on professional behaviour and their own future development. Women and younger students mentioned communication and empathy more often than men and older students. Individual learning goals, with the exception of communicating and empathising with patients, did not predict learning outcomes. Students' learning goals closely match educational goals, which are adequately met in early nursing attachments in both hospitals and nursing homes. Learning to deal with emotions was under-represented as a learning goal and learning outcome, which may indicate that emotional aspects

  15. Initial Results from the STEM Student Experiences Aboard Ships (STEMSEAS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Cooper, S. K.; Thomson, K.; Rabin, B.; Alberts, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Science Technology Engineering and Math Student Experiences Aboard Ships (STEMSEAS) program was created as a response to NSF's call (through GEOPATHS) for improving undergraduate STEM education and enhancing diversity in the geosciences. It takes advantage of unused berths on UNOLS ships during transits between expeditions. During its 2016 pilot year - which consisted of three transits on three different research vessels in different parts of the country, each with a slightly different focus - the program has gained significant insights into how best to create and structure these opportunities and create impact on individual students. A call for applications resulted in nearly 900 applicants for 30 available spots. Of these applicants, 32% are from minority groups underrepresented in the geosciences (Black, Hispanic, or American Indian) and 20% attend community colleges. The program was able to sail socioeconomically diverse cohorts and include women, veterans, and students with disabilities and from two- and four-year colleges. Twenty-three are underrepresented minorities, 6 attend community colleges, 5 attend an HBCU or tribal college, and many are at HSIs or other MSIs. While longer term impact assessment will have to wait, initial results and 6-month tracking for the first cohort indicate that these kinds of relatively short but intense experiences can indeed achieve significant impacts on students' perception of the geosciences, in their understanding of STEM career opportunities, their desire to work in a geoscience lab setting, and to incorporate geosciences into non-STEM careers. Insights were also gained into the successful makeup of mentor/leader groups, factors to consider in student selection, necessary pre- and post-cruise logistics management, follow-up activities, structure of activities during daily life at sea, increasing student networks and access to mentorships, and leveraging of pre-existing resources and ship-based opportunities

  16. Undergraduate Students As Effective Climate Change Communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.; Mullendore, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. The program is in its third year. More than 75 students participated in a guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Three Colleges were involved in the program: Engineering, Education, and Science.

  17. Evaluation of Summer Bridge Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lisa D.; Paz, Chiara C.

    2009-01-01

    Many colleges and universities in the United States offer summer programs for their incoming students. While programs are structured and administered in a variety of ways and target various student populations, the most common type of summer bridge program aims to serve historically underrepresented students and students of low socioeconomic…

  18. International Students and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  19. Engaging nurse aide students to develop a survey to improve enrollment and retention in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jamie Kamailani; Hernandez, Jesika Y; Braun, Kathryn L

    2011-01-01

    Students from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds have historically experienced high rates of college dropout. Surveys often are used to assess supports and barriers (SB) to college enrollment and completion, and findings drive the design of interventions to improve student recruitment and retention. However, standard surveys may not include questions that solicit the breadth of issues facing low-income minority individuals. We used community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to develop an SB survey to better reflect the concerns of rural, first-generation college students in Hawai'i. An advisory panel (AP) of students and community partners guided the work. The literature informed the first draft of the SB survey. Then we worked with students who had successfully completed a vocational Nurse Aide (NA) Training Program (NATP) course to refine four versions of the SB survey through multiple cycles of online survey review and focus groups. The final product included questions in new areas and differently phrased questions in standard areas (e.g., transportation, dependent care, housing, financial aid) to better capture reasons for students dropping out. The survey has proven useful as a student assessment tool, and findings are being used by instructors, counselors, and community partners to add resources and modify programs to increase student success in community college. Findings confirm the usefulness of engaging target partners in tool development. An enhanced understanding of SB of students from underrepresented groups will help to improve college recruitment and retention interventions.

  20. Developing Research-Ready Skills: Preparing Early Academic Students for Participation in Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Morris, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Engaging lower-division undergraduates in research experiences is a key but challenging aspect of guiding talented students into the geoscience research pipeline. UNAVCO conducted a summer internship program to prepare first and second year college students for participation in authentic, scientific research. Many students in their first two years of academic studies do not have the science content knowledge or sufficient math skills to conduct independent research. Students from groups historically underrepresented in the geosciences may face additional challenges in that they often have a less robust support structure to help them navigate the university environment and may be less aware of professional opportunities in the geosciences.UNAVCO, manager of NSF's geodetic facility, hosted four students during summer 2015 internship experience aimed to help them develop skills that will prepare them for research internships and skills that will help them advance professionally. Students spent eight weeks working with UNAVCO technical staff learning how to use equipment, prepare instrumentation for field campaigns, among other technical skills. Interns also participated in a suite of professional development activities including communications workshops, skills seminars, career circles, geology-focused field trips, and informal interactions with research interns and graduate student interns at UNAVCO. This presentation will outline the successes and challenges of engaging students early in their academic careers and outline the unique role such experiences can have in students' academic careers.