Marasco, L.; Hurtado, C.; Gottschall, H.; Meisenhelder, K.; Hankin, E. R.; Harwell, D. E.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to cultivate a diverse and inclusive organization that uses its position to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science. To cultivate a diverse talent pool, AGU must also foster a diverse student member population. The two largest AGU programs serving students are the Outstanding Student Paper Award (OSPA) and the Student Grants programs. OSPA allows students to practice their presentation skills and receive valuable feedback from experienced scientists. Over 3,000 students participated in OSPA at Fall Meeting 2016. The Student Grants program includes a suite of 14 travel and research grant opportunities. Over 2,000 students applied for grant opportunities in 2016 and 246 grants and fellowships were awarded. The OSPA and Student Grants programs also engage non-student members through volunteering opportunities for program roles, such as OSPA judge or grant reviewer. This presentation will look at the temporal participation trends of underrepresented minority groups in AGU's OSPA and Student Grants programs. The participation of underrepresented minority groups will also be compared before and after the implementation of policy changes to the Student Grants program in 2012.
Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.
Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were
Prunuske, Amy; Wilson, Janelle; Walls, Melissa; Marrin, Hannah; Clarke, Benjamin
With the primary objective of attracting and retaining students from underrepresented backgrounds in the sciences, evaluation of one institution's program has been ongoing over the past three years. Interviews with mentors in the program followed by focus groups conducted with mentees reveal key factors that shape undergraduate students' research…
Hunter, Jennifer M; Kinney, Janet S; Inglehart, Marita R
The aims of this study were to assess how U.S. undergraduate dental hygiene programs recruit students, especially students from underrepresented minority (URM) groups, and how the program directors value recruiting those students, how satisfied they are with their efforts, which practices they use, and which challenges they encounter. Relationships between diversity-related recruitment motivation and satisfaction and the program and recruitment characteristics were also explored. Survey data were collected from 56 of the 287 programs that could be successfully contacted with individual emails to their directors (response rate: 20%). The majority of responding programs recruited students into their programs by using written materials (91%), websites (91%), on-campus events (77%), and high school visits (52%). However, only 20% had written materials and 13% special events for recruiting students from URM groups. While 75% of the responding program directors considered high grade point averages (GPAs) to be a priority and 85% thought high GPAs were important/very important when recruiting students, only 17% considered it a priority to recruit URM students, and only 35% reported thinking it was important/very important to do so. The more of a priority it was to have a diverse student body and the more important the respondents considered it, the more likely they were to have written URM-specific recruitment materials (r=0.34; pstudents need to be reconsidered.
In this monograph, I discuss the current and historic under-representation of economically disadvantaged students, students of color, students from ethnic minorities, and students with limited English proficiency in programs for gifted students. I examine the likely causes of the under-representation of these students, drawing on research and…
Estrada, Mica; Burnett, Myra; Campbell, Andrew G.; Campbell, Patricia B.; Denetclaw, Wilfred F.; Gutiérrez, Carlos G.; Hurtado, Sylvia; John, Gilbert H.; Matsui, John; McGee, Richard; Okpodu, Camellia Moses; Robinson, T. Joan; Summers, Michael F.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Zavala, MariaElena
Members of the Joint Working Group on Improving Underrepresented Minorities (URMs) Persistence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)--convened by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute--review current data and propose deliberation about why the academic "pathways"…
Steinberg, Daniel; Rodriguez Martinez, Sara; Cody, Linda
Summer 2016 gave underrepresented high school students from Trenton New Jersey the opportunity to learn materials science, sustainability and the physics and chemistry of energy storage from Princeton University professors. New efforts to place this curriculum online so that teachers across the United States can teach materials science as a tool to teach ``real'' interdisciplinary science and meet the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The Princeton University Materials Academy (PUMA) is an education outreach program for underrepresented high school students. It is part of the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (PCCM), a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Materials Research Engineering and Science Center (MRSEC). PUMA has been serving the community of Trenton New Jersey which is only eight miles from the Princeton University campus. We reached over 250 students from 2003-2016 with many students repeating for multiple years. 100% of our PUMA students have graduated high school and 98% have gone on for college. This is compared with overall Trenton district graduation rate of 48% and a free and reduced lunch of 83%. We discuss initiatives to share the curriculum online to enhance the reach of PCCM' PUMA and to help teachers use materials science to meet NGSS and give their students opportunities to learn interdisciplinary science. MRSEC, NSF (DMR-1420541).
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.
This planning guide is intended to facilitate flexibility in meeting the needs of under-represented groups in Florida programs for gifted students. An introduction defines these students (racial or ethnic minorities, limited English proficient, or from a low socioeconomic background), lists the required components of a district plan for increasing…
Bernard, R. E.; Mayfield, K. K.
Geoscience is currently recognized as the least diverse of all STEM fields. While attention typically focuses on K-12 and undergraduate populations, the extreme lack of diversity among graduate students, and doctoral students in particular, should be examined and addressed. In 2016, members of underrepresented minority (URM) groups made up only 6% of those graduating with geoscience PhDs. In all STEM fields, only 48% of Hispanic/Latino and 38% of Black/African American doctoral studies had earned doctorates within 7 years, with 36% of members of these groups leaving the program entirely. Recent studies suggest that these high attrition rates can be attributed, in part, to a mismatch between motivations of URM members and PhD-granting institutions while students are pursuing scientific education and careers. Traditional STEM doctoral programs do not offer, facilitate, or incentivize substantial opportunities to integrate social justice issues, community involvement, and altruism—factors which have been found to be of more importance to these populations than to male members of well-represented groups. URM members are also less likely to be interested in purely academic research careers, so doctoral programs may be failing to attract (and failing to prepare) diverse populations by not offering experiences beyond typical research and TA duties. In this presentation, trends in motivation and persistence among URM students in STEM will be discussed, in addition to highlighting education and outreach activities that can be successfully incorporated for a more fulfilling, balanced, attractive, and preparatory education experience. Specific activities undertaken and recommended by the presenter in her PhD experience include the following: a federal research internship, a state government policy internship, a formal partnership with a local K-12 teacher though a former NSF GK-12 program, a two-week education workshop aboard a scientific research drillship, and attending a
Thoman, Dustin B; Muragishi, Gregg A; Smith, Jessi L
How much does scientific research potentially help people? We tested whether prosocial-affordance beliefs (PABs) about science spread among group members and contribute to individual students' motivation for science. We tested this question within the context of research experience for undergraduates working in faculty-led laboratories, focusing on students who belong to underrepresented minority (URM) groups. Longitudinal survey data were collected from 522 research assistants in 41 labs at six institutions. We used multilevel modeling, and results supported a socialization effect for URM students: The aggregate PABs of their lab mates predicted the students' own initial PABs, as well as their subsequent experiences of interest and their motivation to pursue a career in science, even after controlling for individual-level PABs. Results demonstrate that research labs serve as microcultures of information about the science norms and values that influence motivation. URM students are particularly sensitive to this information. Efforts to broaden participation should be informed by an understanding of the group processes that convey such prosocial values.
O'Brien, Brid; Graham, Margaret M; O'Sullivan, Deirdre
This paper describes the experiences of underrepresented BSc nursing students in realising the dream of becoming a nurse in one university. In the past ten years, pre-registration nurse education has become established within higher education in Ireland. This development includes promoting access and inclusion of students from traditionally underrepresented groups in higher education. A third of nursing students currently access places on programmes through routes specifically designed for underrepresented groups. A qualitative descriptive study design provided an opportunity for student voices to be heard. Ethical approval was sought and granted. Eleven students were interviewed nearing completion of a four year BSc Nursing programme. Data analysis followed a thematic approach, in generating themes. Three themes emerged from the data: taking the first steps; finding a way and getting through. Findings highlight participants' challenges in balancing study, clinical practice and family life in achieving and realising their dream of becoming a nurse. This study illustrates the nature and complexities of participants' experiences throughout the BSc Nursing programmes towards becoming university graduates, eligible for registration as a nurse. Students from underrepresented groups bring rich and diverse life experiences in preparation for and becoming caring practitioners. It highlights the individuality within participants' experiences and draws attention to the value of personalised support for students. An opportunity to encourage the development of emotional intelligence needs to be fostered within nurse education programmes. Creating positive learning environments is critical to supporting student understanding of compassionate patient centred care. Findings have relevance for global curriculum design and structures to support individual student centred engagement. Further research is required to consider how best to support students from underrepresented groups
Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan
This study investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in two groups: biological science and engineering (S/E) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive variables (math/science academic self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations), along with the influence of ethnic variables (ethnic identity, other-group orientation) and perceptions of campus climate to their math/science interests and goal commitment to earn an S/E degree. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model provided good overall fit to the data, revealing significant relationships from outcome expectations to interests and to goals. Paths from academic self-efficacy to S/E goals and from interests to S/E goals varied for students in engineering and biological science. For both groups, other-group orientation was positively related to self-efficacy and support was found for an efficacy-mediated relationship between perceived campus climate and goals. Theoretical and practical implications of the study's findings are considered as well as future research directions.
Watkins, Jessica Ellen
In this dissertation we examine several issues related to the retention of under-represented minority students in physics and science. In the first section, we show that in calculus-based introductory physics courses, the gender gap on the FCI is diminished through the use of interactive techniques, but in lower-level introductory courses, the gap persists, similar to reports published at other institutions. We find that under-represented racial minorities perform similar to their peers with comparable academic preparation on conceptual surveys, but their average exam grades and course grades are lower. We also examine student persistence in science majors; finding a significant relationship between pedagogy in an introductory physics course and persistence in science. In the second section, we look at student end-of-semester evaluations and find that female students rate interactive teaching methods a full point lower than their male peers. Looking more deeply at student interview data, we find that female students report more social issues related to the discussions in class and both male and female students cite feeling pressure to obtain the correct answer to clicker questions. Finally, we take a look an often-cited claim for gender differences in STEM participation: cognitive differences explain achievement differences in physics. We examine specifically the role of mental rotations in physics achievement and problem-solving, viewing mental rotations as a tool that students can use on physics problems. We first look at student survey results for lower-level introductory students, finding a low, but significant correlation between performance on a mental rotations test and performance in introductory physics courses. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship for students in the upper-level introductory course. We also examine student problem-solving interviews to investigate the role of mental rotations on introductory problems.
Farley, M. B.; Phillips, P. L.; McBroom, R.
Life of the Aquifer is a program to improve Earth Science education in local public high schools. Geologic awareness among the local population is low because southeastern N.C. are on the Coastal Plain where rocks are not visible. This has made instruction in Earth Science, now required in North Carolina high schools, difficult. Our approach is to use groundwater, source of local public water, as a theme to organize instruction in geology. More than 70% of the student population in Robeson County, a rural low-wealth area, is from groups under- represented in the geosciences (46% Native American and 31% African American). Linking basic concepts in geology to groundwater is a way to show how geology is real and affects society. Our project engages teachers and students in active inquiry of the functioning of local aquifers from recharge to groundwater production. Although data on water levels in the Black Creek aquifer have been collected, there has been little formal investigation because serious problems with groundwater have not been noted to date. Nonetheless, the hydraulic head of Black Creek Aquifer wells has been declining. We started by improving skills of local Earth Science teachers, because most have had no formal education in geology. The teachers attended workshops on basic geology, groundwater, and exercises based on local groundwater data. The workshops also included field trips to outcrops exposing the local aquifer, 100 km away in South Carolina. We also showed teachers how each topic addresses Competency Goals in the Standard Course of Study. By using our instructional modules, the teachers assist their students to develop spatial reasoning skills by analyzing maps. Student geologic knowledge is increased by learning how the components of a groundwater system form as a result of geologic processes and collecting data from the Internet on changes in groundwater systems over time. Our remaining implementation activity is installation of wells to
Hurd, Noelle M; Tan, Joseph S; Loeb, Emily L
This study investigated associations between natural mentoring relationships and academic performance via psychological distress among underrepresented college students attending an elite predominantly White institution (PWI). Specifically, this study explored whether the quantity of natural mentors possessed upon college entry, the retention of natural mentors across the first year of college, and overall changes in the number of natural mentors possessed during the first year of college predicted improvements in students' semester grade point averages (GPAs) via reductions in psychological distress. Participants in this study included 336 first-year undergraduate students attending a selective PWI. Students were eligible to participate in this study if they were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Results of this study indicated that a greater number of retained natural mentoring relationships across the first year of college were associated with improvements in students' GPAs via reductions in symptoms of depression from the Fall to Spring semester. The results of this study suggest that institutional efforts to support the maintenance of preexisting mentoring relationships may be an effective approach to promoting the academic success of underrepresented college students during the first year of college. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
In the current technological era, the number of minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a crucial factor in predetermining the economic growth of the United States. Since the minority population is growing at much faster rates than the non-minority population, the lack of proportionate production of minority engineers poses a threat to the United States' ability to remain a global competitor in technological innovation. Sixty-three per cent (63%) of undergraduate students who enter engineering majors continue on to graduate in that major. The graduation rate, however, for African-American, Hispanic, and Native-American students in engineering is significantly lower at 39%. As this group represents only a small fraction of the annual student enrollment, engineering programs are graduating these minority groups at rates that are greatly disproportionate to United States demographics. Therefore, researchers are thoroughly investigating certain initiatives that promote academic success among underrepresented minority students in engineering. Colleges and universities have attempted to address the growing achievement gap between underrepresented minority and non-minority engineering students, predominately through various deficit-based interventions, focusing on the student's flaws and problems. As the pipeline for minorities in engineering continues to narrow, it begs the question of whether institutions are focusing on the right solutions to the problem. Critical Race Theory scholars argue that colleges and universities must address institutional climate issues around students, such as racism, microaggressions, and marginalization, before members of oppressed groups can truly succeed. This dissertation explored the unique experiences of underrepresented minority engineering students in a predominately White and Asian campus.
Celedón-Pattichis, Sylvia; LópezLeiva, Carlos Alfonso; Pattichis, Marios S.; Llamocca, Daniel
There is a strong need in the United States to increase the number of students from underrepresented groups who pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Drawing from sociocultural theory, we present approaches to establishing collaborations between computer engineering and mathematics/bilingual education faculty to address this need. We describe our work through the Advancing Out-of-School Learning in Mathematics and Engineering project by illustrating how an integrated curriculum that is based on mathematics with applications in image and video processing can be designed and how it can be implemented with middle school students from underrepresented groups.
Webb, D. J.
Two active learning physics courses were taught and compared. The "concepts first" course was organized to teach only concepts in the first part of the class, the ultimate goal being to increase students' problem-solving abilities much later in the class. The other course was taught in the same quarter by the same instructor using the same curricular materials, but covered material in the standard (chapter-by-chapter) order. After accounting for incoming student characteristics, students from the concepts-first course scored significantly better in two outcome measures: their grade on the final exam and the grade received in their subsequent physics course. Moreover, in the concepts-first class course, students from groups underrepresented in physics had final exam scores and class grades that were indistinguishable from other students. Finally, students who took at least one concepts-first course in introductory physics were found to have significantly higher rates of graduation with a STEM major than students from this cohort who did not.
Lacy, Ernestine S; Miller, Barbara H; Hornback, Sheryl A; McCann, Ann L; Reuben, Jayne S
There is a large disparity between the proportions of African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans in the general population and in the dental profession. While these underrepresented minorities (URMs) as a group make up almost 30% of the United States population, they constitute only about 6% of the nation's dentists. Eliminating this disparity is important in addressing access to care for underrepresented groups. Texas A&M Health Science Center Baylor College of Dentistry (TAMHSC-BCD) enrolled greater numbers and proportions of URM students than any other non-minority school from 2006-2010. Strategies used to achieve this level of diversity include a Whole File Review process; career awareness activities for elementary, junior high and high school students; and academic enrichment programs for college students and college graduates. Retaining and graduating URM students is just as important as enrolling them. TAMHSC-BCD's retention rate over the last five years is 95.7% for all students and 92.5% for URM students. A wide range of services aids in the retention process. These services are available to all students and include monitoring of students' academic performance followed up with academic advisement as appropriate, peer tutoring, an alternative five-year curriculum, professional psychological counseling, professional learning assessments, social support; and mentoring through student organizations. The retention program at TAMHSC-BCD can serve as a model for other dental and other health professions schools seeking ways to ensure the academic success of their URM students. The more of these students we enroll and graduate, the more the problem of access to dental care is addressed.
Toven-Lindsey, Brit; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Barber, Paul H; Hasson, Tama
The 6-yr degree-completion rate of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at U.S. colleges and universities is less than 40%. Persistence among women and underrepresented minorities (URMs), including African-American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students, is even more troubling, as these students leave STEM majors at significantly higher rates than their non-URM peers. This study utilizes a matched comparison group design to examine the academic achievement and persistence of students enrolled in the Program for Excellence in Education and Research in the Sciences (PEERS), an academic support program at the University of California, Los Angeles, for first- and second-year science majors from underrepresented backgrounds. Results indicate that PEERS students, on average, earned higher grades in most "gatekeeper" chemistry and math courses, had a higher cumulative grade point average, completed more science courses, and persisted in a science major at significantly higher rates than the comparison group. With its holistic approach focused on academics, counseling, creating a supportive community, and exposure to research, the PEERS program serves as an excellent model for universities interested in and committed to improving persistence of underrepresented science majors and closing the achievement gap. © 2015 B. Toven-Lindsey et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Celedón-Pattichis, Sylvia; LópezLeiva, Carlos Alfonso; Pattichis, Marios S.; Llamocca, Daniel
There is a strong need in the United States to increase the number of students from underrepresented groups who pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Drawing from sociocultural theory, we present approaches to establishing collaborations between computer engineering and mathematics/bilingual education faculty to…
Giordani, B; Edwards, A S; Segal, S S; Gillum, L H; Lindsay, A; Johnson, N
To address the effectiveness of a formal postbaccalaureate (PB) experience for underrepresented minority (URM) students before medical school. The program provided an intense year-long experience of course work, research, and personal development. There were 516 participants from one medical school: 15 URM medical students had completed the formal PB program, 58 students had done independent PB work before matriculation, and 443 students were traditional matriculants. Cognitive and academic indicators [college science and non-science grade-point averages (GPAs); biology, physics, and verbal MCAT scores; and percentage scores from first-year medical school courses] were compared for the three groups. Both groups of students with PB experience demonstrated competency in the first year of medical school consistent with traditional students even though the students who had completed the formal PB program had lower MCAT scores and lower college GPAs than did the traditional students. Traditional predictors of academic performance during the first year of medical school did not significantly contribute to actual academic performances of students from the formal PB program. The results support the use of a formal PB program to provide academic readiness and support for URM students prior to medical school. Such a program may also improve retention. Noncognitive variables, however, may be important to understanding the success of such students in medical school.
Eubanks-Turner, Christina; Beaulieu, Patricia; Pal, Nabendu
The Smooth Transition for Advancement to Graduate Education (STAGE) project was a three-year pilot project designed to mentor undergraduate students primarily from under-represented groups in the mathematical sciences. The STAGE pilot project focused on mentoring students as they transitioned from undergraduate education to either graduate school…
Blair, Elaine J.
Factors that contribute to college student success are multiple. Career exploration as a student success strategy was explored in this study. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study was to explore whether there was a relationship between career exploration and the success of underrepresented students in higher education. Quantitative…
Grosz, Karen S., Comp.
Designed as a resource on teaching and learning strategies geared specifically toward underrepresented community college students, this collection of articles and reports includes the following: (1) "Successful Teaching Strategies: Instruction for Black and Hispanic Students in the California Community Colleges," by Olivia Mercado, Cheryl Fong,…
This study examined retention initiatives and strategies provided to underserved students in the nursing programs at three community colleges in the Southwest region. This research addressed nursing student retention, as well as ways to increase retention among underrepresented populations in the three community colleges, representing a unique…
Reichert, William M.
There are various ways to succeed in recruiting and retaining underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students; but key to them all is the creation of real student-faculty relationships, which demonstrate by example that diversity and excellence can and should coexist. This cannot be delegated or done indirectly, and no amount of outreach, campus…
Given the significant impact of computing on society, it is important that all cultures, especially underrepresented cultures, are fully engaged in the field of computing to ensure that everyone benefits from the advances in computing. This proposal is focused on the field of high performance computing. The lack of cultural diversity in computing, in particular high performance computing, is especially evident with respect to the following ethnic groups – African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans – as well as People with Disabilities. The goal of this proposal is to organize and coordinate a National Laboratory Career Development Workshop focused on underrepresented cultures (ethnic cultures and disability cultures) in high performance computing. It is expected that the proposed workshop will increase the engagement of underrepresented cultures in HPC through increased exposure to the excellent work at the national laboratories. The National Laboratory Workshops are focused on the recruitment of senior graduate students and the retention of junior lab staff through the various panels and discussions at the workshop. Further, the workshop will include a community building component that extends beyond the workshop. The workshop was held was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory campus in Livermore, CA. from June 14 - 15, 2012. The grant provided funding for 25 participants from underrepresented groups. The workshop also included another 25 local participants in the summer programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Below are some key results from the assessment of the workshops: 86% of the participants indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I am more likely to consider/continue a career at a national laboratory as a result of participating in this workshop." 77% indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I plan to pursue a summer internship at a national laboratory." 100% of the participants indicated strongly
Rye, J A; Chester, A L
In response to the need to help West Virginia secondary school students overcome educational and economic barriers and to increase the number of health professionals in the state, the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (hereafter, "the Academy") was established in 1994. The Academy is a partnership between West Virginia University (WVU)--including the Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, and the College of Human Resources and Education--and members of the community, including secondary-school teachers, health care professionals, and other community leaders. The Academy targets students from underrepresented groups (mainly African Americans and financially disadvantaged whites) in grades nine through 12. By November 1997, 290 students (69% girls and 33% African American) from 17 counties were Academy participants. Funding is from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Coca-Cola Foundation, and other sources. Academy programs are an on-campus summer institute and community-based clubs, where students engage in activities for science and math enrichment, leadership development, and health careers awareness. In the Academy's clubs, students carry out extended investigations of problems related to human health and local communities. Most students report that the Academy has increased their interest in health care careers, and almost all who have continued to participate in Academy programs through their senior year have been accepted into college.
Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L.; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E.; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott
Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning…
Leslie, Janet Lee
This evidenced-based study was conducted using a systemic review of the literature to verify scholarly consensus about the effectiveness of mentoring as an intervention to impact college completion for underrepresented students in a community college setting. The study explored the impact of having access to mentors for the target population:…
Wickham, J. S.; Saunders, D.; Smith, G.
A NSF sponsored partnership between the University of Texas at Arlington and the Tarrant County College District aimed to attract underrepresented lower-division students interested in STEM to the geosciences. The program recruited 32 students over 3 years, developed an innovative field course, provided tutoring and mentoring programs, and offered research assistantships for students to work with the research university faculty on funded projects. Under-represented students were 66% of the group. The data was gathered via a web-based survey from April 2nd to April 17th, 2015, using both open ended and item-level responses. Out of 32 participants, the response rate was a significant 50%. Some of the survey results include: 1) Most students heard about the program from faulty who recruited them in introductory level classes; 2) Almost all agreed that the geosciences were interesting, fun, important and a good career path; 3) 92% of the community college respondents found transferring to a research university somewhat or not too difficult; 4) The most helpful parts of the program included faculty mentors, the field course, research assistant experiences and relationships with faculty. The least helpful parts included the tutoring services, relationships with other students, and the semester kickoff meetings; 5) over 60% of the students felt very confident in research skills, formulating research questions, lab skills, quantitative skills, time management, collaborating and working independently. They were less confident in planning research, graphing results, writing papers and making oral presentations; 6) most found the faculty very helpful in advising and mentoring, and 86% said they were comfortable asking at least one faculty member for a reference letter; 7) 93% said they were likely to pursue a geoscience career and 86% were confident or somewhat confident they would be successful.
Rudolph, Alexander L.; Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE Teams
We describe two programs, Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, creating a national impact on their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.In 8 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 112 students, >80% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of 14 major research institutions throughout the country. Of the CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor’s degree, almost two-thirds (65%) have completed or are pursuing graduate education in physics, astronomy, or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, UC Riverside, UC Irvine, UC Santa Barbara, USC, Stanford, Univ. of Arizona, Univ. of Washington, Univ. of Rochester, Michigan State Univ., Georgia Tech, Georgia State Univ., Kent State, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Oregon, Syracuse Univ., Montana State Univ., and the Fisk-Vanderbilt Master’s-to-PhD program.Now entering its fourth year, the Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of >140 physics and astronomy faculty from 9 University of California (UC), 15 California State University (CSU), and 30 California Community College (CCC) campuses throughout California. In the first four years, 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars have been selected, including 22 Hispanic, 3 African-American and 13 women students, 10 of whom are from URM groups. Thirty (30) of the 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars are first generation college students. In the last two years, 11 of 13 Cal-Bridge Scholars have begun PhD programs in physics or astronomy at top PhD programs nationally. Three (3) of these 11 scholars have won NSF Graduate Research Fellowships; one more received an Honorable Mention. The next cohort applies this fall.Cal-Bridge provides much deeper mentoring and professional development experiences over the last
Tennessee State University (TSU) is among seven partner institutions in the NASA-funded project "Mission Earth: Fusing Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) with NASA Assets to Build Systemic Innovation in STEM Education." The primary objective at the TSU site is to expose high school students from racial and ethnic groups traditionally underrepresented in STEM to atmospheric science and physical systems associated with climate change. Currently, undergraduate students enrolled in TSU's urban and physical courses develop lessons for high school students focused upon the analysis of global warming phenomena and related extreme weather events. The GLOBE Atmosphere Protocols are emphasized in exercises focused upon the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon and air quality measurements. Pre-service teachers at TSU, and in-service teachers at four local high schools are being certified in the Atmosphere Protocols. Precipitation, ambient air temperature, surface temperature and other data are collected at the schools through a collaborative learning effort among the high school students, TSU undergraduates, and high school teachers. Data collected and recorded manually in the field are compared to each school's automated Weatherbug station measurements. Students and teachers engage in analysis of NASA imagery as part of the GLOBE Surface Temperature Protocol. At off-campus locations, US Clean Air Act (CAA) criteria air pollutant and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) air pollutant sampling is being conducted in community-based participatory research (CBPR) format. Students partner with non-profit environmental organizations. Data collected using low-cost air sampling devices is being compared with readings from government air monitors. The GLOBE Aerosols Protocol is used in comparative assessments with air sampling results. Project deliverables include four new GLOBE schools, the enrollment of which is nearly entirely comprised of students
Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle
The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.
Vazquez-Akim, Jenny Amanda
Female and underrepresented racial minority (URM) students are indicating their interest in STEM fields at increasing rates, yet when examining the engineering discipline specifically disparities in degree completion rates between female URM students and others in the racial or gender majority are even more severe. This study explored female URM college student perceptions of school and classroom climate and the impact these factors had on their decision to persist or to leave engineering. Through a qualitative interview methodology grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study explored factors including self-efficacy, perceived barriers and supports, other-group orientation and outcome expectations that influenced students' academic decision-making. Interview participants consisted of 5 female URM students that matriculated into an engineering major at a top tier, private university but subsequently left the discipline in pursuit of another field of study. The perceptions of this target population were juxtaposed with interview data from 4 male non-URM, 4 female non-URM, and 4 male URM leavers in addition to 7 female URM engineering persisters. As a final component in the research design, 9 undergraduate engineering faculty were interviewed to understand their perceptions of why female URM students leave engineering in pursuit of other disciplines. With faculty being a central component of the academic environment, their perceptions of female URM students, as well as how they view their role in these students' retention, provided insight on this other side of retention question. Salient findings emerged that differentiated female URM leavers' experiences in engineering from other student populations. Female URM leavers were less likely to call upon self-directed learning strategies in response to academic challenges. Perceived academic barriers such as heavy course loads, lack of connection between material and application, and perceived academic
Baker, Christina N.
Several studies indicate that students who are involved in extracurricular activities during college are more academically successful than are those who are not; however, most studies do not distinguish between different types of activities nor do they adequately consider the unique experiences of under-represented college students. Drawing on…
The purpose of this study was to identify those particular aspects of US Department of Energy (DOE) research participation programs for undergraduate and graduate students that are most associated with attracting and benefiting underrepresented minority students and encouraging them to pursue careers in science, engineering, and technology. A survey of selected former underrepresented minority participants, focus group analysis, and critical incident analysis serve as the data sources for this report. Data collected from underrepresented minority participants indicate that concerns expressed and suggestions made for conducting student research programs at DOE contractor facilities are not remarkably different from those made by all participants involved in such student research participation programs. With the exception of specific suggestions regarding recruitment, the findings summarized in this report can be interpreted to apply to all student research participants in DOE national laboratories. Clearly defined assignments, a close mentor-student association, good communication, and an opportunity to interact with other participants and staff are those characteristics that enhance any educational program and have positive impacts on career development.
Coronado, Gloria D; O'Connell, Mary A; Anderson, Jennifer; Löest, Helena; Ogaz, Dana; Thompson, Beti
Students from racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds are underrepresented in graduate programs in biomedical disciplines. One goal of the Minority Institution/Cancer Center partnership between New Mexico State University (NMSU) and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) is to expand the number of underrepresented students who are trained in cancer research. As part of the collaboration, a summer internship program has been organized at the FHCRC. The program runs for 9 weeks and involves mentored research, research seminars, coffee breaks, social activities, and a final poster session. This study examined the graduate school attendance rates of past interns, explored interns' perceptions of the training program, and identified ways to improve the program. Thirty undergraduate students enrolled at NMSU participated in the internship program from 2002 to 2007 and telephone interviews were conducted on 22 (73%) of them. One-third of the students were currently in graduate school (32%); the remaining were either working (36%), still in undergraduate school (27%), or unemployed and not in school (5%). Students rated highly the following aspects of the program: mentored research, informal time spent with mentors, and research seminars. Students also reported the following activities would further enhance the program: instruction on writing a personal statement for graduate school and tips in choosing an advisor. Students also desired instruction on taking the GRE/MCAT, receiving advice on selecting a graduate or professional school, and receiving advice on where to apply. These findings can inform the design of internship programs aimed at increasing rates of graduate school attendance among underrepresented students.
Mitchell, Monica J.; Crosby, Lori E.
Improving diversity, particularly among trainees and professionals from underrepresented ethnic minority backgrounds, has been a long-stated goal for the field of Psychology. Research has provided strategies and best practices, such as ensuring cultural sensitivity and relevance in coursework, clinical and research training, promoting a supportive and inclusive climate, providing access to cultural and community opportunities, and increasing insight and cultural competence among professionals (Rogers & Molina, 2006). Despite this, the rates of psychologists from ethnically diverse and underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds remain low and few published studies have described programmatic efforts to increase diversity within the field. This paper describes the INNOVATIONS training model, which provides community and culturally related research experiences, graduate-school related advising, and mentoring to high school and college students. The paper also examines how the model may support enrollment of URM students in doctoral programs in psychology. Findings indicate that INNOVATIONS supported students’ transition from high school and college to graduate programs (with approximately 75% of students enrolling in Master’s and Doctoral programs). INNOVATIONS also supported students, including those from URM backgrounds, enrolling in doctoral programs (41.7%). Students who were trained in the research assistant track were most likely to enroll in psychology doctoral programs, perhaps as a result of the intensive time and training committed to research and clinical experiences. Data support the importance of research training for URM students pursuing psychology graduate study and the need to ensure cultural relevance of the training. Implications for clinical and pediatric psychology are discussed. PMID:28603680
Meinke, B. K.; Smith, D. A.; Lawton, B.; Bartolone, L.; Schultz, G.; Manning, J.; NASA Astrophysics EPO Community
Four Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support and coordinate the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) education and public outreach (EPO) community. The mission- and grant-based EPO programs of this EPO community are uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. The Forums engage underserved audiences through coordinated efforts such as NASAScience4Girls and Their Families, which partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed, hands-on education activities for girls and their families, along with training for librarians. We present examples of how the NASA EPO community and Forums serve groups historically underrepresented in STEM fields via the NASAScience4Girls and Their Families initiative, including associated metrics and evaluation findings.
Hernandez, Paul R; Schultz, P Wesley; Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Chance, Randie C
The underrepresentation of racial minorities and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national concern. Goal theory provides a useful framework from which to understand issues of underrepresentation. We followed a large sample of high-achieving African American and Latino undergraduates in STEM disciplines attending 38 institutions of higher education in the United States over 3 academic years. We report on the science-related environmental factors and person factors that influence the longitudinal regulation of goal orientations. Further, we examine how goal orientations in turn influence distal academic outcomes such as performance and persistence in STEM. Using SEM-based parallel process latent growth curve modeling, we found that (a) engagement in undergraduate research was the only factor that buffered underrepresented students against an increase in performance-avoidance goals over time; (b) growth in scientific self-identity exhibited a strong positive effect on growth in task and performance-approach goals over time; (c) only task goals positively influenced students' cumulative grade point average, over and above baseline grade point average; and (d) performance-avoidance goals predicted student attrition from the STEM pipeline. We discuss the implications of these findings for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines.
Holt, Janet K.; White, Bradford R.; Terrell, Sarah K.
The higher education landscape is becoming increasingly more adverse for students of color, first-generation students, and low-income students. Postsecondary enrollment and completion rates for traditionally underrepresented populations continue to be disproportionately lower than for their more advantaged peers (Chen & Carroll, 2005; Nunez…
Weir, Michael J.
In the United States, undergraduate underrepresented minority (URM) students tend to change out of declared majors in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines at a rate of nearly sixty percent prior to earning a post secondary degree. This phenomenon contributes to a general concern that the United States is not producing enough STEM trained skilled workers to meet future employment needs of industry and government. Although there has been research developed to examine how to increase the numbers of URM students enrolling in STEM programs at higher education institutions, retention of these students remains critical. One area of increasing focus for researchers is to understand how multiple factors impact the college experience of URM students and how those factors may contribute to the student decision to persist in earning a STEM disciple degree. This research study is a phenomenological mixed method study that examines how students experience the phenomenon of advising and the influence of the advising experience of undergraduate URM students on their likelihood of persisting in STEM at a northeast US technology oriented post secondary institution. Persistence, from the perspective of the student, is driven by cognitive psychological attributes such as confidence, motivation and self-efficacy. Utilizing a Social Cognitive theoretical framework, this study examines how three distinct undergraduate URM student populations enrolled in; an Academic Services Program, Honors College, and the general undergraduate population at this institution experience advising and how their experiences may influence their propensity to persist in earning a STEM oriented degree.
Orom, Heather; Semalulu, Teresa; Underwood, Willie
To review the literature on the social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority (URM) medical students to determine what type of interventions are needed to eliminate potential barriers to enrolling and retaining URM students. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid HealthStar, and Web of Science, and the reference lists of included studies, published between January 1, 1980, and September 15, 2012. Studies of the learning and social environments and of students' satisfaction, experiences with discrimination or unfair practices, and academic performance or progress, as well as assessments of programs or interventions to improve URM students' academic performance, were eligible for inclusion. The authors identified 28 studies (27 unique data sets) meeting the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies indicated that URM students experienced less supportive social and less positive learning environments, were subjected to discrimination and racial harassment, and were more likely to see their race as having a negative impact on their medical school experiences than non-URM students. Academic performance on standardized exams was worse, progress less timely, and attrition higher for URM students as well. For URM students, an adverse climate may be decreasing the attractiveness of careers in medicine, impairing their academic performance, and increasing attrition. Improvements to the social and learning environments experienced by URM students are needed to make medicine a more inclusive profession. The current environment of health care reform creates an opportunity for institutions to implement strategies to achieve this goal.
Sopoaga, Faafetai; Kokaua, Jesse; van der Meer, Jacques; Lameta-Huro, Malia; Zaharic, Tony; Richards, Rose; Inder, Marie
Pacific peoples are a minority under-represented ethnic group in higher education in New Zealand. This article explores the effectiveness of a specific programme, which sought to improve outcomes of Pacific students in the tertiary environment. The aim of the evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of an intervention programme (2013-2015) to increase the participation and academic success of Pacific students in the first year in Health Sciences. The study found the academic results of Pacific students who participated in the intervention programme were significantly better compared to those who did not. The findings inform future research, suggesting that, when assessing the effectiveness of a programme, it is useful to explore the performance of the whole cohort separately to those who declared intention or interest to attend the programme. Strategies to support participation of each of these groups are likely to be different. Having a standardised approach when comparing groups will adjust for any confounding factors or prior differences. This will allow a more accurate assessment of the effectiveness of the programme being evaluated. This paper presents the importance of a robust approach to the delivery and evaluation of intervention programmes for improving outcomes for underrepresented students in the tertiary environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott
Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat. Specifically, we introduced a values affirmation exercise that counters stereotype threat by reinforcing a student's feelings of integrity and self-worth in three iterations of an intensive active-learning college biology course. On average, this exercise reduced the achievement gap between URM and white students who entered the course with the same incoming grade point average. This result suggests that achievement gaps resulting from the underperformance of URM students could be mitigated by providing students with a learning environment that removes psychological and emotional impediments of performance through short psychosocial interventions. © 2017 H. Jordt et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Terrazas, S.; Olgin, J. G.; Enriquez, F.
The number of underrepresented minorities pursuing STEM fields, specifically in the sciences, has declined in recent times. In response, the Educational Internship in Physical Sciences (EIPS), an undergraduate research internship program in collaboration with The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) Geological Sciences Department and El Paso Community College (EPCC), was created; providing a mentoring environment so that students can actively engage in science projects with professionals in their field so as to gain the maximum benefits in an academic setting. This past year, interns participated in planetary themed projects which exposed them to the basics of planetary geology, and worked on projects dealing with introductory digital image processing and synthesized data on two planetary bodies; Pluto and Enceladus respectively. Interns harnessed and built on what they have learned through these projects, and directly applied it in an academic environment in solar system astronomy classes at EPCC. Since the majority of interns are transfer students or alums from EPCC, they give a unique perspective and dimension of interaction; giving them an opportunity to personally guide and encourage current students there on available STEM opportunities. The goal was to have interns gain experience in planetary geology investigations and networking with professionals in the field; further promoting their interests and honing their abilities for future endeavors in planetary science. The efficacy of these activities toward getting interns to pursue STEM careers, enhance their education in planetary science, and teaching key concepts in planetary geophysics are demonstrated in this presentation.
Braun, Derek C.; Gormally, Cara; Clark, M. Diane
Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not…
Scott, O.; Johnson, A.; Williamson, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Jearld, A., Jr.; Guzman, W. I.
To successfully recruit and retain underrepresented minority (URM) students and early career scientists, many programs supplement traditional curricular activities with multiple online platforms, establishing "virtual communities" that are free and easily accessible. These virtual communities offer readily sustainable opportunities to facilitate communication across a wide range of cultural lines and socioeconomic levels thereby broadening participation and inclusivity in STEM. Established in 2003, the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Earth System Science Professional Development Program has successfully used virtual community tools such as a listserv, community forum, social media, and VoIP technologies, to extend the face-to-face activities of the program and support the advancement of URM students and early career scientists in STEM. The use of multiple facets of virtual community by MS PHD'S participants supports and encourages "real life" interactions and mentorship, facilitates networking and professional development, and maintains continuity of shared networks. The program is now in its ninth cohort and supports 213 participants. To date, 54 participants have completed their PhD and another 61 are currently enrolled in doctoral programs.
Williams, Lovoria B; Bourgault, Annette B; Valenti, Michael; Howie, Melissa; Mathur, Sunil
The United States is steadily becoming more diverse. If current trends continue, the minority population will be the majority by 2043. In contrast to the U.S. population, nursing (the largest health care workforce) is composed of a nearly 76% White population. The literature reports that underrepresented minorities (URM) in nursing programs encounter multiple barriers to academic success. A secondary data analysis of a national cohort of URM accelerated nursing students was conducted to examine three factors associated with microaggression-predictors of academic (NCLEX) success, satisfaction, and intent to pursue advanced education-among a cohort of URM accelerated nursing students who had received a national diversity scholarship (n = 2,250). These three factors were predicted by institutional climate, mentoring, social interactions, the prematriculation preparation program, and other psychological, social, and cultural barriers. To increase nursing diversity and ensure a culturally competent profession, programs must attend to these factors. [J Nurs. Educ. 2018;57(3):142-149.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Williams, Simon N; Thakore, Bhoomi K; McGee, Richard
Improvement in the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions has been unsatisfactory. Although this is a complex problem, one key issue is that graduate students often rely on research mentors for career-related support, the effectiveness of which can be variable. We present results from a novel academic career "coaching" intervention, one aim of which was to provide supplementary social support for PhD students, particularly those from underrepresented backgrounds. Coaching was delivered both within small groups and on an individual basis, with a diverse group of coaches and students coming from many universities. Coaches were provided with additional diversity training. Ninety-six semistructured interviews with 33 URM students over 3 years were analyzed using a qualitative framework approach. For most of the URM PhD students, coaching provided social support in the form of emotional, informational, and appraisal support. Coaching groups provided a noncompetitive environment and "community of support" within which students were able to learn from one another's experiences and discuss negative and stressful experiences related to their graduate school, lab, or career plans. This coached peer group model is capable of providing the social support that many URM students do not find at their home universities. © 2017 S. N. Williams et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Wells, Jovan Grant
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the developmental assets and academic achievement of urban underrepresented minority male and female students in a specialized science, technology, engineering, and math program, and the developmental assets and academic achievement of urban underrepresented minority male and female students in traditional comprehensive high school programs. The findings of the study provide information regarding the influence of gender, school setting, and developmental assets that may help impact student achievement for underrepresented minorities in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and math. The study findings also contribute to developmental assets theory and the influence of the theory as it relates to underrepresented minority students, academic outcomes, and the influencing factors internal and external to school.
John, Ginelle; Stage, Frances K.
Numbers of students of color enrolling in higher educational institutions is expected to increase across all racial groups. With continued increases in minority enrollments, minority-serving institutions have and will continue to play a major role in educating student of color. A large national data set was used to examine the numbers of…
Guyer, Laura K; Wayne, Marta L; Hardt, Nancy S
Increasing the diversity of tomorrow's healthcare work force remains a challenge despite many thoughtful published reports and recommendations. As part of an effort to grow a more diverse pre-professional health population, we created an undergraduate minor, Health Disparities in Society, at the University of Florida. Most courses for the minor were identified from existing offerings, and we created only two new courses, an introduction course and a capstone service-learning course. The new minor quickly became the most popular in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (which has approximately 12,000 total undergraduate students), and importantly, students selecting the minor were more likely to be under-represented minorities than would be expected given undergraduate demographics. Pre-professional students choosing this minor reflect the desired diversity of the healthcare workforce of tomorrow.
McCann, Ann L; Lacy, Ernestine S; Miller, Barbara H
A study was conducted at Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry (TAMBCD) in fall 2011 to identify the reasons underrepresented minority (URM) students chose to attend TAMBCD, the factors that supported their success as enrolled students, and their perceptions of the institution's cultural climate. A survey distributed online to all URM students received a 79 percent response rate (129/164). The respondents were primarily Hispanic (62 percent Mexican American and other Hispanic) and African American (33 percent) and had attended a college pipeline program (53 percent). The top reasons these students chose TAMBCD were reputation, location, and automatic acceptance or familiarity from being in a predental program. Alumni had most influenced them to attend. Regarding support services, the largest percentage reported not using any (44 percent); personal advising and tutoring were reported to be the most commonly used. In terms of climate, discrimination was reported by 22 percent (n=29), mostly from classmates and clinical faculty. The majority (87 percent) reported their cultural competence program was "effective" and agreed that faculty (83 percent), staff (85 percent), and students (75 percent) were culturally competent. Overall, the students were "satisfied" with how they were treated (88 percent), their education (91 percent), and the services/resources (92 percent). This information is being used to continue to improve the school's cultural climate and to conduct a broader assessment of all students.
Hendry, Graham D; Hyde, Sarah J; Davy, Peter
Teachers and students regulate learning to varying degrees in educational programmes in higher education. We present evidence that students in a student-centred medical programme self- and co-regulate their learning in independently formed study groups. We describe the perceived benefits of study groups and the effect of study group membership on student achievement. Years 1-2 of a 4-year, graduate-entry problem-based medical programme. We surveyed 233 year 2 students about features of their study groups and their study group membership in years 1-2. We compared study group membership with students' scores on a written summative assessment held at the end of their second year. For students who joined 1 study group, the length of time their group stayed together was positively related to achievement in the written summative assessment. There were no differences in summative assessment results between students who had been in a study group and students who had not been in a study group. Effective study groups are supportive, socially cohesive groups who generate mutual trust and loyalty, and self- and co-regulate their learning by giving and receiving explanations and summaries and motivating individual study. Teachers can support the formation of study groups by using small-group teaching/learning activities, providing clear learning outcomes and assessment criteria, minimising competition for grades and allocating room space.
Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.
Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve
Medical School Outcomes, Primary Care Specialty Choice, and Practice in Medically Underserved Areas by Physician Alumni of MEDPREP, a Postbaccalaureate Premedical Program for Underrepresented and Disadvantaged Students.
Metz, Anneke M
Minorities continue to be underrepresented as physicians in medicine, and the United States currently has a number of medically underserved communities. MEDPREP, a postbaccalaureate medical school preparatory program for socioeconomically disadvantaged or underrepresented in medicine students, has a stated mission to increase the numbers of physicians from minority or disadvantaged backgrounds and physicians working with underserved populations. This study aims to determine how MEDPREP enhances U.S. physician diversity and practice within underserved communities. MEDPREP recruits disadvantaged and underrepresented in medicine students to complete a 2-year academic enhancement program that includes science coursework, standardized test preparation, study/time management training, and emphasis on professional development. Five hundred twenty-five disadvantaged or underrepresented students over 15 years completed MEDPREP and were tracked through entry into medical practice. MEDPREP accepts up to 36 students per year, with two thirds coming from the Midwest region and another 20% from nearby states in the South. Students complete science, test preparation, academic enhancement, and professionalism coursework taught predominantly by MEDPREP faculty on the Southern Illinois University Carbondale campus. Students apply broadly to medical schools in the region and nation but are also offered direct entry into our School of Medicine upon meeting articulation program requirements. Seventy-nine percent of students completing MEDPREP became practicing physicians. Fifty-eight percent attended public medical schools, and 62% attended medical schools in the Midwest. Fifty-three percent of program alumni chose primary care specialties compared to 34% of U.S. physicians, and MEDPREP alumni were 2.7 times more likely to work in medically underserved areas than physicians nationally. MEDPREP increases the number of disadvantaged and underrepresented students entering and graduating
Garces, Liliana M.; Mickey-Pabello, David
This study examines the impact of affirmative action bans in six states (California, Washington, Florida, Texas, Michigan, and Nebraska) on the matriculation rates of historically underrepresented students of color in public medical schools in these states. Findings show that affirmative action bans have led to about a 17% decline (from 18.5% to…
Cholewa, Blaire; Burkhardt, Christina K.; Hull, Michael F.
Using the HSLS:09 [High School Longitudinal Study of 2009] data set and social capital theory as a framework, the authors examined which student and school characteristics predicted students' identification of their school counselor as the person who had the most influence in their thinking about postsecondary education (N = 3,239,560). Results…
Considering the importance of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) research workforce for our country's future, it is troubling that many underrepresented racial minority (URM) students start graduate STEM programs, but do not finish. However, some institutional contexts better position students for degree completion than others. The purpose of this study was to uncover the academic and social experiences, power dynamics, and programmatic/institutional structures URM students face within their graduate STEM programs that hinder or support degree progression. Using a critical socialization framework applied in a cross-comparative qualitative study, I focused on how issues of race, ethnicity, and underrepresentation within the educational contexts shape students' experiences. Data was collected from focus group interviews involving 53 URM graduate students pursuing STEM disciplines across three institution types -- a Predominately White Institution, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, and a Historically Black University. Results demonstrate that when students' relationships with faculty advisors were characterized by benign neglect, students felt lost, wasted time and energy making avoidable mistakes, had less positive views of their experiences, and had more difficulty progressing through classes or research, which could cause them to delay time to degree completion or to leave with a master's degree. Conversely, faculty empowered students when they helped them navigate difficult processes/milestones with regular check-ins, but also allowed students room to make decisions and solve problems independently. Further, faculty set the tone for the overall interactional culture and helping behavior in the classroom and lab contexts; where faculty modeled collaboration and concern for students, peers were likely to do the same. International peers sometimes excluded domestic students both socially and academically, which had a negative affect on
Kelly, Angela M.
Urban students often have limited opportunities to study physics in high school; many schools, particularly in high poverty areas, do not have the resources and capital to provide physics courses for those who wish to enroll. The Bronx Institute at Lehman College has initiated several programs for Black and Latino youth to enroll in physics classes and progress to college-level physics while still in high school. Students with promise from the surrounding community have been recruited to participate in afterschool and summer classes, taught by university faculty. Examples of student reflections illustrate the collective impact of high expectations, access to rigorous physics study, and a communal, supportive learning environment. Initial experiences with the first two cohorts will be shared, along with curriculum plans for a comprehensive physics sequence to prepare students for admission to competitive colleges and participation in future STEM study and careers.
Fuchs, Jonathan; Kouyate, Aminta; Kroboth, Liz; McFarland, Willi
Structured, mentored research programs for high school and undergraduate students from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds are needed to increase the diversity of our nation's biomedical research workforce. In particular, a robust pipeline of investigators from the communities disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic is needed not only for fairness and equity but for insights and innovations to address persistent racial and ethnic disparities in new infections. We created the Summer HIV/AIDS Research Program (SHARP) at the San Francisco Department of Public Health for URM undergraduates as a 12-week program of hands-on research experience, one-on-one mentoring by a senior HIV investigator, didactic seminars for content and research methods, and networking opportunities. The first four cohorts (2012-2015) of SHARP gained research skills, built confidence in their abilities and self-identified as scientists. In addition, the majority of program alumni is employed in research positions and has been admitted to or is pursuing graduate degree programs in fields related to HIV prevention. While we await empirical studies of specific mentoring strategies at early educational stages, programs that engage faculty who are sensitive to the unique challenges facing diverse students and who draw lessons from established mentoring frameworks can help build an inclusive generation of HIV researchers.
Boyd, Jamie Kamailani; Kuuleialoha Kamaka, Sharmayne A; Braun, Kathryn L
Native Hawaiians, representing 25% of Hawai'i's population, suffer socioeconomic and health strains as evidenced by overrepresentation in low-wage jobs without health insurance and a higher prevalence of chronic disease compared with Hawai'i's other ethnic groups. Native Hawaiians are more likely to attend community colleges than 4-year colleges and have high dropout rates. To describe a culturally relevant, community-based action research approach to build a program to keep Hawaiians in college to advance career options and improve long-term health and socioeconomic outcomes. Culturally relevant approaches that depended on participation from a variety of community partners were used to evaluate needs and design interventions. The Pathway Out of Poverty Program uses Hawaiian values and traditions of healthy living to lead students through a nursing pathway from nurse aide (NA) to licensed practical nurse (LPN) to registered nurse (RN), with inherent increases in wage-earning potential. In the first 3.5 years, 150 students enrolled in NA training, and 135 students (90%) graduated and were certified. Of the 135, 77 (57%) transitioned to higher education and 79% transitioned to jobs that offered health insurance (20% were in both groups). Of the 77 entering higher education, 33 (43%) aimed for a degree in nursing. Students expressed growing interest in health promotion for themselves, family members, and others. Community partners were key to developing a successful community college-based Pathway Program to help marginalized and other underrepresented students move from low-wage to living-wage jobs and improve their long-term health outcomes.
Kane, Michael A.; Henderson, Frank
Hartnell College is a Hispanic-serving institution serving the Salinas Valley in California, a vast 1,000-square-mile agricultural region. The district includes large numbers of migrant workers and their families, chronically high unemployment, high rates of poverty, and low educational attainment. A review of student performance data in 2002…
Eichelberger, Brenda; Mattioli, Heather; Foxhoven, Rachel
Financial aid is designed to increase access to postsecondary education at all socioeconomic levels; however, college students are not always knowledgeable about personal finances or capable of making sound decisions regarding complex college and program choices, debt options, and long-term spending. This article reviews previous research on the…
Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.
With community college and two-year program students playing pivotal roles in advancing the nation's STEM agenda now and throughout the remainder of this young millennia, it is incumbent on educators to devise innovative and sustainable STEM initiatives to attract, retain, graduate, and elevate these students to four-year programs and beyond. Involving these students in comprehensive, holistic research experiences is one approach that has paid tremendous dividends. The New York City College of Technology (City Tech) was recently awarded a National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) supplemental grant to integrate a community college/two-year program component into its existing REU program. The program created an inviting and supportive community of scholars for these students, nurtured them through strong, dynamic mentoring, provided them with the support structures needed for successful scholarship, and challenged them to attain the same research prominence as their Bachelor degree program companions. Along with their colleagues, the community college/two-year program students were given an opportunity to conduct intensive satellite and ground-based remote sensing research at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (NOAA-CREST) at City College and its CREST Institute Center for Remote Sensing and Earth System Science (ReSESS) at City Tech. This presentation highlights the challenges, the rewards, and the lessons learned from this necessary and timely experiment. Preliminary results indicate that this paradigm for geoscience inclusion and high expectation has been remarkably successful. (The program is supported by NSF REU grant #1062934.)
In response to the White House Educate to Innovate campaign, NASA developed a new science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education program for non-traditional audiences that also focused on public-private partnerships and nationwide participation. NASA recognized that summer break is an often overlooked but opportune time to engage youth in STEM experiences, and elevated its ongoing commitment to the cultivation of diversity. The Summer of Innovation (SoI) is the resulting initiative that uses NASA's unique missions and resources to boost summer learning, particularly for students who are underrepresented, underserved and underperforming in STEM. The SoI pilot, launched in June 2010, is a multi-faceted effort designed to improve STEM teaching and learning through partnership, multi-week summer learning programs, special events, a national concluding event, and teacher development. The SoI pilot features strategic infusion of NASA content and educational resource materials, sustainability through STEM Learning Communities, and assessments of effectiveness of SoI interventions with other pilot efforts. This paper examines the inception and development of the Summer of Innovation pilot project, including achievements and effectiveness, as well as lessons learned for future efforts.
The economic future of the United States depends on developing a workforce of professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (Adkins, 2012; Mokter Hossain & Robinson, 2012). In California, the college population is increasingly female and underrepresented minority, a population that has historically chosen to study majors other than STEM. In California, community colleges provide a major inroad for students seeking to further their education in one of the many universities in the state. The recent passage of Senate Bill 1456 and the Student Success and Support Program mandate increased counseling services for all California community college students (California Community College Chancellors Office, 2014). This dissertation is designed to explore the perceptions of female, underrepresented minority college students who are majoring in an area of science, technology, engineering and math, as they relate to community college counseling services. Specifically, it aims to understand what counseling services are most effective, and what community college counselors can do to increase the level of interest in STEM careers in this population. This is a qualitative study. Eight participants were interviewed for the case study, all of whom are current or former community college students who have declared a major in a STEM discipline. The semi-structured interviews were designed to help understand what community college counselors can do to better serve this population, and to encourage more students to pursue STEM majors and careers. Through the interviews, themes emerged to explain what counseling services are the most helpful. Successful STEM students benefited from counselors who showed empathy and support. Counselors who understood the intricacies of educational planning for STEM majors were considered the most efficacious. Counselors who could connect students with enrichment activities, such as internships, were highly valued, as were counseling
Misra, P.; Venable, D. D.; Hoban, S.; Demoz, B.; Bleacher, L.; Meeson, B. W.; Farrell, W. M.
Howard University, University of Maryland Baltimore County and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) are collaborating to engage underrepresented STEM students and expose them to an early career pathway in NASA-related Earth & Space Science research. The major goal is to instill interest in Earth and Space Science to STEM majors early in their academic careers, so that they become engaged in ongoing NASA-related research, motivated to pursue STEM careers, and perhaps become part of the future NASA workforce. The collaboration builds on a program established by NASA's Dynamic Response of the Environments of Asteroids, the Moon and the moons of Mars (DREAM2) team to engage underrepresented students from Howard in summer internships. Howard leveraged this program to expand via NASA's Minority University Research and Education Project (MUREP) funding. The project pairs Howard students with GSFC mentors and engages them in cutting-edge Earth and Space Science research throughout their undergraduate tenure. The project takes a multi-faceted approach, with each year of the program specifically tailored to each student's strengths and addressing their weaknesses, so that they experience a wide array of enriching research and professional development activities that help them grow both academically and professionally. During the academic year, the students are at Howard taking a full load of courses towards satisfying their degree requirements and engaging in research with their GSFC mentors via regular telecons, e-mail exchanges, video chats & on an average one visit per semester to GSFC for an in-person meeting with their research mentor. The students extend their research with full-time summer internships at GSFC, culminating in a Capstone Project and Senior Thesis. As a result, these Early Opportunities Program students, who have undergone rigorous training in the Earth and Space Sciences, are expected to be well-prepared for graduate school and the NASA workforce.
Marsaglia, K.; Simila, G.; Pedone, V.; Yule, D.
The Catalyst Program of the Department of Geological Sciences at California State University Northridge has been developed by four faculty members who were the recipients of a three-year award (2002-2005) from the National Science Foundation. The goal of the program is to increase minority participation and success in the geosciences. The program seeks to enrich the educational experience by introducing students at all levels (individual and team) to research in the geosciences (such as data analysis for earthquake hazards for 1994 Northridge event, paleoseismology of San Andreas fault, Waipaoa, New Zealand sedimentary system and provenance studies, and the Barstow formation geochronology and geochemistry), and to decrease obstacles that affect academic success. Both these goals are largely achieved by the formation of integrated high school, undergraduate, and graduate research groups, which also provide fulfilling and successful peer mentorship. New participants first complete a specially designed course that introduces them to peer-mentoring, collaborative learning (think-pair share), and research on geological data sets. Students of all experience levels then become members of research teams and conduct four mini-projects and associated poster presentations, which deepens academic and research skills as well as peer-mentor relationships. This initial research experience has been very beneficial for the student's degree requirements of a senior research project and oral presentation. Evaluation strategies include the student research course presentations, summer field projects, and external review of student experiences. The Catalyst Program provides significant financial support to participants to allow them to focus their time on their education. A component of peer-tutoring has been implemented for promoting additional student success. The program has been highly successful in its two year development. To date, undergraduates and graduate students have
Harrigan, Rosanne; Perez, Michael H; Beaudry, Steven; Johnson, Crystal; Sil, Payel; Mead, Kau'ionālani; Apau-Ludlum, Noelani
We evaluated the perceived success of recruitment and retention protocols for Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/Filipino populations. These three groups were found to have a significantly higher incidence of health disparities than the general population. Training applications of selected vignettes were also generated. Focus groups and questionnaires were used to achieve the objective: identification of themes related to facilitators and deterrents to participation in clinical trials in these populations. This mixed methods approach evaluated promotional materials preferred. Responses to animated videos and vignettes with actors regarding clinical research participation were analyzed. Participants included adults of Hawaiian/Pacific Islander or Filipino ethnicity. Analysis included grounded theory methods, such as constant comparative techniques. The results revealed that attention to the following categories is essential: culturally sensitive knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to individuals, families and communities. These themes are recommended as the structure for future interventions to improve participation and retention within these groups.
Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet
The central questions addressed in this paper are the following: (1) In the context of the (European Union) EU's goal of severing the link between social class background and higher education participation, what progress has been made in widening access over the past two decades? (2) Has the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) helped EU countries to…
Holt, Janet K.; White, Bradford R.; Terrell, Sarah K.
In 2016, a higher education task force of St. Louis Graduates (STLG), a collaborative network whose mission is to increase degree completion for low income students, first-generation students, and students of color from St. Louis, commissioned this study from the Illinois Education Research Council (IERC). Through discussion, the following goals…
Behling, K C; Murphy, M M; Mitchell-Williams, J; Rogers-McQuade, H; Lopez, O J
As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and pre-course examination scores. Teaching techniques included engaged lectures using an audience response system, TBL, and guided self-directed learning. We hypothesized that more active learning exercises, irrespective of the amount of lecture time, would help students master course content. In year 2 as compared with year 1, TBL exercises were decreased from six to three with a concomitant increase in lecture time, while in year 3, TBL exercises were increased from three to six while maintaining the same amount of lecture time as in year 2. As we hypothesized, there was significant ( p < 0.01) improvement in performance on the post-course examination in years 1 and 3 compared with year 2, when only three TBL exercises were used. In contrast to the students' perceptions that more lecture time enhances learning of course content, our findings suggest that active learning strategies, such as TBL, are more effective than engaged lectures in improving student understanding of course content, as measured by post-course examination performance. Introduction of TBL in pipeline program courses may help achieve better student learning outcomes.
Kathryn C. Behling
Full Text Available As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA and pre-course examination scores. Teaching techniques included engaged lectures using an audience response system, TBL, and guided self-directed learning. We hypothesized that more active learning exercises, irrespective of the amount of lecture time, would help students master course content. In year 2 as compared with year 1, TBL exercises were decreased from six to three with a concomitant increase in lecture time, while in year 3, TBL exercises were increased from three to six while maintaining the same amount of lecture time as in year 2. As we hypothesized, there was significant (p < 0.01 improvement in performance on the post-course examination in years 1 and 3 compared with year 2, when only three TBL exercises were used. In contrast to the students’ perceptions that more lecture time enhances learning of course content, our findings suggest that active learning strategies, such as TBL, are more effective than engaged lectures in improving student understanding of course content, as measured by post-course examination performance. Introduction of TBL in pipeline program courses may help achieve better student learning outcomes.
White, L. D.; Maygarden, D.; Serpa, L. F.
Since 2010, the Minority Education Through Traveling and Learning in the Sciences (METALS) program, a collaboration among San Francisco State Univ., the Univ. of Texas at El Paso, the Univ. of New Orleans, and Purdue Univ., has created meaningful, field-based geoscience experiences for underrepresented minority high school students. METALS activities promote excitement about geoscience in field settings and foster mutual respect and trust among participants of different backgrounds and ethnicities. These gains are strengthened by the collective knowledge of the university partners and by faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, scientists, and science teachers who guide the field trips and who are committed to encouraging diversity in the geosciences. Through the student experiences it provides, METALS has helped shape and shift student attitudes and orientation toward geoscience, during and beyond their field experience, just as these students are poised at the critical juncture from high school to college. A review of the METALS findings and summative evaluation shows a distinct pattern of high to moderately high impact on most students in the various cohorts of the program. METALS, overall, was perceived by participants as a program that: (1) opens up opportunities for individuals who might not typically be able to experience science in outdoor settings; (2) offers high-interest geology content in field contexts, along with social and environmental connections; (3) promotes excitement about geology while encouraging the development of mutual respect, interdependence, and trust among individuals of different ethnicities; (4) influences the academic choices of students, in particular their choice of major and course selection in college. Summative data show that multiple aspects of this program were highly effective. Cross-university collaborations create a dynamic forum and a high-impact opportunity for students from different backgrounds to meet and develop
Carpi, Anthony; Ronan, Darcy M.; Falconer, Heather M.; Lents, Nathan H.
In this study, Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) is used to explore changes in the career intentions of students in an undergraduate research experience (URE) program at a large public minority-serving college. Our URE model addresses the challenges of establishing an undergraduate research program within an urban, commuter, underfunded,…
Brian L. Wright
Full Text Available Lack of access to gifted education is prevalent, yet preventable for Black and Hispanic students. Years of data from the Office for Civil Rights and national reports reveal that deficit thinking, prejudice, and discrimination must be at work, thus compromising the educational experiences of gifted students of color. In this article, the authors share data on under-representation in the U.S., along with contributing factors and recommendations. They rail against both ignorance and indifference explanations, calling instead for accountability and deliberate efforts to desegregate gifted education with both excellence and equity as the driving force. We define equity as being fair, responsive, and impartial, especially for those who have the fewest resources and least advocacy, and who have experienced structural inequality due to historical exclusion. We hope readers will learn from the U.S. context and use that which is relevant for their nation’s context.
Lane, Tonisha B
The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly white institution. From this study, a model emerged that encompassed four components: proactive care, holistic support, community building, and catalysts for STEM identity development. These components encompassed a number of strategies and practices that were instrumental in the outcomes of program participants. This paper concludes with implications for practice, such as using models to inform program planning, assessment, and evaluation. © 2016 T. B. Lane. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students. Annual public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine science education and science literacy issues. The 15th in the series and the fifth to explore diversity and underrepresentation, this research is a direct outgrowth of last year's results which found 40 percent of the country's female and underrepresented minority (URM) chemists and chemical engineers working today were discouraged from pursuing their STEM career at some point in their lives. US colleges were cited as places where this discouragement most often happened and college professors as the individuals most likely responsible. Does such discouragement still occur in American colleges today? To answer this and other questions about the undergraduate environment in which today's students make their career decisions, the survey polls 413 STEM department chairs at the nation's 200 top research universities and those that produce the highest proportion of female and URM STEM graduates. The survey also asks the chairs about their institutions track record recruiting and retaining female and URM STEM undergraduates, preparedness of these students to study STEM, the impact of traditional introductory STEM courses on female and URM students and barriers these students face pursuing their STEM degrees.
Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M
The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail..
Using a mixed methods approach, the researcher gathered a set of narrative responses from focus groups that supported the claim of underreporting campus discrimination on a survey. Multiple studies have shown that underrepresented minority students are likely to bond with same-ethnic peers in a racially tense campus climate. This mixed method is a…
Ball, Brita; Brown, Lora Beth
Objective: To discover how college students conduct dinner groups and perceptions of the benefits and difficulties of participation. Design: Qualitative study conducted with 7 focus groups. Setting and Participants: A university campus, with 36 students participating in dinner groups, defined as a group of 3 people or more cooking for one another…
Marsaglia, K. M.; Pedone, V.; Simila, G. W.; Yule, J. D.
The Catalyst Program of the Department of Geological Sciences at California State University Northridge has been developed by four faculty members who were the recipients of a three-year award (2002-2005) from the National Science Foundation. The goal of the program is to increase minority participation and success in the geosciences. The program seeks to enrich the educational experience by introducing students at all levels to research in the geosciences and to decrease obstacles that affect academic success. Both these goals are largely achieved by the formation of integrated high school, undergraduate, and graduate research groups, which also provide fulfilling and successful peer mentorship. The Catalyst Program provides significant financial support to participants to allow them to focus their time on their education. New participants first complete a specially designed course that introduces them to peer-mentoring, collaborative learning, and geological research. Students of all experience levels then become members of research teams, which deepens academic and research skills as well as peer-mentor relationships. The program was highly successful in its inaugural year. To date, undergraduates and graduate students in the program coauthored six abstracts at professional meetings and one conference paper. High-school students gained first hand experience of a college course and geologic research. Perhaps the most important impacts of the program are the close camaraderie that has developed and the increased ability of the Catalyst students to plan and execute research with greater confidence and self-esteem.
The aim of the article is to explore educational use of student-managed Facebook groups in upper secondary education (in Denmark). Much research on educational potentials of Facebook has studied groups managed by teachers. However, there is a lack of in-depth research on Facebook groups managed by students and without participation from teachers.…
Aaen, Janus Holst; Dalsgaard, Christian
The paper examines educational potentials of Facebook groups that are created and managed by students without any involvement from teachers. The objective is to study student-managed Facebook groups as a ‘third space' between the institutional space of teacher-managed Facebook groups and the non......-institutional, personal space of the Facebook network. The main study of the article examines six student-managed Facebook groups and provides an analysis of a total of 2247 posts and 12,217 comments. Furthermore, the study draws on group interviews with students from 17 Danish upper secondary schools and a survey...... answered by 932 students from 25 schools. Based on the survey and interviews, the paper concludes that Facebook is an important educational tool for students in Danish upper secondary schools to receive help on homework and assignments. Furthermore, on the basis of the analysis of Facebook groups...
Salto, Lorena M.; Riggs, Matt L.; Delgado De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A.; De Leon, Marino
An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU) Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS) and undergraduate (UG) student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE) is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical workforce
Lorena M Salto
Full Text Available An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS and undergraduate (UG student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical
Salto, Lorena M; Riggs, Matt L; Delgado De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A; De Leon, Marino
An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU) Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS) and undergraduate (UG) student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE) is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical workforce
Ball, Brita; Brown, Lora Beth
To discover how college students conduct dinner groups and perceptions of the benefits and difficulties of participation. Qualitative study conducted with 7 focus groups. A university campus, with 36 students participating in dinner groups, defined as a group of 3 people or more cooking for one another (or together) and eating together at least 4 times a week. Dinner groups. The focus group recordings were transcribed, coded, and reconciled. NUDIST NVivo software (version 8, QSR International, Victoria, Australia, 2008) assisted in coding data to identify themes and subthemes. Dinner groups were composed of roommates or students living nearby. They rotated who made each dinner. Benefits identified included social interaction, increasing confidence in cooking, saving money and time, and eating more varied and healthful foods. Difficulties, which were uncommon, included increased time spent on days the student cooked and stresses related to cooking on a schedule. Students found that the benefits far outweighed the difficulties and universally wanted to continue in a dinner group. College students enjoyed dinner groups, and promoting them may be an option for improving college students' eating habits. Nearly all students believed that they ate better in a dinner group, but research is needed to assess actual intake. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
of completing their education. In my presentation I will unfold and discuss the ways in which the students attributed and disclaimed legitimacy to each other qua gender and thus how gender was linked to the relationship between inclusion and exclusion in the student project groups.......Through empirical studies of project groups at university level, I have identified that there are a number of different forms of inclusion and exclusion processes in activity among the students. First, there are the processes that relate to the other students' skills. Here I found that the students....... The students who for some reason were categorized as stupid, lazy, dominant or antisocial had serious difficulties in finding a group to cooperate and write their project report with. In the worst case, this could mean that they had problems to complete their education. Even more surprising was the fact that I...
Librarianship is a profession that facilitates individual and community access to information. The profession is committed to the belief that librarians should reflect the communities that they serve. However, librarianship struggles with the lack of racial and ethnic diversity among its practitioners. Much of the responsibility to diversify the…
Full Text Available The article presents some advances of the research project on Practices of the Youth as Citizen Expressions. From the analysis of three university student groups taken from the 20 groups of youths that participate in this mixed method combining ethnographic strategies with narrative and discursive analysis, the article describes the trajectory and the practices of these groups and shows how the students live experiences that ease the development of different citizen expressions and abilities. The conclusions state that the creation, support and agency of these groups in the universities represent a way to encourage the formation of citizens, and some suggestions are presented related to this topic.
Battersby, Cara; Silvia, Devin W.; Ellingson, Erica; Sturner, Andrew P.; Peck, Courtney
Upon first entering university, the fraction of students interested in pursuing a STEM major are distributed according to societal demographics (with 25% being underrepresented minorities), but by graduation, the fraction of students receiving STEM degrees is unbalanced, with underrepresented minorities receiving only 15% of STEM bachelor's degrees. The CU-STARs (CU Science, Technology, and Astronomy Recruits) program at the University of Colorado, Boulder is targeted to address the main triggers of early career attrition for underrepresented minorities in STEM disciplines. A select group of students are given financial support through work-study at the Fiske planetarium on campus, while resources to address other triggers of attrition are available to the entire cohort of interested students (typically ~5-10 per year). These resources are designed to promote social engagement and mentorship, while also providing a support network and resources to combat inadequate high school preparation for STEM courses. We achieve these goals through activities that include social events, mentor meetings, free tutoring, and special events to meet and talk with scientists. The culmination of the program for the recruits are a series of high school outreach events in underserved areas (inner city and rural alike), in which they become the expert. The STARs are paid for their time and take the lead in planning, teaching, and facilitating programs for the high school students, including classroom presentations, interactive lab activities, solar observing, and star parties. The high school outreach events provide role models and STEM exposure for the underserved high school community while simultaneously cementing the personal achievements and successes for the STARs. CU-STARs is now in its 4th year and is still growing. We are beginning the process of formal assessments of the program's success. We present details of the program implementation, a discussion of potential obstacles
The aim of this action research was to explore the benefits of group work as a tool for engaging students with introductory material. It was the researcher's expectation that group work, would provide a means of reducing cognitive load (Kirschner, Sweller & Clark, 2006) and encouraging on task behaviour (Wentzel & Watkins, 2002). This would result…
Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.): Collaborative Action Education in Building and Guiding the Future Under-represented Geosciences Workforce Through Tribal Foundations, Mentorship and Professional Development.
Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.) was created as an Indian Self-Determination Organization to meet the every growing Tribal and under-represented minorities (URM) geosciences workforce needs. I.S.S. is one of only a few Indian Self-Determined Organizations in the U.S. with a distinct focused on buidling the Tribal and URM geosciences and natural resources workforces. In past three years, I.S.S has worked in partnership with U.S. colleges/universities, state/federal agencies (Bureau of Indian Affairs), private and International organizations and most importantly U.S. Tribal Nations to ensure emerging high school students, undergraduates, graduate students and post doctorates have the opportunities for training in supportive and unique environments, navigational mentoring, and broad professional development to build and practice the skills required for blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions. I.S.S. has been highly successful in filling workforce opportunities within the broad range of geosciences positions. I.S.S. students are proficient in understanding and maneuvering the complex landscapes of interdisciplinary research, multidisciplinary multi-partner projects, traditional/western philosophies as well as being highly proficient in all areas of problem solving and communications. Research and on-site projects have heightened the educational experiences of all participants, in addition to addressing a perplexing geosciences challenge grounded in a Tribal environment. A number of the I.S.S. participants and students have found geosciences positions in Tribes, state/federal agencies, enterprize as well as International organizations. I.S.S. practices and has infused all research and projects with intergenerational teaching/learning, participation solution-focused initiatives, and holistic/multicultural mentoring. The presentation will highlight the vision, design, implementation, outcomes and future directions of I.S.S and participants.
Turner, James C. Jr.; Mason, Thomas; Guerrieri, Bruno
Programs have been established at Florida A & M University to attract minority students to research careers in mathematics and computational science. The primary goal of the program was to increase the number of such students studying computational science via an interactive multimedia learning environment One mechanism used for meeting this goal was the development of educational modules. This academic year program established within the mathematics department at Florida A&M University, introduced students to computational science projects using high-performance computers. Additional activities were conducted during the summer, these included workshops, meetings, and lectures. Through the exposure provided by this program to scientific ideas and research in computational science, it is likely that their successful applications of tools from this interdisciplinary field will be high.
Thornbury, Elizabeth I.
The underrepresentation of minority and low socioeconomic students has been an issue in gifted education for many years. Barriers related to poverty, cultural differences, linguistic differences, and deficit orientation in school systems are just a few possible causes of underrepresentation. This study examined the effects of a talent development…
Nastas, George, III
Describes the Marketing Environment Group Project to be used by a marketing instructor. Indicates that through this teaching method, students have an increased interest in marketing and a greater understanding of how an organization's marketing strategy must adapt to its changing environment. (JOW)
Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
We used collaborative group testing in a veterinary physiology course (65 students) to test the hypothesis that all students (e.g., high-performing and low-performing students of each group) benefit from collaborative group testing. In this format, students answered questions in the traditional format as individuals. Immediately after completing…
Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2012
Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers--STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority…
Forslund Frykedal, Karin; Hammar Chiriac, Eva
Group work is an educational mode that promotes learning and socialisation among students. In this study, we focused on the inclusive processes when students work in small groups. The aim was to investigate and describe students' inclusive and collaborative processes in group work and how the teacher supported or impeded these transactions. Social…
Jackson, Matthew C.; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B.
Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life sciences across ethnic groups of freshman college students, as moderated by generational status. Results from a longitudinal survey (N = 249) demonstrated that freshman URM students who enter with a greater belief that science can be used to help their communities identified as scientists more strongly over time, but only among first-generation college students. Analysis of the survey data were consistent with content analysis of 11 transcripts from simultaneously conducted focus groups (N = 67); together, these studies reveal important differences in motivational characteristics both across and within ethnicity across educational generation status. First-generation URM students held the strongest prosocial values for pursuing a science major (e.g., giving back to the community). URM students broadly reported additional motivation to increase the status of their family (e.g., fulfilling aspirations for a better life). These findings demonstrate the importance of culturally connected career motives and for examining intersectional identities to understand science education choices and inform efforts to broaden participation. PMID:27543631
Giving orphaned students abroad the chance to study in Japan While Ashinaga originally only supported Japanese students who had lost parents, as time passed it became increasingly clear that we had the experience and means to assist orphaned students outside Japan as well. This first took the shape of fundraising for international humanitarian crises, but eventually grew into various financial aid and scholarship opportunities to benefit orphaned students from around the world. Wh...
Prosen, Simona; Smrtnik Vitulić, Helena
The present study analyses the executive function (EF) skills of 369 students of primary education (n = 116), preschool education (n = 72), social pedagogy (n = 54), and biology (n = 128). It explores how the different groups of students use selected executive skills and whether there are any differences between the groups in this respect. Eleven EF skills were self-assessed using the Executive Skills Questionnaire for Students (Dawson & Guare, 2010). All of the groups of students experien...
Wolfe, Benjamin A.; Riggs, Eric M.
Meeting the future demand for a qualified geoscience workforce will require efforts to increase recruitment, retention, and graduation of an increasingly diverse student body. Doing this successfully requires renewed attention to the needs and characteristics of underrepresented students, which include ethnic and cultural minorities, women, and…
Lendvay, Gregory C.
Even in a standards-based curriculum, teachers can apply constructivist practices such as structured learning teams. In this environment, students become invested in the learning aims, triggering the desire in students to awaken, get information, interpret, remix, share, and design scenarios.
Allan, Elizabeth G.
This article identifies the strategies used by architecture professors and their undergraduate students to mitigate common issues that students raise about group work. Based on participant-observation, interviews with students and faculty, and analysis of instructional materials and student work, this IRB-approved ethnographic case study…
Mellingsaeter, Magnus Strøm; Bungum, Berit
This paper presents a case study of how the interactive whiteboard (IWB) may facilitate collective meaning-making processes in group work in engineering education. In the case, first-year students attended group-work sessions as an organised part of a basic physics course at a Norwegian university college. Each student group was equipped with an…
Arendt, Susan W.; Gregoire, Mary B.
No known studies have examined the perception of family and consumer science (FCS) students related to group work in the classroom and its relationship to leadership. In this qualitative study, two groups of FCS students--hospitality management and dietetics--viewed group projects as exercises in leadership skills that had many barriers.…
Byars-Winston, Angela; Rogers, Jenna; Branchaw, Janet; Pribbenow, Christine; Hanke, Ryan; Pfund, Christine
An important step in broadening participation of historically underrepresented (HU) racial/ethnic groups in the sciences is the creation of measures validated with these groups that will allow for greater confidence in the results of investigations into factors that predict their persistence. This study introduces new measures of theoretically derived factors emanating from social cognitive and social identity theories associated with persistence for HU racial/ethnic groups in science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to investigate: 1) the internal reliability and factor analyses for measures of research-related self-efficacy beliefs, sources of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and science identity; and 2) potential group differences in responses to the measures, examining the main and interaction effects of gender and race/ethnicity. Survey data came from a national sample of 688 undergraduate students in science majors who were primarily black/African American and Hispanic/Latino/a with a 2:1 ratio of females to males. Analyses yielded acceptable validity statistics and race × gender group differences were observed in mean responses to several measures. Implications for broadening participation of HU groups in the sciences are discussed regarding future tests of predictive models of student persistence and training programs to consider cultural diversity factors in their design. PMID:27521235
Beccaria, Lisa; Kek, Megan; Huijser, Henk; Rose, Jayln; Kimmins, Lindy
As part of the process of nursing students becoming 'work ready' within future health care teams, students need the skills to work collaboratively. In higher education, establishing group work assignments is a teaching method to develop group work skills. Not only is group work an important teaching method to develop effective group work skills but it is also used to activate deep learning. However, to date, there has been a lack of research on the impact of group work on student approaches to learning. This study aimed to examine the interrelationships between students, group work characteristics, and their approaches to learning. A survey design was used, before and after a targeted academic skills development intervention, which had a specific focus on the development of group work skills. The sample involved first year undergraduate nursing students undertaking a Bachelor of Nursing programme at a regional university in Australia. A total of 92 students completed the pre-survey, and 102 students completed the post-survey. Data were collected using quantitative surveys. Metacognitive awareness was found to best predict a deep approach to learning. Young age and experiencing discomfort in group work were two predictors of a surface approach to learning. Findings indicate that nurse educators should develop strategies that support students' metacognitive awareness in relation to group work, and also support those students who feel less comfortable in working with others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Channon, S. B.; Davis, R. C.; Goode, N. T.; May, S. A.
Group work forms the foundation for much of student learning within higher education, and has many educational, social and professional benefits. This study aimed to explore the determinants of success or failure for undergraduate student teams and to define a "good group" through considering three aspects of group success: the task, the…
Ryan, Carey S.
Examined accuracy of black and of white students' in-group and out-group stereotypes by comparing judgments of stereotypicality and dispersion of black and of white first-year college students (N=100) with stereotypicality and dispersion of self-ratings provided by random samples of group members. Consistent with social identity theory,…
Today's radiologic technology students must learn to collaborate and communicate to function as part of the health care team. Innovative educational techniques such as cooperative learning (working collectively in small groups) and group testing (collaborating on tests) can foster these skills. Assess students' familiarity with and opinions about cooperative learning and group testing before and after participation in a semester-long course incorporating these methods. Twenty-eight students enrolled in a baccalaureate-level radiologic technology program in Louisiana were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester. Results showed that students were more knowledgeable about and more accepting of cooperative learning and group testing after participating in the course. However, some students continued to prefer independent learning. Students are open to new learning methods such as cooperative learning and group testing. These techniques can help them develop the skills they will need to function collaboratively in the workplace.
Bosco, Pat J.; And Others
Explored and typified the interaction between student leaders and followers in student decision-making groups in a natural campus setting. Student committee members (N=122) were observed and rated by graduate assistants (N=14). Results revealed two basic styles of leaders' communication: information giving and information seeking. Results have…
Choi, Kyoung Mi; Protivnak, Jake J.
This research study used qualitative phenomenological methodology to explore counseling graduate students' experiences leading support groups for international students. Participants included 6 master's-level counseling students. The following 4 themes emerged to describe the counseling students' experience as group leaders: (a) individualistic…
Houlton, H. R.; Keane, C. M.; Seadler, A. R.; Wilson, C. E.
A professional development workshop for underrepresented minority, future and early-career faculty in the geosciences was held in April of 2012. Twenty seven participants traveled to the Washington DC metro area and attended this 2.5 day workshop. Participants' career levels ranged from early PhD students to Assistant Professors, and they had research interests spanning atmospheric sciences, hydrology, solid earth geoscience and geoscience education. Race and ethnicity of the participants included primarily African American or Black individuals, as well as Hispanic, Native American, Native Pacific Islanders and Caucasians who work with underrepresented groups. The workshop consisted of three themed sessions led by prestigious faculty members within the geoscience community, who are also underrepresented minorities. These sessions included "Guidance from Professional Societies," "Instructional Guidance" and "Campus Leadership Advice." Each session lasted about 3 hours and included a mixture of presentational materials to provide context, hands-on activities and robust group discussions. Two additional sessions were devoted to learning about federal agencies. For the morning session, representatives from USGS and NOAA came to discuss opportunities within each agency and the importance of promoting geoscience literacy with our participants. The afternoon session gave the workshop attendees the fortunate opportunity to visit NSF headquarters. Participants were welcomed by NSF's Assistant Director for Geosciences and took part in small group meetings with program officers within the Geosciences Directorate. Participants indicated having positive experiences during this workshop. In our post-workshop evaluation, the majority of participants revealed that they thought the sessions were valuable, with many finding the sessions extremely valuable. The effectiveness of each session had similar responses. Preliminary results from 17 paired sample t-tests show increased
Chupp, Amy I.; Boes, Susan R.
This action research study (ARS) describes the effectiveness of small group social skills lessons with elementary students, using "Too Good for Violence: A Curriculum for Non-violent Living" by the Mendez Foundation. The school counselor and school social worker taught the curriculum in a structured small group of 4th grade students in 8…
Oliver, Jason; Kowalczyk, Christine
Student presentations can often seem like a formality rather than a lesson in representing oneself or group in a professional manner. To improve the quality of group presentations, the authors modified the popular presentation style of Pecha Kucha (20 slides, 20 seconds per slide) for marketing courses to help students prepare and deliver…
Pickering, Cyril E.
Student resiliency, or the internal resources that an individual possesses that enables success despite adversity, is a variable of interest, particularly for students who are at-risk for negative outcomes in school. This study examined the group counseling efforts of an alternative high school, looking at how group composition influenced the…
Coers, Natalie; Lorensen, Marianne; Anderson, James C., II.
Working in groups and teams is a common practice in today's college classroom, partly in order to meet the growing demand by employers that students entering the workforce have leadership and group experience. This practice has many inherent benefits and challenges. The experiences created must meet the needs of both students and other…
Estrada, Mica; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley
African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree earners. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that URMs do not integrate into the STEM academic community at the same rate as non-URM students.…
Romito, Laura M; Eckert, George J
This study assessed biomedical science content acquisition from problem-based learning (PBL) and its relationship to students' level of group interaction. We hypothesized that learning in preparation for exams results primarily from individual study of post-case learning objectives and that outcomes would be unrelated to students' group involvement. During dental curricular years 1 and 2, student-generated biomedical learning issues (LIs) were identified from six randomly chosen PBL cases. Knowledge and application of case concepts were assessed with quizzes based on the identified LIs prior to dissemination of the learning objectives. Students and facilitators were surveyed on students' level of group involvement for the assessed LI topics. Year 1 students had significantly higher assessment scores (p=0.0001). For both student classes, means were significantly higher for the recall item (Q1) than for the application item (Q2). Q1 scores increased along with the student's reported role for Year 1 (p=0.04). However, there was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q1 for Year 2 (p=0.20). There was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q2 for Year 1 (p=0.09) or Year 2 (p=0.19). This suggests that students' level of group involvement on the biomedical learning issues did not significantly impact students' assessment performance.
This study, conducted in a US setting, examines the importance of group dynamics that emphasize cooperative team building through the proposed grouping strategy called Customized Assessment Group Initiative (CAGI). CAGI is a student grouping strategy designed to operationalize the mutual accountability concept central to the definition of teams by…
Ding, Ning; Bosker, Roel J.; Xu, Xiaoyan; Rugers, Lucie; van Heugten, Petra PAM
In business higher education, group project work plays an essential role. The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between the group heterogeneity of students' business project groups and their academic achievements at both group and individual levels. The sample consists of 536 freshmen from an International Business School…
Harris, Garth; Bristow, Dennis
When tasked with group projects, students often struggle with teamwork and tend to overlook the importance of group self-regulation and its role in effective collaborative work. The pedagogy was implemented in semester long university level new product development courses. The pedagogy illustrates how educators can use student generated weekly…
Micari, Marina; Pazos, Pilar; Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory
Small-group learning in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has been widely studied, and it is clear that this method offers many benefits to students. Less attention has been paid to the ways in which small learning groups differ from one another, and how these differences may affect student learning and…
Carr, Joetta L; Koyama, Miki; Thiagarajan, Monica
International students underuse counseling services, which are grounded in Western cultural values. The authors describe a support group for Asian international students that they launched at a large midwestern university to help students feel at ease with American university life, address homesickness, language problems, and academic and social stressors. Co-leaders created a safe and culturally sensitive atmosphere where the women could network, socialize, and address their issues. Group treatment offers many advantages over individual counseling and can enhance the health of international students.
Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Levine, Rachel B.; Yang, Wan Rou; González-Fernández, Marlís; Bodurtha, Joann; Barone, Michael A.; Fivush, Barbara
The literature on leadership competencies does not include an understanding of how stakeholders perceive competencies for women and under-represented minority faculty members. We surveyed three groups of leaders (N = 113) to determine their perceptions of the importance of 23 leadership competencies. All three groups endorsed the same five…
Nathan, Vibeke Torpe; Poulsen, Stig
participation in the group, the impact of the composition of participants on the group process, and the professional learning through the group experience. In general the interviews show a marked satisfaction with the group participation. In particular, learning about the importance of group boundaries...... and about being in the dual position of both helper and client is seen as important. However the fact that all group members are fellow students is challenging to the participants....
Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley
Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, indicating that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than nonminority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same…
González, Gloriana; DeJarnette, Anna F.
Group work has been a main activity recommended by mathematics education reform. We aim at describing the patterns of interaction between teachers and students during group work. We ask: How do teachers scaffold group work during a problem-based lesson? We use data from a problem-based lesson taught in six geometry class periods by two teachers…
Strøm Mellingsæter, Magnus
Background: This paper presents a case study from a physics course at a Norwegian university college, investigating key aspects of a group-work project, so-called learning labs, from the participating students' perspective. Purpose: In order to develop these learning labs further, the students' perspective is important. Which aspects are essential for how the students experience the learning labs, and how do these aspects relate to the emergence of occurrences termed joint workspace, i.e. the maintenance of content-related dialogues within the group? Programme description: First year mechanical engineering students attended the learning labs as a compulsory part of the physics course. The student groups were instructed to solve physics problems using the interactive whiteboard and then submit their work as whiteboard files. Sample: One group of five male students was followed during their work in these learning labs through one term. Design and methods: Data were collected as video recordings and fieldwork observation. In this paper, a focus group interview with the students was the main source of analysis. The interpretations of the interview data were compared with the video material and the fieldwork observations. Results: The results show that the students' overall experience with the learning labs was positive. They did, however, point to internal aspects of conflicting common and personal goals, which led to a group-work dynamics that seemed to inhibit elaborate discussions and collaboration. The students also pointed to external aspects, such as a close temporal proximity between lectures and exercises, which also seemed to inhibit occurrences termed joint workspace. Conclusions: In order to increase the likelihood of a joint workspace throughout the term in the learning labs, careful considerations have to be made with regard to timing between lectures and exercises, but also with regard to raising the students' awareness about shared and personal goals.
Borges, Jose; Dias, Teresa Galvao; Cunha, Joao Falcao E.
In BSc/MSc engineering programmes at Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), the need to provide students with teamwork experiences close to a real world environment was identified as an important issue. A new group-formation method that aims to provide an enriching teamwork experience is proposed. Students are asked to answer a…
Teviotdale, Wilma W.; Clancy, David; Fisher, Roy; Hill, Pat
This study investigated students' views and experiences of group work in a vocationally oriented undergraduate accounting and finance degree course in an English post-1992 university. In this context tutors prepare students for the profession and for the workplace, and the development of team-working skills is a core element in the curriculum.…
Rodliyah, Rojab Siti
This study investigates how social media, in this case Facebook, can be incorporated in ELT through e-dialogue journal writing shared in a Facebook closed group. Fifteen EFL students participated in this case study. They were second, third, and fourth year students of English Education Department of a university in Bandung, who voluntarily joined…
Mellingsaeter, Magnus Strøm
Background: This paper presents a case study from a physics course at a Norwegian university college, investigating key aspects of a group-work project, so-called learning labs, from the participating students' perspective. Purpose: In order to develop these learning labs further, the students' perspective is important. Which aspects are essential…
Bancroft, Senetta F.
Most studies exploring the experiences of underrepresented doctoral students of color in science fields focus on their socialization into predominantly white institutions. While the socialization process is fundamental to doctoral success and consequently deserves attention, it is critical to inquire into how the widespread and lasting perception of people of color as socioculturally deficient shapes underrepresented students` socialization into science doctoral programs. Further, the existing research literature and educational policies addressing the persistent underrepresentation of students of color in science doctorates remain fixated on increasing racial diversity for U.S. economic security rather than racial equity. In view of the limitation of existing research literature, in this study, drawing from critical race theories, fictive-kinship, and forms of capital, I use counterstorytelling to recast racial inequities in the education of science doctorates as a problem of social justice, not as an issue of the students' sociocultural deficits or as a matter of economic security. Through interviews I examined the experiences, from elementary school to current careers, of three women of color who were science doctoral students. Participants' counterstories revealed institutionalized racism embedded in doctoral programs exploited their identities and dismissed their lived experiences, thereby, relegating them to outsiders-within academe. This marginalization precluded the inclusive socialization of participants into their doctoral programs and ultimately set up barriers to their pursuit of scientific careers. This study divulges the academic and career consequences of the sustained privilege disparities between underrepresented students of color's experience and the experiences of their white and Asian counterparts. In light of the participants' experiences, I recommend that, in order to change the existing policy of socially integrating students into oppressive
Teviotdale, Wilma; Clancy, David; Fisher, Roy; Hill, Pat
This study investigated students’ views and experiences of group work in a vocationally oriented undergraduate Accounting and Finance degree course in an English post-1992 university. In this context tutors prepare students for the profession and for the workplace, and the development of team-working skills is a core element in the curriculum. This presents a significant challenge to tutors given that students commonly report an aversion to aspects of group work, including a perceived loss of...
Smith, Mark; Polglase, Giles; Parry, Carolyn
Belbin team role self and observer perceptions were applied to a large cohort (145) of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences undergraduates in a module assessed through two separate group projects. Students self-selected groups for the first project; for the second, groups were more "balanced." Results show slight improvement in…
Full Text Available The method of drafting complexes physical exercises is considered for students with the diseases of spine. In an experiment participated 21 student with violations of spine (mainly osteochondrosis and moderate scoliosis. Distinction is rotined in physical development and physical preparedness of students of task medical force and basic group. The orientation of complex of exercises is certain on forming of muscular corset of students by exercises of power character. Efficiency of the use is tested stretchings and weakening the skeletal muscles of exercises in alternation with power exercises.
In this article I discuss the factors that led me to implement study groups in the teaching of mathematics. An important influence in this decision began with an experimental study conducted with two College Algebra classes in which students were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While there was no statistical difference between the study…
Schullery, Nancy M.; Schullery, Stephen E.
This study investigated the relative benefits to the student of working in homogeneous versus heterogeneous classroom groups. Correlation analysis of 18 desirable outcomes versus 8 personality-based heterogeneity variables reveals that heterogeneity associates with advantages as well as disadvantages. Ways in which group composition might be…
This article presents the findings of a study measuring the classroom climates in collegiate interior design studios and considers these findings within the group dynamics theory framework. Three groups of students completed the College Classroom Environment Scales (CCES) questionnaire. Five of the six CCES subscale F ratios were statistically…
Whittaker, D E; Hoffman, M
To encourage fourth-year medical students to review their ethnocentric attitudes to the politicized issues of population and undernutrition in South Africa, small-group work (SGW) was introduced during a month's teaching in community health at the University of Cape Town. We tested several formats for these sessions and chose one which seemed effective. This study examined the remaining students' attitudes to SGW as a means of briefly examining complex emotive topics. Sixty-nine students of a class of 168 were asked to complete a Likert questionnaire on their attitudes to SGW. Fifty-five students (79.7%) agreed that group work had allowed them to engage the topics briefly but usefully and 62 (90%) thought that the topics lent themselves to SGW. While 52 (75.3%) were not confused, 5 (7.2%) were confused by SGW. Thirty-nine students (56.5%) preferred lectures, tutorials or seminars to SGW. Thirty-seven students (53.6%) needed more fact to benefit fully from the SGW. Students found SGW appropriate for briefly examining these topics but wanted more fact to benefit fully from the sessions. The survey yielded valuable feedback from students on SGW as a means of addressing controversial and attitude-laden issues of central importance to the delivery of effective health care in Southern Africa.
Cabinte, Desiree C.
The mixed heritage population is one of the fastest growing in the United States. With mixed heritage youth doubling in the past ten years, higher education institutions can expect an increase of this minority group. Historically higher education has responded to underrepresented student needs and designed student services for monoracial students…
Many clinicians are involved in medical education, with small group teaching (SGT) forming a significant part of their work. Most facilitate these sessions by experience and common sense: less than one-third of them have received formal training in SGT. Evidence suggests small group productivity depends on good facilitation rather than on topic knowledge. Applying the fundamental concepts of SGT will lead to improvements in the quality of clinicians' teaching and in student learning. Good SGT creates the perfect environment for learning and discussion, without the need for didactic teaching. SGT emphasises the role of students in sharing and discussing their ideas in a safe learning environment, without domination by the tutor. This article provides clinicians with basic requirements for effective session design and planning, explains how to encourage student participation, how to manage students as a group, how to manage student learning, and how to recognise and deal with problems. Active facilitation and group management is the key to success in SGT, and consequently better learning outcomes. Improving the facilitation skills of clinical teachers makes teaching more effective, stimulating, and enjoyable for both tutors and students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Full Text Available The present essay focuses on summarizing the key elements that should be considered wheneducators are in a position to manage and interact with a group of students from different culturesor social environments. In this respect, we consider that the challenge educators’ face inconnecting with students of diverse backgrounds is to develop a critical consciousness of the waysin which these larger discourses operate in their classrooms and to care enough to question them,to challenge them and to advocate for their students. To care for students who come fromhistorically marginalized populations educators need to remember that schooling can serve eithera liberating or marginalizing function. They can empower students to identify structures in societythat have contributed to marginalizing their perspective and seek to maintain inequitable structuresin society or even narrow communities.
Varga-Atkins, Tünde; McIsaac, Jaye; Willis, Ian
In Higher Education Focus Groups and Nominal Group Technique are two well-established methods for obtaining student feedback about their learning experience. These methods are regularly used for the enhancement and quality assurance. Based on small-scale research of educational developers' practice in curriculum development, this study presents…
Nathan, Vibeke Torpe; Poulsen, Stig
This article presents results from an interview study of psychology students' experiences from group-analytic groups conducted at the University of Copenhagen. The primary foci are the significance of differences in themotivation participants' personal aims of individual participantsfor...
Group work in the context of higher education is a teaching and learning method which has the aim to facilitate learning processes due to students learning by cooperation and mutual feedback. At the same time group work might offer various challenges on a social, moral and intellectual level....... This article offers a moral perspective on group work by introducing a concept of ‘learning rights’ of the individual in group work. The aim of the paper is theoretically to offer a vocabulary concerning ‘learning rights’ of the individual in group work by applying John Dewey’s metaphor ‘the spectator versus...
Full Text Available Analysing the engagement of students in university-based Facebook groups can shed light on the nature of their learning experience and highlight leverage points to build on student success. While post-semester surveys and demographic participation data can highlight who was involved and how they subsequently felt about the experience, these techniques do not necessarily reflect real-time engagement. One way to gain insight into in-situ student experiences is by categorising the original posts and comments into predetermined frameworks of learning. This paper offers a systematic method of coding Facebook contributions within various engagement categories: motivation, discourse, cognition and emotive responses.
The main purpose of this dissertation was to relate a study within the framework of Peer Student Group Research to the basic Process-Product Paradigm for Research on Teaching. Information about previous research within this field was given in the chapter on background. A total of 287 peer students at the Department of Education, Umeå University and at the teacher training colleges at Umeå and Luleå participated in this study. Thirty-one students worked individually and constituted a control g...
Full Text Available The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB Student Council was launched in 2004 to facilitate interaction between young scientists in the fields of bioinformatics and computational biology. Since then, the Student Council has successfully run events and programs to promote the development of the next generation of computational biologists. However, in its early years, the Student Council faced a major challenge, in that students from different geographical regions had different needs; no single activity or event could address the needs of all students. To overcome this challenge, the Student Council created the Regional Student Group (RSG program. The program consists of locally organised and run student groups that address the specific needs of students in their region. These groups usually encompass a given country, and, via affiliation with the international Student Council, are provided with financial support, organisational support, and the ability to share information with other RSGs. In the last five years, RSGs have been created all over the world and organised activities that have helped develop dynamic bioinformatics student communities. In this article series, we present common themes emerging from RSG initiatives, explain their goals, and highlight the challenges and rewards through specific examples. This article, the first in the series, introduces the Student Council and provides a high-level overview of RSG activities. Our hope is that the article series will be a valuable source of information and inspiration for initiating similar activities in other regions and scientific communities.
In this article I consider what critical mathematics education could mean for different groups of students. Much discussion and research has addressed students at social risk. My point, however, is that critical mathematics education concerns other groups as well: for example, students in comfortable positions, blind students, elderly students, "other" students, university students, as well as engineering students. By considering such different groups of students, I will show that "reading an...
This cross-sectional study examined anticipated reactions to group participation among Asian international students (ISs). Structural equation modeling confirmed that Asian ISs' (n = 180) level of acculturation was associated with their attitude toward joining group counseling, which is partially mediated by their stigma toward help-seeking. The results of multiple regression analyses indicated that ISs who reported higher place dependence, stigma toward help-seeking, and fear of negative evaluation reported more fear about disclosing emotional parts of themselves to other group members in the presence of a group member from the same country of origin. The results showed that ISs' perceived difficulties in providing feedback to a group member in the presence of an IS from the same country of origin were predicted by low place identity, high place dependence, and more stigma. International students' willingness to disclose and provide feedback in a group counseling setting was compared in three different hypothetical situations based on other group members' demographics, and the results showed that ISs are more afraid of self-disclosure in the presence of an international student from the same country.
McGeown, Helen Rosemary
This study investigated the impact of information on level of prototypicality of the ingroup ‘medical students’, comparing self-esteem effects for those primed as individuals with self-esteem effects for those primed as group members. Indication of prototypicality was given by false feedback on purported individual levels of empathy, an important group norm for medical students. As well as priming type having interactive effects with prototypicality information, it was hypothesized that initi...
Khodabakhshi, Susan C.
A study investigated whether group interaction in completing cloze passages resulted in better completion than individual work. An earlier analysis of cloze procedure was replicated with 41 community college students of English as a Second Language (ESL). The population was randomly divided into two samples. Each sample completed two cloze…
Computing professionals work in groups and collaborate with individuals having diverse backgrounds and behaviors. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) characterizes that a computing program must enable students to attain the ability to analyze a problem, design and evaluate a solution, and work effectively on teams to…
Channon, S B; Davis, R C; Goode, N T; May, S A
Group work forms the foundation for much of student learning within higher education, and has many educational, social and professional benefits. This study aimed to explore the determinants of success or failure for undergraduate student teams and to define a 'good group' through considering three aspects of group success: the task, the individuals, and the team. We employed a mixed methodology, combining demographic data with qualitative observations and task and peer evaluation scores. We determined associations between group dynamic and behaviour, demographic composition, member personalities and attitudes towards one another, and task success. We also employed a cluster analysis to create a model outlining the attributes of a good small group learning team in veterinary education. This model highlights that student groups differ in measures of their effectiveness as teams, independent of their task performance. On the basis of this, we suggest that groups who achieve high marks in tasks cannot be assumed to have acquired team working skills, and therefore if these are important as a learning outcome, they must be assessed directly alongside the task output.
Iqbal, Maha; Velan, Gary M; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Balasooriya, Chinthaka
Collaboration is of increasing importance in medical education and medical practice. Students' and tutors' perceptions about small group learning are valuable to inform the development of strategies to promote group dynamics and collaborative learning. This study investigated medical students' and tutors' views on competencies and behaviours which promote effective learning and interaction in small group settings. This study was conducted at UNSW Australia. Five focus group discussions were conducted with first and second year medical students and eight small group tutors were interviewed. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. Students and tutors identified a range of behaviours that influenced collaborative learning. The main themes that emerged included: respectfulness; dominance, strong opinions and openness; constructiveness of feedback; active listening and contribution; goal orientation; acceptance of roles and responsibilities; engagement and enthusiasm; preparedness; self- awareness and positive personal attributes. An important finding was that some of these student behaviours were found to have a differential impact on group interaction compared with collaborative learning. This information could be used to promote higher quality learning in small groups. This study has identified medical students' and tutors' perceptions regarding interactional behaviours in small groups, as well as behaviours which lead to more effective learning in those settings. This information could be used to promote learning in small groups.
Natoli, Riccardo; Jackling, Beverley; Seelanatha, Lalith
This paper examines the influence of two distinct group work management strategies on finance students' attitudes towards group work and their perceptions of generic skill development. Using quantitative and qualitative data, comparisons are made between students who experienced a supportive group work environment and students who experienced an…
First-generation college (FGC) students have been described as an underrepresented group in comparison to their continuing-generation counterparts (non-FGC students). Studying college students' socialization experiences and their use of academic resources can help us understand how to facilitate their academic success. Incorporating…
Popov, V.; Brinkman, B.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Noroozi, O.
This paper aims to examine challenges that are inherent in multicultural student group work (MCSG) in higher education and the differences between students from different cultural backgrounds in how they perceive the importance of challenges in MCSG. For this purpose, a 19-item survey was completed
Gilchrist, Pamela O.; Alexander, Alonzo B.
This paper will describe the curriculum development process employed to develop a solar cell and photonics curriculum unit for students underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics fields. Information will explain how the curriculum unit was piloted with middle and high school teachers from public schools in North Carolina, high school students from underrepresented groups in an informal science program, and workshop settings. Measures used to develop the curriculum materials for middle school students will be presented along with program findings documenting students' urban versus rural interest in STEM, career aspirations, and 21st century learning skills in informal learning settings.
Durán Aguero, Samuel; Reyes García, Susanne; Gaete, María Cristina
The lifestyle changes in college, students go through periods of physical inactivity and irregular meal times, which leads to increased consumption of processed foods and fast food. To calculate vitamins and minerals intakes for groups in the diet of Chilean university students. We studied 654 university students (18 to 24 years, 54% female), a 7-day food frequency questionnaire was used for dietary assessment, the information collected was classified into 12 groups representing each set of food, and then nutrient intake was determined. The main results were: (a) women had lower intake of most micronutrients than men (b) pantothenic acid, vitamin B12 and E, calcium, magnesium and iron are nutrients that showed mean intakes below the daily recommendations, (c) the consumption of bread is essential for the supply of B vitamins, iron, copper and selenium. In the usual diet of college students, bread is a key to the dietary intake of B vitamins, iron, copper and selenium, as well as dairy products for calcium, meat and fish for vitamin B12 and zinc; vegetables for vitamin A and fruits for vitamin C. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Al-Maliky, S; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; van der Sluijs, E; Keijser, B J F; van der Weijden, G A
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to get a picture of the daily oral hygiene behaviour of a group of healthy Dutch students in the age range of 18 to 30 years and its relation to oral health. On the basis of a questionnaire, the students were interviewed concerning their oral hygiene behaviour. The level of gingivitis and the level of tongue coating were analysed in relation to the results of the questionnaire. The study revealed that the majority brushed their teeth twice a day. The different methods of tooth brushing and the use of a manual or electric toothbrush had no significant effect on the clinical parameters in this study population. A small group used an interdental cleaning method daily. The toothpick was the aid most often used and its use resulted in a significant reduction of the tendency to interdental bleeding. The use of a tongue cleaner had no statistically significant effect on the level of tongue coating.
Kinsella, Gemma K.; Mahon, Catherine; Lillis, Seamus
It is envisaged that small-group exercises as part of a large-group session would facilitate not only group work exercises (a valuable employability skill), but also peer learning. In this article, such a strategy to facilitate the active engagement of the student in a large-group setting was explored. The production of student-led resources was…
Hassouneh, Dena; Lutz, Kristin F; Beckett, Ann K; Junkins, Edward P; Horton, LaShawn L
Faculty of color in schools of medicine play an essential role in addressing health disparities, increasing diversity in healthcare, and improving health professions education. Yet inadequate progress has been made in increasing the numbers of faculty of color in medical schools. The reasons for this gap, and ways to address it, are poorly understood. We conducted a grounded theory study of 25 of faculty from groups historically underrepresented in academic medicine at 17 schools in the United States. Faculty were interviewed in person (n=4, 16%) and by telephone (n=21, 84%). We identified two processes that contribute to a greater understanding of the experiences of faculty of color: patterns of exclusion and control, and surviving and thriving. We also identified one outcome - faculty of color having influence. Strong support from leaders, mentors, and peers to nurture and protect faculty of color in schools of medicine is needed to counteract the negative effects of racism and to promote the positive effects this group has on diversity and excellence in medical education. Specific strategies for survival and success are described.
Full Text Available Introduction: Faculty of color in schools of medicine play an essential role in addressing health disparities, increasing diversity in healthcare, and improving health professions education. Yet inadequate progress has been made in increasing the numbers of faculty of color in medical schools. The reasons for this gap, and ways to address it, are poorly understood. Methods: We conducted a grounded theory study of 25 of faculty from groups historically underrepresented in academic medicine at 17 schools in the United States. Faculty were interviewed in person (n=4, 16% and by telephone (n=21, 84%. Results: We identified two processes that contribute to a greater understanding of the experiences of faculty of color: patterns of exclusion and control, and surviving and thriving. We also identified one outcome – faculty of color having influence. Conclusions: Strong support from leaders, mentors, and peers to nurture and protect faculty of color in schools of medicine is needed to counteract the negative effects of racism and to promote the positive effects this group has on diversity and excellence in medical education. Specific strategies for survival and success are described.
Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe
As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…
Chu, Shao-Yin; Lin, Chi-Wei; Lin, Meei-Ju; Wen, Chin-Chen
The biopsychosocial model is a comprehensive approach emphasizing holistic medical care. However, medical curricula that incorporate narrative reflective writing and group dynamic discussion of psychosocial issues among patients and their family members in reflective dialogue groups are currently underutilized. The aim of this study was to determine psychosocial issues among patients and their family members through medical students' reflective dialogue groups. This study was completed as part of a pediatric clerkship. Fifty medical students were rotated to the department of Pediatrics. They completed a narrative writing assignment concerning patients' psychosocial issues and participated in a reflective group discussion during the rotation. The recordings of the six reflective group sessions were transcribed for thematic analysis. A six-step theme generation process was conducted in the first reading stage of all transcripts by four researchers. Subsequently, initial codes were generated and potential themes sought before possible themes were reviewed and thematic maps generated. Names for each theme were defined and a scholarly report of the analysis was presented through a consensus-based approach. A total of 108 psychosocial issues were coded and categorized as the following six main themes: medical communication, the intricate medical ecological system, role and function of a family, development of medical professionalism, ethical dilemmas, and various patient perspectives from diverse cultural backgrounds. All these themes underlie the complexity of clinical encounters. Clinical care is an extremely complex interactive ecological network involving human behavior, family, and public health care systems. The discovery of psychosocial problems by medical students as narrators in this study illustrates that medical care should focus not only on illnesses but also patients' psychosocial narratives.
Haynes, Nia A.; Jacobson, Susan
Using a framework based on social cognitive career theory, we conducted 38 interviews and four focus groups with college students to identify motivations and barriers faced by underrepresented groups to natural resource careers. Interviews revealed career satisfaction as the most important goal for both natural resource and a comparison of liberal…
Walling, Anne; Istas, Kathryn; Bonaminio, Giulia A; Paolo, Anthony M; Fontes, Joseph D; Davis, Nancy; Berardo, Benito A
Phenomenon: Medical student perspectives were sought about active learning, including concerns, challenges, perceived advantages and disadvantages, and appropriate role in the educational process. Focus groups were conducted with students from all years and campuses of a large U.S. state medical school. Students had considerable experience with active learning prior to medical school and conveyed accurate understanding of the concept and its major strategies. They appreciated the potential of active learning to deepen and broaden learning and its value for long-term professional development but had significant concerns about the efficiency of the process, the clarity of expectations provided, and the importance of receiving preparatory materials. Most significantly, active learning experiences were perceived as disconnected from grading and even as impeding preparation for school and national examinations. Insights: Medical students understand the concepts of active learning and have considerable experience in several formats prior to medical school. They are generally supportive of active learning concepts but frustrated by perceived inefficiencies and lack of contribution to the urgencies of achieving optimal grades and passing United States Medical Licensing Examinations, especially Step 1.
In this article I consider what critical mathematics education could mean for different groups of students. Much discussion and research has addressed students at social risk. My point, however, is that critical mathematics education concerns other groups as well: for example, students in comfortable positions, blind students, elderly students,…
Jensen, Lars Peter
Since Aalborg University (AAU) was founded it has been using an educational model, where Problem Based Learning is the turning point. Each semester the students work in groups using half of the study time to solve and document a real-world engineering problem. Working with problems gives...... the students a very deep learning of the subjects they study and also very good problem solving skills and team work competencies both highly appreciated by the Danish companies. An important aspect of the first semester of the education is a course where the students get tools and tricks for good...... showed less interest in the course than e.g. Software and Computer Science students. The consequences of this are that app. 1/3 of the BAIT students don’t develop their team work skills and competences to the level that is expected. The development of team work skills is closely connected to how...
in comfortable positions, blind students, elderly students, "other" students, university students, as well as engineering students. By considering such different groups of students, I will show that "reading and writing the world with mathematics" opens towards a range of different interpretations, which brings...
Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.
An acute STEM crisis exists nationally, and the problem is even more dire among the geosciences. Since about the middle of the last century, fewer undergraduate and graduate degrees have been granted in the geosciences than in any other STEM fields. To help in ameliorating this geoscience plight, particularly from among members of racial and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in STEM fields, the New York City College of Technology (City Tech) launched a vibrant geoscience program and convened a community of STEM students who are interested in learning about the geosciences. This program creates and introduces geoscience knowledge and opportunities to a diverse undergraduate student population that was never before exposed to geoscience courses at City Tech. This geoscience project is funded by the NSF OEDG program, and it brings awareness, knowledge, and geoscience opportunities to City Tech's students in a variety of ways. Firstly, two new geoscience courses have been created and introduced. One course is on Environmental Remote Sensing, and the other course is an Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters. The Remote Sensing course highlights the physical and mathematical principles underlying remote sensing techniques. It covers the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques, interferometric and lidar systems, and an introduction to image processing. Guest lecturers are invited to present their expertise on various geoscience topics. These sessions are open to all City Tech students, not just to those students who enroll in the course. The Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters course is expected to be offered in Spring 2013. This highly relevant, fundamental course will be open to all students, especially to non-science majors. The course focuses on natural disasters, the processes that control them, and their devastating impacts to human life and structures. Students will be introduced to the nature, causes, risks
First-generation college students are an underrepresented group in terms of study abroad participation nationally and at Arizona State University (ASU). The ASU and International Studies Abroad (ISA) Planning Scholars Scholarship Program was developed to support first-generation college students in their pursuit of study abroad. This mixed-methods…
This research aimed to find out how group investigation improves the student's speaking skill of the second grade students of SMA 2 Samarinda, how group investigation improves the student's participation in speaking of second grade students of SMA 2 Samarinda, and what the obstacles are in the implementation of Group Investigation. The classroom…
Torre, Dario; Daley, Barbara J; Picho, Katherine; Durning, Steven J
Group concept mapping may be used as a learning strategy that can potentially foster collaborative learning and assist instructors to assess the development of knowledge organization in medical students. Group concept maps were created by 39 medical students rotating through a fourth year medicine rotation. The group maps were developed based on a clinical vignette. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of students' evaluations were performed. Evaluations indicated that students enjoyed the collaborative nature of the exercise and the knowledge sharing activities associated with it. Group maps can demonstrate different knowledge organization Discussion: Group concept mapping can be used to explore students' organization and integration of knowledge structures in a collaborative setting. Additional research should focus on how group mapping and learning progresses over time and, whether group mapping can help identify curricular strengths and needs.
Amin, Maryam; Zulla, Rosslynn; Gaudet-Amigo, Gisele; Patterson, Steven; Murphy, Natalie; Ross, Shelley
At a dental school in Canada, problem-based learning (PBL) sessions were restructured from an integrated dental-medical model to a separate dental model, resulting in three groups of students available for study: those who had participated in the two-year dental and medical combined, the one-year dental and medical combined, the one-year dental alone, and the two-year dental alone. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the extent to which the PBL structure affected the dental students' perceptions of the learning value of PBL in the different models. A total of 34 first-, second-, and third-year dental students participated in six focus groups in May and June 2011 (34% of students in those total classes). Semistructured questions explored their experiences in the different PBL structures. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was employed. The results showed positive and negative perceptions for both the combined dental and medical settings and the settings with dental students alone. For students in the combined PBL groups, positive perceptions included gaining information from medical peers, motivation to learn, and interdisciplinary collaborations. The negative perceptions mainly related to irrelevant content, dominating medical students, and ineffective preceptors. Members of the separate dental groups were more positive about the content and felt a sense of belonging. They appreciated the dental preceptors but were concerned about the inadequacy of their medical knowledge. Overall, the dental students valued the combined PBL experience and appreciated the opportunity to learn with their medical colleagues. Close attention, however, must be paid to PBL content and the preceptor's role to optimize dental students' experience in combined medical and dental groups.
Deangelo, Linda Teresa
This study used a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model (HGLM) to investigate how the experiences a student has in college and the college they attend affects the likelihood that they will aspire to the PhD at the completion of college. This study was particularly interested in ascertaining in what ways postsecondary institutions support or thwart the PhD aspirations of underrepresented racial minority students, and how institutions might improve PhD aspiration outcomes for underrepresented racial minority students, thereby increasing faculty diversity. A three-pronged theoretical lens was used. Status attainment was used to examine how students background characteristics and significant others such as faculty influence PhD aspirations. Relative deprivation and anticipatory socialization were used to explore how institutional characteristics affect PhD aspirations. The longitudinal data came from the Higher Education Research Institute's (HERI) 1994 freshmen and 1998 follow-up survey. Five sample groups -- All Students, underrepresented racial minority students, Caucasian students, initial PhD aspirants, and other initial degree aspirants -- were derived from this dataset. Frequent faculty encouragement for graduate study was the single most important determinant of who aspires to the PhD for all of the student groups, but was particularly important to underrepresented racial minority students and students who begin college as PhD aspirants. Underrepresented racial minority students are more likely to be encouraged frequently at low selectivity institutions, and the encouragement for graduate study they receive at low selectivity institutions is a sort of equalizer that makes up for effects of attending this institutional type. The mean level of initial degree aspirations was the strongest factor at the institutional level for all of the student groups, and the magnitude of the effect was largest for underrepresented racial minority students. Attending a high
Sachkova, Marianna E.
Full Text Available Typical male and female roles and relationships can be observed at different social levels: intergroup, intragroup, interpersonal, intrapersonal. In adolescence, increased development of gender characteristics (gender identity, gender stereotypes, gender roles appears at all levels. Since the leading activity at this age is interpersonal communication, research into gender characteristics and their influence on relations in the student group is one of the most important tasks of modern psychology. One hundred and forty teenagers in grades 6-8 from secondary schools in Moscow, aged of 12–14, were involved in the research. Special social-psychological techniques were applied for assessment of status relations (sociometry, referentometry, methodology for defining the informal intragroup power structure and gender characteristics (Bem Sex Role Inventory in classical and modified versions, as well as correlation and cluster analyses. We found that representations about the group leader contained clear masculine features. We underline the discrepancy between the qualities attributed to the image of the leader and the qualities of the actual group leaders. Thus, the image of the leader includes predominantly masculine characteristics, while actual high-status group members describe themselves with both feminine and gender-neutral features. Finally gender-typed behavior and masculine traits are more typical of low-status teenagers.
Taylor, Valerie [Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)
The 2013 CMD-IT National Laboratories Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants (CMD-IT NLPDev 2013) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus in Oak Ridge, TN. from June 13 - 14, 2013. Sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Scientific Computing Research Program, the primary goal of these workshops is to provide information about career opportunities in computational science at the various national laboratories and to mentor the underrepresented participants through community building and expert presentations focused on career success. This second annual workshop offered sessions to facilitate career advancement and, in particular, the strategies and resources needed to be successful at the national laboratories.
Alarcon, Josephine B.
This study analyzed the lexical devices used by undergraduate students in their argumentative text using Halliday and Hasan (1976) and Halliday's (2004) taxonomy. One hundred forty-eight argumentative essays were analyzed. The essays underwent interrating by three independent raters using a 20-point rubric and were grouped according to rating.…
Drab, Deborah D.
Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.
Hrabowski, F. A.
This talk will focus on the recent National Academies Report, Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America's Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads. The report (1) suggests stronger coordination among national agencies in developing policies and incentives for broadening participation and (2) focuses on the key roles of different types of educational institutions, from K-12 through higher education. The talk will focus on those issues most important for minority success in STEM, including academic preparation, access and motivation, academic and financial support, and social integration. Finally, Dr. Hrabowski will draw upon his experience in developing the Meyerhoff Scholars Program for talented minority students at his university.
This paper discusses facilitating student collegiality within diverse student groups. It argues that diverse student groups of international, domestic, mature age and Gen Y students often have similar difficulties and strengths although they may occur for quite different reasons and understanding this is useful when deciding on teaching and…
Gregory, James F.; And Others
Orthopedically handicapped (OH, N=353) twelfth graders were compared to a control group. Blacks were under-represented in the OH cohort, and OH students had a higher incidence of other impairments. Academically the OH teenagers performed competitively with classmates, though they experienced difficulties in self-esteem, locus of contrtol, and…
Lechuga, Vicente M.
The influence of emotions in the workplace rarely has been examined within the context of higher education (Neumann, 2006; Smith and Witt, 1993). Through a qualitative approach, the purpose of this chapter is to offer a perspective of faculty work that examines the role that emotions play in the academic life of 15 underrepresented faculty members…
Grimes, Susan; Scevak, Jill; Southgate, Erica; Buchanan, Rachel
Internationally, university students with disabilities (SWD) are recognised as being under-represented in higher education. They face significant problems accessing appropriate accommodations for their disability. Academic outcomes for this group are lower in terms of achievement and graduation rates. The true size of the SWD group at university…
Xie, Ying; Lin, Shu-Yuan
We investigated the effects of supported tagging (a prompting mechanism for students to stop and think about their writing) for team blogging on undergraduate students' reflective learning and the relationship between tagclouds and group cognition. Thirty-nine students were randomly assigned to six groups and blogged for 5 weeks. Three groups were…
van Beynen, Kaya; Swenson, Camielle
Student-run Facebook groups offer librarians a new means of interacting with students in their native digital domain. Facebook groups, a service launched in 2010 enables university students to create a virtual forum to discuss their concerns, issues, and promote events. While still a relatively new feature, these groups are increasingly being…
Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff
This paper explores differences between chemical engineering students and students of other engineering disciplines, as identified by their intended college major. The data used in this analysis was taken from the nationally representative Sustainability and Gender in Engineering (SaGE) survey. Chemical engineering students differ significantly…
Miller, Scott T.
A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…
Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers
Shaw, Julie; Mitchell, Creina; Del Fabbro, Letitia
Devising innovative strategies to address internationalization is a contemporary challenge for universities. A Participatory Action Research (PAR) project was undertaken to identify issues for international nursing students and their teachers. The findings identified group work as a teaching strategy potentially useful to facilitate international student learning. The educational intervention of structured group work was planned and implemented in one subject of a Nursing degree. Groups of four to five students were formed with one or two international students per group. Structural support was provided by the teacher until the student was learning independently, the traditional view of scaffolding. The group work also encouraged students to learn from one another, a contemporary understanding of scaffolding. Evaluation of the group work teaching strategy occurred via anonymous, self-completed student surveys. The student experience data were analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, and free text comments were analysed using content analysis. Over 85% of respondents positively rated the group work experience. Overwhelmingly, students reported that class discussions and sharing nursing experiences positively influenced their learning and facilitated exchange of knowledge about nursing issues from an international perspective. This evaluation of a structured group work process supports the use of group work in engaging students in learning, adding to our understanding of purposeful scaffolding as a pathway to enhance learning for both international and domestic students. By explicitly using group work within the curriculum, educators can promote student learning, a scholarly approach to teaching and internationalization of the curriculum.
Bullying is a widespread social phenomenon involving both individual and group variables. The present study was aimed at analyzing how students' perception of a bullying episode might be influenced by group and context variables. A convenience sample of 455 adolescents read a short story, in which the in-group role (bully vs. victim) and level of…
Lin, C. P.; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Chen, W.
Improving students' reading comprehension is of significance. In this study, collaborative learning supported by Group Scribbles (GS), a networked technology, was integrated into a primary reading class. Forty-seven 10-year-old students from two 4th grade classes participated in the study....... Experimental and control groups were established to investigate the effectiveness of GS-supported collaborative learning in enhancing students' reading comprehension. The results affirmed the effectiveness of the intervention designed. In the experiment group, students' learning attitudes, motivation...
Full Text Available Aims: True learning needs the utilization of proper teaching methods leading to students’ interests in the learning activities to gain useful learning experiences. Therefore, it is needed to reform the traditional teaching methods and to use new student-focused methods by the educational systems. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the student-focused group discussion method and lecture method on the learning level in the Midwifery students. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 72 third-semester Midwifery bachelor students of Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, were selected via census method to participate in the theoretical clinical pregnancy course presented as lecture and group discussion methods in 2014. The final test was done after the end of the training courses. And, material durability test was done 8 weeks after the end of the course sessions. Data was analyzed, using SPSS 16 software and Wilcoxon Non-parametric Test. Findings: There was a significant difference between the mean scores of all the sessions conducted through lecture method (45.00±8.00 and group discussion method (57.00±10.00; p=0.0001. There was a significant difference in the material durability after 8 weeks between the mean scores of lecture (24.50±13.90 and group discussion (35.10±13.10 methods (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Standard student-focused group discussion training affects the midwifery students’ learning more than the lecture method does and there is higher information durability.
Singer-Freeman, Karen; Bastone, Linda; Skrivanek, Joseph
We evaluate the extent to which ePortfolios can be used to assess applied and collaborative learning and academic identity among community college students from underrepresented minority groups who participated in a summer research program. Thirty-eight students were evaluated by their research sponsor and two or three naïve faculty evaluators.…
Fung, Dennis Chun-Lok; To, Helen; Leung, Kit
The objective of this study was to determine whether the incorporation of group work in a teaching intervention can effectively foster students' critical thinking skills. Building upon Kuhn's critical thinking model, the research involved comparison of pretest and post-test results for 140 secondary four (10th grade) students in Hong Kong on two…
George, A.; Gutierrez, B.; Jearld, A.; Liles, G.; Scott, O.; Harden, B.
Launched in 2009, the Partnership Education Program (PEP) is supported by six scientific institutions in Woods Hole, Massachusetts through the Woods Hole Diversity Initiative. PEP, which was shaped by experience with other diversity programs as well as input from scientists in Woods Hole, is designed to promote a diverse scientific community by recruiting talent from minority groups that are under-represented in marine and environmental sciences. Focused on college juniors and seniors with course work in marine and/or environmental sciences, PEP is comprised of a four-week course, "Ocean and Environmental Sciences: Global Climate Change," and a six to eight week individual research project under the guidance of a research mentor. Investigators from the six science institutions serve as course faculty and research mentors. Course credit is through PEP's academic partner, the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. PEP students also participate in seminars, workshops, field trips, at-sea experiences, career development activities, and attend lectures at participating science institutions throughout the summer. Students present their research results at the end of the summer with a 15-minute public presentation. A number of PEP participants then presented their work at professional and scientific meetings, such as AGU, using the program as a gateway to graduate education and career opportunities in the marine and environmental sciences. From 2009 through 2017, 138 students from 86 colleges and universities, including many that previously had sent few or no students or faculty to Woods Hole, have participated in the program. Participating organizations are: Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NOAA Fisheries), Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Sea Education Association (SEA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), and University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES) - academic partner.
White, Geoffry D.
Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)
Full Text Available Introduction: Quantitative and qualitative enhancement of educational activities is an essential issue. Learners’ cooperation in the teaching process in order to increase teaching effectiveness and promotion is considered significant. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of establishment of student working group on the teaching general embryology course to medical students.Methods: Ten students (1% of medical embryology course were selected to analyze the topics to be taught before each session according to lesson plan, and observe the whole teaching process during lesson presentation. Then, having asked the other students’ viewpoints and discussing with one another, they provided the teacher with a written report on the strengths and weaknesses of the teaching and its problems. The teacher analyzed the problems proposed by the working group to improve teaching process in the next session. At the end of the semester, a questionnaire was administered to all the participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.Results: The mean of students’ scores was 74.26%. The most important findings obtained in this study included positive role of film projection in teaching the materials (95.34%, significance of presentation of various pictures from different books (88.4%, changing students’ attitude toward application of embryology in different diseases (86%, and repetition of previous session’s pictures (83.75%. The weak points mentioned, however, were physical problems of the classroom and deficiency of audio visual equipment.Conclusion: Student working group has a positive impact on the teaching medical general embryology.
Kyprianidou, Maria; Demetriadis, Stavros; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos; Pombortsis, Andreas
This work explores the impact of teacher-led heterogeneous group formation on students' teamwork, based on students' learning styles. Fifty senior university students participated in a project-based course with two key organizational features: first, a web system (PEGASUS) was developed to help students identify their learning styles and…
Theobald, Elli J; Eddy, Sarah L; Grunspan, Daniel Z; Wiggins, Benjamin L; Crowe, Alison J
Active learning in college classes and participation in the workforce frequently hinge on small group work. However, group dynamics vary, ranging from equitable collaboration to dysfunctional groups dominated by one individual. To explore how group dynamics impact student learning, we asked students in a large-enrollment university biology class to self-report their experience during in-class group work. Specifically, we asked students whether there was a friend in their group, whether they were comfortable in their group, and whether someone dominated their group. Surveys were administered after students participated in two different types of intentionally constructed group activities: 1) a loosely-structured activity wherein students worked together for an entire class period (termed the 'single-group' activity), or 2) a highly-structured 'jigsaw' activity wherein students first independently mastered different subtopics, then formed new groups to peer-teach their respective subtopics. We measured content mastery by the change in score on identical pre-/post-tests. We then investigated whether activity type or student demographics predicted the likelihood of reporting working with a dominator, being comfortable in their group, or working with a friend. We found that students who more strongly agreed that they worked with a dominator were 17.8% less likely to answer an additional question correct on the 8-question post-test. Similarly, when students were comfortable in their group, content mastery increased by 27.5%. Working with a friend was the single biggest predictor of student comfort, although working with a friend did not impact performance. Finally, we found that students were 67% less likely to agree that someone dominated their group during the jigsaw activities than during the single group activities. We conclude that group activities that rely on positive interdependence, and include turn-taking and have explicit prompts for students to explain their
Elli J Theobald
Full Text Available Active learning in college classes and participation in the workforce frequently hinge on small group work. However, group dynamics vary, ranging from equitable collaboration to dysfunctional groups dominated by one individual. To explore how group dynamics impact student learning, we asked students in a large-enrollment university biology class to self-report their experience during in-class group work. Specifically, we asked students whether there was a friend in their group, whether they were comfortable in their group, and whether someone dominated their group. Surveys were administered after students participated in two different types of intentionally constructed group activities: 1 a loosely-structured activity wherein students worked together for an entire class period (termed the 'single-group' activity, or 2 a highly-structured 'jigsaw' activity wherein students first independently mastered different subtopics, then formed new groups to peer-teach their respective subtopics. We measured content mastery by the change in score on identical pre-/post-tests. We then investigated whether activity type or student demographics predicted the likelihood of reporting working with a dominator, being comfortable in their group, or working with a friend. We found that students who more strongly agreed that they worked with a dominator were 17.8% less likely to answer an additional question correct on the 8-question post-test. Similarly, when students were comfortable in their group, content mastery increased by 27.5%. Working with a friend was the single biggest predictor of student comfort, although working with a friend did not impact performance. Finally, we found that students were 67% less likely to agree that someone dominated their group during the jigsaw activities than during the single group activities. We conclude that group activities that rely on positive interdependence, and include turn-taking and have explicit prompts for students
Midgett, Aida; Hausheer, Robin; Doumas, Diana M.
This article describes a service-learning project designed to increase student group leadership self-efficacy and multicultural competence. Students facilitated debriefing groups for campus and community members after they participated in a theater production aimed at increasing awareness of oppression, power, and privilege. Students completed…
McKinney, Pamela; Sen, Barbara
Group work is a powerful constructivist pedagogy for facilitating students' personal and professional development, but it can be difficult for students to work together in an academic context. The assessed reflective writings of undergraduate students studying Information Management are used as data in this exploration of the group work situation…
Marks, Melanie Beth; O'Connor, Abigail H.
A survey was administered to college students to gain insight into their attitudes about classroom group work. Students responded that group work is generally a positive experience; however, they do not necessarily prefer it to individual assignments. Students' responses also indicated concerns about instructors' motivations for using…
Smith, Glenn Gordon; Sorensen, Chris; Gump, Andrew; Heindel, Allen J.; Caris, Mieke; Martinez, Christopher D.
This study compared student group work experiences in online (OL) versus face-to-face (f2f) sections of the same graduate course, over three years, to determine what factors influence student group work experiences and how do these factors play out in f2f versus OL environments. Surveys and student journals suggest that communication issues,…
Watson, Scott B.
Reports a study examining the effects of cooperative learning and self-instructional packets--"Group Educational Modules" (GEM)--on the achievement of biology students. Significant differences in achievement (as compared to control groups) were found for students using GEM materials and students in cooperative learning situations. (PR)
Full Text Available In a speech given at the Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships 20th Anniversary Statewide Event in the Cargill Building on the St. Paul Campus of the University of Minnesota on November 21, 2017, Virajita Singh, Assistant Vice Provost in the Office for Equity and Diversity, addressed the question, “How do we include underrepresented voices in the sustainability conversation?” The speech describes the work of The Partnerships as observed by the speaker, and its connection to the Design for Community Resilience program. It also introduces the concepts of Partnership and Design Thinking, and suggests a process for including underrepresented voices in the work informed by Design Thinking.
Yakunina, Elena S.; Weigold, Ingrid K.; McCarthy, Alannah S.
International students in higher education represent a diverse population with unique mental health needs. Foreign students commonly experience a host of adjustment issues, including acculturative stress, language difficulties, cultural misunderstandings, racial discrimination, and loss of social support. Despite their challenges, few…
Levin, Sharon G.; Stephan, Paula E.
This study examines the composition of the information technology "IT" workforce and focuses on recruitment and retention and how they differ by gender and minority status. Data are from SESTAT, the largest nationally representative sample of college-educated scientists and engineers living in the United States. The data indicate that only about one in three individuals in the IT workforce in 1999 actually had a formal degree in an IT discipline; thus, recruitment from non-IT disciplines plays an important role in determining the size of the IT workforce. Similarly, retention, especially for women and underrepresented minorities, is very important. Indeed, the 1999 IT workforce would have been larger and even more balanced in terms of gender and minority status if women and underrepresented minorities had retention rates similar to that of their white male counterparts. Furthermore, women and underrepresented minorities have different recruitment and retention patterns than do men and whites. These differences persist even after controlling for variables such as family structure, age, citizenship status and field of training, gender, and race-ethnicity.
Bacon, R. K.; Beyrouty, C. A.
Reviewed is research which supports retesting students to enhance learning. Evaluation results, materials and methods used to implement the procedure are described. Included are tables on student responses concerning involved groups and the value and benefits of retakes. (RT)
After a brief introduction, this paper dwells on the merits of group work, and then suggested the evaluation methods of group work. The author also mentioned the Demerits of group work and how to avoid them.
Polsgrove, Tara; Jones, David; Sadowski-Fugitt, Leslie; Kowrach, Nicole
The Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago has formulated an innovative approach to inspiring the next generation to pursue STEM education. Middle school students in Chicago and at nearby Challenger Learning Centers work in teams to design a mission to Mars. Each mission includes real time access to NASA experts through partnerships with Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Interactive videoconferencing connects students at the museum with students at a Challenger Learning Center and with NASA experts. This paper describes the approach, the results from the program s first year, and future opportunities for nationwide expansion.
Ortega, Robbie Ray
Minorities continue to be underrepresented in professional science careers. In order to make Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers more accessible for underrepresented minorities, informal science programs must be utilized to assist in developing interest in STEM for minority youth. In addition to developing interest in science, informal programs must help develop interpersonal skills and leadership skills of youth, which allow youth to develop discrete social behaviors while creating positive and supportive communities thus making science more practical in their lives. This study was based on the premise that introducing underrepresented youth to the agricultural and life sciences through an integrated precollege experience of leadership development with university faculty, scientist, and staff would help increase youths' interest in science, while also increasing their interest to pursue a STEM-related career. Utilizing a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities, known as the Ag Discovery Camp, 33 middle school aged youth were brought to the Purdue University campus to participate in an experience that integrated a leadership development program with an informal science education program in the context of agriculture. The week-long program introduced youth to fields of agriculture in engineering, plant sciences, food sciences, and entomology. The purpose of the study was to describe short-term and intermediate student outcomes in regards to participants' interests in career activities, science self-efficacy, and career intentions. Youth were not interested in agricultural activities immediately following the precollege experience. However, one year after the precollege experience, youth expressed they were more aware of agriculture and would consider agricultural careers if their first career choice did not work out for them. Results also showed that the youth who participated in the precollege experience were
Shao, Yinjuan; Crook, Charles
We explored the use of mobile social software, in the form of a mobile group blog, to assist cultural learning. The potential of using this technology for cultural adaptation among overseas students was examined as those students adapted to the everyday life of studying abroad. Two pilot studies and a successful field study of a mobile group blog as used by UK overseas students are reported. A further study with prospective overseas students witnessing this ‘moblogging’ in China revealed the ...
Smith, Morgan; Rogers, John
Grading group work assessments so that students perceive the grade to be fair to all group members is sometimes challenging. This is particularly important in a higher education environment that is increasingly concerned with student perceptions of teaching quality and satisfaction. This article reports on research that compared undergraduate nursing students perceptions of two different approaches to the grading of group work assessment. A survey design was used to identify students' perspectives and preferences for different group work assessment methods. Participants were undergraduate bachelor of nursing students from a large, metropolitan university in Australia. Data analysis indicated that the perceptions of students around group work assessments changed little as they progressed across the program, although students who had experienced the calculation of individual grades for a group assessment preferred this approach. Many believed the grading of group assessments penalised good students and were less reliable than individual assessments. Students maintained the belief that teamwork skills were essential for the registered nurse role. In conclusion group work assessment should only be used when it is the best assessment method to demonstrate student learning of specific objectives. The weighted mark approach is the group work assessment grading approach of choice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Likins, Jeanne M.
Included is a consideration of contract and agency law, how these apply to student organizations, potential liability consequences, guidelines to avoid such consequences, and a summary of the current situation. (Author)
Writing groups facilitate the development of research students' written communication skills, which are critical for the competent preparation of theses and publications. This paper describes a Thesis Writing Group for social science doctoral students. Participants indicated that the group not only served a practical role, providing an impetus for…
Rowell, P. Clay; Mobley, A. Keith; Kemer, Gulsah; Giordano, Amanda
The authors examined the effectiveness of a group career counseling model (Pyle, K. R., 2007) on college students' career decision-making abilities. They used a Solomon 4-group design and found that students who participated in the career counseling groups had significantly greater increases in career decision-making abilities than those who…
Cox, Andrew; Chiles, Prue; Care, Leo
While UK universities see group work as essential to building higher order intellectual and team skills, many international students are unfamiliar with this way of studying. Group work is also a focus of home students' concerns. Cultural differences in the interpretation of space for learning or how spatial issues affect group work processes has…
Two sections of a college discrete mathematics class were taught using cooperative learning techniques throughout the semester. The 33 students attending these sections were randomly assigned into groups of three. Their final examination consisted of an individual and group blended examination where students worked in their groups and discussed…
Aaen, Janus; Dalsgaard, Christian
The paper examines educational potentials of "Facebook" groups that are created and managed by students without any involvement from teachers. The objective is to study student-managed "Facebook" groups as a "third space" between the institutional space of teacher-managed "Facebook" groups and the…
Gupton, Jarrett T.
Objective: Community colleges are gateways of access to higher education for many underrepresented students. One group that has received little attention in the community college research literature is homeless youth. The objective of this research is to address the following research questions: (a) What might be learned from the narratives of…
Kirshner, Ben; Saldivar, Manuel Gerardo; Tracy, Rita
Students from underrepresented groups who seek to become the first in their family to attend college confront economically and racially stratified education systems. This article reports findings from an evaluation of First Graduate, an organization that offers college advising, mentoring, tutoring, and case management to first-generation students…
Dias Lopes, Alice
This paper aims to understand which fields of study affirmative action students graduated at the undergraduate level in public universities in Brazil in 2009 and 2010. Public universities began expanding access for underrepresented groups through racial, economic, and social affirmative action policies in 2001. The existing literature on…
Mallan, Kerry; Foth, Marcus; Greenaway, Ruth; Young, Greg T.
Virtual world platforms such as "Second Life" have been successfully used in educational contexts to motivate and engage learners. This article reports on an exploratory workshop involving a group of high school students using "Second Life" for an urban planning project. Young people are traditionally an under-represented demographic when it comes…
Lofton, Kelly Jean Clothier
The purpose of this study was to examine third-grade student achievement in mathematics and reading for students who were in skill groups, as compared to those who were traditionally grouped, with student attendance being taken into consideration as a variable of additional comparison. Skill groups are a type of flexible ability grouping, where…
Robbins, Dennis M.; Ford, K. E. Saavik
Strategies to improve the retention of underrepresented students in STEM fields include directly targeted programs and specialized courses. The NSF-supported 'AstroCom NYC' program, a collaboration of the City University of New York, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and Columbia University is one example of such a program with the explicit goal of increasing the participation of underrepresented minorities in astronomy and astrophysics through pedagogical mentoring and research experiences for undergraduate students. In addition, 'AstroCom NYC' provides students with a semester-long specialized course emphasizing scientific reasoning and mathematical modeling. The course curriculum uses computers and interfaced digital probeware (sensors) in a laboratory environment that encourages collaborative and active learning.We share course materials on preparing students to reason about control of variable experiment design and hypothesis testing and provide course data on student understanding of scientific reasoning, mathematical modeling and views about science.
Hamilton, Erica L.; Griffith, Sam B.; Jennings, Larissa; Dyer, Typhanye V.; Mayer, Kenneth; Wheeler, Darrell
Abstract Most U.S. investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the U.S. epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Scholars were affiliated with the HPTN for 12–18 months, mentored by a senior researcher to analyze HPTN study data. Participation in scientific committees, trainings, protocol teams, and advisory groups was facilitated, followed by evaluative exit surveys. Twenty-six trainees have produced 17 peer-reviewed articles to date. Research topics typically explored health disparities and HIV prevention among black and Hispanic MSM and at-risk black women. Most scholars (81% in the first five cohorts) continued HIV research after program completion. Alumni reported program-related career benefits and subsequent funding successes. Their feedback also suggested that we must improve the scholars' abilities to engage new research protocols that are developed within the network. Mentored engagement can nurture the professional development of young researchers from racial/ethnic and sexual minority communities. Minority scientists can benefit from training and mentoring within research consortia, whereas the network research benefits from perspectives of underrepresented minority scientists. PMID:29145745
Kench, Peter L.; Field, Nikki; Agudera, Maila; Gill, Margo
Group work has many benefits for a student's professional development but it is difficult to determine the individual contributions to the group assessment tasks. Peer assessment of an individual's contribution to group work can be used to encourage student participation. It is important that the method of peer assessment is fair and that the students' submissions be treated confidentially. A model for peer assessment of individual contributions to the group assessment is described. Students who did not participate adequately in the group were penalised resulting in a reduced individual grade. Perceptions of the peer assessment method are reported for students enrolled (n = 169) in the subject 'Medical Radiations Project'. The questionnaire showed a positive student response towards the peer assessment model.
oxygen, performing advanced cardio-pulmonary resuscitation on adults as well as ... Background: The training of dental students in the management of medical emergencies is of utmost importance as they ... the comprehensiveness of the present training on medical emergency, type of medical emergency training received ...
Several studies point out the link between sociability and academic results. In this paper, we highlight a phenomenon of asymmetry in the perception of friendship. This occurs when a student think he has more or less friends than he really has. We present an experimental method that allows us to analyze this question in relation with the academic…
Ruggles, Tosha M.
This action research project explores masters level graduate student writing and academic identity during one semester in an interdisciplinary masters program. Informing this study is a two part theoretical framework including the Academic Literacy Model (Lea and Street) and Wenger's concept of identity. The purpose of this exploration was to…
Professionalism is important in all service-providing professions. Professional bodies have extensive rules and regulations creating the foundations of the definition of professionalism, its meaning and these rules have to be followed. In view of this, healthcare students are given intensive training. A prospective study conducted in a District…
Battistich, Victor; And Others
Frequency and quality of cooperative learning activities in fourth through sixth grade were correlated with measures of students' attitudes toward school, perceptions of classroom climate, intrinsic motivation, and performance on a reading comprehension and standardized achievement test. Found that effects of cooperative learning depended on the…
Johnson, Sarah; Johnson, Norbert
Graduate counseling students were assigned by sex to a marathon group, a shorter session group, a combination session group, and control group to determine impact on self-actualization. The personal orientation inventory indicated some significant positive movement for treatment groups. No one approach was significantly more effective than the…
Pijl, Sip Jan; Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel
One of the effects of implementing inclusive education is that the composition of the peer group of students with disabilities has changed from one consisting of only such students to one with no, or very few, students with disabilities. The question arises as to the implications of this situation
Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan
Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly…
Ennen, Nicole L.; Stark, Emily; Lassiter, Andrea
Educators are continuing to investigate ways to improve student learning through collaboration. This study examined one avenue of increasing student group effectiveness: trust. A model of trust in student workgroups was proposed, where trust mediates the relationships between perceived similarity and individual outcomes (grades and satisfaction).…
Pieterse, Alex L.; Lee, Minsun; Fetzer, Alexa
This study documents various process elements of multicultural training from the perspective of counseling and counseling psychology students within the United States (US). Using a mixed-methods approach, findings indicate that racial group membership is an important variable that differentially impacts White students and students of Color while…
Moryl, Rebecca L.
In this article, the author describes a group project to create student-generated podcasts on economics topics. This project provides an innovative opportunity for students to demonstrate proficiency in skills required for the undergraduate economics major and valued in the professional marketplace. Results of a student self-assessment survey on…
De Ridder, J.; Meysman, P.; Oluwagbemi, O.; Abeel, T.
Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of
Patterson, Freyr; Fleming, Jennifer; Marshall, Kathryn; Ninness, Nadine
Professional practice education is a core and essential component of occupational therapy training. With increasing numbers of education programmes and more students requiring professional practice placements, development of innovative models of professional practice education has emerged, but these require investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate student experiences and perceptions of the Student-Led Groups Program model of professional practice education in an inpatient brain injury rehabilitation unit. A qualitative approach, guided by phenomenological theory was used. Participants were 15 students who had completed a professional practice placement in the Student-Led Groups Program. Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically. Three over-arching themes emerged from the data; balance of support and freedom, development of clinical skills and missed opportunities. Students described how the structure of the placement facilitated independent learning and autonomy that was balanced with support from clinicians and student peers. Students perceived that they had developed a breadth of clinical skills and also had missed some learning opportunities in this professional practice placement structure. Overall student perceptions of the Student-Led Groups Program were positive, supporting the continued use of this model of professional practice education in this setting. The results highlight the value of structured and consistent approaches for supervision, including the use of formal approaches to peer supervision in the initial stages of learning. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
In 21st century education students should have ample opportunities to collaborate on authentic problems. Many teachers however find it difficult to make the transfer from teacher to student-centered education. Giving students autonomy can be disquieting to teachers, as they fear to lose control of student learning. Teachers in a teacher…
Hammar Chiriac, Eva; Granstrom, Kjell
Group work is used as a means of learning at all levels of most educational systems. However, teachers often use group work without considering its "pros and cons." Such a mode of non-reflected application may sometimes end up in positive experiences and learning, but the likelihood is that the outcome will be the opposite. The aim of…
This study investigates a group of high school students in a physics classroom interacting with a computer simulation that simulates the electrostatic interaction as a hockey game, the Electric Field Hockey. The activity featured in this study took place prior to the students receiving formal instruction about the electric field. The learning goal was to allow students to explore the simulated electrostatic phenomena. The study asks the following research question: How do high school students...
Medved, Dennis; Franco, Antonio; Gao, Xiang; Yang, Fangfang
Every year, there are more than 2500 new international students coming to Lund University and starting their higher education path. A higher number of foreign students increased the international competitiveness of Lund University, but at the same time the international students had to face many problems for instance, culture shock and language barriers. In this report we focused on issues in teaching international students, specifically group separation, language barriers and cultural differ...
Ling, Stacy M.; Barnett, David W.
Preschool environments can be critical to academic success and risk reduction but disruptive behaviors can have significant and lasting negative effects on students as well as teachers. These behaviors may be pervasive in some classrooms and effective interventions are needed. A combined delayed multiple baseline and withdrawal design across a…
Macgowan, Mark J.; Wong, Stephen E.
Objective: This is a replication of a study that examined the effects of teaching foundation competencies in group work to social work students and assessed their self-confidence in applying these skills. This study improves on the first by utilizing a controlled design. Method: Twenty-six master of social work students were taught group work…
Shao, Yinjuan; Crook, Charles
We explored the use of mobile social software, in the form of a mobile group blog, to assist cultural learning. The potential of using this technology for cultural adaptation among overseas students was examined as those students adapted to the everyday life of studying abroad. Two pilot studies and a successful field study of a mobile group blog…
This paper aims to examine how to promote university students' engagement in learning by means of instructor-initiated EFL writing groups. The research took place in Rwanda and was undertaken as a case study involving 34 second year undergraduate students, divided into 12 small working groups and one instructor. The data were collected by means of…
This article examines how to promote university students' engagement in learning by means of instructor-initiated English as a foreign language (EFL) writing groups. The research took place in Rwanda and was undertaken as a case study involving 34 second-year undergraduate students, divided into 12 small working groups, and one instructor. The…
Taha, Consuelo Byrd
This study is considered to represent an attempt to examine conditions which inhibit the education of many minority group college students, by pursuing three specific objectives. They are: (1) to identify common indicators of the lack of self-discipline among minority group college students and analyze them in terms of their nature and magnitude;…
Kim, Jung Yin
This study examines, from a sociocultural perspective, the factors that explain why a group of seven Korean students attending an undergraduate business program in a US university are initially labelled as silent participants when first engaging in group work, and how these factors impacted the students' overall adjustment process. Data came from…
The study reported on in this article assessed MSW and BSW students' opportunities to practice group work in their field practicum. More than one third of participants had no such opportunity during their yearlong internship, despite their program's requirement that group work opportunities be available. Among the students who did have experience…
Built from data collected through three-phase in-depth interviews, this study explores from cultural and social perspectives why Chinese students may initially be termed silent participants when they first commence group work with western students; and then examines the impact of cultural interaction through group work on their adjustment.…
Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph
The emphasis on the importance of collaborative skill is evident at nearly all levels of education. In higher education, teamwork and group skills are critical elements in a business student's training. To be successful in the business world, students must be able to work well in teams. Group work can be a successful learning experience if…
Walsh, Robyn; Bambacus, Elizabeth; Gibson, Donna
The purpose of this article is to provide a supervision approach to experiential groups that replaces professors with doctoral students in the chain of supervision, enlists a faculty member to provide supervision of supervision to the doctoral students, and translates supervision theory to meet the unique needs of group counseling supervision.…
Cantinotti, Michael; Désormeaux-Moreau, Marjorie; Balbinotti, Marcos
Students in psychology generally have difficulties to successfully accomplish mandatory courses in statistics. Group peer-tutoring is a pedagogical strategy to support them with a peer that has already successfully mastered the content of such a course. In order to specifically tailor group peer-tutoring to the needs of students and to sustain…
Schenk, John J.; Steppan, Scott J.
Graduate-level reading groups serve as a primary forum for students to learn current and complex concepts in their field. Because graduate students lament that reading "abnormally long" articles discourage them from attending particular reading group sessions, we tested the hypothesis that attendance will decrease proportionally with…
Gregory, Peter L.; Gregory, Karen M.; Eddy, Erik R.
This study investigates factors contributing to student engagement in an educational Facebook group. The study is based on survey results of 138 undergraduate mathematics students at a highly diverse urban public university. Survey measures included engagement in the Facebook group, access to Facebook, comfort using technology, and interest in the…
Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.
The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors such…
Hidayanto, Achmad Nizar; Setyady, Stella Tantra
Nowadays the growth of technology influences the changes in group collaboration's process either for the professional or for the students. The requirement of interaction in group collaboration while doing task forces the students to schedule their meeting in order to finish the task given. So the technology starts to influence the process of group…
Heller, Caren; Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Nery, Jill Dumbauld; Erwin, Patricia J; Littleton, Dawn; Kim, Mimi; Kuo, Winston P
Underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials remains a reality while they have disproportionately higher rates of health disparities. The purpose of this study was to identify successful community-engaged interventions that included health care providers as a key strategy in addressing barriers to clinical trial enrollment of underrepresented patients. A systematic review of the literature on interventions addressing enrollment barriers to clinical trials for racial and ethnic minorities was performed in Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO Megafile, and EBSCO CINAHL. The systematic review identified 360 studies, and 20 were selected using the inclusion criteria. An iterative process extracted information from the eligible studies. The 20 selected studies were analyzed and then grouped by first author, nature of the clinical research initiative, priority populations, key strategies, and study outcomes. Nine of the studies addressed cancer clinical trials and 11 related to chronic medical conditions, including diabetes, hypertension management, and chronic kidney disease. The key strategies employed were categorized according to their presumed impact on barriers incurred at distinct steps in study recruitment: clinical trial awareness, opportunity to participate, and acceptance of enrollment. The strategies were further categorized by whether they would address barriers associated with minority perceptions of the research process and barriers related to how studies were designed and implemented. Multiple and flexible strategies targeting providers and participants at provider sites and within communities might be needed to enroll underrepresented populations into clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Carrie L.; O'Neill, Barbara; Worthy, Sheri Lokken; Lown, Jean M.; Bowen, Cathy F.
This study used data from online focus groups collected from November 2014 to April 2015 to understand college students' decision-making processes when borrowing money to finance their education. Data were collected using an online course management system. Results suggest that (a) students relied heavily on advice from parents, guidance…
Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.
In 21st century education students should have ample opportunities to collaborate on authentic problems. Many teachers however find it difficult to make the transfer from teacher to student-centered education. Giving students autonomy can be disquieting to teachers, as they fear to lose control of
Wagar, Terry H.; Carroll, Wendy R.
Although there has been increased research attention on the development of peer evaluation instruments, there has been less emphasis on understanding student preferences for specific peer evaluation approaches. The authors used data from a study conducted with undergraduate students in management courses to examine student preferences of group…
Liu, Tina; Patek, Kyla; Schneider, Kami Wolfe
In an effort to increase the diversity of the membership of the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC), the Membership Committee provided two $500 scholarships to genetic counseling students planning to attend the NSGC AEC meeting in Dallas, Texas in October 2010. Requirements for applicants of both scholarships included enrollment in the fall of 2010, good standing at an accredited genetic counseling training program, and NSGC membership or plans to join in 2011. Students who are from communities underrepresented in the NSGC, including, but not limited to, those of minority cultural/ethnic backgrounds and those with disabilities were eligible to apply for the "Diversity" scholarship. Students from all backgrounds who have an interest in diversity issues were eligible to apply for the "General" scholarship. Applicants wrote essays 1000 words or less answering the following questions: How has your identity as a member of a group underrepresented in the genetic counseling profession affected your pursuit of this career? What do you feel is lacking in genetic counseling to address the issues of underrepresented groups? What strategies do you recommend for addressing these issues and/or increasing diversity? Why do you think diversity is an important issue for the field of genetic counseling? What strategies do you recommend to attract and retain students, especially those from underrepresented populations, into the field of genetic counseling? How do you envision contributing to these strategies? The essays by the award recipients elucidated interesting perspectives and ideas for increasing diversity in the genetic counseling profession.
Recommendations were made to change the system in order to eliminate the negative aspects and after careful consideration and programme changes, implemented in 2001. It therefore became necessary to evaluate the revised system of peer group supervision and guidance for effectiveness. A qualitative, descriptive ...
Bohecker, Lynn; Vereen, Linwood G.; Wells, Pamela C.; Wathen, Cristen C.
This study explored the lived experiences of 20 counselors-in-training (CITs) in a mindfulness experiential small group. Using grounded theory, the authors described a 5-dimensional model for navigating ambiguity. Findings suggest mindfulness training provides CITs self-reflection skills and a greater ability to manage cognitive complexity.
presentations and assignments, and the quality of their end-product and their .... group activities as all decisions are made in a rather ad-hoc fashion without any ... dangerous if it leads to exaggerated rivalry or competition like it can happen in sports. However, groupthink can also lead to a high degree of cosines whereby.
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how poststructuralism and social constructionism can contribute to the empirical research on groups in problem-based learning (PBL). The paper outlines the analytical complexity and shows, through empirical examples, the potentials and limitations of this perspective as an alternative to traditional group…
Lutz, Gabriele; Pankoke, Nina; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hofmann, Marzellus; Zupanic, Michaela
Professional competence is important in delivering high quality patient care, and it can be enhanced by reflection and reflective discourse e.g. in mentoring groups. However, students are often reluctant though to engage in this discourse. A group mentoring program involving all preclinical students as well as faculty members and co-mentoring clinical students was initiated at Witten-Herdecke University. This study explores both the attitudes of those students towards such a program and factors that might hinder or enhance how students engage in reflective discourse. A qualitative design was applied using semi-structured focus group interviews with preclinical students and semi-structured individual interviews with mentors and co-mentors. The interview data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Students' attitudes towards reflective discourse on professional challenges were diverse. Some students valued the new program and named positive outcomes regarding several features of professional development. Enriching experiences were described. Others expressed aversive attitudes. Three reasons for these were given: unclear goals and benefits, interpersonal problems within the groups hindering development and intrapersonal issues such as insecurity and traditional views of medical education. Participants mentioned several program setup factors that could enhance how students engage in such groups: explaining the program thoroughly, setting expectations and integrating the reflective discourse in a meaningful way into the curriculum, obliging participation without coercion, developing a sense of security, trust and interest in each other within the groups, randomizing group composition and facilitating group moderators as positive peer and faculty role models and as learning group members. A well-designed and empathetic setup of group mentoring programs can help raise openness towards engaging in meaningful reflective discourse. Reflection on and communication of
AbdelSalam, Maha; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim; AlAgl, Adel; Al-Harbi, Fahad
To describe peer-assisted learning (PAL) groups formed by dental undergraduate students in a biomedical course and to investigate the association of individual and group characteristics with academic performance. In 2015, 92 fourth-year students (43 males and 49 females) in the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were invited to form PAL groups to study a unit of a biomedical course. An examination was used to assess their knowledge after 2 weeks. In addition, a questionnaire and social network analysis were used to investigate (1) individual student attributes: gender, role, subject matter knowledge, grade in previous year, teaming with friends, previous communication with teammates, and content discussion, and (2) group attributes: group teacher's previous grade, number of colleagues with whom a student connected, teaming with friends, similarity of teammates' previous grades, and teacher having higher previous grades than other teammates. Regression analysis was used to assess the association of examination scores with individual and group attributes. The response rate was 80.4% (74 students: 36 males and 38 females). Students who previously scored grades A and B had higher examination scores than students with grades C/less (regression coefficient = 18.50 and 13.39) within the groups. Higher scores were not associated with working in groups including friends only (regression coefficient = 1.17) or when all students had similar previous grades (regression coefficient = 0.85). Students with previous high grades benefited to a greater extent from working in PAL groups. Similarity of teammates in PAL groups was not associated with better scores. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Curseu, Petru L.; Pluut, Helen
Collaborative learning has important group-level benefits, yet most studies in higher education only focus on individual benefits of collaborative learning experiences. This study extends these insights by testing a model in which teamwork quality mediates the impact of several compositional differences (gender, nationality and teamwork expertise…
Curseu, P.L.; Pluut, H.
Collaborative learning has important group-level benefits, yet most studies in higher education only focus on individual benefits of collaborative learning experiences. This study extends these insights by testing a model in which teamwork quality mediates the impact of several compositional
Wun, Y T; Tse, Eileen Y Y; Lam, T P; Lam, Cindy L K
Group learning is the core of problem-based learning (PBL) but has not been extensively studied, especially in Asian students. This study compared students of PBL and non-PBL curricula in students' talking time and participation in small-group tutorials in a medical school in Asia. The proportions of student talking of 46 tutorials in three teaching rotations of the PBL curriculum and those of 43 corresponding tutorials in the non-PBL curriculum were counted. Twelve videotapes of tutorials (six from each curriculum), stratified for tutor, case scenario and students' learning stage, were randomly selected and transcribed. They were rated with the group-interaction (5 items) and active-participation (four items) tutorial assessment scales developed by Valle et al. These outcomes were compared between the students of PBL and non-PBL curricula. Students from the PBL curriculum talked significantly more. In only two (4.7%) of 43 tutorials in the non-PBL curriculum did the students talk more than the tutors; but students talked more than the tutors in 17 (37.0%) of 46 tutorials in the PBL curriculum. PBL students scored significantly higher than non-PBL students in all items except one item (respect to peers) of the tutorial assessment scales, and in the mean scores of both the group interaction scale (items 1-5) and the active participation scale (items 6-9). The results suggested that PBL starting from the early years of a medical curriculum was associated with more active student participation, interaction and collaboration in small-group tutorials.
Curran, Vernon R; Sharpe, Dennis; Forristall, Jennifer; Flynn, Kate
The small group, case-based learning approach is believed to be a useful strategy for facilitating interprofessional learning and interaction factors are said to have a significant effect on student interest, learning and satisfaction with such approaches. The purpose of our study was twofold: assess students' satisfaction with a blended approach to interprofessional learning which combined computer-mediated and face-to-face, case-based learning; and examine the relationship between student satisfaction and perceptions of the collaborative learning process. We introduced six interprofessional learning modules to approximately 520 undergraduate health professional students from medicine (61), nursing (351), pharmacy (20), and social work (89). All students were invited to complete an evaluation survey which assessed student satisfaction with the interprofessional learning experience and students' perceptions of the small group learning process. Students' satisfaction with interprofessional education was related to professional background. Students from across professions reported greater satisfaction with face-to-face, case-based learning when compared with other learning methods. A more positive perception of face-to-face, case-based learning was related to greater satisfaction with interprofessional learning. The findings support the case-based method in facilitating interprofessional learning and highlight the importance of effective facilitation of small-group collaborative learning to enhance student satisfaction with interprofessional learning experiences.
Wellbery, Caroline; Saunders, Pamela A; Kureshi, Sarah; Visconti, Adam
As medical education curricula increasingly acknowledge the contributions of the social determinants of health to individual health, new methods of engaging students in the care of vulnerable groups are needed. Empathy is one way to connect students with patients, but little is known about how to nurture students' empathy on behalf of populations. This study examined the relationship between individual and social empathy as groundwork for cultivating students' empathy for vulnerable groups. In 2014-2015, first-year medical students completed the Social Empathy Index at the start and end of a two-semester population health course, and they completed a reflective writing assignment exploring the challenges of caring for vulnerable patients. Pre- and posttest mean survey scores were compared, and reflective writing assignments were analyzed for themes concerning social empathy. Data from 130 students were analyzed. Scores for the contextual understanding of systemic barriers domain increased significantly. There was a trend toward increased cumulative social empathy scores that did not reach statistical significance. Students' essays revealed three themes relating to individual empathy as the foundation for social empathy; civic and moral obligations; and the role of institutional practices in caring for vulnerable groups. This study extends understanding of empathy beyond care for the individual to include care for vulnerable groups. Thus, social empathy may function as a valuable concept in developing curricula to support students' commitment to care for the underserved. Educators first need to address the many barriers students cited that impede both individual and social empathy.
Brandl, Katharina; Schneid, Stephen D; Smith, Sunny; Winegarden, Babbi; Mandel, Jess; Kelly, Carolyn J
The University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine implemented a curriculum change that included reduction of lectures, incorporation of problem-based learning and other small group activities. Six academic communities were introduced for teaching longitudinal curricular content and organizing extracurricular activities. Surveys were collected from 904 first- and second-year medical students over 6 years. Student satisfaction data with their sense of connectedness and community support were collected before and after the implementation of the new curriculum. In a follow-up survey, medical students rated factors that contributed to their sense of connectedness with faculty and students (n = 134). Students' perception of connectedness to faculty significantly increased following implementation of a curriculum change that included academic communities. Students ranked small group clinical skills activities within academic communities significantly higher than other activities concerning their sense of connectedness with faculty. Students' perception of connectedness among each other was high at baseline and did not significantly change. Small group activities scored higher than extracurricular activities regarding students' connectedness among themselves. The implementation of a new curriculum with more small group educational activities including academic communities enhanced connectedness between students and faculty and resulted in an increased sense of community.
Full Text Available Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.
Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lu, Peih-Ying; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, In-Ting; Yu, Hsin-Su
Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL) and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.
Brandl, Katharina; Mandel, Jess; Winegarden, Babbi
Most medical schools use online systems to gather student feedback on the quality of their educational programmes and services. Online data may be limiting, however, as the course directors cannot question the students about written comments, nor can students engage in mutual problem-solving dialogue with course directors. We describe the implementation of a student evaluation team (SET) process to permit course directors and students to gather shortly after courses end to engage in feedback and problem solving regarding the course and course elements. Approximately 16 students were randomly selected to participate in each SET meeting, along with the course director, academic deans and other faculty members involved in the design and delivery of the course. An objective expert facilitates the SET meetings. SETs are scheduled for each of the core courses and threads that occur within the first 2 years of medical school, resulting in approximately 29 SETs annually. SET-specific satisfaction surveys submitted by students (n = 76) and course directors (n = 16) in 2015 were used to evaluate the SET process itself. Survey data were collected from 885 students (2010-2015), which measured student satisfaction with the overall evaluation process before and after the implementation of SETs. Students and course directors valued the SET process itself as a positive experience. Students felt that SETs allowed their voices to be heard, and that the SET increased the probability of suggested changes being implemented. Students' satisfaction with the overall evaluation process significantly improved after implementation of the SET process. Our data suggest that the SET process is a valuable way to supplement online evaluation systems and to increase students' and faculty members' satisfaction with the evaluation process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Lee, Jeong Seop; Yoon, Jeong Ah; Do, Keong Jin
The purpose of this study was to examine effects of enneagram group counseling program on self-identification and depression in nursing college students. Three groups, categorized by how the students solve their conflicts, were selected to identify changes from the program. A quasi-experimental study with a non-equivalent control group and pre posttest design was used. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=30) or control group (n=33). The experimental group participated in enneagram group counseling program for 38 hours through eight sessions covering four different topics. Collected data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Total self-identity score for the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for depression scores. The Assertive and Compliant groups demonstrated significant change in self-identification while the Withdrawn groups did not reveal any change. Results indicate that the enneagram group counseling program is very effective in establishing positive self-identification for nursing college students who face developmental crisis and stressful situations. It is also expected that this program would be useful to enhance the students' confidence through a deeper understanding and acceptance of themselves.
Jensen, Murray; Mattheis, Allison; Johnson, Brady
Students in an interdisciplinary undergraduate introductory course were required to complete a group video project focused on nutrition and healthy eating. A mixed-methods approach to data collection involved observing and rating video footage of group work sessions and individual and focus group interviews. These data were analyzed and used to evaluate the effectiveness of the assignment in light of two student learning outcomes and two student development outcomes at the University of Minnesota. Positive results support the continued inclusion of the project within the course, and recommend the assignment to other programs as a viable means of promoting both content learning and affective behavioral objectives. PMID:22383619
Biswas, Shubho Subrata; Jain, Vaishali; Agrawal, Vandana; Bindra, Maninder
Small group sessions are regarded as a more active and student-centered approach to learning. Item analysis provides objective evidence of whether such sessions improve comprehension and make the topic easier for students, in addition to assessing the relative benefit of the sessions to good versus poor performers. Self-assessment makes students aware of their deficiencies. Small group sessions can also help students develop the ability to self-assess. This study was carried out to assess the effect of small group sessions on item analysis and students' self-assessment. A total of 21 female and 29 male first year medical students participated in a small group session on topics covered by didactic lectures two weeks earlier. It was preceded and followed by two multiple choice question (MCQ) tests, in which students were asked to self-assess their likely score. The MCQs used were item analyzed in a previous group and were chosen of matching difficulty and discriminatory indices for the pre- and post-tests. The small group session improved the marks of both genders equally, but female performance was better. The session made the items easier; increasing the difficulty index significantly but there was no significant alteration in the discriminatory index. There was overestimation in the self-assessment of both genders, but male overestimation was greater. The session improved the self-assessment of students in terms of expected marks and expectation of passing. Small group session improved the ability of students to self-assess their knowledge and increased the difficulty index of items reflecting students' better performance.
Johnson, Chad V
University students present several challenges for group therapists in terms of establishing and sustaining interpersonal process groups in college counseling center settings. These challenges may result from a lack of client preparation and/or a mismatch of therapy practices with the unique developmental characteristics of today's college students. This paper discusses these developmental needs and proposes a model for successful interpersonal group therapy with university students. The proposed model encourages structured activities at the initial and final stages of a process-oriented therapy group to assist leaders and teach the members skills to promote cohesion, skill development, and interpersonal learning. This model may also be used to train novice group counselors how to facilitate here-and-now interactions in group and shape group process.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12. The experimental group was participated in eight sessions of cognitive behavior therapy, while the control group received no intervention. Research tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index that completed by both participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the performance of cognitive behavioral therapy may improve symptoms and reduce the severity of insomnia in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective on symptoms of insomnia in students.
Page, Kathleen Raquel; Castillo-Page, Laura; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Garrison, Gwen; Wright, Scott M
To assess how U.S. academic health centers (AHCs) define the term underrepresented minority (URM) and apply it to their diversity programs, following the 2003 revision of the Association of American Medical Colleges' (AAMC's) definition of URM. In 2010, the authors developed and deployed a cross-sectional survey of diversity leaders at 106 AHCs. The survey included questions about the diversity leader and institution's diversity program; institution's URM definition; application of that definition; and the diversity leader's perceptions of the representation and institutional contribution of various ethnic/racial groups. The authors used descriptive statistics to analyze the results. Of the 106 diversity leaders invited, 89 (84.0%) responded and 78 (73.6%) provided a working definition of URM. Most programs (40/78; 51%) used the 2003 AAMC definition of URM, which includes racial/ethnic groups that are underrepresented in medicine relative to local and national demographics. Only 14.1% (11/78) used the pre-2003 AAMC definition, which included only African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and mainland Puerto Ricans. Approximately one-third (23/78; 29.5%) also considered other diversity factors, such as socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and disability, in defining URM. Fifty-eight respondents (74.4%) confirmed that their diversity programs targeted specific groups. The definition of URM used by diversity programs at U.S. AHCs varied widely. Although some classified URMs by racial/ethnic categories, the majority defined URM more broadly to encompass other demographic and personal characteristics. This shift should prepare academic medicine to eliminate health disparities and meet the health needs of an increasingly diverse population.
Kearney, Kerri S.; Damron, Rebecca; Sohoni, Sohum
This paper investigates group/team development in computer engineering courses at a University in the Central USA from the perspective of organization behavior theory, specifically Tuckman's model of the stages of group development. The investigation, conducted through linguistic analysis of student reflection essays, and through focus group…
Clara Herlina Karjo
Teaching English (TOEFL) to a class of 50 students or more is a difficult task for a lecturer. Some problems will occur, for example, the improbability for all students to get equal teacher’s attention and equal chance for learning and studying in class. To overcome these problems, the writer conducts a quasi-experimental research involving 100 students in her two classes in Bina Nusantara University. In this research, the writer applies the group presentation method for teaching TOEFL for on...
Duarte, Rosa; Escario, Jose-Julian; Molina, Jose-Alberto
The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of peer behaviour on student marijuana consumption. Our hypothesis is that, in contrast to the traditional measures of peer group effects carried out at class or school level, the use of a closer peer group, which we relate to the group of friends, is more relevant in the explanation of marijuana…
Fariss, Laura Lester
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group vocabulary instruction above and beyond whole group, read aloud vocabulary instruction, on second grade students' expressive vocabularies. This experimental study reflected a between-subjects design as three treatment groups were compared using a pretest, posttest within…
Pham, Thanh; Pham, Lam
Group work has been increasingly encouraged and applied in Vietnamese universities. However, very little has been known about how Vietnamese university students work in a group and what the conditions are that help establish an effective group. This study attempted to redress this gap. The research applied Bourdieu's social field theory to examine…
Goodman, Harriet; Knight, Carolyn; Khudododov, Khudodod
For decades, group work scholars have described a discrepancy between student preparation for group work practice and opportunities to work with groups in the field practicum and professional practice. Educators in related disciplines such as counseling and psychology have expressed similar concerns. This article reports findings of a study of MSW…
Despite representing the largest ethnic minority group in the United States, Latinos remain underrepresented in the professoriate. Although Latinos are increasingly attending college, fewer graduate and even fewer continue to pursue graduate school. Prior research has explained the challenges that first-generation college students encounter in…
This paper addresses itself to the outcomes of a field study which was carried out to identify Jordanian EFL students' attitudes towards using group work in EFL classrooms. The study sample consisted of 179 students enrolled in English 101, an elementary language skills course taught at Al- Huson University College, Al -Balqa' Applied University,…
Forslund Frykedal, Karin; Samuelsson, Marcus
This article explores students' accommodation and resistance while participating in group work. The data collected are from fieldwork observations in several classrooms over the course of four terms in different secondary school classes in Sweden, and also from interviews with the students. Through this data analysis, we report that the students…
Nielsen, Geir Høstmark; Skjerve, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard
In the two preceding papers of this issue of Nordic Psychology the authors report findings from a study of nondisclosure among student therapists and clinical supervisors. The findings were reported separately for each group. In this article, the two sets of findings are held together and compared......, so as to draw a picture of mutual assumptions and facts about nondisclosure among students and supervisors....
Penttinen, Leena; Vesisenaho, Mikko
Uncertainty about future career prospects has increased enormously for students enrolled in higher education Information Technology (IT) programs. However, many computer science programmes pay little attention to career counselling. This article reports the results of a pilot study intended to develop group counselling for IT students to promote…
Yorks, Dayna M; Frothingham, Christopher A; Schuenke, Mark D
Medical school can produce intense psychological distress in its students; however, there is a paucity of research exploring potential means of improving medical students' well-being. To investigate the relationship between physical exercise and stress and quality of life (QOL) in a medical student population. This nonrandomized, controlled, 12-week study used a survey research design. First- and second-year osteopathic medical students at the University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine were recruited to participate in 1 of 3 groups: (1) students participating in 30-minute CXWORX (Les Mills International LTD) group fitness classes; (2) students exercising alone or with up to 2 additional partners regularly (eg, running, weight lifting), henceforth called the health-enhancement group; and (3) students in a control group who did not engage in regular exercise. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale survey once every 4 weeks, as well as visual analog scale surveys to assess physical, mental, and emotional QOL weekly during the course of the study. Statistical significance was defined as Psolution to improving the emotional well-being and stress level of medical students.
Tsang, Annetta K. L.
University professional programs seek to develop students as reflective practitioners. The ability to critically reflect is often assumed to occur along the way. The explicit development of critical reflective skills among students is challenging. This study describes the utilization of online group discussion for critical reflection and provides…
Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung
The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…
Molle, Daniella; Lee, Naomi
The present paper argues for a shift in teacher knowledge and beliefs about the role of group work in the teaching and learning of emergent bilingual students. Using case study data from an eighth grade classroom, the authors analyze the role of collaboration in the interaction with grade-level text of emergent bilingual students. The analysis…
Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.
Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…
Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu
This study sought to determine the levels of conceptual understanding of undergraduate students regarding organic compounds within different functional groups. A total of 60 students who were enrolled in the Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education of a Faculty of Education at a state university in Turkey and who had followed an…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group discussion on students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts was measured using the Misconception Identification Test. The test consisted of 30 items and administered as pre-posttests to a total of 81…
Myers, Scott A.; Bogdan, Leah M.; Eidsness, Mary A.; Johnson, Angela N.; Schoo, Meghan E.; Smith, Nicole A.; Thompson, Michelle R.; Zackery, Brooke A.
This study examined whether college students' perceptions of the positive and negative attributes of group work are associated with their tolerance for ambiguity, tolerance for disagreement, conversational sensitivity, and cognitive flexibility. Participants were 192 undergraduate students who completed a series of quantitative measures…
Owolabi, Tunde; Okebukola, Foluso
This study explored the effects of appropriate pedagogical skills (study groups and multiple intelligences) on students' efficiencies in reading skills. It employed a factorial design using three variables. A sample of 90 science students choosing from three intact classes were involved in the study. Data analyses were carried out using mean,…
Vollet, Justin W.; Kindermann, Thomas A.; Skinner, Ellen A.
This study focused on the joint effects of teachers and peer groups as predictors of change in students' engagement during the first year of middle school, when the importance of peer relationships normatively increases and the quality of teacher-student relationships typically declines. To explore cumulative and contextualized joint effects, the…
Oddo, Maria; Barnett, David W.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Musti-Rao, Shobana
Previous research has investigated the efficacy of peer-mediated repeated reading (RR) interventions carried out by student dyads. This research extends the existing research by investigating the impact of RR on oral reading fluency and comprehension when carried out by a teacher in small groups of fourth-grade students. Outcomes were analyzed…
Cruickshank, Ken; Chen, Honglin; Warren, Stan
This article explores the use of group work strategies to increase student interaction and learning. Despite the growing linguistic and cultural diversity in tertiary institutions, there is strong evidence of minimal interaction between "domestic" and "international" students in classrooms and in wider university contexts. This study investigates…
Koutrouba, Konstantina; Kariotaki, Maria; Christopoulos, Ioannis
The present questionnaire-based study examines the views of 428 Greek students (aged 13-18 years) from 30 secondary education schools in Athens, who have experienced cooperative learning in group work--an instructional learning strategy not often implemented in Greek schools. The research focuses on students' preferences as regards the composition…
Joy, Phillip; Numer, Matthew
University can be a critical time for queer identifying youth as they attempt to navigate new relationships and heteronormative and, sometimes, hostile environments. Involvement in queer student groups is one strategy to develop protective mechanisms for these students. This research examines the effect of participation in a queer advocacy group…
Aberg, Judith A; Blankson, Joel; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Adimora, Adaora A
Research documents significant gender-based salary inequities among physicians and ongoing inadequacies in recruitment and promotion of physicians from underrepresented minority groups. Given the complexity of the social forces that promote these disparities, their elimination will likely require quantitative and qualitative research to understand the pathways that lead to them and to develop effective solutions. Interventions to combat implicit bias will be required, and structural interventions that hold medical school leadership accountable are needed to achieve and maintain salary equity and racial and gender diversity at all levels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: email@example.com.
Mittelmeier, Jenna; Rienties, Bart; Tempelaar, Dirk; Whitelock, Denise
As universities worldwide rapidly internationalise, higher education classrooms have become unique spaces for collaboration between students from different countries. One common way to encourage collaboration between diverse peers is through group work. However, previous research has highlighted
Jaarsma, A Debbie C; Dolmans, Diana D H J M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Boerboom, Tobias T B; van Beukelen, Peter; Scherpbier, Albert J J A
This study set out to examine how much time students and teachers devote to different learning-oriented interactions during seminar sessions and students' and teachers' perceptions about the occurrence and desirability of these interactions. Students and teachers participating in eight seminar group sessions in Year 4 of an undergraduate veterinary curriculum completed an 11-item questionnaire which asked them to rate, on a 5-point Likert scale, the frequency of occurrence and level of desirability of three learning-oriented types of interaction: exploratory questioning; cumulative reasoning, and handling of conflict about knowledge. The questionnaire also invited positive and negative responses to aspects of group interactions and an overall mark (1-10) for the seminars and group interactions. Four group sessions were video-recorded and analysed using a coding scheme. The amount of time devoted to the different interactions was calculated. Both students and teachers gave scores of 3.0-3.5 for frequency of occurrence of exploratory questioning and cumulative reasoning and conflict about knowledge. The desired occurrences of all interaction types were significantly higher than the actual occurrences according to students and teachers. Teachers were responsible for the majority of the interactions (93%). The percentages of session time devoted to teacher-centred cumulative reasoning, exploratory questioning and handling of conflict about knowledge were 65.8%, 15.6% and 3.1%, respectively. Group interactions in seminar groups are dominated by the posing of questions by teachers to students. The moderate occurrence of group interactions as perceived by students and teachers may be explained by the inadequate preparation of teachers and students to stimulate group interactions.
Case, Edward Leo
The ability to solve problems is a widely accepted goal of General Chemistry courses. A review of current research indicates that articles on how students solve problems and articles on suggested methods for increasing problem-solving skills dominate the literature. While informative, neither of these areas assesses the effectiveness of interventions on the actual strategies students employ. This study sought to show the effect that solving problems in collaborative groups would have on the problem-solving strategies of the individuals in those groups. It utilized the IMMEX software package to assess the strategy students employed in solving a case-based, qualitative chemistry problem. Artificial neural network analysis and Hidden Markov modeling were used to analyze IMMEX data to classify problem-solving strategies into one of five problem-solving states. The states were then compared based on solve-rates and the number of menu items selected. This made it possible to identify the most favorable states and to draw conclusions about the appropriateness of the strategies students use in solving the problems. The IMMEX system was used to deliver multiple cases of a qualitative chemistry problem to students working in groups of 3 to 4 students. Comparisons were then made between students' pre- and post-grouping strategies, group strategies versus individual strategies, and group strategies versus participants post-grouping strategies. The results presented here support the use of the IMMEX system as a problem delivery system and as an analysis tool. In addition, they show that it is possible to improve the problem-solving strategies that students employ through the use of collaborative learning activities. Finally, these results open the door to future research in collaborative grouping as an intervention for improving problem solving and into the effectiveness of other such interventions.
Usanov D.A.; Protopopov А.А.; Skripal A.M; Averyanov A.P.; Repin V.F.; Rytik A.P.; Vagarin A.Yu.; Kuznetsov M.A.; Petrova M.G.
The description of investigation of predisposition to potential danger of collapse complications at 429 first-year students during physical training is presented using the analysis of pulse wave form. With the help of developed device the group of students with predisposition to risk of collapse complications during physical activity has been revealed. The results of clinical examination have confirmed the predisposition of the given group to risk of collapse complications
Full Text Available The description of investigation of predisposition to potential danger of collapse complications at 429 first-year students during physical training is presented using the analysis of pulse wave form. With the help of developed device the group of students with predisposition to risk of collapse complications during physical activity has been revealed. The results of clinical examination have confirmed the predisposition of the given group to risk of collapse complications
Pashkov A. N.
Full Text Available the article presents data on the study of the cohesion of 115 students from the faculty of dentistry at Burdenko Voronezh State Medical University. The study revealed that students have high and medium favorable psychological climate. 99 of them have the average level of group cohesion, and 16 revealed a low level of this indicator. To improve the educational process and interpersonal relations, these results must be taken into account when forming groups.
Atalayin, Cigdem; Balkis, Murat; Tezel, Huseyin; Onal, Banu; Kayrak, Gul
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of burnout among a group of Turkish preclinical dental students, to compare the level of burnout and to determine the consequences in structural equation model. Preclinical dental students (n = 329, 50.5% of females and 49.5% of males) aged between 18 and 24 took part in the study. Maslach burnout inventory student version, academic satisfaction scale, and personal information sheet were used to gather data. Pearson correlation analyses, t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The proposed theoretical model was tested via observed variable path analysis using maximum likelihood parameter estimation with AMOS 7.0. About 22.3% of students had high level of emotional exhaustion, 16.7% of students had high level of cynicism, and 17.9% of students suffered from high level of reduced academic efficacy. While the students attending the first grade reported higher level of reduced academic efficacy, the students in the third grade reported higher level of emotional exhaustion. Academic workload played an important role in the development of burnout. As consequences of burnout, students with high levels of burnout intended to change their current major and did not to plan to continue to postgraduate education. Students with high level of burnout reported less level of academic satisfaction and academic achievement. Creating awareness on the burnout of dental students from the preclinical period may be useful for prevention and more compatible dental education environment.
Full Text Available Background: Daily toothbrushing and flossing are easy, effective and low-cost practices for removing the microbial dental plaque, which is an important factor in the development of caries and periodontal disease. Aim: The objective of this study is evaluation of oral health behaviors in a group of students from an Iranian university . Materials and Methods: This descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 1736 Iranian students (1230 non-medical sciences students and 506 medical sciences students. Subjects were randomly selected. The students were asked to fill out a self-completion questionnaire about daily oral health behavior. Statistical Analysis Used: The chi-square test was used for evaluation of oral health behaviors and relationship between students′ oral hygiene behavior and educational levels. Results : There was no difference between the frequencies of tooth brushing in the students of two universities. Medical sciences students used dental floss more than non-medical sciences students, which was a significant difference ( P = 0.000. There was no significant difference in toothbrushing frequency among the students with different levels of education. But the students of doctorate and masters degrees used dental floss significantly more than those of bachelor or associate degrees ( P = 0.000. Conclusions: This study showed that the level of self oral care among Iranian students is at a lower level than in industrialized countries.
Kane, Melinda D
A key indicator of a supportive campus climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) college students is the existence of an LGBT student organization. This article integrates the research on high school LGBT policies and programs with social movement studies of campus activism to examine the characteristics associated with the existence of university-approved LGBT groups on North Carolina campuses. Drawing on data from the National Center for Education Statistics, campus Web sites, and other sources, logistic regression is used to examine the importance of public opinion, campus and community resources, and the institutional context in predicting the location of these student groups.
Wosnitza, Marold; Volet, Simone
This paper examines how distinct trajectories of change in students' general views of group work over the duration of one single group assignment could be explained by multidimensional aspects of their experience and the overall instructional context. Science (336) and Education (377) students involved in a semester-long group assignment…
Preckel, Franzis; Götz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne
Securing appropriate challenge or preventing boredom is one of the reasons frequently used to justify ability grouping of gifted students, which has been shown to have beneficial effects for achievement. On the other hand, critics stress psychosocial costs, such as detrimental effects on academic self-concept (contrast or big-fish-little-pond effect). The effects of full-time ability grouping in special classrooms for the gifted on students' academic self-concept and their experience of boredom in mathematics classes were investigated. The sample comprised 186 ninth-grade students (106 male) from eight classes at one Austrian high school. Four of these classes were part of a gifted track beginning from school year 9 on (N=93). Students were assessed repeatedly within the first half of the school year, three times via self-report questionnaires and once by applying a standardized IQ-test. Students in gifted classes reported a decrease in maths academic self-concept which was most pronounced early in the academic year. Interventions to counterbalance the negative effect of exposure to a high-ability reference group should therefore be implemented when ability grouping begins. No evidence for the boredom hypothesis was found (higher levels of boredom among gifted students in regular classes). However, students clearly differed in the reasons they stated for experiencing boredom. Boredom attributions changed over time and supported the assumption that gifted classes provide more appropriate levels of challenge.
Berge, Maria; Danielsson, Anna T.
The purpose of this article is to explore how a group of four university physics students addressed mechanics problems, in terms of student direction of attention, problem solving strategies and their establishment of and ways of interacting. Adapted from positioning theory, the concepts `positioning' and `storyline' are used to describe and to analyse student interaction. Focused on how the students position the physics problems, themselves, and each other, the analyses produced five different storylines. The dominant storyline deals with how the students handled the problem solving, whilst two other storylines characterise alternative ways of handling the physics problems, whereas the two remaining storylines are concerned with how students positioned themselves and others—as either funny and/or knowledgeable physics students—and constitute different aspects of the physics community. Finally, the storylines are discussed in relation to the pedagogical situation, with recommendations made for teaching practice and future research.
Full Text Available As student diversity becomes the norm in U.S. schools, future teachers must be comprehensively prepared to work with the increasingly diverse student population through application of informed instruction that enhances general and individual student learning and outcomes. Teacher Education programs increasingly promote student teaching in international settings as a substantive step to develop teachers who embody these new competencies and instructional practices. The proposed paper presentation offers a framework and analysis highlighting similarities and differences between two groups of student teachers in Belize (2005 and 2008. Findings are comparative and relate to the type and degree of (1 cultural-, professional-, and character-development influences on student teachers, and (2 emergent common intergroup patterns.
Gillies, Robyn M
Teachers play a critical role in promoting interactions between students and engaging them in the learning process. This study builds on a study by Hertz-Lazarowitz and Shachar (1990) who found that during cooperative learning teachers' verbal behaviours were more helpful to and encouraging of their students' efforts while during whole-class instruction, their verbal behaviours tended to be more authoritarian, rigid, and impersonal. This study seeks to determine if teachers who implement cooperative learning engage in more facilitative learning interactions with their students than teachers who implement group work only. The study also seeks to determine if students in the cooperative groups model their teachers' behaviours and engage in more positive helping interactions with each other than their peers in the group work groups. The study involved 26 teachers and 303 students in Grades 8 to 10 from 4 large high schools in Brisbane, Australia. All teachers agreed to establish cooperative, small-group activities in their classrooms for a unit of work (4 to 6 weeks) once a term for 3 school terms. The teachers were audiotaped twice during these lessons and samples of the students' language, as they worked in their groups, were also collected at the same time. The results show that teachers who implement cooperative learning in their classrooms engage in more mediated-learning interactions and make fewer disciplinary comments than teachers who implement group work only. Furthermore, the students model many of these interactions in their groups. The study shows that when teachers implement cooperative learning, their verbal behaviour is affected by the organizational structure of the classroom.
Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Roston, Karen Laurie; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim
This study examined the effectiveness of two approaches used in elementary schools to improve children's handwriting. Participants were 72 New York City public school students from the first and second grades. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest group design was used in which students engaged in handwriting activities using two approaches: intensive handwriting practice and visual-perceptual-motor activities. Handwriting speed, legibility, and visual-motor skills were examined after a 12-wk Handwriting Club using multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed that students in the intensive handwriting practice group demonstrated significant improvements in handwriting legibility compared with students in the visual-perceptual-motor activity group. No significant effects in handwriting speed and visual-motor skills were found between the students in intensive handwriting practice group and the students in visual-perceptual-motor activities group. The Handwriting Club model is a natural intervention that fits easily into existing school curriculums and can be an effective short-term intervention (response to intervention Tier II). Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Thor, Der; Xiao, Nan; Zheng, Meixun; Ma, Ruidan; Yu, Xiao Xi
Student presentations had been widely implemented across content areas, including health sciences education. However, due to various limitations, small-group student presentations in the classroom may not reach their full potential for student learning. To address challenges with presentations in the classroom, we redesigned the assignment by having students present and discuss online using VoiceThread, a cloud-based presentation and discussion tool. First-year students pursuing a Doctor of Dental Surgery degree were assigned into small groups to present physiology content and to discuss that content online. This assignment was similar to traditional student classroom presentations, with the exception that the entire assignment was conducted online. The primary purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the impact of the online format on the discussion quality. Another purpose of the study was to examine students' perceptions of using VoiceThread for presenting and learning, as well as the online interactions between the presenter and audience. Students posted a higher number of questions and comments than required by the assignment. The questions from students were also higher level questions, and the answers to these questions were more thorough compared with what we had previously observed in classroom presentations. The survey results showed that students preferred using VoiceThread for presenting, learning from other presentations, and discussing presentation content over performing this process in the classroom. Preliminary findings suggested that having dental students make presentations and hold discussions online might help address the challenges of student presentations in the classroom. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana
In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.
Phase 1 of this study examined student, mentor and clinical manager's perceptions of a 'Hub and Spoke' practice learning model in year 1 of an undergraduate nursing programme. Findings from Phase 1 suggested that the model had significant educational merit in orientating students to clinical learning and emphasising the primacy of the mentor relationship in developing and supporting students. Following the students through year 2 of their programme, wherein they experienced a 'rotational' practice learning model, which provided an opportunity to explore student perceptions of both models. To explore undergraduate nurses' perceptions of two experienced practice learning models: hub and spoke model, and the classical rotational model. In a previous study the hub and spoke model appeared to develop 1st year students' sense of belongingness, continuity and quality of practice learning, there for it was important to understand what students reported about these issues when recounting their 2nd year experience in the clinical setting that was organised according to a classical rotational model. Qualitative approach utilising focus groups. 10 under-graduate student nurses at the end of 2nd year. Focus group interviews. Students responded in ways that indicate they believed the experiences of year 1 had raised their faith in their ability to cope with the practice learning and educational demands of nursing. They saw themselves as being better prepared for year 2 as a result of their exposure to hubs and spokes. The study has identified traits of resilience, continued belongingness and self-confidence in orientation to learning in clinical practice in hub and spoke experienced students. The student nurses found the hub and spoke model valid in 1st year, whilst stating that for 2nd year the rotational model can be valid. This supports earlier findings that student nurses require a structured and supportive 1st year learning environment to enable development of resilience
Wardle, Jonathan Lee; Sarris, Jerome
Complementary medicine is forming an increasingly large part of health care in developed countries and is increasingly being formally taught in tertiary academic settings. An exploratory study of naturopathic student perceptions of, use of and attitudes towards teaching resources in naturopathic clinical training and education. Focus groups were conducted with current and recent students of 4-year naturopathic degree programmes in Brisbane and Sydney to ascertain how they interact with clinical teaching materials, and their perceptions and attitudes towards teaching materials in naturopathic education. Naturopathic students have a complex and critical relationship with their learning materials. Although naturopathic practice is often defined by traditional evidence, students want information that both supports and is critical of traditional naturopathic practices, and focuses heavily on evidence-based medicine. Students remain largely ambivalent about new teaching technologies and would prefer that these develop organically as an evolution from printed materials, rather than depart from dramatically and radically from these previously established materials. Findings from this study will assist publishers, librarians and academics develop clinical information sources that appropriately meet student expectations and support their learning requirements. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.
Alsamadani, Hashem A.
The current research study investigates the effectiveness of online blogging for students' individual and group writing skills. The participants were divided into individual learners and group learners. They produced pre-writing and post-writing samples through blogging practices. The study conducted lasted for 14 weeks so that blogging could be…
Damer, Diana E.; Latimer, Kelsey M.; Porter, Sarah H.
Social anxiety, a common concern among college students, carries significant negative consequences. Group therapy is an efficient and cost-effective way to provide treatment, and cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT; Heimberg & Becker, 2002) is the most widely researched and empirically supported treatment for persons with social anxiety…
This study explores the relationship between small, differentiated reading groups and fourth-grade students' reading motivation. Using self-study methodology, the author examined her own process of implementing these reading groups through two cycles of action research. Data were analyzed from two different administrations of the Motivations for…
This study examined the effectiveness of a group art therapy intervention within a school setting to increase coping skills and decrease disruptive behaviors in a group of 6 eighth-grade students at risk for making a poor transition to high school. The mixed-method AB single-case experiment measured each individual's changes in behavior and coping…
Gottschall, Holli; Garcia-Bayonas, Mariche
Group work is a widely used teaching technique in higher education. Faculty find themselves utilizing this method in their classes more and more, yet few studies examine what students actually think about group work. The current study surveyed Mathematics, Education, and Business Administration majors at a mid-sized southeastern university in…
Meinecke, A.L.; Smith, K.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.
This case study investigates the use of online blogs as a teaching tool. A collaborative blog was implemented in parallel classes on group processes in the United States and Germany. Our goal was to connect American and German graduate students by helping them to talk about group communication and
Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.
Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…
Curseu, Petru Lucian
In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…
Moreno, Julian; Ovalle, Demetrio A.; Vicari, Rosa M.
Considering that group formation is one of the key processes in collaborative learning, the aim of this paper is to propose a method based on a genetic algorithm approach for achieving inter-homogeneous and intra-heterogeneous groups. The main feature of such a method is that it allows for the consideration of as many student characteristics as…
Thomas, Emily; Feng, Jay
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping on the mathematical achievement of students in third grade. Participants were 16 third graders in a self-contained classroom, assigned to either small homogeneous or heterogeneous group for math instruction for 7 weeks. Pretest-posttest scores and growth…
Taqi, Hanan A.; Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.
The use of group work in classroom activities is a method used for motivating learning and increasing the idea of pleasure through learning. The current study investigates the advantages of group work in exams in the English department, in the College of Basic Education. 40 students in two classes of "The Introduction of Phonetics and…
Lee, Sang Joon; Ngampornchai, Anchalee; Trail-Constant, Trudian; Abril, Andres; Srinivasan, Sandhya
Due to the realistic, complex natures of authentic cases involved in case-based learning, the use of group work has been encouraged and expected to enhance the quality of interaction among participants and to improve students' learning experiences. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the case-based online group work increased…
Messersmith, Amber S.
Facilitating meaningful interaction among students is a significant challenge of teaching in the online environment. This paper presents a semester-long approach that enables quality interaction among group members within undergraduate online group communication courses while experiencing the challenges of working with geographically dispersed…
Mittelmeier, Jenna; Rienties, Bart; Tempelaar, Dirk; Whitelock, Denise
As universities worldwide rapidly internationalise, higher education classrooms have become unique spaces for collaboration between students from different countries. One common way to encourage collaboration between diverse peers is through group work. However, previous research has highlighted that cross-cultural group work can be challenging…
Saunders-Stewart, Katie S.; Walker, Cheryl L.; Shore, Bruce M.
Although an abundance of information exists concerning advantages and disadvantages of certain grouping arrangements with highly able students in classroom settings, little research has focused on gifted children's parents' and teachers' opinions of group work. The present study explored potential differences between these opinions. Parents (n=…
Gagnon, Lissa L; Roberge, Ginette D
Since the outset of nursing care, group work processes have evolved into essential components of a nurse's role and responsibilities within the health care system. To reflect this trend, group work is often utilized as a medium to promote professional socialization in undergraduate nursing curricula. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the ways undergraduate nursing students experience collaboration during group work activities. Braun and Clarke's (2006) theoretical thematic analysis combined with Pollio et al.'s (2006) interpretive framework was utilized to capture the students' lived experiences regarding group work. The participants of this study consisted of 96 undergraduate students enrolled in a nursing program in Canada. Written descriptions of their perceptions of their group work practices were analyzed to determine the extent to which these adhere to the collaborative practice essential elements (Jones and Way, 2006). Analysis of the results revealed an unexpected element of collaboration that of the psychosocial element in group work. The results from this study expose advantages and disadvantages of group work processes during group work in nursing education. This type of insight is valuable for educators to prepare nursing students for the complex demands of working with interdisciplinary teams. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chapman, Kenneth J.; Meuter, Matthew L.; Toy, Daniel; Wright, Lauren K.
In today's business world, the ability to work efficiently and effectively in a team is mandatory to a business student's success. Many employers rank "ability to work with a group" as one of the most important attributes for hiring business school graduates. Although an abundance of research has investigated group processes and dynamics during…
Whelan, Alexander; Leddy, John J; Mindra, Sean; Matthew Hughes, J D; El-Bialy, Safaa; Ramnanan, Christopher J
The purpose of this study was to compare student perceptions regarding two, small group learning approaches to compressed (46.5 prosection-based laboratory hours), integrated anatomy education at the University of Ottawa medical program. In the facilitated active learning (FAL) approach, tutors engage students and are expected to enable and balance both active learning and progression through laboratory objectives. In contrast, the emphasized independent learning (EIL) approach stresses elements from the "flipped classroom" educational model: prelaboratory preparation, independent laboratory learning, and limited tutor involvement. Quantitative (Likert-style questions) and qualitative data (independent thematic analysis of open-ended commentary) from a survey of students who had completed the preclerkship curriculum identified strengths from the EIL (promoting student collaboration and communication) and FAL (successful progression through objectives) approaches. However, EIL led to student frustration related to a lack of direction and impaired completion of objectives, whereas active learning opportunities in FAL were highly variable and dependent on tutor teaching style. A "hidden curriculum" was also identified, where students (particularly EIL and clerkship students) commonly compared their compressed anatomy education or their anatomy learning environment with other approaches. Finally, while both groups highly regarded the efficiency of prosection-based learning and expressed value for cadaveric-based learning, student commentary noted that the lack of grade value dedicated to anatomy assessment limited student accountability. This study revealed critical insights into small group learning in compressed anatomy education, including the need to balance student active learning opportunities with appropriate direction and feedback (including assessment). © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to presents the results of a focus group with students in veterinary medicine, asked about their preferred delivery methods. The research is a preliminary one in a longer series of studies dedicated to the design and implementation of a problem-based learning methodology for the students. The materials used consisted in a series of questions that were submitted for debate during a focus group organised with 12 students in veterinary medicine. The method used was the focus group. The degree of novelty of the paper is high. Results show that students in veterinary medicine have already used problem-based learning without even knowing it. The research limitations consist in the fact that the authors organised the focus group on a small sample of students. The usefulness of the paper consists in the fact that it will help other academics see better through the eyes of their students and try to meet their expectations. The originality of the paper is real: there has been no such research in Romanian higher education in veterinary medicine. The importance of the paper resides in its disclosure of facts and feelings unknown to both the authors of the paper and readers.
Bhakta, Roy; Wood, Clare; Lawson, Duncan
This study examined differences in personality and mathematical ability between students studying Business, Psychology, Sports and Nursing. There were 286 participants who each completed a mathematics diagnostics test and a Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) during the first term of their first year of study. There was a significant…
Delisle, Jason; Holt, Alexander
For all the attention student loans have received in the media and from policymakers in recent years, there is still remarkably little information on why and how borrowers struggle to repay them. Rising college prices and debt levels explain some of the troubles borrowers have with their loans, as does a slow economic recovery that has caused…
Parker, Stephen D; Leggett, Andrew
This paper qualitatively evaluates a one-year trial of Balint clinical reflection groups for medical students in psychiatry at a large Australian tertiary referral hospital. The trial considered whether clinical reflection groups following the Balint process would be perceived as useful and relevant to the learning needs of the student participants. A grounded theory approach was undertaken. This included survey data, thematic analysis of written feedback, and facilitator reflection on the process. Facilitators adapted the group process in response to participants' needs. These modifications included: increased education regarding the Balint process; the introduction of co-presenters; and the inclusion of a didactic summary following each session. The evaluation suggested that fidelity of the Balint group experience was achieved and that student attitudes were neutral to mildly positive regarding the educational experience. Balint groups are potentially useful to medical students in the Australian context. We suggest that Balint groups may be more useful when applied in less alienating learning environments, such as during general practice rotations. Emphasis is placed on the need to maintain a dynamic approach by adapting the group and the educational processes as the work unfolds.
Maria Grazia Novara
Full Text Available This study is focused on exploration of experience of cultural transition that has lived a group of international students (European and not European host at an Italian University during particular experiential segment marking the transition from their culture of belonging to the new social and cultural context. From an epistemological point of view that aligns with the phenomenological tradition with individual and group interviews, it was monitored with a longitudinal methodology as the representation of the transit cross-cultural adaptation to the context it emerged from the interviews are associated through the dominant narrative themes. The results show how in the early stage of contact with the new culture, the group of students, both European and not, have felt a sense of disorientation associated with the loss of its cultural matrix. Over the next step of analysis is rather more clearly the difference between the group of European students, whose performances evoke an adjustment process easier and less based on feelings of ambivalence and close relationships that characterize the group of non-European students.Keywords: Cross-cultural transition; international students: phenomenology.
Maria Grazia Novara
Full Text Available This study is focused on exploration of experience of cultural transition that has lived a group of international students (European and not European host at an Italian University during particular experiential segment marking the transition from their culture of belonging to the new social and cultural context. From an epistemological point of view that aligns with the phenomenological tradition with individual and group interviews, it was monitored with a longitudinal methodology as the representation of the transit cross-cultural adaptation to the context it emerged from the interviews are associated through the dominant narrative themes. The results show how in the early stage of contact with the new culture, the group of students, both European and not, have felt a sense of disorientation associated with the loss of its cultural matrix. Over the next step of analysis is rather more clearly the difference between the group of European students, whose performances evoke an adjustment process easier and less based on feelings of ambivalence and close relationships that characterize the group of non-European students.Keywords: Cross-cultural transition; International students: Phenomenology
Das Carlo, Mandira; Swadi, Harith; Mpofu, Debbie
The popularization of problem-based learning (PBL) has drawn attention to the motivational and cognitive skills necessary for medical students in group learning. This study identifies the effect of motivational and cognitive factors on group productivity of PBL tutorial groups. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 115 students at the end of PBL tutorials for 4 themes. The questionnaire explored student perceptions about effect of motivation, cohesion, sponging, withdrawal, interaction, and elaboration on group productivity. We further analyzed (a) differences in perceptions between male and female students, (b) effect of "problems," and (c) effect of student progress over time on group productivity. There were linear relations between a tutorial group's success and the factors studied. Significant differences were noted between male and female student groups. Students and tutors need to recognize symptoms of ineffective PBL groups. Our study emphasizes the need to take into account cultural issues in setting ground rules for PBL tutorials.
Mills, Paul C; Woodall, Peter F; Bellingham, Mark; Noad, Michael; Lloyd, Shan
There is a tendency for students from different nationalities to remain within groups of similar cultural backgrounds. The study reported here used group project work to encourage integration and cooperative learning between Australian students and Asian (Southeast Asian) international students in the second year of a veterinary science program. The group project involved an oral presentation during a second-year course (Structure and Function), with group formation engineered to include very high, high, moderate, and low achievers (based on previous grades). One Asian student and three Australian students were placed in each group. Student perceptions of group dynamics were analyzed through a self-report survey completed at the end of the presentations and through group student interviews. Results from the survey were analyzed by chi-square to compare the responses between Asian and Australian students, with statistical significance accepted at p learning experience. Asian students expressed a greater preference for working in a group than for working alone (p = 0.001) and reported more frequently than Australian students that teamwork produces better results (p = 0.01). Australian students were more likely than Asian students to voice their opinion in a team setting (p = 0.001), while Asian students were more likely to depend on the lecturer for directions (p = 0.001). The results also showed that group project work appeared to create an environment that supported learning and was a successful strategy to achieve acceptance of cultural differences.
Drew, Jennifer C; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Ardissone, Alexandria N; Triplett, Eric W
The Microbiology and Cell Science (MCS) Department at the University of Florida (UF) developed a new model of a 2 + 2 program that uses a hybrid online approach to bring its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum to students. In this paradigm, 2-year graduates transfer as online students into the Distance Education in MCS (DE MCS) bachelor of science program. The program has broadened access to STEM with a steadily increasing enrollment that does not draw students away from existing on-campus programs. Notably, half of the DE MCS students are from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds and two-thirds are women, which represents a greater level of diversity than the corresponding on-campus cohort and the entire university. Additionally, the DE MCS cohort has comparable retention and academic performance compared with the on-campus transfer cohort. Of those who have earned a BS through the DE MCS program, 71% are women and 61% are URM. Overall, these data demonstrate that the hybrid online approach is successful in increasing diversity and provides another viable route in the myriad of STEM pathways. As the first of its kind in a STEM field, the DE MCS program serves as a model for programs seeking to broaden their reach. © 2016 J. C. Drew et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Kristoffersson, Emelie; Andersson, Jenny; Bengs, Carita; Hamberg, Katarina
Background Research shows that medical education is characterized by unequal conditions for women and men, but there is a lack of qualitative studies investigating the social processes that enable and maintain gender inequalities that include both male and female students. In this focus group study, we therefore explored male as well as female medical students? experiences of the gender climate ? i.e., how beliefs, values, and norms about gender were communicated ? during clinical training an...
Ernest, Eric V; Brazelton, Tom B; Carhart, Elliot D; Studnek, Jonathan R; Tritt, Patricia L; Philip, Genghis A; Burnett, Aaron M
Introduction Traditionally, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) educators have divided the pediatric population into age groups to assist in targeting their clinical and didactic curriculum. Currently, the accrediting body for paramedic training programs requires student exposure to pediatric patients based entirely on age without specifying exposure to specific pathologies within each age stratification. Identifying which pathologies are most common within the different pediatric age groups would allow educators to design curriculum targeting the most prevalent pathologies in each age group and incorporating the physiologic and psychological developmental milestones commonly seen at that age. Hypothesis It was hypothesized that there are unique clusterings of pathologies, represented by paramedic student primary impressions, that are found in different age groups which can be used to target provider education. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data documented by paramedic students in the Fisdap (Field Internship Student Data Acquisition Project; Saint Paul, Minnesota USA) database over a one-year period. For the purposes of this study, pediatric patients were defined arbitrarily as those between the ages of 0-16 years. All paramedic student primary impressions recorded in Fisdap for patients aged 0-16 years were abstracted. Primary impression by age was calculated and graphed. The frequency of primary impression was then assessed for significance of trend by age with an alpha ≤.05 considered significant. The following primary impressions showed clinically and statistically significant variability in prevalence among different pediatric age groups: respiratory distress, medical-other, abdominal pain, seizure, overdose/poisoning, behavioral, and cardiac. In patients less than 13 years old, respiratory and other-medical were the most common two primary impressions and both decreased with age. In patients 5-16 years old, the prevalence of
Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro G; Read, Margaret; Schwartz, Marlene B; Chriqui, Jamie F
The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards. Students are most affected by efforts to improve the school food environment; yet, few studies directly include students. This study examined high school students' experiences of school meal reform to gain insight into implementation recommendations. We conducted 5 focus groups with high school students (N = 15) from high schools across 9 states. We also conducted follow-up interviews to further explore personal experiences. Focus groups and interview transcripts were coded and organized in Atlas.ti v7 by analysts, following principles of constant comparative analysis. Students reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and supported continued efforts to improve the food environment. Recommendations to improve the food environment included engaging students, focusing on the quality and palatability of meal items, moving toward scratch-cooking, and addressing cafeteria infrastructure. Students' recommendations point to opportunities where school districts, as well as local, state, and federal organizations can work to improve the school food environment. Their insights are directly relevant to USDA's recently released Local School Wellness Policy final rule, of which school meal standards are one provision. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available Purpose: to define key indicators of function of external breath of students of three groups of health taking into account various total sizes of a body. Material and Methods. For an assessment of breathing function, volume and highspeed characteristics the diagnosing Eton installations (Russia and Schiller (Switzerland were used. Results. Age peculiarities of respiratory ventilation disorders and differentiated assessment of circulatory and metabolic parameters according to the total body size in the special health groups (SHG are analyzed in the article. Breathing volumetric characteristics were examined among the 17-18 aged students in the different health groups. Special attention is paid to the effect of the long-term severe bronchial patency disorders which lead to the respiratory muscles overstrain and the decrease of their strength endurance. This results in the lungs capacity decrease which is typical for the special health groups' students. Conclusion. It is shown that the students of the 1st health group had lower body weight and the same body length in comparison with the 2nd and 3rd groups. This determined unequal role of respiration in providing vital processes in terms of educational activities, especially in case of disorders of musculoskeletal and cardio-respiratory systems.
The aim of this audit was to determine the effectiveness of large group tutorials for teaching neurology to medical students. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire rating their confidence on a ten point Likert scale in a number of domains in the undergraduate education guidelines from the Association of British Neurologists (ABN). We then arranged a series of interactive large group tutorials for the class and repeated the questionnaire one month after teaching. In the three core domains of neurological: history taking, examination and differential diagnosis, none of the students rated their confidence as nine or ten out of ten prior to teaching. This increased to 6% for history taking, 12 % in examination and 25% for differential diagnosis after eight weeks of tutorials. This audit demonstrates that in our centre, large group tutorials were an effective means of teaching, as measured by the ABN guidelines in undergraduate neurology.
Wulanyani, N. M. S.; Vembriati, N.
Generally, Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University applied Small Group Discussion (SGD) in its learning process. If group problem solving succeeds, each individual of the group will individually succeed. However, the success is also determined by each individual’s level of psychological well-being. When the students are in the high level of wellbeing, they will feel comfortable in small group discussion, and teamwork will be effective. Therefore, it is needed to conduct a research which investigates how psychological factors, such as traits, needs, cognitive, and social intelligence, influence students’ wellbeing in performing SGD. This research is also initiated by several cases of students who prefer individual learning and take SGD merely to fulfill attendance requirement. If the students have good wellbeing, they will take the SGD process optimally. The subject of this research was 100 students of Faculty of Medicine of Udayana University. This survey research used psychological test assessment, Psychological well-being scale, and Social Intelligence scale to gain data analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that all aspects of traits together with aspects ‘need for rules and supervision’ affect social intelligence. Furthermore, social intelligence factor with cognitive factors influence wellbeing of the students in the process of SGD.
Thidemann, Inger-Johanne; Söderhamn, Olle
Cost limitations might challenge the use of high-fidelity simulation as a teaching-learning method. This article presents the results of a Norwegian project including two simulation studies in which simulation teaching and learning were studied among students in the second year of a three-year bachelor nursing programme. The students were organised into small simulation groups with different roles; nurse, physician, family member and observer. Based on experiences in different roles, the students evaluated the simulation design characteristics and educational practices used in the simulation. In addition, three simulation outcomes were measured; knowledge (learning), Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning. The simulation was evaluated to be a valuable teaching-learning method to develop professional understanding and insight independent of roles. Overall, the students rated the Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning as high. Knowledge about the specific patient focus increased after the simulation activity. Students can develop practical, communication and collaboration skills, through experiencing the nurse's role. Assuming the observer role, students have the potential for vicarious learning, which could increase the learning value. Both methods of learning (practical experience or vicarious learning) may bridge the gap between theory and practice and contribute to the development of skills in reflective and critical thinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: We conducted a study to assess the impact of small group teaching (SGT among students by feedback analysis to identify intricacy so that learning can be facilitated. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken among 182 MBBS students studying at a teaching hospital at Gangtok. Students were provided with a questionnaire following an assignment on a scheduled topic. Students were asked to provide feedback on the modes of teaching-learning practiced in community medicine with the parameters of evaluation including assessment of presentation by faculty member in reference to relevance, sequencing, depth, interaction, etc., to the overall rating of presentations in different teaching-learning methods. Results: The faculty members were on the positive evaluation by the students in the SGT, which was preferred over "lectures" as the teaching-learning methods. Among SGTs "tutorials" were graded better than "practical," "seminar" and "field posting" on the basis of longer duration at a stretch. Among the parameters for evaluation, relevance, depth, and interaction in regard to scheduled topic of presentations, the rating was significantly higher in SGT than different other teaching-learning methods. Largely the students noted that the time devoted and number of hours/sessions allotted for each topic was adequate. Conclusion: All forms of SGT were on the positive appraisal by the students on their learning experience and were considered as a comprehensive tool for in-depth teacher-student interaction.
Amrein, Karin; Langmann, Andrea; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Pieber, Thomas R; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines
Although there has been a continuous increase in the number of women working in the field of medicine, women rarely reach the highest academic positions as full professors or editorial board members. We aimed to determine the proportion of women on the editorial boards of top-ranked medical journals in different medical specialties. We analyzed the gender of editorial board members of 60 top-ranked journals of 12 Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports categories. A total of 4175 editors were included in our analysis. Only 15.9% (10 of 63) editors-in-chief were female. In the 5 categories, critical care, anesthesiology, orthopedics, ophthalmology and radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging, currently not 1 woman holds the position of editor-in-chief. Less than one fifth (17.5%, 719 of 4112) of all editorial board members were women. There were significant differences among the evaluated categories, with the highest percentage of women in the category of medicine, general and internal and the lowest in the category critical care, followed by orthopedics. In every category, the proportion of women as editorial board members was substantially lower than that of men. Women are underrepresented on the editorial boards of major medical journals, although there is a great variability among the journals and categories analyzed. If more women are nominated to serve on editorial boards, they will be a visible sign of continuing progress and serve as important role models for young women contemplating a career in academic medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Miller, Nathaniel J.
Abundant educational research has integrated Albert Bandura's concepts of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within educational settings. In this phenomenological case study, the investigation sought to capture the manifestation of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within inquiry-based science laboratory courses. Qualitative data was derived from student efficacy surveys, direct classroom observations, and three-tiered interviews with teacher participants. Four high school science instructors and their students from two school districts in Northern Illinois were selected to participate in the study. This study sought to identify instructor strategies or criteria used to formulate student laboratory groups and the impact of such groupings on student self-efficacy and collective efficacy. Open coding of interview transcripts, observation logs, and student surveys led to the development of eight emerging themes. These themes included the purpose of science laboratory activities, instructor grouping strategies, instructor roles, instructor's perceptions, science laboratory assessment, student interactions, learner self-perceptions, and grouping preferences. Results from the study suggest that some students were innately inclined to assume leadership roles, smaller groupings had greater participation from all group members, students had a strong preference for working collaboratively in groups, and students desired to maintain stable laboratory groups in lieu of periodically changing laboratory partners. As with all case study methodologies, the findings of the study were limited to the individual participants at research sites and were not generalizable to all science classrooms. Additional research in the realms of group size, group autonomy, and student interviews would provide even greater insights into the observed phenomena.
Maldonado, David Emiliano Zapata; Rhoads, Robert; Buenavista, Tracy Lachica
Despite the many studies of student departure, colleges and universities continue to face difficulties in retaining underrepresented student populations. The authors argue that contemporary social integration and multicultural theories of student retention theory do not adequately address the academic needs of underrepresented students of color.…
Silver, Julie K; Bhatnagar, Saurabha; Blauwet, Cheri A; Zafonte, Ross D; Mazwi, Nicole L; Slocum, Chloe S; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Tenforde, Adam S
Medical specialty societies are important resources for physicians in advancing their careers. There is a gap in the literature regarding gender disparities within these societies. This study assesses one area where disparities may exist: recognition awards. To determine whether female physicians are underrepresented among recognition award recipients by the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AAPM&R). Surveillance study. A published online list of national award recipients from the AAPM&R was analyzed. Forty-eight years of data were included, as the list contained all major recognition award recipients from 1968 to 2015. All awards that were given exclusively to physicians were included. There were eight award categories listed online; seven met this criterion, with a total of 264 individual awards presented. One award category was excluded because it focused on distinguished public service and included both physician and nonphysician (eg, public official) recipients. Awards that were not published online were also excluded. Total awards given to female versus male physicians from 1968 to 2015, with awards given over the past decade (2006-2015) assessed independently. Lectureships were also analyzed as a set. For awards given to groups of physician recipients, analysis included gender composition of the group (eg, male only versus female only versus mixed-gender physician groups). To assess the proportion of female versus male physiatrists over time, physician gender and specialty data from 3 sources were used: the American Medical Association (AMA), the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), and the AAPM&R. Over the past 48 years, the AAPM&R presented 264 recognition awards to physicians. Award recipients were overwhelmingly male (n = 222; 84.1%). Females received 15.9% (n = 42) of the total awards, although there was an upward trend in female physician recipients to 26.8% (n = 26) from 2006 to 2015. Lectureships were given to 8
Karal, Hasan; Kokoc, Mehmet; Cakir, Ozlem
This study examines impact of the educational use of Facebook group on the high school students' proper usage of language. The study included thirty students who attend 11th grade in a high school in Trabzon, Turkey. Firstly, preliminary data about Facebook usage of students were obtained to understand the factors that motivate students to use…
Full Text Available Students working in groups is a commonly used method of instruction in higher education, popularized by the introduction of problem based learning. As a result, management of small groups of people has become an important skill for teachers. The objective of our study is to investigate why conflicts arise in student groups at the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University and how teachers manage them. We have conducted an exploratory interdepartmental interview study on teachers' views on this matter, interviewing ten university teachers with different levels of seniority. Our results show that conflicts frequently arise in group work, most commonly caused by different levels of ambition among students. We also found that teachers prefer to work proactively against conflicts and stress the student’s responsibility. Finally, we show that teachers at our faculty tend to avoid the more drastic conflict resolution strategies suggested by previous research. The outcome of our study could be used as input to future guidelines on conflict management in student groups.
César Torres Martín
Full Text Available From the frame of the European Higher Education Space an adaptation of teaching-learning process is being promoted by means of the pedagogical renewal, introducing into the class a major number of active or participative methodologies in order to provide students with a major autonomy in said process. This requires taking into account the incorporation of basic skills within university curriculum, especially “teamwork”. By means of group techniques students can acquire interpersonal and cognitive skills, as well as abilities that will enable them to face different group situations throughout their academic and professional career. These techniques are necessary not only as a methodological strategy in the classroom, but also as a reflection instrument for students to assess their behavior in group, with an aim to modify conduct strategies that make that relationship with others influences their learning process. Hence the importance of this ability to sensitize students positively for collective work. Thus using the research-action method in the academic classroom during one semester and making systematic intervention with different group techniques, we manage to present obtained results by means of an analysis of the qualitative data, where the selected instruments are group discussion and personal reflection.
Reports on an attempt to alter both the students' and the teacher's concepts of the teacher as "one who teaches" and the student as "one who is taught." Methods are described for developing student self-esteem and self-reliance through group interaction and group cooperation. Interpersonal communication skills are developed in this manner.…
Burgess, Annette; Goulston, Kerry; Oates, Kim
Role modelling by clinicians assists in development of medical students' professional competencies, values and attitudes. Three core characteristics of a positive role model include 1) clinical attributes, 2) teaching skills, and 3) personal qualities. This study was designed to explore medical students' perceptions of their bedside clinical tutors as role models during the first year of a medical program. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed Year 1 of the Sydney Medical Program in 2013. A total of nine focus groups (n = 59) were conducted with medical students following completion of Year 1. Data were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to code and categorise data into themes. Students identified both positive and negative characteristics and behaviour displayed by their clinical tutors. Characteristics and behaviour that students would like to emulate as medical practitioners in the future included: 1) Clinical attributes: a good knowledge base; articulate history taking skills; the ability to explain and demonstrate skills at the appropriate level for students; and empathy, respect and genuine compassion for patients. 2) Teaching skills: development of a rapport with students; provision of time towards the growth of students academically and professionally; provision of a positive learning environment; an understanding of the student curriculum and assessment requirements; immediate and useful feedback; and provision of patient interaction. 3) Personal qualities: respectful interprofessional staff interactions; preparedness for tutorials; demonstration of a passion for teaching; and demonstration of a passion for their career choice. Excellence in role modelling entails demonstration of excellent clinical care, teaching skills and personal characteristics. Our findings reinforce the important function of clinical bedside tutors as role models, which has implications for faculty development and
Cho, Alyssa H; Johnson, Shelly A; Schuman, Carrie E; Adler, Jennifer M; Gonzalez, Oscar; Graves, Sarah J; Huebner, Jana R; Marchant, D Blaine; Rifai, Sami W; Skinner, Irina; Bruna, Emilio M
Despite women earning similar numbers of graduate degrees as men in STEM disciplines, they are underrepresented in upper level positions in both academia and industry. Editorial board memberships are an important example of such positions; membership is both a professional honor in recognition of achievement and an opportunity for professional advancement. We surveyed 10 highly regarded journals in environmental biology, natural resource management, and plant sciences to quantify the number of women on their editorial boards and in positions of editorial leadership (i.e., Associate Editors and Editors-in-Chief) from 1985 to 2013. We found that during this time period only 16% of subject editors were women, with more pronounced disparities in positions of editorial leadership. Although the trend was towards improvement over time, there was surprising variation between journals, including those with similar disciplinary foci. While demographic changes in academia may reduce these disparities over time, we argue journals should proactively strive for gender parity on their editorial boards. This will both increase the number of women afforded the opportunities and benefits that accompany board membership and increase the number of role models and potential mentors for early-career scientists and students.
John Jairo Viafara
Full Text Available In order to become peer-tutors in a B.A program in Modern Languages, a group of EFL (English as a Foreign Language student teachers attended a study and research group in a university. Throughout their participation, prospective teachers collaborated and reflected by means of tasks completion and dialogue to learn the theory and practice of tutoring and research. Additionally, participants provided survey, journal and interview data to contribute with the exploration of how their group membership shaped them academically and personally. Results suggested that student teachers increased their knowledge of English due to their use of real-life group dynamics, among others. Furthermore, they updated and expanded their competencies to monitor pedagogical situations, design strategies and solve problems.
To investigate the academic writing experiences of a group of preregistration nursing students. To explore issues surrounding how academic writing skills were developed, integrated and received into the student's educational programme and how these skills impacted on various aspects of their educational and clinical experience. The development of an academic writing style is seen to be an integral skill that the student must be willing to learn and undertake within higher education settings. Academic styles of writing have been imported into nursing education as a consequence of its integration into higher education. I wanted to investigate the experiences of learning an academic style of writing for students early on in their nursing career. There is little, if any, research that seeks to investigate or measure these experiences of nursing students. A phenomenological approach to investigate the academic writing experiences of a group of preregistration students. There is an expectation that preregistration students will quickly acquire academic writing skills when most will have had little or no prior experience. There appeared to have been little emphasis placed on facilitating the development of these skills in the educational programme. The lack of emphasis and support proved to be problematical for these nursing students. The emergence of a theory-practice divide also figured strongly. Students were, however, able to appreciate the need and place for academic writing skills and most were able to identify the structural processes that were integral to acquiring such skills. A plethora of anecdotal evidence, supported by the findings in this study, suggests that most nursing students' struggle with the demands placed upon them when writing academic assignments. The need for greater emphasis and support throughout the whole period of training are highlighted in the findings of this study. It is known that nursing loses large numbers of its students to the
В. М. Корягін
Full Text Available Study objective. To define the pedagogical conditions of shaping motor competence in students of special medical groups during physical education at higher educational institutions. Study methods: theoretical analysis, systematization, comparison of different views on the issue under study, methodological and special literature collation, general scientific methods of theoretical level: analogy, analysis, synthesis, abstraction, induction. Study results. The study addresses the issues of indicating the pedagogical conditions necessary for the effective shaping of the motor competence in students of special medical groups during their physical education at higher educational institutions. The data analysis and collation of the data collected from the scientific, methodological and special literature helped outline and organize their index, which is a pre-requisite for ensuring the process effectiveness. We recommend using the study results as a major foundation for re-organization of the scientific and methodological aspects of physical education of students with health problems to ensure their motor competence effectively shaped.
Gossling, S.; Kunkel, T.; Schumacher, K.; Heck, N.; Birkemeyer, J.; Froese, J.; Naber, N.; Schliermann, E.
An extensive body of literature exists on the obstacles that have to be overcome in green power retailing. In this article, target group-specific marketing is evaluated as a strategy to increase the share of residential customers of green power. A sample of students in the city of Freiburg, Germany was interviewed in order to assess their awareness of environmental issues, their willingness to change to green power products, and to better understand individual hindrances in changing the power supplier. The analysis shows that students are highly positive towards green power products, but for several reasons difficult to reach in marketing campaigns. Aspects to be considered in addressing this consumer-group include the students' particular expectations towards green products, their living-conditions, price sensitivity, and their perception of the relative effort involved in changing the power provider. (author)
Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.; Weissmann, G. S.
The geoscience student population in the United States today does not reflect the diversity of the US population. Not only does this challenge our ability to educate sufficient numbers of students in the geosciences, it also challenges our ability to address issues of environmental justice, to bring geoscience expertise to diverse communities, and to pursue a research agenda reflecting the needs and interests of our nation as a whole. Programs that are successful in supporting students from underrepresented groups attend to the whole student (Jolly et al, 2004) as they develop not only knowledge and skills, but a sense of belonging and a drive to succeed in geoscience. The whole student approach provides a framework for supporting the success of all students, be they members of underrepresented groups or not. Important aspects of support include mentoring and advising, academic support, an inclusive learning community, and opportunities to learn about the profession and to develop geoscience and professional skills. To successfully provide support for the full range of students, it is critical to consider not only what opportunities are available but the barriers different types of students face in accessing these opportunities. Barriers may arise from gaps in academic experiences, crossing into a new and unfamiliar culture, lack of confidence, stereotype threat, implicit bias and other sources. Isolation of geoscience learning from its application and social context may preferentially discourage some groups. Action can be taken to increase support for all students within an individual course, a department or an institution. The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges program and the On the Cutting Edge Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty program all provide resources for individuals and departments including on line information, program descriptions, and workshop opportunities.
Vidyarthi SurendraK, Nayak RoopaP, GuptaSandeep K
Full Text Available Background: Lecturing is widely used teaching method in higher education. Instructors of large classes may have only option to deliver lecture to convey informations to large group students.Aims and Objectives: The present study was to evaluate the effectiveness/receptivity of interactive lecturing in a large group of MBBS second year students. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the well-equipped lecture theater of Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH, Tamil Nadu. A fully prepared interactive lecture on the specific topic was delivered by using power point presentation for second year MBBS students. Before start to deliver the lecture, instructor distributed multiple choice 10 questionnaires to attempt within 10 minutes. After 30 minutes of delivering lecture, again instructor distributed same 10 sets of multiple choice questionnaires to attempt in 10 minutes. The topic was never disclosed to the students before to deliver the lecture. Statistics: We analyzed the pre-lecture & post-lecture questions of each student by applying the paired t-test formula by using www.openepi.com version 3.01 online/offline software and by using Microsoft Excel Sheet Windows 2010. Results: The 31 male, 80 female including 111 students of average age 18.58 years baseline (pre-lecture receptivity mean % was 30.99 ± 14.64 and post-lecture receptivity mean % was increased upto 53.51± 19.52. The only 12 students out of 111 post-lecture receptivity values was less (mean % 25.8± 10.84 than the baseline (mean % 45± 9.05 receptive value and this reduction of receptivity was more towards negative side. Conclusion: In interactive lecture session with power point presentation students/learners can learn, even in large-class environments, but it should be active-learner centered.
Ihm, Jung-Joon; An, So-Youn; Seo, Deog-Gyu
The aim of this study was to determine whether the personality types of dental students and their group dynamics were linked to their problem-based learning (PBL) performance. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument was used with 263 dental students enrolled in Seoul National University School of Dentistry from 2011 to 2013; the students had participated in PBL in their first year. A four-session PBL setting was designed to analyze how individual personality types and the diversity of their small groups were associated with PBL performance. Overall, the results showed that the personality type of PBL performance that was the most prominent was Judging. As a group became more diverse with its different constituent personality characteristics, there was a tendency for the group to be higher ranked in terms of PBL performance. In particular, the overperforming group was clustered around three major profiles: Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging (ENTJ), Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ), and Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ). Personality analysis would be beneficial for dental faculty members in order for them to understand the extent to which cooperative learning would work smoothly, especially when considering group personalities.
Odaci, Hatice; Çelik, Çigdem Berber
The limited number of programs of tested efficacy in the literature such as cognitive-behavioural therapy and family-based prevention of internet addiction is striking. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of reality therapy-based group counselling on college students' problematic internet use and life satisfaction. In order to…
The study explores students' and lecturers' experiences of group work assessment in a performing arts department that includes undergraduate studies in theatre, dance and film. Working from the perspective that assessment is a socially situated practice informed by, and mediated through, the socio-political context within which it occurs, this…
Sundararajan, Malavika; Sundararajan, Binod; Manderson, Jill
The authors tested the dynamics of collective action tendencies of student teams when trying to accomplish a shared goal, with a focus on the impact of member ties and team member interaction and emotional responses on team performance. The results show the direct and indirect impacts of both positive and negative group emotions on the student…
In this study, the aim was to construct a significant structural measurement model comparing students' affective characteristics with their mathematic achievement. According to this model, the aim was to test the measurement invariances between gender sub-groups hierarchically. This study was conducted as basic and descriptive research. Secondary…
Zhu, Wei; Flaitz, Jeffra
Assessing students' language needs is the indispensable first step in EAP (English for Academic Purposes) curriculum development. In this article, we report a portion of the results from a needs assessment study whose ultimate purpose was to inform curriculum development in EAP contexts. We used the focus group methodology to examine learner needs…
Interteaching is a college teaching method grounded in the principles of applied behavior analysis. Research on interteaching demonstrates that it improves academic performance, and students report greater satisfaction with interteaching as compared to traditional teaching styles. The current study investigates whether discussion group size, a…
Pijls, M.; de Kramer, D.; Maj, B.; Pytlak, M.; Swoboda, E.
In an explorative research project, teachers experimented with new ideas to make their students discuss (i.e. show, explain, justify and reconstruct their work) their mathematical ideas with each other. Two kind of special tasks were developed: group tests and mind maps. Also, the role of the
In order to determine how emotions and cognition are experienced during collaborative group work online students' descriptions of their learning experience were interpreted using a qualitative approach. A common feature of these accounts was reference to difficulties and problems. Four main themes were identified from this data set. Two of the…
A time-series analysis was used to investigate Arabic undergraduate students' (n = 50) perceptions of assessed group work in a major government institution of higher education in Qatar. A longitudinal mixed methods approach was employed. Likert scale questionnaires were completed over the duration of a collaborative writing event. Additionally,…
Thondhlana, Gladman; Belluigi, Dina Zoe
A common global perception of group work in the higher education context is that it has the potential to act as a platform which can enable student learning by means of interactions, shared diverse experiences, deep engagement with subject concepts and the achievement of tasks collaboratively. Indeed, in different socio-economic, historical and…
Vespone, Brianna M.
College can be a challenging time for young adults, as many are experiencing life on their own for the first time, adjusting to new lifestyles, new social groups, and new ways to express themselves. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) college students, the challenges are increased as they face harassment, discrimination, and…
Zentall, Sydney S.; Kuester, Deitra A.; Craig, Bruce A.
Cooperative learning has broad support as an instructional strategy to improve achievement. If the social behavior of students at risk for ADHD could be documented, cooperative groups could also provide a context for intervention. To this purpose, we observed 22 same-gender triads, with or without a member at risk for ADHD during problem-solving…
Kuester, Deitra A.; Zentall, Sydney S.
This study assessed the effects of providing social participation rules on the performance and social behavior of a school-based sample of 10-14-year-old students at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 34) who worked cooperatively in same-gender triads with typical peers (n = 92). The design was primarily a 2 (population group)…
This research examines the systematic process of developing an integrative play therapy group model for middle school male students, ages 11-15 who participate in bullying behaviors. Play therapy approaches and evidence-based practices are documented as effective measures for addressing bullying behaviors with children and adolescents. This group…
Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle
Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…
Segura-Malady, Evelyn E.
Latinas are at a disadvantage when it comes to earning a college degree, as is evidenced by the fact that they take longer to complete their degrees than Black, Asian, and white college students and have the lowest graduation rates in comparison to these respective groups (Fry, 2004; Fry, 2012; Rodriguez, Guido-Brito, Torres, & Talbot, 2000).…
Kamps, Debra M.; And Others
A reversal design was used in two elementary classrooms to examine effects of cooperative learning groups (CLG) in reading instruction for three students with autism and their general education peers. Results demonstrated increased reading gains, academic engagement, and peer interaction during CLG conditions. Results also documented the…
Fu, Huijuan; Chu, Samuel; Kang, Wenxia
This study examined a wiki as a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment at upper primary level. A total of 388 Hong Kong Primary-five (P5) students in four Chinese primary schools used a wiki platform within the context of their group projects in General Studies (GS) classes. Adopting a mixed-methods design, qualitative and…
Black, Stephen R.; Thorp, Kay
The report describes a study of a multilingual group of six adult literacy students, five women and one man, enrolled in an English literacy class at an Australian college. Subjects' countries of origin include Afghanistan, Indonesia/China, Lebanon, Iran, and China. The study examined factors affecting subjects' daily literacy practices and…
LaBRIE, JOSEPH W.; CAIL, JESSICA; PEDERSEN, ERIC R.; MIGLIURI, SAVANNAH
This study examined the effectiveness of a single-session group motivational enhancement alcohol intervention on adjudicated male college students. Over two sequential academic years, 230 students sanctioned by the university for alcohol-related infractions attended a 60- to 75-minute group intervention. The intervention consisted of a timeline followback, social norms education, decisional balance for behavioral change, blood alcohol content (BAC) information, expectancy challenge, and generation of behavioral goals. Participants were followed weekly for three months and showed reductions in drinking (29%) and alcohol-related consequences (32%) at three-month follow-up. The intervention was successful in reducing drinking for both first-year students and upperclassmen, with reductions appearing to be a function of the intervention and not the citation itself. Furthermore, a post hoc control condition revealed that those participants randomly assigned to the intervention group condition reduced drinking (19%) and alcohol-related consequences (44%) more than participants in the control condition over one month. These results provide continued evidence of the effectiveness of group motivational enhancement interventions with adjudicated male college students. PMID:25525319
Sharma, Bal Krishna
This study presents a sequential analysis of the enactment of teacher identity in closing disagreements among students in small group peer interactions in an advanced academic writing class. In doing so, it discusses: (a) the micro-details of how oppositional stances and opinions are constructed, challenged and/or defended; (b) the sequential…
Könings, Karen D.; Popa, Daniela; Gerken, Maike; Giesbers, Bas; Rienties, Bart C.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.
Every year, thousands of students go abroad for part of their study programme. Supervision from the home institution is then crucial for good study progress. Providing supervision and feedback at a distance is challenging. This project aims to identify bottlenecks for supervision and hypothesises that online supervisory group meetings with…
Robatmili, Somaye; Sohrabi, Faramarz; Shahrak, Mohammad Ali; Talepasand, Siavash; Nokani, Mostafa; Hasani, Mohaddese
This paper identifies the effectiveness of group logotherapy in reducing depression and increasing meaning in life levels of university students in Iran. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a pre- post- and follow-up test design. The instruments used were the "Purpose in Life" (PIL) test and the "Beck Depression…
LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Lac, Andrew
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among college students and has the potential for various negative outcomes. Perceptions of what constitutes typical approval/acceptability of a reference group (i.e. injunctive social norms) have been shown to have strong utility as predictors of health-risk behaviors in the college context, yet this construct remains significantly understudied for marijuana use despite its potential for use in social norms-based interventions. The current research evaluated individuals' marijuana approval level and their perceptions of others' marijuana approval level (i.e. injunctive norms) for various reference groups (typical student on campus, one's close friends, and one's parents) as a function of individual user status (abstainers, experimenters, occasional users, and regular users). A diverse sample of 3553 college students from two universities completed an online survey. Among all user status groups, individual approval yielded mean scores paralleling that of perceived close friends' approval and all groups were relatively uniform in their perception of typical students' approval. Higher levels of marijuana use tended to produce higher endorsements of individual approval, perceived close friends' approval, and perceived parental approval. Among occasional and regular users, there were no differences between one's own approval level for use and the perceptions of close friends' approval, nor did they think the typical student was more approving than themselves. Abstainers and experimenters, however, perceived typical students and close friends to have more permissive attitudes than themselves. Implications and future directions for research regarding the role of injunctive marijuana use norms in the development of social norms intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
American classrooms are experiencing an influx of diverse language speaking students while for science educators the study of EBL students' learning in science classrooms is a relatively new field (Lee & Buxton, 2010). At the same time there is a growing emphasis on the importance of science practices (NGSS). This poses significant challenges for science educators who are enacting science curriculum that supports all students' learning. Supporting EBL students' academic achievement is significant because literacy is important for students' access to economic and social benefits that come with science literacy (Atwater, 1996). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-linguistic challenges that a specific group of EBL students (Yemeni) faced and the extent to which such challenges affected their academic performance in science. These challenges are related to linguistic and cultural interactions, which can lead to conflicts between student and school, thereby interfering with the effectiveness of their education. This study also examined these students' and their science teacher's perspectives on strategies that can be used to facilitate their language acquisition during science class and help them become active participants in the school and classroom communities. The study used a qualitative interpretive research methodology and involved four Arab-American EBL students (two males and two females) from Yemen, who had been in the US for different periods of time. The amount of time these students had been in the US was important to examine differences in their acculturation and challenges they faced. Similarly, the use of female and male student participants was important to understand the impact of gender in the lived experiences of these students. The results of the study indicated that all the participants struggled with linguistic, social, and cultural aspects of their life in an American high school. These in turn led to a sense of being different
However, a few fathers and a group of mothers believed that education of family planning is not suitable for students. A need for education of AIDS and marital problems for students were the major concerns in all groups. The female students emphasized a need for programming counseling in pre-marital period. In conclusion, essentials in puberty health, family planning, AIDS and marital problems should be provided in mid- and high schools in order to narrow the knowledge gap of the students.
Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Williams, Michelle A
Excessive alcohol consumption, particularly among young males, is an important global health problem, in part because of the increased risks of intentional and non-intentional injuries, uses of illicit drug, crime, and psychiatric disorders. There are no data available to evaluate the extent to which interventions are effective in reducing hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption among young males in Thailand. We examined the efficacy of alcohol harm reduction strategies administered as a peer-drinking group motivational intervention (PD-GMI) among Thai male undergraduates. We used a quasi-experimental study design that included two student groups assessed at baseline and at two time points post-intervention. Participants were students enrolled in two public universities and who reported alcohol consumption during the current academic year. Students in one university were assigned to an assessment-only study group (n=110); and students in the other university were assigned to a 2-h PD-GMI (n=115). This intervention was designed to (1) increase the awareness of risks associated with hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption; (2) enhance students' motivation to change their drinking behaviours; and (3) encourage harm reduction strategies during episodes of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption and adverse consequences were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI). Students receiving the intervention had significant reductions in mean AUDIT scores; 50.4% at baseline to 1-month and 61.2% at baseline to 3-month post-intervention. Their mean RAPI scores were also reduced; 42.0% at baseline to 1-month and 42.9% at baseline to 3-month post-intervention. Reductions in alcohol consumption and the prevalence of harmful alcohol consumption patterns were statistically significant among students in the intervention group versus those in the control group. The reductions remained after adjustments for baseline
Full Text Available This paper addresses itself to the outcomes of a field study which was carried out to identify Jordanian EFL students' attitudes towards using group work in EFL classrooms. The study sample consisted of 179 students enrolled in English 101, an elementary language skills course taught at Al- Huson University College, Al -Balqa' Applied University, Jordan. A questionnaire was used to investigate the subjects' attitudes. The findings show that approximately two-thirds of the participants are either very extrovert or somewhat extrovert, i.e. they have positive attitudes towards participating in group work in EFL classes. In contrast, only a third are either somewhat introvert or very introvert, i.e., they do not like to take part in group work in EFL classes. Moreover, the data show that neither the subjects' gender nor their secondary school stream (vocational, scientific, or literary has any significant effect on their preferences.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND ABO blood groups are associated with some important chronic diseases, obesity being the major risk factor is rising rapidly globally. The present study seeks to determine if there is any association between ABO blood groups and body mass index. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study involve 200 medical students, 102 boys and 98 girls in the age group of 18-23 years in the Government Medical College, Amritsar. Weight, height for BMI and blood groups were determined in order to find any association between ABO blood group and BMI. RESULTS Overweight and obesity was found more prevalent in boys than girls, 22.5% students were overweight and 15.5% were obese. The prevalence of overweight was (24.52% boys and 20.40% girls and prevalence of obesity was (25.49% boys and 5.10% girls. Blood group B was reported the most common blood groups (37.5% followed by blood group O (32.0%, while blood groups A and AB were found 19.5% and 11% of participants, respectively. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 among participants based on blood group O, A, AB and B was 29.69%, 25.64%, 18.18%, 16.00%, while obesity (BMI >30 among participants based on blood groups B, O, A and AB was 24.00%, 10.94%, 10.26% and 9.09%. CONCLUSION Prevalence of overweight and obesity was more in blood group O and B respectively and was more in males than females
Koole, S; Fine, P; De Bruyn, H
More than undergraduates, postgraduate students have the day-to-day clinical experience to reflect upon. Nevertheless, reflection in postgraduate dental education is less well studied. Hence, the purpose was to investigate the attitude towards reflection and the content of reflections in postgraduate implant dentistry education in the UK and Belgium. To investigate the attitude towards reflection, a questionnaire was administered to the 10 postgraduates at UCL Eastman Dental Institute (EDI) and 6 postgraduates at Ghent University (UGent). Additionally, students were invited to attend two reflective sessions (60-90 minutes). The sessions' audio recordings were transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. In total, 16 postgraduate implant dentistry students participated. Although the majority reported prior experience with reflection, there was variation in the provided definitions of reflection. EDI students agreed with reflection being beneficial for professional development/clinical reasoning and were positive about discussing clinical experiences in groups, but were divided about individual/group reflections. Their UGent counterparts were more indecisive (=neutral), but were positive about discussing clinical experiences. Thematic analysis identified recurring themes as individual learning process, learning and clinical experiences, attitude towards implant dentistry and course programme. EDI postgraduates' reflections focussed on specific clinical situations, while UGent postgraduates' reflections described general considerations. Although students/professionals often report to reflect, it is not clear whether/how they actually reflect, due to the all-purpose word reflection has become. A strategy, using group discussions along with supervision/guidance in how to reflect, demonstrated to expand clinical reasoning into reflections about postgraduate students' clinical actions and professional growth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley
Pranoto, Hadi; Atieka, Nurul; Wihardjo, Sihadi Darmo; Wibowo, Agus; Nurlaila, Siti; Sudarmaji
This study aims at: determining students motivation before being given a group guidance with self-regulation technique, determining students' motivation after being given a group counseling with self-regulation technique, generating a model of group counseling with self-regulation technique to improve motivation of learning, determining the…
Rafferty, Patricia D.
This article forms part of an exploration into how graduate students experience group work. A single case, embedded study was completed in 2011, which reveals insight and understanding into the manner in which part-time MBA students experience group work assignments and how these experiences contribute to their perception of positive group work…
In this research, the effect of solution focused group counseling upon high school students struggling with school burnout was analyzed. The research was an experimental study in which a pre-test post-test control group random design was used, depending upon the real experimental model. The study group included 30 students that volunteered from…
Dimitrijević Bojana M.
Full Text Available Research has shown that the beliefs about cultural, ethnic or racial diversities among students are vital for the effective work of teachers. Hence, in this paper, we aim at determining: (1 in what ways the teachers perceive and interpret the school situation that includes the students from a minority cultural group (Roma and Hungarian, i.e. what kinds of beliefs they express in the given situation; (2 whether there are any differences in the way in which teachers, within the same stadium of development of intercultural sensitivity, perceive the given situation. The sample included class teachers whose score on the Intercultural Development Inventory pointed to intercultural sensitivity in accordance with the stadium of minimisation (seventeen teachers and polarisation (six teachers. The Critical Incident Technique (CI was applied in the study, in two parallel forms: with a Hungarian and a Roma student. Thematic analysis yielded seven topics, four of which occurred only in the CI with a Roma student: Disrespecting school as an institution, Abuse of minority status, Separation from the class and Typical children’s motives. The comparison of teachers’ statements depending on the CI version and the developmental phase indicate that the specificity of a cultural group in question affects the expressed beliefs about this group, regardless of teachers’ intercultural sensitivity.
Hustad, John T. P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Kong, Lan; Urwin, Rachel; Zeman, Suzanne; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian
Individual brief motivational intervention (iBMI) is an efficacious strategy to reduce heavy drinking by students who are mandated to receive an alcohol intervention following an alcohol-related event. However, despite the strong empirical support for iBMI, it is unknown if the results from rigorously controlled research on iBMI translate to real-world settings. Furthermore, many colleges lack the resources to provide iBMI to mandated students. Therefore, group-delivered BMI (gBMI) might be a...
Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ariel Yu-Zhen; Yeh, Katherine Pin-Chen; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yu-Yan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polling technologies (clickers or tablets) integrated with strategies (individual or group) on students' academic performance, anxiety, and attention. The participants were 34 students enrolled in an educational research methodology course. The anxiety scale, pre- and in-class quizzes,…
Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte
College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students' eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. This is the first European
Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; Moran, Lyndsey R; Peterson, A Paige; Dreessen, Anthony
ADHD affects between 2% and 8% of college students and is associated with broad functional impairment. No prior randomized controlled trials with this population have been published. The present study is a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training adapted for college students with ADHD. Thirty-three undergraduates with ADHD between ages 18 and 24 were randomized to receive either DBT group skills training or skills handouts during an 8-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, executive functioning (EF), and related outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants receiving DBT group skills training showed greater treatment response rates (59-65% vs. 19-25%) and clinical recovery rates (53-59% vs. 6-13%) on ADHD symptoms and EF, and greater improvements in quality of life. DBT group skills training may be efficacious, acceptable, and feasible for treating ADHD among college students. A larger randomized trial is needed for further evaluation. © 2014 SAGE Publications.
Full Text Available Substantial gaps in science performance between majority and minority students are often found instandardized tests used in primary school. But at the item level, the gaps may vary significantly. Theaims of this study are: (1 to identify features of the test items in science (grade 5 and grade 8 students that can potentially explain group differences; and (2 to analyze what factors make test itemsespecially difficult for minority students. Explanatory variables such as reading load, item difficulty,item writing load, and use of the multiple-choice format are found to be major factors. The analysis reveals no empirical relationships between performance gap and either item subject domain, item test location, or the number of illustrations used in the item. Subtle issues regarding the design ofitems may influence the size of the performance gap at item level over and above the main explanatory variables. The gap can be reduced significantly by choosing “minority friendly” items.
Sahraian, Ali; Gholami, Abdullah; Javadpour, Ali; Omidvar, Benafsheh
The association between religiosity and happiness has been the focus of much recent research. The majority of them report a positive correlation between a religious attitude and behavior and the level of happiness. However, different findings have been reported. The aim of the current study was to test link between religiosity and happiness among a group of undergraduate Muslim students. Two hundred and seventy-one health-related students agreed to participate and completed Oxford Happiness Index and a religious belief questionnaire. It was found that higher score on religious belief was significantly linked to the level of happiness (r = .256, P = .01). The result confirms that individuals with a more religious attitude experience more happiness. The result of this study should be considered in programs designed to improve overall well-being of university students.
Nakonechny, Joanne; Cragg, Jacquelyn J.; Ramer, Matt S.
To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL) model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic) sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%), suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students – even term high achievers –could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom. PMID:21209910
Munroe, C. H.
Through involvement in authentic research experiences teachers improve their content knowledge, deepen their understanding of the research process, and rejuvenate their interest in science. These positive results of fieldwork transfer into the classroom, directly benefiting students. The ARMADA project provided me with a three week research experience aboard the Amundsen (Canadian Coast Guard science vessel) which enriched and strengthened me professionally. Guided by master and early career scientists, I took part in specific research techniques and deep scientific discourse. My immersion in ocean science was so stimulating that I was inspired to share that excitement with my students. The fascination my students showed for basic experiments and ocean related activities fueled my interest further and I began to research more deeply which led to Climate Literacy and Polar Studies as essentials in my science curriculum. Over the following years I continued to expand and refine the workshops and activities students take part in. Three years after the research experience students still love the science explorations we embark upon together. This past year a group of students became so excited about Polar Science and Climate that they authored a 36 page non fiction book for upper elementary and middle school students entitled, "Changing Poles, Changing Planet: Climate Change vs. The Earth". Seven of the authors decided to continue their science outreach work by creating an educational video focusing on the basics of climate science and what children can do to lower carbon emissions. The book and video were distributed to educators as well as scientists at the International Polar Year Science Conference in June, 2010. In August some of these students presented their work at a Sustainability festival that was organized by M-CAN a local climate action group. Two of these students (who have left my class and started 6th grade at the middle school)recently decided to form a
Full Text Available It is considered the directions of the development an effective methods of usage moving elements of sports and games in exercises. The experiment involved students of special medical groups that have various abnormalities of the cardiovascular system. The study was conducted in four stages: a search, the first experimental, the second experimental, final. We used questioning and education registry books of academic work. Found that the use of sports and outdoor games is students' interest, and increasing motivation for physical activity. Justified by the possibility of using games and exercises performed their adaptation by changing the pulse value. The resulting modification of gaming exercises are divided into three groups: the game in the area of heart rate to 110, 110-130 and 130-150 beats per minute. The first version of the experimental procedure at a heart rate of 110 and 110-130 beats per minute was ineffective for the emergence of significant positive changes in the functional state of the cardiovascular system students. Recommended experimental procedure based on the alternation and equivalence ratio of mobile elements and sports games and increases the heart rate to 130-150 beats per minute. Application of the method increases the overall level of physical health, improves the functional state of the cardiovascular system, health, activity and mood of the students.
Liu, Wan-ting; Kuang, Li; Ai, Ming; Li, Xue-mei; Chen, Jian-mei; Lou, Dan-dan; Niu, Ya-juan; Phillips, Michael R
To investigate the prevalence of self-reported suicidal behavior in university students and to compare the related risk factors between two selected groups. A questionnaire survey on situation of suicidal behavior and risk factors was conducted among 9808 university students. The overall rate of suicide attempts among university students was 1.7%. Factors as suicidal attitude, having associates who had suicidal experience and negative life events, were significantly different between groups with or without suicide attempts. Risk factors on suicidal behavior were as follows: high frequency of feeling hopeless in the last year (OR = 4.23, 95%CI: 3.05 - 5.85), first degree relatives with suicide behavior (OR = 2.85, 95%CI: 1.72 - 4.73), having associates with suicide behavior (OR = 2.82, 95%CI: 2.05 - 3.88), having had sexual experience (OR = 2.73, 95%CI: 1.88 - 3.96), daily live being influenced by the existing psychological problems in the last month (OR = 2.53, 95%CI: 1.80 - 3.56), being female (OR = 2.47, 95%CI: 1.77 - 3.45) and having other relatives with suicide behaviors (OR = 2.36, 95%CI:1.63 - 3.41). Psychological, biological and social factors had influenced on suicidal behaviors among university students which all called for effective intervention to be implemented.
Church, Sarah; Ekberg, Merryn
the aim of this study was to gain an understanding of how midwifery students respond to a range of ethical dilemmas which they may encounter in clinical practice in relation to the use of reproductive technologies. during a series of focus groups, student midwives were asked to consider four novel scenarios, which highlighted some of the most controversial issues in contemporary reproductive ethics. These included assisted reproduction for older women, surrogacy and mental health, sex selection and reproductive cloning. a University in the East Midlands, England. purposeful sampling was adopted which resulted in four focus groups with a total of 16 student midwives. a process of thematic analysis generated four key themes: choice and expectation, consumer society; distributive justice; parental rights and welfare of the child. our results suggest that student midwives are sensitive to the range of ethical dilemmas associated with the increased use of technology in human reproduction, and construct distinct boundaries in relation to what is considered of benefit or good to the mother, parents, the child and to society and what is considered harmful to the individual, the child and society. They also expressed their opposition to the excessive use of technological intervention, preferring instead to maintain a more naturalistic approach to reproduction. This is especially significant where concerns about the welfare of the child are articulated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mazur Valerij Anatol'evich
Full Text Available The question of regulatory framework for special medical group students' physical education, and their physical condition in particular is elaborated. It is found that in the current program the identified question is missing, although the assessment of individual performance standards for the physical condition of the students was envisaged in the programs of 1977 and 1982. The need for such an assessment is indicated by the large number of Ukrainian and foreign pediatricians and specialists in therapeutic physical culture. At the same time the standards for assessing these indicators are not developed. It complicates the formation of positive motivation of students to regular classes, and does not promote their self-confidence, capabilities and effectiveness of monitoring the effectiveness of exercise in various forms. The findings suggest the need to define the optimal composition of the bulk of tests and functional tests to assess the physical condition of special medical group students with various diseases and to develop appropriate indicators for their evaluation standards.
Yavuz van Giersbergen, Meryem; Ozsaker, Esma; Dirimese, Elif; Alcan, Aliye Okgun
The purpose of this study was to evaluate operating room (OR) experiences of student nurses. The focus group interview from qualitative research methods was used. This study was carried out between February and March 2011 in an OR practice at a university school of nursing. The grounded theory method was used to collect and analyze semistructured interview. Interviews were held with a total of 26 students in three focus group interviews. Each interview was tape recorded and was supported by taking notes. The audiotapes were listened and relistened by the researchers and transcribed. Four themes were determined as a result of this study. These are information, determination of career preference, period of internship and/or rotation, and fear and/or anxiety. The students stated that the period of OR practice was insufficient, the opportunities for being able to implement were limited, they mostly observed, and they experienced feelings of being alone and fear in the OR. Despite all of these, the students stated that the OR practice provided a major contribution to their education and was effective in the determination of their career preferences after graduation. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poussaint, A F
Medical educators realize that there are no simple predictors for student performance in the clinical training years. College grades and Medical College Admission Test scores may suggest the strength of a student's achievement in the basic sciences but cannot be relied on to predict efficacy in patient care. There is no fool proof way of assessing noncognitive abilities critical to clinical competence. However, in admissions, extracurricular activities, community service, leadership abilities, recommendations, and interviews are examined to assess personal strengths. The author's observations suggest that noncognitive attributes are important in the success of disadvantaged students. Although some, but not all, with low Medical College Admission Test scores may not excel in the basic sciences, once they reach the clinical years, a leveling of the playing field gives them an opportunity to show their special competence with patients. Minority students, perhaps because of their own life experiences, often are alert to the needs and sensitivities of patients. As a group, they are respectful of the dignity of patients. Many embrace the dictum: treat every patient as you would want a family member to be treated. Most minority students, despite pressures of being a minority in predominantly white environments, perform at a very high level in the clinical years and thereafter.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at exploring the prevalence of Internet Addiction (IA amongst a group of high-school students living in Southern Italy. Method: 560 hundred students of both sexes of a “Liceo Classico” who volenteered for the study were included. They completed a smaller version of a specific questionnaire for IA developed by us. Results: 500, out of the total of 560 questionnaires that were returned, were correctly completed and could be analyzed. The main findings were that almost all students used the smartphone to access Internet. About 16% of them used it for a time ranging between 90 and 120 minutes a day, and the remaining less than one hour. The most used applications were Facebook and Whatsup. Fifty percent of the students owned a videogame console, and dedicated less than two hours a day on videogames. The ensuing data were presented to the students and a debate was promoted amongst them. Conclusions: Internet and related technology are now part of the everyday life especially of adolescents. The benefits and limits of them should be underlined. On the same time, an incresead awareness on the possibility of developing an excessive use until a real addiction should be promoted amongst younger generations.
Walton, Kristen L. W.; Baker, Jason C.
Communication of scientific and medical information and collaborative work are important skills for students pursuing careers in health professions and other biomedical sciences. In addition, group work and active learning can increase student engagement and analytical skills. Students in our public health microbiology class were required to work…
Demirbatir, Rasim Erol
Few studies have been conducted on music students' psychological well-being and happiness. The purpose was to assess the psychological well-being, happiness and educational satisfaction among a group of university music students. Students participated voluntarily and filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale…
Scott, Dee; Jelsma, Jennifer
The study aimed to investigate whether learning from peers, learning from a clinical educator, or being the peer teacher during clinical group sessions was more effective at enhancing student learning outcomes for different health conditions. A secondary aim was to determine which method students found more satisfactory. Physiotherapy students at…
Kususanto, Prihadi; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Jamil, Hazri
Introduction: Between-class ability grouping practice in Malaysian Secondary Schools was studied in order to find the influence students' perception on their teachers' behavior on their self-esteem. Students' perception on teachers' behaviors were divided into two categories: controlling students' behavior to avoid disciplinary matters and…
Melissa B. Littlefield
Full Text Available Blackboard (TM provides social work educators integrated online communication tools that they can employ to facilitate student learning through features such as e-mail, discussion forums, file exchange, virtual classroom, and links to online resources. This study describes students’ experiences using Blackboard (TM to support a group project assignment. The majority of students found it easy to use and useful for the project, and indicated that they would like to use it in other courses. In addition, students gained technical skills as a result of the group project. Students’ group project grades and final course grades were comparable to those in other sections of the same course taught by this investigator. The findings of this study suggest that online technology can be used to facilitate group assignments for MSW students. The benefits include increased efficiency of group functioning and increased accountability of group members. The challenges include technical problems and student resistance to using the technology.
Janhonen, Sirpa; Sarja, Anneli
In Finland students pursuing in Master's Degree Programme have a previous degree in nursing from polytechnics. Nurse teacher qualification also includes at least five year's experience of working in practice. This article concentrates on the conflicts student teachers brought up in a group exam as regards changing a nurse's identity into a teacher's identity in teacher training. The approach of the study on this group was narrative. The data were collected by videotaping two group exam situations (five hours in all) of volunteer student teachers (N= 5) during the last course (Nurse teacher's inquiring mind) of their nurse teacher studies in 2002. The material was transcribed and analysed using categorical-content reading to identify particular themes, story lines and messages within material. By abstracting these, stories that describe the content can be found. Three narratives emerged in the analysis: 1. Competence creates confidence; 2. Shared teacher identity; 3. Ethics of teacher identity. The narratives raised new ideas for developing nurse teacher education in the future. Nowadays, there are good prospects for developing a shared teacher identity if there is willingness to co-operate within a learning community of a new kind.
Skaife, Sally; Reddick, Dean
This paper describes case study research of four years of a support group for self-identified international students on an MA Art Psychotherapy programme. The research sought to understand the role of the group in the processing of international students' issues, to broaden thinking on the internationalising of curricula. A key finding was that…
Lee, Seung Hwan Mark; Smith, Donna; Sergueeva, Ksenia
The authors sought to gain insight on how students view group learning and development as part of their business education experience. Specifically, the authors categorize benefits and challenges using S. A. Wheelan's (2005) integrated model of group development. Additionally, they investigate (from the students' perspective) best practices that…
Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the use of Facebook in learning and teaching in higher education. Facebook was used as a venue for online discussion to support the existing Learning Management System (in this case Blackboard in the unit Internet Collaboration and Organisation as part of the Internet Communications degree taught fully online through Open Universities Australia (OUA. Students’ posts to both Facebook and the Blackboard discussion forum were analysed for content, length, and when throughout the study period they were posted. This is significant as much of the previous work in this area has relied on students self-reporting, rather than direct observation of student behaviour. These results were then compared to earlier instances of the same unit that ran within the previous twelve months, one fully online with OUA only using the Blackboard discussion group, and a second taught at Curtin University with both blended learning for students at the University’s Bentley campus as well as fully online for external students, that utilised both Blackboard and Facebook. The results show that Facebook greatly increases the level of student activity in online discussions, both absolutely and in the level of sustained activity across the unit’s study period. Facebook groups also had a different pattern of content from Blackboard. In Blackboard discussion is more focused on the set unit learning content, in Facebook students were using the groups to discuss administration and assignments and also bring in additional material from outside the units set learning materials. Facebook posts, while more sustained over the semester, were shorter in length. This study found that the addition of a Facebook discussion forum does not noticeably impact on the use of Blackboard’s discussion forum, but rather adds a new dimension to the mix of online interaction. The paper concludes that there is value in using both of these forums for student
Full Text Available Although few colleges and universities offer undergraduate disability studies curricula, our own experiences suggest that higher education settings provide opportunities for students to engage with and act upon disability studies theories and concepts. To learn more about the interactions between undergraduate student groups and disability studies, we interviewed students and faculty on three campuses. We found that students not only access disability studies theory through both formal and informal means, but that they also actively engage with it to develop their understandings of disability and interpret their experiences. Additionally, student groups educate their campus communities by advocating for the inclusion of disability studies in curricula, sharing their perspectives in the classroom, and hosting events related to disability studies. Through these activities, often in collaboration with faculty and staff, students forge reciprocal relationships between their activism and the field of disability studies. Keywords: Student groups, activism, advocacy, narrative, undergraduate education
Muhomba, Monicah; Chugani, Carla D.; Uliaszek, Amanda A.; Kannan, Divya
This report outlines the evaluation of a brief dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training program for students presenting with serious psychological concerns (referral reasons included suicidality, self-injury, and substance use). Students were enrolled in distress tolerance groups ranging from 7-10 weeks. The majority of the…
Burke, Ann M.
This study investigated changes in high school students' awareness of environmental issues and their intent to be involved with local environmental groups after attendance at an environmental fair that exposed them to local environmental groups. A comparison of prefair and postfair surveys given to students indicated a highly significant increase…
Pan, Jia-Yan; Ng, Petrus; Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Caroline, Schoepf
Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral intervention (CBI) in improving mental health and promoting postmigration growth for Mainland university students in Hong Kong. Methods: Thirty-six Mainland students with mild-to-moderate levels of psychological distress have completed an 8-session CBI group. Various…
Nam, Chang Woo; Zellner, Ronald D.
This study investigated the effects of positive interdependence and group processing on student achievement and attitude in online learning. Students in three university courses received initial instruction about teamwork skills and cooperative learning and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups in each course. The "positive…
Literature on racially prejudiced stereotypes suggests that students' academic self-concepts (ASC) can be damaged when a stereotype demeans the intelligence of their racial or ethnic group. There is little research on how students overcome this burden, but there is some evidence that the racial composition of friendship groups play a role. One…
Group-based assessments used in the Bachelor of Nursing Science (clinical) Honours programme at a public university in Namibia are usually in the form of assignments and projects. Completing tasks in groups helps students to develop important skills like critical thinking and debating. In addition, it prepares them to work in the health-care…
Luscombe, Ciara; Montgomery, Julia
Lectures continue to be an efficient and standardised way to deliver information to large groups of students. It has been well documented that students prefer interactive lectures, based on active learning principles, to didactic teaching in the large group setting. Despite this, it is often the case than many students do not engage with active learning tasks and attempts at interaction. By exploring student experiences, expectations and how they use lectures in their learning we will provide recommendations for faculty to support student learning both in the lecture theatre and during personal study time. This research employed a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Three focus groups, consisting of 19 students in total, were used to explore the experiences of second year medical students in large group teaching sessions. Using generic thematic data analysis, these accounts have been developed into a meaningful account of experience. This study found there to be a well-established learning culture amongst students and with it, expectations as to the format of teaching sessions. Furthermore, there were set perceptions about the student role within the learning environment which had many implications, including the way that innovative teaching methods were received. Student learning was perceived to take place outside the lecture theatre, with a large emphasis placed on creating resources that can be taken away to use in personal study time. Presented here is a constructive review of reasons for student participation, interaction and engagement in large group teaching sessions. Based on this are recommendations constructed with the view to aid educators in engaging students within this setting. Short term, educators can implement strategies that monopolise on the established learning culture of students to encourage engagement with active learning strategies. Long term, it would be beneficial for educators to consider ways to shift the current student learning
Torppa, Martina A; Makkonen, Eeva; Mårtenson, Camilla; Pitkälä, Kaisu H
No previous rigorous qualitative studies exist on student Balint groups. The aim of this study was to explore the contexts and triggers of cases presented in student Balint groups and to clarify the themes in the group discussions. Fifteen student Balint sessions in two groups were organised. Nine female students participated. A grounded theory-based approach with thematic content analysis of the field notes was used. We identified five triggers for case narrations (witnessing injustice, value conflict, difficult human relationships, incurable patient, role confusion) that originated from three distinct contexts (patient encounters, confusing experiences in medical education, tension between privacy and profession). Four main discussion themes could be identified (feelings related to patients, building professional identity, negative role models, cooperation with other medical professionals). The concept of case in student Balint groups was wider than in traditional Balint groups. Feelings related to patients and to one's own role as a doctor were openly discussed in groups. The discussions often touched on professional growth and future professional identity as doctors. The Balint groups may support medical students' professional growth process. This topic warrants further study in more heterogeneous student groups.
Full Text Available Introduction: The communication between faculty and students is a vital component of optimal facilitation of knowledge and learning. Various factors influence this dynamic. Aim: To assess communication levels between students and teachers in a dental college scenario via focus group discussion. Materials and Methods: The focus group discussion consisted of 10 groups; 5 groups representing the teachers, and 5 groups representing the students. Each group consisted of 6 participants. Hence there were a total of 30 teacher and 30 student participants. Focus group discussion was conducted for each of the groups for 30–45 min duration in the presence of a moderator and a note-taker. Open-ended questions were put across by the moderator to initiate and continue the discussions. The hand-written data taken by the note-taker were transcribed onto a computer on the same day of the discussion. Based on the transcription, domains were created for the student and teacher groups. Results: The issues raised by both the teacher and student groups in this focus group discussion were broadly classified into the following themes: (1 Past versus current scenario, (2 attitudes toward communication and learning, (3 hindrances to effective communication, and (4 potential solutions. Conclusions: Focus group discussion exposed many differences in the perceptions of teachers and students to communication. Each group, however, felt that bridging the teacher-student communication barrier was crucial to improve the teaching-learning experience. Many constructive solutions were provided by both the groups which can help to improve the quality of teaching-learning experience resulting in better quality of education.
Zh V Puzanova
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research conducted in December 2013 at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia with the method of focus groups. The study aimed at identification not only the differences in understanding healthy lifestyles among students and their attitudes to a healthy lifestyle, but also its components, obstacles for the realization and opportunities to overcome them. The focus group research was just another stage of the project aimed at studying health and healthy lifestyles as values and the characteristics of the formation and manifestation of a health-preserving behavior. Despite many opportunities to motivate a health-preserving behavior among students, we still see obstacles for its formation due to both social and cultural characteristics. The study revealed that the value of health at this stage of life is rather declarative: only a small percentage of respondents are fully aware of the necessity of a health-preserving behavior and do really adopt a healthy lifestyle. The basic factors influencing the formation of the healthy lifestyle among the youth are the family, social environment and mass media. The respondents, in particular, confirm the significant impact of their social circle on the commitment to the bad habits as well as to healthy hobbies. The main factors hindering the healthy lifestyles among students include lack of free time, welfare, Internet addiction, lack of sufficient motivation and self-organization.
Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M
Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The stages of change can be defined as changes in the behavior of the conduct of the people, which follows a series of steps. The present study sought to determine the stages of change with regard to the practice of physical activity of a group of college students. Its approach was quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional design. The sample of 193 students of the physiotherapy program from a private university in the city of Cali, selected by simple random sampling, through the OpenEpi statistical software version 3.0.1. A questionnaire of stages of change of physical activity in its short form was used. Analysis was descriptive and correlation with some sociodemographic variables using the Chi-square test. 89.6% of the university students is in the first three stages of change, i.e. are sedentary and a 10.31% was categorized as physically active. The variable associated with the stages of change was the sex with a value p<0.05. The majority of the participants in the study population is young and is at risk of classified as inactive physical. There is potential in this group to promote healthy habits through the practice of physical activity.
Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students’ eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students’ eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products
Dara B. Duncan
Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.
Chindia, M L; Valderhaug, J; Ng'ang'a, P M
The purpose of this study was to determine the oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya. The study comprised 243 randomly selected first year students, mean age 23 years, at the University of Nairobi. Questionnaire response showed that 39% of the participants had visited a dentist before, mainly for extraction. Sixteen per cent said they visited a dentist at least once a year and 96% said they brushed daily. Clinical examination was done in a room with natural daylight using the WHO criteria. Plaque was visible on 35% of the surfaces. 11% of gingival sites examined bled on probing. Only one participant had pocket depth greater than or equal to 4 mm. Supra- and sub-gingival calculus was recorded at 18% of index tooth surfaces. The study will be considered as a baseline for later studies on oral health trends in similar populations.
Full Text Available Jun Won Kim,1,2 KounSeok Lee,3 Young Sik Lee,4 Doug Hyun Han,4 Kyung Joon Min,4 Sung Hwan Song,5 Ga Na Park,6 Ju Young Lee,1 Jae Ock Kim5 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Neuropsychiatry, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Gongju National Hospital, Gongju, South Korea; 6Department of Special Education, Graduate School, Dankook University, Jukjeon, South Korea Purpose: Low socioeconomic status is an important risk factor for child psychiatric problems. Low socioeconomic status is also associated with psychiatric problems later in life. We investigated the effects of group bullying on clinical characteristics and psychopathology in elementary school students using child-welfare facilities.Methods: Three hundred and fifty-eight elementary school students using child-welfare facilities were recruited. The School Bullying Self Rating Questionnaire was used to assess group bullying. To evaluate related psychopathology, the Children’s Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire, the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, Young’s Internet Addiction Scale, and Conners–Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale were applied. Samples were classified according to school grade (lower or upper, and each group’s characteristics were compared as they related to bullying victims versus non-victims.Results: The prevalence rate of group bullying was 22% in the lower-grade group and 12% in the higher-grade group. Bullying victims in lower grades reported high somatization, depressive symptoms, Internet addiction, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder tendencies, whereas
This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their first CS course, they had a stronger intention to take another CS course. A subset of 128 students (68 females and 60 males) took a CS course up to one year later. Students who were interested in CS, had high computer self-efficacy, were low in family orientation, low in conscientiousness, and low in openness to experiences were more likely to take CS courses. Furthermore, individuals who were highly conscientious and low in relational-interdependent self-construal earned the highest CS grades. Efforts to improve women's representation in CS should bear these results in mind.
Mc Carthy, Jane; Cassidy, Irene; Tuohy, Dympna
The development of reflective practitioners is integral to undergraduate nursing degree programmes. This study reports on lecturers' experiences of facilitating guided group reflection with pre-registration BSc Nursing students.The research purposively sampled lecturers (n=7) working in a department of nursing and midwifery at a third level institute in Ireland, all of whom were registered nurses. Using a qualitative research approach, data was collected through audio-taped semi-structured individual interviews. The data were thematically analysed using guidelines developed by Braun and Clarke (2006). Tripartite researcher discussion and further analysis of these initial individual analyses led to consensus regarding the three themes arising from the study. These were: Being a facilitator; Facilitating reflective learning and Creating structure. The discussion centred on: having knowledge and experience to effectively facilitate guided group reflection; the influence of the facilitator's personal philosophy on reflection and adult learning on group facilitation; and finally concerns regarding professional responsibility in response to students' reflective practice accounts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Fabiyi, Camille; Lyman, Phoebe; Wilson, Claire; Hill, Brandon; Bouris, Alida
This project developed and studied The Source, an alternate reality game (ARG) designed to foster interest and knowledge related to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) among youth from populations underrepresented in STEM fields. ARGs are multiplayer games that engage participants across several media such as shared websites, social media, personal communications, and real-world settings to complete activities and collaborate with team members. The Source was a five-week summer program with 144 participants from Chicago aged 13 to 18 years. The Source incorporated six socio-contextual factors derived from three frameworks: Chang's (ERIC Digest, 2002) recommendations for engaging underrepresented populations in STEM careers, Lave and Wenger's (Cambridge University Press, 1991) situated learning model, and Barron's (Human Development, 49(4); 193-224, 2006) learning ecology perspective. These factors aligned with the program's aims of promoting (1) social community and peer support, (2) collaboration and teamwork, (3) real-world relevance and investigative learning, (4) mentoring and exposure to STEM professionals, (5) hands-on activities to foster transferable skill building, and (6) interface with technology. This paper presents results from 10 focus groups and 10 individual interviews conducted with a subset of the 144 youth participants who completed the game. It describes how these six factors were realized through The Source and uses them as a lens for considering how The Source functioned pedagogically. Qualitative findings describe youth's perception of The Source's potential influence on STEM interest, engagement, and identity formation. Despite limitations, study results indicate that underrepresented youth can engage in an immersive, narrative, and game-based experience as a potential mechanism for piquing and developing STEM interest and skills, particularly among underrepresented youth.
Hansen, S.; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin
This study examined the effects of a dependent group contingency to increase positive verbal interactions among nine middle school-aged males in a self-contained classroom. Prior to implementing the group contingency, the students received social skills instruction. A withdrawal experimental design was then used to evaluate the effects of the dependent group contingency. Students' positive verbal interactions increased and negative verbal interactions decreased with the implementation of the ...
Preckel, Franzis; Schmidt, Isabelle; Stumpf, Eva; Motschenbacher, Monika; Vogl, Katharina; Scherrer, Vsevolod; Schneider, Wolfgang
Effects of full-time ability grouping on students' academic self-concept (ASC) and mathematics achievement were investigated in the first 3 years of secondary school (four waves of measurement; students' average age at first wave: 10.5 years). Students were primarily from middle and upper class families living in southern Germany. The study sample comprised 148 (60% male) students from 14 gifted classes and 148 (57% male) students from 25 regular classes (matched by propensity score matching). Data analyses involved multilevel and latent growth curve analyses. Findings revealed no evidence for contrast effects of class-average achievement or assimilation effects of class type on students' ASC. ASC remained stable over time. Students in gifted classes showed higher achievement gains than students in regular classes. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Ho Walter King Yan
Full Text Available There is evidence that rapid weight gain during the first year of life is associated with being overweight later in life. Therefore, overweight tendencies need to be detected at an appropriate age, and suitable strategies need to be implemented for weight management to achieve optimal long-term health. The objective of this study was to investigate comparisons in BMI status and associated categories in male and female students over ten years in two phases, including 2008-2013 and 2009-2014. Weight and height data were collected to obtain BMI (Body Mass Index over ten years in two phases. The first phase occurred from 2008 to 2013, and the second phase occurred from 2009 to 2014 in a population of 10846 school children (Males: 6970, 64.3%, and females: 3875, 35.7% in Macau. Their ages ranged from 6 years old in 2008 to 11 years old in 2013. The same age range was observed in the second phase, i.e., 2009-2014. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, such as the mean, standard deviation, t-tests to determine gender differences (year-wise and a Chi square test for independence to determine the relationship between BMI (Underweight, Standard, Overweight and Obese and age groups. In the first phase (2008-2013, the findings indicated a higher BMI level among the male students than the female students across all age groups (2008 t = 5.24, 2009 t = 88.25, 2010 t = 11.32, 2011 t = 17.45, 2012 t = 19.70 and 2013 t = 19.92. In the second phase (2009-2014, a higher BMI level was found among the male students than the female students across all age groups (2009 t = 2.68, 2010 t = 2.886, 2011 t = 3.076, 2013 t = 4.228, and 2014 t = 2.405. The results of the two phases combined (2008 to 2014 and 2009 to 2014 revealed that male students in 2008 had a higher BMI level than their counterparts in 2009 in the two age categories (8 years t = 3.025 and 11 years t = 3.377. Female students in the second phase (2009-2014 showed a higher BMI level than their
Trout, Joseph; Bland, Jared
In this pilot project, one hour of lecture time was replaced with one hour of in-class assignments, which groups of students collaborated on. These in-class assignments consisted of problems or projects selected for the calculus-based introductory physics students The first problem was at a level of difficulty that the majority of the students could complete with a small to moderate amount of difficulty. Each successive problem was increasingly more difficult, the last problem being having a level of difficulty that was beyond the capabilities of the majority of the students and required some instructor intervention. The students were free to choose their own groups. Students were encouraged to interact and help each other understand. The success of the in-class exercises were measured using pre-tests and post-tests. The pre-test and post-test were completed by each student independently. Statistics were also compiled on each student's attendance record and the amount of time spent reading and studying, as reported by the student. Statistics were also completed on the student responses when asked if they had sufficient time to complete the pre-test and post-test and if they would have completed the test with the correct answers if they had more time. The pre-tests and post-tests were not used in the computation of the grades of the students.
Katarina Tri Utaminingtyas
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the process of student interaction in solving problems through cooperative learning. The subject of this research are 7th grade students of a junior high school in Malang, Indonesia. Data were collected by recording directly when learning takes place especially when pairing or forming small groups. This interaction is built with heterogeneous student skills. The results showed that the interaction that occurs in students provides an understanding of the concept of opportunity. Consequently, the students solved the problem correctly. This interaction is known as productive interaction.
Full Text Available Sheila Z Jalalat, Richard F Wagner Jr Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA Abstract: The open access University of Texas Dermatology Interest Group blog was established in 2004 for the purposes of increasing communication and collaboration between medical students and dermatology faculty, residents, and alumni, as well as to promote educational opportunities and the missions for which the interest group was created. This blog is unique because of its longevity and continuous postings directed toward the educational and professional needs of medical students and residents. A blog user survey was performed to assess viewers' thoughts, purpose of viewing, demographic profile, subscriber status, usage of the blog and other Web 2.0 tools (forums, Facebook, blogs, Twitter, podcasts, and perceived usefulness. Sixty-one anonymous online surveys were completed during a 1-month period. Statistical analyses of the responses demonstrated that the utilization of web-based tools and the blog were valuable resources for students, especially for blog subscribers, those more involved in an interest group, and those reading the blog for a longer period of time. The usefulness and impact of this method of communication and dissemination of information in medical education may encourage other student groups, faculty advisors, and educators to implement similar educational tools at their institutions. Keywords: education, medical student, dermatology, blog
Full Text Available The paper attempts to integrate the concept of relationships of interpersonal significance, approaches to the correlation between physical appearance and life satisfaction, as well as several concepts of interpersonal cognition, self-assessment and evaluations of other people’s physical appearance. It introduces the concept of “insignificant/significant assessor of appearance” and argues that among the factors that turn a group member into the “insignificant/significant assessor of appearance” are evaluations, self-evaluations and group evaluations of physical appearance. The research described in the paper involved 89 students aged 19—21 (M=20 years, 66 females and 23 males, members of five groups that have been studying together for three years. The methods employed in the study included: “The Evaluation/Content Interpretation of Appearance and its Correspondence with Gender/Age Constructs”, a technique developed by V.A. Labunskaya; a modification of a sociometric test that helped reveal “insignificant/significant assessors of appearance”. Also, nonparametric mathematical methods were used to carry out comparative analysis. The outcomes show that there are considerable differences between the self-assessments, evaluations of physical appearance of those group members who are “significant assessors of appearance”, and group evaluations of their appearance.
Atalayin, Cigdem; Balkis, Murat; Tezel, Huseyin; Kayrak, Gul
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of procrastination among a group of Turkish dental students and to determine the predictors and consequences of procrastination. A total number of 273 females and 179 males (aged between 18 and 28) were included in the study. Tuckman procrastination scale, Academic Life Satisfaction Scale, Concern over Mistake Scale, Poor Time Management Scale, Self-Doubt Scale, Irrational Beliefs about Studying Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Life Satisfaction Scale were used to gather data. Results indicated that 50% of participants were more likely to procrastinate their academic assignments or tasks. Procrastination score did not differ according to gender. The findings suggested that procrastinating students had a higher level of poor time management, self-doubt and irrational beliefs about studying, and poor academic performance and well-being than their non-procrastinating counterparts. Preventive strategies are necessary to overcome procrastination which affects the academic achievement, satisfaction, and well-being of dental students.
Lakshminarayan, Nagesh; Potdar, Shrudha; Reddy, Siddana Goud
Procrastination, generally defined as a voluntary, irrational delay of behavior, is a prevalent phenomenon among college students throughout the world and occurs at alarmingly high rates. For this study, a survey was conducted of 209 second-, third-, and fourth-year undergraduate dental students of Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere, India, to identify the relationship between their level of procrastination and academic performance. A sixteen-item questionnaire was used to assess the level of procrastination among these students. Data related to their academic performance were also collected. Spearman's correlation coefficient test was used to assess the relationship between procrastination and academic performance. It showed a negative correlation of -0.63 with a significance level of pstudents who showed high procrastination scores performed below average in their academics. In addition, analysis with the Mann-Whitney U test found a significant difference in procrastination scores between the two gender groups (pstudents evaluated in this study, it appeared that individuals with above average and average academic performance had lower scores of procrastination and vice versa.
Daniel, Rhonda; Caruthers, Devina
This white paper, "Understanding Underrepresented Populations in the Business School Pipeline," examines the shifting US racial and ethnic demographics and projected growth among US minority populations and the challenges--and incentives--these developments pose for US business schools to increase the opportunities for minority students…
Katz, Laura A.; Aloisio, Kathryn M.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Ly, Minh; Pruss, Sara; Queeney, Kate; Rowen, Cate; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten
Created to foster inclusive excellence, Smith College's Achieving Excellence in Mathematics, Engineering, and Science (AEMES) Scholars program provides early faculty-mentored research opportunities and other programming as a way to foster success in academic outcomes for underrepresented women in science. Using academic record data, we compared…
Yun, Jung H.; Baldi, Brian; Sorcinelli, Mary Deane
In the beginning, "Mutual Mentoring" was little more than an idea, a hopeful vision of the future in which a new model of mentoring could serve as a medium to better support early-career and underrepresented faculty. Over time, Mutual Mentoring evolved from an innovative idea to an ambitious pilot program to a fully operational,…
Taylor, Dedriell Dewin
This study contributed to the body of knowledge dealing with recruitment, retention and socialization of underrepresented (UREP) minority populations for academic leadership positions in West Virginia higher education. The purpose of the study was to examine both the institutional and personal factors that are most effective in attracting members…
Ciao, Anna C; Ohls, Olivia C; Pringle, Kevin D
Most evidence-based body image programs for college students (e.g., the Body Project) are designed for female-only audiences, although body dissatisfaction is not limited to female-identified individuals. Furthermore, programs do not explicitly discuss diversity, although individuals with marginalized gender, racial, and sexual identities may be particularly vulnerable to body image disturbances. Making programs more inclusive may increase their disseminability. This qualitative study examined the feasibility of adapting the Body Project for universal and inclusive use with college students. Participants (N = 36; M age = 21.66 years; 73% female-identified; 20% sexual minority; 23% racial minority) attended one of five semi-structured focus groups to explore the inclusivity of appearance-based cultural norms using adapted Body Project activities and discuss the feasibility of universal and inclusive interventions. Inductive qualitative content analysis with three-rater consensus identified focus group themes. There was consensus that inclusive interventions could have a positive impact (broadening perspectives, normalizing body image concerns, increasing awareness) despite potential barriers (poor diversity representation, vulnerability). There was strong consensus regarding advice for facilitating inclusive interventions (e.g., skilled facilitation, education, increasing diversity). Results suggest that inclusive body image programs are desirable and provide a framework for creating the EVERYbody Project, a program for more universal audiences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zoletić, Emina; Duraković-Belko, Elvira
The aim of this research was to examine differences among two groups of girls, models and ballerinas (with risk factors - experimental group) and young students (control group), in body image preception, body mass index, neurotic perfectionism, body - image distortion and simptoms of eating disorders. The research was conducted with 91 participants divided in two groups, control group - 55 students at University of Sarajevo and experimental group - 13 professional ballerinas, 23 professional models. During this research work we used several measuring instruments: Body mass index; Body Mass Index - Silhouette Matching Test; Neurotic Perfectionism Questioner; Eating Disorders Inventory. In this study statistically significant differences occur between these two groups of girls which are related to body - image perception and objective position on the body mass index chart. All 91 participants saw themselves as obese. Statistically significant differences occur in body - image distortion and simptoms of eating disorders in the experimental group, they have high scores on body - image distortion, on eating disorders inventory and neurotic perfectionism simptoms. Based on th results in this study, we may conclude that there are groups of people who have risk factors for developing some kind of eating disorder, so it would be desirable to create a preventive intervention for young ballerinas and models, but also for those people who coach them, trainers, instructors and managers. For other population groups with risky behavior such as young children, a prevention plan and modifications of cultural influences on people's opinion of body image are extremely important.
Educational programs created to provide opportunities for all, in reality often reflect social inequalities. Such is the case for Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR) Projects. PPSR projects have been proposed as an effective way to engage more diverse audiences in science, yet the demographics of PPSR participants do not correspond with the demographic makeup of the United States. The field of PPSR as a whole has struggled to recruit low SES and underrepresented populations to participate in project research efforts. This research study explores factors, which may be affecting an underrepresented community's willingness to engage in scientific research and provides advice from PPSR project leaders in the field, who have been able to engage underrepresented communities in scientific research, on how to overcome these barriers. Finally the study investigates the theoretical construct of a Third Space within a PPSR project. The research-based recommendations for PPSR projects desiring to initiate and sustain research partnerships with underrepresented communities well align with the theoretical construct of a Third Space. This study examines a specific scientific research partnership between an underrepresented community and scientific researchers to examine if and to what extent a Third Space was created. Using qualitative methods to understand interactions and processes involved in initiating and sustaining a scientific research partnership, this study provides advice on how PPSR research partnerships can engage underrepresented communities in scientific research. Study results show inequality and mistrust of powerful institutions stood as participation barriers for underrepresented community members. Despite these barriers PPSR project leaders recommend barriers can be confronted by open dialogue with communities about the abuse and alienation they have faced, by signaling respect for the community, and by entering the community through someone the
Boyce, Carrie J.; Mishra, Chandrani; Halverson, Kristy L.; Thomas, Aimée K.
Informal environments provide students with unique experiences that allow them to actively participate in activities while promoting a positive attitude toward and an increased interest in science. One way to enhance informal science experiences is through the integration of mobile technologies. This integration is particularly useful in engaging underrepresented students in learning science. Our informal environmental science program engages underrepresented, fifth-grade students in an informal learning environment supplemented with mobile tablet technology (iPads). The purpose of this study was to explore how fifth-grade students interacted with nature using mobile technology during a nature hike series. Participants included 55 fifth-grade students from two low-income schools. We found that students used the mobile technology to explore nature and stay engaged throughout the hike. The iPads were used as references, data collectors, and engagement tools. Students had an intense desire in returning to the site and responded positively toward interacting with nature. Prior research has indicated that students in this age group are likely to lose interest in science and the incorporation of field-friendly technology that engages students with nature, not technology alone, is a useful tool for keeping students interested in science.
Mohammad Reza Koushesh
Full Text Available Objective: Riversal visual perception discrimination test is one of the dyslexia diagnostic tests in children which can be performed in the group (group-based and it is reliable to detect these disorders in students of the primary schools especially those who spend their first educational weeks or months. The aim of this survey is comparison of Riversal test pictures among three groups of students: normal, educable mental retarded students and students with learning disabilities, aged 8-12 years old that were under coverage of Tehran Welfare Department. Materials & Methods: This Comparative cross – sectional study has performed on 150 girls and boys of mentioned groups that were selected by simple randomize selection. Results: The findings suggested that there was significant difference between surveyed groups (P=0.001. The highest scores were related to normal students and the lowest scores to educable mental retarded. The interval of negative scores of educable mental retarded from normal students was more than that of between educable mental retarded and learning disabilities. Conclusion: This survey indicates that students with learning disabilities (dyslexia have problems in their visual perception and this test can help to diagnose and determine abnormal children as soon as possible in order to better treatment.
Budd, Deborah; Stowers, Genie N. L.
This study explores the extent to which community colleges succeed in assisting students to transfer to four-year colleges. The study uses data from the California Community College system to test hypotheses about overall transfers and transfers of underrepresented students, It utilizes a framework based upon social reproduction theory (Bowles…
LaPorte, Heidi Heft; Sweifach, Jay
Commentators find that education in social group work has diminished over the past three decades, creating a shortage in group work-trained field instructors. The role of instructing group work students may appear relatively easy; however, quality instruction requires careful planning, time, energy, and specialized knowledge. Without knowledge and…
Malouff, John M.; Johnson, Caitlin E.
This article describes a department-coordinated Facebook group for psychology students and graduates. An evaluation of the postings in the past year by the group, with 900 members, showed that the group averaged 2.5 postings per day. The most common types of postings involved (1) information about recent research findings, (2) information about…
Auer-Rizzi, Werner; Berry Michael
Examines ways business and cultural frames of reference affect decision making in multicultural groups. Finds students' reactions to two class activities shows how "groupthink" arose in both exercises; cultural interference paralyzed group decision making in one group; and cultural interference demonstrated the importance of a cultural…
Barrera, Terri L; Wilson, Kathryn P; Norton, Peter J
While there is general agreement that, across cultures, panic disorder appears to be characterized by sudden onset of bodily sensations, such as dizziness and heart palpitations, followed by catastrophic misinterpretations of these symptoms, there remains a need for research investigating ethnic/cultural differences in the experience of panic attacks. In addition to investigating ethnic differences in the experience of panic, it is important to assess whether increased endorsement of panic symptoms translates into increased dysfunction. The present study investigated differences in the experience of panic attacks and examined the relation between symptom endorsement and overall distress and impairment in a large multiracial/ethnic student population. Preliminary analyses indicated that although overall endorsement of panic symptoms was similar across groups, differences did emerge on specific symptoms. Participants identifying as Asian tended to endorse symptoms such as dizziness, unsteadiness, choking, and feeling terrified more frequently than those identifying as Caucasian, and individuals identifying as African American reported feeling less nervous than those identifying as Caucasian. Participants of Hispanic/Latino(a) descent showed no differences from any other group on symptom endorsement. Panic symptom severity was not found to differ across racial/ethnic groups; however, the correlation between panic symptoms and panic severity was stronger for Asian and Caucasian participants than for African Americans. These results suggest that symptoms of panic may be experienced differently across racial/ethnic groups, and highlight the need for clinicians and researchers to assess panic symptoms within the context of culture. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H
The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.
Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…
Merriman, Donald; Codding, Robin S.; Tryon, Georgiana Shick; Minami, Takuya
Research on the effectiveness of homework provides ample evidence that homework has a positive effect on learning, particularly for secondary students. Unfortunately, the rate of consistent homework completion for students, with and without disabilities, is low. This study used a between-groups design to examine the differential effectiveness of…