WorldWideScience

Sample records for underrepresented minority women

  1. Leadership Competencies: Do They Differ for Women and Under-Represented Minority Faculty Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Levine, Rachel B.; Yang, Wan Rou; González-Fernández, Marlís; Bodurtha, Joann; Barone, Michael A.; Fivush, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The literature on leadership competencies does not include an understanding of how stakeholders perceive competencies for women and under-represented minority faculty members. We surveyed three groups of leaders (N = 113) to determine their perceptions of the importance of 23 leadership competencies. All three groups endorsed the same five…

  2. Diversity in the US Infectious Diseases Workforce: Challenges for Women and Underrepresented Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Judith A; Blankson, Joel; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-09-15

    Research documents significant gender-based salary inequities among physicians and ongoing inadequacies in recruitment and promotion of physicians from underrepresented minority groups. Given the complexity of the social forces that promote these disparities, their elimination will likely require quantitative and qualitative research to understand the pathways that lead to them and to develop effective solutions. Interventions to combat implicit bias will be required, and structural interventions that hold medical school leadership accountable are needed to achieve and maintain salary equity and racial and gender diversity at all levels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. #Me_Who: Anatomy of Scholastic, Leadership, and Social Isolation of Underrepresented Minority Women in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michelle A

    2018-05-22

    In academic medicine, under-represented minority women physician-scientists (URMWP)* are uncommon, particularly in leadership positions. Data from the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) show that among internal medicine chairs, there are 12 Asian males, 10 African/American (blacks; 9 men), 7 Hispanics (2 females) and 137 whites (21 females). In the top 40 ranked cardiology programs, there are no female cardiology chiefs, whereas there are at least 10, 2, 1 and 24 Asian, black, Hispanic and white males respectively. There are more URMWP than URM males, yet URMWP are less likely to be professors and occupy leadership positions in academia. Specifically, among United States medical school faculty, relative proportions at assistant, associate and full professor levels according to race/ethnicity and gender have remained essentially unchanged over the past 20 years. AAMC information demonstrates that only 11%, 9%, 11% and 24% of Asian, black, Hispanic and white women are full professors compared with 21%, 18%, 19% and 36% of Asian, black, Hispanic and white men. Additionally, while there are representative proportions of women and Asians at the lowest faculty levels, they have not equitably progressed in academic medicine, likely reflecting discrimination and structural/organizational barriers that are also applicable to black and Hispanic females 1 .

  4. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  5. An Examination of How Women and Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minorities Experience Barriers in Biomedical Research and Medical Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    2013-01-01

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, &…

  6. Retention and promotion of women and underrepresented minority faculty in science and engineering at four large land grant institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpertz, Marcia; Durodoye, Raifu; Griffith, Emily; Wilson, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    In the most recent cohort, 2002-2015, the experiences of men and women differed substantially among STEM disciplines. Female assistant professors were more likely than men to leave the institution and to leave without tenure in engineering, but not in the agricultural, biological and biomedical sciences and natural resources or physical and mathematical sciences. In contrast, the median times to promotion from associate to full professor were similar for women and men in engineering and the physical and mathematical sciences, but one to two years longer for women than men in the agricultural, biological and biomedical sciences and natural resources. URM faculty hiring is increasing, but is well below the proportions earning doctoral degrees in STEM disciplines. The results are variable and because of the small numbers of URM faculty, the precision and power for comparing URM faculty to other faculty were low. In three of the four institutions, lower fractions of URM faculty than other faculty hired in the 2002-2006 time frame left without tenure. Also, in the biological and biomedical and physical and mathematical sciences no URM faculty left without tenure. On the other hand, at two of the institutions, significantly more URM faculty left before their tenth anniversary than other faculty and in engineering significantly more URM faculty than other faculty left before their tenth anniversary. We did not find significant differences in promotion patterns between URM and other faculty.

  7. Minorities Are Disproportionately Underrepresented in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Mattison, Richard; Maczuga, Steve; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether minority children attending U.S. elementary and middle schools are disproportionately represented in special education. We did so using hazard modeling of multiyear longitudinal data and extensive covariate adjustment for potential child-, family-, and state-level confounds. Minority children were consistently less likely…

  8. Examining issues of underrepresented minority students in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jessica Ellen

    In this dissertation we examine several issues related to the retention of under-represented minority students in physics and science. In the first section, we show that in calculus-based introductory physics courses, the gender gap on the FCI is diminished through the use of interactive techniques, but in lower-level introductory courses, the gap persists, similar to reports published at other institutions. We find that under-represented racial minorities perform similar to their peers with comparable academic preparation on conceptual surveys, but their average exam grades and course grades are lower. We also examine student persistence in science majors; finding a significant relationship between pedagogy in an introductory physics course and persistence in science. In the second section, we look at student end-of-semester evaluations and find that female students rate interactive teaching methods a full point lower than their male peers. Looking more deeply at student interview data, we find that female students report more social issues related to the discussions in class and both male and female students cite feeling pressure to obtain the correct answer to clicker questions. Finally, we take a look an often-cited claim for gender differences in STEM participation: cognitive differences explain achievement differences in physics. We examine specifically the role of mental rotations in physics achievement and problem-solving, viewing mental rotations as a tool that students can use on physics problems. We first look at student survey results for lower-level introductory students, finding a low, but significant correlation between performance on a mental rotations test and performance in introductory physics courses. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship for students in the upper-level introductory course. We also examine student problem-solving interviews to investigate the role of mental rotations on introductory problems.

  9. Minorities and Women and Honors Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Maria Luisa Alvarez

    1986-01-01

    Although honors education can be a key to the liberation of women and minorities, both groups continue to be underrepresented, perhaps because bright women and minority students are uncomfortable displaying their talents and adding pressure in an already stressful situation. (MSE)

  10. Research and Education Program for Underrepresented Minority Engineering Students in the JIAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, John L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a final report on Research and Education Program for Underrepresented Minority Engineering Students in the JIAFS (Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences). The objectives of the program were to conduct research at the NASA Langley Research Center and to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in aerospace engineering.

  11. Experiences of Underrepresented Minorities in Doctoral Nursing Programs at Predominantly White Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Linda D.

    2017-01-01

    The representation of racial and ethnic minorities in the nursing workforce is disproportionately low in comparison with their representation in the general population in the United States. Despite diversity initiatives, the slight increase in enrollment of under-represented minority (URM) students in graduate schools of nursing at predominantly…

  12. Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L.; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E.; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of How Quality Mentorship and Research Experience Integrate Underrepresented Minorities into STEM Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2018-01-01

    African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree earners. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that URMs do not integrate into the STEM academic community at the same rate as non-URM students.…

  14. Summer research training provides effective tools for underrepresented minorities to obtain doctoral level degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity of the USA is not reflected in its healthcare and biomedical workforce. Undergraduate research programs are used to encourage underrepresented minorities to pursue training for biomedical careers, but there is limited published data on doctoral degree compl...

  15. A Success Story: Recruiting & Retaining Underrepresented Minority Doctoral Students in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William M.

    2006-01-01

    There are various ways to succeed in recruiting and retaining underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students; but key to them all is the creation of real student-faculty relationships, which demonstrate by example that diversity and excellence can and should coexist. This cannot be delegated or done indirectly, and no amount of outreach, campus…

  16. Increasing the Number of Underrepresented Minorities in Astronomy: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Dara; Ernst, David J.; Agueros, Marcel; Anderson, Scott F.; Baker, Andrew; Burgasser, Adam; Cruz, Kelle; Gawiser, Eric; Krishnamurthi, Anita; Lee, Hyun-chul; Mighell, Kenneth; McGruder, Charles; Norman, Dara; Sakimoto, Philip J.; Sheth, Karthik; Soderblom, Dave; Strauss, Michael; Walter, Donald; West, Andrew; Agol, Eric; Murphy, Jeremiah; Garner, Sarah; Bellovary, Jill; Schmidt, Sarah; Cowan, Nick; Gogarten, Stephanie; Stilp, Adrienne; Christensen, Charlotte; Hilton, Eric; Haggard, Daryl; Loebman, Sarah; Rosenfield, Phil; Munshi, Ferah

    Promoting racial and ethnic diversity is critically important to the future success and growth of the field of astronomy. The raw ability, drive and interest required to excel in the field is distributed without regard to race, gender, or socioeconomic background. By not actively promoting diversity in our field we risk losing talented people to other professions (or losing them entirely), which means that there will be astronomical discoveries that simply won't get made. There is demonstrated evidence that STEM fields benefit from diverse perspectives on problems that require more complex thought processes. This is especially relevant to a field like astronomy where more and more work is being done collaboratively. The lack of notable growth in African American, Hispanic, and Native American representation in astronomy indicates that the 'pipeline' for these individuals is systemically leaky at critical junctures. Substantially more effort must be directed toward improving the educational and career development of minorities to insure that these potential colleagues are supported through the process. However, simply recognizing that the pipeline is faulty is woefully inadequate. There must be very specific, targeted solutions to help improve the situation. With this in mind, we offer two position papers addressing specific areas of improvement that we identify as (a) essential for any foreseeable progress in the field, and (b) attainable in the 2010-2020 decade. These position papers focus primarily on African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Although we do not directly address issues of Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and other groups, many of the recommendations made here can be adapted to address issues faced by these groups as well.

  17. Campus Climate and the Underrepresented Minority Engineering Student Experience: A Critical Race Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Terrance

    In the current technological era, the number of minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a crucial factor in predetermining the economic growth of the United States. Since the minority population is growing at much faster rates than the non-minority population, the lack of proportionate production of minority engineers poses a threat to the United States' ability to remain a global competitor in technological innovation. Sixty-three per cent (63%) of undergraduate students who enter engineering majors continue on to graduate in that major. The graduation rate, however, for African-American, Hispanic, and Native-American students in engineering is significantly lower at 39%. As this group represents only a small fraction of the annual student enrollment, engineering programs are graduating these minority groups at rates that are greatly disproportionate to United States demographics. Therefore, researchers are thoroughly investigating certain initiatives that promote academic success among underrepresented minority students in engineering. Colleges and universities have attempted to address the growing achievement gap between underrepresented minority and non-minority engineering students, predominately through various deficit-based interventions, focusing on the student's flaws and problems. As the pipeline for minorities in engineering continues to narrow, it begs the question of whether institutions are focusing on the right solutions to the problem. Critical Race Theory scholars argue that colleges and universities must address institutional climate issues around students, such as racism, microaggressions, and marginalization, before members of oppressed groups can truly succeed. This dissertation explored the unique experiences of underrepresented minority engineering students in a predominately White and Asian campus.

  18. Women underrepresented on editorial boards of 60 major medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Karin; Langmann, Andrea; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Pieber, Thomas R; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2011-12-01

    Although there has been a continuous increase in the number of women working in the field of medicine, women rarely reach the highest academic positions as full professors or editorial board members. We aimed to determine the proportion of women on the editorial boards of top-ranked medical journals in different medical specialties. We analyzed the gender of editorial board members of 60 top-ranked journals of 12 Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports categories. A total of 4175 editors were included in our analysis. Only 15.9% (10 of 63) editors-in-chief were female. In the 5 categories, critical care, anesthesiology, orthopedics, ophthalmology and radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging, currently not 1 woman holds the position of editor-in-chief. Less than one fifth (17.5%, 719 of 4112) of all editorial board members were women. There were significant differences among the evaluated categories, with the highest percentage of women in the category of medicine, general and internal and the lowest in the category critical care, followed by orthopedics. In every category, the proportion of women as editorial board members was substantially lower than that of men. Women are underrepresented on the editorial boards of major medical journals, although there is a great variability among the journals and categories analyzed. If more women are nominated to serve on editorial boards, they will be a visible sign of continuing progress and serve as important role models for young women contemplating a career in academic medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CU-STARs: Promoting STEM Diversity by Addressing First-year Attrition of Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cara; Silvia, Devin W.; Ellingson, Erica; Sturner, Andrew P.; Peck, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Upon first entering university, the fraction of students interested in pursuing a STEM major are distributed according to societal demographics (with 25% being underrepresented minorities), but by graduation, the fraction of students receiving STEM degrees is unbalanced, with underrepresented minorities receiving only 15% of STEM bachelor's degrees. The CU-STARs (CU Science, Technology, and Astronomy Recruits) program at the University of Colorado, Boulder is targeted to address the main triggers of early career attrition for underrepresented minorities in STEM disciplines. A select group of students are given financial support through work-study at the Fiske planetarium on campus, while resources to address other triggers of attrition are available to the entire cohort of interested students (typically ~5-10 per year). These resources are designed to promote social engagement and mentorship, while also providing a support network and resources to combat inadequate high school preparation for STEM courses. We achieve these goals through activities that include social events, mentor meetings, free tutoring, and special events to meet and talk with scientists. The culmination of the program for the recruits are a series of high school outreach events in underserved areas (inner city and rural alike), in which they become the expert. The STARs are paid for their time and take the lead in planning, teaching, and facilitating programs for the high school students, including classroom presentations, interactive lab activities, solar observing, and star parties. The high school outreach events provide role models and STEM exposure for the underserved high school community while simultaneously cementing the personal achievements and successes for the STARs. CU-STARs is now in its 4th year and is still growing. We are beginning the process of formal assessments of the program's success. We present details of the program implementation, a discussion of potential obstacles

  20. Motivation and career outcomes of a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Robbie Ray

    Minorities continue to be underrepresented in professional science careers. In order to make Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers more accessible for underrepresented minorities, informal science programs must be utilized to assist in developing interest in STEM for minority youth. In addition to developing interest in science, informal programs must help develop interpersonal skills and leadership skills of youth, which allow youth to develop discrete social behaviors while creating positive and supportive communities thus making science more practical in their lives. This study was based on the premise that introducing underrepresented youth to the agricultural and life sciences through an integrated precollege experience of leadership development with university faculty, scientist, and staff would help increase youths' interest in science, while also increasing their interest to pursue a STEM-related career. Utilizing a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities, known as the Ag Discovery Camp, 33 middle school aged youth were brought to the Purdue University campus to participate in an experience that integrated a leadership development program with an informal science education program in the context of agriculture. The week-long program introduced youth to fields of agriculture in engineering, plant sciences, food sciences, and entomology. The purpose of the study was to describe short-term and intermediate student outcomes in regards to participants' interests in career activities, science self-efficacy, and career intentions. Youth were not interested in agricultural activities immediately following the precollege experience. However, one year after the precollege experience, youth expressed they were more aware of agriculture and would consider agricultural careers if their first career choice did not work out for them. Results also showed that the youth who participated in the precollege experience were

  1. Assessing the efficacy of advancing underrepresented minority groups through AGU's Student Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, L.; Hurtado, C.; Gottschall, H.; Meisenhelder, K.; Hankin, E. R.; Harwell, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to cultivate a diverse and inclusive organization that uses its position to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science. To cultivate a diverse talent pool, AGU must also foster a diverse student member population. The two largest AGU programs serving students are the Outstanding Student Paper Award (OSPA) and the Student Grants programs. OSPA allows students to practice their presentation skills and receive valuable feedback from experienced scientists. Over 3,000 students participated in OSPA at Fall Meeting 2016. The Student Grants program includes a suite of 14 travel and research grant opportunities. Over 2,000 students applied for grant opportunities in 2016 and 246 grants and fellowships were awarded. The OSPA and Student Grants programs also engage non-student members through volunteering opportunities for program roles, such as OSPA judge or grant reviewer. This presentation will look at the temporal participation trends of underrepresented minority groups in AGU's OSPA and Student Grants programs. The participation of underrepresented minority groups will also be compared before and after the implementation of policy changes to the Student Grants program in 2012.

  2. Society of Pediatric Psychology Diversity Award: Training Underrepresented Minority Students in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Monica J.; Crosby, Lori E.

    2016-01-01

    Improving diversity, particularly among trainees and professionals from underrepresented ethnic minority backgrounds, has been a long-stated goal for the field of Psychology. Research has provided strategies and best practices, such as ensuring cultural sensitivity and relevance in coursework, clinical and research training, promoting a supportive and inclusive climate, providing access to cultural and community opportunities, and increasing insight and cultural competence among professionals (Rogers & Molina, 2006). Despite this, the rates of psychologists from ethnically diverse and underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds remain low and few published studies have described programmatic efforts to increase diversity within the field. This paper describes the INNOVATIONS training model, which provides community and culturally related research experiences, graduate-school related advising, and mentoring to high school and college students. The paper also examines how the model may support enrollment of URM students in doctoral programs in psychology. Findings indicate that INNOVATIONS supported students’ transition from high school and college to graduate programs (with approximately 75% of students enrolling in Master’s and Doctoral programs). INNOVATIONS also supported students, including those from URM backgrounds, enrolling in doctoral programs (41.7%). Students who were trained in the research assistant track were most likely to enroll in psychology doctoral programs, perhaps as a result of the intensive time and training committed to research and clinical experiences. Data support the importance of research training for URM students pursuing psychology graduate study and the need to ensure cultural relevance of the training. Implications for clinical and pediatric psychology are discussed. PMID:28603680

  3. Choosing to lead the motivational factors of underrepresented minority librarians in higher education

    CERN Document Server

    Olivas, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Choosing to Lead: The Motivational Factors of Underrepresented Minority Librarians in Higher Education takes a positive inquiry approach by providing first-hand accounts of success stories, best practices, and practical advice from a collection of diverse authors. Instead of looking at academic library "failures" when it comes to diversifying the leadership workforce, this book highlights what's going right and how to implement it across the profession-with an emphasis on building strengths and fully leveraging one's interests, behaviors, and passions, while never ignoring or deemphasizing the prevailing challenges that exist for diverse LIS professionals who wish to advance their leadership skills. Through case studies, promising practices, and specific strategies for cultivating diversity in academic library leadership, this is a resource for both librarians of color who wish to seek leadership positions and current library leaders who want to nurture these future leaders.

  4. 'Speaking Truth' Protects Underrepresented Minorities' Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Avi; Paluy, Yula; Milless, Katlyn L; Goldstein, Emily J; Wallace, Lyndsey; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Estrada, Mica

    2017-06-01

    We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities' (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a 'knowledge as power' approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]. STEP protected URMs' abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA]) as well as decreased URMs' worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP's two-pronged approach-explicating the effects of structural 'isms' while harnessing URMs' existing assets-shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM.

  5. Mentoring programs for underrepresented minority faculty in academic medical centers: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M; Calles-Escandon, Jorge; Hairston, Kristen G; Langdon, Sarah E; Latham-Sadler, Brenda A; Bell, Ronny A

    2013-04-01

    Mentoring is critical for career advancement in academic medicine. However, underrepresented minority (URM) faculty often receive less mentoring than their nonminority peers. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of published mentoring programs designed for URM faculty to identify "promising practices." Databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, PsychLit, Google Scholar, Dissertations Abstracts International, CINHAL, Sociological Abstracts) were searched for articles describing URM faculty mentoring programs. The RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) formed the model for analyzing programs. The search identified 73 citations. Abstract reviews led to retrieval of 38 full-text articles for assessment; 18 articles describing 13 programs were selected for review. The reach of these programs ranged from 7 to 128 participants. Most evaluated programs on the basis of the number of grant applications and manuscripts produced or satisfaction with program content. Programs offered a variety of training experiences, and adoption was relatively high, with minor changes made for implementing the intended content. Barriers included time-restricted funding, inadequate evaluation due to few participants, significant time commitments required from mentors, and difficulty in addressing institutional challenges faced by URM faculty. Program sustainability was a concern because programs were supported through external funds, with minimal institutional support. Mentoring is an important part of academic medicine, particularly for URM faculty who often experience unique career challenges. Despite this need, relatively few publications exist to document mentoring programs for this population. Institutionally supported mentoring programs for URM faculty are needed, along with detailed plans for program sustainability.

  6. Is "Race-Neutral" Really Race-Neutral?: Disparate Impact towards Underrepresented Minorities in Post-209 UC System Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jose L.; Cabrera, Nolan L.; Fosnacht, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Authors examine the proportion of undergraduate applications, admissions, and enrollments preceding, during, and after Proposition 209 while accounting for the relative growth in University of California eligibility for underrepresented minorities (URMs). They employed standard deviation analyses to measure dispersion of the URMs to non-URMs.…

  7. A Study of The Influence of Advising on Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate Student Persistence in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Michael J.

    In the United States, undergraduate underrepresented minority (URM) students tend to change out of declared majors in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines at a rate of nearly sixty percent prior to earning a post secondary degree. This phenomenon contributes to a general concern that the United States is not producing enough STEM trained skilled workers to meet future employment needs of industry and government. Although there has been research developed to examine how to increase the numbers of URM students enrolling in STEM programs at higher education institutions, retention of these students remains critical. One area of increasing focus for researchers is to understand how multiple factors impact the college experience of URM students and how those factors may contribute to the student decision to persist in earning a STEM disciple degree. This research study is a phenomenological mixed method study that examines how students experience the phenomenon of advising and the influence of the advising experience of undergraduate URM students on their likelihood of persisting in STEM at a northeast US technology oriented post secondary institution. Persistence, from the perspective of the student, is driven by cognitive psychological attributes such as confidence, motivation and self-efficacy. Utilizing a Social Cognitive theoretical framework, this study examines how three distinct undergraduate URM student populations enrolled in; an Academic Services Program, Honors College, and the general undergraduate population at this institution experience advising and how their experiences may influence their propensity to persist in earning a STEM oriented degree.

  8. Effectiveness of a formal post-baccalaureate pre-medicine program for underrepresented minority students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, B; Edwards, A S; Segal, S S; Gillum, L H; Lindsay, A; Johnson, N

    2001-08-01

    To address the effectiveness of a formal postbaccalaureate (PB) experience for underrepresented minority (URM) students before medical school. The program provided an intense year-long experience of course work, research, and personal development. There were 516 participants from one medical school: 15 URM medical students had completed the formal PB program, 58 students had done independent PB work before matriculation, and 443 students were traditional matriculants. Cognitive and academic indicators [college science and non-science grade-point averages (GPAs); biology, physics, and verbal MCAT scores; and percentage scores from first-year medical school courses] were compared for the three groups. Both groups of students with PB experience demonstrated competency in the first year of medical school consistent with traditional students even though the students who had completed the formal PB program had lower MCAT scores and lower college GPAs than did the traditional students. Traditional predictors of academic performance during the first year of medical school did not significantly contribute to actual academic performances of students from the formal PB program. The results support the use of a formal PB program to provide academic readiness and support for URM students prior to medical school. Such a program may also improve retention. Noncognitive variables, however, may be important to understanding the success of such students in medical school.

  9. Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat. Specifically, we introduced a values affirmation exercise that counters stereotype threat by reinforcing a student's feelings of integrity and self-worth in three iterations of an intensive active-learning college biology course. On average, this exercise reduced the achievement gap between URM and white students who entered the course with the same incoming grade point average. This result suggests that achievement gaps resulting from the underperformance of URM students could be mitigated by providing students with a learning environment that removes psychological and emotional impediments of performance through short psychosocial interventions. © 2017 H. Jordt et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. The social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority medical students: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Semalulu, Teresa; Underwood, Willie

    2013-11-01

    To review the literature on the social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority (URM) medical students to determine what type of interventions are needed to eliminate potential barriers to enrolling and retaining URM students. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid HealthStar, and Web of Science, and the reference lists of included studies, published between January 1, 1980, and September 15, 2012. Studies of the learning and social environments and of students' satisfaction, experiences with discrimination or unfair practices, and academic performance or progress, as well as assessments of programs or interventions to improve URM students' academic performance, were eligible for inclusion. The authors identified 28 studies (27 unique data sets) meeting the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies indicated that URM students experienced less supportive social and less positive learning environments, were subjected to discrimination and racial harassment, and were more likely to see their race as having a negative impact on their medical school experiences than non-URM students. Academic performance on standardized exams was worse, progress less timely, and attrition higher for URM students as well. For URM students, an adverse climate may be decreasing the attractiveness of careers in medicine, impairing their academic performance, and increasing attrition. Improvements to the social and learning environments experienced by URM students are needed to make medicine a more inclusive profession. The current environment of health care reform creates an opportunity for institutions to implement strategies to achieve this goal.

  11. Retaining Underrepresented Minority Undergraduates in STEM through Hands-on Internship Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzai, A.; Mcpherson, R. A.; DeLong, K. L.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Zak, J.; Earl, J.; Owens, K.; Wilson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior's South Central Climate Science Center (SCCSC) hosts an annual 3-week summer internship opportunity for undergraduate students of underrepresented minorities interested in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. Internship participants travel across the south-central U.S. to visit university campuses and field locations. The students interact with faculty conducting cutting edge research and with resource managers facing decision-making under uncertainty. This internship format allows the participants to see the direct impacts of climate variability and change on the Texas Hill Country, prairie and forest ecosystems and tribal cultures in Oklahoma, and the bayous, delta and coastline of Louisiana. Immersive experiences are key for exposing students to academic research and providing them with the skills and experiences needed to continue on in their professional careers. The SCCSC's program introduces students to how research is conducted, gives them a broad perspective on how collaborations form, and starts each student on the path to building a large and diverse professional network. By providing participants with a "buffet" of options, our internship serves as a launching pad from which each student can move forward towards experiences such as participating in a Research Experiences for Undergraduates program, gaining employment in a STEM-related career path, and being accepted into a graduate degree program. This presentation will describe the components of the SCCSC's internship program and provide a summary of post-internship student successes.

  12. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Mader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU and Puerto Rico (PR on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method: AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results: Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024 and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005 positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016 compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011 and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001 positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001 and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001 positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions: Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions.

  13. Doctors of tomorrow: An innovative curriculum connecting underrepresented minority high school students to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derck, Jordan; Zahn, Kate; Finks, Jonathan F; Mand, Simanjit; Sandhu, Gurjit

    2016-01-01

    Racial minorities continue to be underrepresented in medicine (URiM). Increasing provider diversity is an essential component of addressing disparity in health delivery and outcomes. The pool of students URiM that are competitive applicants to medical school is often limited early on by educational inequalities in primary and secondary schooling. A growing body of evidence recognizing the importance of diversifying health professions advances the need for medical schools to develop outreach collaborations with primary and secondary schools to attract URiMs. The goal of this paper is to describe and evaluate a program that seeks to create a pipeline for URiMs early in secondary schooling by connecting these students with support and resources in the medical community that may be transformative in empowering these students to be stronger university and medical school applicants. The authors described a medical student-led, action-oriented pipeline program, Doctors of Tomorrow, which connects faculty and medical students at the University of Michigan Medical School with 9th grade students at Cass Technical High School (Cass Tech) in Detroit, Michigan. The program includes a core curriculum of hands-on experiential learning, development, and presentation of a capstone project, and mentoring of 9th grade students by medical students. Cass Tech student feedback was collected using focus groups, critical incident written narratives, and individual interviews. Medical student feedback was collected reviewing monthly meeting minutes from the Doctors of Tomorrow medical student leadership. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two strong themes emerged from the Cass Tech student feedback: (i) Personal identity and its perceived effect on goal achievement and (ii) positive affect of direct mentorship and engagement with current healthcare providers through Doctors of Tomorrow. A challenge noted by the medical students was the lack of structured curriculum beyond the 1st

  14. A Longitudinal Study of How Quality Mentorship and Research Experience Integrate Underrepresented Minorities into STEM Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Hernandez, Paul R; Schultz, P Wesley

    2018-01-01

    African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree earners. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that URMs do not integrate into the STEM academic community at the same rate as non-URM students. Estrada and colleagues recently showed that Kelman's tripartite integration model of social influence (TIMSI) predicted URM persistence into science fields. In this paper, we longitudinally examine the integration of URMs into the STEM community by using growth-curve analyses to measure the development of TIMIS's key variables (science efficacy, identity, and values) from junior year through the postbaccalaureate year. Results showed that quality mentorship and research experience occurring in the junior and senior years were positively related to student science efficacy, identity, and values at that same time period. Longitudinal modeling of TIMSI further shows that, while efficacy is important, and perhaps a necessary predictor of moving toward a STEM career, past experiences of efficacy may not be sufficient for maintaining longer-term persistence. In contrast, science identity and values do continue to be predictive of STEM career pathway persistence up to 4 years after graduation. © 2018 M. Estrada et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Self-efficacy beliefs of underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay, Guadalupe

    The purpose of this study is to understand the self-perceptions, confidence, and self-efficacy of underrepresented minorities (URMs) as they undertake Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) courses during their K-12 years in urban-public schools. Through the lens of Bandura's self-efficacy theory, this study analyzed self-efficacious behaviors as they revealed themselves in K-12 classrooms. The participants were 11th- and 12th-grade students, their parents, their STEM teachers, and their mentor. The goal was to understand what has been inhibiting the growth of URM representation in STEM majors and in STEM fields. This qualitative study was designed to understand the participants' stories and uncover personal characteristics such as grit, perseverance, and determination in the face of obstacles. The instruments used in this study were interviews, observations, and self-efficacy surveys. The findings revealed that the participants' perceptions of the students' abilities to succeed in a STEM field were all tentatively positive. The participants focused on the many obstacles already overcome by the students and used it as precedent for future success. All the student-participants shared a similar set of adult types in their lives--adults who believed not only in their STEM abilities, but also in their abilities to face obstacles, who were willing to give their time and expertise when necessary, and who shared similar experiences in terms of the lack of educational resources or of economic struggles. It was these shared experiences that strengthened the beliefs that, if the adult participants could succeed in education or succeed in spite of poverty, the student participants could succeed, as well.

  16. Entrepreneurs: Women and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Lilialyce

    A program was designed to meet the needs of Kentucky women who wished to supplement their incomes by producing articles in their homes for sale. Its three-phase objective was to identify women who already had knitting skills and train them to produce a finished product; to provide basic knowledge about how to run a small business; and to provide…

  17. Crack in the Pipeline: Why Female Underrepresented Racial Minority College Students Leave Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Akim, Jenny Amanda

    Female and underrepresented racial minority (URM) students are indicating their interest in STEM fields at increasing rates, yet when examining the engineering discipline specifically disparities in degree completion rates between female URM students and others in the racial or gender majority are even more severe. This study explored female URM college student perceptions of school and classroom climate and the impact these factors had on their decision to persist or to leave engineering. Through a qualitative interview methodology grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study explored factors including self-efficacy, perceived barriers and supports, other-group orientation and outcome expectations that influenced students' academic decision-making. Interview participants consisted of 5 female URM students that matriculated into an engineering major at a top tier, private university but subsequently left the discipline in pursuit of another field of study. The perceptions of this target population were juxtaposed with interview data from 4 male non-URM, 4 female non-URM, and 4 male URM leavers in addition to 7 female URM engineering persisters. As a final component in the research design, 9 undergraduate engineering faculty were interviewed to understand their perceptions of why female URM students leave engineering in pursuit of other disciplines. With faculty being a central component of the academic environment, their perceptions of female URM students, as well as how they view their role in these students' retention, provided insight on this other side of retention question. Salient findings emerged that differentiated female URM leavers' experiences in engineering from other student populations. Female URM leavers were less likely to call upon self-directed learning strategies in response to academic challenges. Perceived academic barriers such as heavy course loads, lack of connection between material and application, and perceived academic

  18. Retention of Underrepresented Minority Faculty: Strategic Initiatives for Institutional Value Proposition Based on Perspectives from a Range of Academic Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Joseph A; Montgomery, Beronda L; Martinez Acosta, Veronica G

    2015-01-01

    The student and faculty make-up of academic institutions does not represent national demographics. Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately underrepresented nationally, and particularly at predominantly white institutions (PWIs). Although significant efforts and funding have been committed to increasing points of access or recruitment of under-represented minority (URM) students and faculty at PWIs, these individuals have not been recruited and retained at rates that reflect their national proportions. Underrepresentation of URMs is particularly prevalent in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. This reality represents a national crisis given a predicted shortage of workers in STEM disciplines based on current rates of training of all individuals, majority and URM, and the intersection of this limitation with persistent challenges in the recruitment, training, retention and advancement of URMs who will soon represent the largest pool of future trainees. An additional compounding factor is the increasingly disproportionate underrepresentation of minorities at higher professorial and administrative ranks, thus limiting the pool of potential mentors who are correlated with successful shepherding of URM students through STEM training and development. We address issues related to improving recruitment and retention of URM faculty that are applicable across a range of academic institutions. We describe challenges with recruitment and retention of URM faculty and their advancement through promotion in the faculty ranks and into leadership positions. We offer specific recommendations, including identifying environmental barriers to diversity and implementing strategies for their amelioration, promoting effective and innovative mentoring, and addressing leadership issues related to constructive change for promoting diversity.

  19. Developing a Diverse Professoriate - Preliminary Outcomes from a Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, H. R.; Keane, C. M.; Seadler, A. R.; Wilson, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    A professional development workshop for underrepresented minority, future and early-career faculty in the geosciences was held in April of 2012. Twenty seven participants traveled to the Washington DC metro area and attended this 2.5 day workshop. Participants' career levels ranged from early PhD students to Assistant Professors, and they had research interests spanning atmospheric sciences, hydrology, solid earth geoscience and geoscience education. Race and ethnicity of the participants included primarily African American or Black individuals, as well as Hispanic, Native American, Native Pacific Islanders and Caucasians who work with underrepresented groups. The workshop consisted of three themed sessions led by prestigious faculty members within the geoscience community, who are also underrepresented minorities. These sessions included "Guidance from Professional Societies," "Instructional Guidance" and "Campus Leadership Advice." Each session lasted about 3 hours and included a mixture of presentational materials to provide context, hands-on activities and robust group discussions. Two additional sessions were devoted to learning about federal agencies. For the morning session, representatives from USGS and NOAA came to discuss opportunities within each agency and the importance of promoting geoscience literacy with our participants. The afternoon session gave the workshop attendees the fortunate opportunity to visit NSF headquarters. Participants were welcomed by NSF's Assistant Director for Geosciences and took part in small group meetings with program officers within the Geosciences Directorate. Participants indicated having positive experiences during this workshop. In our post-workshop evaluation, the majority of participants revealed that they thought the sessions were valuable, with many finding the sessions extremely valuable. The effectiveness of each session had similar responses. Preliminary results from 17 paired sample t-tests show increased

  20. Women Are Underrepresented in Fields Where Success is Believed to Require Brilliance

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith eMeyer; Andrei eCimpian; Sarah-Jane eLeslie

    2015-01-01

    Women’s underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a prominent concern in our society and many others. Closer inspection of this phenomenon reveals a more nuanced picture, however, with women achieving parity with men at the PhD level in certain STEM fields, while also being underrepresented in some non-STEM fields. It is important to consider and provide an account of this field-by-field variability. The Field-specific Ability Beliefs (FAB) hypo...

  1. Minority-Serving Institutions and the Education of U.S. Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ginelle; Stage, Frances K.

    2014-01-01

    Numbers of students of color enrolling in higher educational institutions is expected to increase across all racial groups. With continued increases in minority enrollments, minority-serving institutions have and will continue to play a major role in educating student of color. A large national data set was used to examine the numbers of…

  2. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The final rule implements the provisions.... It also requires each regulated entity to establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or...

  3. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section... Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities...

  4. Medical School Performance of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Underrepresented Minority Students Matriculating after a Multiple Mini-Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Henderson, Mark C; Griffin, Erin; Talamantes, Efrain; Fancher, Tonya; Sousa, Francis; Franks, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMIs) are increasingly used in medical school admissions. We previously reported that while under-represented minority (URM) status was not associated with MMI scores, self-designated disadvantaged applicants had lower MMI scores, possibly affecting their matriculation prospects. No studies have examined how URM status or socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) are associated with academic performance following admission through an MMI. We examined the adjusted associations of MMI scores, SED, and URM status with U.S. Medical Licensing Examination Steps 1 and 2 performance and third-year clerkship Honors, measures affecting residency matching. While URM status was not associated with the measures, students with greater SED had lower Step 1 scores and fewer Honors. Students with higher MMI scores had more Step 1 failures, but more Honors. The findings identify areas to address in medical school admissions, student support, and evaluation processes, which is important given the need for a more representative physician workforce.

  5. Mentoring the Mentors of Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minorities Who are Conducting HIV Research: Beyond Cultural Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Jane M.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa (Tessa); Udell, Wadiya; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Pearson, Cynthia R.; MacDonald, Meg M.; Duran, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    The majority of literature on mentoring focuses on mentee training needs, with significantly less guidance for the mentors. Moreover, many mentoring the mentor models assume generic (i.e. White) mentees with little attention to the concerns of underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities (UREM). This has led to calls for increased attention to diversity in research training programs, especially in the field of HIV where racial/ethnic disparities are striking. Diversity training tends to address the mentees' cultural competency in conducting research with diverse populations, and often neglects the training needs of mentors in working with diverse mentees. In this article, we critique the framing of diversity as the problem (rather than the lack of mentor consciousness and skills), highlight the need to extend mentor training beyond aspirations of cultural competency toward cultural humility and cultural safety, and consider challenges to effective mentoring of UREM, both for White and UREM mentors. PMID:27484060

  6. Workplace harassment: double jeopardy for minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Jennifer L; Moore, Celia

    2006-03-01

    To date there have been no studies of how both sex and ethnicity might affect the incidence of both sexual and ethnic harassment at work. This article represents an effort to fill this gap. Data from employees at 5 organizations were used to test whether minority women are subject to double jeopardy at work, experiencing the most harassment because they are both women and members of a minority group. The results supported this prediction. Women experienced more sexual harassment than men, minorities experienced more ethnic harassment than Whites, and minority women experienced more harassment overall than majority men, minority men, and majority women.

  7. A critical exploration of science doctoral programs: Counterstories from underrepresented women of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Senetta F.

    Most studies exploring the experiences of underrepresented doctoral students of color in science fields focus on their socialization into predominantly white institutions. While the socialization process is fundamental to doctoral success and consequently deserves attention, it is critical to inquire into how the widespread and lasting perception of people of color as socioculturally deficient shapes underrepresented students` socialization into science doctoral programs. Further, the existing research literature and educational policies addressing the persistent underrepresentation of students of color in science doctorates remain fixated on increasing racial diversity for U.S. economic security rather than racial equity. In view of the limitation of existing research literature, in this study, drawing from critical race theories, fictive-kinship, and forms of capital, I use counterstorytelling to recast racial inequities in the education of science doctorates as a problem of social justice, not as an issue of the students' sociocultural deficits or as a matter of economic security. Through interviews I examined the experiences, from elementary school to current careers, of three women of color who were science doctoral students. Participants' counterstories revealed institutionalized racism embedded in doctoral programs exploited their identities and dismissed their lived experiences, thereby, relegating them to outsiders-within academe. This marginalization precluded the inclusive socialization of participants into their doctoral programs and ultimately set up barriers to their pursuit of scientific careers. This study divulges the academic and career consequences of the sustained privilege disparities between underrepresented students of color's experience and the experiences of their white and Asian counterparts. In light of the participants' experiences, I recommend that, in order to change the existing policy of socially integrating students into oppressive

  8. Concepts first: A course with improved educational outcomes and parity for underrepresented minority groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Two active learning physics courses were taught and compared. The "concepts first" course was organized to teach only concepts in the first part of the class, the ultimate goal being to increase students' problem-solving abilities much later in the class. The other course was taught in the same quarter by the same instructor using the same curricular materials, but covered material in the standard (chapter-by-chapter) order. After accounting for incoming student characteristics, students from the concepts-first course scored significantly better in two outcome measures: their grade on the final exam and the grade received in their subsequent physics course. Moreover, in the concepts-first class course, students from groups underrepresented in physics had final exam scores and class grades that were indistinguishable from other students. Finally, students who took at least one concepts-first course in introductory physics were found to have significantly higher rates of graduation with a STEM major than students from this cohort who did not.

  9. Encouraging and Attracting Underrepresented Racial Minorities to the Field of Geosciences-A Latin American Graduate Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve

  10. Willingness to participate in genomics research and desire for personal results among underrepresented minority patients: a structured interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Diefenbach, Michael A; Zinberg, Randi; Horowitz, Carol R; Smirnoff, Margaret; Zweig, Micol; Streicher, Samantha; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richardson, Lynne D

    2013-10-01

    Patients from traditionally underrepresented communities need to be involved in discussions around genomics research including attitudes towards participation and receiving personal results. Structured interviews, including open-ended and closed-ended questions, were conducted with 205 patients in an inner-city hospital outpatient clinic: 48 % of participants self-identified as Black or African American, 29 % Hispanic, 10 % White; 49 % had an annual household income of personal results to be returned was not mentioned, 82 % of participants were willing to participate in genomics research. Reasons for willingness fell into four themes: altruism; benefit to family members; personal health benefit; personal curiosity and improving understanding. Reasons for being unwilling fell into five themes: negative perception of research; not personally relevant; negative feelings about procedures (e.g., blood draws); practical barriers; and fear of results. Participants were more likely to report that they would participate in genomics research if personal results were offered than if they were not offered (89 vs. 62 % respectively, p personal genomic risk results for cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes than obesity (89, 89, 91, 80 % respectively, all p personal results was disease-specific worry. There was considerable willingness to participate in and desire for personal results from genomics research in this sample of predominantly low-income, Hispanic and African American patients. When returning results is not practical, or even when it is, alternatively or additionally providing generic information about genomics and health may also be a valuable commodity to underrepresented minority and other populations considering participating in genomics research.

  11. Providing Social Support for Underrepresented Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Career Coaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Improvement in the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions has been unsatisfactory. Although this is a complex problem, one key issue is that graduate students often rely on research mentors for career-related support, the effectiveness of which can be variable. We present results from a novel…

  12. Broadening Awareness and Participation in the Geosciences Among Underrepresented Minorities in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.

    2012-12-01

    An acute STEM crisis exists nationally, and the problem is even more dire among the geosciences. Since about the middle of the last century, fewer undergraduate and graduate degrees have been granted in the geosciences than in any other STEM fields. To help in ameliorating this geoscience plight, particularly from among members of racial and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in STEM fields, the New York City College of Technology (City Tech) launched a vibrant geoscience program and convened a community of STEM students who are interested in learning about the geosciences. This program creates and introduces geoscience knowledge and opportunities to a diverse undergraduate student population that was never before exposed to geoscience courses at City Tech. This geoscience project is funded by the NSF OEDG program, and it brings awareness, knowledge, and geoscience opportunities to City Tech's students in a variety of ways. Firstly, two new geoscience courses have been created and introduced. One course is on Environmental Remote Sensing, and the other course is an Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters. The Remote Sensing course highlights the physical and mathematical principles underlying remote sensing techniques. It covers the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques, interferometric and lidar systems, and an introduction to image processing. Guest lecturers are invited to present their expertise on various geoscience topics. These sessions are open to all City Tech students, not just to those students who enroll in the course. The Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters course is expected to be offered in Spring 2013. This highly relevant, fundamental course will be open to all students, especially to non-science majors. The course focuses on natural disasters, the processes that control them, and their devastating impacts to human life and structures. Students will be introduced to the nature, causes, risks

  13. Women are underrepresented in fields where success is believed to require brilliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meredith; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2015-01-01

    Women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a prominent concern in our society and many others. Closer inspection of this phenomenon reveals a more nuanced picture, however, with women achieving parity with men at the Ph.D. level in certain STEM fields, while also being underrepresented in some non-STEM fields. It is important to consider and provide an account of this field-by-field variability. The field-specific ability beliefs (FAB) hypothesis aims to provide such an account, proposing that women are likely to be underrepresented in fields thought to require raw intellectual talent-a sort of talent that women are stereotyped to possess less of than men. In two studies, we provide evidence for the FAB hypothesis, demonstrating that the academic fields believed by laypeople to require brilliance are also the fields with lower female representation. We also found that the FABs of participants with college-level exposure to a field were more predictive of its female representation than those of participants without college exposure, presumably because the former beliefs mirror more closely those of the field's practitioners (the direct "gatekeepers"). Moreover, the FABs of participants with college exposure to a field predicted the magnitude of the field's gender gap above and beyond their beliefs about the level of mathematical and verbal skills required. Finally, we found that beliefs about the importance of brilliance to success in a field may predict its female representation in part by fostering the impression that the field demands solitary work and competition with others. These results suggest new solutions for enhancing diversity within STEM and across the academic spectrum.

  14. Women Are Underrepresented in Fields Where Success is Believed to Require Brilliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith eMeyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Women’s underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields is a prominent concern in our society and many others. Closer inspection of this phenomenon reveals a more nuanced picture, however, with women achieving parity with men at the PhD level in certain STEM fields, while also being underrepresented in some non-STEM fields. It is important to consider and provide an account of this field-by-field variability. The Field-specific Ability Beliefs (FAB hypothesis aims to provide such an account, proposing that women are likely to be underrepresented in fields thought to require raw intellectual talent—a sort of talent that women are stereotyped to possess less of than men. In two studies, we provide evidence for the FAB hypothesis, demonstrating that the academic fields believed by laypeople to require brilliance are also the fields with lower female representation. We also found that the field-specific ability beliefs of participants with college-level exposure to a field were more predictive of its female representation than those of participants without college exposure, presumably because the former beliefs mirror more closely those of the field’s practitioners (the direct gatekeepers. Moreover, the field-specific ability beliefs of participants with college exposure to a field predicted the magnitude of the field’s gender gap above and beyond their beliefs about the level of mathematical and verbal skills required. Finally, we found that beliefs about the importance of brilliance to success in a field may predict its female representation in part by fostering the impression that the field demands solitary work and competition with others. These results suggest new solutions for enhancing diversity within STEM and across the academic spectrum.

  15. Underrepresented minority students' experiences at Baylor College of Dentistry: perceptions of cultural climate and reasons for choosing to attend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ann L; Lacy, Ernestine S; Miller, Barbara H

    2014-03-01

    A study was conducted at Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry (TAMBCD) in fall 2011 to identify the reasons underrepresented minority (URM) students chose to attend TAMBCD, the factors that supported their success as enrolled students, and their perceptions of the institution's cultural climate. A survey distributed online to all URM students received a 79 percent response rate (129/164). The respondents were primarily Hispanic (62 percent Mexican American and other Hispanic) and African American (33 percent) and had attended a college pipeline program (53 percent). The top reasons these students chose TAMBCD were reputation, location, and automatic acceptance or familiarity from being in a predental program. Alumni had most influenced them to attend. Regarding support services, the largest percentage reported not using any (44 percent); personal advising and tutoring were reported to be the most commonly used. In terms of climate, discrimination was reported by 22 percent (n=29), mostly from classmates and clinical faculty. The majority (87 percent) reported their cultural competence program was "effective" and agreed that faculty (83 percent), staff (85 percent), and students (75 percent) were culturally competent. Overall, the students were "satisfied" with how they were treated (88 percent), their education (91 percent), and the services/resources (92 percent). This information is being used to continue to improve the school's cultural climate and to conduct a broader assessment of all students.

  16. MS PHD'S: A Successful Model Promoting Inclusion, Preparation and Engagement of Underrepresented Minorities within the Geosciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, E.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J. T.; Ricciardi, L.; Guzman, W. I.; Braxton, L.; Williamson, V.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    According to 2014 findings of the National Research Council, geoscience and related industries indicate an anticipated 48,000 blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions to be filled by underrepresented minority (URM) workers in the next 15 years. An Information Handling Services (IHS) report prepared for the American Petroleum Institute forecasts even greater numbers estimating upward of 408,000 opportunities for URM workers related to growth in accelerated development of oil, gas and petroleum industries. However, many URM students lack the training in both the hard sciences and craft skills necessary to fill these positions. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program uses integrative and holistic strategies to better prepare URM students for entry into all levels of the geoscience workforce. Through a three-phase program of mentoring, community building, networking and professional development activities, MS PHD'S promotes collaboration, critical thinking, and soft skills development for participants. Program activities expose URM students to education, training and real-life geoscience workforce experiences while maintaining a continuity of supportive mentoring and training networks via an active virtual community. MS PHD'S participants report increased self-confidence and self-efficacy in pursuing geoscience workforce goals. To date, the program supports 223 participants of who 57, 21 and 16 have received Doctorate, Masters and Baccalaureate degrees respectively and are currently employed within the geoscience and related industries workforce. The remaining 129 participants are enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs throughout the U.S. Geographic representation of participants includes 35 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and two international postdoctoral appointments - one in Saudi Arabia and the other in France.

  17. GeoX: A New Pre-college Program to Attract Underrepresented Minorities and First Generation Students to the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. C.; Garcia, S. J.; Houser, C.; GeoX Team

    2011-12-01

    An emerging challenge in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education is the recruitment of underrepresented groups in those areas of the workforce. This paper describes the structure and first-year results of the Geosciences Exploration Summer Program (GeoX) at Texas A&M University. Recent evidence suggest that pipeline programs should target junior and senior high school students who are beginning to seriously consider future career choices and appropriate college programs. GeoX is an overnight program that takes place during the summer at Texas A&M University. Over the course of a week, GeoX participants interact with faculty from the College of Geosciences, administrators, current students, and community leaders through participation in inquiry-based learning activities, field trips, and evening social events. The aim of this project is to foster a further interest in pursuing geosciences as an undergraduate major in college and thereby increase participation in the geosciences by underrepresented ethnic minority students. With funding from industry and private donors, high achieving rising junior and rising senior students, with strong interest in science and math, were invited to participate in the program. Students and their parents were interviewed before and after the program to determine if it was successful in introducing and enhancing awareness of the: 1) various sub-disciplines in the geosciences, 2) benefits of academia and research, 3) career opportunities in each of those fields and 4) college admission process including financial aid and scholarship opportunities. Results of the survey suggest that the students had a very narrow and stereotypical view of the geosciences that was almost identical to the views of their parents. Following the program, the students had a more expanded and positive view of the geosciences compared to the pre-program survey and compared to their parents. While it remains to be seen how many of those

  18. Women are underrepresented on the editorial boards of journals in environmental biology and natural resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa H. Cho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite women earning similar numbers of graduate degrees as men in STEM disciplines, they are underrepresented in upper level positions in both academia and industry. Editorial board memberships are an important example of such positions; membership is both a professional honor in recognition of achievement and an opportunity for professional advancement. We surveyed 10 highly regarded journals in environmental biology, natural resource management, and plant sciences to quantify the number of women on their editorial boards and in positions of editorial leadership (i.e., Associate Editors and Editors-in-Chief from 1985 to 2013. We found that during this time period only 16% of subject editors were women, with more pronounced disparities in positions of editorial leadership. Although the trend was towards improvement over time, there was surprising variation between journals, including those with similar disciplinary foci. While demographic changes in academia may reduce these disparities over time, we argue journals should proactively strive for gender parity on their editorial boards. This will both increase the number of women afforded the opportunities and benefits that accompany board membership and increase the number of role models and potential mentors for early-career scientists and students.

  19. Shattering the Glass Ceiling. Issues and Solutions in Promoting the Advancement of Women and Minorities to Executive Management in Corporate America. White Paper 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microquest Corp., San Rafael, CA.

    Despite their progress in the workplace in recent years, women and minorities still remain greatly underrepresented in executive roles in major U.S. companies. The barriers, attitudes, and practices that deter the advancement of women and minorities into executive ranks collectively result in the phenomenon known as the "Glass Ceiling."…

  20. "Fort Valley State University Cooperative Developmental Energy Program: Broadening the Participation of Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbly, I.; Hodges, J.; Kar, A.; Rashidi, L.

    2015-12-01

    According to the American Geological Institute's Status of Recent Geoscience Graduates, 2014, underrepresented minorities (URMs) make up only 7%, 5%, and 2% of graduates at the BS/BA, MA/MS, and Ph.D levels, respectively. Recruiting academically-talented URMs to major in the geosciences instead of majoring in other fields such as medicine, law, business, or engineering is a major undertaking. Numerous factors may contribute as to why few URMs choose geoscience careers. To address the underrepresentation of URMs in the geosciences 1992, the Cooperative Developmental Energy Program (CDEP) of Fort Valley State University (FVSU) and the College of Geosciences at the University of Oklahoma (OU) implemented a 3 + 2 dual degree program specifically in geology and geophysics. Since 1992, FVSU-CDEP has added the University of Texas at Austin (2004), Pennsylvania State University (2005), University of Arkansas (2010), and the University of Nevada at Las Vegas (2015) as partners to offer degrees in geology and geophysics. The dual degree programs consist of students majoring in chemistry or mathematics at FVSU for the first three years and transferring to one of the above partnering universities for years four and five to major in geology or geophysics. Upon completion of the program, students receive a BS degree in chemistry or mathematics from FVSU and a BS degree in geology or geophysics from a partnering university. CDEP has been responsible for recruiting 33 URMs who have earned BS degrees in geology or geophysics. Females constitute 50% of the graduates which is higher than the national average. Also, 56% of these graduates have earned the MS degree and 6% have earned the Ph.D. Currently, 60% of these graduates are employed with oil and gas companies; 20% work for academia; 12% work for governmental agencies; 6 % are professionals with environmental firms; and 2% of the graduate's employment is unknown.

  1. Increasing the Presence of Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences: The Woods Hole Partnership Education Program Model and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A.; Gutierrez, B.; Jearld, A.; Liles, G.; Scott, O.; Harden, B.

    2017-12-01

    Launched in 2009, the Partnership Education Program (PEP) is supported by six scientific institutions in Woods Hole, Massachusetts through the Woods Hole Diversity Initiative. PEP, which was shaped by experience with other diversity programs as well as input from scientists in Woods Hole, is designed to promote a diverse scientific community by recruiting talent from minority groups that are under-represented in marine and environmental sciences. Focused on college juniors and seniors with course work in marine and/or environmental sciences, PEP is comprised of a four-week course, "Ocean and Environmental Sciences: Global Climate Change," and a six to eight week individual research project under the guidance of a research mentor. Investigators from the six science institutions serve as course faculty and research mentors. Course credit is through PEP's academic partner, the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. PEP students also participate in seminars, workshops, field trips, at-sea experiences, career development activities, and attend lectures at participating science institutions throughout the summer. Students present their research results at the end of the summer with a 15-minute public presentation. A number of PEP participants then presented their work at professional and scientific meetings, such as AGU, using the program as a gateway to graduate education and career opportunities in the marine and environmental sciences. From 2009 through 2017, 138 students from 86 colleges and universities, including many that previously had sent few or no students or faculty to Woods Hole, have participated in the program. Participating organizations are: Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NOAA Fisheries), Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Sea Education Association (SEA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), and University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES) - academic partner.

  2. The experience of minority faculty who are underrepresented in medicine, at 26 representative U.S. medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T; Gibbs, Brian K; Krupat, Edward; Brennan, Robert T; Civian, Janet T

    2013-09-01

    A diverse medical school faculty is critical to preparing physicians to provide quality care to an increasingly diverse nation. The authors sought to compare experiences of underrepresented in medicine minority (URMM) faculty with those of non-URMM faculty in a nationally representative sample of medical schools. In 2007-2009, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 4,578 MD and PhD full-time faculty from 26 U.S. medical schools. Multiple regression models were used to test for differences between URMM and other faculty on 12 dimensions of academic culture. Weights were used to adjust for oversampling of URMM and female faculty. The response rate was 52%, or 2,381 faculty. The analytic sample was 2,218 faculty: 512 (23%) were URMM, and 1,172 (53%) were female, mean age 49 years. Compared with non-URMM faculty, URMM faculty endorsed higher leadership aspirations but reported lower perceptions of relationships/inclusion, gave their institutions lower scores on URMM equity and institutional efforts to improve diversity, and more frequently engaged in disparities research. Twenty-two percent (115) had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination. For both values alignment and institutional change for diversity, URMM faculty at two institutions with high proportions (over 50%) of URMM faculty rated these characteristics significantly higher than their counterparts at traditional institutions. Encouragingly, for most aspects of academic medicine, the experiences of URMM and non-URMM faculty are similar, but the differences raise important concerns. The combination of higher leadership aspirations with lower feelings of inclusion and relationships might lead to discouragement with academic medicine.

  3. Ethnic Minority Women. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet contains information about the numbers and status of ethnic minority women in Great Britain. In 1991, the last full count, 1.5 million women in Britain classified themselves as other than White. Women from all ethnic groups are less likely to be economically active (paid for work or looking for it) than men. However, among ethnic…

  4. U.S. Department of Energy student research participation programs. Underrepresented minorities in U.S. Department of Energy student research participation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify those particular aspects of US Department of Energy (DOE) research participation programs for undergraduate and graduate students that are most associated with attracting and benefiting underrepresented minority students and encouraging them to pursue careers in science, engineering, and technology. A survey of selected former underrepresented minority participants, focus group analysis, and critical incident analysis serve as the data sources for this report. Data collected from underrepresented minority participants indicate that concerns expressed and suggestions made for conducting student research programs at DOE contractor facilities are not remarkably different from those made by all participants involved in such student research participation programs. With the exception of specific suggestions regarding recruitment, the findings summarized in this report can be interpreted to apply to all student research participants in DOE national laboratories. Clearly defined assignments, a close mentor-student association, good communication, and an opportunity to interact with other participants and staff are those characteristics that enhance any educational program and have positive impacts on career development.

  5. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program (MPP): Thirty Years of Improving Access to Opportunities in the Geosciences Through Undergraduate and Graduate Scholarships for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, C. N.; Byerly, G. R.; Smith, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. AGI promotes its MPP efforts primarily through its web pages, which are very successful in attracting visitors; through its publications, especially Geotimes; and through its Corporate Associates and Member Societies. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources over the past 30 years. Industry, non-profit organizations, and individuals have been the primary source of funding for graduate scholarships. The NSF has regularly funded the undergraduate scholarships. AGI Corporate Associates have contributed to both scholarship programs. The MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. AGI currently has 29 MPP scholars, including 11 undergraduate and 18 graduate students. Undergraduate scholarships range from \\1000 to \\5000, with an average award of approximately \\2500. Graduate scholarships range from \\500 to \\4000, with an average award of approximately \\1300. In addition to financial assistance, every MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars, and with writing evaluation reports that

  6. The Shortchanged: Women and Minorities in Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rodney; Sapery, Elisabeth

    The study by a team from the Council on Economic Priorities found: (1) that employment discrimination against minorities and women is endemic to commercial banking; (2) that a majority of the commercial banks studied are unwilling to permit public scrutiny of their employment and minority lending practices; and (3) that both the secrecy and the…

  7. Bayer Facts of Science Education XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer Corporation

    2012-06-01

    Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students. Annual public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine science education and science literacy issues. The 15th in the series and the fifth to explore diversity and underrepresentation, this research is a direct outgrowth of last year's results which found 40 percent of the country's female and underrepresented minority (URM) chemists and chemical engineers working today were discouraged from pursuing their STEM career at some point in their lives. US colleges were cited as places where this discouragement most often happened and college professors as the individuals most likely responsible. Does such discouragement still occur in American colleges today? To answer this and other questions about the undergraduate environment in which today's students make their career decisions, the survey polls 413 STEM department chairs at the nation's 200 top research universities and those that produce the highest proportion of female and URM STEM graduates. The survey also asks the chairs about their institutions track record recruiting and retaining female and URM STEM undergraduates, preparedness of these students to study STEM, the impact of traditional introductory STEM courses on female and URM students and barriers these students face pursuing their STEM degrees.

  8. The Human Rights of Minority Women:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    2010-01-01

    . These challenges go beyond the Romani issue only and into larger issues of women and minorities. It raises questions as to whether the historical separation between categories of gender and race/ethnicity within the international community in practice has become a gap that isolates Romani women from the human...... rights attention that they claim. It is argued that in order to strengthen the validity of human rights in the lives of Romani women, as a framework that ensures their full and equal protection, special attention needs to be given to interrelated grounds and forms of discrimination. “Intersectionality......This article explores the complexities surrounding the human rights of minority women. With analytical focus on Romani women in Europe it seeks to contribute with new insight into the grey areas of rights issues, where groups within special rights categories share different human rights concerns...

  9. Exploring Counseling Services and Their Impact on Female, Underrepresented Minority Community College Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Elizabeth

    The economic future of the United States depends on developing a workforce of professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (Adkins, 2012; Mokter Hossain & Robinson, 2012). In California, the college population is increasingly female and underrepresented minority, a population that has historically chosen to study majors other than STEM. In California, community colleges provide a major inroad for students seeking to further their education in one of the many universities in the state. The recent passage of Senate Bill 1456 and the Student Success and Support Program mandate increased counseling services for all California community college students (California Community College Chancellors Office, 2014). This dissertation is designed to explore the perceptions of female, underrepresented minority college students who are majoring in an area of science, technology, engineering and math, as they relate to community college counseling services. Specifically, it aims to understand what counseling services are most effective, and what community college counselors can do to increase the level of interest in STEM careers in this population. This is a qualitative study. Eight participants were interviewed for the case study, all of whom are current or former community college students who have declared a major in a STEM discipline. The semi-structured interviews were designed to help understand what community college counselors can do to better serve this population, and to encourage more students to pursue STEM majors and careers. Through the interviews, themes emerged to explain what counseling services are the most helpful. Successful STEM students benefited from counselors who showed empathy and support. Counselors who understood the intricacies of educational planning for STEM majors were considered the most efficacious. Counselors who could connect students with enrichment activities, such as internships, were highly valued, as were counseling

  10. The Deaf Mentoring Survey: A Community Cultural Wealth Framework for Measuring Mentoring Effectiveness with Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Derek C.; Gormally, Cara; Clark, M. Diane

    2017-01-01

    Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not…

  11. A pre-admission program for underrepresented minority and disadvantaged students: application, acceptance, graduation rates and timeliness of graduating from medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, G

    2000-04-01

    To determine whether students' performances in a pre-admission program predicted whether participants would (1) apply to medical school, (2) get accepted, and (3) graduate. Using prospectively collected data from participants in the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Medical Education Development Program (MEDP) and data from the Association of American Colleges Student and Applicant Information Management System, the author identified 371 underrepresented minority (URM) students who were full-time participants and completed the program between 1984 and 1989, prior to their acceptance into medical school. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether MEDP performance significantly predicted (after statistically controlling for traditional predictors of these outcomes) the proportions of URM participants who applied to medical school and were accepted, the timeliness of graduating, and the proportion graduating. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the associations between the independent and outcome variables. In separate logistic regression models, MEDP performance predicted the study's outcomes after statistically controlling for traditional predictors with 95% confidence intervals. Pre-admission programs with similar outcomes can improve the diversity of the physician workforce and the access to health care for underrepresented minority and economically disadvantaged populations.

  12. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Figueroa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM. This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments.

  13. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  14. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  15. Area Health Education Center (AHEC) programs for rural and underrepresented minority students in the Alabama Black Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashruta; Knox, Regina J; Logan, Alicia; Summerville, Katie

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluated the implementation West Central Alabama Area Health Education Center programs for high school students in grades 9-12 through participant-reported evaluations and feedback during the  September 1st, 2013 to August 31st, 2014 fiscal year. The programs targeted racial/ethnic minorities and/or rural individuals interested in pursuing a career as a healthcare provider in medically underserved counties of Alabama. Students participated in enrichment activities related to prospective health careers that included: successful college preparedness, knowledge about health careers, and the types of primary care health professions that are needed in underserved Alabama communities. The curriculum studied 593 (ACT preparation: n  = 172, AHEC 101: n  = 56, FAFSA: n  = 109, Health Career Exploration: n  = 159, College Career Readiness: n  = 67, Dixie Scholars NERD: n  = 30) baseline measures for the programs to evaluate effectiveness when rated by participants both quantitatively and qualitatively. Interactive activities with video incorporation, hands-on experiences, and group discussions paired with student motivation and interest in specific health career-related activities provided the highest program ratings. It is important to use a variety of successful program strategies when forming healthcare workforce development interventions. Student evaluations can help adapt methods for future program implementation to ultimately achieve strategies for health professional recruitment, training, and retention in areas that lack access to quality healthcare.

  16. Clinical Trials Shed Light on Minority Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities. OMH project manager Christine Merenda, M.P.H., R.N. explains ... are disproportionately affected by diabetes. But historically, both women and minorities have been under-represented in clinical ...

  17. Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Maria

    2005-10-01

    Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

  18. Mentoring Through Research as a Catalyst for the Success of Under-represented Minority Students in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K.; Simila, G.; Pedone, V.; Yule, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Catalyst Program of the Department of Geological Sciences at California State University Northridge has been developed by four faculty members who were the recipients of a three-year award (2002-2005) from the National Science Foundation. The goal of the program is to increase minority participation and success in the geosciences. The program seeks to enrich the educational experience by introducing students at all levels (individual and team) to research in the geosciences (such as data analysis for earthquake hazards for 1994 Northridge event, paleoseismology of San Andreas fault, Waipaoa, New Zealand sedimentary system and provenance studies, and the Barstow formation geochronology and geochemistry), and to decrease obstacles that affect academic success. Both these goals are largely achieved by the formation of integrated high school, undergraduate, and graduate research groups, which also provide fulfilling and successful peer mentorship. New participants first complete a specially designed course that introduces them to peer-mentoring, collaborative learning (think-pair share), and research on geological data sets. Students of all experience levels then become members of research teams and conduct four mini-projects and associated poster presentations, which deepens academic and research skills as well as peer-mentor relationships. This initial research experience has been very beneficial for the student's degree requirements of a senior research project and oral presentation. Evaluation strategies include the student research course presentations, summer field projects, and external review of student experiences. The Catalyst Program provides significant financial support to participants to allow them to focus their time on their education. A component of peer-tutoring has been implemented for promoting additional student success. The program has been highly successful in its two year development. To date, undergraduates and graduate students have

  19. Why Are Women Underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender Differences in Stereotypes, Self-Efficacy, Values, and Interests and Predictors of Future CS Course-Taking and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their…

  20. John Wheatley Award Talk: Promoting Under-Represented Physicists in Asian and Arab Countries and Muslim Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana

    2013-04-01

    Physics fascinates people's minds regardless of their geographic location. Often the best students choose the challending profession of physics. Physicists in developing countries in Asia and Arab countries work mostly on their own with limited resources or external collaboration and some do extraordinarily well. However, these dedicated individuals need the support and interactive modalities with their fellow physicists, particularly from developed countries, for coherent and rapid advances in knowledge, discoveries and inventions. My main objective is to promote and motivate physics education and research in developing and Arab countries to a level of excellence commensurate with that at U.S. institutions, and to facilitate connection through the strong network of APS. I have developed a general STEM based program. Another focus of this initiative is the very weak community of Muslim women in science, who have have remained behind owing to surrounding circumstances. To encourage them in scientific professions, and to enable them to nurture their intellectuality, we have formed a network called the International Society of Muslim Women in Science. It now has 85 enthusiastic and aspiring members from 21 countries. I will discuss these and the special needs of the these under-represented scientists, and how APS might lend them its valuable support.

  1. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  2. Why Are Women Underrepresented in Elite Colleges and Universities? A Non-Linear Decomposition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielby, Rob; Posselt, Julie Renee; Jaquette, Ozan; Bastedo, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging female advantage in education has received considerable attention in the popular media and recent research. We examine a persistent exception to this trend: women's underrepresentation in America's most competitive colleges and universities. Using nationally generalizable data spanning four decades, we evaluate evidence for…

  3. Community College Organizational Climate for Minorities and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issues of what would constitute a positive organizational climate for women and minorities within the community college setting and ways in which such a climate might be achieved. It first describes some traditional or standard measures of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities and then evaluates how…

  4. Perceptions of the Workplace: Focus on Minority Women Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined workplace satisfaction, decision making and institutional participation of minority women faculty. Findings suggest minority women are somewhat satisfied with certain dimensions of the workplace but do perceive themselves to be excluded from institutional contexts that would promote their professional advancement. (BF)

  5. Gender disparity among US anaesthesiologists: are women underrepresented in academic ranks and scholarly productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkova, A A; Svider, P F; Chang, C Y; Diaz, L; Eloy, J A; Eloy, J D

    2013-09-01

    The h-index is an objective indicator of research productivity and influence on scholarly discourse within a discipline. It may be a valuable adjunct for measuring research productivity, a key component in decisions regarding appointment and promotion in academic medicine. The objectives of this analysis were to (1) examine whether there are gender disparities in research productivity among academic anaesthesiologists, and (2) compare results to measures of research productivity in other specialties. A bibliometric analysis of faculty members from 25 academic anaesthesiology departments was performed using the Scopus database. Academic anaesthesiologists were organised by academic rank and gender. The h-index and publication range (in years) of faculty members were calculated. Male anaesthesiologists had higher research productivity, as measured by the h-index, than female colleagues. Organised by rank, this difference was noted only among full professors. Men had higher overall and early-career research productivity, while women had mid-career research productivity rates equivalent to and surpassing that of their male colleagues. Gender disparities in research productivity were also noted among a sample of academic physicians in other specialties. While men had higher overall research productivity, women had equivalent or higher mid-career research output, suggesting that early-career considerations unique to women should be taken into account during appointment and promotion in academic anaesthesiology. While disparities in gender representation among anaesthesiologists have also been noted in Europe, further study as to whether these differences also extend to research productivity and academic promotion outside of the US would be of interest. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Women are underrepresented in computational biology: An analysis of the scholarly literature in biology, computer science and computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Kevin S; Stefan, Melanie I

    2017-10-01

    While women are generally underrepresented in STEM fields, there are noticeable differences between fields. For instance, the gender ratio in biology is more balanced than in computer science. We were interested in how this difference is reflected in the interdisciplinary field of computational/quantitative biology. To this end, we examined the proportion of female authors in publications from the PubMed and arXiv databases. There are fewer female authors on research papers in computational biology, as compared to biology in general. This is true across authorship position, year, and journal impact factor. A comparison with arXiv shows that quantitative biology papers have a higher ratio of female authors than computer science papers, placing computational biology in between its two parent fields in terms of gender representation. Both in biology and in computational biology, a female last author increases the probability of other authors on the paper being female, pointing to a potential role of female PIs in influencing the gender balance.

  7. Women are underrepresented in computational biology: An analysis of the scholarly literature in biology, computer science and computational biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S Bonham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While women are generally underrepresented in STEM fields, there are noticeable differences between fields. For instance, the gender ratio in biology is more balanced than in computer science. We were interested in how this difference is reflected in the interdisciplinary field of computational/quantitative biology. To this end, we examined the proportion of female authors in publications from the PubMed and arXiv databases. There are fewer female authors on research papers in computational biology, as compared to biology in general. This is true across authorship position, year, and journal impact factor. A comparison with arXiv shows that quantitative biology papers have a higher ratio of female authors than computer science papers, placing computational biology in between its two parent fields in terms of gender representation. Both in biology and in computational biology, a female last author increases the probability of other authors on the paper being female, pointing to a potential role of female PIs in influencing the gender balance.

  8. Fostering Under-represented Minority Student Success and Interest in the Geosciences: Outcomes of the UNC-Chapel Hill Increasing Diversity and Enhancing Academia (IDEA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M. H.; Gray, K.; Drostin, M.

    2016-12-01

    For under-represented minority (URM) students, opportunities to meaningfully participate in academic communities and develop supportive relationships with faculty and peers influence persistence in STEM majors (Figueroa, Hurtado, & Wilkins, 2015; PCAST, 2012; Tsui, 2007). Creating such opportunities is even more important in the geosciences, where a lower percentage of post-secondary degrees are awarded to URM students than in other STEM fields (NSF, 2015; O'Connell & Holmes, 2011; NSF, 2011). Since 2011, Increasing Diversity and Enhancing Academia (IDEA), a program of the UNC-Chapel Hill Institute for the Environment (UNC-IE), has provided 39 undergraduates (predominantly URM and female students) with career-relevant research experiences and professional development opportunities, including a culminating experience of presenting their research at a campus-wide research symposium. External evaluation data have helped to characterize the effectiveness of the IDEA program. These data included pre- and post-surveys assessing students' interest in geosciences, knowledge of career pathways, and perceptions of their abilities related to a specific set of scientific research skills. Additionally, progress towards degrees and dissemination outcomes were tracked. In this presentation, we will share quantitative and qualitative data that demonstrate that participation in the IDEA program has influenced students' interest and persistence in geosciences research and careers. These data range from self-reported competencies in a variety of scientific skills (such as organizing and interpreting data and reading and interpreting science literature) to documentation of student participation in geoscience study and professions. About 69% of participants continued research begun during their internships beyond the internship; and about 38% pursued graduate degrees and secured jobs in geoscience and other STEM fields. (Nearly half are still in school.) Overall, these evaluation data

  9. Characteristics of health professions schools, public school systems, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the numbers of underrepresented minority students entering health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, Jan D; Patterson, Davis G

    2003-05-01

    To identify characteristics of health professions schools, public schools, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the number of underrepresented minority students entering health professions. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation funded the Health Professions Partnership Initiative program developed from Project 3000 by 2000 of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Semi-structured interviews were completed with awardees and representatives of the funding agencies, the national program office, and the national advisory committee between the fall of 2000 and the summer of 2002. Site visits were conducted at ten sites, with representatives of partner institutions, teachers, parents, and children. Characteristics that supported and hindered development of successful partnerships were identified using an iterative qualitative approach. Successful partnerships included professional schools that had a commitment to community service. Successful leaders could work in both cultures of the professional and public schools. Attitudes of respect and listening to the needs of partners were essential. Public school governance supported innovation. Happenstance and convergence of interests played significant roles in partnership development. The most telling statement was "We did it, together." This study identifies characteristics associated with smoothly working partnerships, and barriers to successful program development. Successful partnerships can form the basis on which educational interventions are built. The study is limited by the definition of success used, and its focus on one funded program. The authors were unable to identify outcomes in terms of numbers of children influenced by programs or instances in which lasting changes in health professions schools had occurred.

  10. The Importance of MS PHD'S and SEEDS Mentoring and Professional Development Programs in the Retenion of Underrepresented Minorities in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.

    2012-12-01

    According to a recent study by the National Academy of Sciences, underrepresented minority (URM) participation in STEM disciplines represents approximately one third of the URM population in the U.S. Thus, the proportion of URM in STEM disciplines would need to triple in order to reflect the demographic makeup in the U.S. Individual programs targeting the recruitment and retention of URM students in STEM have demonstrated that principles of mentoring, community building, networking, and professional skill development are crucial in encouraging URM students to remain in STEM disciplines thereby reducing this disparity in representation. However, to paraphrase an old African proverb, "it takes a village to nurture and develop a URM student entering into the STEM community." Through programs such as the Institute for Broadening Participation's Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science and the Ecological Society of America's Strategies for Ecology Education, Diversity and Sustainability (SEEDS), URM students are successfully identifying and benefitting from meaningful opportunities to develop the professional skills and strategies needed to achieve their academic and career goals. Both programs share a philosophy of professional development, reciprocal mentoring, field trips, internships, employment, research partnerships, collaborations, fellowships, scholarships, grants, and professional meeting travel awards to support URM student retention in STEM. Both programs share a mission to bring more diversity and inclusivity into STEM fields. Both programs share a history of success at facilitating the preparation and advancement of URM students. This success has been documented with the multitude of URM students that have matriculated through the programs and are now actively engaged in the pursuit of advanced degrees in STEM or entering the STEM workforce. Anonymous surveys from

  11. Sexual minority women's gender identity and expression: challenges and supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G

    2012-01-01

    Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  12. The impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M

    2011-04-01

    We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White) completed a questionnaire assessing gender expression, minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homophobia, and concealment), social-psychological resources (i.e., social support, spirituality), and health-related outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among these factors, with gender expression as an antecedent and social-psychological resources as a mediator between minority stress and health. The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ²(79) = 414.00, p accounting for significant portions of the variance in mental health problems (56%) and substance use (14%), as well as the mediator social-psychological resources (24%). Beyond indirect effects of minority stress on health outcomes, direct links emerged between victimization and substance use and between internalized homophobia and substance use. Findings indicate a significant impact of minority stressors and social-psychological resources on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. The results improve understanding of the distinct role of various minority stressors and their mechanisms on health outcomes. Health care professionals should assess for minority stress and coping resources and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Disciplines: A Cross Institutional Analysis of their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Tanya

    Considering the importance of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) research workforce for our country's future, it is troubling that many underrepresented racial minority (URM) students start graduate STEM programs, but do not finish. However, some institutional contexts better position students for degree completion than others. The purpose of this study was to uncover the academic and social experiences, power dynamics, and programmatic/institutional structures URM students face within their graduate STEM programs that hinder or support degree progression. Using a critical socialization framework applied in a cross-comparative qualitative study, I focused on how issues of race, ethnicity, and underrepresentation within the educational contexts shape students' experiences. Data was collected from focus group interviews involving 53 URM graduate students pursuing STEM disciplines across three institution types -- a Predominately White Institution, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, and a Historically Black University. Results demonstrate that when students' relationships with faculty advisors were characterized by benign neglect, students felt lost, wasted time and energy making avoidable mistakes, had less positive views of their experiences, and had more difficulty progressing through classes or research, which could cause them to delay time to degree completion or to leave with a master's degree. Conversely, faculty empowered students when they helped them navigate difficult processes/milestones with regular check-ins, but also allowed students room to make decisions and solve problems independently. Further, faculty set the tone for the overall interactional culture and helping behavior in the classroom and lab contexts; where faculty modeled collaboration and concern for students, peers were likely to do the same. International peers sometimes excluded domestic students both socially and academically, which had a negative affect on

  14. 75 FR 1289 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... women; and (3) A significant percentage of senior management positions of which are held by women. Sec... populations to establish or enhance financial literacy programs and provide mentoring. (d) EEO program...

  15. Entrepreneurial Education: A Realistic Alternative for Women and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, James F.; Boyd, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    Entrepreneurial education is a valid, realistic occupational training alternative for minorities and women in business. Entrepreneurship requires that one become involved with those educational programs that contribute significantly to one's success. (Author)

  16. Teenage births to ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, R

    2001-01-01

    This article analyses British age-specific fertility rates by ethnic group, with a special interest in child-bearing by women below the age of 20. Birth statistics are not analysed by ethnic group, and teenage birth rates have been estimated from the dates of birth of mothers and children in the Labour Force Survey. The method appears to be robust. Caribbean, Pakistani and especially Bangladeshi women were much more likely to have been teenage mothers than white women, but Indian women were below the national average. Teenage birth rates have been falling in all three South Asian communities.

  17. Feminist Therapy with Ethnic Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Jindra A.; Cairns, Kathleen V.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that feminist assumptions about nature, process, and goals of therapy make feminist counseling particularly effective approach for women from diverse racial and cultural backgrounds. Considers feminist interpretation of women's problems from social, political, and economic perspectives to be particularly relevant to experiences and…

  18. The social atlas of women from ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; Ans Merens

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Sociale atlas van vrouwen uit etnische minderheden. The Social atlas of women from ethnic minorities (Sociale atlas van vrouwen uit etnische minderheden) offers a look in breadth and depth at the social position and participation of these women. The themes covered

  19. Obesity in minority women: calories, commerce, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Sharon T

    2009-06-01

    Obesity is increasing at epidemic rates in all women, but especially in minority women and children. Factors that contribute to this include changes in caloric intake and expenditure (calories), cost and ease of acquiring food along with pressures from the marketplace and media (commerce) and the community response to the increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle (culture).

  20. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-12-22

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms.

  1. Commission release recommendations for attracting more women, minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Air Force Colonel Eileen Collins, the first woman to command a U.S. Space Shuttle mission, tries to encourage and inspire young women and minorities to follow their dreams of becoming scientists, engineers, and technicians.“I like to tell young women that there have been 12 men who have walked on the Moon, but not yet one woman, and you could be the first,” Collins, who is a member of the Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering, and Technology Development (CAWMSET), said at a July 13 hearing of the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Technology reviewing the commission's recommendations. Collins said she tells young women, “No one has walked on Mars, and you could be that person.”

  2. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457

  3. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-09-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities.

  4. Science Lives: Women and Minorities in the Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. KUOM Radio.

    This pamphlet and accompanying brochure of the same title describe a radio series of 13 half hour programs on the participation of women and minorities in science in the United States. The series attempts to make the public aware of the crisis in the sciences and science education and provides role models for young people, particularly young women…

  5. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  6. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  7. Why are women underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender differences in stereotypes, self-efficacy, values, and interests and predictors of future CS course-taking and grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their first CS course, they had a stronger intention to take another CS course. A subset of 128 students (68 females and 60 males) took a CS course up to one year later. Students who were interested in CS, had high computer self-efficacy, were low in family orientation, low in conscientiousness, and low in openness to experiences were more likely to take CS courses. Furthermore, individuals who were highly conscientious and low in relational-interdependent self-construal earned the highest CS grades. Efforts to improve women's representation in CS should bear these results in mind.

  8. Older Ethnic Minority Women's Perceptions of Stroke Prevention and Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivy; Bharmal, Nazleen; Choi, Sarah; Araiza, Daniel; Moore, Mignon R; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    To inform the development of a tailored behavioral stroke risk reduction intervention for ethnic minority seniors, we sought to explore gender differences in perceptions of stroke prevention and physical activity (walking). In collaboration with community-based organizations, we conducted 12 mixed-gender focus groups of African American, Latino, Chinese, and Korean seniors aged 60 years and older with a history of hypertension (89 women and 42 men). Transcripts were coded and recurring topics compared by gender. Women expressed beliefs that differed from men in 4 topic areas: 1) stroke-related interest, 2) barriers to walking, 3) facilitators to walking, and 4) health behavior change attitudes. Compared with men, women were more interested in their role in response to a stroke and post-stroke care. Women described walking as an acceptable form of exercise, but cited neighborhood safety and pain as walking barriers. Fear of nursing home placement and weight loss were identified as walking facilitators. Women were more prone than men to express active/control attitudes toward health behavior change. Older ethnic minority women, a high-risk population for stroke, may be more receptive to behavioral interventions that address the gender-specific themes identified by this study. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Youth Engagement through Science (YES!) - Engaging Underrepresented Minorities in Science through High School Internships at the National Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G.; Cruz, E.; Selvans, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Smithsonian's Youth Engagement through Science (YES!) program at the National Museum of Natural History gives young people from the Washington, D.C. area the opportunity to engage in science out of school through 16-week internships. We will present the program's successful strategies and lessons learned around recruiting and engaging young people from underserved communities, and maintaining relationships that help to support their pursuit of STEM and other career paths. The YES! program connects Smithsonian collections, experts, and training with local DC youth from communities traditionally underrepresented in science careers. YES! is now in its fifth year and has directly served 122 students; demographics of alumni are 67% female, and 51% Latino, 31% African-American, 7% Asian, 5% Caucasian and 6% other. The program immerses students in science research by giving them the opportunity to work side-by-side with scientists and staff from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Gardens, and National Zoo. In addition to working on a research project, students have college preparatory courses, are trained in science communication, and apply their skills by interacting with the public on the exhibit floor.

  10. Eating disorders symptoms in sexual minority women: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguzzo, Paolo; Collantoni, Enrico; Gallicchio, Davide; Busetto, Paolo; Solmi, Marco; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2018-07-01

    Although the literature consistently shows increased levels of psychological distress in the gay population, less evidence-and with contrasting findings-is available with regard to lesbian women. The aim of the present study is to review the literature in the eating disorders (EDs) field in order to provide further data on the frequency of EDs symptoms in sexual minority women. A systematic review of the studies identified by electronic database search (PubMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar) up to August 2017. Fourty-five studies were found, conducted on 372,256 women. Only 7 studies investigated patients with lifetime diagnosis of ED. As for the symptomatology of EDs, 39 studies were found, which presented huge differences in the scales used for the assessment (e.g., Eating Disorders Inventory and Eating Attitudes Test-26). A higher number of diagnoses of EDs were found in sexual minority women, with a symptomatology characterized by higher occurrence of binge eating and purging, as well as lower body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, compared with heterosexual peers. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Programs for attracting under-represented minority students to graduate school and research careers in computational science. Final report for period October 1, 1995 - September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, James C. Jr.; Mason, Thomas; Guerrieri, Bruno

    1997-10-01

    Programs have been established at Florida A & M University to attract minority students to research careers in mathematics and computational science. The primary goal of the program was to increase the number of such students studying computational science via an interactive multimedia learning environment One mechanism used for meeting this goal was the development of educational modules. This academic year program established within the mathematics department at Florida A&M University, introduced students to computational science projects using high-performance computers. Additional activities were conducted during the summer, these included workshops, meetings, and lectures. Through the exposure provided by this program to scientific ideas and research in computational science, it is likely that their successful applications of tools from this interdisciplinary field will be high.

  12. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two gro...

  13. Barriers to cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, L.; Waller, J.; Wardle, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women are less likely to attend cervical screening. Aim To explore self-perceived barriers to cervical screening attendance among ethnic minority women compared to white British women. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Community groups in ethnically diverse London boroughs. Methods Interviews were carried out with 43 women from a range of ethnic minority backgrounds (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, Black British, Black other, White othe...

  14. Mentoring Through Research as a Catalyst for the Success of Under-represented Minority Students in the Geosciences at California State University Northridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Pedone, V.; Simila, G. W.; Yule, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    The Catalyst Program of the Department of Geological Sciences at California State University Northridge has been developed by four faculty members who were the recipients of a three-year award (2002-2005) from the National Science Foundation. The goal of the program is to increase minority participation and success in the geosciences. The program seeks to enrich the educational experience by introducing students at all levels to research in the geosciences and to decrease obstacles that affect academic success. Both these goals are largely achieved by the formation of integrated high school, undergraduate, and graduate research groups, which also provide fulfilling and successful peer mentorship. The Catalyst Program provides significant financial support to participants to allow them to focus their time on their education. New participants first complete a specially designed course that introduces them to peer-mentoring, collaborative learning, and geological research. Students of all experience levels then become members of research teams, which deepens academic and research skills as well as peer-mentor relationships. The program was highly successful in its inaugural year. To date, undergraduates and graduate students in the program coauthored six abstracts at professional meetings and one conference paper. High-school students gained first hand experience of a college course and geologic research. Perhaps the most important impacts of the program are the close camaraderie that has developed and the increased ability of the Catalyst students to plan and execute research with greater confidence and self-esteem.

  15. Pipelines and Dead Ends: Jobs Held by Minorities and Women in Broadcast News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Vernon A.

    Because of the problem of lack of progress by minorities and women in the newsrooms of television and radio stations, a survey investigated the types of positions held by minority and non-minority men and women in broadcast news. Subjects, 730 news directors from non-satellite commercial TV stations and commercial radio stations, answered…

  16. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 3, report for 2008-2009 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Support made scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and significantly increased : the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering programs. R...

  17. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 2 report for 2007-2008 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  18. 12 CFR 361.1 - Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why do minority- and women-owned businesses....1 Why do minority- and women-owned businesses need this outreach regulation? The purpose of the FDIC Minority and Women Outreach Program (MWOP) is to ensure that minority- and women-owned businesses (MWOBs...

  19. 77 FR 50454 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulations; Contract Clause on Minority and Women...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., requires that a contractor make good faith efforts to include minorities and women in its workforce. This... termination, against a contractor who fails to make good faith efforts to include minorities and women in its workforce. Treasury interprets ``good faith efforts'' to mean efforts consistent with the Equal Protection...

  20. Long Term Benefits for Women in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Living-Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Christopher; Horton, Marjorie; Morgan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) degrees provide opportunities for economic mobility. Yet women, underrepresented minority (URM), and first-generation college students remain disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. This study examined the effectiveness of a living-learning community (LLC) for URM and first-generation…

  1. Underrepresentation of Women and Minorities in the United States IR Academic Physician Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mikhail C S S; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Richard, Chase; Chapman, Christina H; Laporte, Angelique; Both, Stefan; Thomas, Charles R; Deville, Curtiland

    2016-12-01

    To assess the United States interventional radiology (IR) academic physician workforce diversity and comparative specialties. Public registries were used to assess demographic differences among 2012 IR faculty and fellows, diagnostic radiology (DR) faculty and residents, DR subspecialty fellows (pediatric, abdominal, neuroradiology, and musculoskeletal), vascular surgery and interventional cardiology trainees, and 2010 US medical school graduates and US Census using binomial tests with .001 significance level (Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons). Significant trends in IR physician representation were evaluated from 1992 to 2012. Women (15.4%), blacks (2.0%), and Hispanics (6.2%) were significantly underrepresented as IR fellows compared with the US population. Women were underrepresented as IR (7.3%) versus DR (27.8%) faculty and IR fellows (15.4%) versus medical school graduates (48.3%), DR residents (27.8%), pediatric radiology fellows (49.4%), and vascular surgery trainees (27.7%) (all P < .001). IR ranked last in female representation among radiologic subspecialty fellows. Blacks (1.8%, 2.1%, respectively, for IR faculty and fellows); Hispanics (1.8%, 6.2%); and combined American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (1.8%, 0) showed no significant differences in representation as IR fellows compared with IR faculty, DR residents, other DR fellows, or interventional cardiology or vascular surgery trainees. Over 20 years, there was no significant increase in female or black representation as IR fellows or faculty. Women, blacks, and Hispanics are underrepresented in the IR academic physician workforce relative to the US population. Given prevalent health care disparities and an increasingly diverse society, research and training efforts should address IR physician workforce diversity. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an immigrant background : The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Diana D.; Saharso, Sawitri

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had

  3. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an Immigrant background: The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, D.D.; Saharso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had

  4. Predictors of feminist activism among sexual-minority and heterosexual college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity.

  5. Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Women's Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly K.; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an…

  6. Barriers to cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Ethnic minority women are less likely to attend cervical screening. To explore self-perceived barriers to cervical screening attendance among ethnic minority women compared to white British women. Qualitative interview study. Community groups in ethnically diverse London boroughs. Interviews were carried out with 43 women from a range of ethnic minority backgrounds (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, Black British, Black other, White other) and 11 White British women. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework analysis. Fifteen women had delayed screening/had never been screened. Ethnic minority women felt that there was a lack of awareness about cervical cancer in their community, and several did not recognise the terms 'cervical screening' or 'smear test'. Barriers to cervical screening raised by all women were emotional (fear, embarrassment, shame), practical (lack of time) and cognitive (low perceived risk, absence of symptoms). Emotional barriers seemed to be more prominent among Asian women. Low perceived risk of cervical cancer was influenced by beliefs about having sex outside of marriage and some women felt a diagnosis of cervical cancer might be considered shameful. Negative experiences were well remembered by all women and could be a barrier to repeat attendance. Emotional barriers (fear, embarrassment and anticipated shame) and low perceived risk might contribute to explaining lower cervical screening coverage for some ethnic groups. Interventions to improve knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer are needed in ethnic minority communities, and investment in training for health professionals may improve experiences and encourage repeat attendance for all women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Gender, Entrepreneurship and Minority Groups Surinamese Women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); C. Kotte (Chantal)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAim of the Project: (a) To study the experiences and best practices of successful women entrepreneurs from the Surinamese community (b) To examine the methods these women used to develop their enterprises, the challenges they faced and how they coped with them (c) To identify key

  8. Self-Sustaining Ethnic Minority Women: Constructing Their Identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pio, E.; Essers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Embraced by their ethnicity and gender many migrant women have negotiated their own spaces in the host country. Yet, much of the literature on migrant women focuses on those who are struggling to make ends meet with low levels of education and how this defines the construction of the Other. We

  9. An ecological framework for sexual minority women's health: factors associated with greater body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michele J; Fogel, Sarah C

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many studies have focused on the body of sexual minority women, particularly emphasizing their larger size. These studies rarely offer theoretically based explanations for the increased weight, nor study the potential consequences (or lack thereof) of being heavier. This article provides a brief overview of the multitude of factors that might cause or contribute to larger size of sexual minority women, using an ecological framework that elucidates upstream social determinants of health as well as individual risk factors. This model is infused with a minority stress model, which hypothesizes excess strain resulting from the stigma associated with oppressed minority identities such as woman, lesbian, bisexual, woman of color, and others. We argue that lack of attention to the upstream social determinants of health may result in individual-level victim blaming and interventions that do not address the root causes of minority stress or increased weight.

  10. Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

  11. "I don't care about you as a person": Sexual minority women objectified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, Elliot A; Moradi, Bonnie; Connelly, Kathleen E; Lenzen, Alexandra L; Flores, Mirella

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates sexual minority women's experiences of objectification in the United States. Data from 5 focus groups with 33 sexual minority women were analyzed using thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006, 2012). Results revealed 6 themes and 34 subthemes grouped into "manifestations of objectification: general and explicit intersections," "immediate context of relational and situational characteristics," and "broader context of oppression and privilege along gender and sexualities." First, sexual minority women's experiences of objectification included both general manifestations described in prior research with heterosexual women and manifestations of objectification that reflected intersections of systems of inequality based on sexual orientation, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, and age. Second, participants identified novel relational and situational characteristics of objectification. Finally, participants included experiences of stereotyping, discrimination, and dehumanization in their conceptualizations of objectification, connecting their experiences of objectification with broader dynamics of power related to gender and sexuality. Centralizing sexual minority women's experiences, this study produced a fuller understanding of objectification experiences in general and of sexual minority women's experiences in particular. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Raising the "glass ceiling" for ethnic minority women in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Johnston, G

    1999-01-01

    Ethnic minority women are well represented in the work force and in the health care system in general, but do not have a similar level of representation in the management sector. This paper explores three strategies for schools of health administration to consider to lessen the effect of a "glass ceiling" that may be encountered by ethnic minority women aspiring to positions of leadership in health services agencies. These strategies are advancing affirmative action, valuing ethnic women in health administration education, and investigating diversity management. Inherent in each of the three strategies is the need for acknowledgment and more open discussion of the "glass ceiling." Problem-solving in relation to the potential for systemic discrimination adversely affecting ethnic minority women in senior health care management positions, and greater study of the three strategies using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is also needed.

  13. Social support relationships for sexual minority women in Mumbai, India: a photo elicitation interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Mengle, Shruta; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Hensel, Devon; Herbenick, Debby; Anand, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    Little research exists on women who do not identify as heterosexual in India. Social support for sexual minority women may protect against the effects of discrimination. An examination of significant social relationships may point to both strengths and weaknesses in this support. We aimed to understand relationship prioritisation and communication patterns associated with the social support of sexual minority women in Mumbai. In partnership with the Humsafar Trust, India's oldest and largest sexual and gender minority-advocacy organisation, we conducted photo-elicitation interviews with 18 sexual minority women, using participants' photographs to prompt dialogue about their social support. Intimate partners were a source of dependable support and many of those without relationships were seeking them. Participants' extended networks included friends and family as well as less formal relationships of social support. Participants mediated their communication with particular social network members, which involved filtering information sexual identity, romantic interests, and personal aspirations, among others. The diverse relationships that sexual minority women have in their social support networks may be used to guide programmes to improve health outcomes.

  14. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  15. Women and Minorities in Engineering: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaril, Natasha J. A; Royal, Kenneth D.

    2008-01-01

    This review of the literature investigates the various factors identified by researchers to explain women's underrepresentation in the engineering field. Because a great deal of research has been published through the years, a compilation summary of existing research was necessary. This literature review utilized searches from thousands of…

  16. The major importance of 'minor' resources: Women and plant biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding women’s influence on plant biodiversity is essential to our ability to conserve plant genetic resources, especially those plants that are useful to humans. Contrary to previous thinking, it is becoming clear that women know most about these plants because, throughout history, women’s

  17. Minor ailments in pregnancy are not a minor concern for pregnant women: a morbidity assessment survey in rural Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Buddhika Agampodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although maternal mortality has become a major focus on global public health agenda, maternal morbidity is a neglected area of research. The purpose of this paper is to present the burden of acute maternal illness during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. Pregnant women residing in the Anuradhapura district with a gestational age more than 24 weeks through 36 weeks were recruited to the study using a two-stage cluster sampling technique. All pregnant women who consented participated in a detailed interview using a structured questionnaire. Self reported episodes of acute illness during pregnancy were the main outcome measures. Secondary outcomes were utilization of medical services and frequency of hospitalizations. RESULTS: Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP was experienced by 325 (69.7% of the 466 pregnant women studied. Other common symptoms were backache (152, 32.6%, dizziness (112, 24.0% and heartburn/regurgitation (107, 23.0%. Of the 421 pregnant women who reported ill health conditions 260 (61.8% women sought medical treatment for these illnesses. Total number of episodes that needed treatment seeking were 373. Hospitalizations were reported by 83 (17.8% pregnant women and the total number of hospitalizations was 109. The leading cause of hospitalization was NVP which accounted for 43.1% of total admissions and 49.1% of total days spent in hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Minor maternal ill health conditions affecting day-to-day life have a major burden on pregnancy period. Evidence based management guidelines and health promotion strategies are needed to control and prevent these conditions, in order to provide comprehensive, good quality maternal health care.

  18. Why does fertility remain high among certain UK-born ethnic minority women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Kulu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research has shown high total fertility among certain UK-born ethnic minorities, but the reasons behind their high fertility have remained far from clear. Some researchers attribute their elevated fertility levels to cultural factors, whereas others argue that high fertility is the consequence of their poor education and labour market prospects. Objective: This study investigates fertility among the descendants of immigrants in the UK and examines the determinants of high fertility among certain ethnic minority groups. Methods: We use data from the Understanding Society study and apply multivariate event history analysis. Results: The analysis shows, first, that relatively high second-, third-, and fourth-birth rates are responsible for the elevated total fertility among certain UK-born minorities, especially women of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin. There is little variation in the first-birth rates among natives and immigrant descendants. Second, although fertility differences between ethnic minorities and native British women slightly decrease once religiosity and number of siblings are controlled for, significant differences persist. We conclude that cultural factors account for some elevated fertility among ethnic groups in the UK, whereas the role of education and employment seem to be only minor. Contribution: Cultural factors account for some elevated fertility among ethnic minorities in the UK, whereas the role of education and employment seem to be negligible.

  19. Historical Research: How to Fit Minority and Women's Studies into Mathematics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraco, Margaret R.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lesson for studying minority and women's contributions to the field of mathematics in the middle school classroom. This lesson may be able to stem the tide of the shrinking number of students entering the field of mathematics by helping them become interested in its history. Nonetheless, this project encourages students to…

  20. Minority- and Women-Owned Business Programs for Local School Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestein, Frayda S.

    1994-01-01

    Many local and state governments have established programs to increase the number of government contracts awarded to minority- and women-owned business enterprises (M/WBEs). A question-answer format addresses concerns local school officials may have about North Carolina's M/WBE programs as they relate to school contracting. (MLF)

  1. Routes into the Mainstream: Career Choices of Women and Minorities. Occasional Paper No. 124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Sue E.

    Joint implications from five recent studies on occupational choice indicate that a more in-depth concentration on the occupational consistency or discontinuity of women and minorities will provide direction for future academic discipline and policy for this population. The discipline and policy process is potentially one of the most important…

  2. Minority Business Enterprise/Women's Business Enterprise (MBE/WBE) overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data base allows Minority Business Enterprise/Women's Business Enterprise (MBE/WBE) Coordinators to input fair share goals negotiated by EPA and the recipient. This system also provides to all users the ability to see recipient fair share goals.

  3. Contextual Factors in Education: Improving Science and Mathematics Education for Minorities and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael, Ed.; Griffin, Peg, Ed.

    This book summarizes research on the various ways that students' cultural backgrounds and innate ways of learning affect academic achievement. It also offers descriptions and recommendations for improving science and mathematics education for minorities and women, based on successful programs, that take these differences into account. The focus is…

  4. Examining Career Success of Minority and Women Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs): A LEADS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Dickison, Philip D.; Levine, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are a critical segment in prehospital medical care. This study examined EMT-paramedic career success focused on minorities and women, as part of the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). The LEADS data come from a representative sampling of EMTs throughout the…

  5. Evidence of Syndemics and Sexuality-Related Discrimination Among Young Sexual-Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Kinsky, Suzanne M; Herrick, Amy L; Stall, Ron D; Bauermeister, José A

    2015-09-01

    Syndemics, or the co-occurrence and interaction of health problems, have been examined extensively among young men who have sex with men, but their existence remain unexamined, to our knowledge, among sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) women. Thus, we investigated if syndemics were present among young sexual-minority women, and if sexual-orientation discrimination was an independent variable of syndemic production. A total of 467 sexual-minority women between the ages of 18 and 24 completed a cross-sectional online survey regarding their substance use, mental health, sexual behaviors, height, weight, and experiences of discrimination. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the presence of syndemics and their relationship to sexual-orientation discrimination. Heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, ecstasy use, hallucinogen use, depressive symptoms, multiple sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprised syndemics in this population (chi-square=24.989, P=.201; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.946; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.023). Sexual-orientation discrimination is significantly and positively associated with the latent syndemic variable (unstandardized coefficient=0.095, Pdiscrimination (unstandardized coefficient=0.602, P>.05). Syndemics appear to be present and associated with sexual-orientation discrimination among young sexual-minority women. Interventions aimed at reducing discrimination or increasing healthy coping may help reduce substance use, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors in this population.

  6. Understanding why women are under-represented in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM within Higher Education: a regional case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Christie

    Full Text Available Abstract Participation rates of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM is comparatively low and their attrition rates high. An obvious solution is to attract more women to study such subjects. In 2016 the authors undertook research to find out why so few women enrolled in STEM subjects and investigate ways of increasing their recruitment and retention in this area. The informants in our study were enrolled in a tertiary preparation course as well as nursing and education programs. A critique of the literature was used to develop a survey that informed focus group and interview schedules which were used in collecting data. Our study found that many of the factors that hindered women from applying for STEM courses twenty years ago still apply today and recommends actions that can help increase recruitment of women into STEM and assist their retention and graduation in those areas of tertiary education.

  7. Syndemic Factors Mediate the Relationship between Sexual Stigma and Depression among Sexual Minority Women and Gender Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Poteat, Tonia; Wagner, Anne C

    Stigma and discrimination contribute to elevated depression risks among sexual minority women (SMW) and gender minority (GM) people who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or queer. Syndemics theory posits that adverse psychosocial outcomes cluster to negatively impact health and mental health outcomes among sexual minorities. We tested whether a syndemic condition composed of low social support, low self-rated health, low self-esteem, and economic insecurity mediated the relationship between sexual stigma and depressive symptoms among SMW/GM. We implemented a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey with SMW and GM in Toronto, Canada. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to test a conceptual model of pathways between sexual stigma, syndemic factors, and depressive symptoms. A total of 391 SMW/GM with a mean age of 30.9 (SD = 7.62) were included in the analysis. The model fit for a latent syndemics construct consisting of psychosocial variables (low social support, low self-rated health, low self-esteem, economic insecurity) was very good (χ 2  = 6.022, df = 2, p = .049; comparative fit index = 0.973, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.918, root-mean square error of approximation = 0.072). In the simultaneous model, sexual stigma had a significant direct effect on depression. When the syndemic variable was added as a mediator, the direct path from sexual stigma to depression was no longer significant, suggesting mediation. The model fit the data well: χ2 = 33.50, df = 12, p = .001; comparative fit index = 0.951, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.915, root-mean square error of approximation = 0.068. Our results highlight the salience of considering both sexual stigma and syndemic factors to explain mental health disparities experienced by SMW and GM. Addressing sexual stigma in the context of co-occurring psychosocial factors and economic insecurity will be key to achieving optimal health for SMW and GM. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs

  8. UK-born ethnic minority women and their experiences of feeding their newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twamley, Katherine; Puthussery, Shuby; Harding, Seeromanie; Baron, Maurina; Macfarlane, Alison

    2011-10-01

    to explore the factors that impact on UK-born ethnic minority women's experiences of and decisions around feeding their infant. in-depth semi-structured interviews. 34 UK-born women of Black African, Black Caribbean, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Irish parentage and 30 health-care professionals. women and health-care professionals were recruited primarily from hospitals serving large numbers of ethnic minority women in London and Birmingham. despite being aware of the benefits of exclusive breast feeding, many women chose to feed their infant with formula. The main barriers to breast feeding were the perceived difficulties of breast feeding, a family preference for formula feed, and embarrassment about breast feeding in front of others. Reports from women of South Asian parentage, particularly those who lived with an extended family, suggested that their intentions to breast feed were compromised by the context of their family life. The lack of privacy in these households and grandparental pressure appeared to be key issues. Unlike other participants, Irish women reported an intention to feed their infant with formula before giving birth. The key facilitators to breast feeding were the self-confidence and determination of women and the supportive role of health-care professionals. these findings point to common but also culturally specific mechanisms that may hinder both the initiation and maintenance of breast feeding in UK-born ethnic minority women. They signal potential benefits from the inclusion of family members in breast-feeding support programmes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of civil union legislation on minority stress, depression, and hazardous drinking in a diverse sample of sexual-minority women: A quasi-natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hughes, Tonda L

    2016-11-01

    A small but growing body of research documents associations between structural forms of stigma (e.g., same-sex marriage bans) and sexual minority health. These studies, however, have focused on a limited number of outcomes and have not examined whether sociodemographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and education, influence the relationship between policy change and health among sexual minorities. To determine the effect of civil union legalization on sexual minority women's perceived discrimination, stigma consciousness, depressive symptoms, and four indicators of hazardous drinking (heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, alcohol dependence symptoms, adverse drinking consequences) and to evaluate whether such effects are moderated by race/ethnicity or education. During the third wave of data collection in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study (N = 517), Illinois passed the Religious Freedom Protection and Civil Union Act, legalizing civil unions in Illinois and resulting in a quasi-natural experiment wherein some participants were interviewed before and some after the new legislation. Generalized linear models and interactions were used to test the effects of the new legislation on stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depression, and hazardous drinking indicators. Interactions were used to assess whether the effects of policy change were moderated by race/ethnicity or education. Civil union legislation was associated with lower levels of stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and one indicator of hazardous drinking (adverse drinking consequences) for all sexual minority women. For several other outcomes, the benefits of this supportive social policy were largely concentrated among racial/ethnic minority women and women with lower levels of education. Results suggest that policies supportive of the civil rights of sexual minorities improve the health of all sexual minority women, and may be most

  10. Adherence to Mammography Screening Guidelines Among Transgender Persons and Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Whorms, Debra S; King, Dana S; Potter, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    We used retrospective (2012-2013) chart review to examine breast cancer screening among transgender persons and sexual minority women (n = 1263) attending an urban community health center in Massachusetts. Transgender were less likely than cisgender patients and bisexuals were less likely than heterosexuals and lesbians to adhere to mammography screening guidelines (respectively, adjusted odds ratios = 0.53 and 0.56; 95% confidence intervals = 0.31, 0.91 and 0.34, 0.92) after adjustment for sociodemographics. Enhanced cancer prevention outreach is needed among gender and sexual minorities.

  11. Exploring shame, guilt, and risky substance use among sexual minority men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequembourg, Amy L.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, internalized heterosexism, and problematic substance use among 389 gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women. Problematic alcohol and drug use were positively related to shame-proneness and negatively related to guilt-proneness. Bisexuals reported riskier substance use behaviors, lower levels of guilt-proneness, and higher levels of internalized heterosexism than gay men and lesbians. Furthermore, study findings indicated that shame and internalized heterosexism are related. Additional investigations of these associations would supplement current understanding of sexual minority stress and would advance the development of substance-related intervention and prevention efforts targeting sexual minorities. PMID:23469820

  12. Sexual Identity Mobility and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis of Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany; Talley, Amelia; Hughes, Tonda; Wilsnack, Sharon; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority identity (bisexual, lesbian) is a known risk factor for depression in women. This study examines a facet of minority stress prevalent among women—sexual identity mobility—as an identity-related contributor to higher levels of depressive symptoms. We used three waves of data from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study, a longitudinal study of sexual minority women (N = 306). Random effects OLS regression models were constructed to examine the effect of sexual-identity changes on depressive symptoms. We found that 25.6% of the sample reported a sexual-identity change between Wave I and Wave II, and 24.91% reported a sexual identity change between Waves II and III. Women who reported a change in sexual identity also reported more depressive symptoms subsequent to identity change. This effect was moderated by the number of years participants’ had reported their baseline identity and by whether the participant had initiated a romantic relationship with a male partner. PMID:27255306

  13. STEM Success: Perceptions of Women of Color at Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Nina Maria

    2017-01-01

    Women of color, particularly African-Americans and Hispanics, have a science, and engineering degree attainment rate of 11% whereas White women have a rate of 29%. Research has demonstrated that these underrepresented minorities experience various racial/ethnic and gender issues that impact their academic success in science, technology,…

  14. A tool for sexual minority mental health research: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a depressive symptom severity measure for sexual minority women in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Bass, Judith K; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam Thi Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    In a context with limited attention to mental health and prevalent sexual prejudice, valid measurements are a key first step to understanding the psychological suffering of sexual minority populations. We adapted the Patient Health Questionnaire as a depressive symptom severity measure for Vietnamese sexual minority women, ensuring its cultural relevance and suitability for internet-based research. Psychometric evaluation found that the scale is mostly unidimensional and has good convergent validity, good external construct validity, and excellent reliability. The sample's high endorsement of scale items emphasizes the need to study minority stress and mental health in this population.

  15. A Grounded Theory of Sexual Minority Women and Transgender Individuals' Social Justice Activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Whitney B; Hoover, Stephanie M; Morrow, Susan L

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial benefits of activism include increased empowerment, social connectedness, and resilience. Yet sexual minority women (SMW) and transgender individuals with multiple oppressed statuses and identities are especially prone to oppression-based experiences, even within minority activist communities. This study sought to develop an empirical model to explain the diverse meanings of social justice activism situated in SMW and transgender individuals' social identities, values, and experiences of oppression and privilege. Using a grounded theory design, 20 SMW and transgender individuals participated in initial, follow-up, and feedback interviews. The most frequent demographic identities were queer or bisexual, White, middle-class women with advanced degrees. The results indicated that social justice activism was intensely relational, replete with multiple benefits, yet rife with experiences of oppression from within and outside of activist communities. The empirically derived model shows the complexity of SMW and transgender individuals' experiences, meanings, and benefits of social justice activism.

  16. Sexual minority status and violence among HIV infected and at-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyra, Maria; Weber, Kathleen; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; Murchison, Lynn; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Cohen, Mardge H

    2014-08-01

    Sexual minority women with and at-risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may face increased risks of violence. To understand the relationship between sexual minority status and violence; and how high-risk sex and substance use mediate that relationship among women with and at-risk for HIV. Longitudinal study of 1,235 HIV infected and 508 uninfected women of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) cohort, from New York City, NY, Chicago, IL, Washington D.C., and San Francisco, CA, 1994-2012. Primary exposures are sexual identity (heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) and sexual behavior (male, female, or male & female partners). Primary outcomes are sexual abuse, intimate partner violence (IPV) and physical violence; high-risk sex and substance use were examined as mediators. Bisexual women were at increased odds for sexual abuse [aOR 1.56 (1.00, 2.44)], IPV [aOR 1.50 (1.08, 2.09)], and physical violence [aOR 1.77 (1.33, 2.37)] compared to heterosexual women. In a separate analysis, women who reported sex with men and women (WSMW) had increased odds for sexual abuse [aOR 1.65 (0.99, 2.77], IPV [aOR 1.50 (1.09, 2.06)] and physical violence [aOR 2.24 (1.69, 2.98)] compared to women having sex only with men (WSM). Using indirect effects, multiple sex partners, cocaine and marijuana were significant mediators for most forms of abuse. Transactional sex was only a mediator for bisexual women. Women who reported sex only with women (WSW) had lower odds of sexual abuse [aOR 0.23 (0.06, 0.89)] and physical violence [aOR 0.42 (0.21, 0.85)] compared to WSM. Women who identify as bisexual or report both male and female sex partners are most vulnerable to violence; multiple recent sex partners, transactional sex and some types of substance use mediate this relationship. Acknowledging sexual identity and behavior, while addressing substance use and high-risk sex in clinical and psychosocial settings, may help reduce violence exposure among women with and at-risk for HIV.

  17. Contraceptive Use Effectiveness and Pregnancy Prevention Information Preferences Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt-Vinti, Heather D; Thompson, Erika L; Griner, Stacey B

    2018-04-14

    Previous research shows that sexual minority women have higher rates of unintended pregnancy than heterosexual women, but has not considered the wide range of contraceptive method effectiveness when exploring this disparity. We examine contraceptive use effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information among college women across sexual orientation identity as a risk factor for unintended pregnancy. Using the National College Health Assessment Fall-2015 dataset, restricted to women who reported engaging in vaginal sex and not wanting to be pregnant (N = 6,486), logistic regression models estimated the odds of contraceptive method effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information by sexual orientation. Most women (57%) reported using a moderately effective contraceptive method (e.g., pill, patch, ring, shot) at last vaginal sex. Compared with heterosexual women, bisexual (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.62), lesbian (aOR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.06), pansexual/queer (aOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.25-.56) and other (aOR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30-0.81) women were significantly less likely to have used a moderately effective method compared with no method. Only 9% of the sample used a highly effective method; asexual (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.92) and lesbian (aOR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03-0.20) women were significantly less likely than heterosexual women to have used these methods. Pansexual/queer and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to desire pregnancy prevention information. Several groups of sexual minority women were less likely than heterosexual women to use highly or moderately effective contraceptive methods, putting them at increased risk for unintended pregnancy, but desired pregnancy prevention information. These findings bring attention to the importance of patient-centered sexual and reproductive care to reduce unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published

  18. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  19. Narratives of Arab Anglophone Women and the Articulation of a Major Discourse in a Minor Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarnou Dalal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available “It is important to stress that a variety of positions with respect to feminism, nation, religion and identity are to be found in Anglophone Arab women’s writings. This being the case, it is doubtful whether, in discussing this literary production, much mileage is to be extracted from over emphasis of the notion of its being a conduit of ‘Third World subaltern women.’” (Nash 35 Building on Geoffrey Nash’s statement and reflecting on Deleuze and Guattari’s conceptualization of minor literature and Gloria Anzaldua’s Borderland(s, we will discuss in this paper how the writings of Arab Anglophone women are specific minor and borderland narratives within minor literature(s through a tentative (relocalization of Arab women’s English literature into distinct and various categories. By referring to various bestselling English works produced by Arab British and Arab American women authors, our aim is to establish a new taxonomy that may fit the specificity of these works

  20. A review of research on smoking behavior in three demographic groups of veterans: women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Esan, Hannah; Hunt, Marcia G; Hoff, Rani A

    2016-05-01

    Veterans comprise a large segment of the U.S. population and smoke at high rates. One significant way to reduce healthcare costs and improve the health of veterans is to reduce smoking-related illnesses for smokers who have high smoking rates and/or face disproportionate smoking consequences (e.g. women, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual orientation minorities). We reviewed published studies of smoking behavior in three demographic subgroups of veterans - women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities - to synthesize current knowledge and identify areas in need of more research. A MEDLINE search identified papers on smoking and veterans published through 31 December 2014. Twenty-five studies were identified that focused on gender (n = 17), race/ethnicity (n = 6), or sexual orientation (n = 2). Female and sexual orientation minority veterans reported higher rates of smoking than non-veteran women and sexual orientation majority veterans, respectively. Veterans appeared to be offered VA smoking cessation services equally by gender and race. Few studies examined smoking behavior by race/ethnicity or sexual orientation. Little information was identified examining the outcomes of specific smoking treatments for any group. There is a need for more research on all aspects of smoking and quit behavior for women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minority veterans. The high rates of smoking by these groups of veterans suggest that they may benefit from motivational interventions aimed at increasing quit attempts and longer and more intense treatments to maximize outcomes. Learning more about these veterans can help reduce costs for those who experience greater consequences of smoking.

  1. Association of Skin Cancer and Indoor Tanning in Sexual Minority Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansh, Matthew; Katz, Kenneth A; Linos, Eleni; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Arron, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer, the most common cancer in the United States, is highly associated with outdoor and indoor tanning behaviors. Although indoor tanning has been suggested to be more common among sexual minority (self-reported as homosexual, gay, or bisexual) men compared with heterosexual men, whether rates of skin cancer vary by sexual orientation is unknown. To investigate whether skin cancer prevalence and indoor tanning behaviors vary by sexual orientation in the general population. We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys (CHISs) and the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of population-based samples of the California and US noninstitutionalized civilian population. Participants included 192 575 men and women 18 years or older who identified as heterosexual or a sexual minority. Self-reported lifetime history of skin cancer and 12-month history of indoor tanning. The study included 78 487 heterosexual men, 3083 sexual minority men, 107 976 heterosexual women, and 3029 sexual minority women. Sexual minority men were more likely than heterosexual men to report having skin cancer (2001-2005 CHISs: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.18-2.06, P tanned indoors (2009 CHIS: aOR, 5.80; 95% CI, 2.90-11.60, P skin cancer (2001-2005 CHIS: aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37-0.86, P = .008) and having tanned indoors (2009 CHIS: aOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.92, P = .03; 2013 NHIS: aOR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81, P = .007). Sexual minority men indoor tan more frequently and report higher rates of skin cancer than heterosexual men. Primary and secondary prevention efforts targeted at sexual minority men might reduce risk factors for, and consequences of, skin cancer.

  2. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  3. The Double Bind: The Price of Being a Minority Woman in Science. Report of a Conference of Minority Women Scientists, Arlie House, Warrenton, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom, Shirley Mahaley; And Others

    This report summarizes a conference of thirty minority women in science, engineering, medicine, and dentistry that was held in December 1975, with the support of the National Science Foundation. In addition to a general discussion of the conference and the conferees, the following topics are discussed with respect to the experiences of the…

  4. Retention of underrepresented groups in corporate agribusinesses: Assessing the intentions of underrepresented groups to remain working for corporate agribusinesses

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Brielle Simone

    2014-01-01

    It is projected that the majority population will become the minority population by 2050. In order to serve the needs of an ethnically diverse U.S. population, corporate agribusinesses are encouraged to employ an ethnically diverse workforce. The purpose of this research was to understand how attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the workplace affects the intent of underrepresented groups to remain in working for their current corporate agribusiness. In current agr...

  5. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  6. Cardiovascular risk in minority and underserved women in Appalachian Tennessee: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera Lea

    2010-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to translate current knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors, screening, and prevention to a disparate population of women and to ascertain the cardiovascular health status and risk factors in a sample of minority and underserved Appalachian women. Demographic data were collected from a voluntary sample of women from a disparate population living in Appalachian Tennessee. A coronary risk profile recorded family health history, personal health history, and lifestyle habits affecting risk for cardiovascular disease. Physiologic measurements included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol levels, ankle brachial index, and carotid artery stenosis. Women in Appalachia Tennessee from a disparate population have high risks for heart disease and stroke. This is a critical time to address any modifiable risk factors and aggressively treat underlying cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Nurse practitioners (NPs) often provide primary care to women who may not be aware of their cardiovascular risks or actual disease. NPs can ensure that their practice incorporates primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention through screening, individual health education, and aggressive evidence-based treatment plans for women.

  7. Daily-level associations between PTSD and cannabis use among young sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Kaysen, Debra; Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M

    2017-11-01

    Sexual minority women have elevated trauma exposure and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to heterosexual women and they are also more likely to use cannabis, although no research has examined relationships between PTSD and cannabis use in this population. Daily-level methodologies are necessary to examine proximal associations between PTSD and use. This study included 90 trauma-exposed young adult women who identified as sexual minorities (34.4% identified as lesbian and 48.9% identified as bisexual) and evaluated daily-level associations between their PTSD symptoms and cannabis use. Participants were assessed at two measurement waves, one year apart, each consisting of 14 consecutive daily assessments. Cannabis use occurred on 22.8% of the days. Results from generalized linear mixed effects models showed that a person's mean level of PTSD symptom severity across days was strongly associated with same-day likelihood of cannabis use (OR=2.67 for 1 SD increase in PTSD score; p<0.001). However, daily deviation from one's average PTSD score was not associated with cannabis use on the same day. Findings suggest that PTSD severity may confer general risk for cannabis use, rather than being a state-dependent risk factor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Understanding Underrepresented Populations in the Business School Pipeline. GMAC® Research Report RR-16-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Rhonda; Caruthers, Devina

    2016-01-01

    This white paper, "Understanding Underrepresented Populations in the Business School Pipeline," examines the shifting US racial and ethnic demographics and projected growth among US minority populations and the challenges--and incentives--these developments pose for US business schools to increase the opportunities for minority students…

  9. Increasing persistence in undergraduate science majors: a model for institutional support of underrepresented students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toven-Lindsey, Brit; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Barber, Paul H; Hasson, Tama

    2015-01-01

    The 6-yr degree-completion rate of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at U.S. colleges and universities is less than 40%. Persistence among women and underrepresented minorities (URMs), including African-American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students, is even more troubling, as these students leave STEM majors at significantly higher rates than their non-URM peers. This study utilizes a matched comparison group design to examine the academic achievement and persistence of students enrolled in the Program for Excellence in Education and Research in the Sciences (PEERS), an academic support program at the University of California, Los Angeles, for first- and second-year science majors from underrepresented backgrounds. Results indicate that PEERS students, on average, earned higher grades in most "gatekeeper" chemistry and math courses, had a higher cumulative grade point average, completed more science courses, and persisted in a science major at significantly higher rates than the comparison group. With its holistic approach focused on academics, counseling, creating a supportive community, and exposure to research, the PEERS program serves as an excellent model for universities interested in and committed to improving persistence of underrepresented science majors and closing the achievement gap. © 2015 B. Toven-Lindsey et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Narratives of Arab Anglophone Women and the Articulation of a Major Discourse in a Minor Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sarnou Dalal

    2014-01-01

    “It is important to stress that a variety of positions with respect to feminism, nation, religion and identity are to be found in Anglophone Arab women’s writings. This being the case, it is doubtful whether, in discussing this literary production, much mileage is to be extracted from over emphasis of the notion of its being a conduit of ‘Third World subaltern women.’” (Nash 35) Building on Geoffrey Nash’s statement and reflecting on Deleuze and Guattari’s conceptualization of minor literatur...

  11. Maternal care and birth outcomes among ethnic minority women in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissler Mika

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care during pregnancy and labour is of great importance in every culture. Studies show that people of migrant origin have barriers to obtaining accessible and good quality care compared to people in the host society. The aim of this study is to compare the access to and use of maternity services, and their outcomes among ethnic minority women having a singleton birth in Finland. Methods The study is based on data from the Finnish Medical Birth Register in 1999–2001 linked with the information of Statistics Finland on woman's country of birth, citizenship and mother tongue. Our study data included 6,532 women of foreign origin (3.9% of all singletons giving singleton birth in Finland during 1999–2001 (compared to 158,469 Finnish origin singletons. Results Most women have migrated during the last fifteen years, mainly from Russia, Baltic countries, Somalia and East Europe. Migrant origin women participated substantially in prenatal care. Interventions performed or needed during pregnancy and childbirth varied between ethnic groups. Women of African and Somali origin had most health problems resulted in the highest perinatal mortality rates. Women from East Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Somalia had a significant risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age newborns. Most premature newborns were found among women from the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia. Primiparous women from Africa, Somalia and Latin America and Caribbean had most caesarean sections while newborns of Latin American origin had more interventions after birth. Conclusion Despite good general coverage of maternal care among migrant origin women, there were clear variations in the type of treatment given to them or needed by them. African origin women had the most health problems during pregnancy and childbirth and the worst perinatal outcomes indicating the urgent need of targeted preventive and special care. These study results

  12. Making the invisible visible: a systematic review of sexual minority women's health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Alexandra; Hughes, Tonda L

    2016-04-11

    Over the past two decades research on sexual and gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender; LGBT) health has highlighted substantial health disparities based on sexual orientation and gender identity in many parts of the world. We systematically reviewed the literature on sexual minority women's (SMW) health in Southern Africa, with the objective of identifying existing evidence and pointing out knowledge gaps around the health of this vulnerable group in this region. A systematic review of publications in English, French, Portuguese or German, indexed in PubMed or MEDLINE between the years 2000 and 2015, following PRISMA guidelines. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of identified studies. Search terms included (Lesbian OR bisexual OR "women who have sex with women"), (HIV OR depression OR "substance use" OR "substance abuse" OR "mental health" OR suicide OR anxiety OR cancer), and geographical specification. All empirical studies that used quantitative or qualitative methods, which contributed to evidence for SMW's health in one, a few or all of the countries, were included. Theoretical and review articles were excluded. Data were extracted independently by 2 researchers using predefined data fields, which included a risk of bias/quality assessment. Of 315 hits, 9 articles were selected for review and a further 6 were identified through bibliography searches. Most studies were conducted with small sample sizes in South Africa and focused on sexual health. SMW included in the studies were racially and socio-economically heterogeneous. Studies focused predominately on young populations, and highlighted substance use and violence as key health issues for SMW in Southern Africa. Although there are large gaps in the literature, the review highlighted substantial sexual-orientation-related health disparities among women in Southern Africa. The findings have important implications for public health policy and research

  13. Obstetric implications of minor müllerian anomalies in oligomenorrheic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, S S; Trauelsen, A G

    1987-05-01

    The obstetric performance of 50 consecutive women with minor müllerian anomalies was compared with that of 141 subjects having a normal uterine cavity on hysterosalpingography. All 191 patients had a history of some years' infertility. Spontaneous abortion was the outcome of the first pregnancy in 27.8% of women with müllerian anomalies (not statistically different from the outcome of the control group). However, the evidence of a greater risk of variously complicated first pregnancies and labors (30.3% versus 12.9%, p less than 0.05) and of emergency cesarean sections (21.2% versus 7.1%, p less than 0.05) in the group of minor müllerian anomalies than in the group with normal uteri confirmed the innate pathologic condition and clinical significance of these mild to moderate malformations present in about 40% to 50% of oligomenorrheic women. The most frequent complications were threatened abortion and abnormal fetal lie. Even the very mildest müllerian anomalies seemed to have gynecologic and obstetric implications, but the clinical impact in this group still remains uncertain. It is concluded that a genital tract anomaly of a certain obstetric significance (ratio between distance from nadir of fundal indentation to line connecting summits of uterine horns and length of this line or H/L ratio greater than 0.15) must be suspected in about one third of women with oligomenorrhea. Consequently a high risk in the event of a future pregnancy is evident, and about half the pregnancies (42.1%) in this group will be complicated in one or more ways.

  14. "Does that Make Me a Woman?": Breast Cancer, Mastectomy, and Breast Reconstruction Decisions among Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lisa R.; Tanenbaum, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Feminist scholars and activists writing about breast cancer care among women have highlighted the sexist and heterosexist assumptions often embedded in the medical management of breast cancer, and of mastectomy in particular. Despite these contributions, and some speculation that sexual minority women may be less interested in breast…

  15. Analyzing Student Aid Packaging To Improve Low-Income and Minority Student Access, Retention and Degree Completion. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Porter, John D.; DuBrock, Caryl P.

    This study examined the persistence of and financial aid to needy students, underrepresented minority students, and women students, especially those majoring in science, engineering, and mathematics at a large public research university. An institutional student tracking and student financial aid database was used to follow four freshmen cohorts…

  16. Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome in Sexual Minority Women: Results from the ESTHER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsky, Suzanne; Stall, Ron; Hawk, Mary; Markovic, Nina

    2016-08-01

    Compared to heterosexuals, sexual minority women (SMW) have higher rates of the metabolic syndrome risk factors (e.g., obesity, smoking, heavy drinking, and depression). Yet, no published research has examined whether SMW have higher rates of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual factors in a sample of heterosexuals and SMW, and identify whether SMW are at greater risk of having the metabolic syndrome. Data are from the Epidemiologic STudy of HEalth Risk in Women (ESTHER), a cross-sectional convenience sample of 479 SMW and 400 heterosexual women from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants provided self-report questionnaire data, clinical data, and blood work. Compared to heterosexuals, SMW had higher mean waist circumference, fasting glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Nearly one-quarter (24.3%) of SMW had the metabolic syndrome compared to 15.6% of heterosexual women (p = 0.002). After controlling for demographic and risk factors, SMW had a 44% higher risk of having the metabolic syndrome than heterosexuals (p = 0.031). To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify this health disparity in SMW. Future studies should explore differential risk of mortality and metabolic health between SMW and heterosexuals.

  17. Understanding social and sexual networks of sexual minority men and transgender women in Guatemala city to improve HIV prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C

    2014-11-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties.

  18. Exploring the career choices of white and Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic women pharmacists: A qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Howells, Kelly; Bower, Peter; Hassell, Karen

    2017-01-01

    ObjectiveIn the UK, a growing number of females entering pharmacy are women from Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups (BAME). Research shows that BAME women are more likely to work in the community sector and be self-employed locums than white women, and Asian women overrepresented in part-time, lower status roles. This study aims to explore the employment choices of white and BAME women pharmacists to see whether their diverse work patterns are the product of individual choices or other o...

  19. "Strangers" of the Academy: Asian Women Scholars in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofang, Ed.; Beckett, Gulbahar H., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    No less than other minorities, Asian women scholars are confronted with racial discrimination and stereotyping as well as disrespect for their research, teaching, and leadership, and are underrepresented in academia. In the face of such barriers, many Asian female scholars have developed strategies to survive and thrive. This book is among the…

  20. Dyadic effects of gender minority stressors in substance use behaviors among transgender women and their non-transgender male partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that interpersonal processes shape health behaviors, research concerning the dyadic effects of gender minority stressors on substance use behaviors of transgender people is scarce. The objective of this study was to use dyadic analysis to examine whether transgender discrimination was associated with substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Methods Transgender women and their male partners (N=191 couples; N=382 individuals) completed questionnaires. Participants’ mean age was 37.1; 79.1% were racial/ethnic minority; 61.3% earned transgender-related discrimination and past 30-day non-marijuana illicit drug use adjusting for age, relationship length, financial hardship, and depressive distress among partners in these dyads. Results Illicit drug use was reported by 31.4% of transgender women and 25.1% of their male partners. Perceived transgender discrimination was independently associated with increased odds of illicit drug use for transgender women (actor effect) but not for their male partners. Financial hardship statistically predicted drug use for both partners (actor effects). There were no partner effects for financial hardship on drug use. Overall, 34.5% of dyads had discrepant substance use. Discrimination scores of male partners differentiated dyads who reported discrepant substance use. Discussion Gender minority stressors are critical to understanding substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Integrating socioeconomic status into gender minority stress frameworks is essential. Results have implications for substance use prevention and treatment, including the need to incorporate gender minority stressors into interventions. PMID:25642440

  1. Dyadic effects of gender minority stressors in substance use behaviors among transgender women and their non-transgender male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Gamarel, Kristi E; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-03-01

    Despite evidence that interpersonal processes shape health behaviors, research concerning the dyadic effects of gender minority stressors on substance use behaviors of transgender people is scarce. The objective of this study was to use dyadic analysis to examine whether transgender discrimination was associated with substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Transgender women and their male partners ( N =191 couples; N =382 individuals) completed questionnaires. Participants' mean age was 37.1; 79.1% were racial/ethnic minority; 61.3% earned discrimination and past 30-day non-marijuana illicit drug use adjusting for age, relationship length, financial hardship, and depressive distress among partners in these dyads. Illicit drug use was reported by 31.4% of transgender women and 25.1% of their male partners. Perceived transgender discrimination was independently associated with increased odds of illicit drug use for transgender women (actor effect) but not for their male partners. Financial hardship statistically predicted drug use for both partners (actor effects). There were no partner effects for financial hardship on drug use. Overall, 34.5% of dyads had discrepant substance use. Discrimination scores of male partners differentiated dyads who reported discrepant substance use. Gender minority stressors are critical to understanding substance use among transgender women and their male partners. Integrating socioeconomic status into gender minority stress frameworks is essential. Results have implications for substance use prevention and treatment, including the need to incorporate gender minority stressors into interventions.

  2. A longitudinal study of the correlates of persistent smoking among sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Riley, Barth B; Everett, Bethany; Hughes, Tonda L; Aranda, Frances; Johnson, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    We conducted a longitudinal evaluation of factors associated with persistent smoking behaviors among sexual minority women (SMW; lesbians and bisexual women). Structured interview data were collected as part of a larger longitudinal study of SMW's health: the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study. We conducted multivariate analyses to evaluate the influence of 4 groups of predictor variables on smoking: (a) demographic, (b) childhood victimization, (c) other substance use, and (d) health variables. At Wave 1, 30.9% (n = 138) of participants reported current smoking, with substance-use and demographic factors having the strongest relationships to smoking status. The majority (84.9%) of Wave 1 smokers were also smoking at Wave 2. Among demographic variables, level of education was inversely associated with continued smoking. With respect to substance use, hazardous drinking and cocaine/heroin use were significantly associated with continued smoking. None of the victimization or health variables predicted smoking status. Consistent with previous studies, smoking rates in this sample of SMW were elevated. Despite intensive efforts to reduce smoking in the general population, 84% of SMW smokers continued smoking from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Findings suggest that the majority of SMW will continue to smoke over time. Additional research is needed to increase motivation and access to smoking cessation resources. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Association of Discrimination and Stress With Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Ethnic Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cha-Nam; Soltero, Erica; Mama, Scherezade K; Sunseri, Christopher; Lee, Rebecca E

    2017-12-01

    Psychological stressors can contribute to adverse health outcomes and lead to health disparities. To examine associations among psychological stressors, coping, blood pressure, body mass index, and body fat in ethnic minority women, we conducted a secondary analysis using data from 178 African American and Hispanic/Latina women who completed measures of perceived racial discrimination and stress, coping, blood pressure, and body composition. The mean age of participants was 45.3 (±9.3 years), and most were obese (74.2%) and had prehypertensive systolic blood pressure (125.7 ± 14.6 mmHg). Hierarchical multiple regression models indicated a significant negative relationship between racial discrimination and percent body fat, and positive associations between stress and blood pressure. Coping did not moderate the association between racial discrimination and blood pressure or body composition. Health care providers should consider psychological stressors as underlying causes for hypertension and address tailored stress-reduction coping strategies when treating African American and Hispanic/Latina women with hypertension.

  4. The influence of acculturation on substance use behaviors among Latina sexual minority women: the mediating role of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia; Li, Chien-Ching; Aranda, Frances; Torres, Lourdes; Vargas, Maria; Conrad, Megan

    2014-12-01

    A large body of work has demonstrated that sexual minority women have elevated rates of substance use morbidity, as compared with heterosexual women, and that this might be especially true for women of color. This study examines the influence of acculturation and discrimination on substance use among Latina sexual minority women. Data were collected from 2007 to 2008 as part of a larger community-based survey in the greater Chicago area. Scales measured discrimination, acculturation, and substance use. Structural equation modeling validated scales and examined their relationships, which were further described via mediation analysis. Increased acculturation leads to substance use and this relationship is partially mediated by discrimination (Sobel test = 2.10; p women's and public health organizations.

  5. Current intimate relationship status, depression, and alcohol use among bisexual women: The mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H; Logan, Diane E; Leeson, Carissa J; Balsam, Kimberly F; Kaysen, Debra L

    2015-07-01

    Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors.

  6. Current intimate relationship status, depression, and alcohol use among bisexual women: The mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H.; Logan, Diane E.; Leeson, Carissa J.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors. PMID:26456995

  7. Why Don't More Women and Minorities Study Undergraduate Physics? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hillary; Weisel, Derek

    2008-04-01

    It has often been suggested that the lack of women and ethnic minorities studying physics in college can be traced back to the science and math education of students in high school and before. This talk presents data from a two-part survey of high school science students. First, students were asked what subjects they enjoy and their perceived level of competency in math and science. Second, students were asked their plans for secondary education and what factors contributed to this decision. The results been correlated to gender and ethnicity. Analysis of the results indicates trends along gender and ethnic lines in what students believe they are good at, what they enjoy studying, in what ways they plan to continue their education, and what they plan to study in college.

  8. Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual correlates of tobacco use in sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Hotton, Anna; DuBois, Steve; Fingerhut, David; Kuhns, Lisa M

    2011-04-01

    Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual correlates of tobacco use among sexual minority women (SMW) were assessed using data from a larger lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) study. Of the 171 participants, 42% (n = 71) were smokers. However, 61% of smokers reported a recent quit attempt, and 39% were taking action toward or planning to quit. In multivariable logistic regression, lack of insurance, frequent attendance at LGBT bars, greater awareness of anti-smoking messages, and fewer perceived deterrents to smoking were associated with greater odds of smoking. Our findings provide additional support for elevated smoking rates among SMW and help to identify factors associated with smoking in this population. Awareness of prevention campaigns, recent quit attempts, and intention to quit were high, suggesting opportunities for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. At Hesitant Doors: The lived experience of women in STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Romina B. da Costa

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological investigation aims to explore the lived experience of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. As a minority group within a traditionally male-dominated space, women are still underrepresented in the upper echelons of science, even if the number of women in STEM is increasing. The author draws from her experiences as an “undesirable statistic,” a woman who entered college as a STEM student but ended up getting a degree in the social s...

  10. Diabetes susceptibility in ethnic minority groups from Turkey, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Pakistan compared with Norwegians - the association with adiposity is strongest for ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenum, Anne Karen; Diep, Lien My; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Holme, Ingar Morten K; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmar; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2012-03-01

    The difference in diabetes susceptibility by ethnic background is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the association between adiposity and diabetes in four ethnic minority groups compared with Norwegians, and take into account confounding by socioeconomic position. Data from questionnaires, physical examinations and serum samples were analysed for 30-to 60-year-olds from population-based cross-sectional surveys of Norwegians and four immigrant groups, comprising 4110 subjects born in Norway (n = 1871), Turkey (n = 387), Vietnam (n = 553), Sri Lanka (n = 879) and Pakistan (n = 420). Known and screening-detected diabetes cases were identified. The adiposity measures BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were categorized into levels of adiposity. Gender-specific logistic regression models were applied to estimate the risk of diabetes for the ethnic minority groups adjusted for adiposity and income-generating work, years of education and body height used as a proxy for childhood socioeconomic position. The age standardized diabetes prevalence differed significantly between the ethnic groups (women/men): Pakistan: 26.4% (95% CI 20.1-32.7)/20.0% (14.9-25.2); Sri Lanka: 22.5% (18.1-26.9)/20.7% (17.3-24.2), Turkey: 11.9% (7.2-16.7)/12.0% (7.6-16.4), Vietnam: 8.1% (5.1-11.2)/10.4% (6.6-14.1) and Norway: 2.7% (1.8-3.7)/6.4% (4.6-8.1). The prevalence increased more in the minority groups than in Norwegians with increasing levels of BMI, WHR and waist circumference, and most for women. Highly significant ethnic differences in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes were found for both genders in all categories of all adiposity measures (p minority groups in Oslo, with those from Sri Lanka and Pakistan at highest risk. For all levels of adiposity, a higher susceptibility for diabetes was observed for ethnic minority groups compared with Norwegians. The association persisted after adjustment for socioeconomic position for all minority women

  11. Differential Experiences of Women and Minority Engineering Students in a Cooperative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifolt, Matthew M.; Abbott, Gypsy

    Although slight gains have been made in attracting women and minority students to the field of engineering, the differences are not great enough to meet current economic demands [National Academy of Sciences (2007). Rising above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America for a brighter economic future, Washington, DC: National Academies Press]. Therefore, it has become imperative that colleges and universities increase efforts to both recruit and retain these students who express interest in the STEM fields [National Science Foundation (2006), Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering, NSF 4-311, Arlington, VA: NSF]. In engineering, one promising venue for students to gain professional experience as part of their undergraduate training is through cooperative education (co-op). However, there is a dearth of information in the research literature regarding how co-op programs can be structured to address the needs of diverse students. There is consensus, however, about one aspect of addressing the needs of diverse students, namely, mentoring and role models are key strategies for success. In this study, a mixed methods design was used to examine students' perceptions of mentoring in a cooperative education program in a southeastern university. Using Noe's [Noe, R. (1988). An investigation of the determinants of successful assigned mentoring relationships. Personnel Psychology, 1, 457-479] mentoring functions scales, which described psychosocial and career-related support, research findings indicated a statistically significant difference between gender and the psychosocial aspect of mentoring. Analysis of the qualitative data further confirmed differences in cooperative education experiences with respect to both gender and ethnicity.

  12. Empirical Investigation of a Model of Sexual Minority Specific and General Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Lesbian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robin J.; Mason, Tyler B.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study proposed and tested the first conceptual model of sexual minority specific (discrimination, internalized homophobia) and more general risk factors (perpetrator and partner alcohol use, anger, relationship satisfaction) for intimate partner violence among partnered lesbian women. Method Self-identified lesbian women (N=1048) were recruited from online market research panels. Participants completed an online survey that included measures of minority stress, anger, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, relationship satisfaction, psychological aggression, and physical violence. Results The model demonstrated good fit and significant links from sexual minority discrimination to internalized homophobia and anger, from internalized homophobia to anger and alcohol problems, and from alcohol problems to intimate partner violence. Partner alcohol use predicted partner physical violence. Relationship dissatisfaction was associated with physical violence via psychological aggression. Physical violence was bidirectional. Conclusions Minority stress, anger, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems play an important role in perpetration of psychological aggression and physical violence in lesbian women's intimate partner relationships. The results of this study provide evidence of potentially modifiable sexual minority specific and more general risk factors for lesbian women's partner violence. PMID:28239508

  13. Empirical Investigation of a Model of Sexual Minority Specific and General Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Lesbian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B; Winstead, Barbara A; Kelley, Michelle L

    2017-01-01

    This study proposed and tested the first conceptual model of sexual minority specific (discrimination, internalized homophobia) and more general risk factors (perpetrator and partner alcohol use, anger, relationship satisfaction) for intimate partner violence among partnered lesbian women. Self-identified lesbian women ( N =1048) were recruited from online market research panels. Participants completed an online survey that included measures of minority stress, anger, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, relationship satisfaction, psychological aggression, and physical violence. The model demonstrated good fit and significant links from sexual minority discrimination to internalized homophobia and anger, from internalized homophobia to anger and alcohol problems, and from alcohol problems to intimate partner violence. Partner alcohol use predicted partner physical violence. Relationship dissatisfaction was associated with physical violence via psychological aggression. Physical violence was bidirectional. Minority stress, anger, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems play an important role in perpetration of psychological aggression and physical violence in lesbian women's intimate partner relationships. The results of this study provide evidence of potentially modifiable sexual minority specific and more general risk factors for lesbian women's partner violence.

  14. Tribology Based Research and Training for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    unlimited. Major Goals: The major goal of this project is provide the research tools necessary to train the next generation of scientists and engineers ...for successful and productive careers in tribology and related fields. Tribology is an exciting research area that plays an important role in...have no exposure to tribology in their standard engineering curriculum. This project aims to motivate students to pursue STEM degrees and then give

  15. Comparing sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's friends and parents as sources of support for sexual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly K; Morgan, Elizabeth M

    2009-08-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an inquiry about a time they went to friends and parents for support for a issue related to their sexuality. Responses indicated that the majority of participants had sought support from either a parent or a friend and that mothers and female friends were more likely involved than fathers or male friends, respectively. Sexual issues that participants reported discussing with parents and friends were inductively grouped into five categories: dating and romantic relationships, sexual behavior, sexual health, identity negotiation, and discrimination and violence. Issues that were discussed differed based on sexual orientation identity and the source of support (parent or friend); they did not differ by age. Participants generally perceived parents and friends' responses as helpful, though sexual-minority participants perceived both parents and friends' responses as less helpful than did heterosexual participants. Overall, results suggest both similarities and differences between sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends.

  16. Enfranchised Minors: Women as People in the Middle East after the 2011 Arab Uprisings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Maktabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The civic status of female citizens in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region is conceptualized as “enfranchised minorhood” which reflects the confined position of adult women as legal minors under the trusteeship of male kin in family law, criminal law, and nationality law. During and in the aftermath of the Uprisings that erupted throughout MENA in 2011, female lawyers in Morocco, Lebanon, and Kuwait allied with women’s groups and pressured for reforms in patriarchal state laws. By 2015, reforms were manifest in criminal law; incremental in family law; and absent in nationality law. Theoretical conclusions based on comparative analysis of societal pressures in three states indicate that long historical trajectories are imperative for substantiating the expansion of female citizenship following the 2011 Uprisings. Additionally, the civic status of women in the MENA region is being strengthened under authoritarian monarchical rule in Kuwait and Morocco. A third finding is that pressures for reform have more visible reverberations in legal spheres with a clerical imprint such as family law and criminal law, while strengthened pressures in a secular legal sphere such as nationality law have been opposed more forcefully five years after the Uprisings.

  17. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Adamus-Leach, Heather J

    2012-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents. To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women. Women (N = 410) completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors. Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (psattractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (psrelationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  18. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Lee

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents.To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women.Women (N = 410 completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors.Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (ps<.05. Neighborhood attractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (ps<.05.Findings suggest complex relationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  19. An exploratory pilot of factors associated with premenstrual syndrome in minority women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory Perry

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: This pilot evidence of improved PMS symptoms in minority and non-minority groups related to fish oil supplementation supports a universal treatment approach and highlights need for a larger-scale investigation.

  20. Why do faculty leave? Reasons for attrition of women and minority faculty from a medical school: four-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Masho, Saba W; Shiang, Rita; Sikka, Veronica; Kornstein, Susan G; Hampton, Carol L

    2008-09-01

    Faculty attrition, particularly among female and minority faculty, is a serious problem in academic medical settings. The reasons why faculty in academic medical settings choose to leave their employment are not well understood. Further, it is not clear if the reasons why women and minority faculty leave differ from those of other groups. One hundred sixty-six medical school faculty who left the School of Medicine (SOM) between July 1, 2001, and June 30, 2005, completed a survey about their reasons for leaving. The three most common overall reasons for leaving the institution included career/professional advancement (29.8%), low salary (25.5%), and chairman/departmental leadership issues (22.4%). The ranking of these reasons varied slightly across racial and gender groups, with women and minority faculty also citing personal reasons for leaving. Women and minority faculty were at lower academic ranks at the time they left the SOM compared with male and majority groups. Although salary differences were not present at the time of initial hire, sex was a significant predictor of lower salary at the start of the new position. Opportunity for advancement and the rate of promotion were significantly different between women and men. Job characteristics prior to leaving that were rated most poorly were protected time for teaching and research, communication across the campus, and patient parking. Harassment and discrimination were reported by a small number of those surveyed, particularly women and minority faculty. The majority of reasons for faculty attrition are amenable to change. Retaining high-quality faculty in medical settings may justify the costs of faculty development and retention efforts.

  1. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students' Science Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew C.; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life…

  2. Why They Leave: The Impact of Stereotype Threat on the Attrition of Women and Minorities from Science, Math and Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Maya A.; Fischer, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of group performance anxiety on the attrition of women and minorities from science, math, and engineering majors. While past research has relied primarily on the academic deficits and lower socioeconomic status of women and minorities to explain their absence from these fields, we focus on the impact of stereotype…

  3. "In-between" Asia and the West: Asian Women Faculty in the Transnational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayuzumi, Kimine

    2008-01-01

    Asian women faculty (AWF) are an underrepresented and understudied population. I hypothesize that, while AWF should be included in a broader analysis of the intersection of gender, race, class, and ethnicity in the academy, their stories can also contribute to the existing literature on minority faculty by linking the local and global experiences…

  4. Changes in the representation of women and minorities in biomedical careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel L; Fealing, Kaye Husbands

    2012-11-01

    To examine how efforts and policies to increase diversity affect the relative representation of women and of minority groups within medicine and related science fields. The authors of this report used data from the Current Population Survey March Supplement (a product of the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics that tracks race, ethnicity, and employment) to compute the representation ratios of persons employed in biology, chemistry, and medicine from 1968 to 2009 (inclusive). They derived the representation ratios by computing the ratio of the conditional probability that a member of a given group is employed in a specific skilled science field to the overall probability of employment in that field. Their analysis tested for differences in representation ratios among racial, gender, and ethnic groups and across time among those employed as biologists, chemists, and medical doctors. Representation ratios rose for white females, whose percentage increase in medicine was larger than for any other racial/ethnic group. The representation ratios fell for Hispanics in biology, chemistry, and medicine. The representation ratio rose for African Americans, whose highest percentage increase occurred in biology. Asian Americans, who had the highest representation ratios in all three disciplines, saw a decline in their relative representation in medicine. The authors have demonstrated that all groups do not benefit equally from diversity initiatives and that competition across related fields can confound efforts to increase diversity in medicine.

  5. Rates and Predictors of Obesity Among African American Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Li, Chien-Ching; McConnell, Elizabeth; Aranda, Frances; Smith, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine rates of and risk factors for obesity in a community sample of African American sexual minority women (SMW). Data were collected using self-administered paper-and-pencil survey questionnaires (n = 219). Participants were primarily middle aged (M = 40.1; standard deviation [SD] = 10.5 years), well educated (56.9% with a college education and above), insured (82.3%), and had a median income range from $30,000 to $39,999. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 31.6 (SD = 8.0). Based on BMI scores, over half of the participants were identified as obese (53.9%) and 25.6% were overweight. A number of comorbid illnesses were reported that could be exacerbated by excess weight, including arthritis (21.3%), adult-onset diabetes (4.9%), back problems (23.2%), high cholesterol (15.3%), high blood pressure (19.2%), and heart disease (12%). Multiple risk factors for obesity were observed, including infrequent exercise (American SMW report high rates of obesity, chronic health conditions exacerbated by weight, and health and dietary behaviors that increase risk for weight-related health disparities. These study findings have implications for additional research and intervention development.

  6. The Impact of Marriage Equality on Sexual Minority Women's Relationships With Their Families of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggle, Ellen D B; Drabble, Laurie; Veldhuis, Cindy B; Wootton, Angie; Hughes, Tonda L

    2018-01-01

    Support from family of origin is important to the health and wellbeing of sexual minority women (SMW) and structural stigma may impact that support. The recent extension of marriage rights to same-sex couples in all U.S. states provided an opportunity to examine whether this change in law would impact the relationship of SMW with their families of origin regarding their same-sex relationships, including marriage. Interviews with 20 SMW were conducted to learn about their perceptions of how support from families of origin had been impacted by or changed since the U.S. Supreme Court decision (Obergefell v. Hodges, 135 S. Ct. 2584, 2015). Thematic analysis of the narrative responses revealed stories of continued family support; increases in acceptance or support; mixed support/rejection or unclear messages; "don't ask, don't tell" or silence; and continued or increased family rejection. Most participant narratives included more than one theme. Implications for SMW's health and relationships are discussed.

  7. Are Outness and Community Involvement Risk or Protective Factors for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among Sexual Minority Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.

  8. Understanding Social and Sexual Networks of Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in Guatemala City to Improve HIV Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

  9. Using novel biomarkers to triage young adult women with minor cervical lesions: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K; Sørbye, S W; Kristiansen, I S; Burger, E A

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the short-term consequences and cost-effectiveness associated with the use of novel biomarkers to triage young adult women with minor cervical cytological lesions. Model-based economic evaluation using primary epidemiological data from Norway, supplemented with data from European and American clinical trials. Organised cervical cancer screening in Norway. Women aged 25-33 years with minor cervical cytological lesions detected at their primary screening test. We expanded an existing simulation model to compare 12 triage strategies involving alternative biomarkers (i.e. reflex human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA/mRNA testing, genotyping, and dual staining) with the current Norwegian triage guidelines. The number of high-grade precancers detected and resource use (e.g. monetary costs and colposcopy referrals) for a single screening round (3 years) for each triage strategy. Cost-efficiency, defined as the additional cost per additional precancer detected of each strategy compared with the next most costly strategy. Five strategies were identified as cost-efficient, and are projected to increase the precancer detection rate between 18 and 57%, compared with current guidelines; however, the strategies did not uniformly require additional resources. Strategies involving HPV mRNA testing required fewer resources, whereas HPV DNA-based strategies detected >50% more precancers, but were more costly and required twice as many colposcopy referrals compared with the current guidelines. Strategies involving biomarkers to triage younger women with minor cervical cytological lesions have the potential to detect additional precancers, yet the optimal strategy depends on the resources available as well as decision-makers' and women's acceptance of additional screening procedures. Women with minor cervical lesions may be triaged more accurately and effectively using novel biomarkers. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. LGBT Identity, Untreated Depression, and Unmet Need for Mental Health Services by Sexual Minority Women and Trans-Identified People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Leah S; Daley, Andrea; Curling, Deone; Gibson, Margaret F; Green, Datejie C; Williams, Charmaine C; Ross, Lori E

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have found that transgender, lesbian, and bisexual people report poorer mental health relative to heterosexuals. However, available research provides little information about mental health service access among the highest need groups within these communities: bisexual women and transgender people. This study compared past year unmet need for mental health care and untreated depression between four groups: heterosexual cisgender (i.e., not transgender) women, cisgender lesbians, cisgender bisexual women, and transgender people. This was a cross-sectional Internet survey. We used targeted sampling to recruit 704 sexual and gender minority people and heterosexual cisgendered adult women across Ontario, Canada. To ensure adequate representation of vulnerable groups, we oversampled racialized and low socioeconomic status (SES) women. Trans participants were 2.4 times (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.6-3.8, p mental healthcare as cisgender heterosexual women. Trans participants were also 1.6 times (95% CI = 1.0-27, p = 0.04) more likely to report untreated depression. These differences were not seen after adjustment for social context factors such as discrimination and social support. We conclude that there are higher rates of unmet need and untreated depression in trans and bisexual participants that are partly explained by differences in social factors, including experiences of discrimination, lower levels of social support, and systemic exclusion from healthcare. Our findings suggest that the mental health system in Ontario is not currently meeting the needs of many sexual and gender minority people.

  11. Daily text messaging for weight control among racial and ethnic minority women: randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-11-18

    Daily self-monitoring of diet and physical activity behaviors is a strong predictor of weight loss success. Text messaging holds promise as a viable self-monitoring modality, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of a text messaging intervention for weight loss among predominantly black women. Fifty obese women were randomized to either a 6-month intervention using a fully automated system that included daily text messages for self-monitoring tailored behavioral goals (eg, 10,000 steps per day, no sugary drinks) along with brief feedback and tips (n=26) or to an education control arm (n=24). Weight was objectively measured at baseline and at 6 months. Adherence was defined as the proportion of text messages received in response to self-monitoring prompts. The average daily text messaging adherence rate was 49% (SD 27.9) with 85% (22/26) texting self-monitored behavioral goals 2 or more days per week. Approximately 70% (16/23) strongly agreed that daily texting was easy and helpful and 76% (16/21) felt the frequency of texting was appropriate. At 6 months, the intervention arm lost a mean of 1.27 kg (SD 6.51), and the control arm gained a mean of 1.14 kg (SD 2.53; mean difference -2.41 kg, 95% CI -5.22 to 0.39; P=.09). There was a trend toward greater text messaging adherence being associated with greater percent weight loss (r=-.36; P=.08), but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant association between goal attainment and text messaging adherence and no significant predictors of adherence. Given the increasing penetration of mobile devices, text messaging may be a useful self-monitoring tool for weight control, particularly among populations most in need of intervention. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00939081; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00939081 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KiIIcnk1).

  12. Perceptions of coercion, discrimination and other negative experiences in postpartum contraceptive counseling for low-income minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lynn M; Simon, Melissa A

    2011-11-01

    Using in-depth qualitative methods, we investigated negative contraception counseling experiences, including those felt to be coercive or discriminatory, in a population of postpartum urban minority women. Brief surveys and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 consenting postpartum women who had received care at a Medicaid-funded obstetrics clinic. In-person one-on-one interviews were then reviewed for themes using an iterative process of qualitative analysis. In this sample of African American (63%) and Hispanic (37%) women (median age 26), 73% had unplanned pregnancies. Features of negative counseling experiences included having insufficient, non-physician-directed and impersonal counseling. Most women had experienced episodes of poor communication with providers; 10 described feeling coerced or perceiving racially-based discrimination in counseling. Negative experiences with contraceptive counseling may affect contraception utilization. Contraceptive education should respect each individual's autonomy, culture, and values.

  13. Supporting Minority Women and Girls: Key Frames of Reference and Understanding for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Recent high-profile rape cases in Australia involving Muslim and Indigenous minority groups have heightened contention around issues of culture, gender and justice. The article critically examines the culturalising of rape as an ethnic minority issue in the public and legal discourse associated with these cases. This examination problematises the…

  14. Beyond lesbian bed death: enhancing our understanding of the sexuality of sexual-minority women in relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N; Byers, E Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the sexuality of sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, bisexual, queer, unlabeled, questioning) women. Participants were 586 women (87% White) in a same-sex relationship of 1 to 36 years in duration. They completed measures assessing their sexual behavior (frequency of nongenital and genital sexual activities), motivation (sexual desire), and cognitive-affective responses (sexual satisfaction, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, negative automatic thoughts). On average, the women reported experiencing their sexuality positively across all domains. Regardless of relationship duration, most of the women reported engaging in both genital and nongenital sexual behaviors with their partner once a week or more; few reported that they had not engaged in sexual activity in the previous month. A multiple regression analysis indicated that frequency of genital sexual activity, sexual desire, sexual anxiety, and automatic thoughts contributed uniquely to the prediction of sexual satisfaction over and above the other sexuality variables. The findings are discussed in terms of the idea that lesbians have sex less frequently than other couple types and that sexual frequency declines rapidly in lesbian relationships (i.e., "lesbian bed death") and descriptions of sexual-minority women's sexuality that suggest that genital sexual activity is not important to sexual satisfaction.

  15. What happens after prejudice is confronted in the workplace? How mindsets affect minorities' and women's outlook on future social relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S

    2018-06-01

    Organizations are increasingly concerned with fostering successful diversity. Toward this end, diversity research has focused on trying to reduce prejudice and biased behavior. But what happens when prejudice in the workplace inevitably occurs? Research also needs to focus on whether recovery and repair of social relations after expressions of prejudice are possible. To begin investigating this question, we develop a new framework for understanding reactions to prejudice in the workplace. We hypothesized that when women and minorities choose to confront a prejudiced comment in a workplace interaction (vs. remain silent) and hold a growth (vs. fixed) mindset-the belief that others can change-they remain more positive in their subsequent outlook in the workplace. Studies 1a, 1b, and 2 used hypothetical workplace scenarios to expose participants to someone who expressed bias; Study 3 ensured real-world relevance by eliciting retrospective accounts of workplace bias from African American employees. Across studies, women and minorities who confronted the perpetrator of prejudice exhibited more positive subsequent expectations of that coworker when they held a growth mindset. It is important that these more positive expectations were associated with reports of greater workplace belonging (Study 2), ratings of improved relations with coworkers who had displayed bias (Study 3), and greater workplace satisfaction (Studies 2-3). Thus, a growth mindset contributes to successful workplace diversity by protecting women's and minorities' outlook when they opt to confront expressions of bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Factors that affect the food choices made by girls and young women, from minority ethnic groups, living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J M; Devlin, E; Macaskill, S; Kelly, M; Chinouya, M; Raats, M M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Shepherd, R

    2007-08-01

    Lower birth weight, often found in infants from minority ethnic groups, may be partly because of the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority groups in low-income areas. To develop an intervention, to improve the nutritional intake of young women from populations at risk of low-birth-weight babies, which would be culturally sensitive and well received by the intended recipients, a community development approach was used to investigate factors that might influence food choice and the nutritional intake of girls and young women from ethnic minority groups. Focus group discussions were conducted across the UK, to explore factors that might affect the food choices of girls and young women of African and South Asian decent. The data was analysed using deductive content analysis (Qual. Soc. Res., 1, 2000, 1). Discussions were around the broad themes of buying and preparing food, eating food and dietary changes, and ideas for an intervention to improve diet. The focus group discussions indicated that all the communities took time, price, health and availability into consideration when making food purchases. The groups were also quite similar in their use of 'Western' foods which tended to be of the fast food variety. These foods were used when there was not enough time to prepare a 'traditional' meal. Many issues that affect the food choice of people who move to the UK are common within different ethnic groups. The idea of a practical intervention based on improving cooking skills was popular with all the groups.

  17. Racial/ethnic differences in unmet needs for mental health and substance use treatment in a community-based sample of sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoo Mi; Veldhuis, Cindy B; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L

    2016-12-01

    To examine the unmet needs for mental health and substance use treatment among a diverse sample of sexual minority women (lesbian, bisexual). Sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report depression and hazardous drinking. However, relatively little is known about sexual minority women's use of mental health or substance use treatment services, particularly about whether use varies by race/ethnicity. Cross-sectional analysis of existing data. Analyses included data from 699 Latina, African American and white sexual minority women interviewed in wave 3 of the 17-year Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study. Using logistic regression, we examined the associations among sexual identity, race/ethnicity, use of mental health and substance use treatment, as well as potential unmet need for treatment. Overall, women in the study reported high levels of depression and alcohol dependence, and these varied by sexual identity and race/ethnicity. Use of mental health and substance use treatment also varied by race/ethnicity, as did potential unmet need for both mental health and substance use treatment. Our findings that suggest although use of treatment among sexual minority women is high overall, there is a potentially sizable unmet need for mental health and substance use treatment that varies by race/ethnicity, with Latina women showing the greatest unmet need for treatment. Nurses and other healthcare providers should be aware of the high rates of depression and hazardous drinking among sexual minority women, understand the factors that may increase the risk of these conditions among sexual minority women, the potentially high unmet need for mental health and substance use treatment - perhaps particularly among Latina women and be equipped to provide culturally sensitive care or refer to appropriate treatment services as needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Exploring the career choices of White and Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic women pharmacists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Kelly; Bower, Peter; Hassell, Karen

    2017-12-26

    In the UK, a growing number of females entering pharmacy are women from Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups (BAME). Research shows that BAME women are more likely to work in the community sector and be self-employed locums than white women, and Asian women overrepresented in part-time, lower status roles. This study aims to explore the employment choices of white and BAME women pharmacists to see whether their diverse work patterns are the product of individual choices or other organisational factors. This study analyses 28 qualitative interviews conducted with 18 BAME and 10 white women pharmacists. The interview schedule was designed to explore early career choices, future career aspirations and key stages in making their career decisions. The findings show that white and BAME women are influenced by different factors in their early career choices. Cultural preferences for self-employment and business opportunities discourage BAME women from hospital sector jobs early in their careers. Resonating with other studies, the findings show that white and BAME women face similar barriers to career progression if they work part-time. Women working part-time are more likely to face workforce barriers, irrespective of ethnic origin. Cultural preferences may be preventing BAME women from entering the hospital sector. This research is important in the light of current debates about the future shape of pharmacy practice, as well as wider government policy objectives that seek to improve the working lives of health care professionals and promote racial diversity and equality in the workplace. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. A Systematic Review of the Factors Influencing Ethnic Minority Women's Cervical Cancer Screening Behavior: From Intrapersonal to Policy Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dorothy N S; So, Winnie K W

    Cervical cancer can be prevented by effective screening using Papanicolaou tests, but the utilization rate is lower among ethnic minorities than in the general population. Understanding the factors influencing minorities' use of such screening can aid the design of an appropriate intervention to increase their uptake rate. The aims of this study were to examine the factors that influence ethnic minority women in using cervical cancer screening and the similarities and differences in associated factors across different groups and to explore the interrelationships between the factors identified. A literature search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature Plus, Scopus, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Furthermore, 1390 articles were retrieved, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria. Critical appraisal was performed by means of a quality assessment tool. The findings were summarized in tabular and narrative forms. The findings showed that certain factors commonly affected ethnic minority women's screening behavior, including knowledge, attitude and perceptions, physician's recommendation, quality of care and service, language, and acculturation. Culture-related factors, religion, and acculturation exhibited close interrelationships with the attitude and perceptions factor, resulting in behavioral change. The review sheds light on how common or unique are the factors across ethnic minorities and how these factors interact to influence behavior. Further studies are warranted to develop and test empirically a comprehensive model leading to a better understanding of the interrelationships between multiple factors. The model should be useful in informing policy makers about appropriate resource allocation and in guiding the development of culturally relevant programs to increase screening uptake.

  20. Women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor are different from women convicted of traditional sexual offenses: a brief research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortoni, Franca; Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2015-06-01

    Some jurisdictions have legally decreed that certain nonsexual offenses (e.g., promoting prostitution of a minor, arson, burglary) can be considered sexual offenses. Offenders convicted of these crimes can be subjected to sexual offender-specific social control policies such as registration, as well as be included in sexual offender research such as recidivism studies. No studies, however, have systematically examined differences and similarities between this new class of sexual offenders and more traditional sexual offenders. The current study used a sample of 94 women convicted of sexual offenses to investigate whether women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor differed on demographic and criminogenic features from those convicted of more traditional sexual offenses. Results show that women convicted of promoting prostitution offenses have criminal histories more consistent with general criminality and exhibit more general antisocial features than women convicted of traditional sexual offenses. These results support the notion that the inclusion of legally defined sexual offenders with traditional ones obscures important differences in criminogenic features among these women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Women with minor menstrual irregularities have increased risk of preeclampsia and low birthweight in spontaneous pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Barbara; Oddgeirsdóttir, Hanna L; Naver, Klara Vinsand

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Very few studies describe the obstetric and neonatal outcome of spontaneous pregnancies in women with irregular menstrual cycles. However, menstrual cycle irregularities are common and may be associated with increased risk, and women who develop pregnancy complications more frequent...

  2. Empowerment and Social Support: Implications for Practice and Programming among Minority Women with Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women’s empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women’s personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed. PMID:27084362

  3. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  4. Gender minority stress, mental health, and relationship quality: a dyadic investigation of transgender women and their cisgender male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Reisner, Sari L; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-08-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between experiences of discrimination, relationship quality, and mental health. However, critical questions remain unanswered with regard to how stigma enacted and experienced at the dyadic-level influences relationship quality and mental health for transgender women and their cisgender (nontransgender) male partners. The present study sought to examine how experiences of transgender-related discrimination (i.e., unfair treatment, harassment) and relationship stigma (i.e., the real or anticipated fear of rejection based on one's romantic affiliation) were associated with both partners relationship quality and mental health. Couples (n = 191) were recruited to participate in cross-sectional survey. Dyadic analyses using actor-partner interdependence models were conducted to examine the influence of minority stressors on clinically significant depressive distress and relationship quality. For both partners, financial hardship, discrimination, and relationship stigma were associated with an increased odds of depressive distress. For both partners, financial hardship was associated with lower relationship quality. Among transgender women, their own and their partner's higher relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality; however, among male partners, only their partner's greater relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality. Findings provide preliminary support for dyadic crossover effects of relationship stigma on the health of partners. Findings illustrate the importance of minority stress and dyadic stress frameworks in understanding and intervening upon mental health disparities among transgender women and their male partners. Couples-based interventions and treatment approaches to help transgender women and their male partners cope with minority stressors are warranted to improve the health and well-being of both partners.

  5. The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1986-01-01

    Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

  6. A Complicated Passport: Racialized Realities and Lessons from Visible Minority Women Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla-Bhullar, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    This article presents key findings derived from the experiences of visible minority woman as teachers in Canada, whose lived realities reveal myriad instances of compromise. The ethnic, cultural and racial diversity among teachers is an area that has garnered attention as it pertains to equitable work environments, teacher-student relations, and…

  7. Ethnic Minority Status, Depression, and Cognitive Failures in Relation to Marital Adjustment in Ethnically Diverse Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; Spellman, Therese; Wakefield, Jennifer; Oliver, Taylor

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between marital adjustment and ethnic minority status, depressive symptomatology, and cognitive failures among 78 married, community-dwelling, and predominantly non-European-American older women (ages 57-89). Respondents were screened to rule out dementia. Level of depressive symptoms, self-report of cognitive failures, and marital adjustment were obtained. As hypothesized, higher depressive symptomatology and cognitive failures were associated with worse marital adjustment ( p socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, 1992) applied to marriage in older age, a conceptualization formulated by Bookwala and Jacobs in 2004.

  8. Gestational Weight Gain and Post-Partum Weight Loss Among Young, Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROTHBERG, Bonnie E. Gould; MAGRIPLES, Urania; KERSHAW, Trace S.; RISING, Sharon Schindler; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (N=427). Medical record review and four structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Results Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within IOM guidelines. 62% exceeded maximum recommendations -- more common among those overweight/obese (BMI≥25.0; phypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all p<.02). BMI by race interaction suggested healthier outcomes for Latinas (p=0.02). Conclusion Excessive pregnancy weight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. PMID:20974459

  9. Are there any upticks in federally employed women and minorities in STEM at the leading U.S. science agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. H.; Carlis, D. L.; Melendez Alvira, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Management Directive 715 (MD-715) requires each federal agency or bureau to report annually on the status of activities undertaken pursuant to its equal employment opportunity program under Title VII and the Rehabilitation Act. Each bureau's report must include a plan to identify steps it will take in the future to correct deficiencies or barriers identified in the preparation of their MD-715 report. This study evaluates MD-715 data for 2004-2016 from federal science agencies (NASA, NOAA, NIH, NSF, and DOE) to outline and assess any growth or declines in federally employed women and minorities working in the reported major occupation job series that center on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The study group is statistically compared to federally employed white male populations and likewise groups within the civilian labor force. The goal of this evaluation is to determine what (if any) factors and/or policies have led to upticks in the employment and advancements of women and minorities in STEM at each bureau and to highlight the details of the MD-715 reports that may have contributed to these successes.

  10. Evaluation of the 1997 Joint National Conference, Women in Engineering Program Advocates Network (WEPAN) and National Association of Minority Engineering Program Administrators (NAMEPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, Suzanne G.

    1997-07-01

    The primary goal of the 1997 Joint National Conference was to unite NAMEPA and WEPAN in a unique collaborative effort to further the cause of increasing the participation of women and minorities in science and engineering. The specific objectives were to: (1) conduct technical and programmatic seminars for institutions desiring to initiate, replicate, or expand women and minorities in engineering program; (2) provide assistance in fundraising and grant writing; (3) profile women in engineering programs of excellence; (4) sponsor inspiring knowledgeable and motivational keynote speakers; and (5) offer a series of workshops focused on a multitude of topics.

  11. The impact of the language barrier on the success of Hungarian minority women in the higher education system of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendák-Kabók Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is to analyze the impact of the language barrier faced by Hungarian minority female professors and students in the higher education sys­tem of Serbia. The aim of this paper is to propose measures which might allow Hungarian minority students to overcome the language barrier more easily and to raise awareness for the need of more Hungarian women in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM. The analysis is based on twenty four semi-structured interviews conducted with minority Hungarian female professors and students, who are working or studying at the University of Novi Sad, Serbia. Interviews were conducted with a pre-composed questionnaire between the end of 2014 and the beginning of 2015. Interviewees were chosen with a snowball sampling method. Results of analysis show that the majority of Hungarian women face a language barrier at the start of their studies, mostly because of their limited knowledge of the majority’s language. These barriers were more pronounced in Hungarian female students than with professor. This phenomenon can be attributed to the time in which they grew up, or to a different social environment of the twentieth century, when bilingualism was completely natural, from which, less segregation of the nations resulted and a better knowledge of the Serbian language. The professors particularly point out that being bilingual is a great advantage and that their knowledge of several languages was a key advantage in their academic careers. With the analysis of the interviews it was determined that the language barrier was mostly pronounced for students of social sciences and humanities (SSH, where language is the primary tool of communication. The language barrier was less important for the students studying in STEM sciences, where students and professors interact through formulas and written exams.

  12. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color.

  13. STREAMS - Supporting Underrepresented Groups in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Knighton, K.; Johnson, A.

    2009-12-01

    In Fall 2008, STREAMS (Supporting Talented and Remarkable Environmental And Marine Science students) Scholarship initiative began at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg, the only public university in Pinellas County. STREAMS is a partnership between the University of South Florida St. Petersburg’s (USFSP) Environmental Science and Policy Program and University of South Florida’s (USF) College of Marine Science. The STREAMS Student Scholarship Program has facilitated increased recruitment, retention, and graduation of USFSP environmental science and USF marine science majors. The STREAMS program has increased opportunities for minorities and women to obtain undergraduate and graduate degrees, gain valuable research experience and engage in professional development activities. STREAMS scholars have benefited from being mentored by USFSP and USF faculty and as well as MSPhDs students and NSF Florida-Georgia LSAMP Bridge to Doctorate graduate fellows. In addition, STREAMS has facilitated activities designed to prepare student participants for successful Earth system science-related careers. We will elucidate the need for this initiative and vision for the collaboration.

  14. Diversity in academic medicine no. 1 case for minority faculty development today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivet, Marc A; Taylor, Vera S; Butts, Gary C; Strelnick, A Hal; Herbert-Carter, Janice; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne W; Smith, Quentin T; Rust, George; Kondwani, Kofi

    2008-12-01

    For the past 20 years, the percentage of the American population consisting of nonwhite minorities has been steadily increasing. By 2050, these nonwhite minorities, taken together, are expected to become the majority. Meanwhile, despite almost 50 years of efforts to increase the representation of minorities in the healthcare professions, such representation remains grossly deficient. Among the underrepresented minorities are African and Hispanic Americans; Native Americans, Alaskans, and Pacific Islanders (including Hawaiians); and certain Asians (including Hmong, Vietnamese, and Cambodians). The underrepresentation of underrepresented minorities in the healthcare professions has a profoundly negative effect on public health, including serious racial and ethnic health disparities. These can be reduced only by increased recruitment and development of both underrepresented minority medical students and underrepresented minority medical school administrators and faculty. Underrepresented minority faculty development is deterred by barriers resulting from years of systematic segregation, discrimination, tradition, culture, and elitism in academic medicine. If these barriers can be overcome, the rewards will be great: improvements in public health, an expansion of the contemporary medical research agenda, and improvements in the teaching of both underrepresented minority and non-underrepresented minority students.

  15. Teen Pregnancy Among Sexual Minority Women: Results From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Shoshana K; Reese, Bianka M; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between sexual orientation and teen pregnancy (before age 20 years) in a U.S. nationally representative cohort of young adult females aged 24-32 years. A total of 5,972 participants in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were included. Self-reported sexual orientation identity was categorized as heterosexual, and three sexual minority (SM) groups: mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian (combining "mostly homosexual" and "100% homosexual"). Stepwise multivariate regression models were fit to compare odds of teen pregnancy and relative risk ratios of timing of teen pregnancy, between heterosexual and SM groups, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual victimization history, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for sociodemographics and sexual victimization, bisexual women had significantly higher odds than heterosexual peers of teen pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.75); this association was marginally significant after adjusting for sexual risk behaviors. Bisexuals were also more likely to have an early (before age 18 years) teen pregnancy (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.17-3.56). In contrast, lesbian women were significantly less likely to have a teen pregnancy than heterosexual (OR = .47; 95% CI = .23-.97), mostly heterosexual (OR = .46; 95% CI = .21-.99), and bisexual (OR = .29; 95% CI = .12-.71) women in final models. Expanding on extant literature, we found opposing risk patterns for teen pregnancy between bisexual and lesbian women, likely due to distinct patterns of sexual risk taking. Findings suggest that SM-inclusive teen pregnancy prevention efforts tailored to meet the unique needs of SM young women, particularly bisexuals, are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship Quality and Domestic Violence in Women's Same-Sex Relationships: The Role of Minority Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature addressing relationship quality and domestic violence in women's same-sex relationships, few studies have empirically examined how stress specific to living as a lesbian or bisexual woman might correlate with these relationship variables. Degree of outness, internalized homophobia, lifetime and recent experiences…

  17. Disparities in HPV and Cervical Cancer Screening between Highly Educated White and Minority Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennefield, Zinobia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has been conducted to determine the impact that education has on health behaviors; specifically, comparisons between highly educated and less educated groups. However, little research has been done on the racial variation among highly educated women. Purpose: This research examined the racial variation in the relationship…

  18. Minority recruitment and retention in dietetics: issues and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, H P; Davis, R A

    2000-08-01

    To better understand the reasons why minorities and males are underrepresented among registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered, (DTRs) and to develop focuses for intervention, the investigators performed a telephone survey of newly credentialed RDs and DTRs and directors of RD and DTR education programs. Using lists of students recruited by the American Dietetic Association for participation in the survey, the investigators interviewed 83 RDs and DTRs and 20 education program directors. RDs and DTRs attributed minority underrepresentation primarily to the field's lack of visibility and underrepresentation of men to the traditional association with women. Education program directors attributed minority underrepresentation to educational disadvantages, particularly in scientific subjects. Findings from this study support program-level interventions such as increasing program flexibility, initiating outreach to K-12 schools and lower-division college students, providing tutoring in a nondemeaning atmosphere, and visibly expressing commitment to minority representation. More fundamental changes in the profession itself appear necessary for large-scale increases in minority representation. These include increasing internship opportunities; raising the profession's level of remuneration, prestige, and independence; increasing scholarship support; and advertising nationally through channels capable of reaching minorities.

  19. Princeton University Materials Academy for underrepresented students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daniel; Rodriguez Martinez, Sara; Cody, Linda

    Summer 2016 gave underrepresented high school students from Trenton New Jersey the opportunity to learn materials science, sustainability and the physics and chemistry of energy storage from Princeton University professors. New efforts to place this curriculum online so that teachers across the United States can teach materials science as a tool to teach ``real'' interdisciplinary science and meet the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The Princeton University Materials Academy (PUMA) is an education outreach program for underrepresented high school students. It is part of the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (PCCM), a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Materials Research Engineering and Science Center (MRSEC). PUMA has been serving the community of Trenton New Jersey which is only eight miles from the Princeton University campus. We reached over 250 students from 2003-2016 with many students repeating for multiple years. 100% of our PUMA students have graduated high school and 98% have gone on for college. This is compared with overall Trenton district graduation rate of 48% and a free and reduced lunch of 83%. We discuss initiatives to share the curriculum online to enhance the reach of PCCM' PUMA and to help teachers use materials science to meet NGSS and give their students opportunities to learn interdisciplinary science. MRSEC, NSF (DMR-1420541).

  20. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  1. Sexual Minority Women's Satisfaction with Health Care Providers and State-level Structural Support: Investigating the Impact of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Nondiscrimination Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Aleta M; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    Structural discrimination is associated with negative health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Recent changes to state-level and national legislation provide both the opportunity and the need to further explore the impact of legislation on the health indicators of sexual minorities. Using an ecosocial theory lens, the present research addresses the relationship between structural support or discrimination and satisfaction with one's health care provider among sexual minority women. Data were drawn from an online survey of sexual minority women's health care experiences. Using the Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization to operationalize the variables in our model, we examined the relationship between state-level nondiscrimination legislation and satisfaction with provider-a widely used measure of health care quality-through regression analysis. Participants in structurally supportive states (i.e., those with nondiscrimination legislation) were more likely to disclose their sexual identity to their providers and to report higher satisfaction with their providers. The absence of nondiscrimination legislation was associated negatively with satisfaction with providers. Results of our study show that the external environment in which sexual minority women seek health care, characterized by structural support or lack thereof, is related to perceived quality of health care. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress eating and sleep disturbance as mediators in the relationship between depression and obesity in low-income, minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley; Negron, Rennie; Horowitz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore potential mediators of the relationship between depression and obesity in a sample of low-income, minority women. Data were extracted from a sample of 535 women enrolled in a weight loss intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Using a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure, the potential mediation effects of stress eating and sleep disturbance on the relationship between depression and obesity were tested. Results of a single mediation model indicated that depressive symptomatology was significantly associated with obesity (β=0.800, SE=0.290, p=0.006), and that stress eating (β=0.166, 95% CI [0.046, 0.328]) and sleep disturbance (β=1.032, 95% CI [0.612, 1.427]) were significant independent mediators of this relationship. Sleep disturbance remained a significant mediator in a combined mediation model (β=1.009, 95% CI [0.653, 1.399]). Findings add to the growing literature on the psychosocial factors implicated in the link between depression and obesity, particularly among disadvantaged populations. Future longitudinal research should aim to establish causal pathways between obesity, stress eating, sleep disturbance, and depression. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of motherhood on neural systems for reward processing in low income, minority, young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Forbes, Erika E; Stepp, Stephanie; Fraser, David; Keenan, Kate E; Guyer, Amanda E; Chase, Henry W; Phillips, Mary L; Zevallos, Carlos R; Guo, Chaohui; Hipwell, Alison E

    2016-04-01

    Given the association between maternal caregiving behavior and heightened neural reward activity in experimental animal studies, the present study examined whether motherhood in humans positively modulates reward-processing neural circuits, even among mothers exposed to various life stressors and depression. Subjects were 77 first-time mothers and 126 nulliparous young women from the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a longitudinal study beginning in childhood. Subjects underwent a monetary reward task during functional magnetic resonance imaging in addition to assessment of current depressive symptoms. Life stress was measured by averaging data collected between ages 8-15 years. Using a region-of-interest approach, we conducted hierarchical regression to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors (life stress and current depression) and motherhood with extracted ventral striatal (VST) response to reward anticipation. Whole-brain regression analyses were performed post-hoc to explore non-striatal regions associated with reward anticipation in mothers vs nulliparous women. Anticipation of monetary reward was associated with increased neural activity in expected regions including caudate, orbitofrontal, occipital, superior and middle frontal cortices. There was no main effect of motherhood nor motherhood-by-psychosocial factor interaction effect on VST response during reward anticipation. Depressive symptoms were associated with increased VST activity across the entire sample. In exploratory whole brain analysis, motherhood was associated with increased somatosensory cortex activity to reward (FWE cluster forming threshold preward anticipation-related VST activity nor does motherhood modulate the impact of depression or life stress on VST activity. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether earlier postpartum assessment of reward function, inclusion of mothers with more severe depressive symptoms, and use of reward tasks specific for social reward might reveal an

  4. Research Microcultures as Socialization Contexts for Underrepresented Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Dustin B; Muragishi, Gregg A; Smith, Jessi L

    2017-06-01

    How much does scientific research potentially help people? We tested whether prosocial-affordance beliefs (PABs) about science spread among group members and contribute to individual students' motivation for science. We tested this question within the context of research experience for undergraduates working in faculty-led laboratories, focusing on students who belong to underrepresented minority (URM) groups. Longitudinal survey data were collected from 522 research assistants in 41 labs at six institutions. We used multilevel modeling, and results supported a socialization effect for URM students: The aggregate PABs of their lab mates predicted the students' own initial PABs, as well as their subsequent experiences of interest and their motivation to pursue a career in science, even after controlling for individual-level PABs. Results demonstrate that research labs serve as microcultures of information about the science norms and values that influence motivation. URM students are particularly sensitive to this information. Efforts to broaden participation should be informed by an understanding of the group processes that convey such prosocial values.

  5. Sexual Desire in Sexual Minority and Majority Women and Men: The Multifaceted Sexual Desire Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sara B; Burke, Shannon M; Goldey, Katherine L; Bell, Sarah N; van Anders, Sari M

    2017-11-01

    Sexual desire is increasingly understood to be multifaceted and not solely erotically oriented, but measures are still generally unitary and eroticism-focused. Our goals in this article were to explore the multifaceted nature of sexual desire and develop a measure to do so, and to determine how multifaceted sexual desire might be related to gender/sex and sexual orientation/identity. In the development phase, we generated items to form the 65-item Sexual Desire Questionnaire (DESQ). Next, the DESQ was administered to 609 women, 705 men, and 39 non-binary identified participants. Results showed that the DESQ demonstrated high reliability and validity, and that sexual desire was neither unitary nor entirely erotic, but instead was remarkably multifaceted. We also found that multifaceted sexual desire was in part related to social location variables such as gender/sex and sexual orientation/identity. We propose the DESQ as a measure of multifaceted sexual desire that can be used to compare factor themes, total scores, and scores across individual items in diverse groups that take social context into account. Results are discussed in light of how social location variables should be considered when making generalizations about sexual desire, and how conceptualizations of desire as multifaceted may provide important insights.

  6. Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology: Executive Session. Report of the Proceedings (Cambridge, Massachusetts, April 8, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston…

  7. Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology: Public Hearing. Report of the Proceedings (Cambridge, Massachusetts, April 7, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston…

  8. The Effects of the 150-Credit-Hour Requirement for the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) Exam On the Career Intentions of Women and Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierstaker, James Lloyd; Howe, Martha A.; Seol, Inshik

    2005-01-01

    In most states, students who sit for the certified public accountant (CPA) examination are now required to have 150 credit hours of college education. In this article, the authors examined the effects of this requirement on the career intentions of women and minorities. The authors collected data from 600 accounting students and the results…

  9. Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology: Executive Session. Report of the Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, March 3, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston…

  10. A qualitative systematic review of published work on disclosure and help-seeking for domestic violence and abuse among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femi-Ajao, Omolade; Kendal, Sarah; Lovell, Karina

    2018-03-07

    Domestic violence and abuse has been recognised as an international public health problem. However, the pervasiveness of the problem is unknown due in part to underreporting, especially among women from ethnic minority populations. In relation to this group, this review seeks to explore: (1) the barriers to disclosure; (2) the facilitators of help-seeking; and (3) self-perceived impacts of domestic violence. We systematically identified published qualitative studies conducted among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK. Data analysis was completed using thematic analysis approach. 562 papers were identified and eight papers from four studies conducted among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Barriers to disclosure include: Immigration status, community influences, problems with language and interpretation, and unsupportive attitudes of staff within mainstream services. Facilitators of help-seeking were: escalation of abuse and safety of children. Self-perceived impact of abuse includes: shame, denial, loss of identity and lack of choice. There is an on-going need for staff from domestic violence services to be aware of the complexities within which women from ethnic minority populations experience domestic violence and abuse.

  11. Recruitment and retention of low-income minority women in a behavioral intervention to reduce smoking, depression, and intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Kennan B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have frequently encountered difficulties in the recruitment and retention of minorities resulting in their under-representation in clinical trials. This report describes the successful strategies of recruitment and retention of African Americans and Latinos in a randomized clinical trial to reduce smoking, depression and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk profiles of retained vs. non-retained women and lost to follow-up vs. dropped-out women are presented. In addition, subgroups of pregnant women who are less (more likely to be retained are identified. Methods Pregnant African American women and Latinas who were Washington, DC residents, aged 18 years or more, and of 28 weeks gestational age or less were recruited at six prenatal care clinics. Potentially eligible women were screened for socio-demographic eligibility and the presence of the selected behavioral and psychological risks using an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview. Eligible women who consented to participate completed a baseline telephone evaluation after which they were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to either the intervention or the usual care group. Results Of the 1,398 eligible women, 1,191 (85% agreed to participate in the study. Of the 1,191 women agreeing to participate, 1,070 completed the baseline evaluation and were enrolled in the study and randomized, for a recruitment rate of 90%. Of those enrolled, 1,044 were African American women. A total of 849 women completed the study, for a retention rate of 79%. Five percent dropped out and 12% were lost-to-follow up. Women retained in the study and those not retained were not statistically different with regard to socio-demographic characteristics and the targeted risks. Retention strategies included financial and other incentives, regular updates of contact information which was tracked and monitored by a computerized data

  12. Minority Stress, Smoking Patterns, and Cessation Attempts: Findings From a Community-Sample of Transgender Women in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Mereish, Ethan H; Manning, David; Iwamoto, Mariko; Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru

    2016-03-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between reports of minority stressors and smoking behaviors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations; however, little is known about how minority stressors are related to smoking behaviors and cessation attempts among transgender women. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the associations between transgender-based discrimination and smoking patterns among a sample of transgender women; and (2) to identify barriers to smoking cessation in a sample of transgender women with a history of smoking. A community sample of 241 transgender women completed a one-time survey. Binary and multinomial logistic regression models examined associations between minority stressors and (1) smoking behaviors and (2) cessation attempts. Both models adjusted for income, education, race/ethnicity, recent sex work, HIV status, depression, alcohol use, and current hormone use. Overall, 83% of participants indicated that they had smoked a cigarette in the last month. Of these women, 62.3% reported daily smoking and 51.7% reported an unsuccessful quit attempt. Discrimination was positively associated with currently smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.08). Discrimination was positively associated with unsuccessful cessation (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.18) and never attempting (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.11) compared to successful cessation. Discrimination was also positively associated with never attempting compared to unsuccessful cessation (AOR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.03). Smoking cessation may be driven by unique transgender-related minority stressors, such as discrimination. Future research is warranted to address unique stigmatizing contexts when understanding and providing tailored intervention addressing smoking among transgender women. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government

  13. The effectiveness of "Exercise on Prescription" in stimulating physical activity among women in ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosper, Karen; Deutekom, Marije; Stronks, Karien

    2008-12-10

    Lack of physical activity is an important risk factor for overweight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other chronic conditions. In the Netherlands, ethnic minority groups are generally less physically active and rate their own health poorer compared to ethnic Dutch. This applies in particular to women. For this reason women from ethnic minority groups are an important target group for interventions to promote physical activity.In the Netherlands, an exercise referral program ("Exercise on Prescription") seems successful in reaching women from ethnic minority groups, in particular because of referral by the general practitioner and because the program fits well with the needs of these women. However, the effect of the intervention on the level of physical activity and related health outcomes has not been formally evaluated within this population. This paper describes the study design for the evaluation of the effect of "Exercise on Prescription" on level of physical activity and related health outcomes. The randomized controlled trial will include 360 inactive women from ethnic minority groups, with the majority having a non-Western background, aged between 18 and 65 years old, with regular visits to their general practitioner. Participants will be recruited at healthcare centres within a deprived neighbourhood in the city of The Hague, the Netherlands. An intervention group of 180 women will participate in an exercise program with weekly exercise sessions during 20 weeks. The control group (n = 180) will be offered care as usual. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months. Main outcome measure is minutes of self reported physical activity per week. Secondary outcomes are the mediating motivational factors regarding physical activity, subjective and objective health outcomes (including wellbeing, perceived health, fitness and body size) and use of (primary) health care. Attendance and attrition during the program will be determined

  14. [Outcomes of pregnancy among women with alpha-thalassemia minor: A retrospective study of Pingguo county in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, T; Guo, X F; Zhou, Y H; Qiu, X Q; Li, S; Liang, Z R; Qin, X L; Li, K H; Zeng, X Y

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To investigate the association between the value of α-thalassemia minor and the outcomes in pregnant women. Methods: A total of 445 pregnant women with α-thalassemia minor were selected as thalassemia group in the Pingguo County Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Guangxi from January 2011 to December 2015, with ratio of 1∶4 healthy pregnant women was randomly recruited as non-thalassemia group. Clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were retrospectively analyzed using methods including t test, χ (2) test, and logistic regression model and ROC curve. Results: There were no significant differences noticed in factors as age, BMI, gestational age and educational level of the two groups. Hemoglobin of the thalassemia group was significantly lower than that of the non-thalassemia group ( P pregnancy outcomes was comparable on parameters as preterm birth, stillbirth, macrosomia. Findings from the unconditional logistic regression showed that pregnancy complicated with α-thalassemia minor appeared a risk for both newborns with low birth weight (a OR =2.29, 95% CI : 1.32-3.95) and small for date infant (a OR = 2.11, 95% CI : 1.16-3.84). The ROC curve showed that α-thalassemia minor combined with multiple indicators presented a certain predictive value on neonatal birth weight. Conclusion: Pregnancy complicated with α-thalassemia minor was likely to increase the risk of birth weight loss in newborns, suggesting that prenatal care for pregnant women with thalassemia be strengthened, in order to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Effects of minority stress processes on the mental health of Latino men who have sex with men and women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W; Padilla, Mark B; Willner, Lauren; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Emerging literature on minority stress among sexual minority populations has described the negative consequences that multiple minority statuses may exert on mental health and well-being. This literature has tended to focus on individuals whose self-identifications reflect sexual minority sexual categories, such as gay or bisexual, and has explored the intersection of these definitions with ethnic, racial, and class statuses. Few such studies have explored mental health among men who actively deny a sexual minority sexual identity label while engaging in same-sex sexual behaviors. The present study used ethnographic interview data from 20 non-gay-identified bisexually behaving Dominican and Puerto Rican men in New York City. Participants described discovery of same sex sexual behavior as a threat to their intimate relationships, community affiliation, and counter to expectations of Latino masculinity. Recounting a wide range of information management strategies used to avoid open disclosure about their sexual lives, participants experienced the potential consequences of disclosure as extreme and even life threatening. Men anticipated social isolation, depression, self-injury, and suicidality as possible outcomes from disclosing sexual behavior with other men to their female romantic partners. This analysis provides direction for future research on minority stress processes and mental health service delivery among Latino men who have sex with men and women.

  16. Understanding How Sexual and Gender Minority Stigmas Influence Depression Among Trans Women and Men Who Have Sex with Men in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Vijin, Pandara Purayil; Logie, Carmen H; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Samuel, Miriam

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have assessed how sexual and gender minority stigmas affect the mental health of trans women and self-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in India, populations with a high HIV burden. We tested whether social support and resilient coping act as mediators of the effect of sexual and gender minority stigmas on depression as proposed by Hatzenbuehler's psychological mediation framework, or as moderators based on Meyer's minority stress theory. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among trans women (n = 300) and MSM (n = 300) recruited from urban and rural sites in India. Standardized scales were used to measure depression (outcome variable), transgender identity stigma/MSM stigma (predictor variables), and social support and resilient coping (tested as moderators and parallel mediators). The mediation and moderation models were tested separately for trans women and MSM, using Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS. Participants' mean age was 29.7 years (standard deviation 8.1). Transgender identity stigma and MSM stigma were significant predictors (significant total and direct effects) of depression, as were social support and resilient coping. Among trans women and MSM, social support and resilient coping mediated (i.e., significant specific indirect effects), but did not moderate, the effect of stigma on depression, supporting the psychological mediation framework. Sexual and gender minority stigmas are associated with depression, with social support and resilient coping as mediators. In addition to stigma reduction interventions at the societal level, future interventions should focus on improving social support and promoting resilience among trans women and MSM in India.

  17. Doctoral Programs Need Changes to Attract and Retain Underrepresented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, R. E.; Mayfield, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience is currently recognized as the least diverse of all STEM fields. While attention typically focuses on K-12 and undergraduate populations, the extreme lack of diversity among graduate students, and doctoral students in particular, should be examined and addressed. In 2016, members of underrepresented minority (URM) groups made up only 6% of those graduating with geoscience PhDs. In all STEM fields, only 48% of Hispanic/Latino and 38% of Black/African American doctoral studies had earned doctorates within 7 years, with 36% of members of these groups leaving the program entirely. Recent studies suggest that these high attrition rates can be attributed, in part, to a mismatch between motivations of URM members and PhD-granting institutions while students are pursuing scientific education and careers. Traditional STEM doctoral programs do not offer, facilitate, or incentivize substantial opportunities to integrate social justice issues, community involvement, and altruism—factors which have been found to be of more importance to these populations than to male members of well-represented groups. URM members are also less likely to be interested in purely academic research careers, so doctoral programs may be failing to attract (and failing to prepare) diverse populations by not offering experiences beyond typical research and TA duties. In this presentation, trends in motivation and persistence among URM students in STEM will be discussed, in addition to highlighting education and outreach activities that can be successfully incorporated for a more fulfilling, balanced, attractive, and preparatory education experience. Specific activities undertaken and recommended by the presenter in her PhD experience include the following: a federal research internship, a state government policy internship, a formal partnership with a local K-12 teacher though a former NSF GK-12 program, a two-week education workshop aboard a scientific research drillship, and attending a

  18. Coping with workplace minority stress: Associations between dyadic coping and anxiety among women in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ashley K; Totenhagen, Casey J; Walsh, Kelsey J; Adams, Caroline; Tao, Chun

    2017-01-02

    Sexual minorities are exposed to stressors in the workplace (workplace minority stress), which can be detrimental for well-being (e.g., levels of anxiety). The present study examined whether a particular set of relationship processes, dyadic coping, served to moderate the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Using a dyadic sample of 64 female same-sex couples, we found that partner problem-focused supportive dyadic coping (DC) and emotion-focused supportive DC (marginally) buffered, whereas partner delegated DC and negative DC did not moderate, the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health practitioners are discussed.

  19. Maternal Vitamin D Insufficiency Early in Pregnancy Is Associated with Increased Risk of Preterm Birth in Ethnic Minority Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Negar; Auger, Nathalie; Herba, Catherine M; Wei, Shuqin; Allard, Catherine; Fink, Guy D; Fraser, William D

    2017-06-01

    Background: Maternal vitamin D insufficiency (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] rates of preterm and spontaneous preterm births. Objective: We explored the relation between maternal plasma 25(OH)D concentration in the first trimester (8-14 wk of gestation) and the risk of preterm and spontaneous preterm births (birth (distribution of vitamin D status between cases and controls for 8 ethnic minority subgroups. We explored the association between maternal plasma 25(OH)D concentration and preterm and spontaneous preterm births with the use of splines in logistic regression by ethnicity. Results: The distributions of maternal vitamin D status (75 nmol/L) were different in preterm and spontaneous preterm birth cases compared with controls but only in women of ethnic minority ( P- trend = 0.003 and 0.024, respectively). Among ethnic subgroups, sub-Saharan Africans ( P -trend = 0.030) and Arab-West Asians ( P -trend = 0.045) showed an inverse relation between maternal vitamin D status and the risk of preterm birth. Maternal plasma 25(OH)D concentrations of 30 nmol/L were associated with 4.05 times the risk of preterm birth in the total ethnic minority population (95% CI: 1.16, 14.12; P = 0.028) relative to participants with a concentration of 75 nmol/L. In contrast, there was no such association among nonethnic women (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.82; P = 0.85). There was no association when we considered only spontaneous preterm births in the total ethnic minority population (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 0.39, 7.79; P = 0.46). Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in ethnic minority women in Canada. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Minor drug-resistant HIV type-1 variants in breast milk and plasma of HIV type-1-infected Ugandan women after nevirapine single-dose prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Daniel; Hauser, Andrea; Kuecherer, Claudia; Mugenyi, Kizito; Kabasinguzi, Rose; Somogyi, Sybille; Harms, Gundel; Kunz, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD) reduces mother-to-child transmission of HIV type-1 (HIV-1), but frequently induces resistance mutations in the HIV-1 genome. Little is known about drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in the breast milk of women who have taken NVP-SD. Blood and breast milk samples of 39 HIV-1-infected Ugandan women were taken 6-12 weeks after NVP-SD intake. Samples were analysed by population sequencing and allele-specific real-time PCR (AS-PCR) with detection limits for NVP-resistant HIV-1 variants (K103N and Y181C) of D n = 5, G n = 2 and C n = 1). A total of 7 (37%) and 10 (53%) women carried NVP-resistant virus in breast milk and plasma, respectively. Overall, 71% (5/7) women with NVP-resistant HIV-1 in breast milk displayed >1 drug-resistant variant. Resistance in breast milk was higher at week 6 (6/13 samples [46%]) compared with week 12 (1/6 samples [17%]). In total, 10 drug-resistant populations harbouring the K103N and/or Y181C mutation were detected in the 19 breast milk samples; 7 (70%) were caused by resistant minorities (< 5% of the total HIV-1 population). In the four women with drug-resistant virus in both plasma and breast milk, the mutation patterns differed between the two compartments. Minor populations of drug-resistant HIV-1 were frequently found in breast milk of Ugandan women after exposure to NVP-SD. Further studies need to explore the role of minor drug-resistant variants in the postnatal transmission of (resistant) HIV-1.

  1. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail..

  2. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. The impact of religiosity on dietary habits and physical activity in minority women participating in the Health is Power (HIP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Serene; Soltero, Erica G; Lorenzo, Elizabeth; Lee, Rebecca E

    2017-03-01

    African American (AA) and Hispanic/Latina (HL) women report lower rates of physical activity (PA) and poorer dietary habits compared to their white counterparts. Religiosity can act as a protective factor for health; however, the relationship between religiosity, PA, and diet is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of religiosity on PA and fruit and vegetable (FV) and fat consumption in minority women. Health is Power (HIP) was a 6-month intervention where participants (AA: 63%; HL: 37%) were randomized to a PA or FV group. Questionnaires assessed religiosity at baseline and PA, FV and fat consumption at baseline and post-intervention. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to investigate religiosity as a predictor of change in PA, FV and fat, while controlling for demographics. AA women had significantly higher religiosity scores (M = 44.15, SD = 10.66) compared to H/L women (M = 35.11, SD = 12.82; t (251) = 5.86, p  < 0.001). Across both groups, PA increased by 15%, FV intake increased by 27%, and consumption of calories by fat decreased by 5%. Religiosity was not a significant predictor of PA or diet ( p  < 0.05). The results of this study found no association between religiosity and change in PA and diet. More longitudinal studies are needed to explore the role of religiosity in the health of minority women.

  4. Community Engagement Compared With Technical Assistance to Disseminate Depression Care Among Low-Income, Minority Women: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbourne, Cathy; Chung, Bowen; Tang, Lingqi; Wright, Aziza L.; Whittington, Yolanda; Wells, Kenneth; Miranda, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of a (CEP) versus a technical assistance approach (Resources for Services, or RS) to disseminate depression care for low-income ethnic minority women. Methods. We conducted secondary analyses of intervention effects for largely low-income, minority women subsample (n = 595; 45.1% Latino and 45.4% African American) in a matched, clustered, randomized control trial conducted in 2 low-resource communities in Los Angeles, California, between 2010 and 2012. Outcomes assessed included mental health, socioeconomic factors, and service use at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results. Although we found no intervention difference for depressive symptoms, there were statistically significant effects for mental health quality of life, resiliency, homelessness risk, and financial difficulties at 6 months, as well as missed work days, self-efficacy, and care barriers at 12 months favoring CEP relative to RS. CEP increased use of outpatient substance abuse services and faith-based depression visits at 6 months. Conclusions. Engaging health care and social community programs may offer modest improvements on key functional and socioeconomic outcomes, reduce care barriers, and increase engagement in alternative depression services for low-income, predominantly ethnic minority women. PMID:27552274

  5. Pregnancy as an ideal time for intervention to address the complex needs of black and minority ethnic women: views of British midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Maria Raisa Jessica V; Edge, Dawn; Smith, Debbie M

    2015-03-01

    maternal health inequalities exist across the world. In the United Kingdom, whilst there are variations within and between groups, Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) women tend to have worse maternal health outcomes than White British women. However, there is limited information about BME women's experience of maternity services. Midwives are central to the provision of safe maternity care but little is known about their perceptions of ethnically-based inequalities in maternal healthcare. Therefore, this study explored a cohort of midwives' experiences of providing care for BME women, focussing on their views on the relationship between maternal health inequalities and service delivery. using a specifically-designed topic guide, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted with qualified midwives in one National Health Service (NHS) Trust in the North West of England over a two-month period. Data were subsequently transcribed and thematically analysed. three main and seven sub-themes were identified. Firstly, 'language' summarised difficulties midwives experienced in engaging with women whose English was limited. Secondly, 'expectations of maternity care' outlined the mismatch between midwives and women's expectations of maternity care. Finally, 'complex needs extending beyond maternity care' highlighted the necessity of inter-agency working to address women's care holistically when their needs transcend the scope of maternity services. Midwives' accounts indicated that they strive to provide equitable care but encountered numerous barriers in doing so. Paradoxically, this might contribute to inequalities in service delivery. In midwives' view, unrestricted access to interpretation and translation services is essential for provision of effective, holistic maternity care. Participants also advocated education for both women and midwives. For the former, this would improve BME women's understanding of health and care systems, potentially leading to more realistic

  6. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  7. Devaluing Women and Minorities: The Effects of Race/Ethnic and Sex Composition of Occupations on Wage Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lori L.

    1998-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979-87, suggest that the percentage of white women in an occupation negatively affects wage levels. The percentages of black men or women or Latino/a men or women do not have negative effects. Occupational devaluation does not contribute to the race/ethnic wage gap and comparable worth policies…

  8. The Mediating Roles of Rejection Sensitivity and Proximal Stress in the Association Between Discrimination and Internalizing Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, Christina; Feinstein, Brian A; Eaton, Nicholas R; London, Bonita

    2018-01-01

    The negative impact of discrimination on mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations has been well documented. However, the possible mediating roles of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress in the association between discrimination and internalizing symptoms remain unclear. Rejection-based proximal stress is a subset of proximal stressors that are theorized to arise from concerns about and expectations of sexual orientation-based rejection and discrimination. Drawing on minority stress theory, we tested potential mediating effects using indirect effects structural equation modeling in a sample of 300 sexual minority women. Results indicated that the indirect effect of discrimination on internalizing symptoms (a latent variable indicated by depression and anxiety symptoms) through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress (a latent variable indicated by preoccupation with stigma, concealment motivation, and difficulty developing a positive sexual identity) was significant. Additionally, the indirect effects of discrimination on rejection-based proximal stress through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity on internalizing symptoms through rejection-based proximal stress were also significant. These findings indicate that sexual orientation rejection sensitivity plays an important role in contributing to rejection-based proximal stress and internalizing symptoms among sexual minority women.

  9. Final Report National Laboratory Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Valerie [Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The 2013 CMD-IT National Laboratories Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants (CMD-IT NLPDev 2013) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus in Oak Ridge, TN. from June 13 - 14, 2013. Sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Scientific Computing Research Program, the primary goal of these workshops is to provide information about career opportunities in computational science at the various national laboratories and to mentor the underrepresented participants through community building and expert presentations focused on career success. This second annual workshop offered sessions to facilitate career advancement and, in particular, the strategies and resources needed to be successful at the national laboratories.

  10. Retention and Mentorship of Minority Students via Undergraduate Internship Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P.

    2004-12-01

    The School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology at the University of Hawaii is undertaking an Undergraduate Research Internship project to address the lack of full representation of women and underrepresented minorities in the geosciences. The overarching educational objective is to provide education and career development guidance and opportunities for students from underrepresented minorities. In collaboration with industry partners, we hope to prepare undergraduate students for life and careers in today's complex and dynamic technological world by encouraging them to attain high standards in the geosciences, thereby enabling them to compete successfully for positions in graduate programs. To achieve his goal, the project focuses on the following objectives: (1) Creating a high-quality integrated on-campus teaching and off-campus learning environment, and (2) providing an intensive introduction to geoscience careers through the guidance of experienced faculty and workplace mentors. The program will start small, collaborating with one or two companies over the next two years, offering paid summer internships. Opportunities for students include participation in geoscience-related research, obtaining experience in interpreting observations and providing information to end-users, working to improve technology and field methods, and developing the expertise to maintain, operate and deploy equipment. Program participants are assigned individual projects that relate to their academic majors, their career goals, and the ongoing research missions of our industry partners. In addition to their research activities, participants attend a series of seminars and tours dealing with current topics in geoscience to expose them to the wide variety of scientific and technical activities that occur in the workplace. The expected outcomes of this experience will be scientific growth and career development. Given that a very small percentage of all students go on to graduate

  11. 'I do want to ask, but I can't speak': a qualitative study of ethnic minority women's experiences of communicating with primary health care professionals in remote, rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinn, Shannon; Duong, Thuy Linh; Foster, Kirsty; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2017-10-30

    Ethnic minority groups in Vietnam experience economic, social and health inequalities. There are significant disparities in health service utilisation, and cultural, interpersonal and communication barriers impact on quality of care. Eighty per cent of the population of Dien Bien Province belongs to an ethnic minority group, and poor communication between health professionals and ethnic minority women in the maternal health context is a concern for health officials and community leaders. This study explores how ethnic minority women experience communication with primary care health professionals in the maternal and child health setting, with an overall aim to develop strategies to improve health professionals' communication with ethnic minority communities. We used a qualitative focused ethnographic approach and conducted focus group discussions with 37 Thai and Hmong ethnic minority women (currently pregnant or mothers of children under five) in Dien Bien Province. We conducted a thematic analysis. Ethnic minority women generally reported that health professionals delivered health information in a didactic, one-way style, and there was a reliance on written information (Maternal and Child Health handbook) in place of interpersonal communication. The health information they receive (both verbal and written) was often non-specific, and not context-adjusted for their personal circumstances. Women were therefore required to take a more active role in interpersonal interactions in order to meet their own specific information needs, but they are then faced with other challenges including language and gender differences with health professionals, time constraints, and a reluctance to ask questions. These factors resulted in women interpreting health information in diverse ways, which in turn appeared to impact their health behaviours. Fostering two-way communication and patient-centred attitudes among health professionals could help to improve their communication with

  12. Are All Minority Women Equally Buffered from Negative Body Image? Intra-Ethnic Moderators of the Buffering Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Natalie J.; Cole, Elizabeth R.; Ward, L. Monique

    2010-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction is normative among European American women, and involvement with predominant culture or linking self-worth to weight may intensify the association between body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness for women of color. Our study investigated whether orientation to other ethnic groups (Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure) and…

  13. The Complexities of Intimate Partner Violence: Mental Health, Disabilities, and Child Abuse History for White, Indigenous, and Other Visible Minority Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutty, Leslie M; Radtke, H L; Ateah, Christine A; Ursel, E Jane; Thurston, Wilfreda E Billie; Hampton, Mary; Nixon, Kendra

    2017-11-01

    This research examines how mental health issues associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) relate to women's intersecting identities of race/ethnicity, disability status, and child abuse history. Data ( N = 595) from a Canadian triprovincial study included women who were White ( n = 263, 44.8%), Indigenous ( n = 292, 49.7%), or visible minority ( n = 32, 5.5%). Few demographic differences were found. None of the mental health measures (Symptom Checklist-Short Form [SCL-10], Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression [CES-D-10], Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD] Checklist) were in the clinical ranges. In a MANCOVA on the mental health scales, with IPV severity, racial group, disability status, and child abuse history as variables, only disability was significantly associated with more mental health symptoms.

  14. Inclusive STEM High Schools Increase Opportunities for Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Nancy K.; Lynch, Sharon J.; Ford, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on a study of eight inclusive STEM high schools that are designed to increase the numbers of students in demographic groups underrepresented in STEM. As STEM schools, they have had broader and deeper STEM coursework (taken by all students) than required by their respective states and school districts; they also had outcome…

  15. Emotional Management and Motivation: A Case Study of Underrepresented Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of emotions in the workplace rarely has been examined within the context of higher education (Neumann, 2006; Smith and Witt, 1993). Through a qualitative approach, the purpose of this chapter is to offer a perspective of faculty work that examines the role that emotions play in the academic life of 15 underrepresented faculty members…

  16. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Success for Underrepresented Students in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine A.; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2016-01-01

    To recruit underrepresented students with demonstrated financial need into STEM disciplines, Lock Haven University established the interdisciplinary Nano Scholars Program, offering National Science Foundation-funded scholarships, academic support, and social support. Small cohort sizes, a student-led science learning community (the Nano Club), and…

  17. Higher Education and Disability: Past and Future of Underrepresented Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, David W.; Stodden, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past half century higher education in the United States has been challenged to develop and implement policies and practices that effectively promote the access, retention, and graduation of diverse underrepresented populations. One of these populations is comprised of individuals with disabilities, whose equal access to higher education…

  18. Building Bridges: College to Career for Underrepresented College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Darris R.; Bryant, Immanuel; Crutchfield, Stacey; Jones, Michelle; Wade, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Colleges and universities have increased institutional outreach to diversify their campuses, however, campus leaders, faculty, and staff, particularly at predominantly White institutions (PWIs), must provide more and different support services as their institutional demographics shift to include more underrepresented students. The shift in…

  19. Evaluation of adjunctive HPV testing by Hybrid Capture II® in women with minor cytological abnormalities for the diagnosis of CIN2/3 and cost comparison with colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyi May S

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a proportion of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3 are associated with equivocal cervical smears, which show borderline or mild dyskaryosis, follow up with repeat smears, colposcopy and biopsy is required. Since infection with oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HR HPV has been found to be associated with the development of cervical cancer, HRHPV testing appears to be an alternative. Objective The present study assesses if HRHPV testing can predict CIN2/3 in women referred for mild dyskaryosis and borderline cytological changes in an health authority with a referral policy to colposcopy after one single mild dyskaryotic Pap smear. Study design The HPV DNA Hybrid Capture II (Digene/Abbott, Maidenhead was evaluated on 110 consenting women with mild dyskaryosis and 23 women with persistent borderline changes, who were referred for colposcopy between May and November 2001. A cost comparison between two referral policies was performed. Results CIN2/3 was diagnosed histologically in 30 of 133 women (22% with minor cytological abnormalities. As the Receiver Operator Characteristics plot suggested a cut-off of 3 pg/ml the HRHPV HCII was evaluated at 3 RLU (relative light units and at the manufacturer's recommendation of 1 RLU. At both cut-offs sensitivity and negative predictive value were high at 97%. Specificity was low at 37% at a cut-off of 1 pg/ml and 46% at a cut-off of 3 RLU. To remain cost neutral in comparison to immediate colposcopy the costs for one HR HPV HC II must not exceed £34.37 per test at a cut off of 3 pg/ml. Conclusion The negative likelihood ratio (NLR was of good diagnostic value with 0.089 at 1 RLU and 0.072 at 3 RLU, which reduces the post-test probability for CIN2/3 to 2% in this population. Women with minor cytological disorders can be excluded from colposcopy on a negative HR HPV result. Specificity can be improved by restricting HR HPV testing to women with persistent borderline

  20. The Fermi Paradox in STEM-Where Are the Women Leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2017-12-01

    This commentary summarizes insights and discussions about the status of women leaders in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and medicine). While many academic institutions now train close to 50 % female students in STEM disciplines, there is a major underrepresentation of qualified women in leadership roles. Women are admitted to the basements of STEM institutions, but only few make it to the top floor. We see male superstars receiving well-deserved recognitions and advancements. Unfortunately, their female counterparts are often held back or cut down by both male and female colleagues. Increasing reports of acts of discrimination reported by women in STEM fields are a symptom. Unilateral hierarchy is the root cause. Just increasing the quote/proportion of women and underrepresented minorities at an institution is therefore not enough to address the underlying problem. At Stanford Radiology, we started a major initiative to increase the representation of qualified women and other underrepresented minorities in our leadership teams in order to ensure that every member of the Department has an advocate at the leadership table, when decisions are being made. Diverse leadership teams are vital to creating a culture of respect and inclusion for everyone.

  1. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials examining the effectiveness of breast and cervical cancer screening interventions for ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dorothy N S; So, Winnie K W

    2015-10-01

    To examine the effect that breast and/or cervical cancer screening programmes for ethnic minority women have on their knowledge of and beliefs about breast or cervical cancer and screening, and on their screening intentions and uptake rates. Recommendations are also made for the format and content of such programmes, based on existing evidence. A comprehensive literature search was carried out both manually and by means of five electronic databases. The findings are summarised and synthesised in narrative fashion. The ten RCTs included here were conducted among ethnic minority women in the United States or Canada, where breast or cervical cancer screening programmes have led to improvements in screening intentions, knowledge of cervical cancer and pap test uptake. The Breast Cancer Screening Belief Scale and self-reporting were the methods commonly used to measure outcomes. The shared characteristics of both countries' programmes were that they were theory- and language-based, the instruction took place in a community setting, the materials were culturally relevant, the content highlighted key messages about breast or cervical cancer and screening measures, and there were multiple intervention strategies. Breast or cervical cancer screening programmes in Western countries have demonstrated improvements in knowledge of the disease, screening intentions and pap test uptake, although evidence on the effectiveness of the interventions has been limited. The common characteristics of programmes are identified, but a comprehensive model is still needed to link these characteristics with other factors and mediators influencing outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Narratives of marginalized cyclists : understanding obstacles to utilitarian cycling among women and minorities in Portland, OR : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Research has demonstrated that everyday or utilitarian forms of cycling are most likely to generate positive : population-level health impacts (Garrard et al., 2012), yet significant deterrents to routine cycling remain, : particularly for women and ...

  3. Lack of Sexual Minorities' Rights as a Barrier to HIV Prevention Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James E; Kanters, Steve

    2015-03-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between variation in human rights for sexual minorities in Asian countries and indicators of HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. To quantitatively measure the relationship between variation in HIV prevention and variation in human rights for sexual minorities, this study developed the Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI) Human Rights Index (an original index with scores ranging from 0.0 to 1.0). Subsequently, this study collected 237 epidemiological and behavioral studies from 22 Asian countries and performed a series of meta-analyses in order to calculate national averages for five indicators of HIV prevention: HIV prevalence, inconsistent condom use, recent HIV testing, adequate HIV knowledge, and exposure to HIV prevention services. A change of human rights for sexual minorities from a score of 0.0 to 1.0 as measured by the SOGI Human Rights Index was correlated with a decrease in unprotected anal intercourse by 25.5% (p=0.075), and increases in recent HIV testing by 42.9% (p=0.011), HIV knowledge by 29.5% (p=0.032), and exposure to HIV prevention services by 37.9% (p=0.119). The relationship between HIV prevalence and variation in human rights for sexual minorities was not statistically significant. Our study found correlations between human rights and indicators of HIV prevention, further supporting the need for increased rights among marginalized populations. The paucity of studies from many Asian countries as well as the disparity in how indicators of HIV prevention are measured reveals a need for increased coverage and standardization of MSM serological and behavioral data in order to better inform evidence-based policymaking.

  4. Managing Asthma in Low-Income, Underrepresented Minority, and Other Disadvantaged Pediatric Populations: Closing the Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisias, Margee; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-09-15

    In this article, we review current understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of disparities in asthma. We also highlight current and emerging literature on solutions to tackle disparities while underscoring gaps and pressing future directions. Tailored, multicomponent approaches including the home, school, and clinician-based interventions show great promise. Managing asthma in disadvantaged populations can be challenging as they tend to have disproportionately worse outcomes due to a multitude of factors. However, multifaceted, innovative interventions that are sustainable and scalable are key to improving outcomes.

  5. The future of warfarin pharmacogenetics in under-represented minority groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Larisa H; Perera, Minoli A

    2012-01-01

    Genotype-based dosing recommendations are provided in the US FDA-approved warfarin labeling. However, data that informed these recommendations were from predominately Caucasian populations. Studies show that variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in Caucasians provide similar contributions to dose requirements in US Hispanics, but significantly lesser contributions in African–Americans. Further data demonstrate that variants occurring commonly in individuals of African ancestry, but rarely in other racial groups, significantly influence dose requirements in African–Americans. These data suggest that it is important to consider variants specific for African–Americans when implementing genotype-guided warfarin dosing in this population. PMID:22871196

  6. A Critical Examination of Senior Executive Leadership Succession Planning and Management with Implications for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, LeKeisha D.

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the research questions, this study utilized a sequential explanatory mixed methods research design to examine senior executive leadership succession planning at four-year, predominately white, doctoral universities in the state of Georgia. Utilizing the Representative Bureaucracy theory and the Mateso SPM conceptual model, this study…

  7. Including everyone: A peer learning program that works for under-represented minorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques van der Meer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer learning has long been recognised as an effective way to induct first-year students into the academic skills required to succeed at university. One recognised successful model that has been extensively researched is the Supplemental Instruction (SI model; it has operated in the US since the mid-1970s. This model is commonly known in Australasia as the Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS program. Although there is a considerable amount of research into SI and PASS, very little has been published about the impact of peer learning on different student groups, for example indigenous and other ethnic groups. This article reports on the results from one New Zealand university of the effectiveness of PASS for Māori and Pasifika students. The questions this article seeks to address are whether attendance of the PASS program results in better final marks for these two groups of students, and whether the number of sessions attended has an impact on the final marks.

  8. Obstacles to promotion? Values of women faculty about career success and recognition. Committee on the Status of Women and Minorities, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, L M; Sanders, K; Shih, M; Kallar, S; Hampton, C

    2000-03-01

    To assess attitudes of female faculty about career progress, resources for career development, and values related to academic success and recognition. In 1997, the authors surveyed all faculty at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine and its associated Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Of 918 faculty, 567 (62%) responded to the survey; 33% of the respondents were women. Compared with men, women faculty were less likely to be tenured or at the level of professor, spent more time in clinical activities, had less time for scholarly activity, and reported slower career progress. Women were more likely to report that promotion and tenure criteria had not been reviewed with them. Significant differences were found between female physicians and non-physician faculty; female physicians reported the least time for scholarly activities and poorest understanding of promotion and tenure criteria. When the authors asked faculty how they valued certain indicators of career success, women were less likely to value leadership than were men. Female physicians were less likely to value scholarship and national recognition as indicators of their career success. This survey found important differences in career progress of male and female faculty, with women reporting less time for career development. In addition, there were differences in values related to career success and recognition, which were most pronounced for female physicians. These differences may have an important impact on promotion for women in general and particularly for female physicians.

  9. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  10. At Hesitant Doors: The lived experience of women in STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina B. da Costa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological investigation aims to explore the lived experience of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM disciplines. As a minority group within a traditionally male-dominated space, women are still underrepresented in the upper echelons of science, even if the number of women in STEM is increasing. The author draws from her experiences as an “undesirable statistic,” a woman who entered college as a STEM student but ended up getting a degree in the social sciences. The author attempts to gain some new insights and understanding of the issue of women in STEM, engaging in two in-depth phenomenological conversations with a female engineering student in a large public university of US Mid-Atlantic region.

  11. Women's Political Empowerment and Investments in Primary Schooling in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Nafisa; Yount, Kathryn M; Cunningham, Solveig A; Pande, Rohini P

    2016-02-01

    Using a national district-level dataset of India composed of information on investments in primary schooling (data from the District Information Survey for Education [DISE, 2007/8]) and information on demographic characteristics of elected officials (data from the Election Commission of India [ECI, 2000/04]), we examined the relationship between women's representation in State Legislative Assembly (SLA) seats and district-level investments in primary schooling. We used OLS regressions adjusting for confounders and spatial autocorrelation, and estimated separate models for North and South India. Women's representation in general SLA seats typically was negatively associated with investments in primary-school amenities and teachers; women's representation in SLA seats reserved for under-represented minorities, i.e., scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, typically was positively associated with investments in primary schooling, especially in areas addressing the basic needs of poor children. Women legislators' gender and caste identities may shape their decisions about redistributive educational policies.

  12. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women (IHVN-W): Conceptualization, factor structure, reliability, and associations with hypothesized correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese internalized homophobia (IH) scale, for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n=1187), or as bisexual (n=641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n=353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscales’ associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the Minority Stress Model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed. PMID:27007469

  13. Young Women's Political Participation in Malawi | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is ... They continue to be underrepresented in positions of power. ... social, economic, cultural and political situation of rural women in Malawi affects the political ...

  14. Economic analysis of human papillomavirus triage, repeat cytology, and immediate colposcopy in management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Hjerpe, Anders; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of using human papillomavirus testing (HPV triage) in the management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden. An economic analysis based on a clinical trial, complemented with data from published meta-analyses on accuracy of HPV triage. The study takes perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. The Swedish population-based cervical cancer screening program. A decision analytic model was constructed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of HPV triage compared to repeat cytology and immediate colposcopy with biopsy, stratifying by index cytology (ASCUS = atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and LSIL = low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and age (23-60 years, cytological abnormalities. Today, immediate colposcopy with biopsy is a cost-effective alternative compared to HPV triage and repeat cytology.

  15. Depressive Symptoms among Latino Sexual Minority Men and Latina Transgender Women in a New Settlement State: The Role of Perceived Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about the role of discrimination on depression among Latino sexual and gender identity minorities. This manuscript examined the relationship between ethnic/racial discrimination and sexual discrimination on clinically significant depressive symptoms among Latino sexual minority men (i.e., gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men and Latina transgender women. Methods. A community-based participatory research partnership recruited participants (N = 186; 80.6% cisgender men in North Carolina to a social network-based HIV intervention. Using baseline data, we quantified the amount of perceived discrimination and conducted mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine correlates of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Results. A high percentage of participants reported ethnic/racial discrimination (73.7% and sexual discrimination (53.8%. In the multivariable models, ethnic/racial discrimination, sexual discrimination, masculinity, fatalism, and social support were significantly associated with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Discussion. Improving mental health requires multilevel interventions that address pertinent individual, interpersonal, and system level factors.

  16. The generalizability of NCI-sponsored clinical trials accrual among women with gynecologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Grace; Minasian, Lori M; Kohn, Elise C; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Temkin, Sarah M

    2016-12-01

    Enrollment of a representative population to cancer clinical trials ensures scientific reliability and generalizability of results. This study evaluated the similarity of patients enrolled in NCI-supported group gynecologic cancer trials to the incident US population. Accrual to NCI-sponsored ovarian, uterine, and cervical cancer treatment trials between 2003 and 2012 were examined. Race, ethnicity, age, and insurance status were compared to the analogous US patient population estimated using adjusted SEER incidence data. There were 18,913 accruals to 156 NCI-sponsored gynecologic cancer treatment trials, ovarian (56%), uterine (32%), and cervical cancers (12%). Ovarian cancer trials included the least racial, ethnic and age diversity. Black women were notably underrepresented in ovarian trials (4% versus 11%). Hispanic patients were underrepresented in ovarian and uterine trials (4% and 5% versus 18% and 19%, respectively), but not in cervical cancer trials (14 versus 11%). Elderly patients were underrepresented in each disease area, with the greatest underrepresentation seen in ovarian cancer patients over the age of 75 (7% versus 29%). Privately insured women were overrepresented among accrued ovarian cancer patients (87% versus 76%), and the uninsured were overrepresented among women with uterine or cervical cancers. These patterns did not change over time. Several notable differences were observed between the patients accrued to NCI funded trials and the incident population. Improving representation of racial and ethnic minorities and elderly patients on cancer clinical trials continues to be a challenge and priority. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical School Outcomes, Primary Care Specialty Choice, and Practice in Medically Underserved Areas by Physician Alumni of MEDPREP, a Postbaccalaureate Premedical Program for Underrepresented and Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Anneke M

    2017-01-01

    Minorities continue to be underrepresented as physicians in medicine, and the United States currently has a number of medically underserved communities. MEDPREP, a postbaccalaureate medical school preparatory program for socioeconomically disadvantaged or underrepresented in medicine students, has a stated mission to increase the numbers of physicians from minority or disadvantaged backgrounds and physicians working with underserved populations. This study aims to determine how MEDPREP enhances U.S. physician diversity and practice within underserved communities. MEDPREP recruits disadvantaged and underrepresented in medicine students to complete a 2-year academic enhancement program that includes science coursework, standardized test preparation, study/time management training, and emphasis on professional development. Five hundred twenty-five disadvantaged or underrepresented students over 15 years completed MEDPREP and were tracked through entry into medical practice. MEDPREP accepts up to 36 students per year, with two thirds coming from the Midwest region and another 20% from nearby states in the South. Students complete science, test preparation, academic enhancement, and professionalism coursework taught predominantly by MEDPREP faculty on the Southern Illinois University Carbondale campus. Students apply broadly to medical schools in the region and nation but are also offered direct entry into our School of Medicine upon meeting articulation program requirements. Seventy-nine percent of students completing MEDPREP became practicing physicians. Fifty-eight percent attended public medical schools, and 62% attended medical schools in the Midwest. Fifty-three percent of program alumni chose primary care specialties compared to 34% of U.S. physicians, and MEDPREP alumni were 2.7 times more likely to work in medically underserved areas than physicians nationally. MEDPREP increases the number of disadvantaged and underrepresented students entering and graduating

  18. Gender and academic medicine: a good pipeline of women graduates is not advancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljak, Livia; Kojundzic, Sanja Lovric; Sapunar, Damir

    2008-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in the higher levels of appointment in academic medicine, despite the so-called feminization of medicine. A 27-year (1979-2006) retrospective study was conducted regarding the success and advancement of women and men at the University of Split School of Medicine in Croatia. Data were collected from the school's archive, including number of women and men among applicants, enrollees, graduates, teachers, department chairs and the school management: high school grade averages and admission tests scores by applicant gender and gender-based graduation grade averages. The number and gender patterns of all employed and unemployed physicians in the Split-Dalmatia county were also collected. Men represent the minority among applicants, enrollees, and graduates, whereas women were in the minority among faculty, department chairs, and the school management across all 27 years. Graduation grades from high school and medical school showed that women were statistically better students, although the difference was slight. In the same geographic area, women are more often unemployed and less likely to specialize. More women are applying, enrolling and graduating from the University of Split School of Medicine. Women also perform statistically better on entrance exam and have better graduation grades, yet they remain a minority in faculty and leadership positions. A review of county-wise employment statistics revealed that women were more frequently unemployed and less likely to specialize in this study.

  19. Longitudinal Associations among Discordant Sexual Orientation Dimensions and Hazardous Drinking in a Cohort of Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E.; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L.; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined differences between sexual minority women’s (SMW’s) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. PMID:25911224

  20. Opportunity Knocks: Pipeline Programs Offer Minority Students a Path to Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Minority students have traditionally been underrepresented in dental schools, which is why enrichment and pipeline programs aimed at helping minority students are necessary. That reality is reflected in their woeful underrepresentation among practicing dentists. Hispanics made up only 5.8 percent of practicing dentists in 2011, according to the…

  1. The establishment of minority affairs offices in schools of dentistry: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Billy R

    2003-09-01

    The establishment of Minority Affairs Offices in dental schools following the American Association of Medical Colleges' model is discussed as one method of addressing the declining enrollment and compounding oral health disparities of underrepresented minorities African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans in U.S. dental schools. The pros and cons of the approach are discussed, with recommendations.

  2. Participation in mental health care by ethnic minority users: Case studies from the Netherlands and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares de Freitas, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines participation in mental health care by users from socially disadvantaged ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands and in Brazil. Despite considerable evidence that minority users are under-represented in health participatory spaces in these and other countries around the world,

  3. Ironic Effects of Sexual Minority Group Membership: Are Lesbians Less Susceptible to Invoking Negative Female Stereotypes than Heterosexual Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedlich, Claudia; Steffens, Melanie C; Krause, Jacqueline; Settke, Elisabeth; Ebert, Irena D

    2015-07-01

    The traditional stereotype of the typical woman has been described as "nice, but incompetent." However, such general gender stereotypes are applied to individual targets only under certain conditions: They are used to "fill in the blanks" (Heilman, 2012) if little personal information is provided about a target. "Typical lesbians" are regarded to have more typically masculine (agentic) characteristics such as task competence than the typical woman does. We thus hypothesized that if a woman displays behavior coinciding with the stereotype of the typical woman, it is more readily interpreted as stereotypically female if performed by a heterosexual woman than by a lesbian. Participants (N = 296) read a hypothetical job interview in which we manipulated the target's sexual orientation (between subjects). Findings demonstrated that a lesbian was judged as more competent than a heterosexual woman in the presence of behavior that may be interpreted as gender-stereotypical (Experiments 1 and 2). This difference in competence judgments was not found in the absence of gender-stereotypical behavior (Experiment 1). Judging the heterosexual woman as low in masculinity was related to a judgment of lower competence (Experiment 2). Our findings demonstrate that there are conditions under which lesbians, a group often stereotyped negatively, are less susceptible to invoking negative female stereotypes than heterosexual women are.

  4. Public Hearing: Report of the Proceedings of a Public Hearing of the Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology (Atlanta, Georgia, March 2, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology was established by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 99-383 with the purpose of developing a long-range plan for broadening participation in science and engineering. Public hearings were held in Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Baltimore (Maryland), Boston…

  5. Intersectionality, Recruitment and Selection : Ethnic Minority Candidates in Dutch Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections

  6. What Lies Behind NSF Astronomer Demographics? Subjectivities of Women, Minorities and Foreign-born Astronomers within Meshworks of Big Science Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Reynal; Gu, D.; Holbrook, J.; Murillo, L. F.; Traweek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our current research focuses on the trajectory of scientists working with large-scale databases in astronomy, following them as they strategically build their careers, digital infrastructures, and make their epistemological commitments. We look specifically at how gender, ethnicity, nationality intersect in the process of subject formation in astronomy, as well as in the process of enrolling partners for the construction of instruments, design and implementation of large-scale databases. Work once figured as merely technical support, such assembling data catalogs, or as graphic design, generating pleasing images for public support, has been repositioned at the core of the field. Some have argued that such databases enable a new kind of scientific inquiry based on data exploration, such as the "fourth paradigm" or "data-driven" science. Our preliminary findings based on oral history interviews and ethnography provide insights into meshworks of women, African-American, "Hispanic," Asian-American and foreign-born astronomers. Our preliminary data suggest African-American men are more successful in sustaining astronomy careers than Chicano and Asian-American men. A distinctive theme in our data is the glocal character of meshworks available to and created by foreign-born women astronomers working at US facilities. Other data show that the proportion of Asian to Asian American and foreign-born Latina/o to Chicana/o astronomers is approximately equal. Futhermore, Asians and Latinas/os are represented in significantly greater numbers than Asian Americans and Chicanas/os. Among professional astronomers in the US, each ethnic minority group is numbered on the order of tens, not hundreds. Project support is provided by the NSF EAGER program to University of California, Los Angeles under award 0956589.

  7. Appraisal Support from Natural Mentors, Self-worth, and Psychological Distress: Examining the Experiences of Underrepresented Students Transitioning Through College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle

    2018-05-01

    The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.

  8. Lessons Learned Recruiting Minority Participants for Research in Urban Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Elizabeth; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2018-02-01

    To help understand and mitigate health disparities, it is important to conduct research with underserved and underrepresented minority populations under real world settings. There is a gap in the literature detailing real-time research staff experience, particularly in their own words, while conducting in-person patient recruitment in urban community health centers. This paper describes challenges faced at the clinic, staff, and patient levels, our lessons learned, and strategies implemented by research staff while recruiting predominantly low-income African-American women for an interviewer-administered survey study in four urban Federally Qualified Health Centers in New Jersey. Using a series of immersion-crystallization cycles, fieldnotes and research reflections written by recruiters, along with notes from team meetings during the study, were qualitatively analyzed. Clinic level barriers included: physical layout of clinic, very low or high patient census, limited private space, and long wait times for patients. Staff level barriers included: unengaged staff, overburdened staff, and provider and staff turnover. Patient level barriers included: disinterested patients, patient mistrust and concerns over confidentiality, no-shows or lack of patient time, and language barrier. We describe strategies used to overcome these barriers and provide recommendations for in-person recruitment of underserved populations into research studies. To help mitigate health disparities, disseminating recruiters' experiences, challenges, and effective strategies used will allow other researchers to build upon these experience in order to increase recruitment success of underserved and underrepresented minority populations into research studies. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increasing Underrepresented Students in Geophysics and Planetary Science Through the Educational Internship in Physical Sciences (EIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, S.; Olgin, J. G.; Enriquez, F.

    2017-12-01

    The number of underrepresented minorities pursuing STEM fields, specifically in the sciences, has declined in recent times. In response, the Educational Internship in Physical Sciences (EIPS), an undergraduate research internship program in collaboration with The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) Geological Sciences Department and El Paso Community College (EPCC), was created; providing a mentoring environment so that students can actively engage in science projects with professionals in their field so as to gain the maximum benefits in an academic setting. This past year, interns participated in planetary themed projects which exposed them to the basics of planetary geology, and worked on projects dealing with introductory digital image processing and synthesized data on two planetary bodies; Pluto and Enceladus respectively. Interns harnessed and built on what they have learned through these projects, and directly applied it in an academic environment in solar system astronomy classes at EPCC. Since the majority of interns are transfer students or alums from EPCC, they give a unique perspective and dimension of interaction; giving them an opportunity to personally guide and encourage current students there on available STEM opportunities. The goal was to have interns gain experience in planetary geology investigations and networking with professionals in the field; further promoting their interests and honing their abilities for future endeavors in planetary science. The efficacy of these activities toward getting interns to pursue STEM careers, enhance their education in planetary science, and teaching key concepts in planetary geophysics are demonstrated in this presentation.

  10. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students’ Science Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew C.; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life sciences across ethnic groups of freshman college students, as moderated by generational status. Results from a longitudinal survey (N = 249) demonstrated that freshman URM students who enter with a greater belief that science can be used to help their communities identified as scientists more strongly over time, but only among first-generation college students. Analysis of the survey data were consistent with content analysis of 11 transcripts from simultaneously conducted focus groups (N = 67); together, these studies reveal important differences in motivational characteristics both across and within ethnicity across educational generation status. First-generation URM students held the strongest prosocial values for pursuing a science major (e.g., giving back to the community). URM students broadly reported additional motivation to increase the status of their family (e.g., fulfilling aspirations for a better life). These findings demonstrate the importance of culturally connected career motives and for examining intersectional identities to understand science education choices and inform efforts to broaden participation. PMID:27543631

  11. Underrepresentation of Ethiopian-Israeli Minority Students in Programmes for the Gifted and Talented: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Chen C.; Katz, Chana

    2015-01-01

    Students from disadvantaged or minority backgrounds are often underrepresented in public educational programmes for the gifted and talented (G&T), a phenomenon that has concerned educators for the last two decades. Ethiopian-Israeli minority students (EIMS) are a good example of this phenomenon, as more than 95% of the vast resources allocated…

  12. The Sangre Por Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; de Oca, Gregorio Montes; Levey, Sharon; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims The Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Methods Latino adults (ages 18–85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center’s internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. Results During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Conclusion Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in

  13. The Sangre Por Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; Montes de Oca, Gregorio; Levey, Sharon; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Latino adults (ages 18-85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center's internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in precision medicine initiatives and biomedical

  14. Women discouraged by masculine culture in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2016-12-01

    An analysis of more than 1000 papers on gender disparity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has revealed three main reasons why women are underrepresented in those subjects at undergraduate level in the US.

  15. The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE): A New Model for Promoting Minority Participation in Astronomy Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, C. D.; Bieging, J. H.; Phillips, C. B.; Tieu, J.; Prather, E. E.; Povich, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) program represents a new and innovative kind of research program for undergraduates: one that can effectively carry out the goal of recruiting qualified minority and female students to participate in Astronomy and Planetary Science research opportunities, while mentoring them in a way to maximize the chance that these students will persist in obtaining their undergraduate degrees in STEM fields, and potentially go on to obtain their PhDs or pursue careers in those fields. The members of CAMPARE comprise a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and four major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, and JPL/Caltech). Most undergraduate research programs focus on a single research institution. By having multiple institutions, we significantly broaden the opportunities for students, both in terms of breadth of research topics and geographical location. In its first three years, the CAMPARE program has had 20 undergraduates from two CSU campuses, both Hispanic Serving Institutions, take part in research and educational activities at four research institutions, the University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, and JPL/Caltech. Of the 20 participants, 9 are women and 11 are men, a much more even split than is typical in Astronomy research programs; 10 are Hispanic, 2 are African American, and 1 is part Native American, including 2 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants, an exceptionally high participation rate (65%) for students from underrepresented minority groups. Of the five participants who have graduated since the program began, two are in graduate programs in Physics or Astronomy, two are pursuing a K-12 teaching credential, and one has enlisted in the Nuclear Propulsion Officer Candidate

  16. Biosphere Reserve for All: Potentials for Involving Underrepresented Age Groups in the Development of a Biosphere Reserve through Intergenerational Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanenko, Tamara; Snajdr, Julia; Muhar, Andreas; Penker, Marianne; Schauppenlehner-Kloyber, Elisabeth

    2018-05-22

    Stakeholder participation is of high importance in UNESCO biosphere reserves as model regions for sustainable development; however, certain groups remain underrepresented. The paper proposes Intergenerational Practice (IP) as a means of involving youth and elderly women and explores its options and barriers, using the example of the Salzburger Lungau and Kärntner Nockberge Biosphere Reserve in Austria. Case study analysis is used involving mixed methods. The results reveal obstacles and motivations to participating in biosphere reserve implementation and intergenerational activities for the youth and the elderly women and imply that much potential for IP exists in the biosphere reserve region. The authors propose suitable solutions from the intergenerational field to overcome identified participation obstacles and suggest benefits of incorporating IP as a management tool into biosphere reserve activities. Suggestions for future research include evaluating applications of IP in the context of protected areas, testing of methods used in other contexts, and contribution to theory development.

  17. Minority Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, R

    2005-01-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG when

  18. Representation of Women With Industry Ties in Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashvini K; Bounds, Gregory W; Bakri, Sophie J; Gordon, Lynn K; Smith, Justine R; Haller, Julia A; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2016-06-01

    ), and median payments to women were $3750 compared with $5000 for men (P = .005). Women remained underrepresented among ophthalmologists receiving industry payments for research (25 of 241 [10.4%]), consulting (145 of 921 [15.7%]), honoraria (14 of 11 [12.6%]), industry grants (3 of 25 [12.0%]), royalties and licenses (1 of 22 [4.6%]), and faculty/speaker roles (21 of 189 [11.1%]) in 2014. Women make up a minority of ophthalmologists with professional industry relationships, and the average woman partnering with industry earns less than her male colleagues. The reasons for differences are multifactorial and could not be determined by this study.

  19. Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE: Engaging Underrepresented Students in Physics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Cal-Bridge Team; CAMPARE Team

    2018-06-01

    We describe two programs, Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, creating a national impact on their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field. In 9 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 150 students, >80% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of 14 major research institutions throughout the country. Of the CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor’s degree, almost two-thirds (65%) have completed or are pursuing graduate education in physics, astronomy, or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, UC Riverside, UC Irvine, UC Santa Barbara, USC, Stanford, Univ. of Arizona, Univ. of Washington, Univ. of Rochester, Michigan State Univ., Georgia Tech, Georgia State Univ., Kent State, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Oregon, Syracuse Univ., Montana State Univ., and the Fisk- Vanderbilt Master’s-to-PhD program. Now in its fourth year, the Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of physics and astronomy faculty from 9 University of California (UC), 15 California State University (CSU), and more than 30 California Community College (CCC) campuses throughout California. In the first four years, 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars have been selected, including 22 Hispanic, 3 African-American and 13 women students, 10 of whom are from URM groups. Thirty (30) of the 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars are first generation college students. In the last three years, 17 of 21 Cal-Bridge Scholars have begun or been accepted PhD programs in physics or astronomy at top PhD programs nationally. Three (3) of these scholars have won NSF Graduate Research Fellowships; one more received an Honorable Mention. Once selected, Cal-Bridge Scholars benefit from substantial financial support, intensive, joint mentoring by CSU

  20. Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE: Engaging Underrepresented Students in Physics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE Teams

    2018-01-01

    We describe two programs, Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, creating a national impact on their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.In 8 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 112 students, >80% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of 14 major research institutions throughout the country. Of the CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor’s degree, almost two-thirds (65%) have completed or are pursuing graduate education in physics, astronomy, or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, UC Riverside, UC Irvine, UC Santa Barbara, USC, Stanford, Univ. of Arizona, Univ. of Washington, Univ. of Rochester, Michigan State Univ., Georgia Tech, Georgia State Univ., Kent State, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Oregon, Syracuse Univ., Montana State Univ., and the Fisk-Vanderbilt Master’s-to-PhD program.Now entering its fourth year, the Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of >140 physics and astronomy faculty from 9 University of California (UC), 15 California State University (CSU), and 30 California Community College (CCC) campuses throughout California. In the first four years, 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars have been selected, including 22 Hispanic, 3 African-American and 13 women students, 10 of whom are from URM groups. Thirty (30) of the 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars are first generation college students. In the last two years, 11 of 13 Cal-Bridge Scholars have begun PhD programs in physics or astronomy at top PhD programs nationally. Three (3) of these 11 scholars have won NSF Graduate Research Fellowships; one more received an Honorable Mention. The next cohort applies this fall.Cal-Bridge provides much deeper mentoring and professional development experiences over the last

  1. Women in Physics and Astronomy in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2005-10-01

    I presented results from the AIP report, Women in Physics and Astronomy, 2005 (R. Ivie and K. Nies Ray, AIP Publication Number R-430.02, www.aip.org/statistics/trends/reports/women05.pdf), which was funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Compared with other scientific fields, women are very underrepresented in physics, although their representation has increased in the last 30 years. By 2003, women earned 18% of the physics degrees in the United States, which is a record high. In 2003, women earned 26% of the PhDs in astronomy. However, minority women (African-American and Hispanic) receive very few physics and astronomy degrees in the U.S. Also troubling is the salary gap between men's and women's salaries in physics and related fields. Even within the same employment sector and controlling for years since degree, women earn 5% less than men. The percentage of newly hired part-time faculty who are women is higher than the percentages hired into tenured and tenure-track positions. Many women take physics in high school, but a smaller percentage take the Advanced Placement physics exams, and an even smaller percentage earn physics bachelor's degrees. However, once women have earned a bachelor's degree in physics, they are able to persist in academic careers. In fact, our data show that women are represented on physics and astronomy faculties at about the rates we would expect given degree production in the past. Finally, women's representation in physics varies across countries, documenting the influence of social and cultural factors on the representation of women in science.

  2. Number of Minority Students in Colleges Rose by 9% from 1990 to 1991, U.S. Reports; Fact File: State-by-State Enrollment by Racial and Ethnic Group, Fall 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1993-01-01

    A national survey shows that total minority enrollment in colleges is at an all-time high at 20.6 percent of overall enrollment. Despite this, minority groups continue to be underrepresented in college student populations. Enrollments by state indicate wide geographic variation in percentages of students from ethnic and racial minorities. (MSE)

  3. Looking in the Right Places: Minority-Serving Institutions as Sources of Diverse Earth Science Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, John R.; Manduca, Cathryn A.; Iverson, Ellen R.; Orr, Cailin Huyck

    2017-01-01

    Despite gains over the last decade, the geoscience student population in the United States today continues to lag other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines in terms of diversity. Minority-serving institutions (MSIs) can play an important role in efforts to broaden underrepresented student engagement with Earth Science…

  4. Women in Academic Medicine: Measuring Stereotype Threat Among Junior Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassiotto, Magali; Hamel, Elizabeth Otto; Ku, Manwai; Correll, Shelley; Grewal, Daisy; Lavori, Philip; Periyakoil, V J; Reiss, Allan; Sandborg, Christy; Walton, Gregory; Winkleby, Marilyn; Valantine, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    Gender stereotypes in science impede supportive environments for women. Research suggests that women's perceptions of these environments are influenced by stereotype threat (ST): anxiety faced in situations where one may be evaluated using negative stereotypes. This study developed and tested ST metrics for first time use with junior faculty in academic medicine. Under a 2012 National Institutes of Health Pathfinder Award, Stanford School of Medicine's Office of Diversity and Leadership, working with experienced clinicians, social scientists, and epidemiologists, developed and administered ST measures to a representative group of junior faculty. 174 School of Medicine junior faculty were recruited (62% women, 38% men; 75% assistant professors, 25% instructors; 50% white, 40% Asian, 10% underrepresented minority). Women reported greater susceptibility to ST than did men across all items including ST vulnerability (p gender identification (p women reported lower beliefs in advancement (p = 0.021); however, they had similar career interest and identification, felt just as connected to colleagues, and were equally likely to pursue careers outside academia (all p > 0.42). Innovative ST metrics can provide a more complete picture of academic medical center environments. While junior women faculty are susceptible to ST, they may not yet experience all of its consequences in their early careers. As such, ST metrics offer a tool for evaluating institutional initiatives to increase supportive environments for women in academic medicine.

  5. Comparison of a theory-based (AIDS Risk Reduction Model) cognitive behavioral intervention versus enhanced counseling for abused ethnic minority adolescent women on infection with sexually transmitted infection: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Ethnic minority adolescent women with a history of sexual or physical abuse and sexually transmitted infections represent a vulnerable population at risk for HIV. Community-based interventions for behavior modification and subsequent risk reduction have not been effective among these women. To evaluate the effects of a theory-based (AIDS Risk Reduction Model) cognitive behavioral intervention model versus enhanced counseling for abused ethnic minority adolescent women on infection with sexually transmitted infection at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Controlled randomized trial with longitudinal follow-up. Southwestern United States, Metropolitan community-based clinic. Mexican-and-African American adolescent women aged 14-18 years with a history of abuse or sexually transmitted infection seeking sexual health care. Extensive preliminary study for intervention development was conducted including individual interviews, focus groups, secondary data analysis, pre-testing and feasibility testing for modification of an evidence-based intervention prior to testing in the randomized controlled trial. Following informed consents for participation in the trial, detailed interviews concerning demographics, abuse history, sexual risk behavior, sexual health and physical exams were obtained. Randomization into either control or intervention groups was conducted. Intervention participants received workshop, support group and individual counseling sessions. Control participants received abuse and enhanced clinical counseling. Follow-up including detailed interview and physical exam was conducted at 6 and 12 months following study entry to assess for infection. Intention to treat analysis was conducted to assess intervention effects using chi-square and multiple regression models. 409 Mexican-(n=342) and African-(n=67) American adolescent women with abuse and sexually transmitted infection histories were enrolled; 90% intervention group attendance; longitudinal follow-up at 6 (93

  6. Interrelationships between LGBT-Based Victimization, Suicide, and Substance Use Problems in a Diverse Sample of Sexual and Gender Minority Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; O'Cleirigh, C; Bradford, Judith B.

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e., victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity; LGBT) and suicidality. A non-probability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age 19 to 70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, and substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038

  7. Minority Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2005-02-25

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the

  8. Perceived Barriers to Success for Minority Nursing Students: An Integrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Loftin, Collette; Newman, Susan D.; Dumas, Bonnie P.; Gilden, Gail; Bond, Mary Lou

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify barriers to successful program completion faced by underrepresented minority nursing students. This paper reveals that minority nursing student’s face multiple barriers to success including lack of financial support, inadequate emotional and moral support, as well as insufficient academic advising, program mentoring, technical support, and professional socialization. An additional theme—a resolve to succeed in spite of the identified barriers—was id...

  9. Overcoming Barriers: Women in Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Claire M.

    2009-01-01

    Women currently represent the largest number of teachers in the United States but remain underrepresented in the superintendent position. This suggests that the superintendency has been influenced by patriarchy. If women are to break through the barriers that prevent them from attaining a superintendency, we will need to understand the social…

  10. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  11. Gender Mainstreaming or Promoting Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulstich-Wieland, Hannelore

    2005-01-01

    Gender inequalities in education are very apparent. Young women are overrepresented in educational training and in the school-based training and correspondingly underrepresented in the dual training courses. Gender segmentation in professional education continues to exist. Women are overrepresented in the service sector, while men are in…

  12. College Graduation Rates for Minority Students in a Selective Technical University: Will Participation in a Summer Bridge Program Contribute to Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terrence E; Gaughan, Monica; Hume, Robert; Moore, S Gordon

    2010-03-01

    There are many approaches to solving the problem of underrepresentation of some racial and ethnic groups and women in scientific and technical disciplines. Here, the authors evaluate the association of a summer bridge program with the graduation rate of underrepresented minority (URM) students at a selective technical university. They demonstrate that this 5-week program prior to the fall of the 1st year contains elements reported as vital for successful student retention. Using multivariable survival analysis, they show that for URM students entering as fall-semester freshmen, relative to their nonparticipating peers, participation in this accelerated summer bridge program is associated with higher likelihood of graduation. The longitudinal panel data include more than 2,200 URM students.

  13. Access to mental health care among women Veterans: is VA meeting women's needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Pavao, Joanne; Greene, Liberty; Karpenko, Julie; Rodriguez, Allison; Saweikis, Meghan; Washington, Donna L

    2015-04-01

    Patient-centered access to mental health describes the fit between patient needs and resources of the system. To date, little data are available to guide implementation of services to women veterans, an underrepresented minority within Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) health care. The current study examines access to mental health care among women veterans, and identifies gender-related indicators of perceived access to mental health care. A population-based sample of 6287 women veterans using VA primary care services participated in a survey of past year perceived need for mental health care, mental health utilization, and gender-related mental health care experiences. Subjective rating of how well mental health care met their needs was used as an indicator of perceived access. Half of all women reported perceived mental health need; 84.3% of those women received care. Nearly all mental health users (90.9%) used VA services, although only about half (48.8%) reported that their mental health care met their needs completely or very well. Gender related experiences (availability of female providers, women-only treatment settings, women-only treatment groups, and gender-related comfort) were each associated with 2-fold increased odds of perceived access, and associations remained after adjusting for ease of getting care. Women VA users demonstrate very good objective access to mental health services. Desire for, and access to specialized mental health services for women varies across the population and are important aspects of shared decision making in referral and treatment planning for women using VA primary care.

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Arab Women in the United States: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Sarah; De Penning, Emily; Brawner, Bridgette M; Menon, Usha; Glanz, Karen; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2017-01-01

    Arab American women are an ethnic minority and immigrant population in the United States with unique and nuanced sociocultural factors that influence preventive health behaviors. The aims of this article are to evaluate and synthesize the existing evidence on cervical cancer screening behaviors, as well as determine factors that influence these behaviors, among Arab American women.
. Extensive literature searches were performed using PubMed, CINAHL®, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane databases; articles published through October 2015 were sought. 
. Of 17 articles, 14 explicitly identified Arab and/or Muslim women and cervical cancer screening in either the title or the abstract; the remaining three focused on cancer attitudes and behaviors in Arab Americans in general but measured cervical cancer screening. Eleven articles reported different aspects of one intervention. Because of methodologic heterogeneity, the current authors synthesized results narratively.
. Key factors influencing cervical cancer screening were identified as the following. Cervical cancer screening rates among Arab American women are comparable to other ethnic minorities and lower than non-Hispanic White women. Findings are inconsistent regarding factors influencing cervical cancer screening behaviors in this underrepresented group. 
. Significant need exists for more research to better understand cervical cancer prevention behaviors in this group to inform culturally relevant interventions. Healthcare providers play a crucial role in increasing cervical cancer screening awareness and recommendations for Arab American women.

  15. Women Scientific Researchers in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettachy, Amina; Maaroufi, Fatiha; Nouira, Asmae; Baitoul, Mimouna

    2009-04-01

    Despite Moroccan progress in working toward gender equity, and the removal of many discriminatory practices and barriers for women, females are still significantly underrepresented in most fields, particularly science. Attitudes about the role of women in society, which continue to define careers as either male or female, are largely responsible for this imbalance. We present statistics about the current status of women and give recommendations to encourage girls and women to pursue and take leadership positions in science.

  16. Conceptions of Power among Senior Women Administrators at Liberal Arts Colleges in the Upper Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in senior-level leadership positions in higher education institutions, and their experiences are underrepresented in research about leadership and power in higher education. This qualitative study engaged women senior administrators at liberal arts colleges in the Upper Midwestern United States to better understand how…

  17. A Mentoring Program in Environmental Science for Underrepresented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    We developed a four-year program, combining educational and career support and research activities, to recruit and retain students from underrepresented groups in environmental sciences. Specifically, the program: ○ Assigns each student a faculty or graduate student mentor with whom the student conducts research activities. ○ Includes a weekly group meeting for team building and to review professional development and academic topics, such as time management and research ethics. ○ Requires students to make multiple formal presentations of their research proposals and results. ○ Provides scholarships and stipends for both the academic year and to engage students in summer research. The program seeks to achieve several goals including: ● Enhance academic performance. ● Encourage continued study in environmental science. ● Facilitate students completing their studies at UVM. ● Increase students’ interest in pursuing science careers. ● Create a more welcoming academic environment. To assess progress toward achievement of these goals, we conducted individual structured interviews with participating undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty members at two points in time. First, interviews were conducted in the fall of 2007 after two years, and again in spring 2009, after four years. An independent research consultant, Dr. Livingston, conducted the interviews. In 2009, over the course of three days, the interviews included three graduate student and two faculty mentors, and six of the seven undergraduate students. Of the six students, three were juniors and three were graduating seniors. Results of the 2009 interviews echoed those of 2007. Both students and their mentors are quite satisfied with the program. The student presentations, weekly meetings, mentoring relationships, and summer research experiences all get high ratings from program participants. Students give high praise to their mentors and the program directors for providing

  18. Women faculty: an analysis of their experiences in academic medicine and their coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Jones, Sandra J

    2010-10-01

    Women represent a persistently low proportion of faculty in senior and leadership roles in medical schools, despite an adequate pipeline. This article highlights women's concerns in the context of the academic medical culture in which they work, and considers the ways in which they cope with and resist marginalizing situations. To explore the experiences of faculty in academic medicine, a multidisciplinary faculty research team conducted 96 open-ended interviews with faculty representing a broad set of disciplines at 4 different career stages (early career, leaders, plateaued, and left academic medicine) in 5 medical schools. Coded data from interview transcripts indicated situations in which women were marginalized. Experiences of marginality were examined through a systematic secondary analysis of a subset of 17 representative cases using qualitative analysis. Women had a sense of "not belonging" in the organization, perceiving themselves as cultural outsiders and feeling isolated and invisible. They described barriers to advancement, including bias and gender role expectations. Faculty from underrepresented minority groups and PhDs perceived a double disadvantage. Four strategies were identified that helped women cope with and resist professional barriers: self-silencing, creating microenvironments, balancing life and work, and simultaneously holding dual identities--being successful in the organization while trying to change the culture. Although the sample size was small, this analysis found that many women faculty perceive themselves as outsiders within academic medicine. Because of their marginalization, minority and non-minority women are more able to see the bias and exclusion that may operate in academic medical centers as well as other problematic dimensions of the culture. As cultural outsiders, women may be better able to advance change to improve academic medical culture. A next step is to leverage women's awareness to develop a broader vision of what

  19. Hispanic women overcoming deterrents to computer science: A phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Lourdes

    The products of computer science are important to all aspects of society and are tools in the solution of the world's problems. It is, therefore, troubling that the United States faces a shortage in qualified graduates in computer science. The number of women and minorities in computer science is significantly lower than the percentage of the U.S. population which they represent. The overall enrollment in computer science programs has continued to decline with the enrollment of women declining at a higher rate than that of men. This study addressed three aspects of underrepresentation about which there has been little previous research: addressing computing disciplines specifically rather than embedding them within the STEM disciplines, what attracts women and minorities to computer science, and addressing the issues of race/ethnicity and gender in conjunction rather than in isolation. Since women of underrepresented ethnicities are more severely underrepresented than women in general, it is important to consider whether race and ethnicity play a role in addition to gender as has been suggested by previous research. Therefore, this study examined what attracted Hispanic women to computer science specifically. The study determines whether being subjected to multiple marginalizations---female and Hispanic---played a role in the experiences of Hispanic women currently in computer science. The study found five emergent themes within the experiences of Hispanic women in computer science. Encouragement and role models strongly influenced not only the participants' choice to major in the field, but to persist as well. Most of the participants experienced a negative atmosphere and feelings of not fitting in while in college and industry. The interdisciplinary nature of computer science was the most common aspect that attracted the participants to computer science. The aptitudes participants commonly believed are needed for success in computer science are the Twenty

  20. Situation of the Kinh poor and minority women and their use of the Maternal Care and Family Planning Service in Nam Dong Mountainous District, Thuathien-Hue Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo Van, T; Hoat, L N; Jan van Schie, T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the barriers to the use of maternal care and family planning (MCFP) services by the disadvantaged Kinh people and Katu ethnic minority people in the remote and mountainous area of Nam Dong District in Central Vietnam. A survey was conducted using a random sample of 420 mothers with at least one child under the age of 5 years. These data were supplemented by interviews with key informants, focus group discussions and observations. Many barriers were identified. The difficulty of the terrain made travel to healthcare centers difficult. The cost of treatment was a barrier for the poorest people. The quality of the services and facilities, as well as the management of these services was perceived to be unsatisfactory. Traditional practices were often described as being contrary to the doctor's advice, and were presented as the reason for unsafe and unassisted home deliveries. Communication was difficult because of the minority languages of the client groups, the prevalence of illiteracy, and the absence of mass communication in this region. Finally, consulting a male healthcare worker was reported to bring the women shame. There is an urgent need for the MCFP services to build both clinical capacity and health promotion activities in a way that is gender sensitive, cognisant of traditional practices and accessible by both illiterate and minority language speaking people.

  1. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  2. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Johansson

    Full Text Available Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL cytology.Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211 or LSIL, (n = 131 were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+.Twenty-nine percent (61/211 of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131 in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0 among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0 among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02. The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively. The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3 and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6, for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27 as compared to 13.6% (43/315 of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03.The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had high negative predictive value for future

  3. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Hanna; Bjelkenkrantz, Kaj; Darlin, Lotten; Dilllner, Joakim; Forslund, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Objective Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic) in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology. Methods Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211) or LSIL, (n = 131) were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+. Results Twenty-nine percent (61/211) of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131) in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0) among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0) among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02). The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively) and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively). The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3) and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6), for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27) as compared to 13.6% (43/315) of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03). Conclusion The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had

  4. AP® STEM Participation and Postsecondary STEM Outcomes: Focus on Underrepresented Minority, First-Generation, and Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kara; Jagesic, Sanja; Wyatt, Jeff; Ewing, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    Projections by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (2012) point to a need for approximately one million more Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) professionals than the U.S. will be able to produce considering the current rate of STEM postsecondary degree completions (Executive Office of the President of…

  5. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  6. The educational journeys of first-generation college women in STEM: A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Susan

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the various factors that influenced these first-generation college women as they chose a college and selected a STEM major and subsequently persisted to upper level (junior/senior) status. Twenty-five first-generation college women in STEM majors who attended a research-intensive university in the Midwest were interviewed. Approaching this study using constructivist grounded theory provided the opportunity for deeper insights by examining data at a conceptual level while preserving the voices of the women in this study. The women faced numerous challenges on their journeys, yet they persisted. As the women in this study selected and persisted in STEM, they demonstrated thoughtful determination, experienced shifting identities, established purposeful relationships and applied forward thinking, as they practiced high-stakes decision-making during their journeys. The experiences of these women, namely first-generation women in STEM fields, may inform students, parents, educators, researchers, and policymakers concerned with (a) inspiring students to consider STEM majors, (b) fostering student success in STEM throughout their academic journeys, and (c) ultimately increasing the number of underrepresented minorities and women in the STEM fields.

  7. Predictors of Intent to Pursue a College Health Science Education among High Achieving Minority 10th Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Le, Daisy; Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Minority populations are underrepresented in fields of science, perhaps limiting scientific perspectives. Informed by recent studies using social cognitive career theory, this study examined whether three conceptual constructs: self-efficacy, perceived adult support, and perceived barriers, along with several discrete and immutable variables,…

  8. Careers "From" but Not "In" Science: Why Are Aspirations to Be a Scientist Challenging for Minority Ethnic Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The importance of science to the economy and for the progression of society is widely acknowledged. Yet, there are concerns that minority ethnic students in the UK are underrepresented, and even excluded, from post-compulsory science education and careers "in" science. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 semi-structured interviews with…

  9. Designing the Game: How a Project-Based Media Production Program Approaches STEAM Career Readiness for Underrepresented Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Kristin M.; Hu Dahl, Ingrid; Panahandeh, Shirin

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a need for a diverse workforce that is more highly educated in STEM and ICT fields, and one that is capable of responding creatively to demands for continual innovation. This paper, in response, chronicles the implementation of the Digital Pathways (DP) program, a two-time ITEST recipient and an ongoing initiative of the Bay Area Video Coalition. DP has provided low-income, underrepresented minority young people with 180 contact hours of activities in digital media production to prepare them to pursue higher education and technology careers. A design-based research approach synthesizes staff interviews with student observations, interviews and artifacts to identify a set of generalizable best practices or design principles for empowering young people to move from being consumers of digital media to producers. These principles are illustrated with a case study of the 3D Animation and Gaming track from the second ITEST grant. Researchers argue for the importance of attending to the noncognitive elements of learning and illustrate ways in which instructors encouraged creative expression, personal agency, and collaboration through long-term projects. They also identify strategies for sustaining young people's participation through the establishment of a supportive community environment.

  10. Enhancing the Careers of Under-Represented Junior Faculty in Biomedical Research: The Summer Institute Program to Increase Diversity (SIPID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Treva K; Liu, Li; Jeffe, Donna B; Jobe, Jared B; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Pace, Betty S; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2014-01-01

    The Summer Institute Program to Increase Diversity (SIPID) in Health-Related Research is a career advancement opportunity sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Three mentored programs address difficulties experienced by junior investigators in establishing independent research careers and academic advancement. Aims are to increase the number of faculty from under-represented minority groups who successfully compete for external research funding. Data were collected using a centralized data-entry system from three Summer Institutes. Outcomes include mentees' satisfaction rating about the program, grant and publications productivity and specific comments. Fifty-eight junior faculty mentees (38% male) noticeably improved their rates of preparing/submitting grant applications and publications, with a 18-23% increase in confidence levels in planning and conducting research. According to survey comments, the training received in grantsmanship skills and one-on-one mentoring were the most valuable program components. The SIPID mentoring program was highly valued by the junior faculty mentees. The program will continue in 2011-2014 as PRIDE (PRogram to Increase Diversity among individuals Engaged in health-related research). Long-term follow-up of current mentees will be indexed at five years post training (2013). In summary, these mentoring programs hope to continue increasing the diversity of the next generation of scientists in biomedical research.

  11. Engaging Diverse Students in Statistical Inquiry: A Comparison of Learning Experiences and Outcomes of Under-Represented and Non-Underrepresented Students Enrolled in a Multidisciplinary Project-Based Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierker, Lisa; Alexander, Jalen; Cooper, Jennifer L.; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2016-01-01

    Introductory statistics needs innovative, evidence-based teaching practices that support and engage diverse students. To evaluate the success of a multidisciplinary, project-based course, we compared experiences of under-represented (URM) and non-underrepresented students in 4 years of the course. While URM students considered the material more…

  12. Barriers to women's representation in academic excellence and positions of power

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf, Rizwana; Schmiede, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    "Nearly for half a century women's advancement in the workplace has been in a debate. Women’s under-represented in higher education institutions and universities across the globe, and especially in the most powerful or influential posts, is well established. Despite gender equality commitments and women's educational attainment, still, they are underrepresented. Regions and countries may vary in term of culture, achievements and development, but barriers for women's representation in academia...

  13. What's Ethnicity got to do with it? The Workplace Lived Experience of Ethnic Minority (IJAW) Women in the Nigerian Civil Service

    OpenAIRE

    Alex-Hart, Biebele

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines gender and ethnic inequalities in the Nigerian civil service through the\\ud lived experience of Ijaw women and the strategies they adopt to combat perceived\\ud discrimination. A theoretical framework of structure, culture, agency, intersectionality, and\\ud social identity theory underpinned this research. Hermeneutic phenomenological\\ud methodology was adopted within which 40 in-depth semi-structures interviews were\\ud conducted. Findings indicate that for most respondent...

  14. A Discussion on the Victorian Novel Canon and Underrepresented Sensation Women Novelists

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Seda Coşar

    2016-01-01

    The Victorians are known as a novel-writing and novel-reading society, which makes it nearly impossible to judge the exact number of novels that were published in the period. The novel industry was central to many Victorian concerns: novel-writing was a way of making money for numerous middle-class writers and novel-reading functioned as a domestic entertainment. Also, many novels were written as a medium of reflecting social, political issues and novel was used as a way of influencing readin...

  15. New Tools for Examining Undergraduate Students' STEM Stereotypes: Implications for Women and Other Underrepresented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Wyer, Mary; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Schneider, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although both domestic U.S. and international statistics on population demographics within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields indicate overall gains and more even representation among various groups, caution must be taken to interpret these gains as suggesting blanket improvement in underrepresentation issues. When…

  16. Topologies of an Effective Mentoring Model: At the Intersection of Community Colleges, Underrepresented Students, and Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Janet Lee

    2012-01-01

    This evidenced-based study was conducted using a systemic review of the literature to verify scholarly consensus about the effectiveness of mentoring as an intervention to impact college completion for underrepresented students in a community college setting. The study explored the impact of having access to mentors for the target population:…

  17. The Impact of Career Exploration upon the Success of Underrepresented Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Elaine J.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that contribute to college student success are multiple. Career exploration as a student success strategy was explored in this study. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study was to explore whether there was a relationship between career exploration and the success of underrepresented students in higher education. Quantitative…

  18. "Going Going....." Why Are Males Underrepresented in Pre-Service Primary Education Courses at University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    This sociological qualitative study identifies reasons why female pre-service teachers believe males are underrepresented in primary education courses at Australian universities. The findings of the study suggest that the nineteenth century naturalistic discourse of nurturance continues to sustain the notion that primary school teaching is a…

  19. Mutual Mentoring for Early-Career and Underrepresented Faculty: Model, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jung H.; Baldi, Brian; Sorcinelli, Mary Deane

    2016-01-01

    In the beginning, "Mutual Mentoring" was little more than an idea, a hopeful vision of the future in which a new model of mentoring could serve as a medium to better support early-career and underrepresented faculty. Over time, Mutual Mentoring evolved from an innovative idea to an ambitious pilot program to a fully operational,…

  20. A Pre-Engineering Program Using Robots to Attract Underrepresented High School and Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Pauline Helen; Liu, Yun; Hargrove, S. Keith; Doswell, Jayfus T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a new pre-engineering program--Robotics Technician Curriculum--that uses robots to solicit underrepresented students pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The curriculum uses a project-based learning environment, which consists of part lecture and part laboratory. This program…

  1. Exploring the Impacts of School Reforms on Underrepresented Urban Students' College Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Olcay

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal quantitative study investigates how participation in the Comprehensive College Readiness Access and Success Program (CCRASP) affects underrepresented urban students' college persistence. Results revealed that CCRASP participation was associated with higher percentages of students enrolling in both 2- and 4-year colleges as…

  2. [Health and wellbeing of sexual minorities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime; Gómez, Fabiola; Cárdenas, Manuel; Gúzman, Mónica; Bahamondes, Joaquín

    2017-09-01

    Most of the information in Chile about health and wellbeing of sexual minorities refers to risk behaviors. To assess health and wellbeing in a sample of Chilean homosexual men and women. Spanish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale and Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) were answered by 191 homosexual women and 256 homosexual men aged 18 to 67 years, from four Chilean cities. Lesbian women have better levels of satisfaction with life and adjustment in personal relationships than homosexual men. Eight percent of respondents had suicidal thoughts in some moment of their life. The information gathered in this work could help in the development of mental health policies for sexual minorities.

  3. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  4. Recruitment of minority physicians into careers in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, J T

    1992-06-15

    Despite some initial success in the early 1970s, the important goal of increasing the numbers of underrepresented minorities in medical school and on medical faculties has stalled short of proportionate representation. To further the current efforts of the Association of Professors in Medicine (APM) and other national medical groups that are devoted to improving the numbers of minorities in medicine, ideas and program information must be shared among institutions. In this spirit, we review our experience at Massachusetts General Hospital. We found that the first step toward this goal must be an institutional commitment based on increased awareness and on special effort focused on housestaff recruitment. Once the numbers of minorities increase, the department chairperson, training program directors, and other involved faculty can work with younger minority physicians; the cooperative relationship thus created can guide the development of a strong minority recruitment program without requiring an undue time commitment from minority trainees and faculty. The APM has a combined goal: to achieve early practical results in individual departments, to play a catalytic role with the community and other national medical organizations, and to increase the number of minorities entering medical school and careers in medicine generally.

  5. Women

    OpenAIRE

    Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...

  6. Transformed Science: Overcoming Barriers of Inequality and Mistrust to Pursue the Agenda of Underrepresented Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Renee

    Educational programs created to provide opportunities for all, in reality often reflect social inequalities. Such is the case for Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR) Projects. PPSR projects have been proposed as an effective way to engage more diverse audiences in science, yet the demographics of PPSR participants do not correspond with the demographic makeup of the United States. The field of PPSR as a whole has struggled to recruit low SES and underrepresented populations to participate in project research efforts. This research study explores factors, which may be affecting an underrepresented community's willingness to engage in scientific research and provides advice from PPSR project leaders in the field, who have been able to engage underrepresented communities in scientific research, on how to overcome these barriers. Finally the study investigates the theoretical construct of a Third Space within a PPSR project. The research-based recommendations for PPSR projects desiring to initiate and sustain research partnerships with underrepresented communities well align with the theoretical construct of a Third Space. This study examines a specific scientific research partnership between an underrepresented community and scientific researchers to examine if and to what extent a Third Space was created. Using qualitative methods to understand interactions and processes involved in initiating and sustaining a scientific research partnership, this study provides advice on how PPSR research partnerships can engage underrepresented communities in scientific research. Study results show inequality and mistrust of powerful institutions stood as participation barriers for underrepresented community members. Despite these barriers PPSR project leaders recommend barriers can be confronted by open dialogue with communities about the abuse and alienation they have faced, by signaling respect for the community, and by entering the community through someone the

  7. Minority Engineering Program Pipeline: A Proposal to Increase Minority Student Enrollment and Retention in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charity, Pamela C.; Klein, Paul B.; Wadhwa, Bhushan

    1995-01-01

    The Cleveland State University Minority Engineering Program Pipeline consist of programs which foster engineering career awareness, academic enrichment, and professional development for historically underrepresented minority studies. The programs involved are the Access to Careers in Engineering (ACE) Program for high school pre-engineering students: the LINK Program for undergraduate students pursuing degree which include engineering; and the PEP (Pre-calculus Enrichment Program) and EPIC (Enrichment Program in Calculus) mathematics programs for undergraduate academic enrichment. The pipeline is such that high school graduates from the ACE Program who enroll at Cleveland State University in pursuit of engineering degrees are admitted to the LINK Program for undergraduate level support. LINK Program students are among the minority participants who receive mathematics enrichment through the PEP and EPIC Programs for successful completion of their engineering required math courses. THese programs are interdependent and share the goal of preparing minority students for engineering careers by enabling them to achieve academically and obtain college degree and career related experience.

  8. Peer-Led Team Learning Helps Minority Students Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J; Sloane, Jeremy D; Dunk, Ryan D P; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-03-01

    Active learning methods have been shown to be superior to traditional lecture in terms of student achievement, and our findings on the use of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) concur. Students in our introductory biology course performed significantly better if they engaged in PLTL. There was also a drastic reduction in the failure rate for underrepresented minority (URM) students with PLTL, which further resulted in closing the achievement gap between URM and non-URM students. With such compelling findings, we strongly encourage the adoption of Peer-Led Team Learning in undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses.

  9. An Exploration of Women's Engagement in Makerspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Vanessa; Farmer, Nicole M.; Kerr, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    The Maker Movement is an international trend for communities to form around shared tools and workspaces in order to engage in do-it-yourself activities. Women are underrepresented in Makerspaces, and exploration of issues related to their participation may provide directions for future research. Eight women participated in a focus group study of…

  10. Women's Participation in Academic Conferences in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Devorah

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the participation of women in academic conferences in Israel, a country in which women are under-represented in academia vertically and horizontally. Data were retrieved from announcements of academic conferences in Israel, for one academic year, covering 56 conferences that attracted 997 participants. Participation was…

  11. Developing science talent in minority students: Perspectives of past participants in a summer mentorship program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Dale Bishop

    The underrepresentation of women and ethnic minorities in science has been well documented. Research efforts are directed toward understanding the high attrition rate in science course selection as students advance through high school and college. The attrition rate is especially high for females and minority students. Since 1980 the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Connecticut has conducted a "Minority Research Apprentice Program" to attract students by expanding their knowledge of research and technology. The goal of the program is to encourage students from underrepresented groups to eventually select careers in the field of science. This qualitative study of past participants explored factors that related to students' decisions to pursue or not to pursue careers in science. Descriptive statistics and qualitative data collected from surveys and interviews of twenty former apprentices, along with comparative case studies of four selected individuals, revealed the educational interventions, personal traits and social supports that helped guide students' eventual career choice decisions. Participation in gifted programs, advanced placement courses, and talented high school science teachers all played a critical role in assisting these individuals in developing their potential interest. Qualitative data revealed the role of the Minority Research Apprentice Program played in helping talented individuals gain an appreciation of the nature of scientific research through apprenticeship and involvement with authentic projects. For all those involved, it assisted them in clarifying their eventual career choices. Individuals identified the lack of challenge of the introductory science courses, the commitment science requires, and the nature of laboratory work as reasons for leaving the field. Females who left science switched majors more frequently than males. Qualitative data revealed the dilemma that multipotentiality and lack of career counseling

  12. Heart Failure in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Biykem; Khalaf, Shaden

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in women, and they tend to develop it at an older age compared to men. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is more common in women than in men and accounts for at least half the cases of heart failure in women. When comparing men and women who have heart failure and a low left ventricular ejection fraction, the women are more symptomatic and have a similarly poor outcome. Overall recommendations for guideline-directed medical therapies show no differences in treatment approaches between men and women. Overall, women are generally underrepresented in clinical trials for heart failure. Further studies are needed to shed light into different mechanisms, causes, and targeted therapies of heart failure in women. PMID:29744014

  13. Persistence of undergraduate women in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, Maggie Helene

    The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a complex problem that continues to persist at the postsecondary level, particularly in computer science and engineering fields. This dissertation explored the pre-college and college level factors that influenced undergraduate women's persistence in STEM. This study also examined and compared the characteristics of undergraduate women who entered STEM fields and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. The nationally representative Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09) data set was used for analysis. BPS:04/09 study respondents were surveyed three times (NPSAS:04, BPS:04/06, BPS:04/09) over a six-year period, which enabled me to explore factors related to long-term persistence. Astin's Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) model was used as the framework to examine student inputs and college environmental factors that predict female student persistence (output) in STEM. Chi-square tests revealed significant differences between undergraduate women who entered STEM and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. Differences in student demographics, prior academic achievement, high school course-taking patterns, and student involvement in college such as participation in study groups and school clubs were found. Notably, inferential statistics showed that a significantly higher proportion of female minority students entered STEM fields than non-STEM fields. These findings challenge the myth that underrepresented female minorities are less inclined to enter STEM fields. Logistic regression analyses revealed thirteen significant predictors of persistence for undergraduate women in STEM. Findings showed that undergraduate women who were younger, more academically prepared, and academically and socially involved in college (e.g., lived on campus, interacted with faculty, participated in study groups, fine arts activities, and school sports) were more likely to persist in STEM

  14. Persistence among Minority STEM Majors: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Watson, Stacey

    The United States needs to increase the number of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduates to remain competitive in the global market and maintain national security. Minority students, specifically African-American and Hispanic, are underrepresented in STEM fields. As the minority population continues to grow it is essential that higher education institutions improve minority students' persistence in STEM education. This study examined the problem of minority students' lack of persistence in STEM programs. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences that minority students perceived as contributing to their persistence in STEM. The central research question was: What are the lived experiences of minority STEM students that have contributed to their persistence in a STEM program? The sub-questions were: a) What led participants to majors in STEM?; b) What contributed to students' success and persistence in STEM?; and c) What advice do students have to offer? The researcher interviewed 12 minority STEM students and uncovered 10 themes that described the lived experiences of minority students' persistence in STEM programs. The themes were 1) Childhood experiences and interests; 2) Positive educational experiences in secondary school; 3) Self- motivation; 4) Positive experiences with professors; 5) Family encouragement and values; 6) Lack of minorities; 7) Lack of educational preparation; 8) The need for financial assistance; 9) Clubs and organizations; and 10) Friends within the major. The significance of these findings is the potential to produce changes in curricula, programs, and retention methods that may improve the persistence of minority students in STEM programs.

  15. Why They Stay: Women Persisting in US Engineering Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Kathleen; Bilimoria, Diana; Perelli, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Women remain dramatically underrepresented in the engineering profession and far fewer women than men persist in the field. This study aims to identify individual and contextual factors that distinguish women who persist in engineering careers in the US. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative research was conducted based on…

  16. Women and Leadership: Transforming Visions and Current Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jean Lau

    2011-01-01

    Women have increasingly moved toward greater gender equality at home and in the workplace. Yet, women are still underrepresented in leadership roles and still considered an anomaly compared to men when in high positions of leadership especially within institutions of higher education. In examining differences between how men and women lead, it is…

  17. "They Call Me Headmaster": Malawian and Australian Women Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kay; Andretzke, Elaine; Binali, Valesi

    2018-01-01

    This article explores commonalities in the lives and work of women head teachers in Malawian secondary schools and women principals in Australian Lutheran schools. In both Australia and Malawi women are under-represented in school leadership and often appointed to complex schools and communities. We commence with a brief discussion of Malawi and…

  18. Women's Leadership Preparation within the Senior Leadership Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kay; Cliffe, Joanne; Moorosi, Pontso

    2015-01-01

    In England, despite making up 60% of the secondary school teaching workforce, women continue to be underrepresented in secondary school headship. In this paper, we focus on the experiences of women working in the Senior Leadership Team (SLT) as a site for headship preparation. This paper draws on survey findings from a study of women's and men's…

  19. The Economics of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Flournoy A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses some of the more important economic problems of minorities in the United States, identifying the economics of minorities with the economics of poverty, discrimination, exploitation, urban life, and alienation. (JM)

  20. Minorities and majorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.E.; Fassbender, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses the paradox of minorities as a constitutive Other of international law. While minorities have been viewed as outside the international legal system for centuries, minorities have at the same time made a significant and fundamental contribution to precisely that system, as they

  1. Mentoring, Training, and Scholarly Productivity Experiences of Cancer-Related Health Disparities Research Trainees: Do Outcomes Differ for Underrepresented Scientists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Tisha M; Braun, Kathryn L; Wigfall, Lisa; Sevoyan, Maria; Vyas, Shraddha; Khan, Samira; Brandt, Heather M; Rogers, Charles; Tanjasiri, Sora; Armstead, Cheryl A; Hébert, James R

    2018-02-12

    The study aims to explore variation in scholarly productivity outcomes by underrepresented status among a diverse sample of researchers in a community-engaged training program. We identified 141 trainees from a web-based survey of researchers in the National Cancer Institute-funded, Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs) (2011-2016). We conducted a series of multiple logistic regression models to estimate the effect of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-defined underrepresented status on four, self-reported, scholarly productivity outcomes in the previous 5 years: number of publications (first-authored and total) and funded grants (NIH and any agency). Sixty-five percent (n = 92) indicated NIH underrepresented status. In final adjusted models, non-NIH underrepresented (vs. underrepresented) trainees reported an increased odds of having more than the median number of total publications (> 9) (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.21-8.65) and any grant funding (OR = 5.10, 95% CI 1.77-14.65). Reporting ≥ 1 mentors (vs. none) was also positively associated (p < 0.05) with these outcomes. The CNPC underrepresented trainees had similar success in first-authored publications and NIH funding as non-underrepresented trainees, but not total publications and grants. Examining trainees' mentoring experiences over time in relation to scholarly productivity outcomes is needed.

  2. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Byerly, G. R.; Callahan, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources, including industry, scientific societies, individuals, and during the last 10 years, the NSF. College-level students apply for the MPP awards or award renewals, and the MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. Mentoring is a long-standing hallmark of the AGI MPP. Every AGI MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars. The MPP Advisory Committee aims to match the profession of the mentor with the scholar's academic interest. Throughout the year, mentors and scholars communicate about possible opportunities in the geosciences such as internships, participation in symposia, professional society meetings, and job openings. Mentors have also been active in helping younger students cope with the major changes involved in relocating to a new region of the country or a new college culture. We believe that AGI is well-positioned to advance diversity in the geosciences through its unique standing as the major professional organization in the

  3. The pipeline training program in maternal and child health: interdisciplinary preparation of undergraduate students from underrepresented groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Rhyner, Paula M; Lund, Shelley

    2010-05-01

    The Preparing Academically Successful Students in Maternal and Child Health (MCH PASS) training program provided financial support and specialized training to occupational therapy (OT) and speech-language pathology (SLP) undergraduate students from underrepresented groups in maternal and child health. The project assisted undergraduate trainees to matriculate into graduate programs in their respective fields and facilitated application into long-term maternal and child health training programs. Sixteen trainees (8 OT and 8 SLP) participated in an undergraduate training program with an emphasis on interdisciplinary teaming, family mentoring, leadership development, public health and population-based research. Instruction occurred in community and classroom settings through didactic instruction and small group discussions. Fifteen of the trainees applied to and were accepted in graduate programs in their respective fields. Two trainees applied to a long-term MCH training program. Students reported increased knowledge about programs that serve women and children, the effects of poverty on health, interdisciplinary teaming and the daily routines of families who have a child with a special health care need. The MCH PASS program provided a unique opportunity for undergraduate students in OT and SLP to learn about public health with an emphasis on maternal and child health. The specialized preparation enabled students to understand better the health concerns of underserved families whose children have special health care needs.

  4. Beyond the first "click:" Women graduate students in computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Jennifer L.

    This dissertation explored the ways that constructions of gender shaped the choices and expectations of women doctoral students in computer science. Women who do graduate work in computer science still operate in an environment where they are in the minority. How much of women's underrepresentation in computer science fields results from a problem of imagining women as computer scientists? As long as women in these fields are seen as exceptions, they are exceptions that prove the "rule" that computing is a man's domain. The following questions were the focus of this inquiry: What are the career aspirations of women doctoral students in computer science? How do they feel about their chances to succeed in their chosen career and field? How do women doctoral students in computer science construct womanhood? What are their constructions of what it means to be a computer scientist? In what ways, if any, do they believe their gender has affected their experience in their graduate programs? The goal was to examine how constructions of computer science and of gender---including participants' own understanding of what it meant to be a woman, as well as the messages they received from their environment---contributed to their success as graduate students in a field where women are still greatly outnumbered by men. Ten women from four different institutions of higher education were recruited to participate in this study. These women varied in demographic characteristics like age, race, and ethnicity. Still, there were many common threads in their experiences. For example, their construction of womanhood did not limit their career prospects to traditionally female jobs. They had grown up with the expectation that they would be able to succeed in whatever field they chose. Most also had very positive constructions of programming as something that was "fun," rewarding, and intellectually stimulating. Their biggest obstacles were feelings of isolation and a resulting loss of

  5. Latina and Black Women's Perceptions of the Dietetics Major and Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Megan

    Racial and ethnic groups remain underrepresented in undergraduate health profession education programs and careers, such as nutrition and dietetics (Sullivan, 2004). Overwhelmingly, 82 percent of dietitians are White, three percent are Latino/Latina, and less than three percent are Black (Commission on Dietetic Registration, 2016). While the calls to increase recruitment of underrepresented minorities are plentiful and federal dollars are allotted to the effort, a critical lens is necessary to investigate the complexity of factors that impact the decision to pursue a career within dietetics. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate how Latina and Black women enrolled in an undergraduate Health Career Opportunity Program (HCOP) narrated and reflected upon the dietetics profession. Through the lens of Critical Race Theory and situated learning, I sought to understand the sociocultural and historical underpinnings that hinder or promote career selection. Data collection methods included participant observation, interviews, artifacts, and reflexive journaling. Data were analyzed using inductive coding techniques. My findings revealed the ways in which Latina and Black women believed dietitians must match the socially constructed role model for body image, physical fitness, and healthy eating to be effective in practice. Using a critical media analysis to confront the stereotypical images of dietitians, the women used cliche messages as a selected discourse to mask perceptions of barriers to the dietetics field. Finally, the women believed a dietitian's professional role was to give diet advice which presented a barrier to the profession. Based on my findings I support early introduction to nutrition science as a means to empower individuals to support their health and the health of their community. Recruitment efforts must explicitly address the culture of dietetics which has embraced the stereotypical image. Collectively, the dietetics field must

  6. Perceptions of Women in Management: A Thematic Analysis of Razing the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Mindy S.; Schneider, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances that women have made in organizations over the past century, women continue to be underrepresented in upper management positions. Based on a review of literature, six issues that women face when encountering the glass ceiling were examined. The goal of the current study involved having women who have succeeded at breaking the…

  7. Blood donation barriers and facilitators of Sub-Saharan African migrants and minorities in Western high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E. F.; Huis In 't Veld, E. M. J.; de Wit, P. D.; van Dongen, A.; Daams, J. G.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Fransen, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to gain more insight into, and summarise, blood donation determinants among migrants or minorities of Sub-Saharan heritage by systematically reviewing the current literature. Sub-Saharan Africans are under-represented in the blood donor population in Western high-income

  8. The Trojan minor planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Christopher E.

    1988-08-01

    There are (March, 1988) 3774 minor planets which have received a permanent number. Of these, there are some whose mean distance to the sun is very nearly equal to that of Jupiter, and whose heliocentric longitudes from that planet are about 60°, so that the three bodies concerned (sun, Jupiter, minor planet) make an approximate equilateral triangle. These minor planets, which occur in two distinct groups, one preceding Jupiter and one following, have received the names of the heroes of the Trojan war. This paper concerns the 49 numbered minor planets of this group.

  9. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in the Pursuit of Health Science-Related Careers among Youth from Underrepresented Low Socioeconomic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley O; Jones, Chandria; Bhagat, Krishna; Siddiqui, Junaed; Wang, Min Qi

    2015-10-01

    A more diverse health science-related workforce including more underrepresented race/ethnic minorities, especially from low socioeconomic backgrounds, is needed to address health disparities in the USA. To increase such diversity, programs must facilitate youth interest in pursuing a health science-related career (HSRC). Minority youth from low socioeconomic families may focus on the secondary gains of careers, such as high income and status, given their low socioeconomic backgrounds. On the other hand, self-determination theory suggests that it is the intrinsic characteristics of careers which are most likely to sustain pursuit of an HSRC and lead to job satisfaction. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for pursuing an HSRC (defined in this study as health professional, health scientist, and medical doctor) was examined in a cohort of youth from the 10th to 12th grade from 2011 to 2013. The sample was from low-income area high schools, had a B- or above grade point average at baseline, and was predominantly: African American (65.7 %) or Hispanic (22.9 %), female (70.1 %), and children of foreign-born parents (64.7 %). In longitudinal general estimating equations, intrinsic motivation (but not extrinsic motivation) consistently predicted intention to pursue an HSRC. This finding provides guidance as to which youth and which qualities of HSRCs might deserve particular attention in efforts to increase diversity in the health science-related workforce.

  10. Exploration of the lived experiences of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics minority students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead-McDaniel, Kimberly

    An expanding ethnicity gap exists in the number of students pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers in the United States. The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering revealed that the number of minorities pursuing STEM degrees and careers has declined over the past few years. The specific origins of this trend are not quite evident; one variable to consider is that undergraduate minority students are failing in STEM disciplines at various levels of education from elementary to postsecondary. The failure of female and minority students to enter STEM disciplines in higher education have led various initiatives to establish programs to promote STEM disciplines among these groups. Additional funding for minority STEM programs have led to a increase in undergraduate minority students entering STEM disciplines, but the minority students' graduation rate in STEM disciplines is approximately 7% lower than the graduation of nonminority students in STEM disciplines. This phenomenological qualitative research study explores the lived experiences of underrepresented minority undergraduate college students participating in an undergraduate minority-mentoring program. The following nine themes emerged from the study: (a) competitiveness, (b) public perception, (c) dedication, (d) self-perception, (e) program activities, (f) time management, (g) exposure to career and graduate opportunities, (h) rigor in the curriculum, and (i) peer mentoring. The themes provided answers and outcomes to better support a stronger minority representation in STEM disciplines.

  11. Early Opportunities Research Partnership Between Howard University, University of Maryland Baltimore County and NASA Goddard for Engaging Underrepresented STEM Students in Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P.; Venable, D. D.; Hoban, S.; Demoz, B.; Bleacher, L.; Meeson, B. W.; Farrell, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Howard University, University of Maryland Baltimore County and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) are collaborating to engage underrepresented STEM students and expose them to an early career pathway in NASA-related Earth & Space Science research. The major goal is to instill interest in Earth and Space Science to STEM majors early in their academic careers, so that they become engaged in ongoing NASA-related research, motivated to pursue STEM careers, and perhaps become part of the future NASA workforce. The collaboration builds on a program established by NASA's Dynamic Response of the Environments of Asteroids, the Moon and the moons of Mars (DREAM2) team to engage underrepresented students from Howard in summer internships. Howard leveraged this program to expand via NASA's Minority University Research and Education Project (MUREP) funding. The project pairs Howard students with GSFC mentors and engages them in cutting-edge Earth and Space Science research throughout their undergraduate tenure. The project takes a multi-faceted approach, with each year of the program specifically tailored to each student's strengths and addressing their weaknesses, so that they experience a wide array of enriching research and professional development activities that help them grow both academically and professionally. During the academic year, the students are at Howard taking a full load of courses towards satisfying their degree requirements and engaging in research with their GSFC mentors via regular telecons, e-mail exchanges, video chats & on an average one visit per semester to GSFC for an in-person meeting with their research mentor. The students extend their research with full-time summer internships at GSFC, culminating in a Capstone Project and Senior Thesis. As a result, these Early Opportunities Program students, who have undergone rigorous training in the Earth and Space Sciences, are expected to be well-prepared for graduate school and the NASA workforce.

  12. Minorities and Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Francis A.

    Various aspects of the relationship between minorities and malnutrition are discussed in this brief paper. Malnutrition, one of the byproducts of low economic status, is creating a crisis-proportion health problem affecting minority citizens. Malnutrition seriously affects children, older people in poverty, and chronically unemployed or…

  13. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    on the content of the syllabus. When autonomy is understood in the literal sense, of giving oneself one's own laws, then there is a clear connection. Autonomy is usually connected to politics and a geographically limited territory. Special political rights of minorities - e.g. is the Danish minority party SSW...

  14. Building Mobile Apps for Underrepresented Mental Health care Consumers: A Grounded Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ricky; Hastings, Julia F; Keefe, Robert H; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Chan, Keith T; Mullick, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Cell phone mobile application ("app") use has risen dramatically within the past several years. Many individuals access apps to address mental health issues. Unlike individuals from privileged backgrounds, individuals from oppressed backgrounds may rely on apps rather than costly mental health treatment. To date, very little research has been published evaluating mental health apps' effectiveness. This paper focuses on three methods through which grounded theory can facilitate app development and evaluation for people underrepresented in mental health care. Recommendations are made to advance mobile app technology that will help clinicians provide effective treatment, and consumers to realize positive treatment outcomes.

  15. Transfer adjustment experiences of underrepresented students of color in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, June C.

    Two-year colleges have long served as the starting point for many students in higher education and particularly those of underrepresented backgrounds. In recent years, these institutions have been called upon to help address the high attrition rates facing the science and mathematics disciplines by promoting interest development and transfer of underrepresented students in these fields. This study examined the adjustment experiences of underrepresented students of color after transferring from community colleges to a four-year university in the sciences. By employing qualitative interviews with students of African, Latino, Pacific Island, and Southeast Asian descent, students' perceptions of the sciences at the two- and four-year campus, adjustment process, and benefits and detriments of taking the transfer route were the focus of this research. The findings show that transfer students experience a very different science culture at each institutional type in terms of pedagogy and curriculum and interactions with classmates and faculty. While students witnessed a collaborative science culture at the community college, they faced a highly competitive and individualistic environment at the university. The greater the difference encountered, the more difficult were students' adjustment. Adjustment was aided in two primary ways: socialization experiences before transferring and the development of common identity groups with other students who shared similar backgrounds, goals, and struggles. These groups formed organically at the two-year college but were more difficult to forge at the university. When present, however, they served as niches, sites of validation, and counter spaces within the larger university setting. It appears that starting at the community college benefited most participants by providing a nurturing environment that fostered their commitment to science. Some students felt that they would have been dissuaded from pursuing their majors had they only

  16. Building Mobile Apps for Underrepresented Mental Health care Consumers: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ricky; Hastings, Julia F.; Keefe, Robert H.; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Chan, Keith T.; Mullick, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Cell phone mobile application (“app”) use has risen dramatically within the past several years. Many individuals access apps to address mental health issues. Unlike individuals from privileged backgrounds, individuals from oppressed backgrounds may rely on apps rather than costly mental health treatment. To date, very little research has been published evaluating mental health apps’ effectiveness. This paper focuses on three methods through which grounded theory can facilitate app development and evaluation for people underrepresented in mental health care. Recommendations are made to advance mobile app technology that will help clinicians provide effective treatment, and consumers to realize positive treatment outcomes. PMID:29056878

  17. Minority Women Negotiating Citizenship : Action Research Project ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC evidence and innovation supports India's adaptation to climate change. IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration. View moreIDRC evidence and innovation supports India's adaptation to climate ...

  18. Women in Academic Science: Experimental Findings from Hiring Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    Although women are underrepresented in the most mathematically intensive fields, the gender gap in these fields has narrowed over the past 2 decades. In my E. L. Thorndike address I summarized the temporal trends in sex differences for 8 fields and considered factors that drive both the underrepresentation of women and its recent narrowing. I…

  19. Ethical Considerations for the Participation of Children of Minor Parents in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Mary A; Crawley, Francis P; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Neubauer, David; Dubin, Gary; Poplazarova, Tatjana; Begg, Norman; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2018-06-01

    Children of minor parents are under-represented in clinical trials. This is largely because of the ethical, legal, and regulatory complexities in the enrolment, consent, and appropriate access of children of minor parents to clinical research. Using a case-based approach, we examine appropriate access of children of minor parents in an international vaccine trial. We first consider the scientific justification for inclusion of children of minor parents in a vaccine trial. Laws and regulations governing consent generally do not address the issue of minor parents. In their absence, local community and cultural contexts may influence consent processes. Rights of the minor parent include dignity in their role as a parent and respect for their decision-making capacity in that role. Rights of the child include the right to have decisions made in their best interest and the right to the highest attainable standard of health. Children of minor parents may have vulnerabilities related to the age of their parent, such as increased rates of poverty, that have implications for consent. Neuroscience research suggests that, by age 12-14 years, minors have adult-level capacity to make research decisions in situations with low emotion and low distraction. We conclude with a set of recommendations based on these findings to facilitate appropriate access and equity related to the participation of children of minor parents in clinical research.

  20. Common Challenges Faced by Women of Color in Physics, and Actions Faculty Can Take to Minimize Those Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela; Ong, Maria; Ko, Lily T.; Smith, Janet; Hodari, Apriel

    2017-01-01

    Women of color are deeply underrepresented in physics. Between 2002 and 2012, only 1% of graduating physics majors were Black women and another 1% were Latinas; only 61 American Indian women total completed degrees in physics in those years (out of 48,000 physics majors). This isolation can lead to additional obstacles that women of color majoring…

  1. Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS): A Kansas City Minority Student Recruitment Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Niemi, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) is a multi-year project funded by the National Science Foundation to address gaps in teacher preparation, improve teacher content in geosciences and help raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. The project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). In this presentation we discuss strategies that we have successfully used to provide credible pathways into the discipline for minorities that have led to a significant increase in the number of underrepresented minority students who are interested in and majoring in geoscience fields at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

  2. Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Blanco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead is a self-proclaimed “sort of feminist manifesto” written to empower women and men. Sandberg gives insight into how to overcome and help others overcome the internal and external obstacles that may hinder success. This book is recommended for women in the financial services field, as women are underrepresented in certain segments of financial services.

  3. BCDC Minor Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  4. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  5. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  6. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  7. Multichoice minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations

  8. Career Advancement of Women Senior Academic Administrators in Indonesia: Supports and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murniati, Cecilia Titiek

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women have gained access to college and the college teaching profession worldwide. However, women continue to be underrepresented in academic, research, and leadership positions. Women who have aspirations for top leadership positions still encounter numerous internal and external challenges. Existent literature on women…

  9. Role of Women in the Management of Police Organisation: A Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Satya Narayan; Mishra, Sunita

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding the emancipation and advancements of women all over the world in 21st century, women continue to be under-represented in management positions. The role of women as managers encompassed even those areas of work, which were earlier considered to be strongly man's domain like the police organisation. The objective of the study was to…

  10. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Women's Collaborative Leadership Style as a Model for Theological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions. The reality, however, is that while women are slightly more than 50% of the population, they are underrepresented in leadership. Fewer than 10% of chief executive officers in theological education are women. Traditional roles in…

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Ascendancy of Women to the Position of K-12 Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite earning over half of the doctoral degrees in education, women are underrepresented in the position of K-12 superintendent. In 2000, although 72% of all classroom teachers were female, only 14% of all superintendents in the United States were women. Research indicates that women experience barriers in their ascendancy to superintendent.…

  12. Gender Stereotypes among Women Engineering and Technology Students in the UK: Lessons from Career Choice Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating…

  13. Stereotypes and Their Consequences for Women as Leaders in Higher Education Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeritz, Kimberly Jean

    2013-01-01

    Women are underrepresented as leaders in most facets of American work life. While present in fields that are traditionally feminine, there is a scarcity of women leaders in all other occupations including business, government, science and technology, agriculture, education in general and higher education in particular. While women currently…

  14. The Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Black Women Leaders in Fortune 500 Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, LaTonya R.

    2012-01-01

    Black women are underrepresented in leadership positions within organizations. The extent to which self-efficacy influences the advancement potential of Black females is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of black women in leadership positions and to determine how Black women leaders' careers are…

  15. Breast density in multiethnic women presenting for screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Bridget A; Dash, Chiranjeev; O'Neill, Suzanne; Li, Yinan; Makambi, Kepher; Pien, Edward; Makariou, Erini; Coleman, Tesha; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2018-05-01

    Data on ethnic variations in breast density are limited and often not inclusive of underrepresented minorities. As breast density is associated with elevated breast cancer risk, investigating racial and ethnic difference may elucidate the observed differences in breast cancer risk among different populations. We reviewed breast density from initial screening of women from the Capital Breast Care Center and Georgetown University Hospital from 2010 to 2014. Patient demographics including race, age at screening, education, menopausal status, and body mass index were abstracted. We recorded the BI-RADS density categories: (1) "fatty," (2) "scattered fibroglandular densities," (3) "heterogeneously dense," and (4) "extremely dense." Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to identify predictors of breast density. Density categorization was recorded for 2146 women over the 5-year period, comprising Blacks (n = 940), Hispanics (n = 893), and Whites (n = 314). Analysis of subject characteristics by breast density showed that high category is observed in younger, Hispanic, nulliparous, premenopausal, and nonobese women (t-test or chi-square test, P-values density. Being Hispanic, premenopausal, and nonobese were predictive of high density on logistic regression. In this analysis of density distribution in a diverse sample, Hispanic women have the highest breast density, followed by Blacks and Whites. Unique in our findings is women who identify as Hispanic have the highest breast density and lower rates of obesity. Further investigation of the impact of obesity on breast density, especially in the understudied Hispanic group is needed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE): an Educational Experience for Undergraduates at the University of Arizona Alumni Association's Astronomy Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Courtney; McCarthy, D.; Rudolph, A.

    2011-01-01

    The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) is an NSF-funded partnership between the Astronomy Program at Cal Poly Pomona (CPP) and the University of Arizona Steward Observatory designed to promote participation of underrepresented minorities (including women) in astronomy research and education. As part of the education component of the program, CPP undergraduate physics majors and minors are eligible to work as a counselor at the University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, one of the premier astronomy outreach opportunities in the world. CAMPARE students have the opportunity to work in this learn-by-doing environment with a wide range of students to gain first hand experience of teaching astronomy to students of a wide variety of ages in highly structured educational setting. Cal Poly Pomona students who are interested in education, both formal and informal, work in a variety of camps, from Girl Scout camps to camps for advanced high school students, to further their understanding of what it means to be a professional in the field of education. The CAMPARE student who participated in this program during summer 2010 had the opportunity to work under Dr. Don McCarthy, camp director of University of Arizona's Astronomy Camps for 20 years, and observe the interpersonal relations between campers and staff that is so vital to the learning the students receive. Through these observations, the CAMPARE student was able to learn to gauge students' interest in the material, and experience real life teaching and learning scenarios in the informal education realm.

  17. Married Professional Women: How They Feel about the Women's Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Janet Dreyfus

    1979-01-01

    Investigated how married professional women feel about the women's movement. Data revealed that the majority were working to change societal definitions of women's roles but that a sizable minority had little interest in the women's movement. The women's movement has also brought about increased role conflicts for many. (Author/BEF)

  18. Minority engineering scholarships renewal, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science : Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri ...

  19. 16 CFR 1000.17 - Office of Equal Employment Opportunity and Minority Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... policies. The Office manages the discrimination complaint process, including the adjudication of discrimination complaints, and facilitates Affirmative Employment Program (AEP) planning for women, minorities...

  20. Racial and ethnic minority enrollment in randomized clinical trials of behavioural weight loss utilizing technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, D L; Piers, A D; Schumacher, L M; Kase, C A; Butryn, M L

    2017-07-01

    Many racial and ethnic minority groups (minorities) are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity; however, minorities are often under-represented in clinical trials of behavioural weight loss (BWL) treatment, potentially limiting the generalizability of these trials' conclusions. Interventions involving technology may be particularly well suited to overcoming the barriers to minority enrollment in BWL trials, such as demanding or unpredictable work schedules, caregiving responsibilities and travel burdens. Thus, this systematic review aimed to describe minority enrollment in trials utilizing technology in interventions, as well as to identify which form(s) of technology yield the highest minority enrollment. Results indicated relatively low enrollment of minorities. Trials integrating smartphone use exhibited significantly greater racial minority enrollment than trials that did not; trials with both smartphone and in-person components exhibited the highest racial minority enrollment. This review is the first to explore how the inclusion of technology in BWL trials relates to minority enrollment and can help address the need to improve minority enrollment in weight loss research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  1. ‘Speaking Truth’ Protects Underrepresented Minorities’ Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Avi; Paluy, Yula; Milless, Katlyn L.; Goldstein, Emily J.; Wallace, Lyndsey; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Estrada, Mica

    2017-01-01

    We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities’ (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a ‘knowledge as power’ approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]. STEP protected URMs’ abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA]) as well as decreased URMs’ worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP’s two-pronged approach—explicating the effects of structural ‘isms’ while harnessing URMs’ existing assets—shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM. PMID:28835879

  2. New Media and Models for Engaging Under-Represented Students in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Laurel M.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2008-10-01

    We describe the University of Colorado Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) program in which university students participate in classroom and after school science activities with local precollege children. Across several different formal and informal educational environments, we use new technological tools, such as stop action motion (SAM) movies [1] to engage children so that they may develop an understanding of science through play and "show and tell". This approach provides a complementary avenue for reaching children who are otherwise underrepresented in science and under-supported in more formal educational settings. We present the model of university community partnership and demonstrate its utility in a case study involving an African American third grade student learning about velocity and acceleration.

  3. Defining minors' abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1988-01-01

    The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible.

  4. Minority within a Minority Paradox: Asian Experiences in Latino Schools & Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sarai; Nishimura, Trisha S.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Critical Race Theory (CRT), the authors report on narratives of education collected from three young Asian women living in and attending a predominately Latina/o community and school. The authors explored how Asians and Latina/o groups intersect in a majority minority community. Specifically, they sought to understand: (1) How young…

  5. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified......Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt...

  6. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Pregnant women's attitudes about topical microbicides for the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallozzi, Marina; Fraiz, Lauren Dapena; Hargreaves, Katharine M; Zimet, Gregory D; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Ratner, Adam J; Gelber, Shari E; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2017-08-01

    We sought to understand pregnant women's product preference and likelihood of use of topical microbicides for bacterial vaginosis (BV) prevention and treatment. Pregnant women (N = 196) in a obstetrics clinic completed a survey between June 2014 and January 2015 about vaginal product use for BV. This cross-sectional study explored product preferences, likelihood of product use for BV management and father of the baby (FOB) involvement. Most participants were under 30 (68%) and underrepresented minorities (47% Hispanic, 21% African-American). Most women preferred the gel (69%). Only 30% were likely to use either product for prevention of BV; 76% if high risk for BV; 83% treatment of BV. Anticipated FOB involvement in decision-making included that 46% would ask his opinion, 38% would inform him of the decision and 7% would need approval. Most (87%) would ask the FOB for reminders and 66% for insertion help. Those under 30 were more likely to agree to ask the FOB for reminders (p Product preferences may be less critical than risk perception. Involvement of the FOB in decision-making may be vital.

  8. An Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Computer Engineering and Mathematics/Bilingual Education to Develop a Curriculum for Underrepresented Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón-Pattichis, Sylvia; LópezLeiva, Carlos Alfonso; Pattichis, Marios S.; Llamocca, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There is a strong need in the United States to increase the number of students from underrepresented groups who pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Drawing from sociocultural theory, we present approaches to establishing collaborations between computer engineering and mathematics/bilingual education faculty to…

  9. Mentoring Interventions for Underrepresented Scholars in Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences: Effects on Quality of Mentoring Interactions and Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vivian; Martina, Camille A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Chaudron, Linda; Trief, Paula M.; LaGuardia, Jennifer G.; Sharp, Daryl; Goodman, Steven R.; Morse, Gene D.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Mentors rarely receive education about the unique needs of underrepresented scholars in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. We hypothesized that mentor-training and peer-mentoring interventions for these scholars would enrich the perceived quality and breadth of discussions between mentor-protégé dyads (i.e., mentor-protégé pairs). Our…

  10. Increasing Graduate Management Education Candidate Diversity: Improving Attraction to Underrepresented Segments. GMAC® Research Report RR-16-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sabrina; Rea, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This white paper, "Increasing Graduate Management Education Candidate Diversity: Improving Attraction to Underrepresented Segments," presents findings from a research study that GMAC commissioned from globalsojourn, a market strategy and research firm, to gain insights into the dynamics of the perceptions and interest of U.S.…

  11. A Mentor Training Program Improves Mentoring Competency for Researchers Working with Early-Career Investigators from Underrepresented Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O.; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective…

  12. 24 CFR 92.351 - Affirmative marketing; minority outreach program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... available housing without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, religion, familial status or... women, including, without limitation, real estate firms, construction firms, appraisal firms, management... assure that minority business enterprises and women business enterprises are used when possible in the...

  13. Housing Problems of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  14. Minority Language Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Onderwijs in alochtone levende talen. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, an exploratory study was carried out of minority Language teaching for primary school pupils. This exploratory study in seven municipalities not only shows the way in

  15. Ethnic Minorities and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts

    2005-01-01

    There has been a great deal of discussion in the Netherlands recently about the integration of ethnic minorities. The tenor of that discussion is sombre: some observers speak of a 'multicultural drama', while others claim that the government's integration policy has failed completely. Recent

  16. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  17. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  18. Females and Minorities in TV Ads in 1987 Saturday Children's Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffe, Daniel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines how females and minorities are represented on children's Saturday morning television commercials, focusing on how often they are present, settings in which they are portrayed, and types of White-minority interactions. Finds that more women and minorities are present in advertisements than earlier studies indicated, but that White males…

  19. Why Not Academia?--The Streamlined Career Choice Process of Black African Women Engineers: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2017-01-01

    Black African women are grossly underrepresented as academic staff in engineering programs at South African universities. The problem is exacerbated at historically White institutions (HWI) where Black women are simply absent as engineering research and teaching staff. The absence of Black African women in the academy occurs despite Black African…

  20. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were

  1. Diabetic macular oedema: under-represented in the genetic analysis of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadgate, Suzanne; Kiire, Christine; Halford, Stephanie; Chong, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, a complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, is a complex disease and is one of the leading causes of blindness in adults worldwide. It can be divided into distinct subclasses, one of which is diabetic macular oedema. Diabetic macular oedema can occur at any time in diabetic retinopathy and is the most common cause of vision loss in patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the large number of genetic association studies that have been performed in cohorts of patients with type 2 diabetes and published in English-language journals up to February 2017. Many of these studies have produced positive associations with gene polymorphisms and diabetic retinopathy. However, this review highlights that within this large body of work, studies specifically addressing a genetic association with diabetic macular oedema, although present, are vastly under-represented. We also highlight that many of the studies have small patient numbers and that meta-analyses often inappropriately combine patient data sets. We conclude that there will continue to be conflicting results and no meaningful findings will be achieved if the historical approach of combining all diabetic retinopathy disease states within patient cohorts continues in future studies. This review also identifies several genes that would be interesting to analyse in large, well-defined cohorts of patients with diabetic macular oedema in future candidate gene association studies. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. ‘Speaking Truth’ Protects Underrepresented Minorities’ Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Ben-Zeev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP, designed to protect underrepresented minorities’ (URMs intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM. STEP takes a ‘knowledge as power’ approach by: (a providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit and (b encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American]. STEP protected URMs’ abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA] as well as decreased URMs’ worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP’s two-pronged approach—explicating the effects of structural ‘isms’ while harnessing URMs’ existing assets—shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM.

  3. WVU--community partnership that provides science and math enrichment for underrepresented high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, J A; Chester, A L

    1999-04-01

    In response to the need to help West Virginia secondary school students overcome educational and economic barriers and to increase the number of health professionals in the state, the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (hereafter, "the Academy") was established in 1994. The Academy is a partnership between West Virginia University (WVU)--including the Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, and the College of Human Resources and Education--and members of the community, including secondary-school teachers, health care professionals, and other community leaders. The Academy targets students from underrepresented groups (mainly African Americans and financially disadvantaged whites) in grades nine through 12. By November 1997, 290 students (69% girls and 33% African American) from 17 counties were Academy participants. Funding is from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Coca-Cola Foundation, and other sources. Academy programs are an on-campus summer institute and community-based clubs, where students engage in activities for science and math enrichment, leadership development, and health careers awareness. In the Academy's clubs, students carry out extended investigations of problems related to human health and local communities. Most students report that the Academy has increased their interest in health care careers, and almost all who have continued to participate in Academy programs through their senior year have been accepted into college.

  4. Gender Issues. Trends in the Occupational Distribution of Military Women. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support, Committee on Armed Services, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. National Security and International Affairs Div.

    Since 1993 and 1994, significant changes in legislation and policy allow women to fly combat aircraft, serve on combat ships, and serve in combat-related occupations. As was the case in the early 1990s, a large percentage of military women continue to work in the areas of health care, administration, personnel, and supply occupations. However,…

  5. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  6. Retention of minority participants in clinical research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen S; Gonzales, Adelita; Fleuriet, K Jill

    2005-04-01

    Recruitment of minority participants for clinical research studies has been the topic of several analytical works. Yet retention of participants, most notably minority and underserved populations, is less reported and understood, even though these populations have elevated health risks. This article describes two related, intervention-based formative research projects in which researchers used treatment theory to address issues of recruitment and retention of minority women participants in an exercise program to reduce obesity. Treatment theory incorporates a model of health promotion that allows investigators to identify and control sources of extraneous variables. The authors' research demonstrates that treatment theory can improve retention of minority women participants by considering critical inputs, mediating processes, and substantive participant characteristics in intervention design.

  7. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S. E.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach

  8. Women in Leadership in Higher Education: Leadership Styles and the "Glass Ceiling"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rebecka

    2013-01-01

    Women in upper-level leadership positions in higher education are underrepresented. This study examined the predominant leadership styles of women who have achieved upper-level leadership positions in higher education explored intentional changes in their leadership styles. Primarily, the study sought to determine if these leaders had similar…

  9. Examining Department Climate for Women in Engineering: The Role of STEM Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Blanca E.; George-Jackson, Casey E.

    2016-01-01

    Women comprise over half of the total undergraduate population in the United States (National Center for Education Statistics, 2014), yet remain underrepresented in a number of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (National Science Foundation [NSF], 2014). Although women have steadily increased their representation in…

  10. Women's Leadership in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics: Barriers to Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Despite gains overall, women are still under-represented in leadership positions in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Data in the US suggest around one-quarter of deans and department heads are women; in science this drops to nearly 1 in 20. Part of this problem of under-representation stems from the population pool:…

  11. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials : an integrated scientific and ethical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach

  12. Entry-Level Employment Prospects for Women in College-Student Personnel Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, George D.

    1979-01-01

    Women are no longer underrepresented in student personnel preparation programs. However, an increased number of female master's degree graduates are seeking a limited number of entry-level positions. Women (and men) should be made aware of the inherent free-market employment risks when contemplating a career in student personnel work. (Author)

  13. Entrepreneurial intentions and start-ups : Are women or men more likely to enact their intentions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinnar, Rachel S.; Hsu, Dan K.; Powell, Benjamin C.; Shah-Zhou, Haibo

    2018-01-01

    While empirical data clearly show that women are underrepresented among entrepreneurs, the causes of this gap are entirely not clear. This article explores one potential cause: that women might be less likely to act on their entrepreneurial intentions. Building on Ajzen’s theory of planned

  14. An Examination of Attitudes towards Women in Leadership Positions in Public Universities in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfawzan, Norah Saad

    2017-01-01

    Despite opportunities for female leadership in the field of higher education made available through gender-segregation policies, women leaders are underrepresented in Saudi Arabia (Jamjoom & Kelly, 2013). There are obstacles that Saudi women face when seeking leadership positions in higher education, including societal attitudes on gender. Due…

  15. As Capable as Other Students: Tanzanian Women with Disabilities in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Margaret Trotta; Lehtomäki, Elina; Matonya, Magreth

    2015-01-01

    Globally, persons with disabilities are underrepresented in higher education. In sub-Saharan Africa, where opportunities for higher education are especially limited, women are unlikely to continue their education. This research investigates women in Tanzanian higher education with the double marginalisation of being a woman and having…

  16. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E; Bryant, Kendall J; Zaller, Nickolas D; Operario, Don

    2016-08-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations. We analyzed data from 577 adult men and women who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Six questions assessed discrimination due to sexual orientation. Weighted multivariable logistic regression examined associations between experiences of sexual orientation discrimination and both mental health and substance use disorders. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual minority men and women, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Sexual minority men who ever experienced discrimination (57.4%) reported higher odds of any lifetime drug use disorder and cannabis use disorder compared to sexual minority men who never experienced discrimination. Sexual minority women who ever experienced discrimination (42.9%) reported higher odds of any lifetime mood disorder and any lifetime anxiety disorder compared to sexual minority women who never experienced discrimination. The findings suggest that discrimination is differentially associated with internalizing (mental health) and externalizing (substance use) disorders for sexual minority men and women. These findings indicate a need to consider how homophobia and heteronormative discrimination may contribute to distinct health outcomes for lesbian and bisexual women compared with gay and bisexual men.

  17. The Image of Women in Abnormal Psychology: Professionalism versus Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ben; Lightner, Jean

    1980-01-01

    A survey of sex stereotyping in photographs was made of major current-edition textbooks of abnormal psychology published in the United States. In photographs of contributors to the field women were significantly underrepresented, amounting to less that 5 percent of the contributors pictured. (Author)

  18. Women in Leader Roles within Higher Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Lamia Rahman; Gunter, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Women have long been under-represented in organization leader roles within higher education. Research has identified, mapped and examined the data, with recommendations for change. The research reported in this article adds to current knowledge, and raises methodological questions by focusing on senior female leaders in higher education in…

  19. Underrepresented Entrepreneurship: A Mixed Method Study Evaluating Postsecondary Persistence Approaches for Minorities in Science Technology Engineering Math (STEM) to Graduate Studies and STEM Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Kamela Joy

    2017-01-01

    Small businesses with emphasis in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) are catalytic in launching the United States' global presence and competitiveness into the twenty-first century through innovation and technology. The projected growth compared to non-STEM occupations, is almost twice as high for STEM occupations which further…

  20. Underrepresented minority high school and college students report STEM-pipeline sustaining gains after participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Salto

    Full Text Available An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS and undergraduate (UG student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical workforce diversity.

  1. Toward a Model of Social Influence that Explains Minority Student Integration into the Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, such that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than non-minority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same rate as non-minority students. Kelman (1958, 2006) describes a tripartite integration model of social influence (TIMSI) by which a person orients to a social system. To test if this model predicts integration into the scientific community, we conducted analyses of data from a national panel of minority science students. A structural equation model framework showed that self-efficacy (operationalized consistent with Kelman’s ‘rule-orientation’) predicted student intentions to pursue a scientific career. However, when identification as a scientist and internalization of values are added to the model, self-efficacy becomes a poorer predictor of intention. Additional mediation analyses support the conclusion that while having scientific self-efficacy is important, identifying with and endorsing the values of the social system reflect a deeper integration and more durable motivation to persist as a scientist. PMID:21552374

  2. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  3. Voices of women in physics...

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We asked a few female physicists for their thoughts about why women are under-represented in the sciences, how this problem can be solved, and whether the challenges of pursuing a scientific career are different for women and men. Their responses were as diverse as their backgrounds. Here's what they had to say...   Margarete Muehlleitner is a theoretical physicist, a French university lecturer and a fellow in CERN's Theory Group. She says that in Germany, her home country, 'Only a small percentage of women studying physics go on to do a master's degree, and even fewer go further than that in their subject.' She continues, 'As far as I know, about 1% of university physics professors are women, a situation that hasn't changed much in 100 years!' In her opinion, this dramatic imbalance between the sexes can be explained by two problems. 'Women don't think they are capable of making a career in physics or maths,'...

  4. Institutional Investors as Minority Shareholders

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf Hamdani; Yishay Yafeh

    2013-01-01

    We examine the link between minority shareholders' rights and corporate governance by studying institutional investors' voting patterns in a concentrated ownership environment. Institutions rarely vote against insider-sponsored proposals even when the law empowers the minority. Institutions vote against compensation-related proposals more often than against related party transactions even when minority shareholders cannot influence outcomes. Potentially conflicted institutions are more likely...

  5. A Scholarship Workshop Program to Improve Underrepresented Student Access to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a scholarship workshop program to better prepare low socio-economic and minority students to compete for collegiate scholarships. The study involves 1,367 high risk 9th to 12th grade students in Texas. Analysis of the pre- and post tests, using a t-test for dependent variables, indicates a statistically…

  6. Programs for Increasing the Engagement of Underrepresented Ethnic Groups and People with Disabilities in HPC. Final assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Valerie

    2012-12-23

    Given the significant impact of computing on society, it is important that all cultures, especially underrepresented cultures, are fully engaged in the field of computing to ensure that everyone benefits from the advances in computing. This proposal is focused on the field of high performance computing. The lack of cultural diversity in computing, in particular high performance computing, is especially evident with respect to the following ethnic groups – African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans – as well as People with Disabilities. The goal of this proposal is to organize and coordinate a National Laboratory Career Development Workshop focused on underrepresented cultures (ethnic cultures and disability cultures) in high performance computing. It is expected that the proposed workshop will increase the engagement of underrepresented cultures in HPC through increased exposure to the excellent work at the national laboratories. The National Laboratory Workshops are focused on the recruitment of senior graduate students and the retention of junior lab staff through the various panels and discussions at the workshop. Further, the workshop will include a community building component that extends beyond the workshop. The workshop was held was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory campus in Livermore, CA. from June 14 - 15, 2012. The grant provided funding for 25 participants from underrepresented groups. The workshop also included another 25 local participants in the summer programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Below are some key results from the assessment of the workshops: 86% of the participants indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I am more likely to consider/continue a career at a national laboratory as a result of participating in this workshop." 77% indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I plan to pursue a summer internship at a national laboratory." 100% of the participants indicated strongly

  7. Computer network access to scientific information systems for minority universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Valerie L.; Wakim, Nagi T.

    1993-08-01

    The evolution of computer networking technology has lead to the establishment of a massive networking infrastructure which interconnects various types of computing resources at many government, academic, and corporate institutions. A large segment of this infrastructure has been developed to facilitate information exchange and resource sharing within the scientific community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) supports both the development and the application of computer networks which provide its community with access to many valuable multi-disciplinary scientific information systems and on-line databases. Recognizing the need to extend the benefits of this advanced networking technology to the under-represented community, the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) in the Space Data and Computing Division at the Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) Program: a major networking and education initiative for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Minority Universities (MUs). In this paper, we will briefly explain the various components of the MU-SPIN Program while highlighting how, by providing access to scientific information systems and on-line data, it promotes a higher level of collaboration among faculty and students and NASA scientists.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  9. Perceptions of factors influencing the career success of professional and business women in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Doubell, Marianne; Struwig, Miemie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that investigated factors influencing women's career success. Statistics relating to the field of women in management indicate that, worldwide, women are underrepresented in executive and decision-making positions. Women face unique challenges in their career pursuit that may prevent them from moving up to executive positions. A framework to investigate the factors influencing career success indicates that factors such as demographics, personality, c...

  10. Minor long-term effects 3-4 years after the ReDO™ intervention for women with stress-related disorders: A focus on sick leave rate, everyday occupations and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The Redesigning Daily Occupations (ReDO™) work rehabilitation method has been found effective, compared with care as usual (CAU), for women with stress-related disorders. To conduct a long-term follow-up of former ReDO™ and CAU participants with respect to sick leave, well-being and everyday occupations 3-4 years after completed work rehabilitation. Forty-two women in each group participated. An index day was decided to estimate sick-leave rate, retrieved from register data. Fifty-five women also participated in a telephone interview addressing well-being, everyday occupations and life events. Both groups had reduced their sick-leave rate further, but no difference between the groups was established. The ReDO™ women perceived a better balance in the work domain of everyday occupations, whereas the CAU group reported more over-occupation. No differences were found on well-being. The groups had experienced similar important life events, affecting the women's work and private lives. Previous stress and anxiety predicted sick leave at the long-term follow-up. Although the ReDO™ intervention had speeded up return to work in the immediate follow-up perspective, the CAU had caught up in the longer term. Still, the ReDO™ women exhibited better balance in the work domain.

  11. Team-Based Learning in a Pipeline Course in Medical Microbiology for Under-Represented Student Populations in Medicine Improves Learning of Microbiology Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, K C; Murphy, M M; Mitchell-Williams, J; Rogers-McQuade, H; Lopez, O J

    2016-12-01

    As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and pre-course examination scores. Teaching techniques included engaged lectures using an audience response system, TBL, and guided self-directed learning. We hypothesized that more active learning exercises, irrespective of the amount of lecture time, would help students master course content. In year 2 as compared with year 1, TBL exercises were decreased from six to three with a concomitant increase in lecture time, while in year 3, TBL exercises were increased from three to six while maintaining the same amount of lecture time as in year 2. As we hypothesized, there was significant ( p < 0.01) improvement in performance on the post-course examination in years 1 and 3 compared with year 2, when only three TBL exercises were used. In contrast to the students' perceptions that more lecture time enhances learning of course content, our findings suggest that active learning strategies, such as TBL, are more effective than engaged lectures in improving student understanding of course content, as measured by post-course examination performance. Introduction of TBL in pipeline program courses may help achieve better student learning outcomes.

  12. Team-Based Learning in a Pipeline Course in Medical Microbiology for Under-Represented Student Populations in Medicine Improves Learning of Microbiology Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn C. Behling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA and pre-course examination scores. Teaching techniques included engaged lectures using an audience response system, TBL, and guided self-directed learning. We hypothesized that more active learning exercises, irrespective of the amount of lecture time, would help students master course content. In year 2 as compared with year 1, TBL exercises were decreased from six to three with a concomitant increase in lecture time, while in year 3, TBL exercises were increased from three to six while maintaining the same amount of lecture time as in year 2. As we hypothesized, there was significant (p < 0.01 improvement in performance on the post-course examination in years 1 and 3 compared with year 2, when only three TBL exercises were used. In contrast to the students’ perceptions that more lecture time enhances learning of course content, our findings suggest that active learning strategies, such as TBL, are more effective than engaged lectures in improving student understanding of course content, as measured by post-course examination performance. Introduction of TBL in pipeline program courses may help achieve better student learning outcomes.

  13. Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (cytology were more specific than APTIMA. The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL.

  14. Patterns of Mental Health Care Utilization Among Sexual Orientation Minority Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lisa F; Wolf, Julia Kay; Scheitle, Christopher P

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies of the utilization of mental health professionals by sexual minority populations have relied on data that are now dated or not nationally representative. These studies have also provided mixed findings regarding gender differences in the utilization of mental health professionals among sexual minority individuals. Using data from the 2013-2015 National Health Interview Surveys, this study investigates (1) how sexual minority individuals compare to heterosexual participants in their utilization of mental health professionals; and (2) gender differences in that utilization. The results indicate sexual minority individuals utilize mental health care professionals at higher rates than heterosexual individuals even after controlling for measures of mental health and other demographic characteristics; this is true for both men and women. However, gender moderates the sexual minority effect on utilization rates. Sexual minority men utilize mental health professionals at a high rate, such that their utilization rates are similar to sexual minority women, contrary to the gender gap seen among heterosexuals.

  15. Update on women in physics in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudny, Vera; Lagorio, Cecilia; Frechero, Marisa; Tamarit, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Data collected 10 years ago in Argentina concluded that women in physics were underrepresented in many instances and that a "crystal ceiling" was firmly in place. We have collected updated data for several indicators and compared them with those obtained 10 years ago. Although there is not a clear conclusion to be drawn from this comparison, we try to explain the results within the framework of the changes in scientific policies in Argentina.

  16. Update on women in physics in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Brudny, Vera Leonor; Lagorio, Cecilia; Frechero, Marisa Alejandra; Tamarit, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Data collected 10 years ago in Argentina concluded that women in physics were underrepresented in many instances and that a “crystal ceiling” was firmly in place. We have collected updated data for several indicators and compared them with those obtained 10 years ago. Although there is not a clear conclusion to be drawn from this comparison, we try to explain the results within the framework of the changes in scientific policies in Argentina. Fil: Brudny, Vera Leonor. Universidad de Buenos...

  17. Locating women in the New Zealand computing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hunter, PhD

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that women are under-represented in computing occupations in many Western countries, but is the situation similar in New Zealand? This article presents a quantitative analysis of gendered employment patterns in New Zealand\\'s computing industry. Findings from analysis of 2001 and 2006 census employment data demonstrate that women are now well represented in some newer computing occupations in New Zealand, but they remain significantly under-represented in traditional computing roles such as programming and systems analysis. Furthermore, New Zealand women in computing do not have pay parity with men. On some occasions during the early days of computing in New Zealand women participated more equally in number but they have always experienced pay discrimination.

  18. Preparing Future Geoscientists at the Critical High School-to-College Junction: Project METALS and the Value of Engaging Diverse Institutions to Serve Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. D.; Maygarden, D.; Serpa, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2010, the Minority Education Through Traveling and Learning in the Sciences (METALS) program, a collaboration among San Francisco State Univ., the Univ. of Texas at El Paso, the Univ. of New Orleans, and Purdue Univ., has created meaningful, field-based geoscience experiences for underrepresented minority high school students. METALS activities promote excitement about geoscience in field settings and foster mutual respect and trust among participants of different backgrounds and ethnicities. These gains are strengthened by the collective knowledge of the university partners and by faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, scientists, and science teachers who guide the field trips and who are committed to encouraging diversity in the geosciences. Through the student experiences it provides, METALS has helped shape and shift student attitudes and orientation toward geoscience, during and beyond their field experience, just as these students are poised at the critical juncture from high school to college. A review of the METALS findings and summative evaluation shows a distinct pattern of high to moderately high impact on most students in the various cohorts of the program. METALS, overall, was perceived by participants as a program that: (1) opens up opportunities for individuals who might not typically be able to experience science in outdoor settings; (2) offers high-interest geology content in field contexts, along with social and environmental connections; (3) promotes excitement about geology while encouraging the development of mutual respect, interdependence, and trust among individuals of different ethnicities; (4) influences the academic choices of students, in particular their choice of major and course selection in college. Summative data show that multiple aspects of this program were highly effective. Cross-university collaborations create a dynamic forum and a high-impact opportunity for students from different backgrounds to meet and develop

  19. Leading ladies: women in healthcare leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Women represent an overwhelming majority of the healthcare workforce, yet they are significantly underrepresented in leadership positions, particularly at the executive and board levels. However, women are uniquely positioned to leverage traits such as compassion, transparency, and the ability to foster teamwork to lead organizations into the next phase of contemporary healthcare delivery. In the future, the pace with which women gain access to the C-suite will accelerate as organizations embrace diversity and select the best qualified leaders in terms of both experience and leadership style that supports organizational culture. While the future for women in healthcare leadership looks bright, many women are currently struggling to reach the executive office, facing glass ceilings, competing priorities, and lack of access to support and guidance. In this article I discuss the role of women in healthcare leadership and offer practical suggestions on how women can reach the top echelon and achieve their goals and aspirations.

  20. Women and the sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantoni, Carmelita; Castellino, Santina; Cicchetti, Teresa; Rastelli, Stefania; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The education level of women has increased significantly in recent decades. However, although there is a continued positive trend overall, women remain underrepresented (or misrepresented?) in the main fields of science. In Europe the proportion of women in scientific research is growing faster than that of men, but women are more likely than men to choose education, arts and humanities, health and welfare. Moreover, of the total number of women graduating in all faculties (55%), the percentage of women graduating in medicine is 65%-68%, in Europe as in the United States. As far as nephrology is concerned, unpublished data from the Italian Society of Nephrology indicate that female nephrologists make up almost 30% of the total number in the age group between 40 and 55, and this proportion is even higher in the age group younger than 40 years. In comparison with the past, there are some hints that things are going to change, but the path is still a difficult one, much effort is needed and there is a long way ahead.

  1. Evaluating Career Development Resources: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Retention of geoscientists throughout the professional pipeline is especially challenging in the case of groups that are already underrepresented in science, including racial minorities and women. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) is a professional network of early-career female geoscientists that provides its members with a variety of career resources, through both informal, online and in-person networking and formal career development workshops. The group’s members are of diverse nationalities and racial/ethnic backgrounds, of various age cohorts and career stages, but primarily graduate students, postdocs, and early-career researchers. With funding from an NSF ADVANCE grant to ESWN, we have conducted a detailed survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young geoscientists. The survey data provide information about members’ personal and professional situations, their professional development needs, and obstacles they face as young women scientists. ESWN members indicated a variety of areas of professional growth that would advance their scientific careers, but at all career stages, members chose expanding their professional networks as among their top career needs. Professional networking has established benefits for retention of people from groups underrepresented in science, including women: it introduces young scientists to career best practices and advancement opportunities, provides access to role models, and creates a sense of community. ESWN members strongly indicate that their professional networks benefited from their involvement with the Network. The community aspect of network-building is especially important for people from underrepresented groups, as they often feel alone due to the lack of role models. The intimate character of the ESWN discussion list greatly contributes to its members’ sense of community. Moreover, personal concerns and professional success are

  2. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Collaborative Leadership Theory as a Model for Women in Theological Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions within business, politics, and higher education. The reality, however, is that while women make up slightly more than 50% of the population, we are under-represented in these institutions. There are fewer than 20 female CEOs of the…

  3. 34 CFR 656.22 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use to evaluate an application for an undergraduate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which the costs of the proposed activities are reasonable in relation to the objectives of the program... underrepresented, such as members of racial or ethnic minority groups, women, persons with disabilities, and the... underrepresented, such as members of racial or ethnic minority groups, women, persons with disabilities, and the...

  4. 34 CFR 656.21 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use to evaluate an application for a comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which the costs of the proposed activities are reasonable in relation to the objectives of the program... traditionally underrepresented, such as members of racial or ethnic minority groups, women, persons with... underrepresented, such as members of racial or ethnic minority groups, women, persons with disabilities, and the...

  5. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to…

  6. Issues and Challenges Facing the Minority Woman Dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkford, Jeanne C.

    1992-01-01

    The status of minority women dentists is reviewed, and initiatives to improve it are noted. Issues and challenges for African-American female dentists are outlined, including negative racial/gender stereotypes, lack of advancement opportunities, difficulties in starting practices and securing professional and social support systems, lack of…

  7. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  8. Ethnic minority dropout in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from

  9. Testing the tenets of minority stress theory in workplace contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L; Moradi, Bonnie; Brewster, Melanie E

    2013-10-01

    The links of minority stressors (workplace discrimination, expectations of stigma, internalized heterosexism, and identity management strategies) with psychological distress and job satisfaction were examined in a sample of 326 sexual minority employees. Drawing from minority stress theory and the literature on the vocational experiences of sexual minority people, patterns of mediation and moderation were tested. Minority stressors were associated with greater distress and lower job satisfaction. A mediation model was supported in which the links of discrimination and internalized heterosexism with psychological distress were mediated by a concealment-focused identity management strategy (i.e., avoiding), and the links of discrimination, expectations of stigma, and internalized heterosexism with job satisfaction were mediated by a disclosure-focused identity management strategy (i.e., integrating). Tests of moderation indicated that for sexual minority women (but not men), the positive association of discrimination with distress was stronger at higher levels of internalized heterosexism than at lower levels. In addition, lower levels of internalized heterosexism and concealment strategies (i.e., counterfeiting and avoiding) and higher levels of a disclosure strategy (i.e., integrating) were associated with higher job satisfaction in the context of low discrimination, but this buffering effect disappeared as level of discrimination increased. The implications of these findings for minority stress research are discussed, and clinical recommendations are made.

  10. Factors influencing the career success of professional and business women in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Doubell; Miemie Struwig

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that investigated factors influencing women’s career success. Statistics relating to the field of women in management indicate that, worldwide, women are underrepresented in executive and decision-making positions. Women face unique challenges in their career pursuit that may prevent them from moving up to executive positions. A framework to investigate the factors influencing career success indicates that factors such as demographics, personality, c...

  11. The Development of a Communication Tool to Facilitate the Cancer Trial Recruitment Process and Increase Research Literacy among Underrepresented Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Samantha; de la Riva, Erika E; Tom, Laura S; Clayman, Marla L; Taylor, Chirisse; Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A

    2015-12-01

    Despite increasing need to boost the recruitment of underrepresented populations into cancer trials and biobanking research, few tools exist for facilitating dialogue between researchers and potential research participants during the recruitment process. In this paper, we describe the initial processes of a user-centered design cycle to develop a standardized research communication tool prototype for enhancing research literacy among individuals from underrepresented populations considering enrollment in cancer research and biobanking studies. We present qualitative feedback and recommendations on the prototype's design and content from potential end users: five clinical trial recruiters and ten potential research participants recruited from an academic medical center. Participants were given the prototype (a set of laminated cards) and were asked to provide feedback about the tool's content, design elements, and word choices during semi-structured, in-person interviews. Results suggest that the prototype was well received by recruiters and patients alike. They favored the simplicity, lay language, and layout of the cards. They also noted areas for improvement, leading to card refinements that included the following: addressing additional topic areas, clarifying research processes, increasing the number of diverse images, and using alternative word choices. Our process for refining user interfaces and iterating content in early phases of design may inform future efforts to develop tools for use in clinical research or biobanking studies to increase research literacy.

  12. The C-MORE Scholars Program: Engaging minority students in STEM through undergraduate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, B. A.; Bruno, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    There have been several studies that show how undergraduate research experiences (REU) have a positive impact on a student’s academic studies and career path, including being a positive influence toward improving the student's lab skills and ability to work independently. Moreover, minority students appear to relate to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) concepts better when they are linked with (1) a service learning component, and (2) STEM courses that include a cultural and social aspect that engages the student in a way that does not distract from the student’s technical learning. It is also known that a “place-based” approach that incorporates traditional (indigenous) knowledge can help engage underrepresented minority groups in STEM disciplines and increase science literacy. Based on the methods and best practices used by other minority serving programs and described in the literature, the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) has successfully developed an academic-year REU to engage and train the next generation of scientists. The C-MORE Scholars Program provides undergraduate students majoring in an ocean or earth science-related field, especially underrepresented students such as Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, the opportunity to participate in unique and cutting edge hands-on research experiences. The program appoints awardees at one of three levels based on previous research and academic experience, and students can progress through the various tiers as their skills and STEM content knowledge develop. All awardees receive guidance on a research project from a mentor who is a scientist at the university and/or industry. A key component of the program is the inclusion of professional development activities to help the student continue towards post graduation education or prepare for career opportunities after they receive their undergraduate STEM degree.

  13. Moving toward True Inclusion of Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Federally Funded Studies. A Key Step for Achieving Respiratory Health Equality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sam S.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    A key objective of the 1993 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act was to ensure inclusion of minorities in clinical research. We conducted a literature search for the period from 1993 to 2013 to examine whether racial/ethnic minorities are adequately represented in published research studies of pulmonary diseases, particularly NIH-funded studies. We found a marked underrepresentation of minorities in published clinical research on pulmonary diseases. Over the last 20 years, inclusion of members of racial or ethnic minority groups was reported (in MeSH terms, journal titles, and MEDLINE fields) in less than 5% of all NIH-funded published studies of respiratory diseases. Although a secondary analysis revealed that a larger proportion of NIH-funded studies included any minorities, this proportional increment mostly resulted from studies including relatively small numbers of minorities (which precludes robust race- or ethnic-specific analyses). Underrepresentation or exclusion of minorities from NIH-funded studies is likely due to multiple reasons, including insufficient education and training on designing and implementing population-based studies of minorities, inadequate motivation or incentives to overcome challenges in the recruitment and retention of sufficient numbers of members of racial/ethnic minorities, underrepresentation of minorities among respiratory scientists in academic medical centers, and a dearth of successful partnerships between academic medical centers and underrepresented communities. This problem could be remedied by implementing short-, medium-, and long-term strategies, such as creating incentives to conduct minority research, ensuring fair review of grant applications focusing on minorities, developing the careers of minority scientists, and facilitating and valuing research on minorities by investigators of all backgrounds. PMID:25584658

  14. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  15. NASA Earth Systems, Technology and Energy Education for Minority University and Research Education Program Promotes Climate Literacy by Engaging Students at Minority Serving Institutions in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B.; Alston, E. J.; Chambers, L. H.; Bynum, A.; Montgomery, C.; Blue, S.; Kowalczak, C.; Leighton, A.; Bosman, L.

    2017-12-01

    NASA Earth Systems, Technology and Energy Education for Minority University Research & Education Program - MUREP (ESTEEM) activities enhance institutional capacity of minority serving institutions (MSIs) related to Earth System Science, Technology and energy education; in turn, increasing access of underrepresented groups to science careers and opportunities. ESTEEM is a competitive portfolio that has been providing funding to institutions across the United States for 10 years. Over that time 76 separate activities have been funded. Beginning in 2011 ESTEEM awards focused on MSIs and public-school districts with high under-represented enrollment. Today ESTEEM awards focus on American Indian/Alaska Native serving institutions (Tribal Colleges and Universities), the very communities most severely in need of ability to deal with climate adaptation and resiliency. ESTEEM engages a multi-faceted approach to address economic and cultural challenges facing MSI communities. PIs (Principal Investigators) receive support from a management team at NASA, and are supported by a larger network, the ESTEEM Cohort, which connects regularly through video calls, virtual video series and in-person meetings. The cohort acts as a collective unit to foster interconnectivity and knowledge sharing in both physical and virtual settings. ESTEEM partners with NASA's Digital Learning Network (DLNTM) in a unique non-traditional model to leverage technical expertise. DLN services over 10,000 participants each year through interactive web-based synchronous and asynchronous events. These events allow for cost effective (no travel) engagement of multiple, geographically dispersed audiences to share local experiences with one another. Events allow PIs to grow their networks, technical base, professional connections, and develop a sense of community, encouraging expansion into larger and broader interactions. Over 256 connections, beyond the 76 individual members, exist within the cohort. PIs report

  16. 77 FR 65056 - Advisory Committee on Minority Veterans, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ..., Office of Health Equity, and a special panel discussion with Center for Women Veterans, Center for Faith... (VBA), Center for Minority Veterans, Office of Public and Intergovernmental Affairs, Veterans Health...

  17. Associations of Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones and Other Sexual Minority Stressors with Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.

  18. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  19. Demarketing, minorities, and national attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinstein, A.; Nisan, Udi

    This study addresses two important global trends: protection of public goods, specifically the environment, and the emergence of multiethnic societies with influential minority groups. The study tests the effect of a government proenvironmental demarketing campaign on the deconsumption behavior of

  20. Properties of minor actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The present status of the research on properties of minor actinide nitrides for the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on nitride fuel and pyrochemical reprocessing is described. Some thermal stabilities of Am-based nitrides such as AmN and (Am, Zr)N were mainly investigated. Stabilization effect of ZrN was cleary confirmed for the vaporization and hydrolytic behaviors. New experimental equipments for measuring thermal properties of minor actinide nitrides were also introduced. (author)