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Sample records for underrepresented minority urm

  1. MS PHD'S: A successful model for reaching underrepresented minorities (URM) students through virtual platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, O.; Johnson, A.; Williamson, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Jearld, A., Jr.; Guzman, W. I.

    2014-12-01

    To successfully recruit and retain underrepresented minority (URM) students and early career scientists, many programs supplement traditional curricular activities with multiple online platforms, establishing "virtual communities" that are free and easily accessible. These virtual communities offer readily sustainable opportunities to facilitate communication across a wide range of cultural lines and socioeconomic levels thereby broadening participation and inclusivity in STEM. Established in 2003, the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Earth System Science Professional Development Program has successfully used virtual community tools such as a listserv, community forum, social media, and VoIP technologies, to extend the face-to-face activities of the program and support the advancement of URM students and early career scientists in STEM. The use of multiple facets of virtual community by MS PHD'S participants supports and encourages "real life" interactions and mentorship, facilitates networking and professional development, and maintains continuity of shared networks. The program is now in its ninth cohort and supports 213 participants. To date, 54 participants have completed their PhD and another 61 are currently enrolled in doctoral programs.

  2. Improving Underrepresented Minority Student Persistence in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Burnett, Myra; Campbell, Andrew G.; Campbell, Patricia B.; Denetclaw, Wilfred F.; Gutiérrez, Carlos G.; Hurtado, Sylvia; John, Gilbert H.; Matsui, John; McGee, Richard; Okpodu, Camellia Moses; Robinson, T. Joan; Summers, Michael F.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Zavala, MariaElena

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Joint Working Group on Improving Underrepresented Minorities (URMs) Persistence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)--convened by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute--review current data and propose deliberation about why the academic "pathways"…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of How Quality Mentorship and Research Experience Integrate Underrepresented Minorities into STEM Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2018-01-01

    African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree earners. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that URMs do not integrate into the STEM academic community at the same rate as non-URM students.…

  4. Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L.; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E.; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning…

  5. A Success Story: Recruiting & Retaining Underrepresented Minority Doctoral Students in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William M.

    2006-01-01

    There are various ways to succeed in recruiting and retaining underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral students; but key to them all is the creation of real student-faculty relationships, which demonstrate by example that diversity and excellence can and should coexist. This cannot be delegated or done indirectly, and no amount of outreach, campus…

  6. The social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority medical students: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Semalulu, Teresa; Underwood, Willie

    2013-11-01

    To review the literature on the social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority (URM) medical students to determine what type of interventions are needed to eliminate potential barriers to enrolling and retaining URM students. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid HealthStar, and Web of Science, and the reference lists of included studies, published between January 1, 1980, and September 15, 2012. Studies of the learning and social environments and of students' satisfaction, experiences with discrimination or unfair practices, and academic performance or progress, as well as assessments of programs or interventions to improve URM students' academic performance, were eligible for inclusion. The authors identified 28 studies (27 unique data sets) meeting the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies indicated that URM students experienced less supportive social and less positive learning environments, were subjected to discrimination and racial harassment, and were more likely to see their race as having a negative impact on their medical school experiences than non-URM students. Academic performance on standardized exams was worse, progress less timely, and attrition higher for URM students as well. For URM students, an adverse climate may be decreasing the attractiveness of careers in medicine, impairing their academic performance, and increasing attrition. Improvements to the social and learning environments experienced by URM students are needed to make medicine a more inclusive profession. The current environment of health care reform creates an opportunity for institutions to implement strategies to achieve this goal.

  7. Assessing the evolving definition of underrepresented minority and its application in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kathleen Raquel; Castillo-Page, Laura; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Garrison, Gwen; Wright, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    To assess how U.S. academic health centers (AHCs) define the term underrepresented minority (URM) and apply it to their diversity programs, following the 2003 revision of the Association of American Medical Colleges' (AAMC's) definition of URM. In 2010, the authors developed and deployed a cross-sectional survey of diversity leaders at 106 AHCs. The survey included questions about the diversity leader and institution's diversity program; institution's URM definition; application of that definition; and the diversity leader's perceptions of the representation and institutional contribution of various ethnic/racial groups. The authors used descriptive statistics to analyze the results. Of the 106 diversity leaders invited, 89 (84.0%) responded and 78 (73.6%) provided a working definition of URM. Most programs (40/78; 51%) used the 2003 AAMC definition of URM, which includes racial/ethnic groups that are underrepresented in medicine relative to local and national demographics. Only 14.1% (11/78) used the pre-2003 AAMC definition, which included only African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and mainland Puerto Ricans. Approximately one-third (23/78; 29.5%) also considered other diversity factors, such as socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and disability, in defining URM. Fifty-eight respondents (74.4%) confirmed that their diversity programs targeted specific groups. The definition of URM used by diversity programs at U.S. AHCs varied widely. Although some classified URMs by racial/ethnic categories, the majority defined URM more broadly to encompass other demographic and personal characteristics. This shift should prepare academic medicine to eliminate health disparities and meet the health needs of an increasingly diverse population.

  8. Crack in the Pipeline: Why Female Underrepresented Racial Minority College Students Leave Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Akim, Jenny Amanda

    Female and underrepresented racial minority (URM) students are indicating their interest in STEM fields at increasing rates, yet when examining the engineering discipline specifically disparities in degree completion rates between female URM students and others in the racial or gender majority are even more severe. This study explored female URM college student perceptions of school and classroom climate and the impact these factors had on their decision to persist or to leave engineering. Through a qualitative interview methodology grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study explored factors including self-efficacy, perceived barriers and supports, other-group orientation and outcome expectations that influenced students' academic decision-making. Interview participants consisted of 5 female URM students that matriculated into an engineering major at a top tier, private university but subsequently left the discipline in pursuit of another field of study. The perceptions of this target population were juxtaposed with interview data from 4 male non-URM, 4 female non-URM, and 4 male URM leavers in addition to 7 female URM engineering persisters. As a final component in the research design, 9 undergraduate engineering faculty were interviewed to understand their perceptions of why female URM students leave engineering in pursuit of other disciplines. With faculty being a central component of the academic environment, their perceptions of female URM students, as well as how they view their role in these students' retention, provided insight on this other side of retention question. Salient findings emerged that differentiated female URM leavers' experiences in engineering from other student populations. Female URM leavers were less likely to call upon self-directed learning strategies in response to academic challenges. Perceived academic barriers such as heavy course loads, lack of connection between material and application, and perceived academic

  9. Mentoring programs for underrepresented minority faculty in academic medical centers: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M; Calles-Escandon, Jorge; Hairston, Kristen G; Langdon, Sarah E; Latham-Sadler, Brenda A; Bell, Ronny A

    2013-04-01

    Mentoring is critical for career advancement in academic medicine. However, underrepresented minority (URM) faculty often receive less mentoring than their nonminority peers. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of published mentoring programs designed for URM faculty to identify "promising practices." Databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, PsychLit, Google Scholar, Dissertations Abstracts International, CINHAL, Sociological Abstracts) were searched for articles describing URM faculty mentoring programs. The RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) formed the model for analyzing programs. The search identified 73 citations. Abstract reviews led to retrieval of 38 full-text articles for assessment; 18 articles describing 13 programs were selected for review. The reach of these programs ranged from 7 to 128 participants. Most evaluated programs on the basis of the number of grant applications and manuscripts produced or satisfaction with program content. Programs offered a variety of training experiences, and adoption was relatively high, with minor changes made for implementing the intended content. Barriers included time-restricted funding, inadequate evaluation due to few participants, significant time commitments required from mentors, and difficulty in addressing institutional challenges faced by URM faculty. Program sustainability was a concern because programs were supported through external funds, with minimal institutional support. Mentoring is an important part of academic medicine, particularly for URM faculty who often experience unique career challenges. Despite this need, relatively few publications exist to document mentoring programs for this population. Institutionally supported mentoring programs for URM faculty are needed, along with detailed plans for program sustainability.

  10. Society of Pediatric Psychology Diversity Award: Training Underrepresented Minority Students in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Monica J.; Crosby, Lori E.

    2016-01-01

    Improving diversity, particularly among trainees and professionals from underrepresented ethnic minority backgrounds, has been a long-stated goal for the field of Psychology. Research has provided strategies and best practices, such as ensuring cultural sensitivity and relevance in coursework, clinical and research training, promoting a supportive and inclusive climate, providing access to cultural and community opportunities, and increasing insight and cultural competence among professionals (Rogers & Molina, 2006). Despite this, the rates of psychologists from ethnically diverse and underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds remain low and few published studies have described programmatic efforts to increase diversity within the field. This paper describes the INNOVATIONS training model, which provides community and culturally related research experiences, graduate-school related advising, and mentoring to high school and college students. The paper also examines how the model may support enrollment of URM students in doctoral programs in psychology. Findings indicate that INNOVATIONS supported students’ transition from high school and college to graduate programs (with approximately 75% of students enrolling in Master’s and Doctoral programs). INNOVATIONS also supported students, including those from URM backgrounds, enrolling in doctoral programs (41.7%). Students who were trained in the research assistant track were most likely to enroll in psychology doctoral programs, perhaps as a result of the intensive time and training committed to research and clinical experiences. Data support the importance of research training for URM students pursuing psychology graduate study and the need to ensure cultural relevance of the training. Implications for clinical and pediatric psychology are discussed. PMID:28603680

  11. A Study of The Influence of Advising on Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate Student Persistence in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Michael J.

    In the United States, undergraduate underrepresented minority (URM) students tend to change out of declared majors in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines at a rate of nearly sixty percent prior to earning a post secondary degree. This phenomenon contributes to a general concern that the United States is not producing enough STEM trained skilled workers to meet future employment needs of industry and government. Although there has been research developed to examine how to increase the numbers of URM students enrolling in STEM programs at higher education institutions, retention of these students remains critical. One area of increasing focus for researchers is to understand how multiple factors impact the college experience of URM students and how those factors may contribute to the student decision to persist in earning a STEM disciple degree. This research study is a phenomenological mixed method study that examines how students experience the phenomenon of advising and the influence of the advising experience of undergraduate URM students on their likelihood of persisting in STEM at a northeast US technology oriented post secondary institution. Persistence, from the perspective of the student, is driven by cognitive psychological attributes such as confidence, motivation and self-efficacy. Utilizing a Social Cognitive theoretical framework, this study examines how three distinct undergraduate URM student populations enrolled in; an Academic Services Program, Honors College, and the general undergraduate population at this institution experience advising and how their experiences may influence their propensity to persist in earning a STEM oriented degree.

  12. Retention of underrepresented minority students in dental school: one dental schools story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Ernestine S; Miller, Barbara H; Hornback, Sheryl A; McCann, Ann L; Reuben, Jayne S

    2011-01-01

    There is a large disparity between the proportions of African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans in the general population and in the dental profession. While these underrepresented minorities (URMs) as a group make up almost 30% of the United States population, they constitute only about 6% of the nation's dentists. Eliminating this disparity is important in addressing access to care for underrepresented groups. Texas A&M Health Science Center Baylor College of Dentistry (TAMHSC-BCD) enrolled greater numbers and proportions of URM students than any other non-minority school from 2006-2010. Strategies used to achieve this level of diversity include a Whole File Review process; career awareness activities for elementary, junior high and high school students; and academic enrichment programs for college students and college graduates. Retaining and graduating URM students is just as important as enrolling them. TAMHSC-BCD's retention rate over the last five years is 95.7% for all students and 92.5% for URM students. A wide range of services aids in the retention process. These services are available to all students and include monitoring of students' academic performance followed up with academic advisement as appropriate, peer tutoring, an alternative five-year curriculum, professional psychological counseling, professional learning assessments, social support; and mentoring through student organizations. The retention program at TAMHSC-BCD can serve as a model for other dental and other health professions schools seeking ways to ensure the academic success of their URM students. The more of these students we enroll and graduate, the more the problem of access to dental care is addressed.

  13. [Resilient or Risk Group? Psychological Burden at Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM) in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Stefan; Büttner, Peter; Lambertz, Birgit; Karpinski, Norbert; Petermann, Franz

    2017-04-01

    Resilient or Risk Group? Psychological Burden at Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM) in Germany Unaccompanied minors (umA in German) are considered as a risk group for psychological disorders. In international studies a high prevalence for trauma, anxiety, and depression were reported. A sample of N = 52 unaccompanied minors living in Germany was questioned on symptom severity as well as stress experience with the Refugee Health Screening-15. More than each second unaccompanied minor shows clinically relevant symptom severity and stress experience. In age-specific analyses the highest stress levels were found among the youngest unaccompanied minors. Therefore, specifically adapted settings for care should be applied for this high-risk group.

  14. Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Hannah; Eddy, Sarah L; Brazil, Riley; Lau, Ignatius; Mann, Chelsea; Brownell, Sara E; King, Katherine; Freeman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat. Specifically, we introduced a values affirmation exercise that counters stereotype threat by reinforcing a student's feelings of integrity and self-worth in three iterations of an intensive active-learning college biology course. On average, this exercise reduced the achievement gap between URM and white students who entered the course with the same incoming grade point average. This result suggests that achievement gaps resulting from the underperformance of URM students could be mitigated by providing students with a learning environment that removes psychological and emotional impediments of performance through short psychosocial interventions. © 2017 H. Jordt et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Effectiveness of a formal post-baccalaureate pre-medicine program for underrepresented minority students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, B; Edwards, A S; Segal, S S; Gillum, L H; Lindsay, A; Johnson, N

    2001-08-01

    To address the effectiveness of a formal postbaccalaureate (PB) experience for underrepresented minority (URM) students before medical school. The program provided an intense year-long experience of course work, research, and personal development. There were 516 participants from one medical school: 15 URM medical students had completed the formal PB program, 58 students had done independent PB work before matriculation, and 443 students were traditional matriculants. Cognitive and academic indicators [college science and non-science grade-point averages (GPAs); biology, physics, and verbal MCAT scores; and percentage scores from first-year medical school courses] were compared for the three groups. Both groups of students with PB experience demonstrated competency in the first year of medical school consistent with traditional students even though the students who had completed the formal PB program had lower MCAT scores and lower college GPAs than did the traditional students. Traditional predictors of academic performance during the first year of medical school did not significantly contribute to actual academic performances of students from the formal PB program. The results support the use of a formal PB program to provide academic readiness and support for URM students prior to medical school. Such a program may also improve retention. Noncognitive variables, however, may be important to understanding the success of such students in medical school.

  16. Recruitment of Dental Hygiene Students from Underrepresented Minority Groups: A National Survey of U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer M; Kinney, Janet S; Inglehart, Marita R

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how U.S. undergraduate dental hygiene programs recruit students, especially students from underrepresented minority (URM) groups, and how the program directors value recruiting those students, how satisfied they are with their efforts, which practices they use, and which challenges they encounter. Relationships between diversity-related recruitment motivation and satisfaction and the program and recruitment characteristics were also explored. Survey data were collected from 56 of the 287 programs that could be successfully contacted with individual emails to their directors (response rate: 20%). The majority of responding programs recruited students into their programs by using written materials (91%), websites (91%), on-campus events (77%), and high school visits (52%). However, only 20% had written materials and 13% special events for recruiting students from URM groups. While 75% of the responding program directors considered high grade point averages (GPAs) to be a priority and 85% thought high GPAs were important/very important when recruiting students, only 17% considered it a priority to recruit URM students, and only 35% reported thinking it was important/very important to do so. The more of a priority it was to have a diverse student body and the more important the respondents considered it, the more likely they were to have written URM-specific recruitment materials (r=0.34; pstudents need to be reconsidered.

  17. MS PHD'S: A Successful Model Promoting Inclusion, Preparation and Engagement of Underrepresented Minorities within the Geosciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, E.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J. T.; Ricciardi, L.; Guzman, W. I.; Braxton, L.; Williamson, V.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    According to 2014 findings of the National Research Council, geoscience and related industries indicate an anticipated 48,000 blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions to be filled by underrepresented minority (URM) workers in the next 15 years. An Information Handling Services (IHS) report prepared for the American Petroleum Institute forecasts even greater numbers estimating upward of 408,000 opportunities for URM workers related to growth in accelerated development of oil, gas and petroleum industries. However, many URM students lack the training in both the hard sciences and craft skills necessary to fill these positions. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program uses integrative and holistic strategies to better prepare URM students for entry into all levels of the geoscience workforce. Through a three-phase program of mentoring, community building, networking and professional development activities, MS PHD'S promotes collaboration, critical thinking, and soft skills development for participants. Program activities expose URM students to education, training and real-life geoscience workforce experiences while maintaining a continuity of supportive mentoring and training networks via an active virtual community. MS PHD'S participants report increased self-confidence and self-efficacy in pursuing geoscience workforce goals. To date, the program supports 223 participants of who 57, 21 and 16 have received Doctorate, Masters and Baccalaureate degrees respectively and are currently employed within the geoscience and related industries workforce. The remaining 129 participants are enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs throughout the U.S. Geographic representation of participants includes 35 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and two international postdoctoral appointments - one in Saudi Arabia and the other in France.

  18. "Fort Valley State University Cooperative Developmental Energy Program: Broadening the Participation of Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbly, I.; Hodges, J.; Kar, A.; Rashidi, L.

    2015-12-01

    According to the American Geological Institute's Status of Recent Geoscience Graduates, 2014, underrepresented minorities (URMs) make up only 7%, 5%, and 2% of graduates at the BS/BA, MA/MS, and Ph.D levels, respectively. Recruiting academically-talented URMs to major in the geosciences instead of majoring in other fields such as medicine, law, business, or engineering is a major undertaking. Numerous factors may contribute as to why few URMs choose geoscience careers. To address the underrepresentation of URMs in the geosciences 1992, the Cooperative Developmental Energy Program (CDEP) of Fort Valley State University (FVSU) and the College of Geosciences at the University of Oklahoma (OU) implemented a 3 + 2 dual degree program specifically in geology and geophysics. Since 1992, FVSU-CDEP has added the University of Texas at Austin (2004), Pennsylvania State University (2005), University of Arkansas (2010), and the University of Nevada at Las Vegas (2015) as partners to offer degrees in geology and geophysics. The dual degree programs consist of students majoring in chemistry or mathematics at FVSU for the first three years and transferring to one of the above partnering universities for years four and five to major in geology or geophysics. Upon completion of the program, students receive a BS degree in chemistry or mathematics from FVSU and a BS degree in geology or geophysics from a partnering university. CDEP has been responsible for recruiting 33 URMs who have earned BS degrees in geology or geophysics. Females constitute 50% of the graduates which is higher than the national average. Also, 56% of these graduates have earned the MS degree and 6% have earned the Ph.D. Currently, 60% of these graduates are employed with oil and gas companies; 20% work for academia; 12% work for governmental agencies; 6 % are professionals with environmental firms; and 2% of the graduate's employment is unknown.

  19. Women and Underrepresented Minorities in the it Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sharon G.; Stephan, Paula E.

    This study examines the composition of the information technology "IT" workforce and focuses on recruitment and retention and how they differ by gender and minority status. Data are from SESTAT, the largest nationally representative sample of college-educated scientists and engineers living in the United States. The data indicate that only about one in three individuals in the IT workforce in 1999 actually had a formal degree in an IT discipline; thus, recruitment from non-IT disciplines plays an important role in determining the size of the IT workforce. Similarly, retention, especially for women and underrepresented minorities, is very important. Indeed, the 1999 IT workforce would have been larger and even more balanced in terms of gender and minority status if women and underrepresented minorities had retention rates similar to that of their white male counterparts. Furthermore, women and underrepresented minorities have different recruitment and retention patterns than do men and whites. These differences persist even after controlling for variables such as family structure, age, citizenship status and field of training, gender, and race-ethnicity.

  20. Broadening Participation of Women and Underrepresented Minorities in STEM through a Hybrid Online Transfer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Jennifer C; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Ardissone, Alexandria N; Triplett, Eric W

    2016-01-01

    The Microbiology and Cell Science (MCS) Department at the University of Florida (UF) developed a new model of a 2 + 2 program that uses a hybrid online approach to bring its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum to students. In this paradigm, 2-year graduates transfer as online students into the Distance Education in MCS (DE MCS) bachelor of science program. The program has broadened access to STEM with a steadily increasing enrollment that does not draw students away from existing on-campus programs. Notably, half of the DE MCS students are from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds and two-thirds are women, which represents a greater level of diversity than the corresponding on-campus cohort and the entire university. Additionally, the DE MCS cohort has comparable retention and academic performance compared with the on-campus transfer cohort. Of those who have earned a BS through the DE MCS program, 71% are women and 61% are URM. Overall, these data demonstrate that the hybrid online approach is successful in increasing diversity and provides another viable route in the myriad of STEM pathways. As the first of its kind in a STEM field, the DE MCS program serves as a model for programs seeking to broaden their reach. © 2016 J. C. Drew et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. Encouraging and Attracting Underrepresented Racial Minorities to the Field of Geosciences-A Latin American Graduate Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve

  2. Growing the Pipeline of Diverse HIV Investigators: The Impact of Mentored Research Experiences to Engage Underrepresented Minority Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jonathan; Kouyate, Aminta; Kroboth, Liz; McFarland, Willi

    2016-09-01

    Structured, mentored research programs for high school and undergraduate students from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds are needed to increase the diversity of our nation's biomedical research workforce. In particular, a robust pipeline of investigators from the communities disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic is needed not only for fairness and equity but for insights and innovations to address persistent racial and ethnic disparities in new infections. We created the Summer HIV/AIDS Research Program (SHARP) at the San Francisco Department of Public Health for URM undergraduates as a 12-week program of hands-on research experience, one-on-one mentoring by a senior HIV investigator, didactic seminars for content and research methods, and networking opportunities. The first four cohorts (2012-2015) of SHARP gained research skills, built confidence in their abilities and self-identified as scientists. In addition, the majority of program alumni is employed in research positions and has been admitted to or is pursuing graduate degree programs in fields related to HIV prevention. While we await empirical studies of specific mentoring strategies at early educational stages, programs that engage faculty who are sensitive to the unique challenges facing diverse students and who draw lessons from established mentoring frameworks can help build an inclusive generation of HIV researchers.

  3. Underrepresented minority students' experiences at Baylor College of Dentistry: perceptions of cultural climate and reasons for choosing to attend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ann L; Lacy, Ernestine S; Miller, Barbara H

    2014-03-01

    A study was conducted at Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry (TAMBCD) in fall 2011 to identify the reasons underrepresented minority (URM) students chose to attend TAMBCD, the factors that supported their success as enrolled students, and their perceptions of the institution's cultural climate. A survey distributed online to all URM students received a 79 percent response rate (129/164). The respondents were primarily Hispanic (62 percent Mexican American and other Hispanic) and African American (33 percent) and had attended a college pipeline program (53 percent). The top reasons these students chose TAMBCD were reputation, location, and automatic acceptance or familiarity from being in a predental program. Alumni had most influenced them to attend. Regarding support services, the largest percentage reported not using any (44 percent); personal advising and tutoring were reported to be the most commonly used. In terms of climate, discrimination was reported by 22 percent (n=29), mostly from classmates and clinical faculty. The majority (87 percent) reported their cultural competence program was "effective" and agreed that faculty (83 percent), staff (85 percent), and students (75 percent) were culturally competent. Overall, the students were "satisfied" with how they were treated (88 percent), their education (91 percent), and the services/resources (92 percent). This information is being used to continue to improve the school's cultural climate and to conduct a broader assessment of all students.

  4. Examining issues of underrepresented minority students in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jessica Ellen

    In this dissertation we examine several issues related to the retention of under-represented minority students in physics and science. In the first section, we show that in calculus-based introductory physics courses, the gender gap on the FCI is diminished through the use of interactive techniques, but in lower-level introductory courses, the gap persists, similar to reports published at other institutions. We find that under-represented racial minorities perform similar to their peers with comparable academic preparation on conceptual surveys, but their average exam grades and course grades are lower. We also examine student persistence in science majors; finding a significant relationship between pedagogy in an introductory physics course and persistence in science. In the second section, we look at student end-of-semester evaluations and find that female students rate interactive teaching methods a full point lower than their male peers. Looking more deeply at student interview data, we find that female students report more social issues related to the discussions in class and both male and female students cite feeling pressure to obtain the correct answer to clicker questions. Finally, we take a look an often-cited claim for gender differences in STEM participation: cognitive differences explain achievement differences in physics. We examine specifically the role of mental rotations in physics achievement and problem-solving, viewing mental rotations as a tool that students can use on physics problems. We first look at student survey results for lower-level introductory students, finding a low, but significant correlation between performance on a mental rotations test and performance in introductory physics courses. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship for students in the upper-level introductory course. We also examine student problem-solving interviews to investigate the role of mental rotations on introductory problems.

  5. Providing Social Support for Underrepresented Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Career Coaching Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N; Thakore, Bhoomi K; McGee, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Improvement in the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions has been unsatisfactory. Although this is a complex problem, one key issue is that graduate students often rely on research mentors for career-related support, the effectiveness of which can be variable. We present results from a novel academic career "coaching" intervention, one aim of which was to provide supplementary social support for PhD students, particularly those from underrepresented backgrounds. Coaching was delivered both within small groups and on an individual basis, with a diverse group of coaches and students coming from many universities. Coaches were provided with additional diversity training. Ninety-six semistructured interviews with 33 URM students over 3 years were analyzed using a qualitative framework approach. For most of the URM PhD students, coaching provided social support in the form of emotional, informational, and appraisal support. Coaching groups provided a noncompetitive environment and "community of support" within which students were able to learn from one another's experiences and discuss negative and stressful experiences related to their graduate school, lab, or career plans. This coached peer group model is capable of providing the social support that many URM students do not find at their home universities. © 2017 S. N. Williams et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Bayer Facts of Science Education XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer Corporation

    2012-06-01

    Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students. Annual public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine science education and science literacy issues. The 15th in the series and the fifth to explore diversity and underrepresentation, this research is a direct outgrowth of last year's results which found 40 percent of the country's female and underrepresented minority (URM) chemists and chemical engineers working today were discouraged from pursuing their STEM career at some point in their lives. US colleges were cited as places where this discouragement most often happened and college professors as the individuals most likely responsible. Does such discouragement still occur in American colleges today? To answer this and other questions about the undergraduate environment in which today's students make their career decisions, the survey polls 413 STEM department chairs at the nation's 200 top research universities and those that produce the highest proportion of female and URM STEM graduates. The survey also asks the chairs about their institutions track record recruiting and retaining female and URM STEM undergraduates, preparedness of these students to study STEM, the impact of traditional introductory STEM courses on female and URM students and barriers these students face pursuing their STEM degrees.

  7. The Intersectional Matrix: Rethinking Institutional Change for URM Women in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Mary A.; Jovanovic, Jasna

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the persistent challenge of how higher education institutions can support the success of underrepresented minority (URM) women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Our theoretical model centers on intersectionality, and we examine the possibilities and challenges involved in taking an…

  8. MS PHD'S: Effective Strategies for the Retention and Advancement of URM Students in ESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, J.; Burgess, A. K.; Pace, L.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science (ESS) is a model initiative for improving the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students in STEM fields. Entering its ninth cohort, MS PHD'S remains committed to helping URM undergraduate and graduate students achieve outstanding careers in ESS. MS PHD'S facilitates URM student achievement through a three-phase program designed to increase student exposure to the ESS community. By engaging in a series of professional development and skill building exercises, peer-to-peer community building activities, participation in scientific society conferences and workshops, mentoring by URM and other scientists, and a virtual community, URM students gain the confidence and support necessary to achieve their academic goals and enter the ESS workforce. Since its inception, MS PHD'S continues to support 189 participants. Of these 189 participants, 35 have advanced from undergraduate and graduate academic pathways to completion of their PhD and another 60 are currently enrolled in doctoral programs. MS PHD'S maintains close ties with program alumni to further support retention, inclusivity, and broadening participation of URM students and graduates in STEM activities. Its model is built on reengaging alumni to become mentors and leaders for each new cohort as well as facilitating valuable opportunities for alumni to advance in their ESS related academic and professional career pathways.

  9. Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Disciplines: A Cross Institutional Analysis of their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Tanya

    Considering the importance of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) research workforce for our country's future, it is troubling that many underrepresented racial minority (URM) students start graduate STEM programs, but do not finish. However, some institutional contexts better position students for degree completion than others. The purpose of this study was to uncover the academic and social experiences, power dynamics, and programmatic/institutional structures URM students face within their graduate STEM programs that hinder or support degree progression. Using a critical socialization framework applied in a cross-comparative qualitative study, I focused on how issues of race, ethnicity, and underrepresentation within the educational contexts shape students' experiences. Data was collected from focus group interviews involving 53 URM graduate students pursuing STEM disciplines across three institution types -- a Predominately White Institution, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, and a Historically Black University. Results demonstrate that when students' relationships with faculty advisors were characterized by benign neglect, students felt lost, wasted time and energy making avoidable mistakes, had less positive views of their experiences, and had more difficulty progressing through classes or research, which could cause them to delay time to degree completion or to leave with a master's degree. Conversely, faculty empowered students when they helped them navigate difficult processes/milestones with regular check-ins, but also allowed students room to make decisions and solve problems independently. Further, faculty set the tone for the overall interactional culture and helping behavior in the classroom and lab contexts; where faculty modeled collaboration and concern for students, peers were likely to do the same. International peers sometimes excluded domestic students both socially and academically, which had a negative affect on

  10. The experiences of underrepresented minority faculty in schools of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena; Lutz, Kristin F; Beckett, Ann K; Junkins, Edward P; Horton, LaShawn L

    2014-01-01

    Faculty of color in schools of medicine play an essential role in addressing health disparities, increasing diversity in healthcare, and improving health professions education. Yet inadequate progress has been made in increasing the numbers of faculty of color in medical schools. The reasons for this gap, and ways to address it, are poorly understood. We conducted a grounded theory study of 25 of faculty from groups historically underrepresented in academic medicine at 17 schools in the United States. Faculty were interviewed in person (n=4, 16%) and by telephone (n=21, 84%). We identified two processes that contribute to a greater understanding of the experiences of faculty of color: patterns of exclusion and control, and surviving and thriving. We also identified one outcome - faculty of color having influence. Strong support from leaders, mentors, and peers to nurture and protect faculty of color in schools of medicine is needed to counteract the negative effects of racism and to promote the positive effects this group has on diversity and excellence in medical education. Specific strategies for survival and success are described.

  11. The experiences of underrepresented minority faculty in schools of medicine

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    Dena Hassouneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Faculty of color in schools of medicine play an essential role in addressing health disparities, increasing diversity in healthcare, and improving health professions education. Yet inadequate progress has been made in increasing the numbers of faculty of color in medical schools. The reasons for this gap, and ways to address it, are poorly understood. Methods: We conducted a grounded theory study of 25 of faculty from groups historically underrepresented in academic medicine at 17 schools in the United States. Faculty were interviewed in person (n=4, 16% and by telephone (n=21, 84%. Results: We identified two processes that contribute to a greater understanding of the experiences of faculty of color: patterns of exclusion and control, and surviving and thriving. We also identified one outcome – faculty of color having influence. Conclusions: Strong support from leaders, mentors, and peers to nurture and protect faculty of color in schools of medicine is needed to counteract the negative effects of racism and to promote the positive effects this group has on diversity and excellence in medical education. Specific strategies for survival and success are described.

  12. Leadership Competencies: Do They Differ for Women and Under-Represented Minority Faculty Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Levine, Rachel B.; Yang, Wan Rou; González-Fernández, Marlís; Bodurtha, Joann; Barone, Michael A.; Fivush, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The literature on leadership competencies does not include an understanding of how stakeholders perceive competencies for women and under-represented minority faculty members. We surveyed three groups of leaders (N = 113) to determine their perceptions of the importance of 23 leadership competencies. All three groups endorsed the same five…

  13. Recruitment, Retention and Socialization of Underrepresented Minority Populations to West Virginia Higher Education Administrative Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dedriell Dewin

    2016-01-01

    This study contributed to the body of knowledge dealing with recruitment, retention and socialization of underrepresented (UREP) minority populations for academic leadership positions in West Virginia higher education. The purpose of the study was to examine both the institutional and personal factors that are most effective in attracting members…

  14. Campus Climate and the Underrepresented Minority Engineering Student Experience: A Critical Race Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Terrance

    In the current technological era, the number of minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a crucial factor in predetermining the economic growth of the United States. Since the minority population is growing at much faster rates than the non-minority population, the lack of proportionate production of minority engineers poses a threat to the United States' ability to remain a global competitor in technological innovation. Sixty-three per cent (63%) of undergraduate students who enter engineering majors continue on to graduate in that major. The graduation rate, however, for African-American, Hispanic, and Native-American students in engineering is significantly lower at 39%. As this group represents only a small fraction of the annual student enrollment, engineering programs are graduating these minority groups at rates that are greatly disproportionate to United States demographics. Therefore, researchers are thoroughly investigating certain initiatives that promote academic success among underrepresented minority students in engineering. Colleges and universities have attempted to address the growing achievement gap between underrepresented minority and non-minority engineering students, predominately through various deficit-based interventions, focusing on the student's flaws and problems. As the pipeline for minorities in engineering continues to narrow, it begs the question of whether institutions are focusing on the right solutions to the problem. Critical Race Theory scholars argue that colleges and universities must address institutional climate issues around students, such as racism, microaggressions, and marginalization, before members of oppressed groups can truly succeed. This dissertation explored the unique experiences of underrepresented minority engineering students in a predominately White and Asian campus.

  15. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  16. Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America's Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabowski, F. A.

    2011-12-01

    This talk will focus on the recent National Academies Report, Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America's Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads. The report (1) suggests stronger coordination among national agencies in developing policies and incentives for broadening participation and (2) focuses on the key roles of different types of educational institutions, from K-12 through higher education. The talk will focus on those issues most important for minority success in STEM, including academic preparation, access and motivation, academic and financial support, and social integration. Finally, Dr. Hrabowski will draw upon his experience in developing the Meyerhoff Scholars Program for talented minority students at his university.

  17. Recruitment of Underrepresented Minority Researchers into HIV Prevention Research: The HIV Prevention Trials Network Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erica L.; Griffith, Sam B.; Jennings, Larissa; Dyer, Typhanye V.; Mayer, Kenneth; Wheeler, Darrell

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Most U.S. investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the U.S. epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Scholars were affiliated with the HPTN for 12–18 months, mentored by a senior researcher to analyze HPTN study data. Participation in scientific committees, trainings, protocol teams, and advisory groups was facilitated, followed by evaluative exit surveys. Twenty-six trainees have produced 17 peer-reviewed articles to date. Research topics typically explored health disparities and HIV prevention among black and Hispanic MSM and at-risk black women. Most scholars (81% in the first five cohorts) continued HIV research after program completion. Alumni reported program-related career benefits and subsequent funding successes. Their feedback also suggested that we must improve the scholars' abilities to engage new research protocols that are developed within the network. Mentored engagement can nurture the professional development of young researchers from racial/ethnic and sexual minority communities. Minority scientists can benefit from training and mentoring within research consortia, whereas the network research benefits from perspectives of underrepresented minority scientists. PMID:29145745

  18. CU-STARs: Promoting STEM Diversity by Addressing First-year Attrition of Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cara; Silvia, Devin W.; Ellingson, Erica; Sturner, Andrew P.; Peck, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Upon first entering university, the fraction of students interested in pursuing a STEM major are distributed according to societal demographics (with 25% being underrepresented minorities), but by graduation, the fraction of students receiving STEM degrees is unbalanced, with underrepresented minorities receiving only 15% of STEM bachelor's degrees. The CU-STARs (CU Science, Technology, and Astronomy Recruits) program at the University of Colorado, Boulder is targeted to address the main triggers of early career attrition for underrepresented minorities in STEM disciplines. A select group of students are given financial support through work-study at the Fiske planetarium on campus, while resources to address other triggers of attrition are available to the entire cohort of interested students (typically ~5-10 per year). These resources are designed to promote social engagement and mentorship, while also providing a support network and resources to combat inadequate high school preparation for STEM courses. We achieve these goals through activities that include social events, mentor meetings, free tutoring, and special events to meet and talk with scientists. The culmination of the program for the recruits are a series of high school outreach events in underserved areas (inner city and rural alike), in which they become the expert. The STARs are paid for their time and take the lead in planning, teaching, and facilitating programs for the high school students, including classroom presentations, interactive lab activities, solar observing, and star parties. The high school outreach events provide role models and STEM exposure for the underserved high school community while simultaneously cementing the personal achievements and successes for the STARs. CU-STARs is now in its 4th year and is still growing. We are beginning the process of formal assessments of the program's success. We present details of the program implementation, a discussion of potential obstacles

  19. Motivation and career outcomes of a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Robbie Ray

    Minorities continue to be underrepresented in professional science careers. In order to make Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers more accessible for underrepresented minorities, informal science programs must be utilized to assist in developing interest in STEM for minority youth. In addition to developing interest in science, informal programs must help develop interpersonal skills and leadership skills of youth, which allow youth to develop discrete social behaviors while creating positive and supportive communities thus making science more practical in their lives. This study was based on the premise that introducing underrepresented youth to the agricultural and life sciences through an integrated precollege experience of leadership development with university faculty, scientist, and staff would help increase youths' interest in science, while also increasing their interest to pursue a STEM-related career. Utilizing a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities, known as the Ag Discovery Camp, 33 middle school aged youth were brought to the Purdue University campus to participate in an experience that integrated a leadership development program with an informal science education program in the context of agriculture. The week-long program introduced youth to fields of agriculture in engineering, plant sciences, food sciences, and entomology. The purpose of the study was to describe short-term and intermediate student outcomes in regards to participants' interests in career activities, science self-efficacy, and career intentions. Youth were not interested in agricultural activities immediately following the precollege experience. However, one year after the precollege experience, youth expressed they were more aware of agriculture and would consider agricultural careers if their first career choice did not work out for them. Results also showed that the youth who participated in the precollege experience were

  20. Assessing the efficacy of advancing underrepresented minority groups through AGU's Student Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, L.; Hurtado, C.; Gottschall, H.; Meisenhelder, K.; Hankin, E. R.; Harwell, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to cultivate a diverse and inclusive organization that uses its position to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science. To cultivate a diverse talent pool, AGU must also foster a diverse student member population. The two largest AGU programs serving students are the Outstanding Student Paper Award (OSPA) and the Student Grants programs. OSPA allows students to practice their presentation skills and receive valuable feedback from experienced scientists. Over 3,000 students participated in OSPA at Fall Meeting 2016. The Student Grants program includes a suite of 14 travel and research grant opportunities. Over 2,000 students applied for grant opportunities in 2016 and 246 grants and fellowships were awarded. The OSPA and Student Grants programs also engage non-student members through volunteering opportunities for program roles, such as OSPA judge or grant reviewer. This presentation will look at the temporal participation trends of underrepresented minority groups in AGU's OSPA and Student Grants programs. The participation of underrepresented minority groups will also be compared before and after the implementation of policy changes to the Student Grants program in 2012.

  1. A Case Study of URM Retention through IBP's Professional Development and Mentoring Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Fauver, A.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Thomas, S. H.; Valaitis, S.

    2012-12-01

    As a free-standing not for profit organization, the Institute for Broadening Participation (IBP) hosts a variety of initiatives designed to increase the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students pursuing pathways in STEM. Successful initiatives include virtual and face-to-face components that bring together URM students with established URM and other scientists in academia, government and industry. These connections provide URM students with supportive mentoring, networking opportunities, and professional skill development contributing to an overall improved retention rate of URM students majoring in STEM degrees. IBP's initiatives include the NASA One Stop Shopping Initiative (NASA OSSI), Pathways to Ocean Science, Pathways to Engineering, and the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development program in Earth System Science (ESS). The NASA OSSI initiative recruits and facilitates student engagement in NASA student education and employment opportunities. Through IBP's virtual and person-to-person communications, students learn how to identify, apply to, and participate in NASA programs. Pathways to Ocean Science connects and supports URM students with REU programs in the Ocean Sciences while serving as a resource for REU program directors. As one of IBP's newest initiatives, Pathways to Engineering has synthesized mentoring resources into an online mentoring manual for URM STEM students that has been extensively vetted by mentoring experts throughout the country. The manual which is organized by user groups serves as an e-forum providing undergraduates, graduates, postdocs, faculty members and project directors with valuable resources to facilitate a positive REU experience. This mentoring initiative also provides a mechanism for submitting new resources and inviting feedback in mentoring best practices throughout the STEM community. MS PHD'S, one of IBP's longest running and most successful initiatives

  2. Undergraduate cancer training program for underrepresented students: findings from a minority institution/cancer center partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; O'Connell, Mary A; Anderson, Jennifer; Löest, Helena; Ogaz, Dana; Thompson, Beti

    2010-03-01

    Students from racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds are underrepresented in graduate programs in biomedical disciplines. One goal of the Minority Institution/Cancer Center partnership between New Mexico State University (NMSU) and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) is to expand the number of underrepresented students who are trained in cancer research. As part of the collaboration, a summer internship program has been organized at the FHCRC. The program runs for 9 weeks and involves mentored research, research seminars, coffee breaks, social activities, and a final poster session. This study examined the graduate school attendance rates of past interns, explored interns' perceptions of the training program, and identified ways to improve the program. Thirty undergraduate students enrolled at NMSU participated in the internship program from 2002 to 2007 and telephone interviews were conducted on 22 (73%) of them. One-third of the students were currently in graduate school (32%); the remaining were either working (36%), still in undergraduate school (27%), or unemployed and not in school (5%). Students rated highly the following aspects of the program: mentored research, informal time spent with mentors, and research seminars. Students also reported the following activities would further enhance the program: instruction on writing a personal statement for graduate school and tips in choosing an advisor. Students also desired instruction on taking the GRE/MCAT, receiving advice on selecting a graduate or professional school, and receiving advice on where to apply. These findings can inform the design of internship programs aimed at increasing rates of graduate school attendance among underrepresented students.

  3. Diversity in the US Infectious Diseases Workforce: Challenges for Women and Underrepresented Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Judith A; Blankson, Joel; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-09-15

    Research documents significant gender-based salary inequities among physicians and ongoing inadequacies in recruitment and promotion of physicians from underrepresented minority groups. Given the complexity of the social forces that promote these disparities, their elimination will likely require quantitative and qualitative research to understand the pathways that lead to them and to develop effective solutions. Interventions to combat implicit bias will be required, and structural interventions that hold medical school leadership accountable are needed to achieve and maintain salary equity and racial and gender diversity at all levels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Choosing to lead the motivational factors of underrepresented minority librarians in higher education

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    Olivas, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Choosing to Lead: The Motivational Factors of Underrepresented Minority Librarians in Higher Education takes a positive inquiry approach by providing first-hand accounts of success stories, best practices, and practical advice from a collection of diverse authors. Instead of looking at academic library "failures" when it comes to diversifying the leadership workforce, this book highlights what's going right and how to implement it across the profession-with an emphasis on building strengths and fully leveraging one's interests, behaviors, and passions, while never ignoring or deemphasizing the prevailing challenges that exist for diverse LIS professionals who wish to advance their leadership skills. Through case studies, promising practices, and specific strategies for cultivating diversity in academic library leadership, this is a resource for both librarians of color who wish to seek leadership positions and current library leaders who want to nurture these future leaders.

  5. Peer-Led Team Learning Helps Minority Students Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Julia J; Sloane, Jeremy D; Dunk, Ryan D P; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-03-01

    Active learning methods have been shown to be superior to traditional lecture in terms of student achievement, and our findings on the use of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) concur. Students in our introductory biology course performed significantly better if they engaged in PLTL. There was also a drastic reduction in the failure rate for underrepresented minority (URM) students with PLTL, which further resulted in closing the achievement gap between URM and non-URM students. With such compelling findings, we strongly encourage the adoption of Peer-Led Team Learning in undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses.

  6. How leaky is the health career pipeline? Minority student achievement in college gateway courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Charles; Chen, Eric; Grumbach, Kevin

    2009-06-01

    To determine whether underrepresented minority (URM) students receive lower grades than do non-URM students in college prehealth gateway courses; the extent to which lower grade performance might be explained by the differences in precollege academic achievement; and whether URM students are less likely than non-URM students to persist in completing at least four gateway courses. Administrative data were obtained from six California colleges on 15,000 college students who matriculated in the 1999-2000 or 2000-2001 academic years and enrolled in at least one college course required for application to medical or dental school ("gateway" courses). Students were compared across ethnic groups in gateway course grade performance and persistence in completing at least four gateway courses, using regression methods to control for students' college admission test scores and caliber of high school attended. URM students received significantly lower grades on average in gateway courses than did white students. This gap persisted after adjusting for measures of prior academic performance. However, URM students were nearly as likely as white students to persist in completing at least four gateway courses. After accounting for the lower grades of URM students in their initial classes, URM students were more likely than white students to complete four or more gateway courses. URM students experienced academic challenges, but many persist in their prehealth courses despite these challenges. Interventions at the college level to support URM student performance in gateway courses are particularly important for increasing the diversity of medical and dental schools.

  7. Undergraduate Minor in Health Disparities in Society: a Magnet for Under-represented Pre-professional Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Laura K; Wayne, Marta L; Hardt, Nancy S

    2017-07-19

    Increasing the diversity of tomorrow's healthcare work force remains a challenge despite many thoughtful published reports and recommendations. As part of an effort to grow a more diverse pre-professional health population, we created an undergraduate minor, Health Disparities in Society, at the University of Florida. Most courses for the minor were identified from existing offerings, and we created only two new courses, an introduction course and a capstone service-learning course. The new minor quickly became the most popular in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (which has approximately 12,000 total undergraduate students), and importantly, students selecting the minor were more likely to be under-represented minorities than would be expected given undergraduate demographics. Pre-professional students choosing this minor reflect the desired diversity of the healthcare workforce of tomorrow.

  8. "URM candidates are encouraged to apply": a national study to identify effective strategies to enhance racial and ethnic faculty diversity in academic departments of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Monica E; Kim, Karen E; Johnson, Julie K; Vela, Monica B

    2013-03-01

    There is little evidence regarding which factors and strategies are associated with high proportions of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty in academic medicine. The authors conducted a national study of U.S. academic medicine departments to better understand the challenges, successful strategies, and predictive factors for enhancing racial and ethnic diversity among faculty (i.e., physicians with an academic position or rank). This was a mixed-methods study using quantitative and qualitative methods. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of eligible departments of medicine in 125 accredited U.S. medical schools, dichotomized into low-URM (bottom 50%) versus high-URM rank (top 50%). They used t tests and chi-squared tests to compare departments by geographic region, academic school rank, city type, and composite measures of "diversity best practices." The authors also conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with a subsample from the highest- and lowest-quartile medical schools in terms of URM rank. Eighty-two medical schools responded (66%). Geographic region and academic rank were statistically associated with URM rank, but not city type or composite measures of diversity best practices. Key themes emerged from interviews regarding successful strategies for URM faculty recruitment and retention, including institutional leadership, the use of human capital and social relationships, and strategic deployment of institutional resources. Departments of medicine with high proportions of URM faculty employ a number of successful strategies and programs for recruitment and retention. More research is warranted to identify new successful strategies and to determine the impact of specific strategies on establishing and maintaining workforce diversity.

  9. Retention and promotion of women and underrepresented minority faculty in science and engineering at four large land grant institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpertz, Marcia; Durodoye, Raifu; Griffith, Emily; Wilson, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    In the most recent cohort, 2002-2015, the experiences of men and women differed substantially among STEM disciplines. Female assistant professors were more likely than men to leave the institution and to leave without tenure in engineering, but not in the agricultural, biological and biomedical sciences and natural resources or physical and mathematical sciences. In contrast, the median times to promotion from associate to full professor were similar for women and men in engineering and the physical and mathematical sciences, but one to two years longer for women than men in the agricultural, biological and biomedical sciences and natural resources. URM faculty hiring is increasing, but is well below the proportions earning doctoral degrees in STEM disciplines. The results are variable and because of the small numbers of URM faculty, the precision and power for comparing URM faculty to other faculty were low. In three of the four institutions, lower fractions of URM faculty than other faculty hired in the 2002-2006 time frame left without tenure. Also, in the biological and biomedical and physical and mathematical sciences no URM faculty left without tenure. On the other hand, at two of the institutions, significantly more URM faculty left before their tenth anniversary than other faculty and in engineering significantly more URM faculty than other faculty left before their tenth anniversary. We did not find significant differences in promotion patterns between URM and other faculty.

  10. Urban underrepresented minority students in science, technology, engineering, and math: An analysis of the differences between developmental assets and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jovan Grant

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the developmental assets and academic achievement of urban underrepresented minority male and female students in a specialized science, technology, engineering, and math program, and the developmental assets and academic achievement of urban underrepresented minority male and female students in traditional comprehensive high school programs. The findings of the study provide information regarding the influence of gender, school setting, and developmental assets that may help impact student achievement for underrepresented minorities in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and math. The study findings also contribute to developmental assets theory and the influence of the theory as it relates to underrepresented minority students, academic outcomes, and the influencing factors internal and external to school.

  11. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students’ Science Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew C.; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life sciences across ethnic groups of freshman college students, as moderated by generational status. Results from a longitudinal survey (N = 249) demonstrated that freshman URM students who enter with a greater belief that science can be used to help their communities identified as scientists more strongly over time, but only among first-generation college students. Analysis of the survey data were consistent with content analysis of 11 transcripts from simultaneously conducted focus groups (N = 67); together, these studies reveal important differences in motivational characteristics both across and within ethnicity across educational generation status. First-generation URM students held the strongest prosocial values for pursuing a science major (e.g., giving back to the community). URM students broadly reported additional motivation to increase the status of their family (e.g., fulfilling aspirations for a better life). These findings demonstrate the importance of culturally connected career motives and for examining intersectional identities to understand science education choices and inform efforts to broaden participation. PMID:27543631

  12. Doctoral Programs Need Changes to Attract and Retain Underrepresented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, R. E.; Mayfield, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience is currently recognized as the least diverse of all STEM fields. While attention typically focuses on K-12 and undergraduate populations, the extreme lack of diversity among graduate students, and doctoral students in particular, should be examined and addressed. In 2016, members of underrepresented minority (URM) groups made up only 6% of those graduating with geoscience PhDs. In all STEM fields, only 48% of Hispanic/Latino and 38% of Black/African American doctoral studies had earned doctorates within 7 years, with 36% of members of these groups leaving the program entirely. Recent studies suggest that these high attrition rates can be attributed, in part, to a mismatch between motivations of URM members and PhD-granting institutions while students are pursuing scientific education and careers. Traditional STEM doctoral programs do not offer, facilitate, or incentivize substantial opportunities to integrate social justice issues, community involvement, and altruism—factors which have been found to be of more importance to these populations than to male members of well-represented groups. URM members are also less likely to be interested in purely academic research careers, so doctoral programs may be failing to attract (and failing to prepare) diverse populations by not offering experiences beyond typical research and TA duties. In this presentation, trends in motivation and persistence among URM students in STEM will be discussed, in addition to highlighting education and outreach activities that can be successfully incorporated for a more fulfilling, balanced, attractive, and preparatory education experience. Specific activities undertaken and recommended by the presenter in her PhD experience include the following: a federal research internship, a state government policy internship, a formal partnership with a local K-12 teacher though a former NSF GK-12 program, a two-week education workshop aboard a scientific research drillship, and attending a

  13. Developing a Diverse Professoriate - Preliminary Outcomes from a Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, H. R.; Keane, C. M.; Seadler, A. R.; Wilson, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    A professional development workshop for underrepresented minority, future and early-career faculty in the geosciences was held in April of 2012. Twenty seven participants traveled to the Washington DC metro area and attended this 2.5 day workshop. Participants' career levels ranged from early PhD students to Assistant Professors, and they had research interests spanning atmospheric sciences, hydrology, solid earth geoscience and geoscience education. Race and ethnicity of the participants included primarily African American or Black individuals, as well as Hispanic, Native American, Native Pacific Islanders and Caucasians who work with underrepresented groups. The workshop consisted of three themed sessions led by prestigious faculty members within the geoscience community, who are also underrepresented minorities. These sessions included "Guidance from Professional Societies," "Instructional Guidance" and "Campus Leadership Advice." Each session lasted about 3 hours and included a mixture of presentational materials to provide context, hands-on activities and robust group discussions. Two additional sessions were devoted to learning about federal agencies. For the morning session, representatives from USGS and NOAA came to discuss opportunities within each agency and the importance of promoting geoscience literacy with our participants. The afternoon session gave the workshop attendees the fortunate opportunity to visit NSF headquarters. Participants were welcomed by NSF's Assistant Director for Geosciences and took part in small group meetings with program officers within the Geosciences Directorate. Participants indicated having positive experiences during this workshop. In our post-workshop evaluation, the majority of participants revealed that they thought the sessions were valuable, with many finding the sessions extremely valuable. The effectiveness of each session had similar responses. Preliminary results from 17 paired sample t-tests show increased

  14. Minority-Serving Institutions and the Education of U.S. Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ginelle; Stage, Frances K.

    2014-01-01

    Numbers of students of color enrolling in higher educational institutions is expected to increase across all racial groups. With continued increases in minority enrollments, minority-serving institutions have and will continue to play a major role in educating student of color. A large national data set was used to examine the numbers of…

  15. Mentoring the Mentors of Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minorities Who are Conducting HIV Research: Beyond Cultural Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Jane M.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa (Tessa); Udell, Wadiya; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Pearson, Cynthia R.; MacDonald, Meg M.; Duran, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    The majority of literature on mentoring focuses on mentee training needs, with significantly less guidance for the mentors. Moreover, many mentoring the mentor models assume generic (i.e. White) mentees with little attention to the concerns of underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities (UREM). This has led to calls for increased attention to diversity in research training programs, especially in the field of HIV where racial/ethnic disparities are striking. Diversity training tends to address the mentees' cultural competency in conducting research with diverse populations, and often neglects the training needs of mentors in working with diverse mentees. In this article, we critique the framing of diversity as the problem (rather than the lack of mentor consciousness and skills), highlight the need to extend mentor training beyond aspirations of cultural competency toward cultural humility and cultural safety, and consider challenges to effective mentoring of UREM, both for White and UREM mentors. PMID:27484060

  16. Research Microcultures as Socialization Contexts for Underrepresented Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Dustin B; Muragishi, Gregg A; Smith, Jessi L

    2017-06-01

    How much does scientific research potentially help people? We tested whether prosocial-affordance beliefs (PABs) about science spread among group members and contribute to individual students' motivation for science. We tested this question within the context of research experience for undergraduates working in faculty-led laboratories, focusing on students who belong to underrepresented minority (URM) groups. Longitudinal survey data were collected from 522 research assistants in 41 labs at six institutions. We used multilevel modeling, and results supported a socialization effect for URM students: The aggregate PABs of their lab mates predicted the students' own initial PABs, as well as their subsequent experiences of interest and their motivation to pursue a career in science, even after controlling for individual-level PABs. Results demonstrate that research labs serve as microcultures of information about the science norms and values that influence motivation. URM students are particularly sensitive to this information. Efforts to broaden participation should be informed by an understanding of the group processes that convey such prosocial values.

  17. Concepts first: A course with improved educational outcomes and parity for underrepresented minority groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Two active learning physics courses were taught and compared. The "concepts first" course was organized to teach only concepts in the first part of the class, the ultimate goal being to increase students' problem-solving abilities much later in the class. The other course was taught in the same quarter by the same instructor using the same curricular materials, but covered material in the standard (chapter-by-chapter) order. After accounting for incoming student characteristics, students from the concepts-first course scored significantly better in two outcome measures: their grade on the final exam and the grade received in their subsequent physics course. Moreover, in the concepts-first class course, students from groups underrepresented in physics had final exam scores and class grades that were indistinguishable from other students. Finally, students who took at least one concepts-first course in introductory physics were found to have significantly higher rates of graduation with a STEM major than students from this cohort who did not.

  18. Broadening Awareness and Participation in the Geosciences Among Underrepresented Minorities in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.

    2012-12-01

    An acute STEM crisis exists nationally, and the problem is even more dire among the geosciences. Since about the middle of the last century, fewer undergraduate and graduate degrees have been granted in the geosciences than in any other STEM fields. To help in ameliorating this geoscience plight, particularly from among members of racial and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in STEM fields, the New York City College of Technology (City Tech) launched a vibrant geoscience program and convened a community of STEM students who are interested in learning about the geosciences. This program creates and introduces geoscience knowledge and opportunities to a diverse undergraduate student population that was never before exposed to geoscience courses at City Tech. This geoscience project is funded by the NSF OEDG program, and it brings awareness, knowledge, and geoscience opportunities to City Tech's students in a variety of ways. Firstly, two new geoscience courses have been created and introduced. One course is on Environmental Remote Sensing, and the other course is an Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters. The Remote Sensing course highlights the physical and mathematical principles underlying remote sensing techniques. It covers the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques, interferometric and lidar systems, and an introduction to image processing. Guest lecturers are invited to present their expertise on various geoscience topics. These sessions are open to all City Tech students, not just to those students who enroll in the course. The Introduction to the Physics of Natural Disasters course is expected to be offered in Spring 2013. This highly relevant, fundamental course will be open to all students, especially to non-science majors. The course focuses on natural disasters, the processes that control them, and their devastating impacts to human life and structures. Students will be introduced to the nature, causes, risks

  19. Retention of under-represented minorities in drug abuse treatment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Kathryn M; Bichun Ouyang; Miller, Scott; Tilley, Barbara C

    2009-06-01

    Differential attrition by minority participants can be as limiting to interpreting final results as poor initial recruitment of minority participants. This is especially important in drug abuse treatment studies, as minorities are over-represented in substance abuse clinical treatment programs. The specific aims of this secondary data analysis were to: (1) determine if there are differences in study retention rates by race/ethnicity and age, and (2) explore other client characteristics, as well as protocol and treatment program factors, that could account for differential retention rates. We conducted a secondary analysis using data from 1737 participants in the first six clinical trials whose databases were locked in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network. Protocol level characteristics were also abstracted from these studies, and we used data from a study which assessed characteristics of community treatment programs that participated in these studies. Logistic regression was used to study the effect on retention of: client, protocol, and program characteristics. In the model of client characteristics, a significant age by race/ethnicity interaction term was detected based on a threshold of 0.1, with younger African Americans having the lowest odds of retention. Primary drug of abuse was also a significant factor in determining study retention, with heroin, methadone, and opiate users having the greatest odds of retention and polydrug users the lowest. Similar analyses testing treatment program characteristics found that only the presence of HIV risk screening and decreasing levels of female admissions (as a percent of total admissions) were related to study retention. In our final model, there was an effect of age, but not race/ethnicity, with younger participants having lower odds of retention. A multivariable model including protocol variables could not be developed due to the high correlation among protocol variables. We excluded those of multi-race/ethnicity and

  20. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Mader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU and Puerto Rico (PR on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method: AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results: Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024 and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005 positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016 compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011 and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001 positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001 and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001 positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions: Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions.

  1. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M.; Rodríguez, José E.; Campbell, Kendall M.; Smilnak, Timothy; Bazemore, Andrew W.; Petterson, Stephen; Morley, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) and Puerto Rico (PR) on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024) and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005) positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016) compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011) and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001) positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001) and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001) positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions. PMID:26968254

  2. Increasing the Presence of Underrepresented Minorities in the Geosciences: The Woods Hole Partnership Education Program Model and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A.; Gutierrez, B.; Jearld, A.; Liles, G.; Scott, O.; Harden, B.

    2017-12-01

    Launched in 2009, the Partnership Education Program (PEP) is supported by six scientific institutions in Woods Hole, Massachusetts through the Woods Hole Diversity Initiative. PEP, which was shaped by experience with other diversity programs as well as input from scientists in Woods Hole, is designed to promote a diverse scientific community by recruiting talent from minority groups that are under-represented in marine and environmental sciences. Focused on college juniors and seniors with course work in marine and/or environmental sciences, PEP is comprised of a four-week course, "Ocean and Environmental Sciences: Global Climate Change," and a six to eight week individual research project under the guidance of a research mentor. Investigators from the six science institutions serve as course faculty and research mentors. Course credit is through PEP's academic partner, the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. PEP students also participate in seminars, workshops, field trips, at-sea experiences, career development activities, and attend lectures at participating science institutions throughout the summer. Students present their research results at the end of the summer with a 15-minute public presentation. A number of PEP participants then presented their work at professional and scientific meetings, such as AGU, using the program as a gateway to graduate education and career opportunities in the marine and environmental sciences. From 2009 through 2017, 138 students from 86 colleges and universities, including many that previously had sent few or no students or faculty to Woods Hole, have participated in the program. Participating organizations are: Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NOAA Fisheries), Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Sea Education Association (SEA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), and University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES) - academic partner.

  3. The experience of minority faculty who are underrepresented in medicine, at 26 representative U.S. medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T; Gibbs, Brian K; Krupat, Edward; Brennan, Robert T; Civian, Janet T

    2013-09-01

    A diverse medical school faculty is critical to preparing physicians to provide quality care to an increasingly diverse nation. The authors sought to compare experiences of underrepresented in medicine minority (URMM) faculty with those of non-URMM faculty in a nationally representative sample of medical schools. In 2007-2009, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 4,578 MD and PhD full-time faculty from 26 U.S. medical schools. Multiple regression models were used to test for differences between URMM and other faculty on 12 dimensions of academic culture. Weights were used to adjust for oversampling of URMM and female faculty. The response rate was 52%, or 2,381 faculty. The analytic sample was 2,218 faculty: 512 (23%) were URMM, and 1,172 (53%) were female, mean age 49 years. Compared with non-URMM faculty, URMM faculty endorsed higher leadership aspirations but reported lower perceptions of relationships/inclusion, gave their institutions lower scores on URMM equity and institutional efforts to improve diversity, and more frequently engaged in disparities research. Twenty-two percent (115) had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination. For both values alignment and institutional change for diversity, URMM faculty at two institutions with high proportions (over 50%) of URMM faculty rated these characteristics significantly higher than their counterparts at traditional institutions. Encouragingly, for most aspects of academic medicine, the experiences of URMM and non-URMM faculty are similar, but the differences raise important concerns. The combination of higher leadership aspirations with lower feelings of inclusion and relationships might lead to discouragement with academic medicine.

  4. Predictors of Underrepresented Nursing Students' School Satisfaction, Success, and Future Education Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lovoria B; Bourgault, Annette B; Valenti, Michael; Howie, Melissa; Mathur, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    The United States is steadily becoming more diverse. If current trends continue, the minority population will be the majority by 2043. In contrast to the U.S. population, nursing (the largest health care workforce) is composed of a nearly 76% White population. The literature reports that underrepresented minorities (URM) in nursing programs encounter multiple barriers to academic success. A secondary data analysis of a national cohort of URM accelerated nursing students was conducted to examine three factors associated with microaggression-predictors of academic (NCLEX) success, satisfaction, and intent to pursue advanced education-among a cohort of URM accelerated nursing students who had received a national diversity scholarship (n = 2,250). These three factors were predicted by institutional climate, mentoring, social interactions, the prematriculation preparation program, and other psychological, social, and cultural barriers. To increase nursing diversity and ensure a culturally competent profession, programs must attend to these factors. [J Nurs. Educ. 2018;57(3):142-149.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. U.S. Department of Energy student research participation programs. Underrepresented minorities in U.S. Department of Energy student research participation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify those particular aspects of US Department of Energy (DOE) research participation programs for undergraduate and graduate students that are most associated with attracting and benefiting underrepresented minority students and encouraging them to pursue careers in science, engineering, and technology. A survey of selected former underrepresented minority participants, focus group analysis, and critical incident analysis serve as the data sources for this report. Data collected from underrepresented minority participants indicate that concerns expressed and suggestions made for conducting student research programs at DOE contractor facilities are not remarkably different from those made by all participants involved in such student research participation programs. With the exception of specific suggestions regarding recruitment, the findings summarized in this report can be interpreted to apply to all student research participants in DOE national laboratories. Clearly defined assignments, a close mentor-student association, good communication, and an opportunity to interact with other participants and staff are those characteristics that enhance any educational program and have positive impacts on career development.

  6. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program (MPP): Thirty Years of Improving Access to Opportunities in the Geosciences Through Undergraduate and Graduate Scholarships for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, C. N.; Byerly, G. R.; Smith, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. AGI promotes its MPP efforts primarily through its web pages, which are very successful in attracting visitors; through its publications, especially Geotimes; and through its Corporate Associates and Member Societies. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources over the past 30 years. Industry, non-profit organizations, and individuals have been the primary source of funding for graduate scholarships. The NSF has regularly funded the undergraduate scholarships. AGI Corporate Associates have contributed to both scholarship programs. The MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. AGI currently has 29 MPP scholars, including 11 undergraduate and 18 graduate students. Undergraduate scholarships range from \\1000 to \\5000, with an average award of approximately \\2500. Graduate scholarships range from \\500 to \\4000, with an average award of approximately \\1300. In addition to financial assistance, every MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars, and with writing evaluation reports that

  7. Using Data-Collection Sensors to Improve Reasoning About Experiment Design and Hypothesis Testing: An Undergraduate Course for Underrepresented Minorities Pursuing Careers Astrophysics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dennis M.; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to improve the retention of underrepresented students in STEM fields include directly targeted programs and specialized courses. The NSF-supported 'AstroCom NYC' program, a collaboration of the City University of New York, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and Columbia University is one example of such a program with the explicit goal of increasing the participation of underrepresented minorities in astronomy and astrophysics through pedagogical mentoring and research experiences for undergraduate students. In addition, 'AstroCom NYC' provides students with a semester-long specialized course emphasizing scientific reasoning and mathematical modeling. The course curriculum uses computers and interfaced digital probeware (sensors) in a laboratory environment that encourages collaborative and active learning.We share course materials on preparing students to reason about control of variable experiment design and hypothesis testing and provide course data on student understanding of scientific reasoning, mathematical modeling and views about science.

  8. Exploring Counseling Services and Their Impact on Female, Underrepresented Minority Community College Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Elizabeth

    The economic future of the United States depends on developing a workforce of professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (Adkins, 2012; Mokter Hossain & Robinson, 2012). In California, the college population is increasingly female and underrepresented minority, a population that has historically chosen to study majors other than STEM. In California, community colleges provide a major inroad for students seeking to further their education in one of the many universities in the state. The recent passage of Senate Bill 1456 and the Student Success and Support Program mandate increased counseling services for all California community college students (California Community College Chancellors Office, 2014). This dissertation is designed to explore the perceptions of female, underrepresented minority college students who are majoring in an area of science, technology, engineering and math, as they relate to community college counseling services. Specifically, it aims to understand what counseling services are most effective, and what community college counselors can do to increase the level of interest in STEM careers in this population. This is a qualitative study. Eight participants were interviewed for the case study, all of whom are current or former community college students who have declared a major in a STEM discipline. The semi-structured interviews were designed to help understand what community college counselors can do to better serve this population, and to encourage more students to pursue STEM majors and careers. Through the interviews, themes emerged to explain what counseling services are the most helpful. Successful STEM students benefited from counselors who showed empathy and support. Counselors who understood the intricacies of educational planning for STEM majors were considered the most efficacious. Counselors who could connect students with enrichment activities, such as internships, were highly valued, as were counseling

  9. Minority dental faculty development: responsibility and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkford, Jeanne C; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; West, Joseph F

    2010-12-01

    Over at least the last twenty years, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) has given attention and priority to increasing the number of underrepresented minority (URM) dental school applicants, enrollees, and faculty members and to meeting the challenges of achieving diversity in the oral health workforce of the future as racial and ethnic minorities continue to grow and are expected to comprise more than 50 percent of the U.S. population by the middle of the twenty-first century. Dental schools have the responsibility of preparing dentists to provide oral health care for the nation's population. This includes creating a workforce of adequate size and racial/ethnic composition. As part of ADEA's priorities to improve the recruitment, retention, and development of URMs in the dental profession, with funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, ADEA launched the Minority Dental Faculty Development Program in 2004. The intent of the program is to foster academic partnerships, mentoring, and institutional commitment and leadership designed to increase the number of URM individuals interested in and prepared for careers in academic dentistry.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of a programme for improving the participation and academic success of an underrepresented minority group in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopoaga, Faafetai; Kokaua, Jesse; van der Meer, Jacques; Lameta-Huro, Malia; Zaharic, Tony; Richards, Rose; Inder, Marie

    2017-12-01

    Pacific peoples are a minority under-represented ethnic group in higher education in New Zealand. This article explores the effectiveness of a specific programme, which sought to improve outcomes of Pacific students in the tertiary environment. The aim of the evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of an intervention programme (2013-2015) to increase the participation and academic success of Pacific students in the first year in Health Sciences. The study found the academic results of Pacific students who participated in the intervention programme were significantly better compared to those who did not. The findings inform future research, suggesting that, when assessing the effectiveness of a programme, it is useful to explore the performance of the whole cohort separately to those who declared intention or interest to attend the programme. Strategies to support participation of each of these groups are likely to be different. Having a standardised approach when comparing groups will adjust for any confounding factors or prior differences. This will allow a more accurate assessment of the effectiveness of the programme being evaluated. This paper presents the importance of a robust approach to the delivery and evaluation of intervention programmes for improving outcomes for underrepresented students in the tertiary environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cultivating Minority Scientists: Undergraduate Research Increases Self-Efficacy and Career Ambitions for Underrepresented Students in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Anthony; Ronan, Darcy M.; Falconer, Heather M.; Lents, Nathan H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) is used to explore changes in the career intentions of students in an undergraduate research experience (URE) program at a large public minority-serving college. Our URE model addresses the challenges of establishing an undergraduate research program within an urban, commuter, underfunded,…

  12. Increasing persistence in undergraduate science majors: a model for institutional support of underrepresented students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toven-Lindsey, Brit; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Barber, Paul H; Hasson, Tama

    2015-01-01

    The 6-yr degree-completion rate of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at U.S. colleges and universities is less than 40%. Persistence among women and underrepresented minorities (URMs), including African-American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students, is even more troubling, as these students leave STEM majors at significantly higher rates than their non-URM peers. This study utilizes a matched comparison group design to examine the academic achievement and persistence of students enrolled in the Program for Excellence in Education and Research in the Sciences (PEERS), an academic support program at the University of California, Los Angeles, for first- and second-year science majors from underrepresented backgrounds. Results indicate that PEERS students, on average, earned higher grades in most "gatekeeper" chemistry and math courses, had a higher cumulative grade point average, completed more science courses, and persisted in a science major at significantly higher rates than the comparison group. With its holistic approach focused on academics, counseling, creating a supportive community, and exposure to research, the PEERS program serves as an excellent model for universities interested in and committed to improving persistence of underrepresented science majors and closing the achievement gap. © 2015 B. Toven-Lindsey et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Mentoring Through Research as a Catalyst for the Success of Under-represented Minority Students in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K.; Simila, G.; Pedone, V.; Yule, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Catalyst Program of the Department of Geological Sciences at California State University Northridge has been developed by four faculty members who were the recipients of a three-year award (2002-2005) from the National Science Foundation. The goal of the program is to increase minority participation and success in the geosciences. The program seeks to enrich the educational experience by introducing students at all levels (individual and team) to research in the geosciences (such as data analysis for earthquake hazards for 1994 Northridge event, paleoseismology of San Andreas fault, Waipaoa, New Zealand sedimentary system and provenance studies, and the Barstow formation geochronology and geochemistry), and to decrease obstacles that affect academic success. Both these goals are largely achieved by the formation of integrated high school, undergraduate, and graduate research groups, which also provide fulfilling and successful peer mentorship. New participants first complete a specially designed course that introduces them to peer-mentoring, collaborative learning (think-pair share), and research on geological data sets. Students of all experience levels then become members of research teams and conduct four mini-projects and associated poster presentations, which deepens academic and research skills as well as peer-mentor relationships. This initial research experience has been very beneficial for the student's degree requirements of a senior research project and oral presentation. Evaluation strategies include the student research course presentations, summer field projects, and external review of student experiences. The Catalyst Program provides significant financial support to participants to allow them to focus their time on their education. A component of peer-tutoring has been implemented for promoting additional student success. The program has been highly successful in its two year development. To date, undergraduates and graduate students have

  14. Enhancing STEM Education at Minority and Underrepresented Institutions through the Center for Applied Atmospheric Research and Education (CAARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, M. G., Jr.; Griffin, R.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Estes, S. M.; Crosson, W. L.; Chiao, S.

    2016-12-01

    Funding from The NASA MUREP Institutional Research Opportunity (MIRO) Program established the Center for Applied Atmospheric Research and Education (CAARE) to promote STEM literacy and enhance the capability to support NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate. Through CAARE opportunities for STEM students at minority and underserved institutions were provided to enhance their undergraduate education with summer internship experiences at NASA Centers. The University of Alabama in Huntsville and the Universities Space Research Association scientists developed internship opportunities for students in applied atmospheric research at the National Space Science and Technology Center near the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Project opportunities focused on the use of NASA remotely sensed data, geospatial technologies and statistical analyses to evaluate problems related to urban heat islands and air quality. Students received training in the fundamentals of remote sensing and geospatial analysis to establish a foundation from which to pursue research projects. An approach was designed for the students to work initially in groups and then focus on individual projects in the latter part of the ten week internship. Working in groups benefitted the transition of the students from their respective academic institutions to the NASA work environment and provided the students with useful professional experience in a collegial environment. As knowledge was gained through the group project and areas of interest identified the students were able to explore further research questions of interest, evaluate research applications and determine the benefits of using NASA remotely sensed data. Students found that urban heat islands (UHI) did exist in both San Jose, CA and Huntsville, AL and methods to evaluate the magnitude of the UHI seasonally, diurnally and spatially were explored. Regression models of PM 2.5 based on remotely-sensed aerosol optical depth and meteorological data

  15. Pectinolytic complex production by Aspergillus niger URM 4645 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -PG), pectin lyase (PL), and pectin methylesterase (PE), produced by Aspergillus niger URM 4645, were studied in solid state fermentation (SSF) using yellow passion fruit peels as substrate. The effect of substrate amount, initial moisture ...

  16. Youth Engagement through Science (YES!) - Engaging Underrepresented Minorities in Science through High School Internships at the National Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G.; Cruz, E.; Selvans, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Smithsonian's Youth Engagement through Science (YES!) program at the National Museum of Natural History gives young people from the Washington, D.C. area the opportunity to engage in science out of school through 16-week internships. We will present the program's successful strategies and lessons learned around recruiting and engaging young people from underserved communities, and maintaining relationships that help to support their pursuit of STEM and other career paths. The YES! program connects Smithsonian collections, experts, and training with local DC youth from communities traditionally underrepresented in science careers. YES! is now in its fifth year and has directly served 122 students; demographics of alumni are 67% female, and 51% Latino, 31% African-American, 7% Asian, 5% Caucasian and 6% other. The program immerses students in science research by giving them the opportunity to work side-by-side with scientists and staff from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Gardens, and National Zoo. In addition to working on a research project, students have college preparatory courses, are trained in science communication, and apply their skills by interacting with the public on the exhibit floor.

  17. Effects of School-Wide Talent Development on Gifted Program Identification Rates for Traditionally Underrepresented Minority and Low Socioeconomic Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornbury, Elizabeth I.

    2010-01-01

    The underrepresentation of minority and low socioeconomic students has been an issue in gifted education for many years. Barriers related to poverty, cultural differences, linguistic differences, and deficit orientation in school systems are just a few possible causes of underrepresentation. This study examined the effects of a talent development…

  18. Programs for attracting under-represented minority students to graduate school and research careers in computational science. Final report for period October 1, 1995 - September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, James C. Jr.; Mason, Thomas; Guerrieri, Bruno

    1997-10-01

    Programs have been established at Florida A & M University to attract minority students to research careers in mathematics and computational science. The primary goal of the program was to increase the number of such students studying computational science via an interactive multimedia learning environment One mechanism used for meeting this goal was the development of educational modules. This academic year program established within the mathematics department at Florida A&M University, introduced students to computational science projects using high-performance computers. Additional activities were conducted during the summer, these included workshops, meetings, and lectures. Through the exposure provided by this program to scientific ideas and research in computational science, it is likely that their successful applications of tools from this interdisciplinary field will be high.

  19. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 under solid state fermentation (SSF) using waste from Siagrus coronata (Martius) Becari. CM Farias, O Camila de Souza, MA Sousa, R Cruz, OMC Magalhães, EV de Medeiros, KA Moreira, CM de Souza-Motta ...

  20. Mentoring Through Research as a Catalyst for the Success of Under-represented Minority Students in the Geosciences at California State University Northridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Pedone, V.; Simila, G. W.; Yule, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    The Catalyst Program of the Department of Geological Sciences at California State University Northridge has been developed by four faculty members who were the recipients of a three-year award (2002-2005) from the National Science Foundation. The goal of the program is to increase minority participation and success in the geosciences. The program seeks to enrich the educational experience by introducing students at all levels to research in the geosciences and to decrease obstacles that affect academic success. Both these goals are largely achieved by the formation of integrated high school, undergraduate, and graduate research groups, which also provide fulfilling and successful peer mentorship. The Catalyst Program provides significant financial support to participants to allow them to focus their time on their education. New participants first complete a specially designed course that introduces them to peer-mentoring, collaborative learning, and geological research. Students of all experience levels then become members of research teams, which deepens academic and research skills as well as peer-mentor relationships. The program was highly successful in its inaugural year. To date, undergraduates and graduate students in the program coauthored six abstracts at professional meetings and one conference paper. High-school students gained first hand experience of a college course and geologic research. Perhaps the most important impacts of the program are the close camaraderie that has developed and the increased ability of the Catalyst students to plan and execute research with greater confidence and self-esteem.

  1. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  2. An analysis of scientific self-efficacy as a benefit of summer research participation for underrepresented minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances D.

    2011-12-01

    Low participation and performance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields by U.S. citizens are widely recognized as major problems with substantial economic, political, and social ramifications. Studies of collegiate interventions designed to broaden participation in STEM fields suggest that participation in undergraduate research is a key program component that enhances such student outcomes as undergraduate GPA, graduation, persistence in a STEM major, and graduate school enrollment. However, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for these positive effects. The current study hypothesizes that undergraduate research participation increases scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency. This hypothesis was tested using data obtained from a survey of minority students from several STEM intervention programs that offer undergraduate research opportunities. Students were surveyed both prior to and following the summer of 2010. Factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure of participants' responses on scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency scales. Difference-in-difference analysis was then applied to the resulting factor score differences to estimate the relationship of summer research participation with scientific self-efficacy and scientific research proficiency. Factor analytic results replicate and further validate previous findings of a general scientific self-efficacy construct (Schultz, 2008). While the factor analytic results for the exploratory scientific research proficiency scale suggest that it was also a measureable construct, the factor structure was not generalizable over time. Potential reasons for the lack of generalizability validity for the scientific research proficiency scale are explored and recommendations for emerging scales are provided. Recent restructuring attempts within federal science agencies threaten the future of STEM intervention programs

  3. ‘Speaking Truth’ Protects Underrepresented Minorities’ Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Ben-Zeev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP, designed to protect underrepresented minorities’ (URMs intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM. STEP takes a ‘knowledge as power’ approach by: (a providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit and (b encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American]. STEP protected URMs’ abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA] as well as decreased URMs’ worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP’s two-pronged approach—explicating the effects of structural ‘isms’ while harnessing URMs’ existing assets—shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM.

  4. Aspergillus niveus Blochwitz 4128URM: new source for inulinase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niveus Blochwitz 4128 URM isolated from sunflower rhizosphere demonstrated a new source of inulinase. The enzyme was produced in culture medium containing inulin as substrate in the concentrations: 10, 15 and 20g L-1. Maximum enzyme activity was obtained in medium containing 20g L-1 inulin. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by ion charge (DE-32 and molecular exclusion (Sephadex chromatography. The results showed the optimal pH and temperature of inulinase from crude extract were 4.0 and 4.8 and 45ºC, respectively. The enzyme was purified 34.65 fold with yield of 53.63%. A. niveus 4128URM can be used in the inulinase production with use in the food industries.Aspergillus niveus 4128URM isolado de rizosfera de girassol demonstrou ser uma nova fonte de inulinase. A enzima foi produzida em meio de cultura contendo inulina como substrato nas concentrações de 10, 15 e 20 g L-1. Atividade máxima da enzima foi obtida em meio contendo 20 g L-1 de inulina. A enzima foi parcialmente purificada utilizando precipitação com sulfato de amônio, seguida por cromatografia de troca iônica (DE-52 e exclusão molecular (Sephadex. Os resultados mostraram o pH e temperatura ótima da inulinase do extrato bruto foi 4,0 e 4,8 e 45ºC, respectivamente. A enzima foi purificada 34,65 vezes com rendimento de 53,63%. A. niveus 4128URM pode ser utilizado na produção de inulinase com perspectivas de uso na indústria de alimentos.

  5. Bayer Facts of Science Education XV: A View from the Gatekeepers--STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers--STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority…

  6. Innovative Training Experience for Advancing Entry Level, Mid-Skilled and Professional Level URM Participation in the Geosciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, M. H.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of URMs in the U.S. Geosciences workforce remains proportionally low compared to their representation in the general population (Bureau of Labor Sta.s.cs, 2014). Employment in this and related industries is projected to grow 32% by 2030 for minority workers (Gillula and Fullenbaum, 2014), corresponding to an additional 48,000 jobs expected to be filled by minorities (National Research Council, 2014). However, there is a shortage of employees with proper training in the hard sciences (Holeywell, 2014; Ganzglass, 2011), as well as craft skills (Hoover and Duncan, 2013), both important for middle skill employment. Industry recognizes the need for developing and retaining a diverse workforce, therefore we hightlight a program to serve as a potential vanguard initative for developing an innovative training experience for URM and underserved middle skilled workers with essential knowledge, experience and skills necessary to meet the demands of the Geosciences industry's growing need for a safe, productive and diverse workforce. Objectives are for participants to achieve the following: understanding of geosciences workforce trends and associated available opportunities; mastery of key environmental, health and safety topics; improvements in decision making skills and preparedness for responding to potential environmental, health and safety related situations; and engagement in one-on-one coaching sessions focused on resume writing, job interviewing and key "soft skills" (including conflict resolution, problem solving and critical observation, representing 3 major skills that entry- level workers typically lack.

  7. Late-Onset PTSD in Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Exploring the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Geert E.; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty J. L. M.; Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2011-01-01

    Following resettlement in Western countries, unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear to what extent PTSD in this group may become manifest at later stages following resettlement and which factors are associated with late onset. We examined data from URM collected 1 (T1) and 2…

  8. Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.): Collaborative Action Education in Building and Guiding the Future Under-represented Geosciences Workforce Through Tribal Foundations, Mentorship and Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.) was created as an Indian Self-Determination Organization to meet the every growing Tribal and under-represented minorities (URM) geosciences workforce needs. I.S.S. is one of only a few Indian Self-Determined Organizations in the U.S. with a distinct focused on buidling the Tribal and URM geosciences and natural resources workforces. In past three years, I.S.S has worked in partnership with U.S. colleges/universities, state/federal agencies (Bureau of Indian Affairs), private and International organizations and most importantly U.S. Tribal Nations to ensure emerging high school students, undergraduates, graduate students and post doctorates have the opportunities for training in supportive and unique environments, navigational mentoring, and broad professional development to build and practice the skills required for blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions. I.S.S. has been highly successful in filling workforce opportunities within the broad range of geosciences positions. I.S.S. students are proficient in understanding and maneuvering the complex landscapes of interdisciplinary research, multidisciplinary multi-partner projects, traditional/western philosophies as well as being highly proficient in all areas of problem solving and communications. Research and on-site projects have heightened the educational experiences of all participants, in addition to addressing a perplexing geosciences challenge grounded in a Tribal environment. A number of the I.S.S. participants and students have found geosciences positions in Tribes, state/federal agencies, enterprize as well as International organizations. I.S.S. practices and has infused all research and projects with intergenerational teaching/learning, participation solution-focused initiatives, and holistic/multicultural mentoring. The presentation will highlight the vision, design, implementation, outcomes and future directions of I.S.S and participants.

  9. The Deaf Mentoring Survey: A Community Cultural Wealth Framework for Measuring Mentoring Effectiveness with Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Derek C.; Gormally, Cara; Clark, M. Diane

    2017-01-01

    Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not…

  10. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N; Thakore, Bhoomi K; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career "coaching" intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students' goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students' research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career development that students receive in their home training

  11. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career “coaching” intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. Objective To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. Method The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students’ goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Results Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students’ research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Implications Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career

  12. The HTLV-1 oncoprotein Tax is modified by the ubiquitin related modifier 1 (Urm1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hleihel, Rita; Khoshnood, Behzad; Dacklin, Ingrid; Omran, Hayssam; Mouawad, Carine; Dassouki, Zeina; El-Sabban, Marwan; Shirinian, Margret; Grabbe, Caroline; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2018-04-17

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy secondary to chronic human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 infection, triggered by the virally encoded oncoprotein Tax. The transforming activity and subcellular localization of Tax is strongly influenced by posttranslational modifications, among which ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been identified as key regulators of the nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of Tax, as well as its ability to activate NF-κB signaling. Adding to the complex posttranslational modification landscape of Tax, we here demonstrate that Tax also interacts with the ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (Urm1). Conjugation of Urm1 to Tax results in a redistribution of Tax to the cytoplasm and major increase in the transcription of the NF-ĸB targets Rantes and interleukin-6. Utilizing a tax-transgenic Drosophila model, we show that the Urm1-dependent subcellular targeting of Tax is evolutionary conserved, and that the presence of Urm1 is strongly correlated with the transcriptional output of Diptericin, an antimicrobial peptide and established downstream target of NF-κB in flies. These data put forward Urm1 as a novel Tax modifier that modulates its oncogenic activity and hence represents a potential novel target for developing new strategies for treating ATL.

  13. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  14. [Metacognitive Therapy and Pharmacotherapy - Adapted to Unaccompanied Refugee Minors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Michael; Pöter, Britta

    2017-04-01

    Metacognitive Therapy and Pharmacotherapy - Adapted to Unaccompanied Refugee Minors Unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) present a relatively new challenge for adolescent psychotherapy and psychiatry. The evidence of possible treatment approaches is scarce. This paper presents a pragmatic adaptation of Wells' Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) for this population for the first time. Unlike the established trauma-focused treatment approaches MCT does not aim at prolonged exposure to the trauma narrative. Instead, patients shall learn to leave the distressing thoughts alone and to reduce the perseverating thinking processes (rumination and worrying). Adaptations to URM comprise preceding strategies of stabilization and culture specific aspects. In case of severe sleeping problems, medication might be of help.

  15. Understanding Underrepresented Populations in the Business School Pipeline. GMAC® Research Report RR-16-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Rhonda; Caruthers, Devina

    2016-01-01

    This white paper, "Understanding Underrepresented Populations in the Business School Pipeline," examines the shifting US racial and ethnic demographics and projected growth among US minority populations and the challenges--and incentives--these developments pose for US business schools to increase the opportunities for minority students…

  16. Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) Beyond the PhD Professional Development Program: A Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.; Jearld, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Huggans, M.; Ricciardi, L.; Thomas, S. H.; Jansma, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    In 2011 the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S)® initiative launched its newest activity entitled the MS PHD'S "Beyond the PhD (B-PhD) Professional Development Program." This exciting new program was designed to facilitate the development of a new community of underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral candidates and recent doctorate degree recipients in Earth system science (ESS)-related fields. The MS PHD'S B-PhD provides customized support and advocacy for MS PHD'S B-PhD participants in order to facilitate smoother and informed transitions from graduate school, to postdoctoral and tenure-track positions, as well as other "first" jobs in government, industry, and non-profit organizations. In November 2011 the first cohort of MS PHD'S B-PhD participants engaged in intensive sessions on the following topics: "Toolkits for Success for Academia, Business/Industry, Federal Government and Non-Profits", "Defining Short, Mid and Long Term Career Goals", "Accessing and Refining Skill Sets and Other Door Openers", "International Preparation and Opportunities", "Paying it Forward/Lifting as You Climb", and "Customized Strategies for Next Steps". This pilot event, which was hosted by the University of Texas at Arlington's (UTA) College of Science, also provided opportunities for participants to serve as guest lecturers in the UTA's Colleges of Science and Engineering and included one-on-one discussions with MS PHD'S B-PhD mentors and guest speakers who are well established within their individual ESS fields. Insights regarding opportunities, challenges and obstacles commonly faced by URMs within the ESS fields, as well as strategies for success were shared by MS PHD'S B-PhD mentors and guest speakers. Survey results indicate that MS PHD'S B-PhD participants appreciated not only the material covered during this pilot activity, but also appreciated the opportunity to become part of a community of young URM ESS

  17. Mental health issues in unaccompanied refugee minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huemer Julia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies about unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs showed that they are a highly vulnerable group who have greater psychiatric morbidity than the general population. This review focuses on mental health issues among URMs. Articles in databases PsycINFO, Medline and PubMed from 1998 to 2008 addressing this topic were reviewed. The literature had a considerable emphasis on the assessment of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed higher levels of PTSD symptoms in comparison to the norm populations and accompanied refugee minors. In several studies, age and female gender predicted or influenced PTSD symptoms. The existing literature only permits limited conclusions on this very hard to reach population. Future research should include the analysis of long-term outcomes, stress management and a more thorough analysis of the whole range of psychopathology. Additionally, the development of culturally sensitive norms and standardized measures for diverse ethnic groups is of great importance.

  18. Long Term Benefits for Women in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Living-Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Christopher; Horton, Marjorie; Morgan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) degrees provide opportunities for economic mobility. Yet women, underrepresented minority (URM), and first-generation college students remain disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. This study examined the effectiveness of a living-learning community (LLC) for URM and first-generation…

  19. Antimicrobial and radical scavenging properties of bovine collagen hydrolysates produced by Penicillium aurantiogriseum URM 4622 collagenase

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Carolina A.; Campos, Júlia Furtado; Filho, José L. Lima; Converti, Attilio; da Cunha, Maria G. Carneiro; Porto, Ana L. F.

    2014-01-01

    A 23 full factorial design was used to identify the main effects and interactions of pH, collagen concentration and temperature on the degree of collagen hydrolysis (DH) by collagenase from Penicillium aurantiogriseum URM 4622. Increases in both pH and collagen concentration improved DH, and a positive interaction effect was observed for these variables. On the other hand, temperature had a negative main effect on DH. The maximum value of DH (4.65 μg/mL) was achieved at 7.5 mg/mL collagen con...

  20. Macrosystem Analysis of Programs and Strategies to Increase Underrepresented Populations in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Benjamin A.; Riggs, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Meeting the future demand for a qualified geoscience workforce will require efforts to increase recruitment, retention, and graduation of an increasingly diverse student body. Doing this successfully requires renewed attention to the needs and characteristics of underrepresented students, which include ethnic and cultural minorities, women, and…

  1. Production and partial characterization of proteases from Mucor hiemalis URM3773

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roana Cecília dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the proteases production from 11 fungal species belonging to the genera Mucor, Rhizomucor and Absidia. The species were obtained from the Collection of Cultures URM at the Mycology Department-UFPE, Brazil. The best producing species was Mucor hiemalis URM 3773 (1.689 U mL-1. Plackett-Burman design methodology was employed to select the most effective parameter for protease production out of 11 medium components, including: concentration of filtrate soybean, glucose, incubation period, yeast extract, tryptone, pH, aeration, rotation, NH4Cl, MgSO4 and K2HPO4. Filtrated soybean concentration was the significant variable over the response variable, which was the specific protease activity. The crude enzyme extract showed optimal activity in pH 7.5 and at 50ºC. The enzyme was stable within a wide pH range from 5.8 to 8.0, in the phosphate buffer 0.1M and in stable temperature variation of 40-70ºC, for 180 minutes. The ions FeSO4, NaCl, MnCl2, MgCl2 and KCl stimulated the protease activity, whereas ZnCl2 ion inhibited the activity in 2.27%. Iodoacetic acid at 1mM was the proteases inhibitor that presented greater action.The results indicate that the studied enzyme have great potential for industrial application.

  2. Antimicrobial and radical scavenging properties of bovine collagen hydrolysates produced by Penicillium aurantiogriseum URM 4622 collagenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carolina A; Campos, Júlia Furtado; Filho, José L Lima; Converti, Attilio; da Cunha, Maria G Carneiro; Porto, Ana L F

    2015-07-01

    A 2(3) full factorial design was used to identify the main effects and interactions of pH, collagen concentration and temperature on the degree of collagen hydrolysis (DH) by collagenase from Penicillium aurantiogriseum URM 4622. Increases in both pH and collagen concentration improved DH, and a positive interaction effect was observed for these variables. On the other hand, temperature had a negative main effect on DH. The maximum value of DH (4.65 μg/mL) was achieved at 7.5 mg/mL collagen concentration, pH 8.0 and 25 °C. The peptide profile showed several peptides with molecular weights lower than 2 kDa and exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. An antioxidant activity of 84.7 ± 0.24 % towards the radical ABTS• + was obtained with 50 mg/mL hydrolysates. This study demonstrated that collagen hydrolysed by P. aurantiogriseum URM 4622 collagenase possesses interesting antibacterial and antioxidant activities.

  3. Out-of-plane cyclic behavior of URM walls retrofitted with fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez Dimas, Juan Ignacio

    The vulnerability of unreinforced masonry buildings (URM) to earthquakes is a major concern among the earthquake engineering community. One of the most dangerous failure in URM buildings is that caused by out-of-plane loading. The main objective of this study was to understand the flexural behavior of URM masonry walls retrofitted with fiber composite strips. Seven half-scale brick masonry walls were constructed with solid clay brick tied with a Type N mortar. Six specimens were constructed in single wythe and one in double wythe. The specimens were retrofitted with vertical E-glass fabric composite strips bonded with a two component epoxy resin. All walls were subjected to a standard pattern of static cyclic out-of-plane loading applied with an air-bag system. The specimens were classified according to their height to thickness ratio (h/t) i.e. short walls having h/t = 14 and slender walls having h/t = 28. The main investigated parameter was the amount of reinforcement. This varied from 0.2 to 0.75 times the corresponding balanced condition for the short walls and from 0.5 to 3.0 times the balanced condition for the slender ones. The collected experimental data consisted of; out-of-plane deflections, tensile longitudinal strains in composite strips, and rotations along the wall sides. It was found that the strength and ductility of the walls were enhanced significantly. The walls were capable to deflect a height drift of 2 to 5% and to support pressures in excess of thirty times their own weight. Although many failures occurred such as tensile of composite strips, compression of brickwork, and in-plane shear failure, the delamination process controlled the behavior of the tested specimens. The experimental results were compared with respect to predictions given by beam theory using ultimate strength and linear elastic approaches. Three main stages of behavior corresponding to the first visible bed-joint crack, the first delamination and the ultimate load were

  4. Not Business-as-Usual: Resetting Expectations for Recruitment, Engagement & Professional Development of Today's URM in Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzenne, K.; Teranes, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    "The significant problems we have cannot be solved at the same level of thinking with which we created them." - Albert Einstein. In order to successfully recruit and retain today's URM in geosciences, we must think critically and strategically about how opportunities for professional engagement and skills-building are marketed, structured and implemented at various stages of an individual's career, and how those opportunities may be viewed and/or experienced differently by URM students and professionals. This presentation will discuss how modern professional development strategies for URMs should include: (1) clearly defined expectations that acknowledge cultural differences and challenges; (2) supportive exposure to experiences and individuals, such as role models, mentors and potential advisors; (3) constructive skill-building experiences that foster confidence and a sense of belonging, and (4) a demonstrated institutional commitment to diversity and inclusion from leadership that translates into visible resources and support. The presentation will highlight examples of these efforts and outcomes at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, including the Scripps Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Program, a NSF-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU). With a commitment to enhancing diversity and inclusion, the SURF program has used the strategies above to help recruit and retain URM, women and veterans in graduate school and careers in the geosciences.

  5. Bishop Paul Verryn’s pastoral response towards unaccompanied refugee minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinenhlanhla S. Chisale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bishop Paul Verryn is a South African Methodist Church liberation theologian known for his concern for human rights and human dignity. In this article, I acknowledge his response to children and youth migrants in practical theology, general mission studies and pastoral care. I conceptualise Bishop Verryn’s response towards Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URMs and explore how he weaves pastoral care into the mission of the church. The study from which this article draws followed an exploratory design. Data were collected through structured in-depth interviews, informal conversations with Bishop Verryn and observations. Written from a contextual theology perspective, the findings indicate that Bishop Verryn’s pastoral care approach towards URMs is worthy to be developed and recognised as a form of pastoral care and mission work for the broader church’s pastoral ministry towards URMs in Africa and abroad.

  6. Late-Onset PTSD in Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Exploring the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty J. L. M.; Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2011-01-01

    Following resettlement in Western countries, unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear to what extent PTSD in this group may become manifest at later stages following resettlement and which factors are associated with late onset.

  7. Princeton University Materials Academy for underrepresented students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daniel; Rodriguez Martinez, Sara; Cody, Linda

    Summer 2016 gave underrepresented high school students from Trenton New Jersey the opportunity to learn materials science, sustainability and the physics and chemistry of energy storage from Princeton University professors. New efforts to place this curriculum online so that teachers across the United States can teach materials science as a tool to teach ``real'' interdisciplinary science and meet the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The Princeton University Materials Academy (PUMA) is an education outreach program for underrepresented high school students. It is part of the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (PCCM), a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Materials Research Engineering and Science Center (MRSEC). PUMA has been serving the community of Trenton New Jersey which is only eight miles from the Princeton University campus. We reached over 250 students from 2003-2016 with many students repeating for multiple years. 100% of our PUMA students have graduated high school and 98% have gone on for college. This is compared with overall Trenton district graduation rate of 48% and a free and reduced lunch of 83%. We discuss initiatives to share the curriculum online to enhance the reach of PCCM' PUMA and to help teachers use materials science to meet NGSS and give their students opportunities to learn interdisciplinary science. MRSEC, NSF (DMR-1420541).

  8. Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE: Engaging Underrepresented Students in Physics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE Teams

    2018-01-01

    We describe two programs, Cal-Bridge and CAMPARE, with the common mission of increasing participation of groups traditionally underrepresented in astronomy, through summer research opportunities, in the case of CAMPARE, scholarships in the case of Cal-Bridge, and significant mentoring in both programs, creating a national impact on their numbers successfully pursuing a PhD in the field.In 8 years, the CAMPARE program has sent 112 students, >80% from underrepresented groups, to conduct summer research at one of 14 major research institutions throughout the country. Of the CAMPARE scholars who have graduated with a Bachelor’s degree, almost two-thirds (65%) have completed or are pursuing graduate education in physics, astronomy, or a related field, at institutions including UCLA, UC Riverside, UC Irvine, UC Santa Barbara, USC, Stanford, Univ. of Arizona, Univ. of Washington, Univ. of Rochester, Michigan State Univ., Georgia Tech, Georgia State Univ., Kent State, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Oregon, Syracuse Univ., Montana State Univ., and the Fisk-Vanderbilt Master’s-to-PhD program.Now entering its fourth year, the Cal-Bridge program is a CSU-UC Bridge program comprised of >140 physics and astronomy faculty from 9 University of California (UC), 15 California State University (CSU), and 30 California Community College (CCC) campuses throughout California. In the first four years, 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars have been selected, including 22 Hispanic, 3 African-American and 13 women students, 10 of whom are from URM groups. Thirty (30) of the 34 Cal-Bridge Scholars are first generation college students. In the last two years, 11 of 13 Cal-Bridge Scholars have begun PhD programs in physics or astronomy at top PhD programs nationally. Three (3) of these 11 scholars have won NSF Graduate Research Fellowships; one more received an Honorable Mention. The next cohort applies this fall.Cal-Bridge provides much deeper mentoring and professional development experiences over the last

  9. Strategies addressing barriers to clinical trial enrollment of underrepresented populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Caren; Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Nery, Jill Dumbauld; Erwin, Patricia J; Littleton, Dawn; Kim, Mimi; Kuo, Winston P

    2014-11-01

    Underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials remains a reality while they have disproportionately higher rates of health disparities. The purpose of this study was to identify successful community-engaged interventions that included health care providers as a key strategy in addressing barriers to clinical trial enrollment of underrepresented patients. A systematic review of the literature on interventions addressing enrollment barriers to clinical trials for racial and ethnic minorities was performed in Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO Megafile, and EBSCO CINAHL. The systematic review identified 360 studies, and 20 were selected using the inclusion criteria. An iterative process extracted information from the eligible studies. The 20 selected studies were analyzed and then grouped by first author, nature of the clinical research initiative, priority populations, key strategies, and study outcomes. Nine of the studies addressed cancer clinical trials and 11 related to chronic medical conditions, including diabetes, hypertension management, and chronic kidney disease. The key strategies employed were categorized according to their presumed impact on barriers incurred at distinct steps in study recruitment: clinical trial awareness, opportunity to participate, and acceptance of enrollment. The strategies were further categorized by whether they would address barriers associated with minority perceptions of the research process and barriers related to how studies were designed and implemented. Multiple and flexible strategies targeting providers and participants at provider sites and within communities might be needed to enroll underrepresented populations into clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural Mentoring Relationships and the Adjustment to College among Underrepresented Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M; Tan, Joseph S; Loeb, Emily L

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated associations between natural mentoring relationships and academic performance via psychological distress among underrepresented college students attending an elite predominantly White institution (PWI). Specifically, this study explored whether the quantity of natural mentors possessed upon college entry, the retention of natural mentors across the first year of college, and overall changes in the number of natural mentors possessed during the first year of college predicted improvements in students' semester grade point averages (GPAs) via reductions in psychological distress. Participants in this study included 336 first-year undergraduate students attending a selective PWI. Students were eligible to participate in this study if they were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Results of this study indicated that a greater number of retained natural mentoring relationships across the first year of college were associated with improvements in students' GPAs via reductions in symptoms of depression from the Fall to Spring semester. The results of this study suggest that institutional efforts to support the maintenance of preexisting mentoring relationships may be an effective approach to promoting the academic success of underrepresented college students during the first year of college. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  11. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  12. Enhancing Diversity in Undergraduate Science: Self-Efficacy Drives Performance Gains with Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballen, Cissy J.; Wieman, Carl; Salehi, Shima; Searle, Jeremy B.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to retain underrepresented minority (URM) students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have shown only limited success in higher education, due in part to a persistent achievement gap between students from historically underrepresented and well-represented backgrounds. To test the hypothesis that active learning…

  13. Toward a Model of Social Influence that Explains Minority Student Integration into the Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, indicating that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than nonminority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same…

  14. The Portland State University Mentoring Program for Freshmen: The "PSU Minority Leadership Program" (MLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brenda J.

    This paper describes a minority leadership program, developed at Portland State University, Oregon, that is designed to increase the retention rate of minority and other underrepresented college students by helping them to adjust to the social and academic climate of the university. The program utilizes minority students who have successfully…

  15. Final Report National Laboratory Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Valerie [Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The 2013 CMD-IT National Laboratories Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants (CMD-IT NLPDev 2013) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus in Oak Ridge, TN. from June 13 - 14, 2013. Sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Scientific Computing Research Program, the primary goal of these workshops is to provide information about career opportunities in computational science at the various national laboratories and to mentor the underrepresented participants through community building and expert presentations focused on career success. This second annual workshop offered sessions to facilitate career advancement and, in particular, the strategies and resources needed to be successful at the national laboratories.

  16. Sustaining Optimal Motivation: A Longitudinal Analysis of Interventions to Broaden Participation of Underrepresented Students in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Paul R; Schultz, P Wesley; Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Chance, Randie C

    2013-02-01

    The underrepresentation of racial minorities and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national concern. Goal theory provides a useful framework from which to understand issues of underrepresentation. We followed a large sample of high-achieving African American and Latino undergraduates in STEM disciplines attending 38 institutions of higher education in the United States over 3 academic years. We report on the science-related environmental factors and person factors that influence the longitudinal regulation of goal orientations. Further, we examine how goal orientations in turn influence distal academic outcomes such as performance and persistence in STEM. Using SEM-based parallel process latent growth curve modeling, we found that (a) engagement in undergraduate research was the only factor that buffered underrepresented students against an increase in performance-avoidance goals over time; (b) growth in scientific self-identity exhibited a strong positive effect on growth in task and performance-approach goals over time; (c) only task goals positively influenced students' cumulative grade point average, over and above baseline grade point average; and (d) performance-avoidance goals predicted student attrition from the STEM pipeline. We discuss the implications of these findings for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines.

  17. Emotional Management and Motivation: A Case Study of Underrepresented Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of emotions in the workplace rarely has been examined within the context of higher education (Neumann, 2006; Smith and Witt, 1993). Through a qualitative approach, the purpose of this chapter is to offer a perspective of faculty work that examines the role that emotions play in the academic life of 15 underrepresented faculty members…

  18. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with unaccompanied refugee minors: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhitzenberger, Johanna; Eberle-Sejari, Rima; Rassenhofer, Miriam; Sukale, Thorsten; Rosner, Rita; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2015-10-23

    Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are a group who are vulnerable to developing posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). However, they rarely receive the treatment that is indicated and there are no treatment studies focusing exclusively on this group of adolescents. This case study evaluates the feasibility of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for URMs with PTSS. A health care utilization sample of N = 6 was assessed prior to and after treatment with TF-CBT. Therapists were asked to report differences in treatment application and content in comparison to TF-CBT standard protocol. We found moderate to high levels of PTSS at baseline and a clinically significant decrease in symptoms at posttest. Some modifications to the TF-CBT protocol were made with regard to affective modulation which required more sessions than usual whereas fewer caregiver sessions were conducted. TF-CBT is feasible in reducing PTSS in severely traumatized URMs. Further research with controlled trials is necessary. The trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01516827. Registered 13 December 2011.

  19. A Critical Examination of Senior Executive Leadership Succession Planning and Management with Implications for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, LeKeisha D.

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the research questions, this study utilized a sequential explanatory mixed methods research design to examine senior executive leadership succession planning at four-year, predominately white, doctoral universities in the state of Georgia. Utilizing the Representative Bureaucracy theory and the Mateso SPM conceptual model, this study…

  20. Including everyone: A peer learning program that works for under-represented minorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques van der Meer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer learning has long been recognised as an effective way to induct first-year students into the academic skills required to succeed at university. One recognised successful model that has been extensively researched is the Supplemental Instruction (SI model; it has operated in the US since the mid-1970s. This model is commonly known in Australasia as the Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS program. Although there is a considerable amount of research into SI and PASS, very little has been published about the impact of peer learning on different student groups, for example indigenous and other ethnic groups. This article reports on the results from one New Zealand university of the effectiveness of PASS for Māori and Pasifika students. The questions this article seeks to address are whether attendance of the PASS program results in better final marks for these two groups of students, and whether the number of sessions attended has an impact on the final marks.

  1. Managing Asthma in Low-Income, Underrepresented Minority, and Other Disadvantaged Pediatric Populations: Closing the Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisias, Margee; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-09-15

    In this article, we review current understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of disparities in asthma. We also highlight current and emerging literature on solutions to tackle disparities while underscoring gaps and pressing future directions. Tailored, multicomponent approaches including the home, school, and clinician-based interventions show great promise. Managing asthma in disadvantaged populations can be challenging as they tend to have disproportionately worse outcomes due to a multitude of factors. However, multifaceted, innovative interventions that are sustainable and scalable are key to improving outcomes.

  2. How Do We Include Underrepresented Voices in the Sustainability Conversation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virajita Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In a speech given at the Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships 20th Anniversary Statewide Event in the Cargill Building on the St. Paul Campus of the University of Minnesota on November 21, 2017, Virajita Singh, Assistant Vice Provost in the Office for Equity and Diversity, addressed the question, “How do we include underrepresented voices in the sustainability conversation?” The speech describes the work of The Partnerships as observed by the speaker, and its connection to the Design for Community Resilience program. It also introduces the concepts of Partnership and Design Thinking, and suggests a process for including underrepresented voices in the work informed by Design Thinking.  

  3. Diversifying the academic public health workforce: strategies to extend the discourse about limited racial and ethnic diversity in the public health academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, Lucy; Richter, Donna L; Fletcher, Faith E; Weis, Megan A; Fernandes, Pearl R; Clary, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    While public health has gained increased attention and placement on the national health agenda, little progress has been made in achieving a critical mass of underrepresented minority (URM) academicians in the public health workforce. In 2008, a telephone-based qualitative assessment was conducted with URM faculty of schools of public health to discuss this issue. As a result, we present successful strategies that institutional leaders can employ to extend the discourse about addressing limited diversity in the public health academy.

  4. Participation in mental health care by ethnic minority users: Case studies from the Netherlands and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares de Freitas, C.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311493696

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines participation in mental health care by users from socially disadvantaged ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands and in Brazil. Despite considerable evidence that minority users are under-represented in health participatory spaces in these and other countries around the world,

  5. The establishment of minority affairs offices in schools of dentistry: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Billy R

    2003-09-01

    The establishment of Minority Affairs Offices in dental schools following the American Association of Medical Colleges' model is discussed as one method of addressing the declining enrollment and compounding oral health disparities of underrepresented minorities African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans in U.S. dental schools. The pros and cons of the approach are discussed, with recommendations.

  6. Opportunity Knocks: Pipeline Programs Offer Minority Students a Path to Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Minority students have traditionally been underrepresented in dental schools, which is why enrichment and pipeline programs aimed at helping minority students are necessary. That reality is reflected in their woeful underrepresentation among practicing dentists. Hispanics made up only 5.8 percent of practicing dentists in 2011, according to the…

  7. Medical School Outcomes, Primary Care Specialty Choice, and Practice in Medically Underserved Areas by Physician Alumni of MEDPREP, a Postbaccalaureate Premedical Program for Underrepresented and Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Anneke M

    2017-01-01

    Minorities continue to be underrepresented as physicians in medicine, and the United States currently has a number of medically underserved communities. MEDPREP, a postbaccalaureate medical school preparatory program for socioeconomically disadvantaged or underrepresented in medicine students, has a stated mission to increase the numbers of physicians from minority or disadvantaged backgrounds and physicians working with underserved populations. This study aims to determine how MEDPREP enhances U.S. physician diversity and practice within underserved communities. MEDPREP recruits disadvantaged and underrepresented in medicine students to complete a 2-year academic enhancement program that includes science coursework, standardized test preparation, study/time management training, and emphasis on professional development. Five hundred twenty-five disadvantaged or underrepresented students over 15 years completed MEDPREP and were tracked through entry into medical practice. MEDPREP accepts up to 36 students per year, with two thirds coming from the Midwest region and another 20% from nearby states in the South. Students complete science, test preparation, academic enhancement, and professionalism coursework taught predominantly by MEDPREP faculty on the Southern Illinois University Carbondale campus. Students apply broadly to medical schools in the region and nation but are also offered direct entry into our School of Medicine upon meeting articulation program requirements. Seventy-nine percent of students completing MEDPREP became practicing physicians. Fifty-eight percent attended public medical schools, and 62% attended medical schools in the Midwest. Fifty-three percent of program alumni chose primary care specialties compared to 34% of U.S. physicians, and MEDPREP alumni were 2.7 times more likely to work in medically underserved areas than physicians nationally. MEDPREP increases the number of disadvantaged and underrepresented students entering and graduating

  8. Participation of Students from Under-Represented Groups in Gifted Programs. A Planning Guide To Implement Gifted Rule 6A-6.03019, FAC, As Revised on 9-12-91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.

    This planning guide is intended to facilitate flexibility in meeting the needs of under-represented groups in Florida programs for gifted students. An introduction defines these students (racial or ethnic minorities, limited English proficient, or from a low socioeconomic background), lists the required components of a district plan for increasing…

  9. Integrating Theory and Practice to Increase Scientific Workforce Diversity: A Framework for Career Development in Graduate Research Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical…

  10. Addressing Implicit Bias to Improve Cross-cultural Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Brenda; Montoya, Margaret

    2018-03-01

    Health disparities cluster around race, ethnicity, education, neighborhoods, and income. Systems of exclusion that correlate with social determinants compound the disproportionate burden of poor health experienced by people of color. By 2056, ~50% of the population is expected to fall into categories currently labeled "under-represented minorities" (URMs), primarily African Americans, Latinxs, and American Indians. Although URMs comprise 30% of the general population, only 9% of medical doctors [Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)] are URMs. We can lessen the negative effects of implicit bias and minimize inequities and unequal treatment by medical providers with training in cross-disciplinary diversity knowledge and communication skills.

  11. Appraisal Support from Natural Mentors, Self-worth, and Psychological Distress: Examining the Experiences of Underrepresented Students Transitioning Through College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle

    2018-05-01

    The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.

  12. Increasing Underrepresented Students in Geophysics and Planetary Science Through the Educational Internship in Physical Sciences (EIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, S.; Olgin, J. G.; Enriquez, F.

    2017-12-01

    The number of underrepresented minorities pursuing STEM fields, specifically in the sciences, has declined in recent times. In response, the Educational Internship in Physical Sciences (EIPS), an undergraduate research internship program in collaboration with The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) Geological Sciences Department and El Paso Community College (EPCC), was created; providing a mentoring environment so that students can actively engage in science projects with professionals in their field so as to gain the maximum benefits in an academic setting. This past year, interns participated in planetary themed projects which exposed them to the basics of planetary geology, and worked on projects dealing with introductory digital image processing and synthesized data on two planetary bodies; Pluto and Enceladus respectively. Interns harnessed and built on what they have learned through these projects, and directly applied it in an academic environment in solar system astronomy classes at EPCC. Since the majority of interns are transfer students or alums from EPCC, they give a unique perspective and dimension of interaction; giving them an opportunity to personally guide and encourage current students there on available STEM opportunities. The goal was to have interns gain experience in planetary geology investigations and networking with professionals in the field; further promoting their interests and honing their abilities for future endeavors in planetary science. The efficacy of these activities toward getting interns to pursue STEM careers, enhance their education in planetary science, and teaching key concepts in planetary geophysics are demonstrated in this presentation.

  13. The Sangre Por Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; Montes de Oca, Gregorio; Levey, Sharon; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Latino adults (ages 18-85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center's internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in precision medicine initiatives and biomedical

  14. Minority Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, R

    2005-01-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG when

  15. Active Learning outside the Classroom: Implementation and Outcomes of Peer-Led Team-Learning Workshops in Introductory Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Philip; Shores, Robin; McClung, Alex; Smulyan, Lisa; Vallen, Elizabeth A.; Siwicki, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    Study group meetings (SGMs) are voluntary-attendance peer-led team-learning workshops that supplement introductory biology lectures at a selective liberal arts college. While supporting all students' engagement with lecture material, specific aims are to improve the success of underrepresented minority (URM) students and those with weaker…

  16. Tuition Rich, Mission Poor: Nonresident Enrollment Growth and the Socioeconomic and Racial Composition of Public Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquette, Ozan; Curs, Bradley R.; Posselt, Julie R.

    2016-01-01

    Many public research universities fail to enroll a critical mass of low-income and underrepresented minority (URM) students. Though founded with a commitment to access, public research universities face pressure to increase tuition revenue and to recruit high-achieving students. These pressures create an incentive to recruit nonresident students,…

  17. Closing Achievement Gaps with a Utility-Value Intervention: Disentangling Race and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2015-01-01

    Many college students abandon their goal of completing a degree in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) when confronted with challenging introductory-level science courses. In the U.S., this trend is more pronounced for underrepresented minority (URM) and first-generation (FG) students, and contributes to persisting racial and…

  18. Determining Persistence of Community College Students in Introductory Geology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Katrien van der Hoeven

    2014-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) careers have been touted as critical to the success of our nation and also provide important opportunities for access and equity of underrepresented minorities (URM's). Community colleges serve a diverse population and a large number of undergraduates currently enrolled in college, they are…

  19. 34 CFR 637.4 - What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... American origin), Pacific Islander or other ethnic group underrepresented in science and engineering... Engineering Improvement Program? 637.4 Section 637.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM General § 637.4 What definitions apply to the Minority Science and Engineering...

  20. IRSS Psychology Theory: Telling Experiences among Underrepresented IS Doctorates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Fay Cobb; White, Sharon D.; Mbarika, Victor W. A.

    2006-01-01

    With the changing demographics of the American workforce, the National Science Foundation, along with the U.S. Department of Commerce, has highlighted the shortage of minorities in information technology (IT) careers (http://www.ta.doc.gov/Reports/itsw/itsw.pdf). Using data from a 6-year period and the psychology Involvement-Regimen-Self…

  1. Women underrepresented on editorial boards of 60 major medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Karin; Langmann, Andrea; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Pieber, Thomas R; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2011-12-01

    Although there has been a continuous increase in the number of women working in the field of medicine, women rarely reach the highest academic positions as full professors or editorial board members. We aimed to determine the proportion of women on the editorial boards of top-ranked medical journals in different medical specialties. We analyzed the gender of editorial board members of 60 top-ranked journals of 12 Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports categories. A total of 4175 editors were included in our analysis. Only 15.9% (10 of 63) editors-in-chief were female. In the 5 categories, critical care, anesthesiology, orthopedics, ophthalmology and radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging, currently not 1 woman holds the position of editor-in-chief. Less than one fifth (17.5%, 719 of 4112) of all editorial board members were women. There were significant differences among the evaluated categories, with the highest percentage of women in the category of medicine, general and internal and the lowest in the category critical care, followed by orthopedics. In every category, the proportion of women as editorial board members was substantially lower than that of men. Women are underrepresented on the editorial boards of major medical journals, although there is a great variability among the journals and categories analyzed. If more women are nominated to serve on editorial boards, they will be a visible sign of continuing progress and serve as important role models for young women contemplating a career in academic medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Shattering the Glass Ceiling. Issues and Solutions in Promoting the Advancement of Women and Minorities to Executive Management in Corporate America. White Paper 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microquest Corp., San Rafael, CA.

    Despite their progress in the workplace in recent years, women and minorities still remain greatly underrepresented in executive roles in major U.S. companies. The barriers, attitudes, and practices that deter the advancement of women and minorities into executive ranks collectively result in the phenomenon known as the "Glass Ceiling."…

  3. Minorities and Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, D.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between minorities and language is complicated and related to the development of nation-states. Language minorities, as a social group, are distinguished from minority languages. The definition of minority is problematic. The size of a minority can differ widely. For membership,

  4. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  5. Enhancing Diversity in Undergraduate Science: Self-Efficacy Drives Performance Gains with Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballen, Cissy J; Wieman, Carl; Salehi, Shima; Searle, Jeremy B; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to retain underrepresented minority (URM) students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have shown only limited success in higher education, due in part to a persistent achievement gap between students from historically underrepresented and well-represented backgrounds. To test the hypothesis that active learning disproportionately benefits URM students, we quantified the effects of traditional versus active learning on student academic performance, science self-efficacy, and sense of social belonging in a large (more than 250 students) introductory STEM course. A transition to active learning closed the gap in learning gains between non-URM and URM students and led to an increase in science self-efficacy for all students. Sense of social belonging also increased significantly with active learning, but only for non-URM students. Through structural equation modeling, we demonstrate that, for URM students, the increase in self-efficacy mediated the positive effect of active-learning pedagogy on two metrics of student performance. Our results add to a growing body of research that supports varied and inclusive teaching as one pathway to a diversified STEM workforce. © 2017 C. J. Ballen et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Diversity Exiting the Academy: Influential Factors for the Career Choice of Well-Represented and Underrepresented Minority Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Rebekah L.; Brandt, Patrick D.; Freeman, Ashalla M.; Harrell, Jessica R.; Hall, Joshua D.; Sinche, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    A national sample of PhD-trained scientists completed training, accepted subsequent employment in academic and nonacademic positions, and were queried about their previous graduate training and current employment. Respondents indicated factors contributing to their employment decision (e.g., working conditions, salary, job security). The data…

  7. AP® STEM Participation and Postsecondary STEM Outcomes: Focus on Underrepresented Minority, First-Generation, and Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kara; Jagesic, Sanja; Wyatt, Jeff; Ewing, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    Projections by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (2012) point to a need for approximately one million more Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) professionals than the U.S. will be able to produce considering the current rate of STEM postsecondary degree completions (Executive Office of the President of…

  8. The Importance of Networking in the Academic and Professional Experiences of Racial Minority Students in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Warfield, Markeba

    2011-01-01

    Through examination of the experiences of minority undergraduate doctoral aspirants in the United States, this study points to the importance of academic and professional influences of networking, as well as its role in the academic attainment and professional experiences of underrepresented groups in academe. The findings suggest that networking…

  9. Predictors of Intent to Pursue a College Health Science Education among High Achieving Minority 10th Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Le, Daisy; Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Minority populations are underrepresented in fields of science, perhaps limiting scientific perspectives. Informed by recent studies using social cognitive career theory, this study examined whether three conceptual constructs: self-efficacy, perceived adult support, and perceived barriers, along with several discrete and immutable variables,…

  10. Designing the Game: How a Project-Based Media Production Program Approaches STEAM Career Readiness for Underrepresented Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Kristin M.; Hu Dahl, Ingrid; Panahandeh, Shirin

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a need for a diverse workforce that is more highly educated in STEM and ICT fields, and one that is capable of responding creatively to demands for continual innovation. This paper, in response, chronicles the implementation of the Digital Pathways (DP) program, a two-time ITEST recipient and an ongoing initiative of the Bay Area Video Coalition. DP has provided low-income, underrepresented minority young people with 180 contact hours of activities in digital media production to prepare them to pursue higher education and technology careers. A design-based research approach synthesizes staff interviews with student observations, interviews and artifacts to identify a set of generalizable best practices or design principles for empowering young people to move from being consumers of digital media to producers. These principles are illustrated with a case study of the 3D Animation and Gaming track from the second ITEST grant. Researchers argue for the importance of attending to the noncognitive elements of learning and illustrate ways in which instructors encouraged creative expression, personal agency, and collaboration through long-term projects. They also identify strategies for sustaining young people's participation through the establishment of a supportive community environment.

  11. Teaching and Learning Strategies for Serving Underrepresented Students: A Collection of Resource Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosz, Karen S., Comp.

    Designed as a resource on teaching and learning strategies geared specifically toward underrepresented community college students, this collection of articles and reports includes the following: (1) "Successful Teaching Strategies: Instruction for Black and Hispanic Students in the California Community Colleges," by Olivia Mercado, Cheryl Fong,…

  12. Success of Underrepresented Nursing Students at Selected Southwest Institutions: Impact of a Nursing Retention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This study examined retention initiatives and strategies provided to underserved students in the nursing programs at three community colleges in the Southwest region. This research addressed nursing student retention, as well as ways to increase retention among underrepresented populations in the three community colleges, representing a unique…

  13. A Program Aimed toward Inclusive Excellence for Underrepresented Undergraduate Women in the Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laura A.; Aloisio, Kathryn M.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Ly, Minh; Pruss, Sara; Queeney, Kate; Rowen, Cate; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2017-01-01

    Created to foster inclusive excellence, Smith College's Achieving Excellence in Mathematics, Engineering, and Science (AEMES) Scholars program provides early faculty-mentored research opportunities and other programming as a way to foster success in academic outcomes for underrepresented women in science. Using academic record data, we compared…

  14. Topologies of an Effective Mentoring Model: At the Intersection of Community Colleges, Underrepresented Students, and Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Janet Lee

    2012-01-01

    This evidenced-based study was conducted using a systemic review of the literature to verify scholarly consensus about the effectiveness of mentoring as an intervention to impact college completion for underrepresented students in a community college setting. The study explored the impact of having access to mentors for the target population:…

  15. Mutual Mentoring for Early-Career and Underrepresented Faculty: Model, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jung H.; Baldi, Brian; Sorcinelli, Mary Deane

    2016-01-01

    In the beginning, "Mutual Mentoring" was little more than an idea, a hopeful vision of the future in which a new model of mentoring could serve as a medium to better support early-career and underrepresented faculty. Over time, Mutual Mentoring evolved from an innovative idea to an ambitious pilot program to a fully operational,…

  16. The Impact of Career Exploration upon the Success of Underrepresented Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Elaine J.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that contribute to college student success are multiple. Career exploration as a student success strategy was explored in this study. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study was to explore whether there was a relationship between career exploration and the success of underrepresented students in higher education. Quantitative…

  17. Transformed Science: Overcoming Barriers of Inequality and Mistrust to Pursue the Agenda of Underrepresented Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Renee

    Educational programs created to provide opportunities for all, in reality often reflect social inequalities. Such is the case for Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR) Projects. PPSR projects have been proposed as an effective way to engage more diverse audiences in science, yet the demographics of PPSR participants do not correspond with the demographic makeup of the United States. The field of PPSR as a whole has struggled to recruit low SES and underrepresented populations to participate in project research efforts. This research study explores factors, which may be affecting an underrepresented community's willingness to engage in scientific research and provides advice from PPSR project leaders in the field, who have been able to engage underrepresented communities in scientific research, on how to overcome these barriers. Finally the study investigates the theoretical construct of a Third Space within a PPSR project. The research-based recommendations for PPSR projects desiring to initiate and sustain research partnerships with underrepresented communities well align with the theoretical construct of a Third Space. This study examines a specific scientific research partnership between an underrepresented community and scientific researchers to examine if and to what extent a Third Space was created. Using qualitative methods to understand interactions and processes involved in initiating and sustaining a scientific research partnership, this study provides advice on how PPSR research partnerships can engage underrepresented communities in scientific research. Study results show inequality and mistrust of powerful institutions stood as participation barriers for underrepresented community members. Despite these barriers PPSR project leaders recommend barriers can be confronted by open dialogue with communities about the abuse and alienation they have faced, by signaling respect for the community, and by entering the community through someone the

  18. Realising the dream of becoming a nurse: Underrepresented BSc nursing students experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brid; Graham, Margaret M; O'Sullivan, Deirdre

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the experiences of underrepresented BSc nursing students in realising the dream of becoming a nurse in one university. In the past ten years, pre-registration nurse education has become established within higher education in Ireland. This development includes promoting access and inclusion of students from traditionally underrepresented groups in higher education. A third of nursing students currently access places on programmes through routes specifically designed for underrepresented groups. A qualitative descriptive study design provided an opportunity for student voices to be heard. Ethical approval was sought and granted. Eleven students were interviewed nearing completion of a four year BSc Nursing programme. Data analysis followed a thematic approach, in generating themes. Three themes emerged from the data: taking the first steps; finding a way and getting through. Findings highlight participants' challenges in balancing study, clinical practice and family life in achieving and realising their dream of becoming a nurse. This study illustrates the nature and complexities of participants' experiences throughout the BSc Nursing programmes towards becoming university graduates, eligible for registration as a nurse. Students from underrepresented groups bring rich and diverse life experiences in preparation for and becoming caring practitioners. It highlights the individuality within participants' experiences and draws attention to the value of personalised support for students. An opportunity to encourage the development of emotional intelligence needs to be fostered within nurse education programmes. Creating positive learning environments is critical to supporting student understanding of compassionate patient centred care. Findings have relevance for global curriculum design and structures to support individual student centred engagement. Further research is required to consider how best to support students from underrepresented groups

  19. Persistence among Minority STEM Majors: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Watson, Stacey

    The United States needs to increase the number of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduates to remain competitive in the global market and maintain national security. Minority students, specifically African-American and Hispanic, are underrepresented in STEM fields. As the minority population continues to grow it is essential that higher education institutions improve minority students' persistence in STEM education. This study examined the problem of minority students' lack of persistence in STEM programs. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences that minority students perceived as contributing to their persistence in STEM. The central research question was: What are the lived experiences of minority STEM students that have contributed to their persistence in a STEM program? The sub-questions were: a) What led participants to majors in STEM?; b) What contributed to students' success and persistence in STEM?; and c) What advice do students have to offer? The researcher interviewed 12 minority STEM students and uncovered 10 themes that described the lived experiences of minority students' persistence in STEM programs. The themes were 1) Childhood experiences and interests; 2) Positive educational experiences in secondary school; 3) Self- motivation; 4) Positive experiences with professors; 5) Family encouragement and values; 6) Lack of minorities; 7) Lack of educational preparation; 8) The need for financial assistance; 9) Clubs and organizations; and 10) Friends within the major. The significance of these findings is the potential to produce changes in curricula, programs, and retention methods that may improve the persistence of minority students in STEM programs.

  20. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Byerly, G. R.; Callahan, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources, including industry, scientific societies, individuals, and during the last 10 years, the NSF. College-level students apply for the MPP awards or award renewals, and the MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. Mentoring is a long-standing hallmark of the AGI MPP. Every AGI MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars. The MPP Advisory Committee aims to match the profession of the mentor with the scholar's academic interest. Throughout the year, mentors and scholars communicate about possible opportunities in the geosciences such as internships, participation in symposia, professional society meetings, and job openings. Mentors have also been active in helping younger students cope with the major changes involved in relocating to a new region of the country or a new college culture. We believe that AGI is well-positioned to advance diversity in the geosciences through its unique standing as the major professional organization in the

  1. Mentoring, Training, and Scholarly Productivity Experiences of Cancer-Related Health Disparities Research Trainees: Do Outcomes Differ for Underrepresented Scientists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Tisha M; Braun, Kathryn L; Wigfall, Lisa; Sevoyan, Maria; Vyas, Shraddha; Khan, Samira; Brandt, Heather M; Rogers, Charles; Tanjasiri, Sora; Armstead, Cheryl A; Hébert, James R

    2018-02-12

    The study aims to explore variation in scholarly productivity outcomes by underrepresented status among a diverse sample of researchers in a community-engaged training program. We identified 141 trainees from a web-based survey of researchers in the National Cancer Institute-funded, Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs) (2011-2016). We conducted a series of multiple logistic regression models to estimate the effect of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-defined underrepresented status on four, self-reported, scholarly productivity outcomes in the previous 5 years: number of publications (first-authored and total) and funded grants (NIH and any agency). Sixty-five percent (n = 92) indicated NIH underrepresented status. In final adjusted models, non-NIH underrepresented (vs. underrepresented) trainees reported an increased odds of having more than the median number of total publications (> 9) (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.21-8.65) and any grant funding (OR = 5.10, 95% CI 1.77-14.65). Reporting ≥ 1 mentors (vs. none) was also positively associated (p < 0.05) with these outcomes. The CNPC underrepresented trainees had similar success in first-authored publications and NIH funding as non-underrepresented trainees, but not total publications and grants. Examining trainees' mentoring experiences over time in relation to scholarly productivity outcomes is needed.

  2. A critical exploration of science doctoral programs: Counterstories from underrepresented women of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Senetta F.

    Most studies exploring the experiences of underrepresented doctoral students of color in science fields focus on their socialization into predominantly white institutions. While the socialization process is fundamental to doctoral success and consequently deserves attention, it is critical to inquire into how the widespread and lasting perception of people of color as socioculturally deficient shapes underrepresented students` socialization into science doctoral programs. Further, the existing research literature and educational policies addressing the persistent underrepresentation of students of color in science doctorates remain fixated on increasing racial diversity for U.S. economic security rather than racial equity. In view of the limitation of existing research literature, in this study, drawing from critical race theories, fictive-kinship, and forms of capital, I use counterstorytelling to recast racial inequities in the education of science doctorates as a problem of social justice, not as an issue of the students' sociocultural deficits or as a matter of economic security. Through interviews I examined the experiences, from elementary school to current careers, of three women of color who were science doctoral students. Participants' counterstories revealed institutionalized racism embedded in doctoral programs exploited their identities and dismissed their lived experiences, thereby, relegating them to outsiders-within academe. This marginalization precluded the inclusive socialization of participants into their doctoral programs and ultimately set up barriers to their pursuit of scientific careers. This study divulges the academic and career consequences of the sustained privilege disparities between underrepresented students of color's experience and the experiences of their white and Asian counterparts. In light of the participants' experiences, I recommend that, in order to change the existing policy of socially integrating students into oppressive

  3. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide......, are they at odds with each other or do they possibly overlap? This last possibility would be that minority rights are so extensive that they actually amount to autonomy. Autonomy has a range of dimensions and one must distinguish between political autonomy which is largely territorial in nature and autonomy...

  4. Blood donation barriers and facilitators of Sub-Saharan African migrants and minorities in Western high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E. F.; Huis In 't Veld, E. M. J.; de Wit, P. D.; van Dongen, A.; Daams, J. G.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.; Fransen, M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to gain more insight into, and summarise, blood donation determinants among migrants or minorities of Sub-Saharan heritage by systematically reviewing the current literature. Sub-Saharan Africans are under-represented in the blood donor population in Western high-income

  5. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  6. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail..

  7. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in the Pursuit of Health Science-Related Careers among Youth from Underrepresented Low Socioeconomic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley O; Jones, Chandria; Bhagat, Krishna; Siddiqui, Junaed; Wang, Min Qi

    2015-10-01

    A more diverse health science-related workforce including more underrepresented race/ethnic minorities, especially from low socioeconomic backgrounds, is needed to address health disparities in the USA. To increase such diversity, programs must facilitate youth interest in pursuing a health science-related career (HSRC). Minority youth from low socioeconomic families may focus on the secondary gains of careers, such as high income and status, given their low socioeconomic backgrounds. On the other hand, self-determination theory suggests that it is the intrinsic characteristics of careers which are most likely to sustain pursuit of an HSRC and lead to job satisfaction. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for pursuing an HSRC (defined in this study as health professional, health scientist, and medical doctor) was examined in a cohort of youth from the 10th to 12th grade from 2011 to 2013. The sample was from low-income area high schools, had a B- or above grade point average at baseline, and was predominantly: African American (65.7 %) or Hispanic (22.9 %), female (70.1 %), and children of foreign-born parents (64.7 %). In longitudinal general estimating equations, intrinsic motivation (but not extrinsic motivation) consistently predicted intention to pursue an HSRC. This finding provides guidance as to which youth and which qualities of HSRCs might deserve particular attention in efforts to increase diversity in the health science-related workforce.

  8. Early Opportunities Research Partnership Between Howard University, University of Maryland Baltimore County and NASA Goddard for Engaging Underrepresented STEM Students in Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P.; Venable, D. D.; Hoban, S.; Demoz, B.; Bleacher, L.; Meeson, B. W.; Farrell, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Howard University, University of Maryland Baltimore County and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) are collaborating to engage underrepresented STEM students and expose them to an early career pathway in NASA-related Earth & Space Science research. The major goal is to instill interest in Earth and Space Science to STEM majors early in their academic careers, so that they become engaged in ongoing NASA-related research, motivated to pursue STEM careers, and perhaps become part of the future NASA workforce. The collaboration builds on a program established by NASA's Dynamic Response of the Environments of Asteroids, the Moon and the moons of Mars (DREAM2) team to engage underrepresented students from Howard in summer internships. Howard leveraged this program to expand via NASA's Minority University Research and Education Project (MUREP) funding. The project pairs Howard students with GSFC mentors and engages them in cutting-edge Earth and Space Science research throughout their undergraduate tenure. The project takes a multi-faceted approach, with each year of the program specifically tailored to each student's strengths and addressing their weaknesses, so that they experience a wide array of enriching research and professional development activities that help them grow both academically and professionally. During the academic year, the students are at Howard taking a full load of courses towards satisfying their degree requirements and engaging in research with their GSFC mentors via regular telecons, e-mail exchanges, video chats & on an average one visit per semester to GSFC for an in-person meeting with their research mentor. The students extend their research with full-time summer internships at GSFC, culminating in a Capstone Project and Senior Thesis. As a result, these Early Opportunities Program students, who have undergone rigorous training in the Earth and Space Sciences, are expected to be well-prepared for graduate school and the NASA workforce.

  9. Active Learning Outside the Classroom: Implementation and Outcomes of Peer-Led Team-Learning Workshops in Introductory Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kudish, Philip; Shores, Robin; McClung, Alex; Smulyan, Lisa; Vallen, Elizabeth A.; Siwicki, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    Study group meetings (SGMs) are voluntary-attendance peer-led team-learning workshops that supplement introductory biology lectures at a selective liberal arts college. While supporting all students? engagement with lecture material, specific aims are to improve the success of underrepresented minority (URM) students and those with weaker backgrounds in biology. Peer leaders with experience in biology courses and training in science pedagogy facilitate work on faculty-generated challenge prob...

  10. Building Mobile Apps for Underrepresented Mental Health care Consumers: A Grounded Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ricky; Hastings, Julia F; Keefe, Robert H; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Chan, Keith T; Mullick, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Cell phone mobile application ("app") use has risen dramatically within the past several years. Many individuals access apps to address mental health issues. Unlike individuals from privileged backgrounds, individuals from oppressed backgrounds may rely on apps rather than costly mental health treatment. To date, very little research has been published evaluating mental health apps' effectiveness. This paper focuses on three methods through which grounded theory can facilitate app development and evaluation for people underrepresented in mental health care. Recommendations are made to advance mobile app technology that will help clinicians provide effective treatment, and consumers to realize positive treatment outcomes.

  11. BINARY MINOR PLANETS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  12. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Design. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20...... homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. Findings. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation...

  13. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  14. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  15. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  16. BCDC Minor Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  17. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Christina H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Deville, Curtiland, E-mail: deville@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  18. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society

  19. Multichoice minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations

  20. Women Physicians Are Underrepresented in Recognition Awards From the Association of Academic Physiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Julie K; Blauwet, Cheri A; Bhatnagar, Saurabha; Slocum, Chloe S; Tenforde, Adam S; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Zafonte, Ross D; Goldstein, Richard; Gallegos-Kearin, Vanessa; Reilly, Julia M; Mazwi, Nicole L

    2018-01-01

    Determine representation by gender for individual recognition awards presented to physicians by the Association of Academic Physiatrists (AAP). Cross-sectional survey was used. Lists of individual recognition award recipients for the 27-yr history of the AAP awards (1990-2016) were analyzed. The primary outcome measures were the total numbers of men versus women physician award recipients overall and for the past decade (2007-2016). No awards were given to women physicians for the past 4 yrs (2013-2016) or in half of the award categories for the past decade (2007-2016). No woman received the outstanding resident/fellow award since its inception (2010-2016). There was a decrease in the proportion of awards given to women in the past decade (2007-2016, 7 of 39 awards, 17.9%) as compared with the first 17 yrs (1990-2006, 10 of 46 awards, 21.7%). Furthermore, compared with their proportional membership within the specialty, women physicians were underrepresented for the entire 27-yr history of the AAP awards (1990-2016, 17 of 85 awards, 20%). According to the Association of American Medical Colleges, the proportion of full-time female physical medicine and rehabilitation faculty members was 38% in 1992 and 41% in 2013. Women physicians have been underrepresented by the AAP in recognition awards. Although the reasons are not clear, these findings should be further investigated.

  1. Active Learning Outside the Classroom: Implementation and Outcomes of Peer-Led Team-Learning Workshops in Introductory Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Philip; Shores, Robin; McClung, Alex; Smulyan, Lisa; Vallen, Elizabeth A; Siwicki, Kathleen K

    2016-01-01

    Study group meetings (SGMs) are voluntary-attendance peer-led team-learning workshops that supplement introductory biology lectures at a selective liberal arts college. While supporting all students' engagement with lecture material, specific aims are to improve the success of underrepresented minority (URM) students and those with weaker backgrounds in biology. Peer leaders with experience in biology courses and training in science pedagogy facilitate work on faculty-generated challenge problems. During the eight semesters assessed in this study, URM students and those with less preparation attended SGMs with equal or greater frequency than their counterparts. Most agreed that SGMs enhanced their comprehension of biology and ability to articulate solutions. The historical grade gap between URM and non-URM students narrowed slightly in Biology 2, but not in other biology and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. Nonetheless, URM students taking introductory biology after program implementation have graduated with biology majors or minors at the same rates as non-URM students, and have enrolled in postcollege degree programs at equal or greater rates. These results suggest that improved performance as measured by science grade point average may not be necessary to improve the persistence of students from underrepresented groups as life sciences majors. © 2016 P. Kudish et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Minority engineering scholarships renewal, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science : Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri ...

  3. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  4. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    to a specific group. The question never posed is, if there is a point and in that case at what point the group can actually talk about being autonomous. Is there a minimum in the number of special rights and procedures that has to be reached in order for the package of rights to qualify as ‘granting autonomy......'? I will look at this in connection with minority rights, as minority rights accord special rights and procedures to a specific group. For example, minorities have sometimes far reaching competences in the educational field: setting up and running their own schools and to a certain degree also decide...... with kin-states face a two-way situation regarding autonomy. First there is the autonomy from the home-state - the state the minority exists in. Secondly, though, there is the question of autonomy from the kin-state: How autonomous is a minority when it is (partly) financed by the kin-state? The discussion...

  5. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. Sex Trafficking of Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jessica L; Kaplan, Dana M; Barron, Christine E

    2017-04-01

    Sex trafficking is an increasingly recognized global health crisis affecting every country and region in the world. Domestic minor sex trafficking is a subset of commercial sexual exploitation of children, defined as engagement of minors (sexual acts for items of value (eg, food, shelter, drugs, money) involving children victimized within US borders. These involved youth are at risk for serious immediate and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Continued efforts are needed to improve preventive efforts, identification, screening, appropriate interventions, and subsequent resource provision for victimized and high-risk youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Norredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how everyday school life interacts with students’ practices of ‘becoming teenagers’ at a Danish school, analysing how age and ethnicity intersect with emotional well-being. The article builds on an ethnographic study at a public sports school following ethnic minority...... and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  8. An interdisciplinary collaboration between computer engineering and mathematics/bilingual education to develop a curriculum for underrepresented middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón-Pattichis, Sylvia; LópezLeiva, Carlos Alfonso; Pattichis, Marios S.; Llamocca, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    There is a strong need in the United States to increase the number of students from underrepresented groups who pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Drawing from sociocultural theory, we present approaches to establishing collaborations between computer engineering and mathematics/bilingual education faculty to address this need. We describe our work through the Advancing Out-of-School Learning in Mathematics and Engineering project by illustrating how an integrated curriculum that is based on mathematics with applications in image and video processing can be designed and how it can be implemented with middle school students from underrepresented groups.

  9. NASA Astrophysics EPO Community: Serving Groups Historically Underrepresented in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Smith, D. A.; Lawton, B.; Bartolone, L.; Schultz, G.; Manning, J.; NASA Astrophysics EPO Community

    2015-11-01

    Four Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support and coordinate the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) education and public outreach (EPO) community. The mission- and grant-based EPO programs of this EPO community are uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. The Forums engage underserved audiences through coordinated efforts such as NASAScience4Girls and Their Families, which partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed, hands-on education activities for girls and their families, along with training for librarians. We present examples of how the NASA EPO community and Forums serve groups historically underrepresented in STEM fields via the NASAScience4Girls and Their Families initiative, including associated metrics and evaluation findings.

  10. Housing Problems of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  11. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  12. Minority Language Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Onderwijs in alochtone levende talen. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, an exploratory study was carried out of minority Language teaching for primary school pupils. This exploratory study in seven municipalities not only shows the way in

  13. Sexual minorities seeking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women.

  14. Design of a cluster-randomized minority recruitment trial: RECRUIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Barbara C; Mainous, Arch G; Smith, Daniel W; McKee, M Diane; Amorrortu, Rossybelle P; Alvidrez, Jennifer; Diaz, Vanessa; Ford, Marvella E; Fernandez, Maria E; Hauser, Robert A; Singer, Carlos; Landa, Veronica; Trevino, Aron; DeSantis, Stacia M; Zhang, Yefei; Daniels, Elvan; Tabor, Derrick; Vernon, Sally W

    2017-06-01

    Racial/ethnic minority groups remain underrepresented in clinical trials. Many strategies to increase minority recruitment focus on minority communities and emphasize common diseases such as hypertension. Scant literature focuses on minority recruitment to trials of less common conditions, often conducted in specialty clinics and dependent on physician referrals. We identified trust/mistrust of specialist physician investigators and institutions conducting medical research and consequent participant reluctance to participate in clinical trials as key-shared barriers across racial/ethnic groups. We developed a trust-based continuous quality improvement intervention to build trust between specialist physician investigators and community minority-serving physicians and ultimately potential trial participants. To avoid the inherent biases of non-randomized studies, we evaluated the intervention in the national Randomized Recruitment Intervention Trial (RECRUIT). This report presents the design of RECRUIT. Specialty clinic follow-up continues through April 2017. We hypothesized that specialist physician investigators and coordinators trained in the trust-based continuous quality improvement intervention would enroll a greater proportion of minority participants in their specialty clinics than specialist physician investigators in control specialty clinics. Specialty clinic was the unit of randomization. Using continuous quality improvement, the specialist physician investigators and coordinators tailored recruitment approaches to their specialty clinic characteristics and populations. Primary analyses were adjusted for clustering by specialty clinic within parent trial and matching covariates. RECRUIT was implemented in four multi-site clinical trials (parent trials) supported by three National Institutes of Health institutes and included 50 associated specialty clinics from these parent trials. Using current data, we have 88% power or greater to detect a 0.15 or

  15. Efforts at Broadening Participation in the Sciences: An Examination of the Mentoring Experiences of Students from Underrepresented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunuske, Amy; Wilson, Janelle; Walls, Melissa; Marrin, Hannah; Clarke, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    With the primary objective of attracting and retaining students from underrepresented backgrounds in the sciences, evaluation of one institution's program has been ongoing over the past three years. Interviews with mentors in the program followed by focus groups conducted with mentees reveal key factors that shape undergraduate students' research…

  16. An Interdisciplinary Collaboration between Computer Engineering and Mathematics/Bilingual Education to Develop a Curriculum for Underrepresented Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón-Pattichis, Sylvia; LópezLeiva, Carlos Alfonso; Pattichis, Marios S.; Llamocca, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There is a strong need in the United States to increase the number of students from underrepresented groups who pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Drawing from sociocultural theory, we present approaches to establishing collaborations between computer engineering and mathematics/bilingual education faculty to…

  17. Degrees with Less Debt: Effective Higher Education Strategies for Underrepresented Student Populations. Research Highlights. IERC 2017-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Janet K.; White, Bradford R.; Terrell, Sarah K.

    2017-01-01

    The higher education landscape is becoming increasingly more adverse for students of color, first-generation students, and low-income students. Postsecondary enrollment and completion rates for traditionally underrepresented populations continue to be disproportionately lower than for their more advantaged peers (Chen & Carroll, 2005; Nunez…

  18. Mentoring Interventions for Underrepresented Scholars in Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences: Effects on Quality of Mentoring Interactions and Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Vivian; Martina, Camille A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Chaudron, Linda; Trief, Paula M.; LaGuardia, Jennifer G.; Sharp, Daryl; Goodman, Steven R.; Morse, Gene D.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Mentors rarely receive education about the unique needs of underrepresented scholars in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. We hypothesized that mentor-training and peer-mentoring interventions for these scholars would enrich the perceived quality and breadth of discussions between mentor-protégé dyads (i.e., mentor-protégé pairs). Our…

  19. Under-Represented College Students and Extracurricular Involvement: The Effects of Various Student Organizations on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christina N.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies indicate that students who are involved in extracurricular activities during college are more academically successful than are those who are not; however, most studies do not distinguish between different types of activities nor do they adequately consider the unique experiences of under-represented college students. Drawing on…

  20. A Mentor Training Program Improves Mentoring Competency for Researchers Working with Early-Career Investigators from Underrepresented Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O.; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective…

  1. Navigating Underrepresented STEM Spaces: Experiences of Black Women in U.S. Computing Science Higher Education Programs Who Actualize Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, LaVar J.; George, Phillis L.; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; Berhanu, Jonathan; Amechi, Mauriell H.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States have long been underrepresented in computing science disciplines across college campuses and in industry alike (Hanson, 2004; Jackson & Charleston, 2012). This disparity is exacerbated when African American women are scrutinized. Additionally, prior research (e.g., Hanson, 2004; Jackson & Charleston, 2012;…

  2. Qualitative Assessment of Academic Radiation Oncology Department Chairs' Insights on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: Progress, Challenges, and Future Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rochelle D; Chapman, Christina H; Holliday, Emma B; Lalani, Nafisha; Wilson, Emily; Bonner, James A; Movsas, Benjamin; Kalnicki, Shalom; Formenti, Silvia C; Thomas, Charles R; Hahn, Stephen M; Liu, Fei-Fei; Jagsi, Reshma

    2018-01-09

    A lack of diversity has been observed in radiation oncology (RO), with women and certain racial/ethnic groups underrepresented as trainees, faculty, and practicing physicians. We sought to gain a nuanced understanding of how to best promote diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) based on the insights of RO department chairs, with particular attention given to the experiences of the few women and underrepresented minorities (URMs) in these influential positions. From March to June 2016, we conducted telephone interviews with 24 RO department chairs (of 27 invited). Purposive sampling was used to invite all chairs who were women (n = 13) or URMs (n = 3) and 11 male chairs who were not URMs. Multiple analysts coded the verbatim transcripts. Five themes were identified: (1) commitment to DEI promotes quality health care and innovation; (2) gaps remain despite some progress with promoting diversity in RO; (3) women and URM faculty continue to experience challenges in various career domains; (4) solutions to DEI issues would be facilitated by acknowledging realities of gender and race; and (5) expansion of the career pipeline is needed. The chairs' insights had policy-relevant implications. Bias training should broach tokenism, blindness, and intersectionality. Efforts to recruit and support diverse talent should be deliberate and proactive. Bridge programs could engage students before their application to medical school. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Minority Language Protection in Italy. Linguistic minorities and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Sierp, Aline

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Italian case of minority language protection in the media. After providing a general introduction to the development of the protection of minority languages in Europe in general and of minority language broadcast media in Italy in particular, the article focuses on the role that mass media can play in the preservation or weakening of minority languages. By comparing different measures of protection adopted by national and regional authorities in Italy, the article ...

  4. Female Physicians Are Underrepresented in Recognition Awards from the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Julie K; Bhatnagar, Saurabha; Blauwet, Cheri A; Zafonte, Ross D; Mazwi, Nicole L; Slocum, Chloe S; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Tenforde, Adam S

    2017-10-01

    Medical specialty societies are important resources for physicians in advancing their careers. There is a gap in the literature regarding gender disparities within these societies. This study assesses one area where disparities may exist: recognition awards. To determine whether female physicians are underrepresented among recognition award recipients by the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AAPM&R). Surveillance study. A published online list of national award recipients from the AAPM&R was analyzed. Forty-eight years of data were included, as the list contained all major recognition award recipients from 1968 to 2015. All awards that were given exclusively to physicians were included. There were eight award categories listed online; seven met this criterion, with a total of 264 individual awards presented. One award category was excluded because it focused on distinguished public service and included both physician and nonphysician (eg, public official) recipients. Awards that were not published online were also excluded. Total awards given to female versus male physicians from 1968 to 2015, with awards given over the past decade (2006-2015) assessed independently. Lectureships were also analyzed as a set. For awards given to groups of physician recipients, analysis included gender composition of the group (eg, male only versus female only versus mixed-gender physician groups). To assess the proportion of female versus male physiatrists over time, physician gender and specialty data from 3 sources were used: the American Medical Association (AMA), the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), and the AAPM&R. Over the past 48 years, the AAPM&R presented 264 recognition awards to physicians. Award recipients were overwhelmingly male (n = 222; 84.1%). Females received 15.9% (n = 42) of the total awards, although there was an upward trend in female physician recipients to 26.8% (n = 26) from 2006 to 2015. Lectureships were given to 8

  5. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were

  6. How Medical School Applicant Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status Relate to Multiple Mini-Interview-Based Admissions Outcomes: Findings From One Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Fancher, Tonya; Fenton, Joshua J; Fiscella, Kevin; Sousa, Francis; Franks, Peter; Henderson, Mark

    2015-12-01

    To examine associations of medical school applicant underrepresented minority (URM) status and socioeconomic status (SES) with Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) invitation and performance and acceptance recommendation. The authors conducted a correlational study of applicants submitting secondary applications to the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, 2011-2013. URM applicants were black, Southeast Asian, Native American, Pacific Islander, and/or Hispanic. SES from eight application variables was modeled (0-1 score, higher score = lower SES). Regression analyses examined associations of URM status and SES with MMI invitation (yes/no), MMI score (mean of 10 station ratings, range 0-3), and admission committee recommendation (accept versus not), adjusting for age, sex, and academic performance. Of 7,964 secondary-application applicants, 19.7% were URM and 15.1% self-designated disadvantaged; 1,420 (17.8%) participated in the MMI and were evaluated for acceptance. URM status was not associated with MMI invitation (OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.33), MMI score (0.00-point difference, CI -0.08 to 0.08), or acceptance recommendation (OR 1.08; CI 0.69 to 1.68). Lower SES applicants were more likely to be invited to an MMI (OR 5.95; CI 4.76 to 7.44) and recommended for acceptance (OR 3.28; CI 1.79 to 6.00), but had lower MMI scores (-0.12 points, CI -0.23 to -0.01). MMI-based admissions did not disfavor URM applicants. Lower SES applicants had lower MMI scores but were more likely to be invited to an MMI and recommended for acceptance. Multischool collaborations should examine how MMI-based admissions affect URM and lower SES applicants.

  7. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  8. Pipeline programs in the health professions, part 1: preserving diversity and reducing health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonya G; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A; Jones, Pamela R; Pamies, Rubens J

    2009-09-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in the health professions. Affirmative action and educational pipeline programs play a vital role in increasing the diversity of health professions, addressing educational opportunity gaps, and reducing health disparities. Part 1 of this 2-part series discusses the need for educational pipeline programs to assist underrepresented minorities (URMs) in entering the health professions and the importance of these programs in developing a cadre of diverse providers to reduce health care inequality. Part 1 presents an overview of diversity in the medical and health care workforce, educational enrichment programs, key components of successful pipeline programs, and notable pipeline examples for underrepresented students at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. Recommendations for improving and developing pipeline programs are also included. Part 2 reviews affirmative action case law and legislation along with recommendations for maintaining and reviewing diversity pipeline programs in light of recent anti-affirmative action challenges. Pipeline programs are an important strategy for addressing the shortage of URMs in the health professions. Anti-affirmative action initiatives threaten the existence of these student preparation programs and the ability of our nation to produce physicians of color and other health care providers who are more likely to serve in underrepresented communities and work to reduce related health disparities. Programs at universities and academic medical centers must develop innovative partnerships with underserved communities, adopt strategies that demonstrate a strong commitment to increasing racial and ethnic minorities in the health professions, and develop viable funding mechanisms to support diversity enrichment programs.

  9. Toward a Model of Social Influence that Explains Minority Student Integration into the Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, such that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than non-minority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same rate as non-minority students. Kelman (1958, 2006) describes a tripartite integration model of social influence (TIMSI) by which a person orients to a social system. To test if this model predicts integration into the scientific community, we conducted analyses of data from a national panel of minority science students. A structural equation model framework showed that self-efficacy (operationalized consistent with Kelman’s ‘rule-orientation’) predicted student intentions to pursue a scientific career. However, when identification as a scientist and internalization of values are added to the model, self-efficacy becomes a poorer predictor of intention. Additional mediation analyses support the conclusion that while having scientific self-efficacy is important, identifying with and endorsing the values of the social system reflect a deeper integration and more durable motivation to persist as a scientist. PMID:21552374

  10. New Measures Assessing Predictors of Academic Persistence for Historically Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Undergraduates in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Rogers, Jenna; Branchaw, Janet; Pribbenow, Christine; Hanke, Ryan; Pfund, Christine

    2016-01-01

    An important step in broadening participation of historically underrepresented (HU) racial/ethnic groups in the sciences is the creation of measures validated with these groups that will allow for greater confidence in the results of investigations into factors that predict their persistence. This study introduces new measures of theoretically derived factors emanating from social cognitive and social identity theories associated with persistence for HU racial/ethnic groups in science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to investigate: 1) the internal reliability and factor analyses for measures of research-related self-efficacy beliefs, sources of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and science identity; and 2) potential group differences in responses to the measures, examining the main and interaction effects of gender and race/ethnicity. Survey data came from a national sample of 688 undergraduate students in science majors who were primarily black/African American and Hispanic/Latino/a with a 2:1 ratio of females to males. Analyses yielded acceptable validity statistics and race × gender group differences were observed in mean responses to several measures. Implications for broadening participation of HU groups in the sciences are discussed regarding future tests of predictive models of student persistence and training programs to consider cultural diversity factors in their design. PMID:27521235

  11. Women are underrepresented on the editorial boards of journals in environmental biology and natural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Alyssa H; Johnson, Shelly A; Schuman, Carrie E; Adler, Jennifer M; Gonzalez, Oscar; Graves, Sarah J; Huebner, Jana R; Marchant, D Blaine; Rifai, Sami W; Skinner, Irina; Bruna, Emilio M

    2014-01-01

    Despite women earning similar numbers of graduate degrees as men in STEM disciplines, they are underrepresented in upper level positions in both academia and industry. Editorial board memberships are an important example of such positions; membership is both a professional honor in recognition of achievement and an opportunity for professional advancement. We surveyed 10 highly regarded journals in environmental biology, natural resource management, and plant sciences to quantify the number of women on their editorial boards and in positions of editorial leadership (i.e., Associate Editors and Editors-in-Chief) from 1985 to 2013. We found that during this time period only 16% of subject editors were women, with more pronounced disparities in positions of editorial leadership. Although the trend was towards improvement over time, there was surprising variation between journals, including those with similar disciplinary foci. While demographic changes in academia may reduce these disparities over time, we argue journals should proactively strive for gender parity on their editorial boards. This will both increase the number of women afforded the opportunities and benefits that accompany board membership and increase the number of role models and potential mentors for early-career scientists and students.

  12. WVU--community partnership that provides science and math enrichment for underrepresented high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, J A; Chester, A L

    1999-04-01

    In response to the need to help West Virginia secondary school students overcome educational and economic barriers and to increase the number of health professionals in the state, the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (hereafter, "the Academy") was established in 1994. The Academy is a partnership between West Virginia University (WVU)--including the Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, and the College of Human Resources and Education--and members of the community, including secondary-school teachers, health care professionals, and other community leaders. The Academy targets students from underrepresented groups (mainly African Americans and financially disadvantaged whites) in grades nine through 12. By November 1997, 290 students (69% girls and 33% African American) from 17 counties were Academy participants. Funding is from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Coca-Cola Foundation, and other sources. Academy programs are an on-campus summer institute and community-based clubs, where students engage in activities for science and math enrichment, leadership development, and health careers awareness. In the Academy's clubs, students carry out extended investigations of problems related to human health and local communities. Most students report that the Academy has increased their interest in health care careers, and almost all who have continued to participate in Academy programs through their senior year have been accepted into college.

  13. Investigating minority student participation in an authentic science research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie Danette

    In the United States, a problem previously overlooked in increasing the total number of scientifically literate citizens is the lack of diversity in advanced science classes and in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Groups traditionally underserved in science education and thus underrepresented in the STEM fields include: low-income, racial/ethnic minorities, and females of all ethnic and racial backgrounds. Despite the number of these students who are initially interested in science very few of them thrive in the discipline. Some scholars suggest that the declining interest for students underrepresented in science is traceable to K-12th grade learning experiences and access to participating in authentic science. Consequently, the diminishing interest of minorities and women in science contributes negatively to the representation of these groups in the STEM disciplines. The purpose of this study was to investigate a summer science research experience for minority students and the nature of students' participation in scientific discourse and practices within the context of the research experience. The research questions that guided this study are: The nature of the Summer Experience in Earth and Mineral Science (SEEMS) research experience . (A) What are the SEEMS intended outcomes? (B) To what extent does SEEMS enacted curriculum align with the intended outcomes of the program? The nature of students engagement in the SEEMS research. (A) In what ways do students make sense of and apply science concepts as they engage in the research (e.g., understand problem, how they interpret data, how they construct explanations), and the extent to which they use the science content appropriately? (B) In what ways do students engage in the cultural practices of science, such as using scientific discourse, interpreting inscriptions, and constructing explanations from evidence (engaging in science practices, knowing science and doing science)? The

  14. Underrepresented Entrepreneurship: A Mixed Method Study Evaluating Postsecondary Persistence Approaches for Minorities in Science Technology Engineering Math (STEM) to Graduate Studies and STEM Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Kamela Joy

    2017-01-01

    Small businesses with emphasis in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) are catalytic in launching the United States' global presence and competitiveness into the twenty-first century through innovation and technology. The projected growth compared to non-STEM occupations, is almost twice as high for STEM occupations which further…

  15. Underrepresented Minority High School and College Students Report STEM-Pipeline Sustaining Gains After Participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salto, Lorena M.; Riggs, Matt L.; Delgado De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A.; De Leon, Marino

    2014-01-01

    An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU) Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS) and undergraduate (UG) student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE) is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical workforce diversity. PMID:25250695

  16. Underrepresented minority high school and college students report STEM-pipeline sustaining gains after participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Salto

    Full Text Available An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS and undergraduate (UG student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical workforce diversity.

  17. Underrepresented minority high school and college students report STEM-pipeline sustaining gains after participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salto, Lorena M; Riggs, Matt L; Delgado De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A; De Leon, Marino

    2014-01-01

    An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU) Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS) and undergraduate (UG) student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE) is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical workforce diversity.

  18. College Graduation to Employment in STEM Careers: The Experience of New Graduates at the Intersection of Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority Status and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Carolyn E.; McMahon, Brian T.; Cardoso, Elizabeth D.; Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.; Barbir, Lara A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the recent labor market indicators of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) versus non-STEM college graduates with disabilities. Method: The sample included bachelor of science (B.S.)/B.S.-level college graduates including 1,567,527 with a disability and 32,512,446 without a disability. Data were derived from…

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  20. Where are the rest of us? Improving representation of minority faculty in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M; Mouratidis, Roxann W

    2014-12-01

    Low numbers of underrepresented minority faculty members in academic medicine (black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American/Alaskan) continue to be a concern for medical schools because there is higher attrition and talent loss among this group. Although much has been written on this topic, there has not been a systematic review of the indexed literature published. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, and Google Scholar for articles relating to minority faculty and identified relevant articles. We then graded the evidence using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy. The same criteria were applied to extract evidence-based observations of challenges faced by minority faculty and provide recommendations. Of the 548 studies identified and reviewed, 15 met inclusion criteria for this literature review. Of the 15, 9 were cross-sectional studies and 6 were analyses of existing Association of American Medical Colleges workforce data. The cross-sectional studies documented perceived bias in the recruitment of faculty, quantified the lack of minority mentors, and revealed that black and Hispanic faculty members are more prevalent in states with higher minority populations. Studies using the Association of American Medical College workforce data also documented evidence of promotion bias, the lack of diversity in academic plastic surgery, and the lack of minority researchers funded by the National Cancer Institute. This systematic review provides evidence that racism, promotion disparities, funding disparities, lack of mentorship, and diversity pressures exist and affect minority faculty in academic medicine. Based on these observed challenges, this review also provides specific recommendations that could improve representation of minority faculty members in academic medicine. These recommendations include implementing proven pipeline programs to increase the number of minority medical students, a systemwide adoption of proven culture change

  1. “Going going.....” why are males underrepresented in pre-service primary education courses at university?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Lovett

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This sociological qualitative study identifies reasons why female pre-service teachers believe males are underrepresented in primary education courses at Australian universities. The findings of the study suggest that the nineteenth century naturalistic discourse of nurturance continues to sustain the notion that primary school teaching is a female profession. The study argues that this socially-conservative gender discourse remains essentially unchallenged and maintains a significant negative influence on males’ willingness to take up a career in primary teaching.

  2. Programs for Increasing the Engagement of Underrepresented Ethnic Groups and People with Disabilities in HPC. Final assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Valerie

    2012-12-23

    Given the significant impact of computing on society, it is important that all cultures, especially underrepresented cultures, are fully engaged in the field of computing to ensure that everyone benefits from the advances in computing. This proposal is focused on the field of high performance computing. The lack of cultural diversity in computing, in particular high performance computing, is especially evident with respect to the following ethnic groups – African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans – as well as People with Disabilities. The goal of this proposal is to organize and coordinate a National Laboratory Career Development Workshop focused on underrepresented cultures (ethnic cultures and disability cultures) in high performance computing. It is expected that the proposed workshop will increase the engagement of underrepresented cultures in HPC through increased exposure to the excellent work at the national laboratories. The National Laboratory Workshops are focused on the recruitment of senior graduate students and the retention of junior lab staff through the various panels and discussions at the workshop. Further, the workshop will include a community building component that extends beyond the workshop. The workshop was held was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory campus in Livermore, CA. from June 14 - 15, 2012. The grant provided funding for 25 participants from underrepresented groups. The workshop also included another 25 local participants in the summer programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Below are some key results from the assessment of the workshops: 86% of the participants indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I am more likely to consider/continue a career at a national laboratory as a result of participating in this workshop." 77% indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I plan to pursue a summer internship at a national laboratory." 100% of the participants indicated strongly

  3. Issues and Practices in the Identification and Education of Gifted Students From Under-represented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2004-01-01

    In this monograph, I discuss the current and historic under-representation of economically disadvantaged students, students of color, students from ethnic minorities, and students with limited English proficiency in programs for gifted students. I examine the likely causes of the under-representation of these students, drawing on research and…

  4. National Tests and minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal

    Assessment in school represent a technology and materiality with profound impact on the life, activities and interactions in school (eg. Lawn & Grosvenor, 2005). It can be considered as an integrated and in different ways also dominating part of pedagogic practice which influence processes of in......- and exclusion in both direct and in more indirect ways. Depending of its design and use it might also point to differences between pupils with references to categories such as clever, skilled, good, medium, average, below average, best etc.. These processes might be considered as problematic at the micro level...... language, and are often not adapted to the languages of minorities.However, regionally determined differences – for example, linguistic or cultural – often exhibit considerable influence over student performance in such national academic tests, with any such potential effects generally not considered...

  5. Team-Based Learning in a Pipeline Course in Medical Microbiology for Under-Represented Student Populations in Medicine Improves Learning of Microbiology Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, K C; Murphy, M M; Mitchell-Williams, J; Rogers-McQuade, H; Lopez, O J

    2016-12-01

    As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and pre-course examination scores. Teaching techniques included engaged lectures using an audience response system, TBL, and guided self-directed learning. We hypothesized that more active learning exercises, irrespective of the amount of lecture time, would help students master course content. In year 2 as compared with year 1, TBL exercises were decreased from six to three with a concomitant increase in lecture time, while in year 3, TBL exercises were increased from three to six while maintaining the same amount of lecture time as in year 2. As we hypothesized, there was significant ( p < 0.01) improvement in performance on the post-course examination in years 1 and 3 compared with year 2, when only three TBL exercises were used. In contrast to the students' perceptions that more lecture time enhances learning of course content, our findings suggest that active learning strategies, such as TBL, are more effective than engaged lectures in improving student understanding of course content, as measured by post-course examination performance. Introduction of TBL in pipeline program courses may help achieve better student learning outcomes.

  6. Team-Based Learning in a Pipeline Course in Medical Microbiology for Under-Represented Student Populations in Medicine Improves Learning of Microbiology Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn C. Behling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA and pre-course examination scores. Teaching techniques included engaged lectures using an audience response system, TBL, and guided self-directed learning. We hypothesized that more active learning exercises, irrespective of the amount of lecture time, would help students master course content. In year 2 as compared with year 1, TBL exercises were decreased from six to three with a concomitant increase in lecture time, while in year 3, TBL exercises were increased from three to six while maintaining the same amount of lecture time as in year 2. As we hypothesized, there was significant (p < 0.01 improvement in performance on the post-course examination in years 1 and 3 compared with year 2, when only three TBL exercises were used. In contrast to the students’ perceptions that more lecture time enhances learning of course content, our findings suggest that active learning strategies, such as TBL, are more effective than engaged lectures in improving student understanding of course content, as measured by post-course examination performance. Introduction of TBL in pipeline program courses may help achieve better student learning outcomes.

  7. Minority Institutions Collaboration in Geoscience Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. A.; Austin, S. A.; Johnson, L. P.; Salgado, C.; Walter, D. K.

    2007-12-01

    The Minority University Consortium for Earth and Space Sciences (MUCESS) is a collaboration among four diverse minority institutions to increase the number of underrepresented students pursuing professional and research careers in Earth and Atmospheric Science and Space Science. The institutions that comprise MUCESS include the University of Houston-Downtown (Hispanic Serving Institution), Medgar Evers College (Other Minority University), Norfolk State University (Historically Black College/University) and South Carolina State University (Historically Black College/University). MUCESS collaborations span a range of projects in research, education and outreach in Earth and Space Science. This includes faculty research, undergraduate internships and student exchanges among our institutions as well as outreach to K-12 schools and the general public. MUCESS has recently received an award from the National Science Foundation under Solicitation NSF 04-590 "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG)". Under this award faculty and students will be engaged in research (both undergraduate and graduate) in atmospheric science through ozonesonde launches to better understand the distribution and transport of ozone in the lower troposphere. Faculty and students will also participate in ozone observations for validation of instruments onboard the NASA Aura satellite. Additional balloon payloads will include instruments such as temperature and data logger sensors, carbon dioxide detectors, Geiger counters and digital and analog cameras. Launches will originate from Texas, New York, Vermont, South Carolina and elsewhere. This presentation describes the formation of MUCESS and the collaborative undergraduate research and outreach projects spanning six or more years. It also describes the evolution of the joint ozone investigation as well as planned activities supported by the NSF Geoscience Diversity award. Funding for the work described has been provided by

  8. Preparing Future Geoscientists at the Critical High School-to-College Junction: Project METALS and the Value of Engaging Diverse Institutions to Serve Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. D.; Maygarden, D.; Serpa, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2010, the Minority Education Through Traveling and Learning in the Sciences (METALS) program, a collaboration among San Francisco State Univ., the Univ. of Texas at El Paso, the Univ. of New Orleans, and Purdue Univ., has created meaningful, field-based geoscience experiences for underrepresented minority high school students. METALS activities promote excitement about geoscience in field settings and foster mutual respect and trust among participants of different backgrounds and ethnicities. These gains are strengthened by the collective knowledge of the university partners and by faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, scientists, and science teachers who guide the field trips and who are committed to encouraging diversity in the geosciences. Through the student experiences it provides, METALS has helped shape and shift student attitudes and orientation toward geoscience, during and beyond their field experience, just as these students are poised at the critical juncture from high school to college. A review of the METALS findings and summative evaluation shows a distinct pattern of high to moderately high impact on most students in the various cohorts of the program. METALS, overall, was perceived by participants as a program that: (1) opens up opportunities for individuals who might not typically be able to experience science in outdoor settings; (2) offers high-interest geology content in field contexts, along with social and environmental connections; (3) promotes excitement about geology while encouraging the development of mutual respect, interdependence, and trust among individuals of different ethnicities; (4) influences the academic choices of students, in particular their choice of major and course selection in college. Summative data show that multiple aspects of this program were highly effective. Cross-university collaborations create a dynamic forum and a high-impact opportunity for students from different backgrounds to meet and develop

  9. Workshop on Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Hassan B. [Independent Consultant

    2008-02-13

    The purpose of the Workshop 'Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry' was to promote the development of a cadre of academic leaders who create, implement and promote programs and strategies for increasing the number of racial and ethnic minorities to equitable proportions on the faculties of departments throughout the academic chemistry community. An important objective of the workshop was to assist in creating an informed and committed community of chemistry leaders who will create, implement and promote programs and strategies to advance racial and ethnic equity in both the faculty and the student body with the goal of increasing the number of U.S. citizen underrepresented minorities (URM) participating in academic chemistry at all levels, with particular focus on the pipeline to chemistry faculty. This objective was met by (1) presentations of detailed data describing current levels of racial and ethnic minorities on the faculties of chemistry departments; (2) frank discussion of the obstacles to and benefits of racial/ethnic diversity in the chemistry professoriate; (3) summary of possible effective interventions and actions; and (4) promotion of the dissemination and adoption of initiatives designed to achieve racial/ethnic equity. Federal programs over the past thirty years have been instrumental in delivering to our universities URM students intending to major in the physical sciences such as chemistry. However, the near absence of URM faculty means that there is also an absence of URM as role models for aspiring students. For example, citing 2003 as a representative year, some statistics reveal the severity of the pipeline shrinkage for U. S. citizen URM starting from chemistry B.S. degrees awarded to the appointment to chemistry faculty. Compared to the URM population of approximately 30% for that year, 67% of the B.S. degrees in chemistry were awarded to white citizens and 17% were

  10. Ethnic minority dropout in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from

  11. Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the linguistic landscape of two streets in two multilingual cities in Friesland (Netherlands) and the Basque Country (Spain) where a minority language is spoken, Basque or Frisian. The paper analyses the use of the minority language (Basque or Frisian), the state language (Spanish or Dutch) and English as an international…

  12. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  13. The C-MORE Scholars Program: Engaging minority students in STEM through undergraduate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, B. A.; Bruno, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    There have been several studies that show how undergraduate research experiences (REU) have a positive impact on a student’s academic studies and career path, including being a positive influence toward improving the student's lab skills and ability to work independently. Moreover, minority students appear to relate to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) concepts better when they are linked with (1) a service learning component, and (2) STEM courses that include a cultural and social aspect that engages the student in a way that does not distract from the student’s technical learning. It is also known that a “place-based” approach that incorporates traditional (indigenous) knowledge can help engage underrepresented minority groups in STEM disciplines and increase science literacy. Based on the methods and best practices used by other minority serving programs and described in the literature, the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) has successfully developed an academic-year REU to engage and train the next generation of scientists. The C-MORE Scholars Program provides undergraduate students majoring in an ocean or earth science-related field, especially underrepresented students such as Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, the opportunity to participate in unique and cutting edge hands-on research experiences. The program appoints awardees at one of three levels based on previous research and academic experience, and students can progress through the various tiers as their skills and STEM content knowledge develop. All awardees receive guidance on a research project from a mentor who is a scientist at the university and/or industry. A key component of the program is the inclusion of professional development activities to help the student continue towards post graduation education or prepare for career opportunities after they receive their undergraduate STEM degree.

  14. Color-Blind Racial Beliefs Among Dental Students and Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S

    2017-09-01

    Providing culturally competent patient care requires an awareness of racial and cultural norms as well as a recognition of racism. Yet, there is a paucity of research devoted to this problem. In dental education, increased attention has focused on eliminating oral health care disparities due to ethnicity and race. Further investigation to determine the relationship between color-blind attitudes (failing to recognize the impact of race and racism on social justice) and dental educators' cultural competence is needed. The aim of this study was to determine dental faculty and student baseline color-blind racial attitudes scale scores, using the color-blind racial attitudes scale (CoBRAS). This 20-item instrument that measures three subscales of color-blind racial attitudes (Unawareness of Racial Privilege, Institutional Discrimination, and Blatant Racial Issues) was administered to student and faculty groups at one U.S. dental school. Out of a total 245 students in three class years, 235 responded to all items, for a response rate of 96%; out of a total 77 faculty members invited to participate, 71 responded to all items, for a response rate of 92%. Underrepresented minority (URM) faculty scored significantly higher on the Institutional Discrimination subscale and lower on Unawareness of Racial Privilege compared to non-URM students. Males scored significantly higher on Institutional Discrimination and Blatant Racial Issues compared to females. Compared to white students, URM students scored lower on all three subscales. The findings were consistent with previous studies indicating that female and URM students were more sensitive to racism compared to male and majority students. The findings that white faculty had higher awareness of racial privilege than white students and that URM faculty were less aware of institutional discrimination than URM students provided new information. These findings suggest that dental faculty members need professional development

  15. Race, disadvantage and faculty experiences in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda; Cooper, Lisa A; Carr, Phyllis

    2010-12-01

    Despite compelling reasons to draw on the contributions of under-represented minority (URM) faculty members, US medical schools lack these faculty, particularly in leadership and senior roles. The study's purpose was to document URM faculty perceptions and experience of the culture of academic medicine in the US and to raise awareness of obstacles to achieving the goal of having people of color in positions of leadership in academic medicine. The authors conducted a qualitative interview study in 2006-2007 of faculty in five US medical schools chosen for their diverse regional and organizational attributes. Using purposeful sampling of medical faculty, 96 faculty were interviewed from four different career stages (early, plateaued, leaders and left academic medicine) and diverse specialties with an oversampling of URM faculty. We identified patterns and themes emergent in the coded data. Analysis was inductive and data driven. Predominant themes underscored during analyses regarding the experience of URM faculty were: difficulty of cross-cultural relationships; isolation and feeling invisible; lack of mentoring, role models and social capital; disrespect, overt and covert bias/discrimination; different performance expectations related to race/ethnicity; devaluing of research on community health care and health disparities; the unfair burden of being identified with affirmative action and responsibility for diversity efforts; leadership's role in diversity goals; and financial hardship. Achieving an inclusive culture for diverse medical school faculty would help meet the mission of academic medicine to train a physician and research workforce that meets the disparate needs of our multicultural society. Medical school leaders need to value the inclusion of URM faculty. Failure to fully engage the skills and insights of URM faculty impairs our ability to provide the best science, education or medical care.

  16. The Health Equity Scholars Program: Innovation in the Leaky Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, Carole C; Wrighting, Diedra M; Bacigalupe, Gonzalo; Becker, Joan; Hayman, Laura; Lewis, Barbara; Mignon, Sylvia; Rokop, Megan E; Sweet, Elizabeth; Torres, Marie Idali; Watanabe, Paul; Woods, Cedric

    2018-04-01

    Despite attempts to increase enrollment of under-represented minorities (URMs: primarily Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American students) in health professional programs, limited progress has been made. Compelling reasons to rectify this situation include equity for URMs, better prepared health professionals when programs are diverse, better quality and access to health care for UMR populations, and the need for diverse talent to tackle difficult questions in health science and health care delivery. However, many students who initiate traditional "pipeline" programs designed to link URMs to professional schools in health professions and the sciences, do not complete them. In addition, program requirements often restrict entry to highly qualified students while not expanding opportunities for promising, but potentially less well-prepared candidates. The current study describes innovations in an undergraduate pipeline program, the Health Equity Scholars Program (HESP) designed to address barriers URMs experience in more traditional programs, and provides evaluative outcomes and qualitative feedback from participants. A primary outcome was timely college graduation. Eighty percent (80%) of participants, both transfer students and first time students, so far achieved this outcome, with 91% on track, compared to the campus average of 42% for all first time students and 58-67% for transfers. Grade point averages also improved (p = 0.056) after program participation. Graduates (94%) were working in health care/human services positions and three were in health-related graduate programs. Creating a more flexible program that admits a broader range of URMs has potential to expand the numbers of URM students interested and prepared to make a contribution to health equity research and clinical care.

  17. Race, Disadvantage and Faculty Experiences in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lisa A.; Carr, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Despite compelling reasons to draw on the contributions of under-represented minority (URM) faculty members, US medical schools lack these faculty, particularly in leadership and senior roles. Objective The study’s purpose was to document URM faculty perceptions and experience of the culture of academic medicine in the US and to raise awareness of obstacles to achieving the goal of having people of color in positions of leadership in academic medicine. Design The authors conducted a qualitative interview study in 2006–2007 of faculty in five US medical schools chosen for their diverse regional and organizational attributes. Participants Using purposeful sampling of medical faculty, 96 faculty were interviewed from four different career stages (early, plateaued, leaders and left academic medicine) and diverse specialties with an oversampling of URM faculty. Approach We identified patterns and themes emergent in the coded data. Analysis was inductive and data driven. Results Predominant themes underscored during analyses regarding the experience of URM faculty were: difficulty of cross-cultural relationships; isolation and feeling invisible; lack of mentoring, role models and social capital; disrespect, overt and covert bias/discrimination; different performance expectations related to race/ethnicity; devaluing of research on community health care and health disparities; the unfair burden of being identified with affirmative action and responsibility for diversity efforts; leadership’s role in diversity goals; and financial hardship. Conclusions Achieving an inclusive culture for diverse medical school faculty would help meet the mission of academic medicine to train a physician and research workforce that meets the disparate needs of our multicultural society. Medical school leaders need to value the inclusion of URM faculty. Failure to fully engage the skills and insights of URM faculty impairs our ability to provide the best science

  18. Moving toward true inclusion of racial/ethnic minorities in federally funded studies. A key step for achieving respiratory health equality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Esteban G; Oh, Sam S; Foreman, Marilyn G; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-03-01

    A key objective of the 1993 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act was to ensure inclusion of minorities in clinical research. We conducted a literature search for the period from 1993 to 2013 to examine whether racial/ethnic minorities are adequately represented in published research studies of pulmonary diseases, particularly NIH-funded studies. We found a marked underrepresentation of minorities in published clinical research on pulmonary diseases. Over the last 20 years, inclusion of members of racial or ethnic minority groups was reported (in MeSH terms, journal titles, and MEDLINE fields) in less than 5% of all NIH-funded published studies of respiratory diseases. Although a secondary analysis revealed that a larger proportion of NIH-funded studies included any minorities, this proportional increment mostly resulted from studies including relatively small numbers of minorities (which precludes robust race- or ethnic-specific analyses). Underrepresentation or exclusion of minorities from NIH-funded studies is likely due to multiple reasons, including insufficient education and training on designing and implementing population-based studies of minorities, inadequate motivation or incentives to overcome challenges in the recruitment and retention of sufficient numbers of members of racial/ethnic minorities, underrepresentation of minorities among respiratory scientists in academic medical centers, and a dearth of successful partnerships between academic medical centers and underrepresented communities. This problem could be remedied by implementing short-, medium-, and long-term strategies, such as creating incentives to conduct minority research, ensuring fair review of grant applications focusing on minorities, developing the careers of minority scientists, and facilitating and valuing research on minorities by investigators of all backgrounds.

  19. NASA Earth Systems, Technology and Energy Education for Minority University and Research Education Program Promotes Climate Literacy by Engaging Students at Minority Serving Institutions in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B.; Alston, E. J.; Chambers, L. H.; Bynum, A.; Montgomery, C.; Blue, S.; Kowalczak, C.; Leighton, A.; Bosman, L.

    2017-12-01

    NASA Earth Systems, Technology and Energy Education for Minority University Research & Education Program - MUREP (ESTEEM) activities enhance institutional capacity of minority serving institutions (MSIs) related to Earth System Science, Technology and energy education; in turn, increasing access of underrepresented groups to science careers and opportunities. ESTEEM is a competitive portfolio that has been providing funding to institutions across the United States for 10 years. Over that time 76 separate activities have been funded. Beginning in 2011 ESTEEM awards focused on MSIs and public-school districts with high under-represented enrollment. Today ESTEEM awards focus on American Indian/Alaska Native serving institutions (Tribal Colleges and Universities), the very communities most severely in need of ability to deal with climate adaptation and resiliency. ESTEEM engages a multi-faceted approach to address economic and cultural challenges facing MSI communities. PIs (Principal Investigators) receive support from a management team at NASA, and are supported by a larger network, the ESTEEM Cohort, which connects regularly through video calls, virtual video series and in-person meetings. The cohort acts as a collective unit to foster interconnectivity and knowledge sharing in both physical and virtual settings. ESTEEM partners with NASA's Digital Learning Network (DLNTM) in a unique non-traditional model to leverage technical expertise. DLN services over 10,000 participants each year through interactive web-based synchronous and asynchronous events. These events allow for cost effective (no travel) engagement of multiple, geographically dispersed audiences to share local experiences with one another. Events allow PIs to grow their networks, technical base, professional connections, and develop a sense of community, encouraging expansion into larger and broader interactions. Over 256 connections, beyond the 76 individual members, exist within the cohort. PIs report

  20. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1986/1987 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with an astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  1. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  2. Demarketing, minorities, and national attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinstein, A.; Nisan, Udi

    This study addresses two important global trends: protection of public goods, specifically the environment, and the emergence of multiethnic societies with influential minority groups. The study tests the effect of a government proenvironmental demarketing campaign on the deconsumption behavior of

  3. NAFTA Minor Use Joint Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) worked together to develop a registration process that will permit a regulatory decision of pesticide uses for the minor use grower communities in both countries simultaneously.

  4. Improving the diversity climate in academic medicine: faculty perceptions as a catalyst for institutional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Eboni G; Powe, Neil R; Kern, David E; Golden, Sherita Hill; Wand, Gary S; Cooper, Lisa A

    2009-01-01

    To assess perceptions of underrepresented minority (URM) and majority faculty physicians regarding an institution's diversity climate, and to identify potential improvement strategies. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of tenure-track physicians at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine from June 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005; they measured faculty perceptions of bias in department/division operational activities, professional satisfaction, career networking, mentorship, and intentions to stay in academia, and they examined associations between race/ethnicity and faculty perceptions using multivariate logistic regression. Among 703 eligible faculty, 352 (50.1%) returned surveys. Fewer than one third of respondents reported experiences of bias in department/division activities; however, URM faculty were less likely than majority faculty to believe faculty recruitment is unbiased (21.1% versus 50.6%, P = .006). A minority of respondents were satisfied with institutional support for professional development. URM faculty were nearly four times less likely than majority faculty to report satisfaction with racial/ethnic diversity (12% versus 47.1%, P = .001) and three times less likely to believe networking included minorities (9.3% versus 32.6%, P = .014). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the quality of mentorship. More than 80% of respondents believed they would be in academic medicine in five years. However, URM faculty were less likely to report they would be at their current institution in five years (42.6% versus 70.5%, P = .004). Perceptions of the institution's diversity climate were poor for most physician faculty and were worse for URM faculty, highlighting the need for more transparent and diversity-sensitive recruitment, promotion, and networking policies/practices.

  5. A qualitative examination of the nature and impact of three California minority engineering programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Barbara A.

    According to the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering (NACME), the national retention rate of engineering students is 68% and the national retention rate for underrepresented minority engineering students (African American, Latino, Native American and Pacific Islanders) is 37%. In response to the severity of retention issues concerning underrepresented minority students, colleges and universities across the United States have developed special programs known as minority engineering programs (MEP). MEPs are designed to provide academic support, personal counseling, social networking, career counseling and professional development as a means to improve retention. In order to provide a detailed description of the MEPs, the research method selected is a case study. This case study is an examination of the nature and impact of three MEPs in California. This study is also an analysis of the lack of participation by freshmen and sophomore students who qualify for these programs. Methodology included extensive surveys and interviews of students, faculty and staff, site visits, and examination of documents. Over 500 students were surveyed during lower division engineering courses. The qualifying students who gave permission for further interviews were provided with questions about their participation or nonparticipation and the reasons for their behavior. Faculty members were interviews about their knowledge and personal involvement with the minority engineering program on their campuses. Program directors were interviewed to discuss program design and implementation. A categorical method was used to separate the different groups within the study. Of the 509 respondents, 132 were classified as qualifier/nonparticipant freshman and sophomore engineering students. The results demonstrated that a high percentage of the qualifier/nonparticipants are unaware of the programs and events on their campuses. During the interviews the students stated they are very

  6. Properties of minor actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The present status of the research on properties of minor actinide nitrides for the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on nitride fuel and pyrochemical reprocessing is described. Some thermal stabilities of Am-based nitrides such as AmN and (Am, Zr)N were mainly investigated. Stabilization effect of ZrN was cleary confirmed for the vaporization and hydrolytic behaviors. New experimental equipments for measuring thermal properties of minor actinide nitrides were also introduced. (author)

  7. Anthropogenic fugitive, combustion and industrial dust is a significant, underrepresented fine particulate matter source in global atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Brauer, Michael; Henze, Daven K.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Venkataraman, Chandra; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Global measurements of the elemental composition of fine particulate matter across several urban locations by the Surface Particulate Matter Network reveal an enhanced fraction of anthropogenic dust compared to natural dust sources, especially over Asia. We develop a global simulation of anthropogenic fugitive, combustion, and industrial dust which, to our knowledge, is partially missing or strongly underrepresented in global models. We estimate 2-16 μg m-3 increase in fine particulate mass concentration across East and South Asia by including anthropogenic fugitive, combustion, and industrial dust emissions. A simulation including anthropogenic fugitive, combustion, and industrial dust emissions increases the correlation from 0.06 to 0.66 of simulated fine dust in comparison with Surface Particulate Matter Network measurements at 13 globally dispersed locations, and reduces the low bias by 10% in total fine particulate mass in comparison with global in situ observations. Global population-weighted PM2.5 increases by 2.9 μg m-3 (10%). Our assessment ascertains the urgent need of including this underrepresented fine anthropogenic dust source into global bottom-up emission inventories and global models.

  8. Measuring Sexual and Gender Minority Populations in Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) are underrepresented and information about SGMs is difficult to locate in national health surveillance data, and this limits identification and resolution of SGM health disparities. It is also not known how measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity in health surveillance compare with best practice recommendations. This article reviews and summarizes the publicly available, English language, large-scale, rigorously sampled, national, international, and regional data sources that include sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and compares measures with best practice guidelines. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken of national, international, state, and regional health surveillance data sources. Data sources that measured sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and met seven inclusion criteria were included. Results: Forty-three publicly accessible national, international, and regional data sources included measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity and health. For each data source, sampling design, sample characteristics, study years, survey questions, contact persons, and data access links are provided. Few data sources met best practice recommendations for SGM measurement: 14% measured all three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, attraction) as recommended by the Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team. No data sources measured transgender-inclusive gender identity according to the Gender Identity in U.S. Surveillance-recommended two-step method of measuring sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Conclusions: This article provides a much needed detailed summary of extant health surveillance data sources that can be used to inform research about health risks and disparities among SGM populations. Future recommendations are for more rigorous measurement and oversampling to

  9. Impact of gender and race-ethnicity on reasons for pursuing a career in veterinary medicine and career aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amass, Sandra F; Davis, Kauline S; Salisbury, S Kathleen; Weisman, James L

    2011-06-01

    To determine the impact of gender and race-ethnicity on reasons applicants to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine decided to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and their career aspirations. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Personal statements from 694 veterinary medical school applications submitted in 2008. Personal statements were read by investigators to identify the turning point for each applicant's decision to pursue a career in veterinary medicine and each applicant's intended career path. Veterinary practice experience and animal ownership were the most frequently stated reasons for pursuing a veterinary career; differences were not identified between males and females. More Caucasian applicants than underrepresented minority (URM) applicants stated veterinary practice experience and more URM applicants than Caucasian applicants cited animal ownership as a reason for pursuing a veterinary career. Many applicants did not cite a specific career path within veterinary medicine; applicants who indicated a career path most often cited veterinary practice. More females than males stated an interest in equine medicine, and more Caucasian applicants than URM applicants indicated an interest in mixed animal practice. More URM applicants than Caucasian applicants indicated a desire to pursue specialty training. Results suggested that veterinary practice experience and animal ownership were important factors influencing applicants' decision to pursue a veterinary career, but many applicants had not selected a specific career path. Opportunities exist to influence the decisions of individuals to become veterinarians and the selection of specific career paths within the veterinary profession.

  10. New Century Scholars: A Mentorship Program to Increase Workforce Diversity in Academic Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Lee M; Kodjo, Cheryl

    2015-07-01

    This article describes a program aimed to increase workforce diversity and underrepresented minority (URM) representation in academic pediatric medicine. The New Century Scholars (NCScholars) program is a core program in the Academic Pediatric Association, the largest national organization for academic pediatric generalists. The program selects URM pediatric (or medicine-pediatrics) residents who are interested in academic careers and provides each NCScholar with a junior and senior mentor, as well as travel grants to the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting where activities specific to the program are held, and provides ongoing mentorship and career counseling support.The authors discuss the origination, operation, and changes to the program over the first 10 years of its existence, as well as outcome data for the participants in the program. To date, 60 of the 63 NCScholars have finished residency and/or have made postresidency plans, and 38 of these URM pediatricians (63%) have entered academic careers. The authors suggest that this type of mentorship program for URM pediatric trainees can be used as a model for other specialties and medical organizations.

  11. Tracking workforce diversity in dentistry: importance, methods, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Elizabeth; Wides, Cynthia; Cooke, Alexis; Gates, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of data on underrepresented minority (URM) dental providers and to perform a structured critique of primary survey research on African American (AA), Hispanic/Latino (HL), and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) dentists. A national sample survey was conducted between October 2012 and March 2013, and secondary datasets were assessed for comparability. The survey used 21 sampling frames, with censuses of AI/AN and nonurban dentists, and assessed demographics, education, practice history, patient population, volunteerism, experiences with discrimination, and opinions on issues in dentistry. The survey was developed with constituent input, pilot-tested, and distributed online and through US mail with three reminder postcards, phone, and email follow-up. Continuing education credit and entry to a prize drawing were provided for participation. Existing data sources cannot answer critical research questions about URM dentists. Using best practices, the survey received a 34 percent adjusted response rate. Selection likelihood and measurable response bias were adjusted for using base and poststratification weights. The survey design was consistent with best practices, and our response analytics provide high confidence that the survey produced data representative of the URM dentist population. Enhanced study design, content, and response rates of existing survey efforts would be needed to provide a more robust body of knowledge on URM providers, perspectives, and practices. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  13. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  14. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  15. Exposing Underrepresented Groups to Climate Change and Atmospheric Science Through Service Learning and Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, D.

    2016-12-01

    Tennessee State University (TSU) is among seven partner institutions in the NASA-funded project "Mission Earth: Fusing Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) with NASA Assets to Build Systemic Innovation in STEM Education." The primary objective at the TSU site is to expose high school students from racial and ethnic groups traditionally underrepresented in STEM to atmospheric science and physical systems associated with climate change. Currently, undergraduate students enrolled in TSU's urban and physical courses develop lessons for high school students focused upon the analysis of global warming phenomena and related extreme weather events. The GLOBE Atmosphere Protocols are emphasized in exercises focused upon the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon and air quality measurements. Pre-service teachers at TSU, and in-service teachers at four local high schools are being certified in the Atmosphere Protocols. Precipitation, ambient air temperature, surface temperature and other data are collected at the schools through a collaborative learning effort among the high school students, TSU undergraduates, and high school teachers. Data collected and recorded manually in the field are compared to each school's automated Weatherbug station measurements. Students and teachers engage in analysis of NASA imagery as part of the GLOBE Surface Temperature Protocol. At off-campus locations, US Clean Air Act (CAA) criteria air pollutant and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) air pollutant sampling is being conducted in community-based participatory research (CBPR) format. Students partner with non-profit environmental organizations. Data collected using low-cost air sampling devices is being compared with readings from government air monitors. The GLOBE Aerosols Protocol is used in comparative assessments with air sampling results. Project deliverables include four new GLOBE schools, the enrollment of which is nearly entirely comprised of students

  16. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  17. DNA minor groove alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, W A

    2001-04-01

    Recent work on a number of different classes of anticancer agents that alkylate DNA in the minor groove is reviewed. There has been much work with nitrogen mustards, where attachment of the mustard unit to carrier molecules can change the normal patterns of both regio- and sequence-selectivity, from reaction primarily at most guanine N7 sites in the major groove to a few adenine N3 sites at the 3'-end of poly(A/T) sequences in the minor groove. Carrier molecules discussed for mustards are intercalators, polypyrroles, polyimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), polybenzamides and anilinoquinolinium salts. In contrast, similar targeting of pyrrolizidine alkylators by a variety of carriers has little effect of their patterns of alkylation (at the 2-amino group of guanine). Recent work on the pyrrolobenzodiazepine and cyclopropaindolone classes of natural product minor groove binders is also reviewed.

  18. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  19. The Willink Minority Commission and minority rights in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the alternative, they demanded for constitutional safeguards as guarantees against their potential domination by majority ethnic groups in an independent Nigeria. In 1957, the colonial government convoked a commission to ascertain the facts, and thereupon, recommend measures of allaying the fears of minority ethnic ...

  20. Partnering with a Community College and Research University to attract Underrepresented Students to the Geosciences: The Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, J. S.; Saunders, D.; Smith, G.

    2015-12-01

    A NSF sponsored partnership between the University of Texas at Arlington and the Tarrant County College District aimed to attract underrepresented lower-division students interested in STEM to the geosciences. The program recruited 32 students over 3 years, developed an innovative field course, provided tutoring and mentoring programs, and offered research assistantships for students to work with the research university faculty on funded projects. Under-represented students were 66% of the group. The data was gathered via a web-based survey from April 2nd to April 17th, 2015, using both open ended and item-level responses. Out of 32 participants, the response rate was a significant 50%. Some of the survey results include: 1) Most students heard about the program from faulty who recruited them in introductory level classes; 2) Almost all agreed that the geosciences were interesting, fun, important and a good career path; 3) 92% of the community college respondents found transferring to a research university somewhat or not too difficult; 4) The most helpful parts of the program included faculty mentors, the field course, research assistant experiences and relationships with faculty. The least helpful parts included the tutoring services, relationships with other students, and the semester kickoff meetings; 5) over 60% of the students felt very confident in research skills, formulating research questions, lab skills, quantitative skills, time management, collaborating and working independently. They were less confident in planning research, graphing results, writing papers and making oral presentations; 6) most found the faculty very helpful in advising and mentoring, and 86% said they were comfortable asking at least one faculty member for a reference letter; 7) 93% said they were likely to pursue a geoscience career and 86% were confident or somewhat confident they would be successful.

  1. From leaky pipeline to irrigation system: minority education through the lens of community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rosalina; Starks, Helene; Segrest, Valerie Ann; Burke, Wylie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education has long made efforts to increase underrepresented minority participation in biomedical research and health fields. However, relatively few minority trainees complete advanced degrees or proceed to independent research careers, a loss referred to as the "leaky pipeline." Minority trainees may take alternate pathways to climbing the academic ladder, exiting to pursue multiple disciplinary or community-serving roles. The authors propose a model for understanding minority departures from the education pipeline as a basis for supporting careers that align with community goals for health. Concepts of the traditional pipeline training model are compared with a model that aligns with community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles and practices. The article describes an irrigation model that incorporates informal learning from academic and community knowledge bases to prepare trainees for CBPR and interdisciplinary research. Students serve as agents that foster individual, institutional, and social change needed to address health problems while attending to root causes of disparities. Viewing minority students as agents for community engagement allows institutions to reassess the role training can play in diversifying participation in higher education and research. An irrigation model supports development of an infrastructure that optimizes success at all post-secondary levels, and enhances CBPR capacity wherever trainees live, work, and learn. Linking formal education to informal learning in context of CBPR experiences can also reduce community mistrust of research while nurturing productive research partnerships with communities to address health disparities.

  2. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  3. Minority game with SK interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Pedro Castro; Sherrington, David

    2013-01-01

    A batch minority game with fake random history and additional SK-like quenched interaction is introduced and analysed. A mixing parameter λ quantifies the admixture and dictates the relative dominance of the two contributions: if λ → 0, agent decisions are based on their strategies and point-scores alone, as in the pure minority game, whereas for λ > 0 the agents also communicate with each other directly and update their points accordingly. Keeping the minority game dynamics in which the agents’ points are updated in parallel at each time step, the aim is to understand what happens if instead of simply using the normal strategy-based decisions, the agents also take account of an ‘effective field’ generated by the other agents. It is shown that the SK interaction introduces a ‘noise’ term which is broader than that in the normal minority game and which furthermore kills the normal phase transition. It is also shown that the same effect would occur if, instead of an SK interaction, Gaussian-distributed quenched random fields are added. By calculating order parameters in the time-translational invariant phase we show that the system is persistent in a ergodic phase. Both simulational and analytical results are presented. (paper)

  4. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  5. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different ...

  6. Internet alcohol sales to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether minors can successfully purchase alcohol online and to examine age verification procedures at the points of order and delivery. DESIGN A cross-sectional study evaluated underage alcohol purchase attempts from 100 popular Internet vendors. SETTING The study was conducted at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, July 14-27, 2011. PARTICIPANTS Eight 18- to 20-year-old individuals participated. OUTCOME MEASURES Rates of successful sales to minors and use of age verification procedures at order and delivery were determined. RESULTS Of the 100 orders placed by the underage buyers, 45% were successfully received; 28% were rejected as the result of age verification. Most vendors (59%) used weak, if any, age verification at the point of order, and, of 45 successful orders, 23 (51%) used none. Age verification at delivery was inconsistently conducted and, when attempted, failed about half of the time. CONCLUSIONS Age verification procedures used by Internet alcohol vendors do not adequately prevent online sales to minors. Shipping companies should work with their staff to improve administration of age verification at delivery, and vendors should use rigorous age verification at order and delivery. Further research should determine the proportion of minors who buy alcohol online and test purchases from more vendors to inform enforcement of existing policies and creation of new policies to reduce youth access to alcohol online.

  7. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    and transcend negative social categories about a ‘Muslim school girl' as ‘isolated and oppressed' and ‘too studios'. [1] I use the term ethnic minority, not as a distinction with numerical proportions, but rather related to societal power relations (Phoenix, 2001). In that way the Danish Palestinian pupils...

  8. The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE): A New Model for Promoting Minority Participation in Astronomy Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Impey, C. D.; Bieging, J. H.; Phillips, C. B.; Tieu, J.; Prather, E. E.; Povich, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) program represents a new and innovative kind of research program for undergraduates: one that can effectively carry out the goal of recruiting qualified minority and female students to participate in Astronomy and Planetary Science research opportunities, while mentoring them in a way to maximize the chance that these students will persist in obtaining their undergraduate degrees in STEM fields, and potentially go on to obtain their PhDs or pursue careers in those fields. The members of CAMPARE comprise a network of comprehensive universities and community colleges in Southern California and Arizona (most of which are minority serving institutions), and four major research institutions (University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, and JPL/Caltech). Most undergraduate research programs focus on a single research institution. By having multiple institutions, we significantly broaden the opportunities for students, both in terms of breadth of research topics and geographical location. In its first three years, the CAMPARE program has had 20 undergraduates from two CSU campuses, both Hispanic Serving Institutions, take part in research and educational activities at four research institutions, the University of Arizona Steward Observatory, the SETI Institute, and JPL/Caltech. Of the 20 participants, 9 are women and 11 are men, a much more even split than is typical in Astronomy research programs; 10 are Hispanic, 2 are African American, and 1 is part Native American, including 2 female Hispanic and 2 female African-American participants, an exceptionally high participation rate (65%) for students from underrepresented minority groups. Of the five participants who have graduated since the program began, two are in graduate programs in Physics or Astronomy, two are pursuing a K-12 teaching credential, and one has enlisted in the Nuclear Propulsion Officer Candidate

  9. Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Maria

    2005-10-01

    Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

  10. Racial Diversity in the Medical Profession: The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans on Underrepresented Student of Color Matriculation in Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.; Mickey-Pabello, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of affirmative action bans in six states (California, Washington, Florida, Texas, Michigan, and Nebraska) on the matriculation rates of historically underrepresented students of color in public medical schools in these states. Findings show that affirmative action bans have led to about a 17% decline (from 18.5% to…

  11. Smooth Transition for Advancement to Graduate Education (STAGE) for Underrepresented Groups in the Mathematical Sciences Pilot Project: Broadening Participation through Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks-Turner, Christina; Beaulieu, Patricia; Pal, Nabendu

    2018-01-01

    The Smooth Transition for Advancement to Graduate Education (STAGE) project was a three-year pilot project designed to mentor undergraduate students primarily from under-represented groups in the mathematical sciences. The STAGE pilot project focused on mentoring students as they transitioned from undergraduate education to either graduate school…

  12. Principal minors and rhombus tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, Richard; Pemantle, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic relations between the principal minors of a generic n × n matrix are somewhat mysterious, see e.g. Lin and Sturmfels (2009 J. Algebra 322 4121–31). We show, however, that by adding in certain almost principal minors, the ideal of relations is generated by translations of a single relation, the so-called hexahedron relation, which is a composition of six cluster mutations. We give in particular a Laurent-polynomial parameterization of the space of n × n matrices, whose parameters consist of certain principal and almost principal minors. The parameters naturally live on vertices and faces of the tiles in a rhombus tiling of a convex 2n-gon. A matrix is associated to an equivalence class of tilings, all related to each other by Yang–Baxter-like transformations. By specializing the initial data we can similarly parameterize the space of Hermitian symmetric matrices over R,C or H the quaternions. Moreover by further specialization we can parametrize the space of positive definite matrices over these rings. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras mathematical physics’. (paper)

  13. Clinical Trials Shed Light on Minority Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Health HHS Office of Minority Health Related Consumer Updates The FDA Supports Research to Reduce Health Disparities FDA Broadens Its ... Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ... Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to ...

  14. A National Partnership-Based Summer Learning Initiative to Engage Underrepresented Students with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Leland

    2010-01-01

    In response to the White House Educate to Innovate campaign, NASA developed a new science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education program for non-traditional audiences that also focused on public-private partnerships and nationwide participation. NASA recognized that summer break is an often overlooked but opportune time to engage youth in STEM experiences, and elevated its ongoing commitment to the cultivation of diversity. The Summer of Innovation (SoI) is the resulting initiative that uses NASA's unique missions and resources to boost summer learning, particularly for students who are underrepresented, underserved and underperforming in STEM. The SoI pilot, launched in June 2010, is a multi-faceted effort designed to improve STEM teaching and learning through partnership, multi-week summer learning programs, special events, a national concluding event, and teacher development. The SoI pilot features strategic infusion of NASA content and educational resource materials, sustainability through STEM Learning Communities, and assessments of effectiveness of SoI interventions with other pilot efforts. This paper examines the inception and development of the Summer of Innovation pilot project, including achievements and effectiveness, as well as lessons learned for future efforts.

  15. John Wheatley Award Talk: Promoting Under-Represented Physicists in Asian and Arab Countries and Muslim Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana

    2013-04-01

    Physics fascinates people's minds regardless of their geographic location. Often the best students choose the challending profession of physics. Physicists in developing countries in Asia and Arab countries work mostly on their own with limited resources or external collaboration and some do extraordinarily well. However, these dedicated individuals need the support and interactive modalities with their fellow physicists, particularly from developed countries, for coherent and rapid advances in knowledge, discoveries and inventions. My main objective is to promote and motivate physics education and research in developing and Arab countries to a level of excellence commensurate with that at U.S. institutions, and to facilitate connection through the strong network of APS. I have developed a general STEM based program. Another focus of this initiative is the very weak community of Muslim women in science, who have have remained behind owing to surrounding circumstances. To encourage them in scientific professions, and to enable them to nurture their intellectuality, we have formed a network called the International Society of Muslim Women in Science. It now has 85 enthusiastic and aspiring members from 21 countries. I will discuss these and the special needs of the these under-represented scientists, and how APS might lend them its valuable support.

  16. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program.

  17. Women are underrepresented in computational biology: An analysis of the scholarly literature in biology, computer science and computational biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Kevin S; Stefan, Melanie I

    2017-10-01

    While women are generally underrepresented in STEM fields, there are noticeable differences between fields. For instance, the gender ratio in biology is more balanced than in computer science. We were interested in how this difference is reflected in the interdisciplinary field of computational/quantitative biology. To this end, we examined the proportion of female authors in publications from the PubMed and arXiv databases. There are fewer female authors on research papers in computational biology, as compared to biology in general. This is true across authorship position, year, and journal impact factor. A comparison with arXiv shows that quantitative biology papers have a higher ratio of female authors than computer science papers, placing computational biology in between its two parent fields in terms of gender representation. Both in biology and in computational biology, a female last author increases the probability of other authors on the paper being female, pointing to a potential role of female PIs in influencing the gender balance.

  18. Minority students benefit from mentoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, D L; Rodak, B; Fitzgerald, N; Baker, S

    1993-01-01

    Mentoring has been proposed as one strategy to attract minority students to the radiologic sciences profession. This case study describes a minority mentoring program conducted for pre-radiologic science students at a Midwestern university during the 1991-92 academic year. Ten minority radiologic science students enrolled in the mentoring program. The study showed that mentoring may be a viable option to serve the special needs of minorities for recruitment and retention.

  19. Closing achievement gaps with a utility-value intervention: Disentangling race and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harackiewicz, Judith M; Canning, Elizabeth A; Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J; Hyde, Janet S

    2016-11-01

    Many college students abandon their goal of completing a degree in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) when confronted with challenging introductory-level science courses. In the U.S., this trend is more pronounced for underrepresented minority (URM) and first-generation (FG) students, and contributes to persisting racial and social-class achievement gaps in higher education. Previous intervention studies have focused exclusively on race or social class, but have not examined how the 2 may be confounded and interact. This research therefore investigates the independent and interactive effects of race and social class as moderators of an intervention designed to promote performance, measured by grade in the course. In a double-blind randomized experiment conducted over 4 semesters of an introductory biology course (N = 1,040), we tested the effectiveness of a utility-value intervention in which students wrote about the personal relevance of course material. The utility-value intervention was successful in reducing the achievement gap for FG-URM students by 61%: the performance gap for FG-URM students, relative to continuing generation (CG)-Majority students, was large in the control condition, .84 grade points (d = .98), and the treatment effect for FG-URM students was .51 grade points (d = 0.55). The UV intervention helped students from all groups find utility value in the course content, and mediation analyses showed that the process of writing about utility value was particularly powerful for FG-URM students. Results highlight the importance of intersectionality in examining the independent and interactive effects of race and social class when evaluating interventions to close achievement gaps and the mechanisms through which they may operate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as one...

  1. Majoritarian tyranny in a world of minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.R.M. Salih (Mohamed)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDespite the political upheavals, conflicts, war and genocide generated by unequal and unjust minority-majority relations, the term minority people entered social science terminology for the first time in 19321 • According to Davis (1979: 2), minority studies were initially largely

  2. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The final rule implements the provisions.... It also requires each regulated entity to establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or...

  3. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section... Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities...

  4. The Minority Game : An Economics Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a critical account of the minority game literature. The minority game is a simple congestion game: players need to choose between two options, and those who have selected the option chosen by the minority win. The learning model proposed in this literature seems to differ markedly

  5. Gleanings: The Minority Student Success Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara Leigh; MacGregor, Jean

    The Minority Student Success Project (MSSP) initiated in 1989 was designed to improve the recruitment and retention of minority students on campuses in the state of Washington. The results of a questionnaire on minority students administered to all of Washington's community colleges, and data from follow-up interviews, were used to design working…

  6. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a conceptual background typical types of minorities and typical sources of minority conflict are outlined. A historical overview is given of the problems. Niger Delta minorities have been experiencing. Their grievances and demands are highlighted, and the responses of different Nigerian governments are discussed.

  7. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  8. PIE analysis for minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    Minor actinide (MA) is generated in nuclear fuel during the operation of power reactor. For fuel design, reactivity decrease due to it should be considered. Out of reactors, MA plays key role to define the property of spent fuel (SF) such as α-radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and criticality of SF. In order to evaluate the calculation codes and libraries for predicting the amount of MA, comparison between calculation results and experimentally obtained data has been conducted. In this report, we will present the status of PIE data of MA taken by post irradiation examinations (PIE) and several calculation results. (author)

  9. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  10. Integrating Theory and Practice to Increase Scientific Workforce Diversity: A Framework for Career Development in Graduate Research Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Gutierrez, Belinda; Topp, Sharon; Carnes, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Few, if any, educational interventions intended to increase underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students in biological and behavioral sciences are informed by theory and research on career persistence. Training and Education to Advance Minority Scholars in Science (TEAM-Science) is a program funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the University of Wisconsin–Madison with the twin goals of increasing the number of URM students entering and completing a PhD in BBS and increasing the number of these students who pursue academic careers. A framework for career development in graduate research training is proposed using social cognitive career theory. Based on this framework, TEAM-Science has five core components: 1) mentor training for the research advisor, 2) eight consensus-derived fundamental competencies required for a successful academic career, 3) career coaching by a senior faculty member, 4) an individualized career development plan that aligns students’ activities with the eight fundamental competencies, and 5) a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats personal career analysis. This paper describes the theoretical framework used to guide development of these components, the research and evaluation plan, and early experience implementing the program. We discuss the potential of this framework to increase desired career outcomes for URM graduate trainees in mentored research programs and, thereby, strengthen the effectiveness of such interventions on participants’ career behaviors. PMID:22135370

  11. Difference in Career Attitudes of Elementary Minority Female Students after Participation in a STEM Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumphrey, Karyn Christine

    Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) professionals are responsible for the development of new technologies and breaking scientific discoveries. However, in the United States, racial minorities and females are vastly underrepresented in STEM professions. This problem is multiplied for individuals falling into both categories. Educators in must develop effective strategies to increase the number of minority females in STEM jobs. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate if there was a difference in attitudes about future STEM educational choices and career opportunities after participation in a theme-based STEM event. The significant points reflected in the literature are statistics that demonstrate the extreme underrepresentation of this population and the importance of having all segments of the population represented in these important jobs. A descriptive non-experimental design study utilizing survey data taken before and after a STEM day at a public school was employed. The analysis tool was the Hopes and Goals Survey which has been found valid and reliable with similar samples of students. The data sets were pre-event and post-event surveys from minority females in grades 3, 4, and 5. The two data sets were compared using descriptive statistics to investigate any differences in opinions before and after the event. The results showed a difference in minority female student's attitudes regarding future STEM educational opportunities and careers after participation in a theme-based STEM event. The results indicate a need for increasing the number of STEM events in public schools. Future research may explore the differences between the opinion changes of males versus females to ascertain which gender responded most positively to STEM day.

  12. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  13. Workplace harassment: double jeopardy for minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Jennifer L; Moore, Celia

    2006-03-01

    To date there have been no studies of how both sex and ethnicity might affect the incidence of both sexual and ethnic harassment at work. This article represents an effort to fill this gap. Data from employees at 5 organizations were used to test whether minority women are subject to double jeopardy at work, experiencing the most harassment because they are both women and members of a minority group. The results supported this prediction. Women experienced more sexual harassment than men, minorities experienced more ethnic harassment than Whites, and minority women experienced more harassment overall than majority men, minority men, and majority women.

  14. Social Determinants and Educational Barriers to Successful Admission to Nursing Programs for Minority and Rural Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Sharon Elizabeth; Neubrander, Judy

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Institute of Medicine made a recommendation in The Future of Nursing Report to diversify the student population of the health care professions in order to provide increasing minority providers to meet the culturally competent needs of the growing multicultural populations of the United States (Institute of Medicine, 2010). The Nursing Network and Careers and Technology Nurse Mentoring Program provides a nursing mentor to underrepresented ethnic minority and educationally disadvantaged students and a significant scholarship and stipend for tuition and monthly living expenses. Ethnically diverse and rural students have lifelong familial and geographical educational barriers that prevent them from succeeding. There are a plethora of major environmental and familial factors that need to be addressed by society for these students to be successful. These factors include improvement of county schools by financial support, improving the home environment through social supportive services, and implementing improved parent-child bonding with nurse family partnerships. Nursing faculty must embrace new approaches for increasing the number of ethnically diverse nursing providers through novel admission criteria and collaborative cohort peer-mentoring programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternate Reality Games as an Informal Learning Tool for Generating STEM Engagement among Underrepresented Youth: a Qualitative Evaluation of the Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Fabiyi, Camille; Lyman, Phoebe; Wilson, Claire; Hill, Brandon; Bouris, Alida

    2017-06-01

    This project developed and studied The Source, an alternate reality game (ARG) designed to foster interest and knowledge related to science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) among youth from populations underrepresented in STEM fields. ARGs are multiplayer games that engage participants across several media such as shared websites, social media, personal communications, and real-world settings to complete activities and collaborate with team members. The Source was a five-week summer program with 144 participants from Chicago aged 13 to 18 years. The Source incorporated six socio-contextual factors derived from three frameworks: Chang's (ERIC Digest, 2002) recommendations for engaging underrepresented populations in STEM careers, Lave and Wenger's (Cambridge University Press, 1991) situated learning model, and Barron's (Human Development, 49(4); 193-224, 2006) learning ecology perspective. These factors aligned with the program's aims of promoting (1) social community and peer support, (2) collaboration and teamwork, (3) real-world relevance and investigative learning, (4) mentoring and exposure to STEM professionals, (5) hands-on activities to foster transferable skill building, and (6) interface with technology. This paper presents results from 10 focus groups and 10 individual interviews conducted with a subset of the 144 youth participants who completed the game. It describes how these six factors were realized through The Source and uses them as a lens for considering how The Source functioned pedagogically. Qualitative findings describe youth's perception of The Source's potential influence on STEM interest, engagement, and identity formation. Despite limitations, study results indicate that underrepresented youth can engage in an immersive, narrative, and game-based experience as a potential mechanism for piquing and developing STEM interest and skills, particularly among underrepresented youth.

  16. Promoting Success of Ethnic Minority and Male Students in an Accelerated, Entry-Level Master of Nursing Program: The SUSTAIN Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Patricia A; Weeks, Y'Esha; Wicks, Mona Newsome

    2015-09-01

    Diverse health care workers are essential to meet the needs of a diverse U.S. Ethnic minorities and men are frequently underrepresented in the nursing profession and within schools of nursing. Although many nursing schools have implemented programs to improve retention and academic success of these students, the lack of success is, in part, a reflection of program ineffectiveness. A nursing college developed the multifaceted SUSTAIN (Scholarships for Underrepresented Students in an Accelerated Initial Nursing) program to promote ethnic minority and male students' success in an accelerated entry-level master of nursing program. Students engaged in mentoring, academic support, and service-learning activities. Participants (N = 51) achieved 100% retention and graduation rates and a 92% first-time NCLEX-RN(®) examination pass rate. Program students participated in professional organizations and held leadership roles within the college. Implementation of a program focused on student retention and success is recommended for diverse students enrolled in accelerated entry-level master of nursing programs. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Strategies for Recruitment and Retention of Families from Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Backgrounds in a Longitudinal Study of Caregiver Feeding and Child Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Erin E; Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Boles, Richard E; Aylward, Brandon S; Ratcliff, Megan Benoit; Valenzuela, Jessica M; Johnson, Susan L; Powers, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Children from low-SES and ethnic minority backgrounds are at heightened risk for overweight, yet are underrepresented in the pediatric obesity literature. The current paper describes strategies employed to minimize barriers to recruitment and retention of African-American families receiving WIC services in a longitudinal study examining caregiver feeding and child weight. Seventy-six families enrolled in the study over 3.5 years, and 50% of the families completed the study. Despite effortful planning, unanticipated barriers likely contributed to lengthy recruitment and a modest retention rate. Future research should incorporate lessons learned to modify and develop effective strategies for increasing engagement of low-SES and ethnic minority families in research.

  18. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions.

  19. Minority Serving Institutions Reporting System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The database will be used to track SSA's contributions to Minority Serving Institutions such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Tribal Colleges...

  20. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C; Segovia, Luis A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US-Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US-Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students' desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  1. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Burgos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons. By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes: This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP, a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion: The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  2. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L.; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C.; Segovia, Luis A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings. PMID:26088189

  3. Old and New Minorities: Diversity Governance and Social Cohesion from the Perspective of Minority Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medda-Windischer Roberta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Minority rights instruments have been traditionally applied to old minority groups. This paper examines to what extent these same instruments are conceptually meaningful to the integration of new minorities stemming from migration. The conviction that minority groups, irrespective of their being old or new minorities, have some basic common claims that can be subsumed under a common definition does not mean that all minority groups have all the same rights and legitimate claims: some have only minimum rights, while others have or should be granted more substantial rights; some can legitimately put forward certain claims – not enforceable rights – that need to be negotiated with the majority, while others should not. In order to devise a common but differentiated set of rights and obligations for old and new minority groups, it is essential to analyse the differences and similarities of both categories of minorities, their claims, needs, and priorities; in this way, it will be possible to delineate a catalogue of rights that can be demanded by and granted to different minority groups. Studying the interaction between traditional minorities and migrants or old and new minority groups is a rather new task because so far these topics have been studied in isolation from each other. It is also an important task for future research in Europe since many states have established systems for the rights of old minorities but have not as yet developed sound policies for the integration of new minority groups stemming from migration.

  4. Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents' Views On HIV Research Participation and Parental Permission: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Arbeit, Miriam R; Fisher, Celia B

    2017-06-01

    Sexual and gender minority adolescents are underrepresented in HIV research, partly because institutional review boards (IRBs) are reluctant to waive parental permission requirements for these studies. Understanding teenagers' perspectives on parental permission and the risks and benefits of participating in HIV research is critical to informing evidence-based IRB decisions. Data from 74 sexual and gender minority adolescents aged 14-17 who participated in an online focus group in 2015 were used to examine perspectives on the risks and benefits of participation in a hypothetical HIV surveillance study and the need for parental permission and adequate protections. Data were analyzed thematically; mixed methods analyses examined whether concerns about parental permission differed by whether teenagers were out to their parents. Most adolescents, especially those who were not out to their parents, would be unwilling to participate in an HIV study if parental permission were required. Perceived benefits of participation included overcoming barriers to HIV testing and contributing to the health of sexual and gender minority youth. Few risks of participation were identified. Adolescents suggested steps that researchers could take to facilitate informed decision making about research participation and ensure minors' safety in the absence of parental permission; these included incorporating multimedia presentations into the consent process and explaining researchers' motivations for conducting the study. Respondents believed that the benefits of HIV surveillance research outweighed the risks. Requiring parental permission may exclude many sexual and gender minority teenagers from taking part in HIV research, especially if they are not out. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  5. Geo-Needs: Investigating Models for Improved Access to Geosciences at Two-Year and Minority-Serving Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, X.; Turner, S. P.; LaDue, N.; Bentley, A. P.; Petcovic, H. L.; Mogk, D. W.; Cartwright, T.

    2015-12-01

    Geosciences are an important field of study for the future of energy, water, climate resilience, and infrastructure in our country. Geoscience related job growth is expected to steeply climb in the United States, however many of these positions will be left unfilled. One untapped population of Americans is ethnic minorities, who have historically been underrepresented in the geosciences. In 2010, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported that black and Hispanics only make 8.1% of geoscience related jobs, while making up nearly 30% of Americans. This pattern of underrepresentation has been attributed to 1) minority serving institutions lacking geoscience programs, 2) low interest in the outdoors due to a lack of opportunity, and 3) negative and low prestigious perceptions of geoscientists. Our project focuses specifically on the first barrier. Preliminary research suggests that only 2.5% of institutions with geoscience programs (n= 609) are also minority serving. The goals of the Geo-Needs project are to identify obstacles to and opportunities for better use of existing educational resources in two-year and minority-serving institutions, and to explore "ideal" models of resources, partnerships, and other support for geoscience faculty and students in these institutions. Four focus group meetings were held in August 2015 bringing administrators, instructors, resource providers, and education researchers together to discuss and develop these models. Activities at the meetings included small and whole group prompted discussion, guest speakers, gallery walks, and individual reflection. Content from the focus group meetings is available at the project's website: http://serc.carleton.edu/geoneeds/index.html. Findings from the meetings can be used to inform future efforts aimed toward broadening access to the geosciences at two-year and minority-serving institutions.

  6. Replacing lecture with peer-led workshops improves student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszler, Ralph W

    2009-01-01

    Peer-facilitated workshops enhanced interactivity in our introductory biology course, which led to increased student engagement and learning. A majority of students preferred attending two lectures and a workshop each week over attending three weekly lectures. In the workshops, students worked in small cooperative groups as they solved challenging problems, evaluated case studies, and participated in activities designed to improve their general learning skills. Students in the workshop version of the course scored higher on exam questions recycled from preworkshop semesters. Grades were higher over three workshop semesters in comparison with the seven preworkshop semesters. Although males and females benefited from workshops, there was a larger improvement of grades and increased retention by female students; although underrepresented minority (URM) and non-URM students benefited from workshops, there was a larger improvement of grades by URM students. As well as improving student performance and retention, the addition of interactive workshops also improved the quality of student learning: Student scores on exam questions that required higher-level thinking increased from preworkshop to workshop semesters.

  7. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  8. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of April 1...

  9. Minority Teacher Recruitment, Development, and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Judith; Santos, Janet; Peck, Nancy L.; Cortes, Lydia

    2004-01-01

    When school systems began to desegregate after Brown v. Board of Education, 80 Per cent of the school population was white and 20 per cent was minority. By 1996, the number of minority students had risen to approximately 35 per cent of the student population, and today it stands at nearly 40 per cent and growing. These students continue to achieve…

  10. ETHNIC MINORITIES AND THE NIGERIAN STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-09-02

    Sep 2, 2014 ... ethnic group or any other kind of group feels disenchanted with the political system. The three regions, the ... minorities in Nigeria does not lie in the lack of constitutional provision and protection of their basic ... Minority group constitutes the core of ethnic turbulence and violence world-wide. In a definition ...

  11. [Minor Uralic languages...] / Väino Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaus, Väino, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Arvustus: Minor Uralic languages and their contacts / University of Tartu ; editor A. Künnap. Tartu : University of Tartu, 1993 ; Minor Uralic languages: structure and development : [artikleid ja materjale / edited and preface by Ago Künnap]. Tartu : [Tartu University Press] ; Groningen : University of Groningen, 1994

  12. Sociolinguistic Minorities, Research, and Social Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Mark; Raschka, Christine; Sercombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests elements of an agenda for future sociolinguistics among minority groups, by seeing it as a mutual relationship that involves benefits to researcher and researched. We focus on two aspects of the relationship. One is the political, economic and social benefits that can accrue to a minority group as a result of the research.…

  13. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  14. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overall recurrcnce rate of 4.48%. Conclusion: Minor salivaiy gland tumours are rare. Follow-up in this environment is. 13001'. There is a need to educate the patients about the importance of early presentation and recall visits. Key worclsz Salivary glands, minor, tumour, treatment liitroduction. U f-;;i|i\\ar§, land tumours are ...

  15. 42 CFR 2.14 - Minor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or drug abuse treatment, any written consent for disclosure authorized under subpart C of these... drug abuse treatment, any written consent for disclosure authorized under subpart C of these... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.14 Minor patients. (a) Definition of minor...

  16. Broadening Pathways to Geosciences with an Integrated Program at The University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G.; Munson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Low participation of under-represented minorities (URM) in the geosciences is an acute issue at the University of Michigan (U-M), where the number of undergraduate URM students majoring in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES) is typically 5% of total majors. The goal of our project is to substantially increase the number and success rate of underrepresented minorities majoring in EES at U-M. We are pursuing this goal with five primary objectives: (i) inspire and recruit high schools seniors to pursue geoscience at U-M, especially through hands-on experiences including field trips; (ii) establish infrastructure to support students interested in geosciences through the critical juncture between high school and college; (iii) increase the number of URM students transferring from community college; (iv) develop student interest in geosciences through research and field experiences; (v) expose students to career opportunities in the geosciences. To accomplish these objectives we are leveraging existing programs, including Earth Camp, Foundations for Undergraduate Teaching: Uniting Research and Education (FUTURE), M-Sci, and college academic advisors. Throughout our interactions with students from high-school through college, we expose them to career opportunities in the geosciences, including private industry, academia, and government agencies. Evaluation of the program revealed three main conclusions: (i) the program increased student interest in pursuing an earth science degree; (ii) participating students showed a marked increase in awareness about the various opportunities that are available with an earth science degree including pathways to graduate school and earth science careers; (iii) field trips were the most effective route for achieving outcomes (i) and (ii).

  17. Growing Minority Student Interest in Earth and Space Science with Suborbital and Space-related Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation describes the transformative impact of student involvement in suborbital and Cubesat investigations under the MECSAT program umbrella at Medgar Evers College (MEC). The programs evolved from MUSPIN, a NASA program serving minority institutions. The MUSPIN program supported student internships for the MESSENGER and New Horizons missions at the Applied Physics Lab at John Hopkins University. The success of this program motivated the formation of smaller-scale programs at MEC to engage a wider group of minority students using an institutional context. The programs include an student-instrument BalloonSAT project, ozone investigations using sounding vehicles and a recently initiated Cubesat program involving other colleges in the City University of New York (CUNY). The science objectives range from investigations of atmospheric profiles, e.g. temperature, humidity, pressure, and CO2 to ozone profiles in rural and urban areas including comparisons with Aura instrument retrievals to ionospheric scintillation experiments for the Cubesat project. Through workshops and faculty collaborations, the evolving programs have mushroomed to include the development of parallel programs with faculty and students at other minority institutions both within and external to CUNY. The interdisciplinary context of these programs has stimulated student interest in Earth and Space Science and includes the use of best practices in retention and pipelining of underrepresented minority students in STEM disciplines. Through curriculum integration initiatives, secondary impacts are also observed supported by student blogs, social networking sites, etc.. The program continues to evolve including related student internships at Goddard Space Flight Center and the development of a CUNY-wide interdisciplinary team of faculty targeting research opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students in Atmospheric Science, Space Weather, Remote Sensing and Astrobiology primarily for

  18. Developing science talent in minority students: Perspectives of past participants in a summer mentorship program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Dale Bishop

    The underrepresentation of women and ethnic minorities in science has been well documented. Research efforts are directed toward understanding the high attrition rate in science course selection as students advance through high school and college. The attrition rate is especially high for females and minority students. Since 1980 the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Connecticut has conducted a "Minority Research Apprentice Program" to attract students by expanding their knowledge of research and technology. The goal of the program is to encourage students from underrepresented groups to eventually select careers in the field of science. This qualitative study of past participants explored factors that related to students' decisions to pursue or not to pursue careers in science. Descriptive statistics and qualitative data collected from surveys and interviews of twenty former apprentices, along with comparative case studies of four selected individuals, revealed the educational interventions, personal traits and social supports that helped guide students' eventual career choice decisions. Participation in gifted programs, advanced placement courses, and talented high school science teachers all played a critical role in assisting these individuals in developing their potential interest. Qualitative data revealed the role of the Minority Research Apprentice Program played in helping talented individuals gain an appreciation of the nature of scientific research through apprenticeship and involvement with authentic projects. For all those involved, it assisted them in clarifying their eventual career choices. Individuals identified the lack of challenge of the introductory science courses, the commitment science requires, and the nature of laboratory work as reasons for leaving the field. Females who left science switched majors more frequently than males. Qualitative data revealed the dilemma that multipotentiality and lack of career counseling

  19. Multiple Minority Stress and LGBT Community Resilience among Sexual Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Janulis, Patrick; Phillips, Gregory; Truong, Roky; Birkett, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Minority stress theory has widespread research support in explaining health disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities. However, less is known about how minority stress impacts multiply marginalized groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people of color (LGBT POC). Also, although research has documented resilience in the face of minority stress at the individual level, research is needed that examines macro-level processes such as community resilience (Meyer, 2015). In the current study, we integrate minority stress theory and intersectionality theory to examine multiple minority stress (i.e., racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and LGBT stigma in one's neighborhood) and community resilience (i.e., connection to LGBT community) among sexual minority men of different racial/ethnic groups who use a geosocial networking application for meeting sexual partners. Results showed that Black sexual minority men reported the highest levels of racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and White sexual minority men reported the lowest levels, with Asian and Hispanic/Latino men falling in between. Consistent with minority stress theory, racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and LGBT stigma in one's neighborhood were associated with greater stress for sexual minority men of all racial/ethnic groups. However, connection to LGBT community played more central role in mediating the relationship between stigma and stress for White than POC sexual minority men. Results suggest that minority stress and community resilience processes may differ for White and POC sexual minority men. Potential processes driving these differences and implications for minority stress theory are discussed.

  20. CRIMINALITY AT MINORS WITH MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kitkanj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, from penological aspect, the involvement and structure of recidivism at minors with mental deficiency within the whole area of juvenile criminality in Macedonia. The research covers 62 subjects who pay the penalty in juvenile penitentiary or institutional measure directing to correctional institution for minors. Of the total number of minors who hold one of the above-mentioned sanctions, minors with lower average IQ are presented with 56.4%. The shown involvement is in penological terms (refers to minors who hold institutional measure correctional institution for minors or penalty - juvenile penitentiary which does not mean that this category of juvenile delinquents participate in such percent in the total number of reported, accused and convicted minors. According to the research results it can be concluded that falling behind in intellectual development is an indicator for delinquent behavior but in no case it can be crucial or the most important factor for criminality. Of the total number of juvenile delinquents with intellectual deficit, 80% are repeat offenders in criminal legal sense. It is of great concern that 56% of the under average juvenile delinquents defied the law for the first time before the age of 14 years that is as children.

  1. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1986-01-01

    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  2. Student perspectives on diversity and the cultural climate at a U.S. medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Robert; McClendon, Jennifer; Henderson, Anita; Evans, Yolanda; Colquitt, Rosa; Saha, Somnath

    2007-02-01

    To obtain the perspectives of medical students at one school on racial/ethnic campus diversity and cultural competence and to gain their perceptions of the institutional climate around diversity at their university and of reasons for minority underrepresentation at their medical school. A student-driven survey of all medical students (N = 398) at a single medical school in the spring of 2003, supplemented by four focus groups from all racial and ethnic groups on the campus. A large majority of the responding students (n = 216; 54%) endorsed the value of campus diversity and the importance of cultural competence to the process of becoming a clinician. Most students felt their university had achieved a positive cultural climate, characterized by openness to diverse perspectives and attention to equity. Most students also felt that the university's programs and policies reflected a commitment to diversity, but fewer students--those from underrepresented minorities (URMs) in particular--felt that the university truly valued having a diverse student body and faculty. Most students felt that the lack of diversity on campus was a barrier to recruiting and retaining minority candidates. Some minority students also blamed the medical school's limited social, academic, and financial support, as well as inadequate efforts to recruit minority students. Medical students generally place a high value on campus diversity and cultural competence. URM students in particular felt that their university could do more to implement its commitment to diversity, including making greater efforts to recruit and retain URM students. These views constitute a barometer for medical schools to gauge and track their efforts to enhance campus diversity, incorporate cultural competence education, and create an inclusive and welcoming climate for students of all backgrounds.

  3. Addressing Health Care Disparities Among Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Oranuba, Ebele; Werts, Niya; Edwards, Lorece V

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence of health disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual populations. Although the focus of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health research has been human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men, there are health disparities among sexual minority women. Using the minority stress framework, these disparities may in part be caused by individual prejudice, social stigma, and discrimination. To ensure equitable health for all, there is urgent need for targeted culturally sensitive health promotion, cultural sensitivity training for health care providers, and intervention-focused research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Visual and Computational Modelling of Minority Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the Minority Game and focuses on analysis and computational modelling of several variants (variable payoff, coalition-based and ternary voting of Minority Game using UAREI (User-Action-Rule-Entities-Interface model. UAREI is a model for formal specification of software gamification, and the UAREI visual modelling language is a language used for graphical representation of game mechanics. The URAEI model also provides the embedded executable modelling framework to evaluate how the rules of the game will work for the players in practice. We demonstrate flexibility of UAREI model for modelling different variants of Minority Game rules for game design.

  5. Considerations for successful minority investments in independent power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleveans, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    This article considers the role of lead developers and lead investors, and minority investors in power projects. The risks involved in minority investment without control is examined, and minority investor issues, the 'due diligence' of the minority investor, the need for timely information, and the importance of minority investors to the power project are discussed. (UK)

  6. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  7. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a data table giving basic physical and orbital parameters for known binary minor planets in the Solar System (and Pluto/Charon) based on published...

  8. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V6.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  9. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  10. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V5.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  11. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V8.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  12. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V9.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  13. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V7.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  14. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present data tables giving basic orbital and physical parameters for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets and the Pluto system, based on a...

  15. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present data tables giving basic orbital and physical parameters for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets and the Pluto system, based on a...

  16. National Minority Organisations in Prague: structure, competence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sulitka, Andrej; Uherek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2015), s. 3-17 ISSN 0862-8351 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : ethnology * social anthropology * Czech Republic * minority * national policy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. Clinical Implications of HIV-1 Minority Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jonathan Z.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency HIV variants are increasingly recognized as a key factor that increases the risk of HIV treatment failure. This article will provide a review of HIV minority variants, including their demonstrated clinical impact and areas of controversy.

  18. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    , especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... these minor collagens. The generation and release of fragmented molecules could generate novel biochemical markers with the capacity to monitor disease progression, facilitate drug development and add to the existing toolbox for in vitro studies, preclinical research and clinical trials....... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  19. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  20. Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005, Embase (1980-2001, Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and RB's personal files. A total of 72 studies were included, 39 starting after 1975. Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. Few publications provided details on the racial/ethnic composition of the study setting or sample, and 39 gave no description. Several studies were located in small towns or in occupational settings, where ethnic minority populations are underrepresented. Studies on general populations usually had too few participants for analysis by race/ethnicity. Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. Ten studies were designed to compare white and nonwhite populations, while five studies focused on one nonwhite racial/ethnic group; all 15 of these were performed in the US. CONCLUSIONS: There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. There is, particularly in Europe, an inequity resulting from a lack of research data in nonwhite populations. Urgent action is now required in Europe to address this disparity.

  1. Barriers and Perceptions of Natural Resource Careers by Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Nia A.; Jacobson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Using a framework based on social cognitive career theory, we conducted 38 interviews and four focus groups with college students to identify motivations and barriers faced by underrepresented groups to natural resource careers. Interviews revealed career satisfaction as the most important goal for both natural resource and a comparison of liberal…

  2. Intersectionality, Recruitment and Selection : Ethnic Minority Candidates in Dutch Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections

  3. Mediators of Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Mentored K Award Receipt Among U.S. Medical School Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Dorothy A; Yan, Yan; Jeffe, Donna B

    2017-10-01

    Mentored K (K01/K08/K23) career development awards are positively associated with physicians' success as independent investigators; however, individuals in some racial/ethnic groups are less likely to receive this federal funding. The authors sought to identify variables that explain (mediate) the association between race/ethnicity and mentored K award receipt among U.S. Liaison Committee for Medical Education-accredited medical school graduates who planned research-related careers. The authors analyzed deidentified data from the Association of American Medical Colleges and the National Institutes of Health Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination II grants database for a national cohort of 28,690 graduates from 1997-2004 who planned research-related careers, followed through August 2014. The authors examined 10 potential mediators (4 research activities, 2 academic performance measures, medical school research intensity, degree program, debt, and specialty) of the association between race/ethnicity and mentored K award receipt in models comparing underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM) and non-URM graduates. Among 27,521 graduates with complete data (95.9% of study-eligible graduates), 1,147 (4.2%) received mentored K awards (79/3,341 [2.4%] URM; 1,068/24,180 [4.4%] non-URM). All variables except debt were significant mediators; together they explained 96.2% (95%, CI 79.1%-100%) of the association between race/ethnicity and mentored K award. Research-related activities during/after medical school and standardized academic measures largely explained the association between race/ethnicity and mentored K award in this national cohort. Interventions targeting these mediators could mitigate racial/ethnic disparities in the federally funded physician-scientist research workforce.

  4. Biomedical Science Ph.D. Career Interest Patterns by Race/Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Kenneth D; McGready, John; Bennett, Jessica C; Griffin, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS) graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM) scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs) that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion), and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR) racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71, pworkforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most diverse workforce. We propose incorporation of an ecological perspective of career development when considering strategies to enhance the biomedical workforce and professoriate through diversity.

  5. We Can Recruit Minorities Into The Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the dismal numbers, efforts to recruit minorities into the geosciences are improving, thanks in part to NSF's "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences" (OEDG) initiative. At Wesleyan University, a small liberal arts college in Connecticut, we have significantly increased our recruitment of minority students. Twenty percent (four students) of the class of 2013 are African American. Most of the recruitment is done on an individual basis and working in conjunction with the "Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement" and courting minority students in introductory classes. The Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement is aware of our interest in increasing diversity and that we are able to hire minority students during the academic year and through the summer with OEDG funds. When she identifies minority students who might be interested in the geosciences, she refers them to faculty in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Our faculty can provide employment, mentoring and a variety of geo-related experiences. Courting students in introductory courses can include inviting them to lunch or other activity, and attending sports, theater or dance events in which they are participating. Not all efforts result in new majors. Courses in ancillary sciences may be stumbling blocks and higher grades in less demanding courses have lured some students into other majors. Nevertheless, we now have a large enough cohort of minority students so that minority students from other majors visit their friends in our labs. A critical mass? Even a student, who chooses another major, may continue an interest in geoscience and through outreach efforts and discussions with younger family members, may provide a bridge that becomes a conduit for future students.

  6. Minority stress, psychosocial resources, and psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Jabson, Jennifer M; Mustian, Karen M; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have examined unique factors predicting psychological distress among sexual minority (i.e., lesbian and bisexual) women postbreast cancer diagnosis. The present study assessed the association of minority stress and psychosocial resource factors with depression and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. Two hundred one sexual minority women who had ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-IV breast cancer participated in this study through the Love/Avon Army of Women. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess demographic and clinical factors, minority stress factors (discrimination, minority identity development, outness), psychosocial resources (resilience, social support), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression). These factors were included in a structural equation model, testing psychosocial resources as mediators between minority stress and psychological distress. There were no significant differences noted between lesbian and bisexual women. The final structural equation model demonstrated acceptable fit across all sexual minority women, χ2 = 27.83, p > .05; confirmatory fit index = 0.97, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.93. The model accounted for significant variance in psychological distress (56%). Examination of indirect effects confirmed that exposure to discrimination was associated with distress via association with resilience. Factors unique to sexual minority populations, such as minority stress, may be associated with higher rates of psychological distress among sexual minority breast cancer survivors. However, presence of psychosocial resources may mediate relationships with distress in this population; enhancement of resilience, in particular, could be an aim of psychological intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effective Recruiting and Intrusive Retention Strategies for Diversifying the Geosciences through a Research Experiences for Undergraduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Norouzi, H.; Yuen-Lau, L.; Ikramova, M.

    2016-12-01

    Worse than in most Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, underrepresented minority (URM) groups in the geosciences are reported to be farthest beneath the national benchmarks. Even more alarming, the geosciences have the lowest diversity of all the STEM disciplines at all three levels of higher education. In order to increase the number of underrepresented groups in the geosciences, a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program at the New York City College of Technology has implemented effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain diverse student cohorts. Recruitment efforts include: 1) establishing partnership with the local community colleges; 2) forging collaborations with scientists of color; 3) reaching out to the geoscience departments; and 4) forming relationships with STEM organizations. Unlike the other REU programs which primarily provide a summer-only research experience, this REU program engages students in a year-long research experience. Students begin their research in the summer for nine weeks, and they continue their research one day a week in the fall and spring semesters. During the academic year, they present their projects at conferences. They also serve as STEM ambassadors to community and high school outreach events. This one-year triad connection of 1) professional organizations/conferences, 2) continual research experience, and 3) service constituent has resulted in higher retention and graduation rates of URMs in the STEM disciplines. Both formative and summative program assessment have uncovered and shown that strong recruitment efforts accompanied by intrusive retention strategies are essential to: a) sustain and support STEM URMs in developing confidence as scientists; b) create formal and informal STEM communities; and c) provide a clear pathway to advanced degrees and to the geoscience workforce. This project is supported by NSF REU Grant #1560050.

  8. Why are women underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender differences in stereotypes, self-efficacy, values, and interests and predictors of future CS course-taking and grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their first CS course, they had a stronger intention to take another CS course. A subset of 128 students (68 females and 60 males) took a CS course up to one year later. Students who were interested in CS, had high computer self-efficacy, were low in family orientation, low in conscientiousness, and low in openness to experiences were more likely to take CS courses. Furthermore, individuals who were highly conscientious and low in relational-interdependent self-construal earned the highest CS grades. Efforts to improve women's representation in CS should bear these results in mind.

  9. Tribal and Indigenous Geoscience and Earth System Science: Ensuring the Evolution and Practice of Underrepresented Scientists and Researchers in the 21ST Century and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.

    2014-12-01

    The time is critical for Tribal, Indigenous and Underrepresented K-12/university students and communities to accept the duty to provide representation in Earth System Sciences/Geosciences fields of study and professions. Tribal nations in the U.S have a unique legal status rooted in a complex relationship between the U.S. federal government, individual state/local governments and Tribal authorities. Although geosciences are often at the center of these relationships, especially as they pertain to the development of natural resources, tribal economics, and environmental stewardship, Tribal/Indigenous people remain severely underrepresented in advanced geoscience education. Our students and communities have responded to the invitation. To represent and most important develop and lead research initiatives. Leadership is a central focus of the invitation to participate, as Tribal people have immense responsibility for significant landscapes across North American Continent, critical natural resources and millennia of unpretentious natural evolution with the localized native geologies, species and environmental systems. INRSEP and Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations found sustaining relationships with the Geoscience Alliance, MS PHD's, Woods Hole PEP, Native American Pacific Islander Research Experience (NAPIRE) and LSAMP programs, in addition to state/federal agencies, has advanced culturally-relevant STEM research. Research foundationally grounded on traditional ecological knowledge, individual and Tribal self-determination. A key component is student research experiences within their ancestral homelands and traversing to REU's in multiple national and international Tribal/Indigenous ancestral territories. The relationships also serve an immense capacity in tracking student achievement, promoting best practices in research development and assessing outcomes. The model has significantly improved the success of students completing STEM graduate programs. The presentation

  10. An exercise of 'genealogy' - reactivating minor knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungurean, Ş.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In fact, we do not endeavor to disqualify any form of knowledge. We do not desire to repeat the discourse of self-sufficiency – critical with others – claiming that only this type of thinking knowledge is valid. Our intention consists in attracting attention onto the singular fact, onto the radical contingency we constantly meet in our daily lives. Consequently, we suggest the sociologist's training be oriented towards the capacity to identify a problem starting from a single fact, in other words, we request heeding minor knowledge. The large majority of graduates in sociology work with this kind of reality. Within minor knowledge the possibility of hiding the fact that power endeavors to produce both the individual and the truth it needs, does not exist. In the case we are presenting, this minor knowledge found in travel diaries has generated some of the social representations on to which major political and historical decisions were founded.

  11. Minority Variants of Drug-Resistant HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Sara; Richman, Douglas D.

    2010-01-01

    Minor drug-resistant variants exist in every HIV-infected patient. Since these minority variants are usually present at very low levels, they cannot be detected and quantified using conventional genotypic and phenotypic tests. Recently, several assays have been developed to characterize these low-abundance drug-resistant variants in the large genetically complex population present in every HIV-infected individual. The most important issue is, what results generated by these assays can predict clinical or treatment outcomes and might guide patient management in clinical practice. Cutoff-values for the detection of these low-abundance viral variants that predict increased risk of treatment failure should be determined. These thresholds may be specific for each mutation and treatment regimen. In this review we summarize the attributes and limitations of the currently available detection assays and review the existing information about both acquired and transmitted drug resistant minority variants. PMID:20649427

  12. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Peculiarities of radiodiagnosis of minor colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushnikova, V.N.; Arablinskij, V.M.; Strekalovskij, V.P.; Markova, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of the results of a multimodality study of 40 patients with minor (under 3 cm) colonic cancer the authors described in detail a method of its detection and classified its X-ray symptoms with relation to the tumor type and the degree of colon wall invasion. They showed the difficulty of radiodiagnosis of minor colonic cancer and its possibility in combination with endoscopic and morphological studies. For a better detection of the X-ray signs of minor colonic cancer one should successively use a number of methods including a polypositional study, pharmacological tests, spot roentgenography of the suspect parts of the colon using tight and semitight filling with barium meal and double contrast examination. The X-ray appearance of colonic cancer does not depend on its size: the smaller tumor size the less noticeable X-ray signs not only of malignancy but also of the tumor itself

  14. Self-Esteem Comparisons among Intellectually Gifted Minority/Non-Minority Junior High Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin-Bucell, Cynthia; And Others

    Differences in self-esteem between 48 minority and 62 non-minority intellectually gifted and 75 intellectually average junior-high students were assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated a higher level of self-esteem for the gifted students than for the control group. Significant differences were also found to exist…

  15. Tidal Tales of Minor Mergers: Star Formation in the Tidal Tails of Minor Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline; Scowen, Paul; Groppi, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    While major mergers and their tidal debris are well studied, equal mass galaxy mergers are relatively rare compared to minor mergers (mass ratio HI for 15 minor mergers, are providing a larger sample of environments to study the threshold for star formation that can inform star formation models, particularly at low densities.

  16. The BCLA Minor: Business, Communication, and Liberal Arts Minor at Towson University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahin, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cross-disciplinary minor that combines elements of business, communication, and the liberal arts. The BCLA Minor enhances employment opportunities and cultural awareness for students with majors in the Colleges of Business and Economics, Fine Arts and Communication, and Liberal Arts by integrating the…

  17. The Importance of Minority Teachers: Student Perceptions of Minority versus White Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Halpin, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    The demographic divide between teachers and students is of growing public concern. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the common argument that students, and particularly minority students, have more favorable perceptions of minority versus White teachers. Using data from the Measure of Effective Teaching study, we find that students…

  18. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  19. Minority Stress and Psychological Distress among Asian American Sexual Minority Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Sung, Mi Ra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexual minority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the…

  20. Viabilidade, confirmação taxonômica e detecção enzimática de espécies de Acremonium preservadas sob óleo mineral na Coleção de Culturas University Recife Mycology Viability, taxonomic confirmation and enzymatic detection of Acremonium species preserved under mineral oil in the URM Culture Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Carvalho de Moura Braz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Enzimas hidrolíticas secretadas por fungos têm um papel importante na patogenicidade das infecções. Objetivando avaliar a atividade enzimática foram testados 31 isolados de Acremonium mantidos na Coleção de Culturas University Recife Mycology. Fragmentos das culturas foram transferidos para caldo glicosado para reativação e posterior crescimento em meio ágar batata dextrose, para verificar viabilidade, pureza e confirmação taxonômica pela observação das características macroscópicas e microscópicas. Para detecção enzimática foram utilizados substratos de caseína do leite e gelatina para protease, amido para amilase e lecitina de soja para fosfolipase. Das 31 culturas, 26 (83,9% mantiveram-se viáveis e 24 (92,3% foram confirmadas taxonomicamente. Das 24 culturas, 12 (50% apresentaram atividade proteásica, duas (16,7% em caseína do leite, uma (8,3% em gelatina e nove (75% em ambos os substratos; 16 (66,7% degradaram amido. Nenhuma cultura apresentou atividade fosfolipásica. Conclui-se que espécies de Acremonium são capazes de produzir enzimas envolvidas na patogenicidade das infecções fúngicas.Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by fungi play an important role in the pathogenesis of infection. With the aim of evaluating the enzymatic activity, 31 isolates of Acremonium stored in the University of Recife Mycology (URM Culture Collection were tested. Culture fragments were transferred to glycoside broth for reactivation and further growth in potato dextrose agar medium in order to investigate viability and purity and to confirm the taxonomy through observing the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. To detect enzymes, milk casein and gelatin were used as substrates for proteinase, starch for amylase and soy lecithin for phospholipase. Among the 31 cultures, 26 (83.9% remained viable and 24 (92.3% were confirmed taxonomically. Out of these 24 cultures, 12 (50% presented proteinase activity, of which two (16.7% were on

  1. Women and minorities science bill becomes law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. President Bill Clinton has signed into law a measure to establish a commission to identify and address problems associated with the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering fields."Today, we have taken a positive step forward to strengthen and expand our high-tech workforce by ensuring that women, minorities, and persons with disabilities have the skills necessary to compete in the Information Age," said U.S. Rep. Connie Morella (R.-Md.), who introduced the measure.

  2. [Health and wellbeing of sexual minorities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime; Gómez, Fabiola; Cárdenas, Manuel; Gúzman, Mónica; Bahamondes, Joaquín

    2017-09-01

    Most of the information in Chile about health and wellbeing of sexual minorities refers to risk behaviors. To assess health and wellbeing in a sample of Chilean homosexual men and women. Spanish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale and Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) were answered by 191 homosexual women and 256 homosexual men aged 18 to 67 years, from four Chilean cities. Lesbian women have better levels of satisfaction with life and adjustment in personal relationships than homosexual men. Eight percent of respondents had suicidal thoughts in some moment of their life. The information gathered in this work could help in the development of mental health policies for sexual minorities.

  3. Pectinolytic complex production by Aspergillus niger URM 4645 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... minimizing costs for the industry. Results show that endo-PG, exo-PG, PL, and PE activi- ties were obtained at different conditions and times of fermentation. Therefore, it was necessary to choose a common condition for pectinase production because the food industry uses enzyme complex in the ...

  4. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents’ preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. Methods: MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). Results: The results showed that early fans of

  5. Minority Students: Understanding a New Clientele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmy Rudnick, Diane

    1985-01-01

    Provides data on recruitment, family, academic background, attitudes, and extracurricular/cultural interests of 1288 minority engineering technology students. Indicates that although their high school achievement was superior to average freshmen, their limited finances and low self-esteem remain as problems. Recommendations for addressing the…

  6. Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor cabanisi in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 27 December 2013, between the Tarangire National Park entrance and Makuyuni,. Tanzania, at 3°33´ S, 36°04´ E, altitude 1073 m, I stopped at 11:00 to photograph an aca- cia tree with nine traditional beehives in it. To my amazement I saw two Abyssinian. Scimitarbills Rhinopomastus minor entering a hole on the ...

  7. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Marja; De Jong, Marianne; De Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    AIM To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHOD One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of

  8. [Discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Fassaert, T.J.; Schene, A.H.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n =

  9. The SWOT Team Approach: Focusing on Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Susan E.

    1991-01-01

    Underscores the applicability of marketing principles to minority student recruitment and retention at community colleges. Proposes the assessment of an institution's Strengths, Weaknesses, and external Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) to strategically market the college. Considers the development of a plan for action based on the SWOT analysis.…

  10. Language and Cultural Minorities Resource Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta.

    The revised edition of the resource catalog lists nearly 1,000 print and non-print materials for use in Maine schools where close to 7,000 children of linguistic minorities are enrolled. There are 19 sections on these groups or topics: Afghan, Asian and refugee, bilingual education, Chinese, civil rights, Eastern Europe, English as a Second…

  11. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  12. Learning Disability and Ethnic Minority Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Howard; And Others

    Discrimination is discussed as it applies to the exclusion of racial minorities in classes for children with learning disabilities. The authors contend that this type of racial discrimination is prevalent nationwide (as illustrated by results of a national survey), and that the definition of learning disabilities and how it is operationalized has…

  13. Education for minority groups: a case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    1993:79) definition is more appropriate: a minority is a group that is numerically inferior to the rest of the population of .... the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (United Nations,. 1965, articles 1(4) and 2):. Special measures must be ...

  14. Stillbirth in an Anglophone minority of Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed trends in stillbirth over time for Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, a large Canadian province with publically funded health care and an English-speaking minority. METHODS: We calculated stillbirth rates for Francophones and Anglophones, and estimated hazard ratios (...

  15. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  16. Partitioning and Transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Wellum, R.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of minor actinides from spent fuels and their transmutation into short-lived fission products has been the topic of two dedicated meetings organized jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. The conclusion of the last meeting in 1980, in short, was that partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides, especially in fast reactors, seemed possible. However, the incentive, which would be a reduction of the radiological hazard to the public, was too small if long-lived fission products were not included. Furthermore this meeting showed that minor actinide targets or possible nuclear fuels containing minor actinides for transmutation had not yet been developed. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements took up this task and has carried it out as a small activity for several years. Interests expressed recently by an expert meeting of the OECD/NEA (Paris, 25 April 1989), which was initiated by the proposed Japanese project Omega, led us to the conclusion that the present state of knowledge should be looked at in a workshop environment. Since the Japanese proposal within the project Omega is based on a broader approach we needed this evaluation to assess the relevance of our present activity and wanted to identifiy additional studies which might be needed to cover possible future demands from the public. This workshop was therefore organized, and participants active in the field from EC countries, the USA and Japan were invited

  17. Ethnic Minority Women. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet contains information about the numbers and status of ethnic minority women in Great Britain. In 1991, the last full count, 1.5 million women in Britain classified themselves as other than White. Women from all ethnic groups are less likely to be economically active (paid for work or looking for it) than men. However, among ethnic…

  18. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  19. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...

  20. Drugs and Minorities. Research Issues 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains summaries of the latest research focusing on the issue of the extent of drug use and abuse among racial and ethnic minorities and the factors influencing it. Taken into consideration are age and sex differences among users, narcotics addiction, socioeconomic influences, cultural factors, racial factors, demographic factors,…

  1. LIMITING ORGANISATIONAL RIGHTS OF MINORITY UNIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    1996-02-19

    Feb 19, 1996 ... market in recent times can be attributed, in part, to inter-union rivalry.1 Minority unions ... March 2013 – resulting in a negative impact on South Africa's GDP and currency depreciation. In. 2013, the .... Organisational rights are regulated by Part A and B of Chapter 111 of the LRA, and the right to strike is ...

  2. Toric ideals and diagonal 2-minors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Katsampekis (Anargyros)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractLet $G$ be a simple graph on the vertex set ${1,\\ldots,n}$. An algebraic object attached to $G$ is the ideal $P_G$ generated by diagonal 2-minors of an $n \\times n$ matrix of variables. In this paper we first provide some general results concerning the ideal $P_G$. It is also proved that

  3. Minors and social networks: legal questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramón Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The participation in a company increasingly technological does that numerous questions appear on the protection of the most vulnerable subjects, between them the minors. The influence of the social networks like instrument of communication is not exempt from risks for the quantity of information that is facilitated and is shared. The lack of a specific regulation that he contemplates from the point of view of the Law which is the protection that a minor must have, does that there take place situations of abandonment of the rights of the same ones.The opportunity of regulation has been left to escape in the future law of protection of the infancy, nowadays in phase of preliminary design, since it does not refer to the social networks since it had been desirable. The current procedure as for minors, as well as those of protection of information, between others, do not turn out to be sufficient to contemplate all the situations of risk that can be given in the above mentioned area. In the present work we propose to think on minors and social networks raising some legal questions, and trying to contribute some response to the problematics that appears in the juridical area.

  4. Tribune: Retention Policy for Ethnic Minority Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish

  5. THE NATIONAL MINORITY CONSULTATIVE MECHANISMS - THE COUNCILS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Čorni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to explore the practical application of the soft law, in concrete terms, the documents adopted by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, referring to the models of participation of national minorities in public life in the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The objective of the research was to assess the legal and political grounds for functioning national minority councils as participation and consultative mechanisms, scope of responsibilities and capacities in relation to their effectiveness and impact and to identify relevant good practices on such mechanisms. The political and decision-making structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina demonstrated lack of actual commitment to the realization of the rights of minorities referring to participation in decision-making processes. Bearing in mind formal position within parliaments, visibility, and a significant promotional capacity for presence in the public sphere, the councils on national minorities may represent a significant body and channel for the minority – majority dialogue. However, at the moment, the national minority councils’ capacity to ensure participation of national minorities in Bosnian political life and their influence in decision-making process remains insufficient. In general, the consultative mechanisms, within their mandated responsibilities, have had insignificant and minimal impact on the practical, political and legislative segment.

  6. Sextortion of Minors: Characteristics and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Walsh, Wendy; Treitman, Leah

    2018-01-01

    Sextortion (threats to expose sexual images to coerce victims to provide additional pictures, sex, or other favors) has been identified as an emerging online threat to youth, but research is scarce. We describe sextortion incidents from a large sample of victims (n = 1,385) and examine whether incidents occurring to minors (n = 572) are more or less serious than those experienced by young adults (n = 813). We ran advertising campaigns on Facebook to recruit victims of sextortion, ages 18-25, for an online survey. We use cross tabulations and logistic regression to analyze incidents that began when 18- and 19-year-old respondents were minors (ages 17 and younger) and compare them with incidents that began at ages 18-25 years. Most minor victims were female (91%) and aged 16 or 17 when incidents started (75%). Almost 60% of respondents who were minors when sextortion occurred knew perpetrators in person, often as romantic partners. Most knowingly provided images to perpetrators (75%), but also felt pressured to do so (67%). About one-third were threatened with physical assaults and menaced for >6 months. Half did not disclose incidents, and few reported to police or websites. Perpetrators against minors (vs. adults) were more likely to pressure victims into producing initial sexual images, demand additional images, threaten victims for >6 months, and urge victims to harm themselves. Sextortion incidents were serious victimizations, and often co-occurred with teen dating violence. We describe resources so that practitioners can help victims find support and legal advice and remove posted images. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M

    2011-04-01

    We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White) completed a questionnaire assessing gender expression, minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homophobia, and concealment), social-psychological resources (i.e., social support, spirituality), and health-related outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among these factors, with gender expression as an antecedent and social-psychological resources as a mediator between minority stress and health. The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ²(79) = 414.00, p Lewis index = .91, standardized root-mean-square residual = .05, root-mean-square error of approximation = .06, accounting for significant portions of the variance in mental health problems (56%) and substance use (14%), as well as the mediator social-psychological resources (24%). Beyond indirect effects of minority stress on health outcomes, direct links emerged between victimization and substance use and between internalized homophobia and substance use. Findings indicate a significant impact of minority stressors and social-psychological resources on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. The results improve understanding of the distinct role of various minority stressors and their mechanisms on health outcomes. Health care professionals should assess for minority stress and coping resources and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Separator Theorems for Minor-Free and Shallow Minor-Free Graphs with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Alon, Seymour, and Thomas generalized Lipton and Tarjan's planar separator theorem and showed that a K(h)-minor free graph with n vertices has a separator of size at most h(3/2)root n. They gave an algorithm that, given a graph G with m edges and n vertices and given an integer h >= 1, outputs in...... the shallow minor algorithm of Plotkin, Rao, and Smith when m = Omega(n(1+is an element of)). We get a similar running time improvement for an approximation algorithm for the problem of finding a largest.. h-minor in a given graph....

  9. Feasibility and assessment of outcome measures for yoga as self-care for minorities with arthritis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R. Middleton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is a growing interest in the therapeutic benefits of yoga, minority populations with arthritis tend to be under-represented in the research. Additionally, there is an absence of guidance in the literature regarding the use of multicultural teams and sociocultural health beliefs, when designing yoga studies for a racially diverse population with arthritis. This pilot study examined the feasibility of offering yoga as a self-care modality to an urban, bilingual, minority population with osteoarthritis (OA or rheumatoid arthritis (RA, in the Washington, DC area. Methods The primary objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of offering an 8-week, bilingual yoga intervention adapted for arthritis to a convenience sample of primarily Hispanic and Black/African-American adults. A racially diverse interdisciplinary research team was assembled to design a study to facilitate recruitment and retention. The second objective identified outcome measures to operationalize potential facilitators and barriers to self-care and self-efficacy. The third objective determined the feasibility of using computer-assisted self-interview (CASI for data collection. Results Enrolled participants (n = 30 were mostly female (93%, Spanish speaking (69%, and diagnosed with RA (88.5%. Feasibility was evaluated using practicality, acceptability, adaptation, and expansion of an arthritis-adapted yoga intervention, modified for this population. Recruitment (51% and participation (60% rates were similar to previous research and clinical experience with the study population. Of those enrolled, 18 started the intervention. For adherence, 12 out of 18 (67% participants completed the intervention. All (100%, who completed the intervention, continued to practice yoga 3 months after completing the study. Using nonparametric tests, selected outcome measures showed a measurable change post-intervention suggesting appropriate use in future

  10. Feasibility and assessment of outcome measures for yoga as self-care for minorities with arthritis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kimberly R; Ward, Michael M; Haaz Moonaz, Steffany; Magaña López, Miriam; Tataw-Ayuketah, Gladys; Yang, Li; Acevedo, Ana T; Brandon, Zavera; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2018-01-01

    While there is a growing interest in the therapeutic benefits of yoga, minority populations with arthritis tend to be under-represented in the research. Additionally, there is an absence of guidance in the literature regarding the use of multicultural teams and sociocultural health beliefs, when designing yoga studies for a racially diverse population with arthritis. This pilot study examined the feasibility of offering yoga as a self-care modality to an urban, bilingual, minority population with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in the Washington, DC area. The primary objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of offering an 8-week, bilingual yoga intervention adapted for arthritis to a convenience sample of primarily Hispanic and Black/African-American adults. A racially diverse interdisciplinary research team was assembled to design a study to facilitate recruitment and retention. The second objective identified outcome measures to operationalize potential facilitators and barriers to self-care and self-efficacy. The third objective determined the feasibility of using computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for data collection. Enrolled participants ( n  = 30) were mostly female (93%), Spanish speaking (69%), and diagnosed with RA (88.5%). Feasibility was evaluated using practicality, acceptability, adaptation, and expansion of an arthritis-adapted yoga intervention, modified for this population. Recruitment (51%) and participation (60%) rates were similar to previous research and clinical experience with the study population. Of those enrolled, 18 started the intervention. For adherence, 12 out of 18 (67%) participants completed the intervention. All (100%), who completed the intervention, continued to practice yoga 3 months after completing the study. Using nonparametric tests, selected outcome measures showed a measurable change post-intervention suggesting appropriate use in future studies. An in-person computerized

  11. We the Minorities of CASE: A Special Survey of Minorities Working in Institutional Advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Claranne

    1984-01-01

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education minority member representatives listed in a CASE Membership Directory were surveyed. Information on job titles, job responsibilities, career preparation, professional development, salaries, factors affecting salary, and salary differences by sex was collected. (MLW)

  12. Vaccines for minor use and minor species (MUMS)--industry's views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönisch, B

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 30 years the importance of vaccines for minor use and minor species has changed for multinational animal health companies. The major reasons for this are being reviewed, with a particular focus on technical, financial and business aspects. Key regulatory obstacles to the development of new products for minor uses and minor species are identified, and examples of vaccines falling into the various categories are provided. A number of proposals are offered with the intention of resolving the medicines availability problem between all the stakeholders involved. Finally, based on the presented scientific and regulatory considerations, ideas are shared as to where the legal and economical framework would need to change to reach a viable solution.

  13. Minority participation: Institutional remedies against the political exclusion of ethnic minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Bühlmann, M; Hänni, M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the impact of different institutions on ethnic minorities’ political participation. Based on the results of a hierarchical cross-country comparison, we found that individuals belonging to ethnic minorities were less likely to participate in national elections than members of the majority groups within the same country. We tested whether this negative effect of belonging to an ethnic minority group on political participation could be attenuated by inclusive insti...

  14. Attracting Urban Minority Students to Geosciences through Exposure to Careers and Applied Aspects in Newark, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, A. E.; Kalczynski, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    A solid pipeline of URM students into the Geosciences has been established in Newark, NJ by introducing them to applied opportunities. Prior to an OEDG program designed to engage URM students, there were no students from or near Newark interested in pursuing geosciences at Rutgers-Newark or Essex Community College, the two local urban campuses. By infusing activities that showed the applied aspects of geoscience and opportunities for careers into regular high school lesson plans, a significant number of students became interested. These students were recruited into a 4-week modular summer institute that focused on energy, mining resources, environment and surface processes. About 90 students per year attended the institute which included 2 local field trips per week, presentations by industry professionals, activities that placed academic subjects into career perspective and a research project that directly affected the well-being of the students and their families. The most interested dozen of the 90 students were invited to participate in a high profile applied project that received significant media coverage, further enhancing their impression of the importance of geosciences. Previous graduates of the program were employed as assistants in subsequent programs to recycle the experience and enthusiasm. This had a positive effect on the persistence of the assistants who viewed themselves as role models to the younger students. The results are burgeoning numbers of URM geoscience majors at Rutgers, offering of geoscience for the first time in 30 years at Essex Community College as well as a new 2+2 geoscience track and several dual-credit courses at local high schools. An important aspect of this pathway or pipeline is that students must be able to clearly see the next step and their role in it. They are very tentative in this essentially pioneering pursuit. If they don't get a sense of a welcoming community and an ultimate career outcome, they quickly lose

  15. The Human Rights of Minority Women:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the complexities surrounding the human rights of minority women. With analytical focus on Romani women in Europe it seeks to contribute with new insight into the grey areas of rights issues, where groups within special rights categories share different human rights concerns......, by being both women and members of a minority group. Through an investigation of how contemporary human rights law and politics serve to address the concerns of Romani women, it sheds light on the challenges that the Romani women’s issue presents to the international human rights framework...... rights attention that they claim. It is argued that in order to strengthen the validity of human rights in the lives of Romani women, as a framework that ensures their full and equal protection, special attention needs to be given to interrelated grounds and forms of discrimination. “Intersectionality...

  16. Issues in contracting with small minority businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.T.; Radford, M.L.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of this investigation was to identify issues central to increasing the involvement of small minority businesses (MBs) in federal or prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE), as a foundation for designing a program to assist buyers of contracted goods and services. The approach to determining issues involved interviewing the owners of 15 MBs, representing a range of businesses, and buyers and purchasing officers from three large DOE prime contractors. The interviewees identified issues related to positive working relationships and rated a predetermined set of 27 potential MB-DOE problems regarding their existence and criticalness. The issues identified by MBs were of two broad types. The predominant issues and barriers were associated with their being small businesses. Secondary issues reflected the disadvantaged status of the business (woman and/or minority-owned).

  17. Modeling market mechanism with the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet, Damien; Marsili, Matteo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2000-01-01

    Using the minority game model we study a broad spectrum of problems of market mechanism. We study the role of different types of agents: producers, speculators as well as noise traders. The central issue here is the information flow: producers feed in the information whereas speculators make it away. How well each agent fares in the common game depends on the market conditions, as well as their sophistication. Sometimes there is much to gain with little effort, sometimes great effort virtually brings no more incremental gain. Market impact is also shown to play an important role, a strategy should be judged when it is actually used in play for its quality. Though the minority game is an extremely simplified market model, it allows to ask, analyze and answer many questions which arise in real markets.

  18. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  19. Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity......, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has become hegemonic in policy initiatives and legal documents. This hegemony is achieved by understanding ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversions from established norms in terms of deprivation. In this way,educational institutions and ‘majority society......’ as such are protected from criticism and structural changes towards multiculturalism and the recognition of the linguistic and cultural rights of minority groups. Alternative and competing positions exist in the research literature in the field, but this literature has been excluded from the level of policy and public...

  20. Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Marja; de Jong, Marianne; de Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method: One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of greater than or equal to 85, retardation in…

  1. De Gaulle, alliances, and minor powers

    OpenAIRE

    Riste, Olav

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this study is De Gaulle’s vision of foreign policy and international relations. The concept “Grandeur de la France” indicates that de Gaulle’s foreign policy was exclusively concerned with great power politics. However, the majority of states that France had to deal with were minor and middle powers. On these grounds, Olav Riste discusses what place these states occupied in de Gaulle’s view of international relations.

  2. The naming of minor planets: multicultural relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jean-Claude

    2011-06-01

    To date, among the hundred or so minor planets we discovered with various instruments around the world, twenty of these objects have been definitively numbered and named. We have choosen the names according to our centers of interest. In honouring people in domains as varied as astronomy, astronautics, music, paleontology, comic strips, . . . we had the opportunity of establishing fruitful relationships with a large horizon of cultures. It was also a good opportunity for the diffusion of astronomy towards other communities.

  3. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sabolová; Anna Adámková; Lenka Kouřimská; Diana Chrpová; Jan Pánek

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality) for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition). Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new) source of minor lipophilic compound...

  4. On entropy, financial markets and minority games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapart, Christopher A.

    2009-04-01

    The paper builds upon an earlier statistical analysis of financial time series with Shannon information entropy, published in [L. Molgedey, W. Ebeling, Local order, entropy and predictability of financial time series, European Physical Journal B-Condensed Matter and Complex Systems 15/4 (2000) 733-737]. A novel generic procedure is proposed for making multistep-ahead predictions of time series by building a statistical model of entropy. The approach is first demonstrated on the chaotic Mackey-Glass time series and later applied to Japanese Yen/US dollar intraday currency data. The paper also reinterprets Minority Games [E. Moro, The minority game: An introductory guide, Advances in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics (2004)] within the context of physical entropy, and uses models derived from minority game theory as a tool for measuring the entropy of a model in response to time series. This entropy conditional upon a model is subsequently used in place of information-theoretic entropy in the proposed multistep prediction algorithm.

  5. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  6. Research into minorities: between science and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ingilæ Landsem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interplay between science and politics in minority research in the period 1979 to mid-1980s at the University of Tromsø. Research was influenced by different conditions at the time, such as political events and policy priorities and ideological of streams in academia. Three factors influenced the choice of theme, priorities and approaches to minority research in North Norway. The first factor was the damming of the Alta-Kautokeino river, followed by Sami rights struggle and political changes towards the Sami population in Norway. What consequences did the political case for the research for the academic environment in the Northern Norway? The second factor was the research program run by the Norwegian general scientific Research (NAVF. An analysis on the relevant themes and focus areas within minority research is undertaken on basis of the research program. Finally I will use the methodological and research political discussions on emic and etic research positions that took place in the 1980s. Was it the Sami themselves, or also the researchers belonging to the majority that had the right to pursue research on the Sami? Sources consist of internal documents, reports, research papers and oral sources from the UiT.

  7. RAMOBoost: Ranked Minority Oversampling in Boosting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; He, Haibo; Garcia, Edwardo A

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, learning from imbalanced data has attracted growing attention from both academia and industry due to the explosive growth of applications that use and produce imbalanced data. However, because of the complex characteristics of imbalanced data, many real-world solutions struggle to provide robust efficiency in learning-based applications. In an effort to address this problem, this paper presents Ranked Minority Oversampling in Boosting (RAMOBoost), which is a RAMO technique based on the idea of adaptive synthetic data generation in an ensemble learning system. Briefly, RAMOBoost adaptively ranks minority class instances at each learning iteration according to a sampling probability distribution that is based on the underlying data distribution, and can adaptively shift the decision boundary toward difficult-to-learn minority and majority class instances by using a hypothesis assessment procedure. Simulation analysis on 19 real-world datasets assessed over various metrics-including overall accuracy, precision, recall, F-measure, G-mean, and receiver operation characteristic analysis-is used to illustrate the effectiveness of this method.

  8. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, G. Ivan; Christenson, John M.; Renier, J.P.; Marcille, T.F.; Casal, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs). A top-level objective of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis program element of the DOE NERI program is to investigate spent fuel treatment and recycling options for current light water reactors (LWRs). Accordingly, this project targets to expand the traditional scope of nuclear fuel management optimization into the following two complementary specific objectives: (1) To develop a direct coupling between the pin-by-pin within-bundle loading control variables and core-wide (bundle-by-bundle) optimization objectives, (2) to extend the methodology developed to explicitly encompass control variables, objectives, and constraints designed to maximize minor actinide incineration in BWR bundles and cycles. The first specific objective is projected to 'uncover' dormant thermal margin made available by employing additional degrees of freedom within the optimization process, while the addition of minor actinides is expected to 'consume' some of the uncovered thermal margin. Therefore, a key underlying goal of this project is to effectively invest some of the uncovered thermal margin into achieving the primary objective.

  9. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  10. Promoting the Geosciences for Minority Students in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Creating and Sustaining Diversity in the Geo-Sciences among Students and Teachers in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City' project was awarded to New York City College of Technology (City Tech) by the National Science Foundation to promote the geosciences for students in middle and high schools and for undergraduates, especially for those who are underrepresented minorities in STEM. For the undergraduate students at City Tech, this project: 1) created and introduced geoscience knowledge and opportunities to its diverse undergraduate student population where geoscience is not currently taught at City Tech; and 2) created geoscience articulation agreements. For the middle and high schools, this project: 1) provided inquiry-oriented geoscience experiences (pedagogical and research) for students; 2) provided standards-based professional development (pedagogical and research) in Earth Science for teachers; 3) developed teachers' inquiry-oriented instructional techniques through the GLOBE program; 4) increased teacher content knowledge and confidence in the geosciences; 5) engaged and intrigued students in the application of geoscience activities in a virtual environment; 6) provided students and teachers exposure in the geosciences through trip visitations and seminars; and 7) created community-based geoscience outreach activities. Results from this program have shown significant increases in the students (grades 6-16) understanding, participation, appreciation, and awareness of the geosciences. Geoscience modules have been created and new geosciences courses have been offered. Additionally, students and teachers were engaged in state-of-the-art geoscience research projects, and they were involved in many geoscience events and initiatives. In summary, the activities combined geoscience research experiences with a robust learning community that have produced holistic and engaging stimuli for the scientific and academic growth and development of grades 6

  11. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  12. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Tonisha B

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly white institution. From this study, a model emerged that encompassed four components: proactive care, holistic support, community building, and catalysts for STEM identity development. These components encompassed a number of strategies and practices that were instrumental in the outcomes of program participants. This paper concludes with implications for practice, such as using models to inform program planning, assessment, and evaluation. © 2016 T. B. Lane. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Minority Institution ARO Fuel Cell/Battery Manufacturing Research Hub

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selman, J

    2001-01-01

    ...) high-energy rechargeable battery research concentrated on Li-ion batteries; (3) minority outreach to give undergraduate minority students hands-on experience in electrochemical energy conversion technology and attract them to graduate studies...

  14. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  15. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  16. Impact of reflective writing assignments on dental students' views of cultural competence and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Behar-Horenstein, Linda; Lee, Barbara; Catalanotto, Frank

    2015-03-01

    To respond to widespread disparities in access to oral health care, the Institute of Medicine, the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA), and the U.S. surgeon general have stressed that prospective dentists should become culturally competent, socially responsible practitioners. The aim of this study was to examine linguistic differences in dental students' reflective writing assignments before and after interviewing an individual who was culturally different from themselves. The authors analyzed 160 documents from 80 first-year dental students at the University of Florida in 2012. This cohort consisted of 36 male (45%) and 44 female (55%) students; 26 (32%) were from underrepresented minority (URM) groups and 54 (68%) were identified as white non-minority. Text analysis software identified word counts, categories, frequencies, and contexts. Significantly positive differences occurred for interviews between assignments 1 and 2 (p=0.005 to pcultural diversity. Differences were observed for Factor 1 ("important others' influence") between assignments (p<0.001), assignments by interview categories (p=0.033), and URM/majority participants by assignments by interview category (p=0.018). Factor 4 ("my social world in relation to others") was statistically different between assignments for URM/majority participants (p=0.019). Factor 5 ("wrong because") was statistically different for gender (p=0.041), suggesting that males may have experienced a rebound effect from stereotype suppression. The findings suggest that the use of reflective writing and interviews affected the students' awareness of how important others had influenced their lives and attitudes and facilitated their questioning preconceived assumptions. Reactions to coursework focusing on social and personal domains warrant further investigation.

  17. Factors Associated With Medical School Graduates' Intention to Work With Underserved Populations: Policy Implications for Advancing Workforce Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea N; Kuo, Tony; Arangua, Lisa; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2018-01-01

    Given projected U.S. physician shortages across all specialties that will likely impact underserved areas disproportionately, the authors sought to explore factors most correlated with medical school graduates' intention to work with underserved populations (IWUP). Data from the 2010-2012 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (n = 40,846) were analyzed. Variables (demographics, career preference, debt burden, intention to enter loan forgiveness programs) were examined using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Respondents included 49.5% (20,228/40,846) women, 16.6% (6,771/40,837) underrepresented minorities (URMs), and 32.4% (13,034/37,342) with primary care intent. The median educational debt was $160,000. Respondents who were women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49, 1.70), URMs (aOR 2.50, 95% CI 2.30, 2.72), intended to enter loan forgiveness programs (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 2.26, 2.63), intended to practice primary care (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.54, 1.76), and intended to emphasize nonclinical careers (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11, 1.37) had greater odds of reporting IWUP. Among those who chose specialties and careers with a nonclinical emphasis, and among those with greater burdens of educational and consumer debt, URMs were nearly twice as likely as other minorities and whites to report IWUP. Findings suggest physician characteristics that may be associated with filling workforce gaps in underserved areas. Restructuring financial incentive programs to support physician leaders and specialists with characteristics associated with IWUP may complement similar policies in primary care and could have key impacts on health equity in underserved areas.

  18. Launching a Geoscience Career: Insights Gained from MS PHD'S Beyond the PhD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, W. I.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Jansma, P. E.; Huggans, M. J.; Ricciardi, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Beyond the PhD (B-PhD) Professional Development Program is the newest addition to the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S®) Professional Development Program in Earth System Science. This exciting new program is designed to facilitate the development of a new community of underrepresented minority (URM) doctoral candidates and recent doctorate degree recipients in Earth system science (ESS)-related fields. Building upon MS PHD'S extensive professional development activities provided to URM undergraduate and graduate students, B-PhD's vision is to encourage and support URM doctoral students and early career PhD's in becoming part of the global workforce. (Since its inception in 2003, MSPHD'S supports 213 participants of which 42 have achieved the doctoral degree and another 71 are enrolled in doctoral programs.) By providing customized support and advocacy for participants, B-PhD facilitates smoother and informed transitions from graduate school to postdoctoral and tenure-track positions, as well as other "first" jobs in academia, government, industry, and non-profit organizations. In 2011, the first conference for 18 doctoral candidate and recent graduates was hosted at the University of Texas at Arlington's (UTA) College of Science. Using a format of guest speakers, brown bag discussions, and interactive breakout sessions, participants engaged in sessions entitled "Toolkits for Success in Academia, Business and Industry, Federal Government and Non-Profits", "Defining Short, Mid and Long Term Career Goals", "Accessing and Refining Skill Sets and Other Door Openers", "International Preparation and Opportunities", "Paying it Forward/Lifting as You Climb", and "Customized Strategies for Next Steps". This presentation will discuss outcomes from this pilot project, the use of social media to track and support ongoing B-PhD activities, and objectives for future B-PhD workshops.

  19. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of this...

  20. Intrinsic Religion and Internalized Homophobia in Sexual-Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L.

    This research investigates the development of conflict between sexual minority identity and religious identity in sexual minority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexual minority identity. Retrospectively reported…

  1. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... maximizing the participation of minority farmers and ranchers in USDA programs; and (3) civil rights... organizations with a history of working with minority farmers and ranchers; (3) not less than two civil rights...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA...

  2. Community Racial Segregation, Electoral Structure, and Minority Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedlitz, Arnold; Johnson, Charles A.

    1982-01-01

    Community electoral structures and segregation levels affect minority representation. Single-member district electorate systems provide significantly more favorable minority representation levels in segregated communities. In nonsegregated cities type of election system makes little difference in the equality of minority representation. (Author/AM)

  3. Improving Educational Outcomes for Minority Males in Our Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ralph, III; Rizzi, Gleides Lopes; Council, Morris, III

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the academic underachievement and disproportionate special education placement of minority males. Causes and consequences for poor academic performance by minority males are reviewed. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and No Child Left Behind Act are discussed in relation to minority male academic achievement.…

  4. 40 CFR 158.60 - Minor use data policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minor use data policies. 158.60... DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.60 Minor use data policies. FIFRA sec. 2(ll... to, the following: (a) A new data requirement pertinent to both an unregistered minor use and a...

  5. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  6. 78 FR 72527 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ..., but whether our economic system provides a fair shot for the many. Minority-owned businesses play a... fundamental promise. America's minority enterprises include everything from Main Street cornerstones that... to recover, our investments in minority owned and operated firms will help create jobs, strengthen...

  7. Minor's healthcare: who decides? | Osime | Port Harcourt Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Virtually all legal authorities are in agreement that minors can indeed give valid informed consent for treatment (or make informed refusal) provided the minor is mature or emancipated. And for minors indeed, the overall best interest of the child should be taken into consideration with respect to parents or guardians ...

  8. Language, Minority Education and Gender: Linking Social Justice and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, David

    Injustices in language policy and practice in education are examined, focusing on three groups that appear to be most affected by unfair language policies in education; women and girls; minority social groups; and minority cultural groups, distinguished from minority social groups in that the former usually possess or identify with a language that…

  9. 7 CFR 772.7 - Leasing minor program loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing minor program loan security. 772.7 Section 772..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.7 Leasing minor program loan security. (a) Eligibility. The Agency may consent to the borrower leasing all or a portion of security...

  10. Recruiting Minority Students: A Priority for the '90s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Jimmie R.; Henniger, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Minority student enrollment in higher education over the last decade is examined, as well as population projections into the early 21st century. Many minority youth reject the assertion that success requires a college degree, and racial prejudice and violence on campuses create an inhospitable environment for minorities. (MLW)

  11. Minority Stress across the Career-Lifespan Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispenza, Franco; Brown, Colton; Chastain, Taylor E.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority persons (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) are likely to encounter "minority stress", such as discrimination, concealment, expectation of rejection, and internalized heterosexism. Minority stress occurs alongside one's lifespan and has considerable implications in the context of the career lifespan trajectory.…

  12. Self-Regulation in Children and Minors in Institutional Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbackova, Karla; Vavrova, Sona

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ…

  13. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  14. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening....... Each axle is suspended on two elastic supports modelling the wheels....

  15. Editorial: From Radicalism to Minority Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah Journal of Islamic Studies

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This edition presents contemporary themes around Islam and Muslims in Indonesia from the issues of radicalism, online media, a Dutch scholar during colonial era, women’s resistance to shariatization, local practice of Islamic sufism, minority group, to broader theme of the relation of religion and science. To begin with, James Adam Fenton sheds light on the way in which Indonesian society has responded to radical ideology. He argues that dialogue in open society with democratic spirit helps the society to disengage from radicalism.

  16. Social organization in the Minority Game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanina, František

    2000-10-01

    We study the role of imitation within the Minority Game model of market. The players can exchange information locally, which leads to formation of groups which act as if they were single players. Coherent spatial areas of rich and poor agents result. We found that the global effectivity is optimized at certain value of the imitation probability, which decreases with increasing memory length. The social tensions are suppressed for large imitation probability, but generally the requirements of high global effectivity and low social tensions are in conflict.

  17. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  18. ISLAM AND MINORITIES: Managing Identity in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suaedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian general election in March 2008 raised an interesting and new phenomenon. For the first time since independence in 1957, the ruling alliance known as the National Front (Barisan Nasional, BN failed to secure two thirds of seats in parliament and lost control of five of Malaysia’s 13 states. This was due to the challenge presented by the new opposition alliance known as the Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif, BA or the People’s Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat, PK which won more than 36% of seats in parliament and gained control of the five states. In the 2004 election, BN secured the largest ever percentage of seats in parliament with 91%. What is interesting is that it seems that this significant increase in support for the opposition is  due to their offer to change the way minorities and ethnicity is managed. They  propose a move from “Bumiputera Supremacy”, or affirmative action for the approximately 65% of “Bumiputera” Malaysians (the rest being largely of Chinese or Indian ethnicity, to “The People’s Supremacy”, which involves eradicating affirmative action based on ethnicity, basing it instead on need, for  instance need due to poverty. This would potentially increase the likelihood  of justice and equality for all ethnic or racial groups. This paper connects the phenomenon of change, as seen in the about turn in the results between the  2004 and 2008 elections, to the more global trend in which minorities are standing up to demand their rights in this era of globalization, and to the challenge multiculturalism presents to parts of the Muslim world such as Malaysia. Malaysia, a Muslim majority nation that has formally declared Islam the official state religion with Yang di-Pertuan Agong (the King as  Head of the State and symbol of Islam, is one example, though not necessarily  representative, of how Islam and Muslims manage minorities and identity or  multiculturalism within the process of globalization

  19. Minorities in Nursing Education: Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Black, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    The use of Smartphones in teaching and learning is transforming academia and affords a shift in paradigm for Historically Black Universities and Colleges (HBCUs) nurse programs for the 21st century. Smartphone use in academic settings has gained popularity among college students. For minority and low-income students, this handheld device may be the only source to real-time Internet-accessible information, and in anchoring social, vocational, and academic habits. Nursing faculty acceptance of smartphones in the classroom assists in clinical and simulation learning experiences. These experiences are keys to integration of successful smartphone initiatives in HBCU nursing programs.

  20. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This paper deals with the dynamics of ageing among ethnic minorities within a broad psychosocial framework involving the transnational contexts. Based on findings from psychotherapy with older adults (Knight, 2004) and a couple of empirical studies (Singla, 2008, Westerling, 2008) with young adults......, reciprocal expectations, ambivalences. The results of these studies show a convergence in the filial norms among ethnic groups in the Danish welfare state. The unique aspects of the young adults’ trajectories challenge, transgress and transform some of the stereotypes related to cultural practices...

  1. Domestic abuse against minors: A victomological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the main findings of the secondary analysis conducted by the author on the statistics of the Prosecutors' Office with the High Court of Cassation and Justice in the period between 2005 and the first semester of 2007, regarding domestic physical and sexual abuse against minors. The study emphasizes the increase or decrease trends in the number of victims of domestic abuse according to the category of crime (for example manslaughter, battery resulting in death, battery and other types of violence, rape, incest, sexual corruption, etc. as well as in relation to aggressors and victims.

  2. Book Review: Higher Education and the Palestinian Minority in Israel by Khalid Arar and Kussai Haj-Yehia, Palgrave Macmillan (US, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Florian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For both Prof. Arar and Haj-Yehia the study of education related topics in the context of the Palestinian Arab minority in Israel has been a career guiding theme. Their previous research projects and publications have touched on various dimensions of this issue, mainly emphasizing issues such as access to education, but also documentation of migration for study relation purposes of members of this community. Their latest book, “Higher Education and the Palestinian Arab Minority in Israel”, published in 2016 by Palgrave Macmillan, can be described as a synthesis of previous research and, at the same time, an argument for supporting access to education for underrepresented groups. From the prologue even of the book the authors state their objective clearly: “to raise pertinent questions concerning the dual marginality of Palestinian Arab minority in Israel (PAMI, […] in Israel’s HE system and employment market” (p. 1. The book is structured in seven chapters and an Epilogue, starting with general historical information about the PAMI and the formation of the state of Israel and ending with policy proposals to widen access to education for members of the PAMI minority. The narrative follows a classical structure, with each chapter approaching a different dimension of the more general topics of access to education, outcomes of education on the labor market and finally policy evaluation and proposals for improvement of both. Using data and research results from both quantitative and qualitative previous studies, the authors argue that the existence of numerous hurdles hampering access to higher education, in particular, foster further inequalities on the labor market for members of the PAMI community

  3. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-01-01

    Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination

  4. On freak minor octopus, Octopus minor, found out in Imabari Fish Market, Ehime Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Higashide, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    The three male freak minor octopus, Octopus minor were found out on Fish Market of Imabari Fisheries Cooperative, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. One of them was the octopus landed on May 25, 2006, which had two hectocotilized arms on both of the third right and left, though male octopus usually has only one hectocotilized arm on the third right arm. It was seemed to be arisen from the abnormal generation. Another ones were landed on the Fish Market on April 16 and June 26, 2007, respectively. Both ...

  5. Minority games, evolving capitals and replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Tobias; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2009-11-01

    We discuss a simple version of the minority game (MG) in which agents hold only one strategy each, but in which their capitals evolve dynamically according to their success and in which the total trading volume varies in time accordingly. This feature is known to be crucial for MGs to reproduce stylized facts of real market data. The stationary states and phase diagram of the model can be computed, and we show that the ergodicity breaking phase transition common for MGs, and marked by a divergence of the integrated response, is present also in this simplified model. An analogous majority game turns out to be relatively void of interesting features, and the total capital is found to diverge in time. Introducing a restraining force leads to a model akin to the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory, and we demonstrate that here a different type of phase transition is observed. Finally we briefly discuss the relation of this model with one strategy per player to more sophisticated minority games with dynamical capitals and several trading strategies per agent.

  6. Minor and major health: a Nietzschean reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biato, Emília Carvalho Leitão; Costa, Luciano Bedin da; Monteiro, Silas Borges

    2017-03-01

    This paper aims to discuss the concept of health, understood as multiple and plural. We use Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical thought as an analytical tool, allowing us to reach a typology involving minor and major health. While the first is normative and sustained by an ideal of healing, the second is an expanding strength, a condition constantly achieved. If minor health follows a preset life moralization script, major health relates to the expanded living being, which affirms its creative nature and transcends established rules. The notion of major health embraces the overcoming of imperative models rooted in biomedicine-based practices and approaches to health collective actions. Nevertheless, on the one hand, if this movement extends the co-participatory nature between staff and users of the health system, on the other hand, it lacks more radical actions to break with the moral nature of health-disease processes. Not refusing life's own vicissitudes, major health understands the need to incorporate pain and suffering involved in individuation movements.

  7. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority students. To replicate across cultures the known motivational benefits of perceived instrumentality and internal regulation by distant future goals; to clarify when and how the future motivates minority students' educational performance. Participants in this study were 279 minority students (100 of Turkish and 179 of Moroccan origin) and 229 native Dutch students in Dutch secondary schools. Participants rated the importance of future goals, their perceptions of instrumentality, their task motivation and learning strategies. Dependent measures and their functional relations with future goal setting were simultaneously validated across minority and non-minority students, using structural equation modelling in multiple groups. As expected, Positive Perceived Instrumentality for the future increases task motivation and (indirectly) adaptive learning of both minority and non-minority students. But especially internally regulating future goals are strongly related to more task motivation and indirectly to more adaptive learning strategies. Our findings throw new light on the role of future goal setting in minority school careers: distant future goals enhance minority and non-minority students' motivation and learning, if students perceive positive instrumentality and if their schoolwork is internally regulated by future goals.

  8. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

  9. Pathway out of poverty: a values-based college-community partnership to improve long-term outcomes of underrepresented students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jamie Kamailani; Kuuleialoha Kamaka, Sharmayne A; Braun, Kathryn L

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiians, representing 25% of Hawai'i's population, suffer socioeconomic and health strains as evidenced by overrepresentation in low-wage jobs without health insurance and a higher prevalence of chronic disease compared with Hawai'i's other ethnic groups. Native Hawaiians are more likely to attend community colleges than 4-year colleges and have high dropout rates. To describe a culturally relevant, community-based action research approach to build a program to keep Hawaiians in college to advance career options and improve long-term health and socioeconomic outcomes. Culturally relevant approaches that depended on participation from a variety of community partners were used to evaluate needs and design interventions. The Pathway Out of Poverty Program uses Hawaiian values and traditions of healthy living to lead students through a nursing pathway from nurse aide (NA) to licensed practical nurse (LPN) to registered nurse (RN), with inherent increases in wage-earning potential. In the first 3.5 years, 150 students enrolled in NA training, and 135 students (90%) graduated and were certified. Of the 135, 77 (57%) transitioned to higher education and 79% transitioned to jobs that offered health insurance (20% were in both groups). Of the 77 entering higher education, 33 (43%) aimed for a degree in nursing. Students expressed growing interest in health promotion for themselves, family members, and others. Community partners were key to developing a successful community college-based Pathway Program to help marginalized and other underrepresented students move from low-wage to living-wage jobs and improve their long-term health outcomes.

  10. Biomedical Science Ph.D. Career Interest Patterns by Race/Ethnicity and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth D Gibbs

    Full Text Available Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion, and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71, p<0.001, and URM women were more likely than all other groups to report high interest in non-research careers (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.28-2.90, p = 0.002. The persistence of disparities in the career interests of Ph.D. recipients suggests that a supply-side (or "pipeline" framing of biomedical workforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most

  11. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  12. The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education: Bringing awareness of the geosciences to minorities in Detroit MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepa, N. A.; Murray, K. S.; Napieralski, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    According to recent studies, more than 40% of students within the Detroit Public Schools (DPS) drop out and only 21% graduate within 4 years. In an attempt to improve these statistics, The Geosciences Institute for Research and Education was developed by the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-D) and funded by two grants from the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) OEDG Program. The Geosciences Institute, a collaboration between the UM-D, DPS, and local corporations, aims to generate awareness of the geosciences to middle school students, facilitate an enthusiastic learning environment, encourage underrepresented minorities to stay in school, and consider the geosciences as a viable career option. This is accomplished by involving their teachers, UM-D faculty and students, and local geoscience professionals in community-based research problems relevant to SE Michigan. Students use the geosciences as a tool in which they are actively participating in research that is in their backyards. Through a mixture of field trips, participation, and demonstrational activities the students become aware of local environmental and social problems and how a background in the geosciences can prepare them. As part of the Geosciences Institute, students participate in three ongoing research projects with UM-D faculty: (1) build, install, and monitor groundwater wells along the Lower Rouge River, (2) collect soil samples from and mapping brownfields in SW Detroit, and (3) learn basic GPS and GIS skills to map local natural resources. The students also work with faculty on creating video diaries that record ideas, experiences, and impressions throughout the Institute, including during fieldtrips, modules, research, and editing. Finally, small teams of students collaborate to design and print a poster that summarizes their experience in the Institute. The Geosciences Institute concludes with a ceremony that celebrates student efforts (posters and videos) and involves school

  13. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  14. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  15. Social Interaction and the Minority-Majority Earnings Inequality : Why Being a Minority Hurts but being a big Minority Hurts More

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahanec, M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical findings that minorities typically attain lower economic status than majorities and that relatively larger minorities perform worse than smaller ones pose a challenge to economics.To explain this scale puzzle, I model an economy where the society is bifurcated into two social groups that

  16. Minority game and anomalies in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghua; Liang, Xiaobei; Tang, Bingyong

    2004-02-01

    The minority game (MG), which is intrinsically associated with financial markets, is an agent-based model of a competing population with limited resources. We find that the fluctuation features of MG in crowded region are more similar to real market than that of in perfect cooperation region. So we propose and study a modified model based on the MG in which agents accumulate virtual points for their strategies from the last H steps instead of from the beginning of the game. The results of numerical simulations on our new model show that agents will be more intelligent, and the types of features of fluctuations are the same in real-world market. We also give a numerical explanation of the high adaptability of agents in new model.

  17. Dynamics of a spherical minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, T; Coolen, A C C; Sherrington, D

    2003-01-01

    We present an exact dynamical solution of a spherical version of the batch minority game (MG) with random external information. The control parameters in this model are the ratio of the number of possible values for the public information over the number of agents, and the radius of the spherical constraint on the microscopic degrees of freedom. We find a phase diagram with three phases: two without anomalous response (an oscillating versus a frozen state) and a further frozen phase with divergent integrated response. In contrast to standard MG versions, we can also calculate the volatility exactly. Our study reveals similarities between the spherical and the conventional MG, but also intriguing differences. Numerical simulations confirm our analytical results

  18. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the numerical models for the mathematical models of the vehicles and the bridge from which the load amplification factors can be estimated assuming that the dynamic parameters of the vehicles and the modal parameters of the bridge are known....

  19. Information visualization of the minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, W; Herbert, R D; Webber, R

    2008-01-01

    Many dynamical systems produce large quantities of data. How can the system be understood from the output data? Often people are simply overwhelmed by the data. Traditional tools such as tables and plots are often not adequate, and new techniques are needed to help people to analyze the system. In this paper, we propose the use of two spacefilling visualization tools to examine the output from a complex agent-based financial model. We measure the effectiveness and performance of these tools through usability experiments. Based on the experimental results, we develop two new visualization techniques that combine the advantages and discard the disadvantages of the information visualization tools. The model we use is an evolutionary version of the Minority Game which simulates a financial market

  20. Information visualization of the minority game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, W [Shanghai E and P International, Inc. 12 and 37F, Shanghai Information Tower, 211 Century Ave., Pu Dong New District, Shanghai 200120 (China); Herbert, R D; Webber, R [School of Design, Communication and Information Technology, University of Newcastle (Australia)], E-mail: Ric.Herbert@newcastle.edu.au

    2008-02-15

    Many dynamical systems produce large quantities of data. How can the system be understood from the output data? Often people are simply overwhelmed by the data. Traditional tools such as tables and plots are often not adequate, and new techniques are needed to help people to analyze the system. In this paper, we propose the use of two spacefilling visualization tools to examine the output from a complex agent-based financial model. We measure the effectiveness and performance of these tools through usability experiments. Based on the experimental results, we develop two new visualization techniques that combine the advantages and discard the disadvantages of the information visualization tools. The model we use is an evolutionary version of the Minority Game which simulates a financial market.

  1. The transition to efficiency in minority games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, Tobias; De Martino, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The existence of a phase transition with diverging susceptibility in batch minority games (MGs) is the mark of informationally efficient regimes and is linked to the specifics of the agents' learning rules. Here, we study how the standard scenario is affected in a mixed population game in which agents with the 'optimal' learning rule (i.e. the one leading to efficiency) coexist with those whose adaptive dynamics is sub-optimal. Our generic finding is that any non-vanishing intensive fraction of optimal agents guarantees the existence of an efficient phase. Specifically, we calculate the dependence of the critical point on the fraction q of 'optimal' agents focusing our analysis on three cases: MGs with market impact correction, grand-canonical MGs and MGs with heterogeneous comfort levels

  2. Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.

    2009-10-01

    Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

  3. Learning Schoolscapes in a Minority Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biró Enikő

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In my paper, I present a qualitative approach to the linguistic landscape of Hungarian schools in Sepsiszentgyörgy/Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. These landscapes are called schoolscapes as they represent the material environment where texts and images “constitute, reproduce and transform language ideologies” (Brown 2012: 282. These manifestations reveal a lot about language learning and teaching in a formal educational environment. Beyond the simple representations of languages in education, we may trace more or less hidden curriculum details of foreign- and second-language teaching (English/German, Romanian in a Hungarian-Romanian dominant bilingual setting. My aim is to describe the visual manifestations of the differences and similarities between the languages taught to minority children and the mutual efforts of teachers and students to meet the basic challenges of learning and teaching these languages.

  4. Double-Critical Graphs and Complete Minors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Toft, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

      A connected $k$-chromatic graph $G$ is double-critical if for all edges $uv$ of $G$ the graph $G - u - v$ is $(k-2)$-colourable. The only known double-critical $k$-chromatic graph is the complete $k$-graph $K_k$. The conjecture that there are no other double-critical graphs is a special case...... of a conjecture from 1966, due to Erd\\H{o}s and Lov\\'asz.  The conjecture has been verified for $k \\leq 5$.  We prove for $k=6$ and $k=7$ that any non-complete double-critical $k$-chromatic graph is $6$-connected and has $K_k$ as a minor. Udgivelsesdato: 07.06....

  5. Towards the Enhancement of "MINOR" Archaeological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, S.; Tremari, M.; Mandelli, A.

    2017-02-01

    The research is an analysis of the recording, reconstruction and visualisation of the 3D data of a XVIII century watermill, identified in an emergency archaeological excavation during the construction of the mini-hydroelectric plant on the bank of the Adda river in the municipality of Pizzighettone (Cremona, Lombardy, Italy). The work examines the use and the potentials of modern digital 3D modelling techniques applied to archaeological heritage aimed to increase the research, maintenance and presentation with interactive products. The use of three-dimensional models managed through AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) technologies with mobile devices gives several opportunities in the field of study and communication. It also improves on-site exploration of the landscape, enhancing the "minor" archaeological sites, daily subjected to numerous emergency works and facilitating the understanding of heritage sites.

  6. Own education institutions as an option for minority groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Steyn

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the introductory part deals with Christian guidelines regarding the rights of minority groups. In the ensuing part the provision of education according to the unique educational needs of minority groups is discussed within the context of the presented guidelines. It is indicated that own education is internationally accepted as one of the major rights of minority groups. Within the international context, for example in the treaties of Unesco and in the educational provision of several countries, it is accepted that minority groups also prefer their own education institutions in order to effectively provide in their unique educational needs. In this article the more general requirements, regarding the characteristics of the education institution needed to meet the unique educational needs of a particular minority group are also identified. The impending problems in South Africa regarding own education schools for minorities are discussed briefly. In order to find possible solutions the situation in the Netherlands regarding "bijzondere scholen” to provide in the unique educational needs of particular interest groups and particularly religious groups is analysed. The conclusion arrived at is that the mentioned situation does not oppose Christian guidelines if minorities need each other to influence educational change, that the acknowledgement of the educational rights of minority groups promotes national unity, that the educational rights of minorities should imply freedom of establishment, denomination and institution and that the educational rights of minorities are fully realised if their education is financially supported by government on an equal basis to that of the majority.

  7. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Liu, Fang; Huang, Liming; Fu, Juan; Meng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing k eff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR k eff markedly. The PWR k eff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  8. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  9. 76 FR 10337 - National Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprises; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... minority businesses and their ability to successfully access the domestic and global marketplace. Topics to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Minority Business Development Agency National Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprises; Meeting AGENCY: Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA), Department of Commerce...

  10. Minority stress in people who identify as transgender: testing the minority stress model

    OpenAIRE

    Stennett, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: People who identify as transgender are reported to experience high levels of mental health problems in comparison to people who do not identify as transgender. The minority stress model has been used to explain these high prevalence rates. But this model was designed to be used in lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) populations (Meyer, 1995, 2003). Researchers have applied some of the hypothesised processes of the model to people who identify as transgender. However, evidence testing ...

  11. Mentoring for minorities in mathematics and science. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamma, S.E.

    1998-05-01

    The University of West Florida received a grant from the US Department of Energy to initiate a program on mentoring for Minorities in Mathematics and Science. The purpose of the program was to develop interest of minority freshman and sophomore students in teaching mathematics and science and then have these students act as role models for grade school students, especially for minorities who are experiencing difficulties in science and mathematics education. Fifteen students, one more than what was budgeted, participated in the project.

  12. Cranial nerve injury after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Alejandro Fernández; Canals, Andreu Gabarrós; Gonzalez, Juan Martino; Martín, Juan José Acebes

    2010-09-01

    There are no specific studies about cranial nerve (CN) injury following mild head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) in the literature. The aim of this analysis was to document the incidence of CN injury after mild head trauma and to correlate the initial CT findings with the final outcome 1 year after injury. The authors studied 49 consecutive patients affected by minor head trauma and CN lesions between January 2000 and January 2006. Detailed clinical and neurological examinations as well as CT studies using brain and bone windows were performed in all patients. Based on the CT findings the authors distinguished 3 types of traumatic injury: no lesion, skull base fracture, and other CT abnormalities. Patients were followed up for 1 year after head injury. The authors distinguished 3 grades of clinical recovery from CN palsy: no recovery, partial recovery, and complete recovery. Posttraumatic single nerve palsy was observed in 38 patients (77.6%), and multiple nerve injuries were observed in 11 (22.4%). Cranial nerves were affected in 62 cases. The most affected CN was the olfactory nerve (CN I), followed by the facial nerve (CN VII) and the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI). When more than 1 CN was involved, the most frequent association was between CNs VII and VIII. One year after head trauma, a CN deficit was present in 26 (81.2%) of the 32 cases with a skull base fracture, 12 (60%) of 20 cases with other CT abnormalities, and 3 (30%) of 10 cases without CT abnormalities. Trivial head trauma that causes a minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) can result in CN palsies with a similar distribution to moderate or severe head injuries. The CNs associated with the highest incidence of palsy in this study were the olfactory, facial, and oculomotor nerves. The trigeminal and lower CNs were rarely damaged. Oculomotor nerve injury can have a good prognosis, with a greater chance of recovery if no lesion is demonstrated on the initial CT scan.

  13. Music in minor activates limbic structures: a relationship with dissonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anders C; Baerentsen, Klaus B; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter

    2008-05-07

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we contrasted major and minor mode melodies controlled for liking to study the neural basis of musical mode perception. To examine the influence of the larger dissonance in minor melodies on neural activation differences, we further introduced a strongly dissonant stimulus, in the form of a chromatic scale. Minor mode melodies were evaluated as sadder than major melodies, and in comparison they caused increased activity in limbic structures, namely left parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral ventral anterior cingulate, and in left medial prefrontal cortex. Dissonance explained some, but not all, of the heightened activity in the limbic structures when listening to minor mode music.

  14. MINOR INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES AND METHODS OF THEIR FINANCING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Komissarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minor enterprises do not have resources sufficient for investment. Present experience of venture financing and attraction of funds from finance markets is poor in Russia. Main minor entrepreneurship financing sources are state allocations in the form of subsidies, subventionsand donations. This support promotes economics diversification and increases jobs. The state becomes client of innovations and provides for business environment favorable for minor entrepreneurship and for subsequent diffusion of innovations. One of most efficient innovationactivity stimulation methods (applied to minor enterprises as well is provision for tax privileges, favorable state bank credits and preferences to innovation activity supporting commercial banks.

  15. Self-regulation in children and minors in institutional care

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbáčková, Karla; Vávrová, Soňa

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ significantly in perception of the wards' self-regulation of behaviour in the short and long-term context. The lowest rate of self-regulation in children and minor...

  16. The missing curriculum: experience with emotional competence education and training for premedical and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Loma K

    2005-09-01

    Medical education has long overlooked teaching the normal psychodynamics of everyday adult life (psychonormality) in favor of training in psychopathology. Proficiency in psychonormality skills (i.e., emotional competence) includes skilled management of internal emotions, external situations and relationships, and promotes patient satisfaction and healthcare outcomes as well as better mental health for practitioners. In particular, teaching psychonormality skills can be helpful to underrepresented minority (URM) students whose psychonormality experiences may differ from the culture of mainstream medical education. This paper outlines a clinically derived, pragmatic, five-step course designed to educate and train students for emotionally competent medical practice. A real-life example taken from an introductory workshop presentation of this course at a Student National Medical Association meeting is presented to illustrate the student-oriented application of the concepts. The enthusiastic reception accorded such workshops suggests an unmet need for this type of training in medical curricula. Benefits could include improved doctor-patient relationships and associated healthcare outcomes as well as higher retention of competent, professional, satisfied and healthier physicians, particularly URMs. Medical schools and residencies are encouraged to carefully evaluate the impact of incorporating psychonormality education and emotional competence training into their present curricula and faculty development.

  17. The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE): an Educational Experience for Undergraduates at the University of Arizona Alumni Association's Astronomy Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Courtney; McCarthy, D.; Rudolph, A.

    2011-01-01

    The California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) is an NSF-funded partnership between the Astronomy Program at Cal Poly Pomona (CPP) and the University of Arizona Steward Observatory designed to promote participation of underrepresented minorities (including women) in astronomy research and education. As part of the education component of the program, CPP undergraduate physics majors and minors are eligible to work as a counselor at the University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, one of the premier astronomy outreach opportunities in the world. CAMPARE students have the opportunity to work in this learn-by-doing environment with a wide range of students to gain first hand experience of teaching astronomy to students of a wide variety of ages in highly structured educational setting. Cal Poly Pomona students who are interested in education, both formal and informal, work in a variety of camps, from Girl Scout camps to camps for advanced high school students, to further their understanding of what it means to be a professional in the field of education. The CAMPARE student who participated in this program during summer 2010 had the opportunity to work under Dr. Don McCarthy, camp director of University of Arizona's Astronomy Camps for 20 years, and observe the interpersonal relations between campers and staff that is so vital to the learning the students receive. Through these observations, the CAMPARE student was able to learn to gauge students' interest in the material, and experience real life teaching and learning scenarios in the informal education realm.

  18. Decelerated medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Brian; McQuail, Diane

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain information regarding the prevalence, structure, student characteristics and outcomes of formal decelerated medical education programs. A 13-item survey was mailed to all US medical schools examining characteristics of decelerated curricular programs. Responses were received from 77 schools (62% response). Some 24 (31%) indicated a formal decelerated option; 13 (57%) decelerate the first year while four (17%) decelerate year 1 or year 2. Participants may be selected before matriculation or after difficulty in 14 (61%) programs while four (17%) select only after encountering difficulty. Students may unilaterally choose deceleration in 10 (43%); 4.3% (0.1-12) of total matriculants were decelerated. The proportion of decelerated students identified as underrepresented minority (URM) was 37% (0-100), representing 10.5% (0-43) of total URM enrollment. Twelve (52%) programs do not provide unique support beyond deceleration. Standards for advancement are identical for decelerated and regular students in 17 schools (81%). In total, 10% (0-100) of decelerated students were dismissed within the last five years, representing 24% (0-90) of all dismissals. Few schools provided grade point average (GPA) or Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) data but the limited responses indicate that many decelerated students are at risk for academic difficulty. It is concluded that decelerated curricular options are available at a significant number of US medical schools. Decelerated students comprise a small proportion of total enrollment but URM matriculants represent a disproportionate share of participants. Decelerated programs appear to be successful as measured by dismissal rates if one accepts attrition which exceeds that for regular MD students. Variation in dismissal rates is difficult to interpret given the lack of GPA and MCAT data. One half of all programs offer no additional support activities beyond deceleration. More data are needed to

  19. An Integrative and Collaborative Approach to Creating a Diverse and Computationally Competent Geoscience Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. L.; Kar, A.; Gomez, R.

    2015-12-01

    A partnership between Fort Valley State University (FVSU), the Jackson School of Geosciences at The University of Texas (UT) at Austin, and the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) is engaging computational geoscience faculty and researchers with academically talented underrepresented minority (URM) students, training them to solve grand challenges . These next generation computational geoscientists are being trained to solve some of the world's most challenging geoscience grand challenges requiring data intensive large scale modeling and simulation on high performance computers . UT Austin's geoscience outreach program GeoFORCE, recently awarded the Presidential Award in Excellence in Science, Mathematics and Engineering Mentoring, contributes to the collaborative best practices in engaging researchers with URM students. Collaborative efforts over the past decade are providing data demonstrating that integrative pipeline programs with mentoring and paid internship opportunities, multi-year scholarships, computational training, and communication skills development are having an impact on URMs developing middle skills for geoscience careers. Since 1997, the Cooperative Developmental Energy Program at FVSU and its collaborating universities have graduated 87 engineers, 33 geoscientists, and eight health physicists. Recruited as early as high school, students enroll for three years at FVSU majoring in mathematics, chemistry or biology, and then transfer to UT Austin or other partner institutions to complete a second STEM degree, including geosciences. A partnership with the Integrative Computational Education and Research Traineeship (ICERT), a National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Site at TACC provides students with a 10-week summer research experience at UT Austin. Mentored by TACC researchers, students with no previous background in computational science learn to use some of the world's most powerful high performance

  20. The STEM Lecture Hall: A Study of Effective Instructional Practices for Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Lynn Christine

    First-generation, low-income, underrepresented minority (URM) and female undergraduates are matriculating into science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors at unprecedented levels. However, a disproportionate number of these students end up graduating in non-STEM disciplines. Attrition rates have been observed to spike in conjunction with introductory STEM courses in chemistry, biology, and physics. These "gateway" courses tend to be housed in large, impersonal lecture halls. First-generation and URM students struggle in this environment, possibly because of instructors' reliance on lecture-based content delivery and rote memorization. Recent social psychological studies suggest the problem may be related to cultural mismatch, or misalignment between independent learning norms typical of American universities and interdependent learning expectancies for first-generation and URM students. Value-affirming and utility-value interventions yield impressive academic achievement gains for these students. These findings overlap with a second body of literature on culturally responsive instruction. Active gateway learning practices that emphasize interactive instruction, frequent assessment, and epistemological instruction can be successful because of their propensity to incorporate values affirming and utility-value techniques. The present study observed instruction for gateway STEM courses over a three-year period at the University of California, Irvine (N = 13,856 undergraduates in 168 courses). Exploratory polychoric factor analysis was used to identify latent variables for observational data on gateway STEM instructional practices. Variables were regressed on institutional student data. Practices implemented in large lecture halls fall into three general categories: Faculty-Student Interaction, Epistemological Instruction, and Peer Interaction . The present study found that Faculty-Student Interaction was negatively associated with student outcomes for

  1. Cultural Minorities and Life Styles: Iranian Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fakouhi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Globalization accelerated the paradoxical processes of modernization by introducing the cultural homogenizations and heterogenizations: construction and deconstruction of local-communitarian identities. This is why we are facing on the one hand, the increasing of local identities and visions and on the other hand, the interference, sometimes in a conflicted way, of the latter forms with the national and global identities. In this context, the Iranian problematic is discussed by an urban anthropological theoretical approach. The main concern in this article is the everyday life styles as the most important means of the cultural identity formation and their self expressions. Social constructed space as Lefebvre put it, and Cultural Studies tradition of everyday life, have been the starting points of this paper aiming to analyze the cultural resistance phenomenon expressed in physical and bodily spaces as well as in social and intercultural relations in domains such as age, ethnics and gender. These identity schemes have been taken as minority situations when they express in a way or other, some sort of cultural or social resistance facing a dominant pattern and by this way the paper try to present some practical and applied solutions to decrease the social tensions.

  2. Sexual Minority Disparities in Substance Use Willingness Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Mereish, Ethan H; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Hayes, Kerri; Jackson, Kristina M

    2018-01-02

    Disparities in substance use have been observed in sexual minority youth, but less is known about willingness to use substances, an important precursor to actual use. The goal of this study was to examine willingness to use cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among sexual minority youth compared to their non-sexual minority counterparts using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. The present study drew on two waves (Times 1 and 2; 6 months apart) of data collected during high school as part of a prospective study of substance use initiation and progression in Rhode Island. At Time 1, participants (N = 443) ranged in age from 15 to 20 years (M age = 16.7 years, 26.6% sexual minority, 59.5% female, 72.0% White). Participants self-reported their sexual identity and attraction, lifetime use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use willingness (i.e., if offered by a best friend or group of friends). In cross-sectional multivariate regression models, sexual minority youth were more likely to report willingness to use cigarettes (p alcohol use willingness in multivariable cross-sectional or longitudinal models by sexual minority status. Sexual minority youth reported more willingness than non-sexual minority youth to use substances offered by peers; however, longitudinal analyses revealed that peers appear to play a role only in willingness to smoke cigarettes for these youth, and thus peer influence may be a contributing factor in explaining tobacco-related disparities among sexual minority youth. Given that stigma and peer groups may a particular risk factor for tobacco among sexual minority youth, our findings highlight the importance of prevention programs such as social marketing approaches that correct social norms, reduce stigma, and provide refusal-skills training to reduce tobacco-related disparities among sexual minorities.

  3. Critical Components of a Successful Undergraduate Research Experience in the Geosciences for Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Chukuigwe, C.

    2013-12-01

    For the past five years, the New York City College of Technology has administered a successful National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. The program provides rich, substantive, academic and life-transformative STEM educational experiences for students who would otherwise not pursue STEM education altogether or would not pursue STEM education through to the graduate school level. The REU Scholars are provided with an opportunity to conduct intensive satellite and ground-based remote sensing research at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (NOAA-CREST). Candidates for the program are recruited from the City University of New York's twenty-three separate campuses. These students engage in a research experience that spans the summer and the fall and spring semesters. Eighty-four percent (84%) of the program participants are underrepresented minorities in STEM, and they are involved in a plethora of undergraduate research best practice activities that include: training courses in MATLAB programming, Geographic Information Systems, and Remote Sensing; workshops in Research Ethics, Scientific Writing, and Oral and Poster Research Presentations; national, regional, and local conference presentations; graduate school support; and geoscience exposure events at national laboratories, agencies, and research facilities. To enhance their success in the program, the REU Scholars are also provided with a comprehensive series of safety nets that include a multi-tiered mentoring design specifically to address critical issues faced by this diverse population. Since the inception of the REU program in 2008, a total of 61 undergraduate students have finished or are continuing with their research or are pursuing their STEM endeavors. All the REU Scholars conducted individual satellite and ground-based remote sensing research projects that ranged from the study of

  4. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  5. 75 FR 52211 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... good idea and enough hard work can succeed and share those achievements with their employees and... businesses to double our exports over the next 5 years. The skills and leadership of minority business owners... we honor minority enterprises, their industrious owners, and their hard-working employees, let us...

  6. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  7. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

  8. Digital Divide: Low German and Other Minority Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the online presence of Low German, a minority language spoken in northern Germany, as well as several other European regional and minority languages. In particular, this article presents the results of two experiments, one involving "Wikipedia" and one involving "Twitter," that assess whether and to…

  9. Lines of Deterritorialization: The Becoming-Minor of Carter's Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Invoking Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's configuration of minor literature, the author of this case study theorizes the drawing practice of a young boy (Carter) as a process of becoming-minor. Critical to this theorization is the creation and activation of a semblance between Brent and Marjorie Wilson's (1977) treatment of the…

  10. 77 FR 72679 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ..., you can succeed. It is this belief that leads a worker to leave a job to become her own boss, propels... belief in tomorrow's promise is guiding minority entrepreneurs across our country to start the kinds of..., contracts, and markets to minority entrepreneurs seeking to expand their businesses at home and overseas. We...

  11. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  12. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kamen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study offers preliminary evidence that sexual minority status is one variable among many that must be taken into account when assessing health behaviors post-cancer diagnosis. Future research should identify mechanisms leading from sexual minority status to increased rates of smoking and develop tailored smoking cessation interventions.

  13. Leadership Identity Development through an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Tyson J.; McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership development among postsecondary students can occur through a variety of experiences; one such experience is a leadership minor. The purpose of this descriptive interpretive study was to analyze students' experiences while enrolled in a leadership minor with a focus on exploring evidence of leadership identity development. By exploring…

  14. Identifying Inputs to Leadership Development within an Interdisciplinary Leadership Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of students' experiences while enrolled in an interdisciplinary leadership minor with the intent to determine programmatic inputs that spur leadership development. Based on students' reflections, three domains of programmatic inputs for leadership development within the minor were identified. These…

  15. Community College Organizational Climate for Minorities and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issues of what would constitute a positive organizational climate for women and minorities within the community college setting and ways in which such a climate might be achieved. It first describes some traditional or standard measures of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities and then evaluates how…

  16. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4...

  17. A Case for Legal Protection for Sexual Minority Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Holly N.; Caraway, Chadwick; Stader, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K-12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which…

  18. SEM investigation of minor constituents of carbide materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1267–1271. c Indian Academy of Sciences. SEM investigation of minor constituents of carbide materials ... distribution of admixture constituents. It is found that the most common minor phase represents Al–Fe–Si–C-based alloys. ... into pellets of 20 mm in diameter and 15 mm in thickness which were heated up to 1700.

  19. Minorities in Higher Education. Fifth Annual Status Report 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. Office of Minority Concerns.

    For the past 5 years, the American Council on Higher Education's Office of Minority Concerns (OMC) has been monitoring the annual progress of minorities in higher education and issuing a report card on the system itself and the country as a whole. The 1986 report takes a more in-depth look at the whole by focusing on the progress of the particular…

  20. The Broccoli Syndrome: Higher Education's Pubdown Of The Minority Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Penfield; Delworth, Ursula

    1973-01-01

    The assumption underlying the broccoli syndrome is that minority group students are not familiar with a whole range of Anglo goodies''. This article points out how, as the minority student is enlightened time and again to such facts'', he perceives inherent racism in his enlightener.'' (JC)