WorldWideScience

Sample records for underpinning national policies

  1. Conceptual Underpinnings for Innovation Policy Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    In cases where innovation indicators and data fail to serve properly as a (necessary) basis for the design of innovation policies, it often has its roots in conceptual unclarities in the underlying concepts. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical and conceptual basis for the design...... of innovation policy. This serves two important purposes. Firstly, it allows the identification of problems in an innovation system that require public policy intervention through the choice of appropriate policy instruments. Secondly, it allows a theoretically based identification of input indicators...

  2. The digital national framework - underpinning the knowledge economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K J Murray

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Providing a sustainable spatial data infrastructure creates responsibility and high demand by continually meeting and satisfying the needs of all kinds of users. It is essential to provide the right information at the right level of quality and reliability and at the right time. Geographic information (GI is today being universally recognised as a key part of the national information infrastructure, especially by government. GI is an enabler in the knowledge economy since the power of geography can be used to underpin the sharing (and trading of vital georeferenced information collected by all kinds of organisations. From this information reliable conclusions can and will be drawn and decisions made. However, achieving such an environment does not just happen. It has to be led, nurtured and developed in line with user needs. Funding requires sustained investment, and it all has to be implemented and maintained whether the economy enjoys good times or bad, and through periods of political change. These are all big challenges encountered by just about every national economy. The aim of many national governments around the world is to establish a reliable and integrated reference base for GI that can underpin the e-economy. This base needs to support government and the commercial sector who need to reference information, and potentially share it with others (eg land ownership or link it up to form an application.(eg location based services. To achieve this a consistent method of georefererencing is required and the Digital National Framework is intended to fulfil that need in Great Britain. This paper will describe what has been happening in Great Britain to build on the firm foundations of the past, and develop a modern and sustainable framework for geographic information for the future. In particular it will be shown that the business model adopted by Ordnance Survey in recent years (ie the users pay for the data has played a key role in securing

  3. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui T. T. Ha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In almost 30 years since economic reforms or ‘renovation’ (Doimoi were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation. Design: The qualitative research methods implemented in this study were 30 in-depth interviews, 4 focus group discussions, expert consultancy, and 420 secondary data review. The data were analyzed by NVivo 7.0. Results: Health insurance in Vietnam was introduced in 1992 and has been elaborated over a 20-year time frame. These processes relate to moving from a contingent to a gradually expanded target population, expanding the scope of the benefit package, and reducing the financial contribution from the insured. The target groups expanded to include 66.8% of the population by 2012. We characterized the policy process relating to UHI as incremental with a learning-by-doing approach, with an emphasis on increasing coverage rather than ensuring a basic service package and financial protection. There was limited involvement of civil society organizations and users in all policy processes. Intertwined political economy factors influenced the policy processes. Conclusions: Incremental policy processes, characterized by a learning-by-doing approach, is appropriate for countries attempting to introduce new health institutions, such as health insurance in Vietnam. Vietnam should continue to mobilize resources in sustainable and viable ways to support the target groups. The country should also adopt a multi-pronged approach to achieving universal access to health services, beyond health insurance.

  4. Policy processes underpinning universal health insurance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Bui T T; Frizen, Scott; Thi, Le M; Duong, Doan T T; Duc, Duong M

    2014-01-01

    In almost 30 years since economic reforms or 'renovation' (Doimoi) were launched, Vietnam has achieved remarkably good health results, in many cases matching those in much higher income countries. This study explores the contribution made by Universal Health Insurance (UHI) policies, focusing on the past 15 years. We conducted a mixed method study to describe and assess the policy process relating to health insurance, from agenda setting through implementation and evaluation. The qualitative research methods implemented in this study were 30 in-depth interviews, 4 focus group discussions, expert consultancy, and 420 secondary data review. The data were analyzed by NVivo 7.0. Health insurance in Vietnam was introduced in 1992 and has been elaborated over a 20-year time frame. These processes relate to moving from a contingent to a gradually expanded target population, expanding the scope of the benefit package, and reducing the financial contribution from the insured. The target groups expanded to include 66.8% of the population by 2012. We characterized the policy process relating to UHI as incremental with a learning-by-doing approach, with an emphasis on increasing coverage rather than ensuring a basic service package and financial protection. There was limited involvement of civil society organizations and users in all policy processes. Intertwined political economy factors influenced the policy processes. Incremental policy processes, characterized by a learning-by-doing approach, is appropriate for countries attempting to introduce new health institutions, such as health insurance in Vietnam. Vietnam should continue to mobilize resources in sustainable and viable ways to support the target groups. The country should also adopt a multi-pronged approach to achieving universal access to health services, beyond health insurance.

  5. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  6. Performance of national policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Mastop, H.; Spit, T.

    1997-01-01

    National spatial policies are usually indicative and strategic. As a result, this kind of policy does not have a direct bearing on the spatial organisation of society. Instead the performance of these policies depends on whether or not they are used in subsequent decisionmaking and planning

  7. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.

  8. Relevance of national and local government policy to sustainable community natural resource management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development in South Africa is guided by the principle of sustainability, and this is underpinned by integration, which is the consideration of social, economic and environmental factors in decision making. Policies are in place at national...

  9. The policies of supplier nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moher, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with the nuclear non-proliferation element of the policies of supplier nations. These policies include economic, commercial, resource management, financial and technological aspects. The evolution of the nuclear export policies of supplier nations is considered. The challenges facing the non-proliferation regime are looked at. Finally, the progress made is reviewed. Although this has been considerable, further work is necessary and this is mentioned. The postscript assesses the situation following the successful Third NPT Review Conference held in 1985. (U.K.)

  10. Trustee Accountability and National Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Frank

    1973-01-01

    Two trends that from the national point of view of the role of trustees demand attention are: (1) that higher education is in the process of reorganization and (2) that higher education must now answer questions concerning objectives and whether or not these objectives are paying off. Four responses to these issues in terms of national policy are:…

  11. National Security Policy: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    President Lazaro Cardenas expropriated the 2 assets of seventeen foreign oil companies to include major United States companies and formed a national oil...Ironically, it was a military man General Lazaro Cardenas , who as president from 1935 to 1940 eliminated the preeminence of the military in...offices to fill. Other accomplishments of President Cardenas were his stripping power from rival general officers and his successful efforts to

  12. Russian National Security Policy: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crutcher, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... The workshop examined that policy in terms of factors influencing Russian national security policy formulation, Russia's perceptions of the world and itself, current Russian security and foreign...

  13. Cultural policy for national development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsekela, A.J.

    1977-02-01

    Cultural policy decisions to alleviate poverty in the Third World are viewed as a moral obligation on the part of industrialized nations to promote an equitable income and service distribution. A review of colonialism on the part of the First toward the Third World concludes that the export of primary products has failed to bring an equal return of industrialization because of the inflated prices of manufactured goods and processes. Policies aimed at eliminating the lack of opportunity in the Third World must attack the three areas of poverty, unemployment, and inequality (racial and sexual). Economic integration of these nations requires a better linkage between natural resources, technology, knowledge, and human resources. More attention is needed to the use of national resources for the manufacture of products that will be used domestically and also exported to international markets. Basic to economic development is the raising of the educational, health, and income levels of the people. A philosophical program is outlined for developing policies that will promote human development. (DCK)

  14. Energy security and national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    To achieve an energy secure future, energy cannot be viewed as an isolated concern. It is part and parcel of a nation's economic, social, and political context. In the past important implications for the economy and national security have been ignored. Crash programs to deal with oil shortages in the seventies, crashed. In the eighties, oil surplus has been enjoyed. The energy situation could be quite different in the nineties. Statistics on energy supply and consumption of oil, coal, natural gas and electricity from nuclear power show that much progress has been made worldwide. However, about half of the world's oil will come from the Persian Gulf by 1995. Continued low oil prices could raise US imports to 60% of consumption by 1995. Persian Gulf tensions serve as reminders of the link between energy policy and national security policy. Energy policy must be based on market forces and concerns for national security. Strategic oil reserves will expand along with the availability of domestic oil and gas resources. Increased attention to conservation, diversification of energy resources, and use of alternative fuels can help reduce imports. Continued high-risk long term research and development is needed. Improved technology can reduce environmental impacts. Global markets need global cooperation. Energy has emerged as an important aspect of East-West relations. Europeans need to diversify their sources of energy. The soviets have proposed expanded collaboration in magnetic fusion science. A series of initiatives are proposed that together will ensure that economies will not become overly dependent on a single source of energy

  15. Beyond the Poverty of National Security: Toward a Critical Human Security Perspective in Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the intersecting logics of human capital and national security underpinning the corporate school reform movement in the United States. Taking a 2012 policy report by the Council on Foreign Relations as an entry point, it suggests that these logics are incoherent not only on their own narrow instrumental terms, but also more…

  16. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2009-06-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  17. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2012-02-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  18. 76 FR 9209 - Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Atmospheric Administration Draft NOAA National Aquaculture Policy and Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy... National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy...

  19. The National Origins of Policy Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article John Campbell and Ove Pedersen argue that the way policy ideas are generated by knowledge regimes varies considerably across countries; and the effect on national politics is significant. The article is adapted from The National Origins of Policy Ideas: Knowledge Regimes in the Un......In this article John Campbell and Ove Pedersen argue that the way policy ideas are generated by knowledge regimes varies considerably across countries; and the effect on national politics is significant. The article is adapted from The National Origins of Policy Ideas: Knowledge Regimes...

  20. National policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jova, Luis; Metcalfa, Phil; Rowata, John; Louvata, Didier; Linsley, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    Every country should have some form of policy and strategy for managing its spent fuel and radioactive waste. Such policies and strategies are important; they set out the nationally agreed position and plans for managing spent fuel and radioactive waste and are visible evidence of the concern and intent of the government and the relevant national organisations to ensure that spent fuel and radioactive waste are properly taken care of in the country. There is a large diversity in the types and amounts of radioactive waste in the countries of the world and, as a result of this diversity, the strategies for implementing the policies may be different, although the main elements of policy are likely to be similar from country to country. In some countries, the national policy and strategy is well established and documented, while in others there is no explicit policy and strategy statement and, instead, it has to be inferred from the contents of the laws, regulations and guidelines. The present paper describes the work undertaken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) related to identifying the main elements of national policies for spent fuel and radioactive waste management, recognising that policies and strategies vary considerably depending on, among other things, the nature and scale of applications of radioactive material in a country. An indication is provided of what might be contained in national policies recognizing that national policy and strategy has to be decided at the national level taking into account national priorities and circumstances. The paper is concerned with the contents of policies and strategies and does not address the development of national laws, regulations and guidelines - although these are clearly related to the contents of the national policy and strategy. (author)

  1. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

  2. The National Origins of Policy Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article John Campbell and Ove Pedersen argue that the way policy ideas are generated by knowledge regimes varies considerably across countries; and the effect on national politics is significant. The article is adapted from The National Origins of Policy Ideas: Knowledge Regimes...

  3. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    in different life phases. In this paper I discuss the state of lifelong learning policy in two European societies with different educational contexts, histories, system models and development issues, Denmark and Portugal. As part of the paper will give a brief overview of EU policies and initiatives...... in the area of lifelong learning and discuss how national policies in the two contexts are influenced by EU policies and funding....

  4. Local enactments of national health promotion policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    Governments of welfare states are firmly committed to public health, resulting in a substantial number of public health policies. Given the multi-level structure of most welfare systems, the influence of a public health policy is related to its ability to spread geographically and move across...... organisational levels. Visiting, observing and interviewing 15 policy workers from 10 municipalities during a two-year period, this study investigated what happened to a Danish national health promotion policy as it was put into practice and managed in the Danish municipalities. The analysis reveals...... the concrete enactments and their locally experienced effects, our understanding of national public health policies risks becoming detached from praxis and unproductive. Public health policy-makers must pay methodological and analytical attention to the policies' multimodality and their concrete locally...

  5. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. National Policy on Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo, S.

    1996-01-01

    National policy on nuclear fuel cycle is aimed at attaining the expected condition, i.e. being able to support optimality the national energy policy and other related Government policies taking into account current domestic nuclear fuel cycle condition and the trend of international nuclear fuel cycle development, the national strength, weakness, thread and opportunity in the field of energy. This policy has to be followed by the strategy to accomplish covering the optimization of domestic efforts, cooperation with other countries, and or purchasing licences. These policy and strategy have to be broken down into various nuclear fuel cycle programmes covering basically assesment of the whole cycle, performing research and development of the whole cycle without enrichment and reprocessing being able for weapon, as well as programmes for industrialization of the fuel cycle stepwisery commencing with the middle part of the cycle and ending with the edge of the back-end of the cycle

  7. The National Origins of Policy Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    countries. The National Origins of Policy Ideas provides the first comparative analysis of how "knowledge regimes" communities of policy research organizations like think tanks, political party foundations, ad hoc commissions, and state research offices, and the institutions that govern them generate ideas......, and the orientation of comparative political economy in political science and sociology....

  8. National Policy on Education and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has come out with the draft of 'National Education Policy (NEP) 2016' in April 2016. The new NEP 2016 seeks to create conditions to improve the quality of teaching, learning and assessment, and promote transparency in the management of education in the country. The policy prescriptions enunciated…

  9. Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: When does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. - Highlights: • We review instances in which accurate measurements of radiation influence policy. • Heads of state rely on senior science advisors to frame policy decisions. • Metrologists support federal agencies that have mission leads in different fields. • Metrologists are called on when other agencies lack requisite expertise. • Radionuclide metrologists must recognize and accept challenges

  10. National Vaccine Policy: ethical equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, T

    2013-01-01

    The ministry of health and family welfare published the national vaccination policy in April 2011. The policy document drew severe criticism from several public health experts. A review of the print and web-based literature on the national vaccine policy was done and the issues of ethics and equity involved in introducing new vaccines under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) were studied. The average coverage of the UIP vaccines at the national level is below 50%. Despite this, the policy document did not state any concrete strategy for increasing the coverage. The main stumbling block for evidence-based vaccine policy in India is the lack of reliable epidemiological data, which makes it difficult for the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation to offer sound technical advice to the government. No attempts have been made to prioritise diseases or the selection of vaccines. The policy suggests the introduction of the following vaccines in the UIP: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccines and human papillomavirus (HPV). This selection is on the grounds of the vaccines' availability, not on the basis of epidemiological evidence or proven cost-effectiveness. This is a critical review of the current vaccination policy and the move to include the rotavirus and HPV vaccines in the UIP.

  11. Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, P.J.; Okawara, N.

    1993-01-01

    Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s

  12. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide, Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report contains a comprehensive National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide for the Sandia National Laboratories. It is based on the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations in 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508; the US Department of Energy (DOE) N-EPA implementing procedures in 10 CFR Part 102 1; DOE Order 5440.1E; the DOE ``Secretarial Policy Statement on the National Environmental Policy Act`` of June 1994- Sandia NEPA compliance procedures-, and other CEQ and DOE guidance. The Guide includes step-by-step procedures for preparation of Environmental Checklists/Action Descriptions Memoranda (ECL/ADMs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). It also includes sections on ``Dealing With NEPA Documentation Problems`` and ``Special N-EPA Compliance Issues.``

  13. Strong associations between national prevalence of various STIs suggests sexual network connectivity is a common underpinning risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris

    2017-10-12

    If national peak Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is positively associated with the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from before or early on in the HIV epidemics this would suggest common underlying drivers. Pearson's correlations were calculated between the prevalence of seven STIs at a country-level: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and HIV. The prevalence of all the STIs was highest in the sub-Saharan African region excluding chlamydia. The prevalence of all seven STIs were positively correlated excluding chlamydia. The correlations were strongest for HIV-HSV-2 (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and HSV-2-trichomoniasis (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). Our results of a generally positive association between the prevalences of a range of STIs suggests that higher prevalences were driven by common underlying determinants. We review different types of evidence which suggest that differential sexual connectivity is a plausible common determinant.

  14. The National Origins of Policy Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    countries. The National Origins of Policy Ideas provides the first comparative analysis of how "knowledge regimes" communities of policy research organizations like think tanks, political party foundations, ad hoc commissions, and state research offices, and the institutions that govern them generate ideas......In politics, ideas matter. They provide the foundation for economic policymaking, which in turn shapes what is possible in domestic and international politics. Yet until now, little attention has been paid to how these ideas are produced and disseminated, and how this process varies between...... and communicate them to policymakers. John Campbell and Ove Pedersen examine how knowledge regimes are organized, operate, and have changed over the last thirty years in the United States, France, Germany, and Denmark. They show how there are persistent national differences in how policy ideas are produced. Some...

  15. David Miller on Immigration Policy and Nationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    as determinative of the scope of distributive justice and as giving rise to national collective responsibility. Three interpretations of his main positive reason for restricting immigration, which concerns the importance of a shared public culture, are then discussed: culture as having valuable social functions...... in relation to immigration policy....

  16. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  17. National policies and their international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddington, K.

    1979-01-01

    Much work has been done on the technical problems associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. However, the topic raises many problems of a political/legal nature. This paper seeks to identify those areas where such problems arise and points to the role of governments in framing national policies within which decommissioning activities can be carried out. The value of international collaboration is emphasized. (author)

  18. An overview of Ireland's National Radon Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.; Fenton, D.

    2011-01-01

    In Ireland radon is a significant public health issue and is linked to 150-200 lung cancer deaths each year. Irish National Radon Policy aims to reduce individual risk by identifying and remediating buildings with high radon concentrations and also to reduce collective dose through radon prevention as required by revised building regulations. Achievements to date are significant and include the completion of the National Radon Survey, the testing of every school in Ireland, the on-going testing of social housing, collaboration between the public health and radiation protection authorities and the inclusion of radon in inspections of workplaces. However, this work now needs to be drawn together centrally to comprehensively address the radon problem. The RPII and the relevant central governing department, the Dept. of Environment, Heritage and Local Government are currently working to constitute a group of key experts from relevant public authorities to drive the development of a National Radon Control Strategy. (authors)

  19. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and the...

  20. Keep Religion Out of National Space Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William E.

    2006-02-01

    In an Eos forum last spring, Robert Frodeman (University of Texas, Denton) suggested that ``it is time that we draw more consciously upon the expertise of scholars trained in the areas of art, philosophy, and religion in the design of our space policy'' [2005]. I would agree that artists and philosophers may help the public to appreciate the true grandeur of the universe and thus increase popular support for the exploration of space, but I cannot think of a potentially more disastrous step than to bring ``scholars trained in. . .religion'' into the development of our national space policy, as Frodeman advocates. My concerns have nothing to do with the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution-I simply think that the potential negatives far outweigh the potential benefits.

  1. National Urban Policy : A Roadmap for Canadian Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friendly, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, interest in a national urban policy in Canada has waxed and waned. Although the 1960s represented a high water mark in terms of creating national institutions on urban issues, efforts to develop a national urban policy languished until the early 2000s. While national urban

  2. A Call for a National Policy on Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Advisory Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.

    The document contains the twelfth statement from the National Advisory Council on Vocational Education. It calls for a strong national policy towards vocational education and emphasizes the growing importance of vocational education in manpower development and the national economy. The lack of a national policy in vocational education has created…

  3. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIAMS Archive Viewers and Players Social Media Moderation Policy FOIA Privacy Statement Accessibility Disclaimer Digital Strategy Open Source Data Public Data Listing NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health® National ...

  4. Evolving national cultural policies for modern African states ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolving national cultural policies for modern African states: Nigeria's experience and the implementation of its cultural policy at the grassroots. ... Emphasis will be on the role which the parastatals under Nigeria's Federal Ministry of Culture and Tourism have been playing in the implementation of the nation's cultural policy ...

  5. National Policies for cleaning up contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.; Jörgens, H.; Lenschow, A.; Liefferink, D.

    2014-01-01

    Policies for the remediation of contaminated sites emerged relatively late as a subfield of environmental protection. The policy area is adjacent to other policies, such as waste policy, which often includes provisions on how to deal with waste dumps, as well as soil and groundwater protection

  6. Senegal's national policy to combat climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dia Toure, F.

    2007-01-01

    Senegal's participation in the Earth Summit meeting in Rio in 1992 demonstrated its national political stand towards environmental causes. An initiative was taken to educate the population on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in relation to different sectors, including the energy sector, transportation, agriculture, forestry and waste management. Later, a group of negotiators followed the works of subsidiary bodies of the Kyoto Agreement. As a non-Annex 1 developing country, Senegal is not required to reduce GHG emissions as are Annex 1 countries. Therefore, Senegal has used judicial tools to benefit from the transfer of clean technologies. The implementation of Senegal's national adaptation action plan has involved global organizations, sectorial studies, public consultations, prioritization and project formulation. The action plan addresses concerns such as water resources, variation in precipitation, drought, agriculture and its vulnerability, and negative impacts due to climate change. The technical solutions include the promotion of agroforestry technologies; crop diversification; water conservation; community wood use; and, prevention of bush fires. Since several geographical regions within Senegal are also affected by global warming, policies are being formulated to protect humid zones and help in the fight against invasive species. Senegal imports much of its energy sources. Households rely on wood and coal for energy. New measures are being adapted and new sustainable technologies are being proposed for fireplaces, better recycling, and better landfill sites. 8 figs

  7. India′s draft National Health Policy, 2015: Improving policy to implementation effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nata Menabde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the Government of India is working on drafting a new National Health Policy, developing national health accounts, and planning for a "health assurance mission," this opportunity has the potential to transform health status of millions of Indians and achieve universal health coverage. The draft of new National Health Policy of India was put in public domain for comments in early 2015. This editorial reviews the draft National Health Policy 2015 and proposes a few steps to improve implementation effectiveness.

  8. Lifelong learning policy in two national contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies...... have significant common elements. As a basis for the discussion an inventory of policy elements is presented. Denmark and Portugal have been chosen as examples of smaller EU member states with different historical, social and cultural characteristics. Developments and policies in the two countries......, including the links with EU education policy, are described. The discussion includes comparison drawing on the inventory of policy elements. A main conclusion is that the different historical trajectories of the two countries remain very important for present-day education and for the advancement...

  9. 76 FR 9210 - Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Draft DOC National Aquaculture Policy AGENCY: Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft aquaculture policy; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (DOC) is... United States. The intent of the policy is to guide DOC's actions and decisions on aquaculture and to...

  10. 77 FR 15052 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... QUALITY National Ocean Council--National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan AGENCY: Council on... essential to public health and national security. Next, public comments on the draft Implementation Plan... Executive Order 13547 establishing a National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, our Coasts, and the...

  11. Scientific underpinnings of biotechnology regulatory frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleim, Savannah; Smyth, Stuart J

    2018-05-25

    Part of what is presently missing at domestic regulatory levels (and that is important at the international level as well) is a detailed understanding of what the rules of, and for, regulation should be, who the actors, stakeholders and major decision makers are and finally, how to get agreement about the rules. Greater insights into the system of rules that underpin regulatory frameworks for agri-food and biotechnology products in genetically modified (GM) crop- adopting nations will provide value by clarifying the evidence used to commercialize these technologies. This article examines the public documents available from Canada, the United States, the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development regarding the development of regulatory risk assessment frameworks for products of biotechnology to determine what science grounds these frameworks. The documentation used to provide the initial structure to the existing regulatory frameworks identifies the linkages, connections and relationships that exist between science, risk assessment and regulatory policy. The relationship between risk and regulation has never been more critical to the commercialization of innovative agricultural products. Documenting the role of science-based risk assessment in regulations and how this has changed over the 20 years of experience in regulating GM crops will identify changes in the risk/regulation relationship. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  13. T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aligning the National S&T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka does not have an official science and technology (S&T) policy. Investments in S&T have so far occurred on an ad-hoc basis. Nevertheless, government and research and development (R&D) institutions have ...

  14. Diminished States? National Power in European Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing research on international organisations' education policy lacks analyses of the relation between international organisations and nation states. This paper aims to analyse the power of nation states in international education policy. Focusing on the new degree system in higher education in Europe, partly from Foucault's…

  15. Analysis of National Policies for Entrepreneurship Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaozhou

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews major national policies and strategies adopted by the Chinese central government to promote entrepreneurship education and also describes the current social and economic background to reveal the motives of entrepreneurship education in mainland China. The core of this article sums up the content of national policies on…

  16. The Genesis of the 1986 National Policy on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Suresh Chandra

    This paper discusses India's 1986 National Policy on Education and describes the policy's emphasis on the essential characteristics of a national educational system that provides opportunities for equal access to education irrespective of class, caste, creed, sex, or geographic location. The development of Indian education is featured, and the…

  17. Commonalities in Educational Technology Policy Initiatives among Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitz, James E.; Azbell, Janet

    While education systems from nation to nation differ significantly according to national character and local requirements, developments in public policy initiatives regarding the use of technology in schools have followed similar patterns among nations as diverse as the United States, Great Britain, Denmark, Italy, Viet Nam, Germany, France,…

  18. Explaining variance in national electric vehicle policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Joeri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transition studies’ understanding of differences in public policy is limited due to its tendency to focus on single-country cases. This paper assesses differences in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) policies, comprising RD&D subsidies, infrastructure investments and sales incentives, across

  19. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  20. Effective Management for National or Local Policy Objectives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; Skou, Mette; Beer, Frederikke

    This research considers the role of local policies and management in affecting street-level bureaucrats’ actions in implementing national policy mandates. The focus on sanctioning behavior by social workers provides a strong test of these effects, given that the behaviors are both visible and have...... consequential policy outcomes. We extend principal-agent theorizing to frame decisions by street-level bureaucrats as the result of a set of interlocking principal-agent chains that establish different information asymmetry problems. The setting is the implementation of a Danish welfare and employment policy...... workers with a better fit with the goals of the organization increases workers’ compliance with local policy goals, but only when these diverge from national ones! Increasing staff capacity and information provision have simpler effects in fostering more compliance with the national policy mandate among...

  1. What Shapes Policy Formation in China? A Study of National Student Nutrition Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This article juxtaposes "world culture" and "policy borrowing and lending" literatures to understand policy formation in China. Through reviewing China's student nutrition policy evolution since the International Conference on Nutrition in 1992 to the launch of China's landmark national rural student nutrition program in 2011,…

  2. National Livestock Policy of Nepal: Needs and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Pradhanang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Nepal’s national livestock policies and considers how they can be improved to help meet the pressing national challenges of economic development, equity, poverty alleviation, gender mainstreaming, inclusion of marginalized and underprivileged communities, and climate vulnerability. Nepal is in the process of transforming its government from a unitary system to a federal democratic structure through the new constitution expected by 2015, offering the opportunity to bring a new set of priorities and stakeholders to policymaking. Nepal’s livestock subsector comes most directly within the purview of the National Agricultural Policy 2004, Agro-Business Policy, 2006 and Agricultural Sectoral Operating Policies of the Approach Paper to 13th Plan, 2012/13–2015/16 policy instruments. We systematically review these and other livestock-related national policies through analysis of their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT. We conclude with the need to formulate a separate, integrated national livestock policy so that Nepal can sustainably increase livestock productivity and achieve diversification, commercialization and competitiveness of the livestock subsector within the changing national and international contexts.

  3. National Register Eligibility of National Cemeteries - A Clarification of Policy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Department of the Interior, National Park Service, which oversees the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), in 2011 determined that all developed sections...

  4. Urbanization in Developing Nations: Trends, Prospects, and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    Identifies the rapid growth of cities in developing nations as one of the most significant demographic phenomena of modern times. Comparative data and policy considerations are presented for the world generally, and for Africa, Latin America, and Asia, specifically. (DB)

  5. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The educational policies of Yugoslavia are presented in this report by examiners from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A comprehensive report on all aspects of education in Yugoslavia was used as their frame of reference; data were collected by them from a two-week tour of the country. The volume is divided into…

  6. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  7. Globalisation and National Environmental Policy : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. Wijen (Frank); J. Pieters; K. Zoeteman

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAfter outlining the scope, target audience, and structure of the book, we review the literature on globalisation and environmental policy, especially the impact of globalisation on the environment and changes in environmental governance in relation to increasingly global spheres of

  8. Assessment of Policy Integration of Sustainable Consumption and Production into National Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Koide

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP was adopted as a stand-alone goal and reflected as one of the cross-cutting objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, with a central role to address global resource consumption and its associated environmental impacts, as well as numerous social and economic issues. With this broad characterization of SCP, policy integration is crucial in addressing it at national level. This paper analyzes characteristics of SCP policy integration based on a survey of national government policies. It reveals that SCP is not fully integrated in national policy-making; high resource consumption sectors such as urban planning, building, and tourism are not fully incorporated into national SCP policies, and there is only limited participation of relevant government ministries other than environment ministries. We find that among countries with horizontal policy integration, those with Green Economy/Green Growth frameworks tend to have better sectoral integration; and those with SCP-specific frameworks are likely to have broader coordination of ministries. By conducting cross-analysis using income level and region, the different characteristics of SCP policy-making approaches were identified. The results of this study provide a better understanding of how SCP is integrated into policy for effective national policy-making and measurement of the SDG Goal 12.

  9. Presidential address - 1999 Towards a national rangeland policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presidential address - 1999. Towards a national rangeland policy. AR Palmer ... The policy document addresses the problem by offering to improve effectiveness of support services (animal health, animal nutrition and marketing) to the producer. This offer needs to be taken seriously, and provides research opportunities in ...

  10. Population Policy and National Development in the 21st Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the concern by multi-lateral organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) about the problems of high population growth and food supply especially in the developing countries, population policy has become an integral part of their overall development policies as ...

  11. Analysis of Ethiopia's national ICT policy and strategy: insights into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend shows that the national ICT policy need to focus broadly on core and emerging issues that are crucial for ICT ecosystem such as infrastructure, services, applications, universal access, cyber security, social media, and users. Broadband infrastructure development is considered as key intervention in the policy.

  12. Expanding Fiscal Policies for Global and National Tobacco Control ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fiscal policy - the use of government spending and revenue generation powers - is a powerful tool available to governments in the struggle to control the tobacco epidemic. Examples of fiscal policy ... Trade and investment agreements : barriers to national public health and tobacco control measures. Studies. Innovative ...

  13. National forest policy as a platform for biosphere carbon management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minang, Peter A.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Skutsch, Margaret; McCall, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the development of national policies relevant for the uptake, development and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. In this paper we examine the compatibility between forestry and related policy provisions in Cameroon and the CDM provisions

  14. National Language and Terminology Policies — A South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Language and Terminology Policies — A South African Perspective. M Alberts. Abstract. Terminology plays a pivotal role in language development and the promotion of multilingualism. This article discusses the issue of multilingualism regarding terminology policies as seen from an African perspective. Special ...

  15. Review of National Education Policies: Teacher Quality and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Frances

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how teacher quality and learning outcomes are included in national education policies. It responds to a set of specific questions focused on strategies to improve learning, links between teacher quality and learning outcomes, and how policy seeks to overcome learning obstacles for the most disadvantaged. The…

  16. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  17. Cross-national diffusion of mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Gordon C

    2014-10-01

    Following the tenets of world polity and innovation diffusion theories, I focus on the coercive and mimetic forces that influence the diffusion of mental health policy across nations. International organizations' mandates influence government behavior. Dependency on external resources, namely foreign aid, also affects governments' formulation of national policy. And finally, mounting adoption in a region alters the risk, benefits, and information associated with a given policy. I use post-war, discrete time data spanning 1950 to 2011 and describing 193 nations' mental health systems to test these diffusion mechanisms. I find that the adoption of mental health policy is highly clustered temporally and spatially. RESULTS provide support that membership in the World Health Organization (WHO), interdependence with neighbors and peers in regional blocs, national income status, and migrant sub-population are responsible for isomorphism. Aid, however, is an insufficient determinant of mental health policy adoption. This study examines the extent to which mental, neurological, and substance use disorder are addressed in national and international contexts through the lens of policy diffusion theory. It also adds to policy dialogues about non-communicable diseases as nascent items on the global health agenda.

  18. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  19. National REDD+ policy networks: from cooperation to conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brockhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ is a financial mechanism aimed at providing incentives to reduce carbon emissions from forests and enhance carbon stocks. In most forest-rich developing countries, policy actors, i.e., state and nonstate as well as international and national, are designing national REDD+ policies. Actors' interests and beliefs shape patterns of interactions, ranging from cooperation to conflict, and these interactions influence a country's direction and progress in REDD+ policy formulation and implementation. We used a comparative policy network approach to analyze the power structures in national REDD+ policy domains in seven countries. We drew on the typology of power structures defined by two dimensions, namely the distribution of power in the policy arena and the dominant type of interaction, cooperative or conflictual, among actors, and we mapped the progress of national REDD+ decision-making processes against these power structures. We tested three hypotheses and found that (1 national ownership over the policy process is a prerequisite for progress. In addition, (2 the level of concentration of power in an actor group can facilitate progress in REDD+; however, particularly when concentration of power is high, progress will be possible only if the interests of the most powerful are aligned with the objectives of REDD+ and address the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. Furthermore, (3 although cooperation is perceived as ideal in any collective decision-making setting, a certain level of conflict is necessary for progress in REDD+ decision making. This applies particularly in more advanced national REDD+ domains, where, following a honeymoon phase during which most policy actors embrace the broad idea of REDD+, policy decisions must deal with difficult realities associated with negotiating established business-as-usual interests, which entails high political costs.

  20. Climate policy: Equity and national mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenghelis, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    A diverse range of approaches, including contributions based on national interest and local benefits of climate action, is needed to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement. Now, research considers how equitable approaches may play a role.

  1. Jamaica is Without a National Sexual Harassment Policy: Challenges, Consequences, Health Problems and the Need for a National Policy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    R. Peters; P.A. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    Humans are sexual as they are physical beings. Simply put, sexual relations are embedded in their composition and so legislations are needed to protect vulnerable groups such as children, poor, women, orphans, elderly, mentally and physically disabled people and adolescents from sexual exploitations. The current study will explore why Jamaica needs a national sexual harassment policy, the challenges without a policy and the difficulties in formulating a policy in such a highly sexed culture. ...

  2. Climate policy in India: what shapes international, national and state policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Shrivastava, Manish Kumar; Pahuja, Neha; Upadhyay, Himani

    2012-01-01

    At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understand why policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how international parties might cooperate with and support India's domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states. We argue that at each level of decision making in India, climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests. While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.

  3. National policy on physical activity: the development of a policy audit tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona C; Milton, Karen; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2014-02-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for noncommunicable disease worldwide. Increasing physical activity requires large scale actions and relevant, supportive national policy across multiple sectors. The policy audit tool (PAT) was developed to provide a standardized instrument to assess national policy approaches to physical activity. A draft tool, based on earlier work, was developed and pilot-tested in 7 countries. After several rounds of revisions, the final PAT comprises 27 items and collects information on 1) government structure, 2) development and content of identified key policies across multiple sectors, 3) the experience of policy implementation at both the national and local level, and 4) a summary of the PAT completion process. PAT provides a standardized instrument for assessing progress of national policy on physical activity. Engaging a diverse international group of countries in the development helped ensure PAT has applicability across a wide range of countries and contexts. Experiences from the development of the PAT suggests that undertaking an audit of health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policy can stimulate greater awareness of current policy opportunities and gaps, promote critical debate across sectors, and provide a catalyst for collaboration on policy level actions. The final tool is available online.

  4. Cross-National Diffusion of Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C Shen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Following the tenets of world polity and innovation diffusion theories, I focus on the coercive and mimetic forces that influence the diffusion of mental health policy across nations. International organizations’ mandates influence government behavior. Dependency on external resources, namely foreign aid, also affects governments’ formulation of national policy. And finally, mounting adoption in a region alters the risk, benefits, and information associated with a given policy. Methods I use post-war, discrete time data spanning 1950 to 2011 and describing 193 nations’ mental health systems to test these diffusion mechanisms. Results I find that the adoption of mental health policy is highly clustered temporally and spatially. Results provide support that membership in the World Health Organization (WHO, interdependence with neighbors and peers in regional blocs, national income status, and migrant sub-population are responsible for isomorphism. Aid, however, is an insufficient determinant of mental health policy adoption. Conclusion This study examines the extent to which mental, neurological, and substance use disorder are addressed in national and international contexts through the lens of policy diffusion theory. It also adds to policy dialogues about non-communicable diseases as nascent items on the global health agenda.

  5. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  6. National Renewable Energy Policy in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Minji

    Increasing trade of renewable energy products has significantly contributed to reducing the costs of renewable energy sources, but at the same time, it has generated protectionist policies, which may negatively affect the trend of the cost reduction. Although a few recent studies examined the rise of renewable energy protectionism and trade disputes, they are limited in addressing the conflict between the original goal of traditional renewable energy policies and the new protectionist policies under the globalized renewable energy industry. To fill this gap, this dissertation explores how the globalized renewable energy industry has changed national renewable energy policies. Through three analyses, three aspects of the globalized renewable energy industry are examined: the rise of multinational corporations, international interactions among actors, and the changes of the global and domestic market conditions. First analysis investigates how multinational renewable energy corporations have affected national policies. A content analysis of the annual reports of 15 solar photovoltaic multinational corporation shows that solar multinationals have been influenced by national policies and have adapted to the changes rather than having attempted to change national policies. Second analysis examines how diverse actors have framed renewable energy trade issues through a network analysis of the Chinese solar panel issue in the United States. The result shows that the Chinese solar panel issue was framed differently from the traditional environmental frame of renewable energy, being dominated by multinational corporations headquartered in other countries. Third analysis explores what has caused the increasing diversity in national renewable energy policies through the case studies of the U.S. and South Korea. The result reveals that the globalization of solar industry has affected the diversification of solar policies in two countries by generating both challenges, which

  7. Concepts and Policy Innovations in the National Education Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinfu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    The theme of the "Outline of the National Mid- to Long-Term Plan for Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)" is building a nation rich in human resources, its primary thread is promoting the scientific development of education, and its soul is reform and innovation. The important concepts and policy innovations of the National…

  8. Implementing national qualifications framework policy | Kilfoil | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects on the implementation of the National Qualifications Framework at tertiary level, using the University of South Africa as a case study and the five stated goals of the NQF as the criteria for measuring the success or otherwise of the enterprise. A brief description is given of the initiatives at Unisa and certain ...

  9. NIGERIAN NATION-BUILDING AND PUBLIC POLICY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    Abstract. Seeing to the genuine completion of goods according to the set standard and effectuation of good ideas, have always been the problem of humanity in terms of nation building. Recorded failures amidst plethora of theories and practices adduced to remedy the situation are indicative of basic lack. It is lack of.

  10. European energy policy and Italian national rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    In light of energy market upheavals expected as a result of the up-coming European free trade market, impacts on existing Italian energy legislation, currently hinging on the monopolistic activities of ENEL, (Italian National Electricity Board) are examined. The various aspects dealt with include: legal implications of the integration, under monopolistic and deregulated national energy market scenarios, of new legislation, on the production and distribution of renewable energy sources, with existing energy legislation; the combined effects of strong competition in a new international energy market and energy supply vulnerability due strong dependence on OPEC supplied petroleum; Italian regional economic unbalance due to the possible introduction, in a deregulated European electric power market, of a common carrier system of electric power distribution, that due to Italy's particular geography is expected to be controlled by a firm locatednear the northern border; power pooling legislation and rate structure transparency in a deregulated energy market

  11. 76 FR 39443 - National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-058)] National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION... Laboratory (SSFL), Ventura County, California. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act...

  12. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-13-0030] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  13. National Energy Policy and Climate Change Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Mallant, R.K.A.M.; Van der Wart, R.; Muradin-Szweykowska, M.

    1992-06-01

    Climate change prevention has become one of the major concerns of environmental policy in the Netherlands. The Dutch government has set definite targets for CO 2 emissions in the coming decade. These targets and the measures necessary to reach them are described in the paper. In addition, the technical feasibility of realizing the Toronto objective of a 20% reduction in CO 2 emissions by the year 2005 in the Netherlands is discussed. It appears that energy conservation options are most crucial for the short-term, but that eventually new supply technologies are needed to obtain drastic reductions in the long term. The increased need for research and development efforts has led to two innovative research programmes on sustainable energy development in the Netherlands. The ENGINE (ENergy Generation In the Natural Environment) programme is implemented by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and addresses the specific problems associated with the three major components of supply: cleanliness in the case of fossil fuels, safety in the case of nuclear energy, and costs in the case of renewable sources. The complementary SYRENE (SYstem integration of Renewable ENergy and End use) is implemented by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment (NOVEM) and addresses the system aspects of sustainable energy development. The objectives and approaches of these two programmes are briefly presented. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 refs

  14. Evaluation of the finnish national policy on large carnivores

    OpenAIRE

    Pohja-Mykrä, Mari; Kurki, Sami

    2014-01-01

    This evaluation of the Finnish national policy on large carnivores focuses on the success in accomplishing ecological, economic and social sustainability in population management during the period from 2007 to 2012, through objectives and actions in the implemented population management plans. The conclusions drawn in the evaluation are based on a logical framework which must in practice be seen as the logic behind the policy on large carnivores and associated development actions. Based on th...

  15. National ownership in the implementation of global climate policy in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    first. Against this background, Uganda's policy response to climate change is reviewed. National climate policies are found not to exist, and the implementation of global policies is not integrated into national policy frameworks, partly due to conflicting national and global priorities. Given limited...... national awareness and the fact that climate policy is marginal compared to other national interests in Uganda, the experiences with donor support for the implementation of global climate policy nationally are analysed. This article demonstrates that neither national policies nor national management...

  16. Recommendations on national radioactive waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    As a nation, we have learned that sound technical solutions to the problems of waste disposal cannot be carried out without public acceptance. The key to gaining the public's confidence is a process of decision making which is open and accessible to elected officials from all levels of government. The Council believes that such a process can be put in place through a renewal of the traditional principles of our federal system of government. State, local, and tribal officials must become working partners with the federal government in making the crucial decisions about how radioactive wastes will be handled, transported, and ultimately disposed. A workable and effective partnership must include, first the full sharing of information and plans regarding waste disposal activities among all levels of government and, second, the opportunity for state, local, and tribal governments to participate effectively in waste management decisions which affect their jurisdictions. Finally, althougcome this difficulty

  17. National drug policy: implications of the 'tough on drugs' ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, R

    2001-10-01

    Australia has emerged over the last decade as a world leader in drug policy. According to Single and Rohl (1997 pvii) Australia's National Drug Strategy 'has been characterised by a unique combination of features which have brought it international attention and acclaim'. The strength of Australia's policy has been its emphasis on both licit and illicit drugs, and also its clear articulation of harm minimisation as a guiding principle in all areas of action. The key policy goals recognised the harm associated with all substances and sought results in key areas of alcohol-related problems, tobacco-related problems, under-age consumption, prescription medication problems and illicit drug use. However, Australia has a new drug policy document for the new millennium, The National Drug Strategic Framework 1998 - 2002. As a result of a conservative influence in national politics, this framework has moved from the harm minimisation philosophy to a moralistic 'tough on drugs' philosophy that stresses zero tolerance, law enforcement and abstinence. There is a risk that Australia will experience an increase in adverse health, social and economic consequences as a result of this new policy direction. Nurses need to think critically about the 'tough on drugs' ideology. There is a risk that significant adverse affects may occur for their drug-using patients as a result of this policy change. In their practice, nurses need to challenge the validity of a punitive response, and to commit themselves to improving the health and safety of the illicit drug-using community.

  18. Democracy Promotion and Nation Building in United States Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Chasserieau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La journée d’études internationale « Democracy Promotion and Nation Building in United States Foreign Policy, Part I: Democracy from America? Historical Continuities in U.S. Nation Building Policies » organisée le 15 octobre 2011 par Annick CIZEL et Alexandra de HOOP SCHEFFER dans le cadre des activités de l’Observatoire de la Politique Américaine du Center for Research in the English-Speaking World (CREW – EA 4399 de l’Université Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3, a fait dialoguer des chercheurs ...

  19. U.S. Congressional Committee Reviews National Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Vernon Ehlers has a tall order. The Republican congressman from Michigan is aiming for the completion of a comprehensive yet concise national science policy report by about June.That would be less than one year after the Republican leadership assigned him the task of leading the development of the report by the House of Representatives science committee that could stimulate a national debate on science policy, serve as a long-range vision statement, and perhaps form the basis for a House resolution.

  20. At the Interface of National and Transnational: The Development of Finnish Policies against Domestic Violence in Terms of Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Virkki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although gender inequalities are the main social mechanisms behind the (reproduction of domestic violence, policy responses to domestic violence as a gender-related problem vary at both the national and transnational levels. This article examines the interaction between national and transnational policies against domestic violence, focusing on how domestic violence is constructed as a gender-related problem in Finland, a Nordic welfare state that is often cited as a role model in gender equality. Using the conception of policies as historically changing and culturally specific discourses, this article offers an overview of the ways in which the perspective on domestic violence of the transnational feminist movement has been engaged and transformed in the Finnish context over the five last decades. It is shown that transnational pressure has played a critical role in pushing Finland towards a stronger recognition of domestic violence as a gender issue. However, this transformation has taken place rather within the framework of more neutral “women-friendly” welfare policies than within a feminist framework. The article concludes that the Finnish way of translating transnational norms to the national level is characterized by a tendency to modify the transformative meanings underpinning the transnational feminist discourses to a more gender-neutral form.

  1. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, T.A.

    1998-08-01

    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors

  2. National policy measures. Right approach to foreign direct investment flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2011 was a difficult year for all the countries, developed and emerging ones. For overcoming the negative effects of the financial crisis, many economies have established as purpose to adopt new economic policies regarding the foreign direct investment flows (FDI, even to stimulate the flows or to reduce it (protectionism measures. So, there can be identified two categories of national policies: measures for the FDI flows stimulation and measures whose aim was the weighting of FDI developing, through restriction and regulation. In the first category we could include the liberalization measures and promotional and faciletation policies. In this study we evidenced that the fundament of the second category of policies is the belief that the FDI outward lead to job exports, to a raise of unemployment and a weakness of the industrial base.Many reports on FDI flows, here we talk about those made by UNCTAD, show that the regulation and restriction policies are seen as a possible protectionism, especially in the agricultural and extractive industries, where there have been required nationalization processes and divestments. Even more, the economies which adopted this kind of policies have been less interested in investing abroad, the outward of FDI being affected and globally the total outward decreased.

  3. National innovation policy and public science in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science Australia, the National Science Statement and the 2016 National Research Infrastructure Roadmap) as one of the National Innovation Strategies in place now in OECD countries and beyond. In overview, these policy suites utilise the same high knowledge creation/low translation and commericalisation arguments as elsewhere to press for particular ideologically based `improvements' to public science. Mapping the terrain of these entities has revealed the innovation, biotechnology and bioeconomy policy space to be inordinately complex and challenging to navigate. Reviewing Australia's position enables the type of comparative work that contributes to a closer understanding of the largely neoliberal global economic imperatives shaping contemporaneity. Moreover, while these policy suites attempt to constitute and circulate particular visions of science education, their complex nature mitigates against science teachers/educators grappling with their implications.

  4. Nigeria's National Population Policy and its Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compared Nigeria's national population policy and programme with those of other Third World countries and examined the implications for sustainable development in the 21st century, considering the trend of events in the country since 1999. it argued that when compared to those of China and India in terms of ...

  5. Rewards Policy And Employee Motivation In The National Library Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on ranking twenty factors that influence employee motivation in the National Library of Nigeria as well as examining the reward policy of the organization. A descriptive survey method was used with the questionnaire as the main data collection instrument. The questionnaire used was adapted from ...

  6. National Innovation Policy and Public Science in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science…

  7. Integrating development and climate policies: National and international benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Metz, B.; Verhagen, J.

    2008-01-01

    What lessons for policy makers at national and international level can be drawn from the growing experiences of reconciling development and climate change? The key to achieving this is to approach the problem from the development perspective, since that is where in most countries the priority lies.

  8. Democratization and Participation: National Education Policy-Making in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This is Ghanaian case study that focuses on widening participation in national education policy-making via a social justice panel. It analyses the narratives of two former members of the Ghana Education Reform Committee and focus-groups interviews of ordinary Ghanaians. While the narratives of commission members are in favour of maintaining the…

  9. Overview of nuclear export policies of major foreign supplier nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The United States faces increased competition from foreign nuclear suppliers, including West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and possibly, in the near future, Japan. This general overview shows the differences and similarities in foreign nuclear supplier export requirements. It is based on summaries furnished by the Department of State covering the nuclear export policies and procedures of the major foreign supplier nations

  10. Towards implementing a records management policy at the National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards implementing a records management policy at the National University of Science and Technology. ... records management committee that will facilitate and present records management plans and budgets to the top university management; promote awareness through extensive training of all staff handling records ...

  11. National Health Policy and Maternal Health: The Vulnerable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The real wealth of any nation is its people; therefore governments all over the world invest in the health care sector in order to have a healthy population which will enhance the accumulation of wealth for economic development. The Nigeria government put in place a health policy to cater for health of its citizen Maternal ...

  12. Report of the written responses on National Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    A Public Notice appeared in the March 2, 1977 edition of The Federal Register inviting the American people to comment on and make recommendations for the President's National Energy Policy. The Notice, signed by James R. Schlesinger, sought comment on eight broad areas of policy; but it also encouraged citizens to address the issues that most concerned them and to do so in their own style. The eight broad areas of energy policy are: conservation, imported energy, supply development, environment, Federal regulation, intergovernmental relations, citizen participation, and hardships. By April 1, 27,898 letters, telegrams, packages, mailgrams, and position papers had been received, 18,721 of these from the general public. Every letter was carefully read and reviewed. The policy issues mentioned in the Public Notice are listed with tables and brief descriptions of the responses. The tables also indicate consensus or the lack of it. (ERA citation 04:036682)

  13. National Social Assistance Policy and Territory: Enigmas of the Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dahmer Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on concepts developed by David Harvey, this essay analyzes if and to what extent a focus and concentration on the category of territory in the realm of current national social assistance policy is an institutional innovation. It questions if it is capable of establishing guidelines for the implementation of policies that confirm social assistance's status as a public policy, as established by the Federal Constitution of 1988 and the Organic Social Assistance Law. The paper briefly reviews the historic presence of the spatial dimension in social assistance actions that confront the social question, indicating the initiation of the recognition of the importance of territory. In conclusion, it analyzes key elements needed for the "citizen-territorialization" of public policies, related to participation and social control.

  14. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will...

  15. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  16. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  17. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  18. National Target of Energy conservation and Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, S.R. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    This study investigates impacts of energy saving policies on the national economy in Korea. An energy saving policy for a specific sector causes changes in energy consumption patterns of a target sector as well as the others. In addition to its positive bearing on energy consumption, such policy can change energy prices, output, employment, consumer price levels, and resources allocation in the economy. In this context, successful analyses of energy saving policies need to consider such interactions to develop and evaluate the best policy alternatives. Thus, this study employs a Korean computable general equilibrium model to analyze optimal energy saving targets, and corresponding programs for each sector in the economy. The R and D investment policy in the energy sector is the most effective one since it is projected to increase real GNP and GDP, decreasing energy consumption. The policy is accordingly considered as one of so-called no-regret policies. And, the policy is evaluated to be appropriate for the energy intensive industries and transportation sectors. The government loan program for energy efficiency improvement is also predicted to raise GNP although it may have a negative impact on trade balance. And, the policy is observed to be suitable for the transportation and household sectors. An energy saving effort with energy taxation is found to be cost-effective since its marginal cost of energy conservation is estimated to be much lower than about 80,000 won per ton of oil equivalent, the estimated benefit of energy conservation. It is recommended, however, that an additional energy tax be implemented with care, given the high level of existing energy taxes. The effectiveness of energy efficiency standards in the transportation, household, and commercial sectors varies depending on how prices of relevant energy using equipments and appliances change in response to the standards. Energy saving policies are adequately formulated and implemented for all the

  19. Are national policies on global health in fact national policies on global health governance? A comparison of policy designs from Norway and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Since the signing of the Oslo Ministerial Declaration in 2007, the idea that foreign policy formulation should include health considerations has gained traction on the United Nations agenda as evidenced by annual General Assembly resolutions on global health and foreign policy. The adoption of national policies on global health (NPGH) is one way that some member states integrate health and foreign policymaking. This paper explores what these policies intend to do and how countries plan to do it. Using a most similar systems design, we carried out a comparative study of two policy documents formally adopted in 2012. We conducted a directed qualitative content analysis of the Norwegian White Paper on Global health in foreign and development policy and the Swiss Health Foreign Policy using Schneider and Ingram's policy design framework. After replicating analysis methods for each document, we analysed them side by side to explore the commonalities and differences across elements of NPGH design. Analyses indicate that NPGH expect to influence change outside their borders. Targeting the international level, they aim to affect policy venues, multilateral partnerships and international institutions. Instruments for supporting desired changes are primarily those of health diplomacy, proposed as a tool for negotiating interests and objectives for global health between multiple sectors, used internally in Switzerland and externally in Norway. Findings suggest that NPGH designs contribute to constructing the global health governance system by identifying it as a policy target, and policy instruments may elude the health sector actors unless implementation rules explicitly include them. Research should explore how future NPGH designs may construct different kinds of targets as politicised groups of actors on which national governments seek to exercise influence for global health decision-making.

  20. The German energy policy: between national requirements and community exigencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the strategic and economic stakes that are associated with the security of energy supplies, the German federal government has made of this question one of the priorities of its european presidency. In this note, the author observes a radical change in the German energy policy with the future phaseout of nuclear energy and the perspectives of Russian gas supply. The author also reviews the challenges of the elaboration of a European energy policy, with certain member States refusing to transfer their sovereignty in the energy domain, and the large split between national requirements and community exigencies in this field

  1. Postnational or National Europe? European Asylum Policies and Immigration Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedrana Baričević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theories of the transformation of the modern functions of the nation state and the immigrant membership associated with the (legally defined status of community members exemplified by asylum policies. In the process, two fundamental approaches to the issue are distinguished: the first one emphasizing changes in the institution of the traditional national citizenship and competences of the nation state, while stressing a predominantly national character of the institution of citizenship, and the second one, which emphasizes the transformation of traditional citizenships, stressing the weakening of the role of the nation state. Therefore, in the latter case, there is increasingly more talk about postnationalism, which is a term denoting the transformation of the substantive aspects of citizenship in the EU countries. The mentioned theoretical approaches are applied to three groups of issues. First, the impact of the EU on the processes of the globalisation of the rights of asylum migrants are examined. Second, the paper works out the details of the way of formulating the policy of asylum membership in the EU member states. Third, the question of whether universal postnational inclusion of asylum migrants is at work in the EU member states, or whether the status of this group of immigrants should be found within the limits of the traditional theory of state membership and national sovereignty is addressed

  2. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  3. National emissions from tourism: An overlooked policy challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gössling, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Tourism has been recognized as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sector on a global scale. Yet, only few studies assess tourism's share in national emissions. This paper compares and analyses existing inventories of national emissions from tourism. Studies are difficult to compare, because they use different system boundaries and allocation principles, omitting or including lifecycle emissions and GHG other than CO 2 . By outlining and analysing these differences, the paper estimates the contribution made by tourism to national emissions, and its greenhouse gas intensity in comparison to other economic sectors. Results indicate that while emissions from tourism are significant in all countries studied, they may, in some countries, exceed ‘official' emissions as calculated on the basis of guidelines for national emission inventories under the Kyoto Protocol. This is a result of the fact that bunker fuels are not considered in national GHG inventories, leading to underestimates of the energy- and GHG intensity of tourism economies. While further growth in tourism emissions can be expected in all countries studied, energy-related vulnerabilities are already considerable in many of these. Climate policy for tourism, on the other hand, is largely non-existent, calling for immediate action to consider this sector in national legislation. - Highlights: • Emissions from tourism are equivalent to 5–150% of ’official’ national emissions. • Inconsistent methods are used to calculate national tourism emissions. • Tourism is an energy-intense economic sector compared to other sectors. • Emissions from tourism are growing rapidly. • National policy is not concerned with tourism-related emissions

  4. Dynamics in national agri-environmental policy implementation under changing EU policy priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Frederiksen, P.; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    decision structures in the Netherlands, Denmark, Greece, Austria and Romania. Second, we examine the extent to which various factors have influenced the development of national policies over time. The study identifies development based on the theory of ‘process of institutional change’, i.e. we...

  5. Energy transition: from national scenarios to European policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims at seeing how an analysis of national scenarios of energy transition may contribute to the elaboration of European energy and climate policies. The author first identifies the characteristics of energy scenarios, and the relationship between a scenario considered as an object on the one hand, and a vision for the long term on the other hand. She proposes an analysis framework which enables a comparative analysis of scenarios in order to identify stakes and challenges for the future European policy. In the second part, the author presents three examples (Germany, United Kingdom and France) and discusses their political context and adopted scenarios. After an overview of existing European energy and climate policies, the results of the analysis are given for two specific sectors: transports and electricity

  6. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ''Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process'' includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions

  7. Coastal Fortifications and National Military Policy, 1815-1835

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    in commerce and vulnerable to attack that the board of engineers focused on was the lower Chesapeake Bay area. The area overlooked approaches to the...the Chesapeake Bay , New Orleans and New York, had an estimated cost of $3,010,054.108 The second-tier proposed to defend naval stations and other... foundation for a national military policy relying on deterrence and defense. Colonial and British authorities had constructed few coastal fortifications

  8. Indigenous participation in an informal national indigenous health policy network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Mark J; Thomas, David P; Anderson, Ian P; Pattison, Philippa

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVE; To determine and describe the features of Indigenous participation in an informal national Indigenous health policy network. A questionnaire was administered during 2003-04. Through a snowball nomination process a total of 227 influential persons were identified. Of these, 173 received surveys of which 44 were returned, a return rate of 25%. These data were analysed to detect the existence of network groups; measure the degree of group interconnectivity; and measure the characteristics of bonds between influential persons. Demographic information was used to characterise the network and its groups. Indigenous people were integral to the network due to their high representation, their distribution throughout the 16 groups, and the interconnections between the groups. The network was demographically diverse and multiple relational variables were needed to characterise it. Indigenous and non-Indigenous people had strong ties in this network. Social network methods made visible an informal network where Indigenous and non-Indigenous people relate in a complex socio-political environment to influence national Indigenous health policy. What is known about the topic? The participation of Indigenous people is acknowledged as important in health, but there is criticism of the lack of real opportunities for Indigenous people to participate in national Indigenous health policy processes.

  9. [National debate on the Mali population policy project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, K

    1990-08-01

    In July 1990 in Bamako, Mali, the government held a national debate on the population policy project. Participants were from the Democratic Union of the Malian People, the Minister of Planning, and the national and regional upper management levels of the national unions of women, youth, and workers of Mali. Observers were representatives from UNFPA, BIT, and the World Bank. The Center of Studies and Research on Population for Development (CERPOD) and the Malian Association for the Protection and Promotion of the Family (AMPPF) were invited to the opening and closing ceremonies. The debate aimed to allow participants to learn about the form and contents of the project and of the draft document of Mali's population policy and to appreciate it in its theoretical and practical relevance. The same document was discussed and recommendations made during a workshop in April 1990 by various leaders of projects supported by UNFPA, AMPPF, CERPOD, and different members of the Studies and Coordination of Population Activities Group. Reports of the first plenary session were on the analysis of the demographic-economic situation of Mali and its different regions, and on the objectives and strategies of the population policy. The demographic-economic study is very important in the scientific formulation of a population policy because a poor diagnosis, poor identification of demographic-economic problems, or their bad formulation leads most often to irreversible errors. Three working groups provided reports containing observations and concrete recommendations to improve the document. The second plenary session was devoted to and adopted the reports. Some objectives contained in the pre-project were control of population growth through accelerated socioeconomic development and adapting fertility to development, food security, improvement of the health status of the population, promotion of family planning and family protection, promotion of human resources, protection and

  10. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY... made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy... must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later than Friday, July 6...

  11. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diseases. Contact Us NIAMS Archive Viewers and Players Social Media Moderation Policy FOIA Privacy Statement Accessibility Disclaimer Digital Strategy Open Source Data Public Data ...

  12. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July 21...

  13. Indonesian National Policy on Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Yun Santoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From its arousal, the issue of climate change or global warming has become a distinct global trend setter in multidisciplinary discussion, including in the law perspective. Within legal discourse, the issue of climate change developed rapidly into several aspect, not only about adaptation nor mitigation, especially since the plurality of moral conviction relevant to the climate change facts. As a global matter, each country has the responsibility to adapt and mitigate with its own character and policy. This normative research aims to explore and describe in brief the Indonesian national policy in climate change adaptation and mitigation. Gradually, the contribution of Indonesia is getting firm and solid to the climate change regime, especially after the Bali Action Plan 2007.

  14. ENHANCE OUTPUT OF NATIONAL POLICIES THROUGH RECRUITMEN, SELECTION, AND COMPETENCE TO CHANGE OF NATIONAL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiranto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of recruitment, selection, competence and national policies to the changing conditions in Indonesia. 530 respondents from 25 provinces or 50 regencies/ cities across Indonesia participated in questionnaire pools in the study. Data were processed using path analysis technique. Results reveal that the recruitment process by political parties, the selection process by the Election Commission, and the competence of the leader, have positive correlations to the policies and the outcomes. The study highlights that without any improvements in the recruitment, selection, competency of leaders, and policies, no changes could be made by the leaders. It implies that a redefinition and actualization of recruitment, selection, competence, and policies should be made to ensure the changes to take place.

  15. ENHANCE OUTPUT OF NATIONAL POLICIES THROUGH RECRUITMEN, SELECTION, AND COMPETENCE TO CHANGE OF NATIONAL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiranto .

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of recruitment, selection, competence and national policies to the changing conditions in Indonesia. 530 respondents from 25 provinces or 50 regencies/ cities across Indonesia participated in questionnaire pools in the study. Data were processed using path analysis technique. Results reveal that the recruitment process by political parties, the selection process by the Election Commission, and the competence of the  leader, have  positive correlations to the policies and the outcomes. The study highlights that without any improvements in the recruitment, selection, competency of leaders, and policies, no changes could be made by the leaders. It implies that a redefinition and actualization of recruitment, selection, competence, and policies should be made to ensure the changes to take place.

  16. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  17. Population Growth and National Population Policy of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thukral, A. K.; Singh, B. P.

    2008-01-01

    The population growth in India may overtake China by the year 2030. The National Population Policy of India targets population stabilization in India by the year 2045. The present paper carries out objective analysis of the population growth in India in terms of change in specific growth. At the present rate of specific growth rate decline, the population by the end of the century will be 2.49 billion. For the population to achieve zero growth by the year 2045, a decline in specific growth rate will have to be achieved at the rate of 0.000428 per year.

  18. Annotated bibliography National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    The following annotated bibliography lists documents prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE), and predecessor agencies, to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for activities and facilities at Sandia National Laboratories sites. For each NEPA document summary information and a brief discussion of content is provided. This information may be used to reduce the amount of time or cost associated with NEPA compliance for future Sandia National Laboratories projects. This summary may be used to identify model documents, documents to use as sources of information, or documents from which to tier additional NEPA documents

  19. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

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  20. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

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    Full Text Available ... meetings of professional and voluntary organizations. NIAMS-Hosted Social Media Events The NIAMS partners with health organizations ... diseases. Contact Us NIAMS Archive Viewers and Players Social Media Moderation Policy FOIA Privacy Statement Accessibility Disclaimer ...

  1. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

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    Full Text Available ... meetings of professional and voluntary organizations. NIAMS-Hosted Social Media Events The NIAMS partners with health organizations to ... diseases. Contact Us NIAMS Archive Viewers and Players Social Media Moderation Policy FOIA Privacy Statement Accessibility Disclaimer Digital ...

  2. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking—neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures. PMID:26538806

  3. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking-neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures.

  4. Policy Entrepreneurs and the Design of Public Policy: The Case of the National Health Insurance Law in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISSIM COHEN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available How do policy entrepreneurs implement in practice the things theory suggests they should do? This article suggests various insightsinto the influence of policy entrepreneurs on the formulation of public policy. Using a broad definition of the concept of policyentrepreneur, the article identifies the main characteristics of entrepreneurial activities, describes various strategies that the policyentrepreneur may employ, and develops a model of successful and effective policy entrepreneurship. Using an analysis of the designof the Israel National Health Law of 1994 as a case study, the article emphasizes the importance of policy entrepreneurs in thepublic policy arena and provides several insights into the conditions for their activity, their motivations and main strategies.

  5. Electricity pricing policy: A neo-institutional, developmental and cross-national policy design map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundinya, Sridarshan Umesh

    inter-relationships among various elements at different levels of the policy design map in a cross-national context. The study adds value with a comprehensive design map that helps to organize and give coherence to the policy prescriptions made by Indian experts as they converge on one institutional model. Thus the dissertation contributes to the transfer of knowledge about regulatory practice from the US to India.

  6. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later...

  7. Regional Themes and Global Means in Supra-National Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Pam

    2009-01-01

    The supra-national level has become increasingly important in educational policy formulation. This paper describes and compares two settings in which growth in these supra-national policies is evident--in Europe and in Africa. Key themes arising in policy documents in each context are examined. A distinction is drawn in analysis between themes…

  8. 77 FR 9964 - Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of the Reclamation National Environmental Policy Act Handbook AGENCY... announcing the availability of its updated National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Handbook. This handbook... for existing laws, regulations, policies, and other guidance. It is a guidance document, and as such...

  9. Evaluation of national food and nutrition policy in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersini, Ehadu; Hyska, Jolanda; Burazeri, Genc

    2017-06-01

    The paper aims to describe the progress that has been made in the implementation of the Albanian food and nutrition policy since 2003, so as to consider its impacts to date, and to identify strategic priorities/critical areas and priorities for Albania's future policy on improving the national food and nutrition situation. In 2011-2012, an expert group applied an intersectoral participatory approach to evaluate the implementation of Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2003-08 in Albania. The experts employed the quantitative method, using a 9 question logical assessment matrix to measure the achievements of the individual goals of the Plan, and a qualitative tool for the interview of an interdisciplinary sample of 68-key informants-persons operating in public health nutrition, food safety and food availability related subfields, from a wide range of pertinent institutions and stakeholders. The quantitative and qualitative assessment revealed that the implementation process has faced serious barriers linked to the design of the plan, which did not accurately anticipate a theoretical framework, or structured methods for its implementation. Other impeding factors included the lack of institutional/infrastructure support, lack of intersectoral coordination and motivation, as well as insufficient capacities and know-how. Intersectoral response to the multifaceted nature of double burden of malnutrition is of key importance to improve nutritional wellbeing and health outcomes in Albania. Participatory approaches that involve all relevant sectors and actors in the development, monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of public health policies based on comprehensive action-oriented assessments are promising and should be further supported.

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  11. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6

  13. The United Nations and Climate Change: Legal and Policy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Isabella D.

    2009-07-01

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, has declared that climate change is "the defining challenge of our times." Climate change trends indicate increasingly severe negative impacts on the majority of countries, with disproportionate effects on poor and vulnerable populations. The scientific reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), have placed the issue on the forefront of the international agenda. This article examines how climate change is shaping legal and policy developments in five key areas of UN responsibility: international law, humanitarian affairs, human rights, development, and peace and security. It concludes with some observations about high-level efforts to coordinate the response of multilateral institutions, the changing stance of the US government, and the role of environmental protection in addressing the current global economic crisis.

  14. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2013-11-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  15. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Boyd D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schafer, Annette L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  16. Likely social impacts of proposed national-level policy initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piernot, C.A.; Rothweiler, M.A.; Levine, A.; Crews, R.

    1981-03-01

    The results are described of an investigation of likely social effects of enacting nine proposed national-level policy initiatives to accelerate development and use of solar energy. This study is part of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems (TASE) project supported by the US Department of Energy. The report presents general social impact information about the variety of ways in which the American people could be affected by enactment of these initiatives. It identifies the effects of each initiative on individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and society as a whole. In addition, it provides a framework for organizing a myriad of impact information into a set of conceptually exclusive impact categories. It illustrates that social impacts means effects on people as individuals, groups, organizations, and communities as well as on the infrastructure of society. Finally, it demonstrates the importance of specifying an audience of impact with a case example from the residential rental market.

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  18. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  19. The Methodology for Formation of National Nutrition Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsun Leonid M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The materials of the study of management processes in the food service industry based on the criteria of composition of tasks of establishments’ activities, their participation in the integration process of production, sale and organization of food consumption and catering services are outlined. A model of nature-aligned development of the food service industry as a natural and socio-economic system is proposed. Priority directions of the national nutrition policy are determined on the basis of integration of participants in the process of organizing catering. There justified methodological approaches to the formation of a management model for development of enterprises in the food services industry by stages of preparing and making decisions on integration of business entities, including enterprises of the agrarian sector, food industry, trade, restaurant business and households.

  20. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  1. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  2. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  4. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

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  5. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content National Institutes of Health Get Email Updates Contact Us Top Utility Nav Community Outreach Publications in Asian Languages Portal en español Main navigation Menu Close Health Topics ...

  6. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

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  7. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

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    Full Text Available ... Press Releases NIH program to accelerate therapies for arthritis, lupus releases first datasets Press Release | February 22, ... Mission The mission of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases is to support ...

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  9. Genetic Underpinnings of Alopecia Areata

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    Full Text Available ... skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on ... Discovery Into Health® National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville ...

  10. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... ] Industrial Security Program policy matters. Dated: February 23, 2012. Mary Ann Hadyka, Committee Management... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office...

  11. 78 FR 47316 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9842-9] National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental... governments and communities to be considered for appointment to the National Advisory Council for...

  12. National Language Policy Theory: Exploring Spolsky's Model in the Case of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Nathan John

    2016-01-01

    Language policies are born amidst the complex interplay of social, cultural, religious and political forces. With this in mind, Bernard Spolsky theorises that the language policy of any independent nation is driven, at its core, by four co-occurring conditions--national ideology, English in the globalisation process, a nation's attendant…

  13. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  14. Promotion of physical activity in the European region: content analysis of 27 national policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English. RESULTS: Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being...... a noticeable development of national policy documents on physical activity promotion. Following principles for policy development more closely could increase the effectiveness of their preparation and implementation further....

  15. Pragmatism and Nationalism: Industrialization Policy in Indonesia and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Helmy Fuady

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines industrialization policy in two oil giant economies, Indonesia and Nigeria. What are the key features of continued economic divergence in these two countries since the 1980s? It shows that Indonesia’s policy-makers adopted a series of liberalization measures and switched to an export-oriented strategy to develop manufacturing industries from the mid-1980s, while Nigeria’s policy-makers was reluctant to do so. This paper also seeks to understand the rationale behind the different policy choices. This paper argues that policy-makers’ experience and educational background are possible explanation to the different industrialization policies in these two countries.

  16. National ownership in the implementation of global climate policy in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    question asked is to what extent external interventions have formed part of a country-driven approach in Uganda. The conflicting national and global priorities concerning the need for adaptation to the impacts of climate change versus the need for global mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are explored...... first. Against this background, Uganda's policy response to climate change is reviewed. National climate policies are found not to exist, and the implementation of global policies is not integrated into national policy frameworks, partly due to conflicting national and global priorities. Given limited......This article explores the history, from a developing country perspective, of how external interventions to implement global policies on the Climate Convention and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have been integrated into national development policy frameworks in the period 1990-2005. The main...

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  18. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  20. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts

  1. National Environmental Policy Act source guide for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansky, M.T.

    1998-09-30

    This Source Guide will assist those working with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to become more familiar with the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that apply to specific activities and facilities on the Hanford Site. This document should help answer questions concerning NEPA coverage, history, processes, and the status of many of the buildings and units on and related to the Hanford Site. This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODS, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers).

  2. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  3. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  4. Hanford Site National Evnironmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1991-12-01

    This fourth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. In Chapter 4.0 are presented summations of up-to-date information about climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels. Chapter 5.0 describes models, including their principal assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclides transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for environmental impact statements for the Hanford Site, following the structure Chapter 4.0. NO conclusions or recommendations are given in this report.

  5. Challenges to pharmaceutical policymaking: lessons from Australia's national medicines policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Doran, Evan; Kerridge, Ian; Day, Richard

    2014-05-01

    National medicines policies (NMP) provide a means for governments to achieve their objectives in relation to pharmaceuticals and other medicines. This research aimed to identify challenges to implementing the objectives of the Australian NMP from the perspective of key stakeholders. In 2012 and 2103, we conducted 30 semistructured interviews with stakeholders involved in the discovery, clinical testing, regulation and funding of medicines in Australia. We asked participants to describe their careers and to give their opinions on specific issues surrounding drug development, clinical research, regulation and subsidisation in Australia. Data were analysed using Morse's outline of the cognitive basis of qualitative research and Charmaz's outline of data analysis in grounded theory. The initial phase of 'open coding' revealed findings that could be mapped to three of the four objectives of the NMP. We then conducted 'focussed coding' for themes relevant to these objectives. Participants identified many issues relevant to the ongoing evolution of the NMP, relating primarily to ongoing tensions between the commercial objective of ensuring a viable medicines industry, and the non-commercial objectives of ensuring that medicines are safe, effective and affordable. There were also several other challenges identified to the achievement of both the commercial and non-commercial objectives of the NMP. These included limits to government funding, globalisation, consumer advocacy, changing scientific paradigms and new information technologies. There are many issues that need to be addressed if policymakers are to achieve the best outcomes from the NMP. Tensions between the commercial and non-commercial objectives of the NMP suggest the need to ensure that one stakeholder group's imperatives do not stifle those of other groups. At the same time, there are several emerging issues that are likely to concern all stakeholders equally, and these are both challenges and opportunities

  6. 7 CFR 621.40 - Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in Federal interagency policy activities... INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS Interagency Coordination § 621.40 Participation in Federal interagency policy activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is coordinated...

  7. Local Management of National Cluster Policies: Comparative Case Studies of Japanese, German, and French Biotechnology Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Okamuro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cluster policies have attracted increasing attention worldwide, but only a few studies have focused on their management by local cluster organizations. We investigate the relationship between national cluster policies and their management by local cluster organizations from a comparative perspective. For this purpose, we provide a detailed comparison of national cluster policies in Japan, Germany, and France as well as six prominent biotechnology clusters in these countries. Information on the focal clusters and on the management of cluster policies was obtained using semi-structured interviews with cluster managers. We find that national cluster policies considerably differ among these countries according to basic conditions of clusters and that the patterns of national cluster policy are closely related to those of local cluster management, despite some differences between clusters in the same country caused by various regional characteristics.

  8. Study of US/EU National Innovation Policies Based on Nanotechnology Development, and Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, Jung Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently US/EU governments are utilizing nanotechnology as a key catalyst to support national innovation policies with economic recovery goals. US/EU nano policies have been serving as a global model to various countries, including Korea. So the authors initially seek to understand US/EU national innovation policy interconnections, and then find the role of nanotechnology development within. To strengthen national policy coherence, nanotechnology development strategies are under evolution as an innovation catalyst for promoting commercialization. To strategically support nano commercialization, EHS (Environmental, Health, Safety and informatics are invested as priority fields to strengthen social acceptance and sustainability of nano enabled products. The current study explores US/EU national innovation policies including nano commercialization, EHS, and Informatics. Then obtained results are utilized to analyze weaknesses of Korean innovation systems of connecting creative economy and nanotechnology development policies. Then ongoing improvements are summarized focusing on EHS and informatics, which are currently prominent issues in international nanotechnology development.

  9. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    -hydrologic model EPIC to capture both green water (GW) and blue water (BW) use at a ~10 square km resolution among three scenarios: (1) a counterfactual scenario with no national biofuel policy, (2) current Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandates, and (3) a proposed national Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) plus the RFS scenario. Inputs to EPIC are spatially explicit: (a) cropping areas and yields as projected by a partial equilibrium economic model, (b) daily weather data, (c) soil properties (d) N fertilizer application, and (e) irrigation sources and volumes, by crop (Fig 4-5). We assess the differences among biofuel scenarios from 2007-2035 along the following metrics: (1) crop area expansion on prime & marginal lands (Fig 6), (2) Crop-specific & overall annual/seasonal water balances including (2a) water inflows (irrigation & precipitation), (2b) crop-atmosphere interactions: (evaporation & transpiration) and (2c) soil-water flows (runoff & soil infiltration), in mm3 /acre. We found differential water use impacts among biofuel scenarios are a primarily a function of (1) land use conversion, in particular that of formerly uncropped land classes (2) irrigation practices, (3) feedstock water use efficiency, and (4) the longer growing season and a predominance of rainfed cultivation of dedicated biofuel feedstocks. Fig 1-6 available at the linked urls.

  10. Climate change mitigation policy paradigms — national objectives and alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit; Christensen, John M.

    2014-01-01

    to the achievement of large GHG emission reductions. Based on these experiences with policy implementation, the paper highlights a number of key coordination and design issues that are pertinent to the successful joint implementation of several energy and climate-change policy goals.......The aim of this paper is to assess how policy goals in relation to the promotion of green growth, energy security, pollution control and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions have been aligned in policies that have been implemented in selected countries during the last decades as a basis...... been widely applied for decades in both developing countries and industrialised countries. Many of these policies have a long history, and adjustments have taken place based on experience and cost effectiveness concerns. Various energy and climate-change policy goals have worked together...

  11. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  13. Globalization and environmental policy innovations: Perspectives for national and regional pioneers

    OpenAIRE

    Jaenicke, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Is economic globalisation an obstacle to environmental policy innovations of regions or nations? Which effects will the rapid globalisation of environmental policy have? Could globalisation improve the conditions for regulatory competition and green pioneers? The presentation will describe the growing environmental policy convergence in the world, which may prevent a downward spiral of environmental standards. Global environmental policy learning will be described in terms of environmental po...

  14. National policy for integration of ICT: a comparative study between Brazil and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    José GOMES DA SILVA; Maria NEIDE SOBRAL

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to present the results of a comparative study of national educative policies for integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) used in basic education schools in Brazil and Spain. In general terms, this article intends to examine possible convergences and divergences in objectives presented by these policies. The time frame was between 1997 and 2010, when these policies and the launch of new transnational policies for ICT integration began. The research has...

  15. National platforms for evidence-informed physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rus, Diana; Bozdog, Elena; Loncarevic, Natasa

    Evidence-informed policy making in physical activity calls for inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration. To facilitate the exchange of knowledge, experiences and ideas across practice, policy and research, as part of the REPOPA Project and dissemination work, it was encouraged...

  16. The national policy on education and self-reliance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The policy on education in any society ought to be laid on the above foundation; otherwise such society is bound to exist under the dictates of foreign human and material resources. The paper takes a histo-philosophical study of policies consciously or unconsciously made in Nigeria from pre-colonial era to the present time ...

  17. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  18. A longitudinal study of the implementation experiences of the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme: investigating transformative policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Dickinson, Helen

    2017-08-17

    Internationally there has been a growth in the use of publicly funded service markets as a mechanism to deliver health and social services. This has accompanied the emergence of 'self-directed care' in a number of different policy areas including disability and aged care - often referred to as 'personalisation' (Giaimo and Manow, Comp. Pol Stud 32:967-1000, 1999; Needham, Public Money Manage 30:136-8, 2010; [Hood], [The Idea of Joined-up Government: A Historical Perspective], [2005]; Klijn and Koppenjan, Public Manage 2:437-54, 2000, Greener, Policy Polit 36:93-108, 2008). These reforms are underpinned by an idea that individuals should be placed in control of their own service needs, given funding directly by government and encouraged to exercise choice and control through purchasing their own services. A major challenge for governments in charge of these reforms is determining the best way to structure and govern emerging service markets markets. Given the growing international embrace of market-based reform mechanisms to provide essential services to citizens, finding ways to ensure they promote, and not diminish, people's health and wellbeing is vital. The Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) is Australia's first national approach to the use of personalised budgets. The program of research outlined in this paper brings together streams from a range of different studies in order to investigate the implementation of the NDIS longitudinally across different administrative levels of government, service providers and scheme participants. This programme of research will make a contribution to our understanding of the Australian scheme and how individualised funding operates within this context, but will also generate much needed evidence that will have relevance to other jurisdictions and help fill a gap in the evidence base.

  19. Analysis of National and EU Policies Supporting CSR and Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke; Anastasiadis, Stephanos

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the place of governmental policies in encouraging and supporting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and their effectiveness therein. By: Moon, Jeremy - Slager, Rieneke - Brunn, Christoph - Hardi, Peter - Steen Knudsen, Jette - 2012 The very...... but it is also increasingly explicit in government policies (Matten and Moon 2008). In other words, it is not simply that government policies structure the environment in which companies choose to behave responsibly or otherwise, but also that policies are precisely designed to encourage such behaviour...... society organizations); to mandate (e.g. for accounting or reporting standards). However, the trajectories between and combinations of these policy types also vary among countries (see below). Collectively they tend to reflect broader trends in new governance which stress participation, networks...

  20. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ... goals to eliminate current threats and risks such as terrorism. As far as Poland is concerned, its priority is to be an active leader in improving common security policy within the boundaries of the European Union (EU...

  1. Rethinking the National Interest: Putin's Turn in Russian Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medvedev, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the historical and political roots behind a transformation in Russian foreign policy undertaken by President Vladimir Putin in the wake of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001...

  2. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  3. Toward a National Science and Technology Policy in Nicaragua ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expected outputs of the project include a national plan for science, technology and innovation; increased trust and collaboration between the various agents in the national innovation system; a mechanism for enabling CONICYT to fulfill its coordinating role; a fundraising strategy for the national innovation plan; and a ...

  4. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  5. Japan's Higher Education Incorporation Policy: A Comparative Analysis of Three Stages of National University Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    A number of countries with public higher education systems have implemented privatisation policies. In Japan, the national government introduced the National University Corporation Act (NUCA) in 2004 and changed the legal status of national universities from that of government-owned public institutions to independent administrative agencies. Its…

  6. Evaluation of National Policy about Domestic Violence against Women in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Fallahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the unpleasant behaviors that threats women’ life and leads to various disquiets among family members is domestic violence. Prevention of this social dilemma and recognizing of its mechanism supposed as a vital and predictable fact in national policies. Into the bargain, it is enough necessary to determine the national policies for protecting women to meliorate mental health in society. The goal of current literature is looking at the factors that may contribute to domestic violence against women. Also, this paper evaluate position of women in constitute law, civil law and national policies in Iran with the purpose of women’ protect in the society.

  7. Auditing national HIV guidelines and policies: The United Kingdom CD4 Surveillance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison E; Kall, Meaghan M; Smith, Ruth D; Yin, Zheng; Hunter, Alan; Hunter, Alan; Delpech, Valerie C

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom's CD4 surveillance scheme monitors CD4 cell counts among HIV patients and is a national resource for HIV surveillance. It has driven public health policy and allowed auditing of national HIV testing, treatment and care guidelines. WE DEMONSTRATE ITS UTILITY THROUGH FOUR EXAMPLE OUTPUTS: median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis; late HIV diagnosis and short-term mortality; the timing of first CD4 count to indicate entry into HIV care; and the proportion of patients with CD4 counts auditing of policies and guidelines. These routine surveillance outputs can be generated at national and local levels to drive and monitor public health policy and prevention efforts.

  8. Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.

  9. Create the conditions - renewable energy and energy storage policies choices for island nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmins, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This fast moving, detailed presentation offers an in-depth look at the development, launch and renewal of renewable energy procurement programs worldwide, with an eye to (a) educating renewable energy policy makers and procurement program designers with up-to-date information on issues, investor concerns and trends from island nations around the globe, (b) informing industry participants and industry advocates regarding divergent public policy choices facing policy makers, and (c) helping industry stakeholders to assist public policy choice makers in formulating effective and sustainable policy choices. (full text)

  10. Do national drug policies influence antiretroviral drug prices? Evidence from the Southern African Development community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Galárraga, Omar

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of low- and middle-income countries’ (LMIC) national drug policies in managing antiretroviral (ARV) pharmaceutical prices is not well understood. Though ARV drug prices have been declining in LMIC over the past decade, little research has been done on the role of their national drug policies. This study aims to (i) analyse global ARV prices from 2004 to 2013 and (ii) examine the relationship of national drug policies to ARV prices. Analysis of ARV drug prices utilized data from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization (WHO). Ten of the most common ARV drugs (first-line and second-line) were selected. National drug policies were also assessed for 12 countries in the South African Development Community (SADC), which self-reported their policies through WHO surveys. The best predictor of ARV drug price was generic status—the generic versions of 8 out of 10 ARV drugs were priced lower than branded versions. However, other factors such as transaction volume, HIV prevalence, national drug policies and PEPFAR/CHAI involvement were either not associated with ARV drug price or were not consistent predictors of price across different ARV drugs. In the context of emerging international trade agreements, which aim to strengthen patent protections internationally and potentially delay the sale of generic drugs in LMIC, this study shines a spotlight on the importance of generic drugs in controlling ARV prices. Further research is needed to understand the impact of national drug policies on ARV prices.

  11. Elements of Sustainable Development. Contents and backgrounds of policy scenario III in the Dutch National Environmental Policy Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas RJM

    1991-01-01

    The report "Concern for Tomorrow - a National Environmental survey 1985-2010" (RIVM, 1989) lead to the conclusion that traditional environmental policy measures were insulfficient to combine further growth of production and consumption with the realisation of a 70-90% reduction goal, which

  12. The British Educational Policy for the Indigenous Community in Malaya 1870-1957: Dualistic Structure, Colonial Interests and Malay Radical Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the educational policy implemented by the British for the Malays, the indigenous community of Malaya. Underpinned by the policy of divide and rule, the British implemented a dualistic system of education for the indigenous Malays: one for the Malay peasantry and another for the Malay nobility. The two systems of education…

  13. Balancing economic freedom against social policy principles: EC competition law and national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Lear, Julia

    2012-07-01

    EU Health policy exemplifies the philosophical tension between EC economic freedoms and social policy. EC competition law, like other internal market rules, could restrict national health policy options despite the subsidiarity principle. In particular, European health system reforms that incorporate elements of market competition may trigger the application of competition rules if non-economic gains in consumer welfare are not adequately accounted for. This article defines the policy and legal parameters of the debate between competition law and health policy. Using a sample of cases it analyses how the ECJ, national courts, and National Competition Authorities have applied competition laws to the health services sector in different circumstances and in different ways. It concludes by considering the implications of the convergence of recent trends in competition law enforcement and health system market reforms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. When do national administrations adapt to EU policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    This article joins the Europeanization studies and examines the administrative adaptation to Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), a highly institutionalized and regulated policy, in two small older member states, Denmark and Greece. The findings demonstrate variation in administrative adaptation....... In Denmark, both formal and informal administrative structures adapt to CAP, while in Greece administrative adaptation is limited to formal structures. This variation is attributed to two dimensions of the domestic institutional and organizational settings, namely “centralization” and “professionalism.......” The comparative analysis provides an in-depth understanding of the administrative differences between North and South—a cleavage that became prominent during the Eurozone crisis....

  15. Changes in policies or regulations on the US national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Abrupt changes in policy due to fundamental leadership changes in Government can be highly disruptive of innovative programmes such as reindustrialization, as demonstrated at Oak Ridge. Both new businesses and the community were adversely affected by significant changes in policy and priorities emanating from USDOE headquarters. Local programmes need to be carefully evaluated by the communities they are designed to benefit as to their economic viability in the absence of Federal funding and their ability to be self-sustaining in the long term

  16. Global Warming: Its Implications for U.S. National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-19

    The approach to this topic will be to look at the science behind anthropogenic global warming . Is man largely responsible for causing global warming due...paper will then investigate the nexus between global warming and U.S. national security policy. It will address the challenges facing U.S. leaders and...policy makers as they tackle the issue of global warming and its implications for U.S. policy. Finally it will conclude with recommendations for those

  17. 75 FR 66800 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration... Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Shoreline Restoration and Infrastructure Protection Program (SRIPP). SUMMARY... shoreline and the infrastructure behind it. Alternative One, NASA's preferred alternative, would include...

  18. 75 FR 8997 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility Shoreline Restoration... Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Shoreline Restoration and Infrastructure Protection Program (SRIPP). SUMMARY... from the Wallops Island shoreline and the infrastructure behind it. Alternative One, NASA's preferred...

  19. 32 CFR 643.39 - Policy-American National Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.39 Policy—American National Red Cross. (a) Title 10 U.S.C. 2670... quarters for Red Cross activities and personnel when assigned to duty with the Armed Forces in accordance...

  20. Make way for the climate. National adaptation strategy. The policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-11-01

    The policy paper is a background document of the interdepartmental memorandum 'Make way for climate', in which the outline is described for a national strategy for adaptation to the consequences of climate change. [mk] [nl

  1. 77 FR 3475 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... help address environmental problems experienced by environmental justice communities and other... No: 2012-1527] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9622-4] National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of advisory...

  2. Sleep Medicine Education in India: Policy Initiatives of National Academy of Medical Sciences (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mohan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of National academy of Medical Sciences in initiating policy for sleep education and research in India through the NAMS Regional symposium and its further dissemination through various academic research.

  3. 76 FR 40751 - National Environmental Policy Act; Wallops Flight Facility; Site-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... academia. One guiding principle of the National Space Policy is for Federal agencies to facilitate the...) research and development and training missions, including target and missile launches, and aircraft...

  4. Education in Latvia. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    How can Latvia improve the quality and equity of its education system and realise long-term efficiency gains? This report covers the whole education system from early childhood education and care to tertiary education and provides an assessment of Latvia's policies and practices against the best approaches in education and skills across the OECD.…

  5. Presidential address - 1999 Towards a national rangeland policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wonders of modem communication have meant that I have been able to keep in touch with members and Councillors throughout the summer. It has also been possible to spend some time reviewing the documents pertaining to agricultural policy in South Africa. In this report I will focus on the efforts to keep the society ...

  6. Globalisation and National Environmental Policy: Update and Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. Wijen (Frank); K. Zoeteman; J. Pieters (Jan); P. Seters (Paul)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSUMMARY After outlining recent developments and the scope, target audience, and structure of the book, we review the literature on globalisation and environmental policy, especially the impact of globalisation on the environment and changes in environmental governance in relation to

  7. Performing Internationalization of Higher Education in Canadian National Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viczko, Melody; Tascón, Clara I.

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization processes are at the fore of university strategic plans on a global scale. However, the work of internationalization is being performed through the connections between many actors at different policy levels. Our purpose here is to ask, what is happening with internationalization of higher education at the Canadian national…

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Analysis of Ethiopia's National ICT Policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as infrastructure, services, applications, universal access, cyber security, social media, and users. Broadband infrastructure development is ... other technologies it enables to transform organizations and redefine social relations. In essence, ... public policies and disciplines. First, document analysis was carried out to study.

  9. Cuba After Castro; What Policy Best Serves U.S. National Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-09

    democratic government and respect for human rights after Castro’s departure. This research paper explores and examines alternatives to current U.S...policy in Cuba, then analyzes and compares these policy options using national interests as a framework. The research paper concludes with a recommended

  10. The Rise and Fall of Human Rights in English Education Policy? Inescapable National Interests and PREVENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    The article interprets changes in human rights education in English school policy on values which have increasingly been framed by PREVENT and a move from international to national expressions of values. It reveals the extent of the impact and nature of this change on human rights education in school policy for the first time. It reports changes…

  11. Development of a national health care waste management policy for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, GS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Policy for Health Care Risk Waste (HCRW) Management is being developed by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism in collaboration with the national Department of Health. The HCRW Management Policy aims at: i) Setting of standards...

  12. Monetary policy rules of the National Bank of Kazakhstan (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Bulat Mukhamediyev

    2007-01-01

    The issue of monetary policy rules in Kazakhstan is studied. It is established that at each stage of economic development the National Bank used a certain rule. In particular, it is revealed that during the post-crisis period after reaching macroeconomic stability the short term interest rate, rather than the monetary base, was used as a monetary policy tool.

  13. The legacy of French colonial policy on the nation building process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is against this background that this article examines France's colonial policy in Chad and its impact on nation building process before the outbreak of the country's civil war in the period shortly after independence. The essay argues that France's policies of “useful” and “useless Chad” was greatly responsible for the ...

  14. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  15. Political Turbulence and Policy Research: The National Commission on Student Financial Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    A study explored constraints experienced by policy researchers working for the National Commission on Student Assistance, founded in 1980 to investigate federal student-aid policy. It analyzed how political changes limited the scope of research questions, influenced reporting of results, and reduced effects of research on policymaking. Findings…

  16. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 20, 2013 from 10:00 a.m... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office...

  17. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2013 from 10:00 a... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office...

  18. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2012 from 10:00 a... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office...

  19. The National Bank of Romania monetary policy characteristics in addition to the current financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sambotin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the starting point for research the Central Bank key role in economic life, through the implementation of the monetary policy, by exercising prudential control and supervision of commercial banks, the present paper proposes an analysis of the National Bank of Romania monetary policy coordinates in the frame of the increased intensification harsh effects of the global economic crisis.

  20. U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues. Third Edition, Volume 2. National Security Policy and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    to Buddhist monks and nuns.7 Similarly, a sacred Jain text says, “One may not kill, ill-use, insult, torment, or persecute any kind of living being...While this power struggle illustrates direct conflict, how does the Congress routinely influence policy and strategy formulation in the national...logically flows from its appropriations role.7 The leaders of the foreign policy agencies routinely go to Capitol Hill to testify before various committees

  1. Linking science more closely to policy-making: Global climate change and the national reorganization of science and technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    This paper examines the national trends behind recent efforts to link science and technology more closely to policy-making. It describes the politics surrounding the establishment of the National Science and Technology Council and its committee on Environment and Natural Resources (of which the global change program is a part). It discusses the evolution of the ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy, in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy, in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` differs from that of its predecessor. The paper concludes with a critique both of the national reorganization of science and technology policy and of the assessments component of the climate change program.

  2. Moving toward a national policy on palliative and end of life care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley C Macaden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indian Palliative Care has developed over the past 17 years but it has also developed disabilities due to lack of a National Policy and hence has compromised its effectiveness. It is true that we have come a long way but we still have many miles to go and we will get there only if we have a proper road map and sign posts. This article attempts to suggest some specific measures in establishing such a National Policy

  3. Developing an Online Database of National and Sub-National Clean Energy Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, R.; Cross, S.; Heinemann, A.; Booth, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) was established in 1995 to provide summaries of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies offered by the federal and state governments. This primer provides an overview of the major policy, research, and technical topics to be considered when creating a similar clean energy policy database and website.

  4. The Safe and Effective Use of Shared Data Underpinned by Stakeholder Engagement and Evaluation Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Magrabi, Farah; Hypponen, Hannele; Wong, Zoie Shui-Yee; Nykänen, Pirkko; Scott, Philip J; Ammenwerth, Elske; Rigby, Michael

    2018-04-22

     The paper draws attention to: i) key considerations involving the confidentiality, privacy, and security of shared data; and ii) the requirements needed to build collaborative arrangements encompassing all stakeholders with the goal of ensuring safe, secure, and quality use of shared data.  A narrative review of existing research and policy approaches along with expert perspectives drawn from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) Working Group on Technology Assessment and Quality Development in Health Care and the European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) Working Group for Assessment of Health Information Systems.  The technological ability to merge, link, re-use, and exchange data has outpaced the establishment of policies, procedures, and processes to monitor the ethics and legality of shared use of data. Questions remain about how to guarantee the security of shared data, and how to establish and maintain public trust across large-scale shared data enterprises. This paper identifies the importance of data governance frameworks (incorporating engagement with all stakeholders) to underpin the management of the ethics and legality of shared data use. The paper also provides some key considerations for the establishment of national approaches and measures to monitor compliance with best practice. Data sharing endeavours can help to underpin new collaborative models of health care which provide shared information, engagement, and accountability amongst all stakeholders. We believe that commitment to rigorous evaluation and stakeholder engagement will be critical to delivering health data benefits and the establishment of collaborative models of health care into the future. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  5. Presidential Elections and HIV-Related National Policies and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrave, David R; Bonacci, Robert A; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2017-03-01

    The November 2016 general election and subsequent voting of the Electoral College resulted in the selection of Donald Trump as President of the United States. The incoming Administration ran a campaign that indicated a desire for substantial change in health policy, including the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Trump has said very little directly about HIV programs and policies, but some campaign positions (such as the repeal of the ACA) would clearly and substantially impact the lives of persons living with HIV. In this editorial, we highlight important HIV-related goals to which we must recommit ourselves, and we underscore several key points about evidence-based advocacy that are important to revisit at any time (but most especially when there is a change in Administration).

  6. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  7. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W; Krzywicka, Adrianna E; Cohen, Dora B; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L; Stevenson, Natalie A; Matthews, Jeffrey W

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  8. National policy response to climate change in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African government has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health. The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper defines government's vision for effective climate change response...

  9. Changing Higher Education Policies for Japanese National Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes current debate on changes in Japan's higher education system which involve "corporatizing" all national universities and introducing performance-based contractual funding. Suggests that these changes may be part of a complex game of struggle for control. (EV)

  10. Risk Management as Strategic Change in National Homeland Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    management framework under the NIPP, examines how implementation has been managed as strategic change through the lens of change management theory ...implementation has been managed as strategic change through the lens of change management theory , and offers recommendations for improvement. It is...framework been handled as strategic change in homeland security policy? How might change management theory and practice be applied to assess the

  11. National Policies and Multinational Corporations: Implications for Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Strizhevskaya, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    This essay is dedicated to the issues related to the relationship between national and transnational business. The paper does not concentrate on the formal aspects of the issues but assumes as a basis the tendency towards globalization of industrial development and the related achievements and influence of multinational corporations (MNC) and national enterprises. Russian government officials and local businessmen will increasingly face the need to understand MNC strategies and motives but al...

  12. Superconductivity: actual stage forcasting and subsidies for national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morato, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    An overview on the situation of metallic superconductors, their applications and market, and a brief history about the superconductivity at high T c (new ceramic superconductors), describing the actual level of research and development in the world and national plans are presented. Some comments about incentives and markets for rare earths are done. The scientific and technological challengers are discussed and some suggestions to lead a superconductivity national program are proposed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Subjective Wellbeing Impacts of National and Subnational Fiscal Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Grimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the association between fiscal policy and subjective wellbeing using fiscal data on 34 countries across 129 country-years, combined with over 170,000 people’s subjective wellbeing scores. While past research has found that ‘distortionary taxes’ (e.g. income taxes are associated with slow growth relative to ‘non-distortionary’ taxes (GST/VAT, we find that distortionary taxes are associated with higher levels of subjective wellbeing than non-distortionary taxes. This relationship holds when we control for macro-economic variables and country fixed effects. If this relationship is causal, it would offer an explanation as to why governments pursue these policies that harm economic growth. We find that richer people’s subjective wellbeing is less harmed by indirect taxes than people with lower incomes, while “unproductive expenditure” is associated with higher wellbeing for the middle class relative to others, possibly reflecting middle class capture. We see little evidence for differential effects of fiscal policy on people living in different sized settlements. Devolving a portion of expenditure to subnational government is associated with higher subjective wellbeing but devolving tax collection to subnational government is associated with monotonically lower subjective wellbeing.

  14. National Language and Terminology Policies — A South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Terminology plays a pivotal role in language development and the promotion of multilingualism. This article discusses the issue of multilingualism regarding terminology policies as seen from an African perspective. Special emphasis is given to the South African situation regarding language policies and consequential terminology policies in terms of subject-oriented terminography, translation-oriented terminography and linguistic community-oriented terminography.

    OPSOMMING: Nasionale taal- en terminologiebeleid — 'n Suid-Afrikaanse perspektief. Terminologie speel 'n sleutelrol in taalontwikkeling en die bevordering van veeltaligheid. Hierdie artikel bespreek die kwessie van veeltaligheid ten opsigte van terminologiebeleid soos gesien vanuit 'n Afrikaperspektief. Spesiale klem word gelê op die Suid-Afrikaanse situasie rakende taalbeleid en die gevolglike terminologiebeleid in terme van vakgeörienteerde terminografie, vertaalgeörienteerde terminografie en taalgemeenskapgeörienteerde terminografie.

    Sleutelwoorde: MEERTALIGHEID, TAALBELEID, TAALDIVERSITEIT, TAALGEMEENSKAPGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE, TERMINOLOGIEBESTUUR, TERMINOLOGIEONTWIKKELING, VAKGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE, VERTAALGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE

  15. Member States in Top Gear. Opportunities for national policies to reduce GHG emissions in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Den Boer, E.; Warringa, G.

    2012-10-15

    National sustainable transport policies in EU Member States are compared, with a focus on both current legislation and long-term climate policy. The study is input for the conference 'Keep moving, towards sustainable mobility' to be held in Rotterdam, October 11, 2012, and organised by the European Environmental and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC) and the Dutch Council for the Environment and Infrastructure (Rli). The study reviews the main trends in transport and climate policy in EU Member States, for ten of which an in-depth analysis of relevant policies was also performed.

  16. Neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    Gambling disorder affects 0.4 to 1.6% of adults worldwide, and is highly comorbid with other mental health disorders. This article provides a concise primer on the neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder based on a selective review of the literature. Gambling disorder is assoc......Gambling disorder affects 0.4 to 1.6% of adults worldwide, and is highly comorbid with other mental health disorders. This article provides a concise primer on the neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder based on a selective review of the literature. Gambling disorder...... is required to evaluate whether cognitive dysfunction and personality aspects influence the longitudinal course and treatment outcome for gambling disorder. It is hoped that improved understanding of the biological and psychological components of gambling disorder, and their interactions, may lead to improved...

  17. Radwaste Management in Small Nuclear Country - National Policy and Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, Tomaz

    2014-01-01

    The lecture will briefly present the Slovene nuclear program and its legal framework focused on the radioactive waste management policy and strategy aspect. Slovenia is an example of small EU member state with small shared nuclear power program demonstrating safe, secure and efficient management of radioactive waste. Different principles of radioactive waste management will be discoursed; among others including: minimization of waste generation, the polluter pays principle, safe storage followed by final disposal and also new findings on research and development of storage, disposal and recycling of radioactive waste. (author)

  18. Exploring National Environmental Policy Act processes across federal land management agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc J. Stern; Michael J. Mortimer

    2009-01-01

    Broad discretion is granted at all levels throughout federal land management agencies regarding compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). We explored the diversity of procedures employed in NEPA processes across four agencies, the USDA Forest Service, The USDI National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  19. National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic…

  20. Special Education in First Nations Schools in Canada: Policies of Cost Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The education of First Nations students in Canada on reserve is the legal responsibility of the federal government. This article reviews and critiques the federal government's past and current special education policies and practices in regard to First Nations schools throughout Canada. The author has found that rather than establishing a…

  1. Overview of National Policy Contexts for Entrepreneurialism in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth; Kitaev, Igor

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on seven national reports on national policies concerned with entrepreneurialism in universities as the context for a more detailed study of entrepreneurial behaviour in universities in the seven countries. It claims that the entrepreneurial university is a useful generic epithet to describe the manifold changes in mission,…

  2. Composing Alternatives to a National Security Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Scott

    2009-01-01

    President Bush's National Security Language Initiative focuses narrowly on gearing language education to security and military needs. English educators should work with their counterparts in foreign language departments to promote a broader view, one that encourages study of the multiple language groups that currently exist within the United…

  3. Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications from National Systems of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Earlier efforts to understand national innovation systems in developing countries have focused on the elements of the system (firms, universities, public research organizations, etc.), with little emphasis on the relationships and knowledge flows between them. These relationships are important as they may induce positive ...

  4. National Language and Terminology Policies — A South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    activity of regulating and improving existing languages or creating new com- mon regional, national or international .... secondary school level and tertiary level), and a language of communi- cation (e.g. media), and ... mentally political outlook both in its composition, function and relation. These. Boards were linked to ...

  5. Language reorientation and policy implementation for nation building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One devastating blow on the development of the Nigerian nation and its economy is linguistic imperialism perpetrated by the West and ignorantly being promoted by Nigerians. This gives the erroneous impression that foreign languages are superior to other languages, especially the local languages. This has led to the ...

  6. National cancer control programmes: policies and managerial guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ..., and immunizing against viral hepatitis B. Early detection, and therefore prompt treatment, of a further one-third of cases is possible where resources allow. Effective techniques are sufficiently well established to permit comprehensive palliative care for the remaining, more advanced, cases. The establishment of a national cancer ...

  7. Nigerian nation-building and public policy implementation: from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeing to the genuine completion of goods according to the set standard and effectuation of good ideas, have always been the problem of humanity in terms of nation building. Recorded failures amidst plethora of theories and practices adduced to remedy the situation are indicative of basic lack. It is lack of application of ...

  8. National policy response to climate change in South Africa | Garland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African government has taken several steps in response to climate change and its associated threats to human health. The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper defines government's vision for effective climate change response and transitioning to a climate-resilient, low-carbon economy.

  9. Education in Lithuania: Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Lithuania has achieved steady expansion of participation in education, substantially widening access to early childhood education and care and tertiary education, coupling this with nearly universal participation in secondary education. However, if Lithuania's education system is to help the nation respond effectively to economic opportunities and…

  10. National Open Access Policy of India (Draft) Ver. 3

    OpenAIRE

    Open Access India

    2017-01-01

    A draft ‘National Open Access Policy’ for India was prepared to be submitted to: Ministries Human Resource Development and Science & Technology, Government of India on 14th February, 2017, the 15th anniversary of the BOAI (Budapest open access Initiative).

  11. Reviewing the Language Compensation Policy in the National Senior Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The National Senior Certificate or "matric" examination is a key point of access to further education and the labour market in South Africa. Since 1999, matric candidates whose first language is not Afrikaans or English and are, therefore, forced to write in a second or third language have received a compensation of five per cent of…

  12. Colonialism and National Integration: An Analysis of British Policies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of national integration in Nigeria has continued to occupy centre stage in public discourse and intellectual circles especially now that religious and ethnic rancour appears to be on the increase. Much of the blame has been laid on the multi-religious and ethnic character of the population that was forcibly ...

  13. Energy Alert 78-1, National Energy Act: A Special Report on the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This Energy Alert deals specifically with Public Law 95-619, the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA). Title III, Part 1 of NECPA authorizes $900 million over a three-year period for grants to schools and hospitals for energy audits, technical assistance and energy conservation projects. This publication attempts to inform…

  14. Tourism revenue sharing policy at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda: a policy arrangements approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahebwa, W.M.; Duim, van der V.R.; Sandbrook, C.

    2012-01-01

    Debates on how to deliver conservation benefits to communities living close to protected high-biodiversity areas have preoccupied conservationists for over 20 years. Tourism revenue sharing (TRS) has become a widespread policy intervention in Africa and elsewhere where charismatic populations of

  15. Evolution of Interethnic Relations and National Policy in USSR in 1920s − 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Матвеевич Козьменко

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the main stages of the international relations evolution from the first days of the USSR existence to its collapse in 1991. The authors pay attention to the serious mistakes in the national policy of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government that led to the aggravation of the national situation in the USSR and finally to the national and state crisis in the Soviet Union.

  16. Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Maria; McGowan, Jennifer; Treml, Eric A; Green, Alison L; White, Alan T; Wolff, Nicholas H; Klein, Carissa J; Mumby, Peter J; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-09-14

    Multinational conservation initiatives that prioritize investment across a region invariably navigate trade-offs among multiple objectives. It seems logical to focus where several objectives can be achieved efficiently, but such multi-objective hotspots may be ecologically inappropriate, or politically inequitable. Here we devise a framework to facilitate a regionally cohesive set of marine-protected areas driven by national preferences and supported by quantitative conservation prioritization analyses, and illustrate it using the Coral Triangle Initiative. We identify areas important for achieving six objectives to address ecosystem representation, threatened fauna, connectivity and climate change. We expose trade-offs between areas that contribute substantially to several objectives and those meeting one or two objectives extremely well. Hence there are two strategies to guide countries choosing to implement regional goals nationally: multi-objective hotspots and complementary sets of single-objective priorities. This novel framework is applicable to any multilateral or global initiative seeking to apply quantitative information in decision making.

  17. Democracy's Denominator: Reassessing Responsiveness with Public Opinion on the National Policy Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabas, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Democratic responsiveness concerns the degree to which government policies match public preferences. Responsiveness studies typically use national surveys to characterize public opinion, but whether poll questions overlap with the policy agenda is unknown. The first of two empirical analyses presented here, with hundreds of issues on the national agenda in the United States from 1947 to 2000, reveals that public opinion is mostly unrelated to policy outcomes. The picture appears to be even more ominous-that is, opinion and policy are negatively related-on highly salient issues that attract media attention. A second study revisiting published work confirms that responsiveness patterns look different depending upon whether studies of opinion-policy connections (a) begin with survey data and then examine policy developments, or (b) begin with national legislative agenda issues and then examine survey data. Thus, conclusions about democratic responsiveness depend upon the issues that are examined, and often opinion surveys do not include questions about tangible public policy options. In that sense, future changes in democratic responsiveness might go undetected because scholars often lack data on what goes into the denominator of democracy.

  18. Education Policy Convergence through the Open Method of Coordination: Theoretical Reflections and Implementation in "Old" and "New" National Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadou, Nafsika; Fink-Hafner, Danica; Lange, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses two key questions about the convergence of education policies in the European Union (EU). How does the open method of coordination (OMC), a new governance instrument for the Europeanisation of education policies, change existing national education policy making and how can the OMC and national responses to it be researched?…

  19. The Growing Supranational Impacts of the OECD and the EU on National Educational Policies, and the Case of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Risto

    2008-01-01

    The trends of globalisation have had unavoidable impacts in steering and guiding the decisions of national policy-makers and the direction of national education policies. In the obscuring processes of supranational homogenisation of education and educational policy, supranational regimes, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  20. 76 FR 50407 - Addition of Persons Acting Contrary to the National Security or Foreign Policy Interests of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States. These persons will be... national security or foreign policy interests of the United States) of the EAR. Second, this rule... security or foreign policy interests of the United States and those acting on behalf of such persons may be...

  1. Implementing nationally determined contributions: building energy policies in India’s mitigation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Tan, Qing; Gupta, Ashu; Patel, Pralit

    2018-03-01

    The Nationally Determined Contributions are allowing countries to examine options for reducing emissions through a range of domestic policies. India, like many developing countries, has committed to reducing emissions through specific policies, including building energy codes. Here we assess the potential of these sectoral policies to help in achieving mitigation targets. Collectively, it is critically important to see the potential impact of such policies across developing countries in meeting national and global emission goals. Buildings accounted for around one third of global final energy use in 2010, and building energy consumption is expected to increase as income grows in developing countries. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study finds that implementing a range of energy efficiency policies robustly can reduce total Indian building energy use by 22% and lower total Indian carbon dioxide emissions by 9% in 2050 compared to the business-as-usual scenario. Among various policies, energy codes for new buildings can result in the most significant savings. For all building energy policies, well-coordinated, consistent implementation is critical, which requires coordination across different departments and agencies, improving capacity of stakeholders, and developing appropriate institutions to facilitate policy implementation.

  2. THREE MODELS OF NATIONAL CRIMINAL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies three models of national criminal policy: the sovereign, reformist and experimental. The main criteria of such differentiation are the exposure to global influence, the criminological soundness and stability of criminal policy. Identification of the model of criminal policy in a particular state is a complex task that requires independent research.The subject. The article is devoted to modeling of the national criminal policy in modern conditions of globalization. The article discusses various models of criminal policy in the conditions of globalization.The purpose of the author is to describe the basic models of national criminal policy in modern conditions of globalization.The methodology. The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method as well as sociological methods (survey.The results, scope of application. The author identifies three models of national criminal policy: the sovereign, reformist and experimental. The main criteria of such differentiation are the exposure to global influence, the criminological soundness and stability of criminal policy. The sovereign model is based on doctrine of weak state and a strong combat criminal activity. It is distinguished by the pursuit of the realization of the equality of all before the law, criminal strategic and political planning system with a clear definition of goals and objectives; criminological security. The reform of criminal policy is characterized byuncertainty goals and objectives, utopianism and pretentiousness, dependence on standards of the international organization, the lower prestige of criminology, reduction of social programs, lobbying of group interests, permanent amendments to the criminal and criminal procedure legislation. Experimental model of criminal policy is connected with approbation of such technologies of management of society that are criminal and contrary to human experience in fighting crime.Conclusions. Criminal

  3. National Policies and strategies on science and technology for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia's economy continues to be dependent upon the primary producing sectors, based on the exploitation or use of her natural resources. At this Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of natural rubber, tin, tropical hardwoods and palm oil. There is still wide scope for developing new application of science and technology in the rubber industry, and the scope remains even wider in other agricultural sectors. In order to accelerate development in the traditional agricultural sector, that is, those related to food production, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) was established in 1970 to undertake research in the development of crops other than rubber. Progress has been relatively slow in the development of agriculture. In forestry much work needs to be done in the application of science and technology to forest management, logging, timber utilization, silviculture and the related field of forest regeneration, tree breeding, forest protection and soil conservation. Further development of the mining sector calls for the application of new technology both in prospecting for new sources of minerals and in exploitation. Development of off-shore technology will become increasingly important. Although a major sector in resources development is energy, there is, as yet, no energy policy. Structural diversification is recognized as a basic need for the economic development of Malaysia. Malaysia will have a great demand for trained scientific and technological personnel.

  4. Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Maria; McGowan, Jennifer; Treml, Eric A.; Green, Alison L.; White, Alan T.; Wolff, Nicholas H.; Klein, Carissa J.; Mumby, Peter J.; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2015-01-01

    Multinational conservation initiatives that prioritize investment across a region invariably navigate trade-offs among multiple objectives. It seems logical to focus where several objectives can be achieved efficiently, but such multi-objective hotspots may be ecologically inappropriate, or politically inequitable. Here we devise a framework to facilitate a regionally cohesive set of marine-protected areas driven by national preferences and supported by quantitative conservation prioritization analyses, and illustrate it using the Coral Triangle Initiative. We identify areas important for achieving six objectives to address ecosystem representation, threatened fauna, connectivity and climate change. We expose trade-offs between areas that contribute substantially to several objectives and those meeting one or two objectives extremely well. Hence there are two strategies to guide countries choosing to implement regional goals nationally: multi-objective hotspots and complementary sets of single-objective priorities. This novel framework is applicable to any multilateral or global initiative seeking to apply quantitative information in decision making. PMID:26364769

  5. Interaction of the EU ETS and national climate policy instruments – Impact on biomass use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, N.; Arasto, A.; Sijm, J.; Peck, P.

    2012-01-01

    Policy-makers apply multiple policy instruments simultaneously in the climate and energy policy field at both EU and Member State levels. This creates interactions between instruments that can be complementary and synergistic but also conflicting. This article focuses on the interactions of climate policy instruments and their impact on biomass use. The objectives are to examine interactions of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) with the main national climate policy instruments and to identify the influence of these on biomass use. The work draws experiences from seven EU countries (Austria, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom), with a special focus on Finland and Sweden. The analysis explores the effects of policy interactions and is based on an examination of literature, and interviews with biomass experts in research, industry and policy spheres. Results indicate that the combined effects of climate policy instruments have a tangible impact on biomass use, whereas the causal links to the EU ETS are difficult to assess separately. Policy impacts found include increased competition for biomass resources, changes in fuel mixes and a contribution to upward pressure on wood prices. Differences in these effects are linked to differing national policy mixes and energy-carrier portfolios – an example being the relative differences in the importance of peat to the energy mix in Finland and Sweden. Analysis and comparison of the effects in the selected countries can yield insight on how to improve the design of policy interventions that impact biomass use. This study confirms the importance of identifying interactions between policy instruments so as to recognise – and manage – synergies and conflicts. The development of more synergistic and coordinated policy instrument mixes would also be beneficial for the bioenergy field. -- Highlights: ► Combined effects of climate policy instruments have a tangible impact on biomass

  6. Reducing US cardiovascular disease burden and disparities through national and targeted dietary policies: A modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Large socio-economic disparities exist in US dietary habits and cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality. While economic incentives have demonstrated success in improving dietary choices, the quantitative impact of different dietary policies on CVD disparities is not well established. We aimed to quantify and compare the potential effects on total CVD mortality and disparities of specific dietary policies to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption and reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption in the US.Using the US IMPACT Food Policy Model and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, we estimated and compared the reductions in CVD mortality and socio-economic disparities in the US population potentially achievable from 2015 to 2030 with specific dietary policy scenarios: (a a national mass media campaign (MMC aimed to increase consumption of F&Vs and reduce consumption of SSBs, (b a national fiscal policy to tax SSBs to increase prices by 10%, (c a national fiscal policy to subsidise F&Vs to reduce prices by 10%, and (d a targeted policy to subsidise F&Vs to reduce prices by 30% among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP participants only. We also evaluated a combined policy approach, combining all of the above policies. Data sources included the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, National Vital Statistics System, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and published meta-analyses. Among the individual policy scenarios, a national 10% F&V subsidy was projected to be most beneficial, potentially resulting in approximately 150,500 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 141,400-158,500 CVD deaths prevented or postponed (DPPs by 2030 in the US. This far exceeds the approximately 35,100 (95% UI 31,700-37,500 DPPs potentially attributable to a 30% F&V subsidy targeting SNAP participants, the approximately 25,800 (95% UI 24,300-28,500 DPPs for a 1-y MMC, or the approximately 31,000 (95% UI 26,800-35,300 DPPs for a 10

  7. Implementation Of Conservation Policy Through The Protection Of Life Support System In The Karimunjawa National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyani, Nur Anisa Eka; Kismartini

    2018-02-01

    The Karimunjawa National Park as the only one marine protected area in Central Java, managed by zonation system has decreased natural resources in the form of decreasing mangrove forest area, coral cover, sea biota population such as clams and sea cucumbers. Conservation has been done by Karimunjawa National Park Authority through protection of life support system activities in order to protect the area from degradation. The objective of the research is to know the implementation of protection and security activities of Karimunjawa National Park Authority for the period of 2012 - 2016. The research was conducted by qualitative method, processing secondary data from Karimunjawa National Park Authority and interview with key informants. The results showed that protection and security activities in The Karimunjawa National Park were held with three activities: pre-emptive activities, preventive activities and repressive activities. Implementation of conservation policy through protection of life support system is influenced by factors of policy characteristic, resource factor and environmental policy factor. Implementation of conservation policy need support from various parties, not only Karimunjawa National Park Authority as the manager of the area, but also need participation of Jepara Regency, Central Java Provinces, communities, NGOs, researchers, developers and tourism actors to maintain and preserve existing biodiversity. Improving the quality of implementors through education and training activities, the availability of the state budget annually and the support of stakeholders is essential for conservation.

  8. Implementation Of Conservation Policy Through The Protection Of Life Support System In The Karimunjawa National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Eka Ariyani Nur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Karimunjawa National Park as the only one marine protected area in Central Java, managed by zonation system has decreased natural resources in the form of decreasing mangrove forest area, coral cover, sea biota population such as clams and sea cucumbers. Conservation has been done by Karimunjawa National Park Authority through protection of life support system activities in order to protect the area from degradation. The objective of the research is to know the implementation of protection and security activities of Karimunjawa National Park Authority for the period of 2012 - 2016. The research was conducted by qualitative method, processing secondary data from Karimunjawa National Park Authority and interview with key informants. The results showed that protection and security activities in The Karimunjawa National Park were held with three activities: pre-emptive activities, preventive activities and repressive activities. Implementation of conservation policy through protection of life support system is influenced by factors of policy characteristic, resource factor and environmental policy factor. Implementation of conservation policy need support from various parties, not only Karimunjawa National Park Authority as the manager of the area, but also need participation of Jepara Regency, Central Java Provinces, communities, NGOs, researchers, developers and tourism actors to maintain and preserve existing biodiversity. Improving the quality of implementors through education and training activities, the availability of the state budget annually and the support of stakeholders is essential for conservation.

  9. National policy for integration of ICT: a comparative study between Brazil and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José GOMES DA SILVA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the results of a comparative study of national educative policies for integration of information and communication technologies (ICT used in basic education schools in Brazil and Spain. In general terms, this article intends to examine possible convergences and divergences in objectives presented by these policies. The time frame was between 1997 and 2010, when these policies and the launch of new transnational policies for ICT integration began. The research has a qualitative approach and a descriptive and documentary procedure, through the comparative study method. The sources were laws, resolutions, regulations, decrees, regulatory guidelines, official informs, official communications and technical reports. So, on the whole, we ascertained that these policies seek an educational quality, aligned by the market logic, with constitutive elements of the recommendations of international organisations, and they are directed to the technological development and economic growth, thus legitimizing the hegemonic discourse of globalization.

  10. The global and domestic politics of health policy in emerging nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several emerging nations with burgeoning economies and in transition to democracy have pursued health policy innovations. As these nations have integrated into the world economy through bilateral trade and diplomacy, they have also become increasingly exposed to international pressures and norms and focused on more effective, equitable health care systems. There are several lessons learned from the case studies of Brazil, Ghana, India, China, Vietnam, and Thailand in this special issue on the global and domestic politics of health policy in emerging nations. For the countries examined, although sensitive to international preferences, domestic governments preferred to implement policy on their own and at their own pace. During the policy-making and implementation process, international and domestic actors played different roles in health policy making vis-à-vis other reform actors -- at times the state played an intermediary role. In several countries, civil society also played a central role in designing and implementing policy at all levels of government. International institutions also have a number of mechanisms and strategies in their tool box to influence a country's domestic health governance, and they use them, particularly in the context of an uncertain state or internal discordance within the state. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  11. An Ethical Foreign Policy? Globalism as a Threat to the US National Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Wassim Daghrir

    2015-01-01

    An ethical foreign policy can have no objectives other than those that are of service to its own people. An unethical foreign policy, however, may pursue objectives that enhance the nation as a power, seeking dominance for its own sake, for the honor, glory and wealth of the state or a minority within the state, or spreading its ideology out of missionary fervor. The mainstream wisdom in the United States is that the US foreign policy agendas are virtuous and ethical, since they are oriented ...

  12. National climate policies across Europe and their impacts on cities strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, O; Reckien, D; Olazabal, M; Foley, A; Salvia, M; de Gregorio Hurtado, S; Orru, H; Flacke, J; Geneletti, D; Pietrapertosa, F; Hamann, J J-P; Tiwary, A; Feliu, E; Dawson, R J

    2016-03-01

    Globally, efforts are underway to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts at the local level. However, there is a poor understanding of the relationship between city strategies on climate change mitigation and adaptation and the relevant policies at national and European level. This paper describes a comparative study and evaluation of cross-national policy. It reports the findings of studying the climate change strategies or plans from 200 European cities from Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study highlights the shared responsibility of global, European, national, regional and city policies. An interpretation and illustration of the influences from international and national networks and policy makers in stimulating the development of local strategies and actions is proposed. It was found that there is no archetypical way of planning for climate change, and multiple interests and motivations are inevitable. Our research warrants the need for a multi-scale approach to climate policy in the future, mainly ensuring sufficient capacity and resource to enable local authorities to plan and respond to their specific climate change agenda for maximising the management potentials for translating environmental challenges into opportunities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 1404.630 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy impute conduct of one person to another?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy impute conduct of one person to another? 1404.630 Section 1404.630 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG... Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1404.630 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy impute conduct of...

  14. Validating Self-Reports of Illegal Drug Use to Evaluate National Drug Control Policy: A Reanalysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use remains at high levels in the U.S. The federal Office of National Drug Control Policy evaluates the outcomes of national drug demand reduction policies by assessing annual changes in drug use from several federally sponsored annual national surveys. Such survey methods, relying exclusively on drug use as self-reported on…

  15. Venous Thromboembolism – Risk Assessment Tool and Thromboprophylaxis Policy: A National Survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, MI

    2017-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolic (VTE) events in hospitalised patients are associated with significant mortality and morbidity and a major economic burden on the health service. It is well established in the literature that active implementation of a mandatory risk assessment tool and thromboprophylaxis policy reduces the incidence of hospital associated thrombosis (HAT). This study examines the utilization of a VTE risk assessment tool and thromboprophylaxis (TP) policy in Irish hospitals that manage acute admissions. A national survey was distributed to forty acute hospitals throughout Ireland. The response rate was 78% (31\\/40). The results showed that only 26% (n=8\\/31) of acute hospitals in Ireland have a local implemented TP policy. Six (75%) of these eight had a risk assessment tool in conjunction with the TP policy. All respondents who did not report to have a TP policy and risk assessment tool agreed that they should implement VTE prevention policy at their hospital. Based on the data from this survey and evidence from the effectiveness of the VTE prevention programme introduced in the United Kingdom, there is a need for a national risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis policy in Ireland. This change in practice would have the potential to prevent or reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with hospital acquired thrombosis

  16. A critical analysis of national policies, systems, and structures of patient empowerment in England and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudioni, Markella; McLaren, Susan; Lister, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Comparison of patient empowerment (PE) policies in European countries can provide evidence for improvement and reform across different health systems. It may also influence patient and public involvement, patient experience, preference, and adherence. The objective of this study was to compare PE within national policies, systems, and structures in England and Greece for achieving integrated people-centered health services. We performed a critical search and review of policy and legislation papers in English and Greek languages. This included 1) general health policy and systems papers, 2) PE, patient and/or public involvement or patients' rights policy and legislation (1990-2015), and 3) comparative or discussion papers for England and/or Greece. A total of 102 papers on PE policies, systems, and structures were identified initially; 80 papers were included, in which 46 were policy, legislative, and discussion papers about England, 21 were policy, legislation, and discussion papers about Greece, and 13 were comparative or discussion papers including both the countries. In England, National Health Service policies emphasized patient-centered services, involvement, and empowerment, with recent focus on patients' rights; while in Greece, they emphasized patients' rights and quality of services, with recent mentions on empowerment. The health ombudsman is a very important organization across countries; however, it may be more powerful in Greece, because of the nonexistence of local mediating bodies. Micro-structures at trusts/hospitals are comparable, but legislation gives more power to the local structures in Greece. PE policies and systems have been developed and expressed differently in these countries. However, PE similarities, comparable dimensions and mechanisms, were identified. For both the countries, comparative research and these findings could be beneficial in building connections and relationships, contributing to wider European and international

  17. Do differences in attitudes explain differences in national climate change policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernstroem, E.; Tietenberg, T.

    2008-01-01

    In meeting the threat posed by climate change nations have responded quite differently. Using an extensive data set this study explores factors that affect individuals' attitudes towards climate change and how those attitudes ultimately affect national climate change policy. The results show that attitudes do indeed matter in implementing policy and that attitudes are shaped not only by how individuals react to the specific attributes of climate change, but also by information, by the openness of society and by attitudes toward the trustworthiness of government. (author)

  18. National Drought Policy: Shifting the Paradigm from Crisis to Risk-based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, D. A.; Sivakumar, M. K.; Stefanski, R.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a normal part of climate for virtually all of the world's climatic regimes. To better address the risks associated with this hazard and societal vulnerability, there must be a dramatic paradigm shift in our approach to drought management in the coming decade in the light of the increasing frequency of droughts and projections of increased severity and duration of these events in the future for many regions, especially in the developing world. Addressing this challenge will require an improved awareness of drought as a natural hazard, the establishment of integrated drought monitoring and early warning systems, a higher level of preparedness that fully incorporates risk-based management, and the adoption of national drought policies that are directed at increasing the coping capacity and resilience of populations to future drought episodes. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), in partnership with other United Nations' agencies, the National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Nebraska, NOAA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and other partners, is currently launching a program to organize a High Level Meeting on National Drought Policy (HMNDP) in March 2013 to encourage the development of national drought policies through the development of a compendium of key policy elements. The key objectives of a national drought policy are to: (1) encourage vulnerable economic sectors and population groups to adopt self-reliant measures that promote risk management; (2) promote sustainable use of the agricultural and natural resource base; and (3) facilitate early recovery from drought through actions consistent with national drought policy objectives. The key elements of a drought policy framework are policy and governance, including political will; addressing risk and improving early warnings, including vulnerability analysis, impact assessment, and communication; mitigation and preparedness, including the application of effective and

  19. Geothermal Induced Seismicity National Environmental Policy Act Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckers, Koenraad J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    In 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist the BLM in developing and building upon tools to better understand and evaluate induced seismicity caused by geothermal projects. This review of NEPA documents for four geothermal injection or EGS projects reveals the variety of approaches to analyzing and mitigating induced seismicity. With the exception of the Geysers, where induced seismicity has been observed and monitored for an extended period of time due to large volumes of water being piped in to recharge the hydrothermal reservoir, induced seismicity caused by geothermal projects is a relative new area of study. As this review highlights, determining the level of mitigation required for induced seismic events has varied based on project location, when the review took place, whether the project utilized the International Energy Agency or DOE IS protocols, and the federal agency conducting the review. While the NEPA reviews were relatively consistent for seismic monitoring and historical evaluation of seismic events near the project location, the requirements for public outreach and mitigation for induced seismic events once stimulation has begun varied considerably between the four projects. Not all of the projects were required to notify specific community groups or local government entities before beginning the project, and only one of the reviews specifically stated the project proponent would hold meetings with the public to answer questions or address concerns.

  20. National medicines policies – a review of the evolution and development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Continuous provision of appropriate medicines of assured quality, in adequate quantities, and at reasonable prices is a concern for all national governments. A national medicines policy (NMP) developed in a collaborative fashion identifies strategies needed to meet these objectives and provides a comprehensive framework to develop all components of a national pharmaceutical sector. To meet the health needs of the population, there is a general need for medicine policies based on universal principles, but nevertheless adapted to the national situation. This review aims to provide a quantitative and qualitative (describing the historical development) study of the development process and evolution of NMPs. Methods The number of NMPs and their current status has been obtained from the results of the assessment of WHO Level I indicators. The policy formulation process is examined in more detail with case studies from four countries: Sri Lanka, Australia, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and South Africa. Results The number of NMPs worldwide has increased in the last 25 years with the highest proportional increase in the last 5–10 years in high-income countries. Higher income countries seem to have more NMP implementation plans available and have updated their NMP more recently. The four case studies show that the development of a NMP is a complex process that is country specific. In addition, it demonstrates that an appropriate political window is needed for the policy to be passed (for South Africa and the FYR Macedonia, a major political event acted as a trigger for initiating the policy development). Policy-making does not stop with the official adoption of a policy but should create mechanisms for implementation and monitoring. The NMPs of the FYR Macedonia and Australia provide indicators for monitoring. Conclusions To date, not all countries have a NMP since political pressure by national experts or non-governmental organizations is generally

  1. The Role of Sub-National Actors in Climate Change Policy. The Case of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roppongi, Hitomi

    2016-06-01

    Tokyo is known as a pioneer throughout the history of Japan's environmental policy, often being compared to California in the United States or Paris in France. Following the global trend of growing local initiatives tackling climate change, Tokyo introduced a cap-and-trade scheme in 2010 ahead of a national implementation. The Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program is the first of its kind that regulates CO 2 emissions from all business sectors, where energy consumers are defined in terms of the business establishments they own. Tokyo's initiative is largely seen as a reaction to the modest national commitment, following the tradition of center-local rivalry. This study first explains the centre-local relationship in the history of Japan's environmental governance. It then analyzes the development of the Tokyo's flagship climate policy and its implications for national and other sub-national governments in Japan. The tactics used by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to overcome business opposition typically seen in the introduction of GHG control, and future policy challenges are also discussed. The study finds that Tokyo's policy encourages behavioral changes and technological improvement in the business sector, going a step beyond the existing culture of energy conservation in Japan. An emission trading scheme is often associated with the collapse of carbon markets and the 'money game', rather than a practical tool to reduce CO 2 emissions, but the Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program has demonstrated a policy impact that recasts such an image. A known case of policy diffusion to Saitama prefecture, an immediate neighbor of Tokyo with the fifth largest population in Japan, is also discussed to elaborate on the potential domestic diffusion of the policy. (author)

  2. National public health policy in a local context--implementation in two Swedish municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Elisabeth; Fosse, Elisabeth; Tillgren, Per

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 the wide-ranging Swedish National Public Health Policy (SNPHP), with a focus on health determinants, was adopted by the Swedish parliament. In the context of multilevel governance, SNPHP implementation is dependent on self-governed municipalities and counties. The aim of the study is, from a municipal perspective, to investigate public-health policies in two municipalities. Content analysis of documents and interviews provided a foundation for an explorative case study. The SNPHP at national level is overriding but politically controversial. At local level, a health-determinants perspective was detectable in the policies implemented, but none regarding to health equality. At local level, the SNPHP is not regarded as implementable; rather, limited parts have, to varying degrees, been reconciled with local public-health goals, according to municipal needs and conditions. A success-promoting factor in the two municipalities was the presence of committed and knowledgeable actors/implementers. Also, the municipality with a more centrally controlled and stable party-political leadership succeeded better in implementing structural and intersectoral community-wide policies for coordinated local health promotion. The contents of national and local public-health policies differ, and municipalities that have implemented their own local health policies do not seem to regard the SNPHP as justifiable or adoptable. If the SNPHP overall aim regarding equal health is to be achieved homogeneously in Swedish municipalities, its contents and purpose need clearer management and negotiation, so that implementation of the national policy locally is understandable and motivated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comprehensive model for the implementation of national public policies and guidelines : Empangeni Education District / Bhekefini Sibusiso Vincent Mthethwa

    OpenAIRE

    Mthethwa, Bhekefini Sibusiso Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of the public policy process, which encapsulates the public policy implementation, has been in existence long before the political transformation that took place in South Africa in 1994. However, the ushering in of the new dispensation saw the integration of the existing public policies. In addition, it inevitably heralded the introduction of the new public policies and national guidelines across all sectors of the South African public institutions. Public policy implementation...

  4. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    Statements'' published by the DOE Office of NEPA Oversight. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff prepared individual sections of this document, with input from other Site contractors. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. The following sections of the document were reviewed by the authors and updated with the best available information through June 1999: Climate and Meteorology; Ecology; Cultural, Archaeological, and Historical Resources; Socioeconomics; and All of Chapter 6.

  5. 77 FR 2514 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ..., contribute trillions of dollars a year to the national economy, and are essential to public health and... input from national, regional, and local stakeholders and the general public. The development process..., productive, efficient, sustainable, and informed ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes use, management, and...

  6. Ecuador's energy policy mix: Development versus conservation and nationalism with Chinese loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escribano, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's energy policy faces a complex variety of political and economic objectives that are difficult to reconcile in a consistent manner. Ecuador is a small oil producer and exporter with significant renewable (mainly hydropower) resources, hosting some of the richest biodiversity areas in the world, part of which are inhabited by so far indigenous un-contacted people. Being a developing country, tensions arise between conservation aims and development imperatives, as well as between resource nationalism and much-needed foreign financing. However, the really limiting factor for the country's energy development seems to be its constraints in financing the government's development and redistributive policies. Resorting to Chinese loans-for-oil may be part of the solution in the short term, but it does not substitute for a more consistent energy policy. Ecuador's case illustrates the dilemmas of energy policy in natural resource-rich developing countries when confronted with diverging political economy, social, environmental and macro-financial goals. - Highlights: ► Ecuador's energy policy lacks coherence and is plagued with inconsistencies. ► Its three main drivers are development, conservation and resource nationalism. ► Fulfilling President Correa's social agenda requires increasing oil production. ► Conservation demands have been subjected to developmental imperatives. ► Chinese loans and investments limit resource nationalism and favour pragmatism

  7. The Marginalization of Sustainable Charcoal Production in the Policies of a Modernizing African Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Doggart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal is the main cooking fuel for urban populations in many African countries. Urbanization and population growth are driving an increase in demand for charcoal, whilst deforestation reduces biomass stocks. Given increasing demand for charcoal, and decreasing availability of biomass, policies are urgently needed that ensure secure energy supplies for urban households and reduce deforestation. There is potential for charcoal to be produced sustainably in natural woodlands, but this requires supportive policies. Previous research has identified policy issues that have contributed to the charcoal sector remaining informal and environmentally destructive. In this paper, we describe how national policies in Tanzania on energy, forests, agriculture, land, and water, consider charcoal, and the degree to which they do, and do not, support sustainable charcoal production. The paper identifies policy gaps and a cross-sector tendency to marginalize natural forest management. By adopting a nexus approach, the paper highlights the inter-connections between sustainable charcoal production, ecosystem services, and trade-offs in the allocation of land, labor, and net primary production. In conclusion, sustainable charcoal production has been marginalized in multiple national policies. As a result, potential benefits of sustainable charcoal production are lost to multiple sectors.

  8. Codon optimization underpins generalist parasitism in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, Thomas; Peyraud, Remi; Mbengue, Malick; Navaud, Olivier; Derbyshire, Mark; Oliver, Richard P; Barbacci, Adelin; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2017-02-03

    The range of hosts that parasites can infect is a key determinant of the emergence and spread of disease. Yet, the impact of host range variation on the evolution of parasite genomes remains unknown. Here, we show that codon optimization underlies genome adaptation in broad host range parasites. We found that the longer proteins encoded by broad host range fungi likely increase natural selection on codon optimization in these species. Accordingly, codon optimization correlates with host range across the fungal kingdom. At the species level, biased patterns of synonymous substitutions underpin increased codon optimization in a generalist but not a specialist fungal pathogen. Virulence genes were consistently enriched in highly codon-optimized genes of generalist but not specialist species. We conclude that codon optimization is related to the capacity of parasites to colonize multiple hosts. Our results link genome evolution and translational regulation to the long-term persistence of generalist parasitism.

  9. Entrepreneurs’ growth-expectations: Enhanced by their networking and by national growth-policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh

    or running the business. The entrepreneur’s expectation is shaped partly by individual behavior, including networking with others who give advice on the business. The entrepreneur’s expectation is also shaped by the societal context, including policies. Policy for growth-entrepreneurship is the societal...... condition in focus in this study. Our contribution is to account for entrepreneurs’ expectations by their networking and by national policy for growth-entrepreneurship. More broadly, our contribution is to show how an entrepreneurial outcome is shaped by individual behavior in the context of societal...... conditions. Our methodology uses a research design with two hierarchical levels, entrepreneurs nested in countries. Such data are collected in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor survey of individuals and survey of nations, providing a sample of 42 societies with 19560 entrepreneurs. Effects upon individual...

  10. Climate policy and the social cost of power generation: Impacts of the Swedish national emissions target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederholm, Patrik; Pettersson, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the design of climate policy in a small open economy may affect the internalization of carbon-related external costs and ultimately the social choice between different power generation technologies. Empirically we focus on the Swedish case and analyze three climate policy regimes, out of which two represent different national goal formulations and thus compliance strategies. The results show that the social choice between power generation technologies in Sweden will be significantly influenced by the choice of climate policy regime. Most notably, if Sweden would abandon its present national target for carbon dioxide emissions and instead make full use of the country's participation in international emissions trading, natural gas-fired power would replace onshore wind power as the power generation source with the lowest social cost

  11. Is Australia's national medicines policy failing? The case of COX-2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitry, Agnes; Lexchin, Joel; Mansfield, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    Australia has a National Medicines Policy with aims that include quality use of medicines, but policy stakeholders failed to protect Australia from the COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2) inhibitor disaster. Drug regulators did not warn prescribers appropriately about potential cardiovascular risks. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme did not limit unjustified drug expenditures on COX-2 inhibitors. Drug companies ran intense and misleading promotional campaigns on COX-2 inhibitors without adequate controls. Independent drug information was insufficient to counter the effects of the millions of dollars spent on advertising. Core elements of the National Medicines Policy--in particular the drug approval process, the post-marketing surveillance system, the control of drug promotion, and the quality of independent drug information--require major reappraisal if we want to avoid similar disasters in the future.

  12. National innovation system as a focus of state in-novation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Fedirko

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a systematic review of tools and mechanisms utilised by developed countries (United States, Japan, EU to pursue their innovation policies, and classifies methods which support innovation and ways that help to strengthen the innovation capacity. It describes the evolution of research and development (R&D policy in other countries. The article examines arguments in support of a trend in the innovation policy which promotes the development of national innovation systems. It reviews the substance and components of the national innovation system. It also explores the trends of R&D cooperation. The article outlines the variety of domestic tools which regulate innovation in EU countries (framework programs, the European Research Area Initiative.

  13. 77 FR 3102 - Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Definitions Authority: The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (51 U.S.C. 20101 et seq... policies and procedures for the early integration of environmental considerations into planning and... Applicability. This subpart applies to all organizational elements of NASA. Sec. 1216.302 Responsibilities. (a...

  14. Environmental and social risks: defensive National Environmental Policy Act in the US Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Mortimer; Marc J. Stern; Robert W. Malmsheimer; Dale J. Blahna; Lee K. Cerveny; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its accompanying regulations provide a spectrum of alternative analytical pathways for federal agencies proposing major actions that might significantly impact the human environment. Although guidance from the President's council on Environmental Quality suggests the decision to develop an environmental impact...

  15. Action Required: Addressing the Nation's Lowest-Performing High Schools. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkus, Lyndsay M.

    2009-01-01

    As the national education policy community prepares for the reauthorization of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), revamping the school improvement approach leveraged by accountability systems has risen to the top of the agenda. There is an emerging consensus that the school improvement process should be systemic, led by states and…

  16. National laboratory policies and plans in sub-Saharan African countries: gaps and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondoa, Pascale; van der Broek, Ankie; Jansen, Christel; de Bruijn, Hilde; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    The 2008 Maputo Declaration calls for the development of dedicated national laboratory policies and strategic plans supporting the enhancement of laboratory services in response to the long-lasting relegation of medical laboratory systems in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the extent to

  17. Evaluating the Impact of National Educational Policy to Reduce Retention and Increase Achievement in Compulsory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, M. Clara; Calheiros, M. Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João; Lima, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence that retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful remedial strategy, several countries struggle with high levels of retention in compulsory schooling. This article provides evidence of the impact of the Portuguese national educational policy "Programa Mais Sucesso Escolar" (PMSE) using class size,…

  18. 76 FR 24481 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Hotel, 815 14th Street NW., Washington, DC 20005. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark Joyce, Acting... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the...

  19. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ...; DOC National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Questionnaire and Checklist AGENCY: Office of the...., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for... Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). SUPPLEMENTARY...

  20. Consideration on the dialogue for national consensus of the nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Reiko; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the national consensus on nuclear energy policy between the public and the government. Firstly, the public objections on energy issues were analyzed by reviewing recent national policy documents, public opinion polls and comments on the nuclear energy policy. From the analysed results, it was confirmed that the government asks the public for acceptance and cooperation of the national policy; meanwhile, the public pursue to satisfy their appetite and make their own choice in their daily life without awareness of energy itself. As a consequence, the difference of standpoints between the two parts was assumed to interfere with effective communication especially regarding nuclear energy issues. Based on these considerations, essential conditions relevant to the national consensus for better mutual understanding are presented. It is also newly proposed that energy communicator should be independently established to assist the desirable dialogue between them. Finally, fundamental concept, roles and requirements for the communicator are pointed out from the viewpoint of implementation of the practical dialogue. (author)

  1. Hepatitis B prevalence in the Turkish population of Arnhem: implications for national screening policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, C.; Beest, G.T.; Sancak, I.; Aydinly, R.; Bulbul, K.; Laetemia-Tomata, F.; De Leeuw, M.; Waegemaekers, T.; Swanink, C.; Roovers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased prevalence of hepatitis B and C in most migrant groups in The Netherlands, a national screening policy for these infections is not available. In order to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in the largest group of first-generation migrants (FGM) in The Netherlands, we

  2. Perceived Discrimination and Health among Immigrants in Europe According to National Integration Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Bartoll, Xavier; Ikram, Umar; Malmusi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination harms immigrants' health. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between perceived discrimination and health outcomes among first and second generation immigrants from low-income countries living in Europe, while accounting for sex and the national policy on

  3. Electric vehicles: Likely consequences of US and other nations` programs and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Kwai-Cheung

    1994-12-30

    This report examines international electric vehicle development and commercialization programs. The study encompassed a review of current barriers to widespread electric vehicle implementation, field visits in seven nations and the United States to examine electric vehicle programs and policies, and analyses of electric vehicle effects on economics, energy, and the environment.

  4. 75 FR 151 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ..., 2010, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m./Eastern Time. Location: The Park Hyatt Hotel, 24th and M Streets, NW., Washington, DC. The hotel telephone is 202-789-1234. Contact Person: Judy Sparrow, Office of the National..., the Privacy & Security Policy Workgroup, and the Strategic Plan Workgroup. ONC intends to make...

  5. The National Energy Policy Institute (NEPI) at The University of Tulsa (F INAL REPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, Roger [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2013-10-31

    NEPI, a non-profit organization located at The University of Tulsa (TU), was established to develop and disseminate national energy policy recommendations. Research under this grant covered a wide variety of projects, including research into the future of nuclear power, oil market pricing, and the feasibility of biofuels.

  6. A national survey of policies on disclosure of conflicts of interest in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, S. V.; Anderson, C. B.; Jakovljevic, J.; Khan, T.; McCullough, L. B.; Wray, N. P.; Brody, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicts of interest pose a threat to the integrity of scientific research. The current regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation require that medical schools and other research institutions report the existence of conflicts of interest to the funding agency but allow the institutions to manage conflicts internally. The regulations do not specify how to do so. METHODS: We surveyed all medical schools (127) and other research institutions (170) that received more than $5 million in total grants annually from the National Institutes of Health or the National Science Foundation; 48 journals in basic science and clinical medicine; and 17 federal agencies in order to analyze their policies on conflicts of interest. RESULTS: Of the 297 institutions, 250 (84 percent) responded by March 2000, as did 47 of the 48 journals and 16 of the 17 federal agencies. Fifteen of the 250 institutions (6 percent)--5 medical schools and 10 other research institutions--reported that they had no policy on conflicts of interest. Among the institutions that had policies, there was marked variation in the definition and management of conflicts. Ninety-one percent had policies that adhered to the federal threshold for disclosure ($10,000 in annual income or equity in a relevant company or 5 percent ownership), and 9 percent had policies that exceeded the federal guidelines. Only 8 percent had policies requiring disclosure to funding agencies, only 7 percent had such policies regarding journals, and only 1 percent had policies requiring the disclosure of information to the relevant institutional review boards or to research subjects. Twenty journals (43 percent) reported that they had policies requiring disclosure of conflicts of interest. Only four federal agencies had policies that explicitly addressed conflicts of interest in extramural research, and all but one of the agencies relied primarily on institutional discretion. CONCLUSIONS

  7. Promotion of physical activity in the European region: content analysis of 27 national policy documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Racioppi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English. RESULTS: Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being......BACKGROUND: Over the past years there has been increasing interest in physical activity promotion and the development of appropriate policy. So far, there has been no comprehensive overview of the activities taking place in Europe in this area of public health policy. METHODS: Using different...... followed, for example: general goals were formulated, an implementation plan was included, a timeframe and a responsible body for the implementation was often specified. However, limited evidence for intersectoral collaboration was found. Quantified goals for physical activity were the exception...

  8. Assessment of the Status of National Oral Health Policy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Rani Kothia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background National oral health policy was conscripted by the Indian Dental Association (IDA in 1986 and was accepted as an integral part of National Health Policy (NHP by the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare in one of its conferences in the year 1995. Objectives of this paper were to find out the efforts made or going on towards its execution, its current status and recent oral health-related affairs or programs, if any. Methods Literature search was done using the institutional library, web-based search engines like ‘Google’ and ‘PubMed’ and also by cross referencing. It yielded 108 articles, of which 50 were excluded as they were not pertinent to the topic. Twenty-four were of global perspective rather than Indian and hence were not taken into account and finally 34 articles were considered for analyses. Documents related to central and state governments of India were also considered. Results All the articles considered for analysis were published within the past 10 years with gradual increase in number which depicts the researchers’ increasing focus towards oral health policy. Criticisms, suggestions and recommendations regarding national oral health programs, dental manpower issues, geriatric dentistry, public health dentistry, dental insurance, oral health inequality, and public-private partnerships have taken major occupancies in the articles. Proposals like “model for infant and child oral health promotion” and “oral health policy phase 1 for Karnataka” were among the initiatives towards national oral health policy. Conclusion The need for implementation of the drafted oral health policy with modification that suits the rapidly changing oral health system of this country is inevitable.

  9. Assessment of the Status of National Oral Health Policy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothia, Nandita Rani; Bommireddy, Vikram Simha; Devaki, Talluri; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao; Ravoori, Srinivas; Sanikommu, Suresh; Pachava, Srinivas

    2015-07-26

    National oral health policy was conscripted by the Indian Dental Association (IDA) in 1986 and was accepted as an integral part of National Health Policy (NHP) by the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare in one of its conferences in the year 1995. Objectives of this paper were to find out the efforts made or going on towards its execution, its current status and recent oral health-related affairs or programs, if any. Literature search was done using the institutional library, web-based search engines like 'Google' and 'PubMed' and also by cross referencing. It yielded 108 articles, of which 50 were excluded as they were not pertinent to the topic. Twenty-four were of global perspective rather than Indian and hence were not taken into account and finally 34 articles were considered for analyses. Documents related to central and state governments of India were also considered. All the articles considered for analysis were published within the past 10 years with gradual increase in number which depicts the researchers' increasing focus towards oral health policy. Criticisms, suggestions and recommendations regarding national oral health programs, dental manpower issues, geriatric dentistry, public health dentistry, dental insurance, oral health inequality, and public-private partnerships have taken major occupancies in the articles. Proposals like "model for infant and child oral health promotion" and "oral health policy phase 1 for Karnataka" were among the initiatives towards national oral health policy. The need for implementation of the drafted oral health policy with modification that suits the rapidly changing oral health system of this country is inevitable. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. Assessment of the Status of National Oral Health Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothia, Nandita Rani; Bommireddy, Vikram Simha; Devaki, Talluri; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao; Ravoori, Srinivas; Sanikommu, Suresh; Pachava, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Background: National oral health policy was conscripted by the Indian Dental Association (IDA) in 1986 and was accepted as an integral part of National Health Policy (NHP) by the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare in one of its conferences in the year 1995. Objectives of this paper were to find out the efforts made or going on towards its execution, its current status and recent oral health-related affairs or programs, if any. Methods: Literature search was done using the institutional library, web-based search engines like ‘Google’ and ‘PubMed’ and also by cross referencing. It yielded 108 articles, of which 50 were excluded as they were not pertinent to the topic. Twenty-four were of global perspective rather than Indian and hence were not taken into account and finally 34 articles were considered for analyses. Documents related to central and state governments of India were also considered. Results: All the articles considered for analysis were published within the past 10 years with gradual increase in number which depicts the researchers’ increasing focus towards oral health policy. Criticisms, suggestions and recommendations regarding national oral health programs, dental manpower issues, geriatric dentistry, public health dentistry, dental insurance, oral health inequality, and public-private partnerships have taken major occupancies in the articles. Proposals like "model for infant and child oral health promotion" and "oral health policy phase 1 for Karnataka" were among the initiatives towards national oral health policy. Conclusion: The need for implementation of the drafted oral health policy with modification that suits the rapidly changing oral health system of this country is inevitable. PMID:26340486

  11. Evidence-informed policy formulation and implementation: a comparative case study of two national policies for improving health and social care in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlenert, H; Richter-Sundberg, L; Nyström, M E; Hasson, H

    2015-12-08

    Evidence has come to play a central role in health policymaking. However, policymakers tend to use other types of information besides research evidence. Most prior studies on evidence-informed policy have focused on the policy formulation phase without a systematic analysis of its implementation. It has been suggested that in order to fully understand the policy process, the analysis should include both policy formulation and implementation. The purpose of the study was to explore and compare two policies aiming to improve health and social care in Sweden and to empirically test a new conceptual model for evidence-informed policy formulation and implementation. Two concurrent national policies were studied during the entire policy process using a longitudinal, comparative case study approach. Data was collected through interviews, observations, and documents. A Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was developed based on prior frameworks for evidence-informed policymaking and policy dissemination and implementation. The conceptual model was used to organize and analyze the data. The policies differed regarding the use of evidence in the policy formulation and the extent to which the policy formulation and implementation phases overlapped. Similarities between the cases were an emphasis on capacity assessment, modified activities based on the assessment, and a highly active implementation approach relying on networks of stakeholders. The Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was empirically useful to organize the data. The policy actors' roles and functions were found to have a great influence on the choices of strategies and collaborators in all policy phases. The Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was found to be useful. However, it provided insufficient guidance for analyzing actors involved in the policy process, capacity-building strategies

  12. HIV testing for pregnant women: a rights-based analysis of national policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth J; Maman, Suzanne; Wyckoff, Sarah C; Pierce, Matthew W; Groves, Allison K

    2013-01-01

    Ethical and human rights concerns have been expressed regarding the global shift in policies on HIV testing of pregnant women. The main purpose of this research was to conduct a policy analysis using a human rights-based approach of national policies for HIV testing of pregnant women. We collected HIV testing policies from 19 countries including: Cambodia, China, Guyana, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Moldova, Papua New Guinea, Russian Federation, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan, Zambia and Zimbabwe. We analysed the HIV testing policies using a standardised framework that focused on government obligations to respect, protect and fulfil. Our results highlight the need for more attention to issues of pregnant women's autonomy in consenting to HIV testing, confidentiality in antenatal care settings and provision of counselling and care services. We conclude with a discussion about potential implications of the current testing policies and provide recommendations for ways that HIV testing policies can more effectively uphold the human rights of pregnant women.

  13. Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent

  14. Evaluation of Taiwan's National Health Insurance policy: an importance-satisfaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, I-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that policy performance affects citizens' satisfaction with public policies could be considered a well-worn topic. However, this paper shows that the extant literature has not adequately conceptualized nor addressed the relationship, which could exist between citizens' satisfaction and importance of the evaluation's indicators. The findings of most previous studies reflect elite perspectives on Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) policy evaluation, and the importance of the evaluation's indicators may not be recognized by the public. In addition, previous satisfaction studies have not provided information on the level of evaluative indicator importance. This study utilized importance-satisfaction analysis to examine public preferences of the NHI policy and assigned weights for NHI policy evaluation indicators by administering a national phone survey in October 2009. A total of 1103 telephone interviews were conducted with people aged 20 years and older, comprising a sample that was representative of the Taiwanese population according to age, gender, and area of residence. Furthermore, to explore the difference between expected importance and perceived satisfaction, this study calculated a reconceptualized performance gap. To obtain the gap value for an indicator, the mean value for importance was subtracted from the mean value for satisfaction. The findings imply that public recognition and support constitute the premise for the successful operation and reform of the NHI policy. The study concludes that policy adjustment is needed in several areas where importance outweighed satisfaction, including access to medical care services and NHI efficiency. The results suggest public recognition of and satisfaction with the evaluation indicators in use and the need for policy adjustment in areas where importance outweighs satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Is climate change-centrism an optimal policy making strategy to set national electricity mixes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Reyna, Janet L.; García-Torres, Samy; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The impact of climate-centric policies on other environmental impacts is uncertain. • Analysis of changing electricity grids of Peru and Spain in the period 1989–2013. • Life Cycle Assessment was the selected sustainability method to conduct the study. • Policies targeting GHG reductions also reduce air pollution and toxicity. • Resource usage, especially water, does not show the same trends as GHG emissions. - Abstract: In order to combat the threat of climate change, countries have begun to implement policies which restrict GHG emissions in the electricity sector. However, the development of national electricity mixes should also be sensitive to resource availability, geo-political forces, human health impacts, and social equity concerns. Policy focused on GHG goals could potentially lead to adverse consequences in other areas. To explore the impact of “climate-centric” policy making on long-term electricity mix changes, we develop two cases for Peru and Spain analyzing their changing electricity grids in the period 1989–2013. We perform a Life Cycle Assessment of annual electricity production to catalogue the improvements in GHG emissions relative to other environmental impacts. We conclude that policies targeting GHG reductions might have the co-benefit of also reducing air pollution and toxicity at the expense of other important environmental performance indicators such as water depletion. Moreover, as of 2013, both countries generate approximately equal GHG emissions per kWh, and relatively low emission rates of other pollutants compared to nations of similar development levels. Although climate-centric policy can lead to some positive environmental outcomes in certain areas, energy policy-making should be holistic and include other aspects of sustainability and vulnerability.

  16. Public-Private Collaboration in the Emergence of a National Electronic Identification Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Hedman, Jonas; Eaton, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Governments envisioning large-scale national egovernment policies increasingly draw on collaboration with private actors, yet the relationship between dynamics and outcomes of public-private partnership (PPP) is still unclear. The involvement of the banking sector in the emergence of a national...... of governance models between government and the banking sector shaped the emergence of the Danish national e-ID. We propose a process model to conceptualize paths towards the emergence of public-private collaboration for digital information infrastructure – a common good....

  17. Eating at worksites in Nordic countries: national experiences and policy initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Arsky, Gunn Helene; Brandhøj, Mia

    2010-01-01

    of dietary habits of the employees and some experiments with healthier worksite eating schemes. Blue-collar employees, employees with working hours outside normal working hours and employees with shifting worksites are likely to be offered less organised and less healthy food schemes. Worksites experiments......Purpose - The article aims at reviewing national experiences and policy initiatives within worksite eating in four Nordic countries in order to compare the experiences and identify important lessons and needs for future research, experiments and governmental regulation. Design....../methodology/approach - The article is based on national reviews of analyses of worksite eating and initiatives regarding policy, research and experiments in relation to worksite eating. The national experiences are compared. Findings - The article shows awareness in all four countries about the role of the worksite in the shaping...

  18. Protecting national parks from air pollution effects: Making sausage from science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Blett, Tamara; Malm, William C.; Alexander, Ruth; Doremus, Holly

    2016-01-01

    The story of air pollution research, policy development, and management in national parks is a fascinating blend of cultural change, vision, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and science-policy-management-stakeholder collaborations. Unable to ignore the loss of iconic vistas from regional haze and loss of fish from acid rain in the 1980s, the National Park Service (NPS) embraced an obligation to protect resources from threats originating outside park boundaries. Upholding the Organic Act requirement for parks to remain "unimpaired" for the enjoyment of future generations, and using the Clean Air Act statement that NPS has an “affirmative responsibility” to protect park resources, NPS has supported, and effectively used, research as a means to protect lands, waters, and vistas from a mostly unseen threat. Using visibility and atmospheric nitrogen deposition as examples, we will illustrate some success stories where NPS led the way to benefit not only parks, but the Nation.

  19. Images of Pre-WW II: National Language Policies as Reflected in the Field of "National Language Studies" Itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej BEKEŠ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study I focus on the possible intellectual background regarding the scant attention paid by researchers and textbook writers to the establishment of the Japanese national language and pre-WWII language policies in Japan. This fact is surprising because the successful implementation of a modern standard language was one of the key factors in the process of the building of Japan as a modern nation-state. The central hypothesis of this research is that this conspicuous absence stems from the projection of the modern nation-state on the past, resulting in a perception of Japanese polity as a basically homogeneous and unchanged continuum in time and space. An analysis of several texts by prominent Japanese scholars of the national language has revealed important differences in perception. One group, mainly those preoccupied with the didactics of the national language, tends to view the past in the light of a “homogenised” present. On the other hand, those scholars researching Japanese in the wider context of general linguistics seem to treat national language related issues in a much more critical and theoretically informed way.

  20. Malaysia's National Higher Education Research Institute ("IPPTN"): Narrowing the Research-Policy Gap in a Dynamic Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirat, Morshidi; Azman, Norzaini

    2014-01-01

    Policy decision-making in Malaysia has long used an approach based on intuition, ideology, or conventional wisdom. But as Malaysian society matures within an increasingly complex policy environment, a move toward an evidence-based approach to public policy-making is called for. This paper discusses the experience of the National Higher Education…

  1. National health policies: sub-Saharan African case studies (1980-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbatey, K

    1999-07-01

    Four countries, Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Zimbabwe, were chosen as cases to study the impact of national health policies on national health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Through a conceptual framework that covers health problem identification, policy formulation and implementation procedures, the study examined national translations of Primary Health Care (PHC) and Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA/2000) strategies. A series of government measures, taken between 1980-1986 for health policy development and implementation in these countries, were treated as policy determinants of national health outcomes for the period ending 1990. The impact of these determinants on national health status was then analyzed through a comparative description and documentation of observable patterns and trends in infant mortality rates (IMR), under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) and life expectancy. Policy guidelines from PHC and HFA/2000 were used in conjunction with the respective per capita Gross National Products to categorize the four cases. Based on these guidelines, Botswana was ranked high, both in terms of policy development and the level of economic development, while Zimbabwe ranked high in terms of policy development but relatively low in economic terms. Cote d'Ivoire ranked high on economic development but low with regard to its policy framework. Ghana was at the other end of the spectrum, ranking low both in terms of its policy development and its economic performance. The comparative analysis revealed that Botswana and Zimbabwe performed better than Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana on the three outcome indicators. Despite Cote d'Ivoire's superior level of economic development, its health status fell behind that of Zimbabwe and even Ghana. The study concluded that policies formulated and implemented in accordance with key PHC principles could account for improvements in national health status. Since the end of the study period (1990), there have been significant political

  2. Financing national policy on oral health in Brazil in the context of the Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the model of oral health care implemented in the Unified Health System of Brazil in the last decade. This model was conceived as a sub-sector policy that, over the years, has sought to improve the quality of life of the Brazilian population. Through a chronological line, the study presents the National Policy on Oral Health as a counter-hegemonic patient care model for the dentistry practices existing in the country before this policy was implemented. The reorganization of the levels of oral health care, the creation of reference facilities for secondary and tertiary care, through Centers of Dental Specialties and Regional Dental Prosthesis Laboratories, and the differential funding and decentralized management of financial resources were able to expand the actions of oral health for more than 90 million inhabitants. The evolution shown after the deployment of the National Oral Health Policy, as of 2004, demonstrates the greater integration of oral health care under the Unified Health System and provides feedback information to help this policy to continue to be prioritized by the Federal Government and receive more support from the state and local levels in the coming years.

  3. What are the policy lessons of National Alcohol Prohibition in the United States, 1920-1933?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne

    2010-07-01

    National alcohol prohibition in the United States between 1920 and 1933 is believed widely to have been a misguided and failed social experiment that made alcohol problems worse by encouraging drinkers to switch to spirits and created a large black market for alcohol supplied by organized crime. The standard view of alcohol prohibition provides policy lessons that are invoked routinely in policy debates about alcohol and other drugs. The alcohol industry invokes it routinely when resisting proposals to reduce the availability of alcohol, increase its price or regulate alcohol advertising and promotion. Advocates of cannabis law reform invoke it frequently in support of their cause. This paper aims: (i) to provide an account of alcohol prohibition that is more accurate than the standard account because it is informed by historical and econometric analyses; (ii) to describe the policy debates in the 1920s and 1930s about the effectiveness of national prohibition; and (iii) to reflect on any relevance that the US experience with alcohol prohibition has for contemporary policies towards alcohol. It is incorrect to claim that the US experience of National Prohibition indicates that prohibition as a means of regulating alcohol is always doomed to failure. Subsequent experience shows that partial prohibitions can produce substantial public health benefits at an acceptable social cost, in the absence of substantial enforcement.

  4. Long-Term National Impacts of State-Level Policies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Short, W.; Denholm, P.; Heimiller, D.

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents analysis conducted with the Wind Deployment System Model (WinDS) -- a model of capacity expansion in the U.S. electric sector. With 358 regions covering the United States, detailed transmission system representation, and an explicit treatment of wind intermittency and ancillary services, WinDS is uniquely positioned to evaluate the market impacts of specific state-level policies. This paper provides analysis results regarding the impact of existing state-level policies designed to promote wind-capacity expansion, including state portfolio standards, mandates, and tax credits. The results show the amount of wind deployment due to current state-level incentives as well as examine their lasting impact on the national wind industry. For example, state-level mandates increase industry size and lower costs, which result in wind capacity increases in states without mandates and greater market growth even after the policies expire. Although these policies are enacted by individual states, the cumulative effect must be examined at a national level. Finally, this paper examines the impact on wind-capacity growth by increasing the penalty associated with the state-level renewable portfolio standards (RPS). The results show national and regional wind energy deployment and generation through 2050.

  5. Global Dimensions of Gifted and Talented Education: The Influence of National Perceptions on Policies and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Heuser

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine recent research across countries and cultures in regard to the issues related to the formation of gifted and talented education perspectives, policies, and practices. Many modern cultures and subcultures have developed formal and informal definitions of what it means to be gifted and talented, and when we compare the perceptions, policies, and practices across nations, we discover very different constructs of intelligence and ability. These understandings of giftedness and gifted and talented education can be grouped into four binary dimensions, scholarly versus co-curricular capabilities, aptitude versus achievement, nature versus nurture, and individualistic versus collective, that have significant implications for policy and practice. These constructs can serve as a foundation for countries that are looking to formalize or expand their gifted and talented education models or can be used to challenge the norms of established systems. We put forward recommendations to address some of the challenges in advancing gifted education cross-nationally, an area that is often assumed to introduce risks of enlarging social inequity. We also provide a cross-national matrix that captures known elements of gifted education policies and programs from over 20 subnational jurisdictions, countries, and world regions.

  6. History of Land-Use Policies and Designation of Mount Halimun-Salak National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama Galudra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 The extension and designation of Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park has caused land conflict issue widely.  Many local communities have used this national park land for their agriculture crops and dwelling.  Through the historical perspective, it was found that this land conflict was due to ongoing change of land use policies. The government, from the Dutch Colonial to Japan occupation, imposed different land use policy to the Halimun-Salak land.  These changing policies have caused many local communities living inside the current designated state forestland.  Regretabbly, the current government did not solve this land conflict, but rather offered uncertainty by permitting and charging the local communities who cultivate inside the state forestland.  Undoubtedly, this uncertainty has caused problems in the future to the national park.  It was thought that border arrangement will solve this land conflict as it has been proven that changing policies have change the land-use in Halimun-Salak area. Key words: Halimun-Salak, taman nasional, Perum Perhutani, sejarah, tata batas Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  7. Information and communication technology (ICT) and eHealth policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of national policies and assessment of socioeconomic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria Carolina; Deber, Raisa; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the availability of national information and communication technology (ICT) or eHealth policies produced by countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to determine the influence of a country's socioeconomic context on the existence of these policies. Documents describing a national ICT or eHealth policy in any of the 33 countries belonging to the LAC region as listed by the United Nations were identified from three data sources: academic databases; the Google search engine; and government agencies and representatives. The relationship between the existence of a policy and national socioeconomic indicators was also investigated. There has been some progress in the establishment of ICT and eHealth policies in the LAC region. The most useful methods for identifying the policies were 1) use of the Google search engine and 2) contact with Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) country representatives. The countries that have developed a national ICT policy seem to be more likely to have a national eHealth policy in place. There was no statistical significant association between the existence of a policy and a country's socioeconomic context. Governments need to make stronger efforts to raise awareness about existing and planned ICT and eHealth policies, not only to facilitate ease of use and communication with their stakeholders, but also to promote collaborative international efforts. In addition, a better understanding of the effect of economic variables on the role that ICTs play in health sector reform efforts will help shape the vision of what can be achieved.

  8. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  9. Convergence and conflict with the ‘National Interest’: Why Israel abandoned its climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, Lucy; Tal, Alon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how Israel abandoned its climate policy through the prism of the country's evolving energy profile, most importantly the 2009 discovery of huge natural gas reserves in Israel's Mediterranean exclusive zone. The article outlines five phases of Israeli political engagement with climate change from 1992 until 2013 when the National GHG Emissions Reduction Plan was defunded. Israel was motivated to develop its climate policy by international norms: OECD membership and the 2009 UN Summit in Copenhagen. Although the eventual Plan may not have significantly reduced Israel’s emissions, it contained immediate cost-effective, energy efficiency measures. Despite rhetorical support for renewable energy, in practice, most Israeli leaders consistently perceive ensuring supply of fossil fuels as the best means to achieve energy security. The gas finds thus effectively ended a potentially significant switch towards renewable energy production. The development of commercially competitive Israeli renewable energy technology may change this prevailing economic calculus alongside renewed international and domestic leadership and a resolution of the region's conflicts. Although Israel's political circumstances are idiosyncratic, the dynamics shaping its climate policy reflect wider trends such as competing economic priorities and failure to consider long term energy security. - Highlights: • In 2013 Israel defunded its climate policy despite cost and efficiency savings. • Initially climate policy converged with national interests: ‘climate bandwagoning’. • Deepwater natural gas finds in Israeli waters ended renewable energy ambitions. • Advocates failed to securitise ‘climate change’ which would have raised its profile. • Policy failure reflects both national idiosyncrasies and wider international trends.

  10. Interpreting the immigration policies in Spain from the debate transnationalism -methodological nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Morcillo Espina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The sociological interpretation of immigration policyin Spain has gone through several phases as the analysis of political discourses or socio-legal analysis. These interpretation shave not fi nished answering some paradoxes that are observed at the different levels of government: European Union, state and regional level. The debate transnationalism-methodological nationalism provides a conceptual framework of «Weberian ideal types» that allows us a new interpretation of immigration policies in Spain getting encompass and surpass previous interpretations.This theoretical framework, barely used for the Spanish context, sheds light on the power relations between State and the Marketand its influence in shaping immigration policy.

  11. Postpartum depression: psychoneuroimmunological underpinnings and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson G

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available George Anderson,1 Michael Maes21CRC Clincial Research Centre/Communications, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: Postpartum depression (PPD is common, occurring in 10%–15% of women. Due to concerns about teratogenicity of medications in the suckling infant, the treatment of PPD has often been restricted to psychotherapy. We review here the biological underpinnings to PPD, suggesting a powerful role for the tryptophan catabolites, indoleamine 2,3-dixoygenase, serotonin, and autoimmunity in mediating the consequences of immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress. It is suggested that the increased inflammatory potential, the decreases in endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds together with decreased omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, in the postnatal period cause an inflammatory environment. The latter may result in the utilization of peripheral inflammatory products, especially kynurenine, in driving the central processes producing postnatal depression. The pharmacological treatment of PPD is placed in this context, and recommendations for more refined and safer treatments are made, including the better utilization of the antidepressant, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin.Keywords: SSRI, kynurenine, IDO, TDO, melatonin

  12. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions

  13. A POLICY EVALUATION ON LAND PROCUREMENT USED FOR NATIONAL ROAD SPREADING IN BANGKA TENGAH REGENCY, KEPULAUAN BANGKA BELITUNG PROVINCE

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    Wijaya Sukarno Retno Negoro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The policy of national land procurement is formed under a national consensus which states that land procurement in Indonesia must be implemented by emphasizing the principles of the Indonesian constitution and land law. In terms of land procurement, the local government of Bangka Tengah has a different policy from the national policy. In Bangka Tengah, land values are not included in the calculation of compensation value for the land acquisition. The compensation is only accounted for buildings, crops and other measurable losses. The study attempts to identify the concepts implemented by the local government of Bangka Belitung on their land procurement policy and to describe the conformity of the policy with the national policy under the Indonesian law no. 2 year 2012 No. 2 on Land Procurement for public facilities development. In evaluating the data, Dunn evaluation method is employed.  The method is a formal evaluation that focuses on the conformity in land procurement with the national constitution no 2. year 2012. The study indicates that substantially the land procurement policy implemented in Bangka Tengah is not in contradiction to the national land procurement policy. However, in the future, this kind of local policy will be more difficult to be put into effect.

  14. The National Socialist Sisterhood: an instrument of National Socialist health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2009-06-01

    When Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) came to power in 1933, the new Nazi government focused the German health system on their priorities such as the creation of a racially homogeneous society and the preparation of war. One of the measures to bring nursing under their control was the foundation of a new sisterhood. In 1934, Erich Hilgenfeldt (1897-1945), the ambitious head of the National Socialist People's Welfare Association (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt), founded the National Socialist (NS) Sisterhood (Nationalsozialistische Schwesternschaft) to create an elite group that would work for the goals of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP). Hilgenfeldt proclaimed community nursing as a priority for NS Sisterhood nurses. Catholic and Protestant sisters, who were traditionally dedicated to community nursing, were to be gradually replaced. However, other competing priorities, such as hospital service for the training of junior nurses and work in conquered regions, as well as the lack of NS nursing personnel, hampered the expansion of community nursing. The paper also addresses areas for future research: everyday activities of NS nurses, the service of NS Sisterhood nurses for NSDAP organisations such as the elite racist paramilitary force SS (Schutzstaffel, Protective Squadron), and involvement in their crimes have hardly been investigated as yet.

  15. HIV policy implementation in two health and demographic surveillance sites in Uganda: findings from a national policy review, health facility surveys and key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, Ellen; Wringe, Alison; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Kiweewa, Francis; Lutalo, Tom; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Todd, Jim; Eaton, Jeffrey William; Zaba, Basia; Church, Kathryn

    2017-04-05

    Successful HIV testing, care and treatment policy implementation is essential for realising the reductions in morbidity and mortality those policies are designed to target. While adoption of new HIV policies is rapid, less is known about the facility-level implementation of new policies and the factors influencing this. We assessed implementation of national policies about HIV testing, treatment and retention at health facilities serving two health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) (10 in Kyamulibwa, 14 in Rakai). Ugandan Ministry of Health HIV policy documents were reviewed in 2013, and pre-determined indicators were extracted relating to the content and nature of guidance on HIV service provision. Facility-level policy implementation was assessed via a structured questionnaire administered to in-charge staff from each health facility. Implementation of policies was classified as wide (≥75% facilities), partial (26-74% facilities) or minimal (≤25% facilities). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants (policy-makers, implementers, researchers) to identify factors influencing implementation; data were analysed using the Framework Method of thematic analysis. Most policies were widely implemented in both HDSS (free testing, free antiretroviral treatment (ART), WHO first-line regimen as standard, Option B+). Both had notable implementation gaps for policies relating to retention on treatment (availability of nutritional supplements, support groups or isoniazid preventive therapy). Rakai implemented more policies relating to provision of antiretroviral treatment than Kyamulibwa and performed better on quality of care indicators, such as frequency of stock-outs. Factors facilitating implementation were donor investment and support, strong scientific evidence, low policy complexity, phased implementation and effective planning. Limited human resources, infrastructure and health management information systems were perceived as major

  16. 'Cosmetic boob jobs' or evidence-based breast surgery: an interpretive policy analysis of the rationing of 'low value' treatments in the English National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jill; Swinglehurst, Deborah; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2014-09-20

    In England the National Health Service (NHS) is not allowed to impose 'blanket bans' on treatments, but local commissioners produce lists of 'low value' procedures that they will normally not fund. Breast surgery is one example. However, evidence suggests that some breast surgery is clinically effective, with significant health gain. National guidelines indicate the circumstances under which breast surgery should be made available on the NHS, but there is widespread variation in their implementation.The purpose of this study was to explore the work practices of 'individual funding request' (IFR) panels, as they considered 'one-off' funding requests for breast surgery; examine how the notion of 'value' is dialogically constructed, and how decisions about who is deserving of NHS funding and who is not are accomplished in practice. We undertook ethnographic exploration of three IFR panels. We extracted all (22) breast surgery cases considered by these panels from our data set and progressively focused on three case discussions, one from each panel, covering the three main breast procedures.We undertook a microanalysis of the talk and texts arising from these cases, within a conceptual framework of interpretive policy analysis. Through an exploration of the symbolic artefacts (language, objects and acts) that are significant carriers of policy meaning, we identified the ways in which IFR panels create their own 'interpretive communities', within which deliberations about the funding of breast surgery are differently framed, and local decisions come to be justified. In particular, we demonstrated how each decision was contingent on [a] the evaluative accent given to certain words, [b] the work that documentary objects achieve in foregrounding particular concerns, and [c] the act of categorising. Meaning was constructed dialogically through local interaction and broader socio-cultural discourses about breasts and 'cosmetic' surgery. Despite the appeal of calls to tackle

  17. A public school district's vending machine policy and changes over a 4-year period: implementation of a national wellness policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Markey, T L; Wang, L; Schlotterbeck, S; Jackson, E A; Gurm, R; Leidal, A; Eagle, K

    2012-04-01

    The school environment has been the focus of many health initiatives over the years as a means to address the childhood obesity crisis. The availability of low-nutrient, high-calorie foods and beverages to students via vending machines further exacerbates the issue of childhood obesity. However, a healthy overhaul of vending machines may also affect revenue on which schools have come to depend. This article describes the experience of one school district in changing the school environment, and the resulting impact on food and beverage vending machines. Observational study in Ann Arbor public schools. The contents and locations of vending machines were identified in 2003 and surveyed repeatedly in 2007. Overall revenues were also documented during this time period. Changes were observed in the contents of both food and beverage vending machines. Revenue in the form of commissions to the contracted companies and the school district decreased. Local and national wellness policy changes may have financial ramifications for school districts. In order to facilitate and sustain school environment change, all stakeholders, including teachers, administrators, students and healthcare providers, should collaborate and communicate on policy implementation, recognizing that change can have negative financial consequences as well as positive, healthier outcomes. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Central Banks Exit Strategies in Theory and Practice. The Case of the Polish National Bank's Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes an attempt in discussing the pros and cons of central banks exiting from unconventional monetary policy strategies. Having in mind the latest international economic research concerning the optimal entrance and exit strategies of the zero interest rate policy, it is worth discussing the results of the contemporary central banks in preserving the financial system and supporting the real economy. The main aim of this paper is the assessment of the Polish central bank's low rate interest rates policy effectiveness and to find out its influence on the economy. The following research problem is discussed: should central banks use the exit strategy from zero interest rates and if yes, why and when. This task requires to put forward the following research hypothesis: too late implementation of the cycle of low interest rates by the National Bank of Poland does not help improvement of the Polish economy situation.

  19. National environmental radiation monitoring program: towards formulating policy on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukiman Sarmani

    2002-01-01

    Though Malaysia has no nuclear power station, but the management of its low level radioactive waste generated from industrial activities involves most of the same issues that must be considered in countries with nuclear power. These include public consultation at all stages, an open approach, high level scientific and engineering input and political decision by the Government. A carefully planned approach, which involves the public and gives time to build trust and confidence, is necessary for success. It is also pertinent to establish accurate and reliable data on environmental radiation to accurately assess possible risk. This is where a national monitoring program on environmental radiation is very important. While accurate data will help formulate sound policy on radioactive waste management, it should also be readily available to the public to gain support and acceptance. This paper presents arguments on the importance of a national monitoring program for environmental radiation as an input for formulating a policy on radioactive waste management in Malaysia. (Author)

  20. [Processes in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Neto, João Leite; Kind, Luciana; Resende, Maria Carolina Costa; Colen, Natália Silva

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the processes involved in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) through the analysis of three documents produced by the Ministry of Health from 2002 to 2005 and the final text of the National Health Promotion Policy, approved in 2006. We interviewed five subjects who participated in drafting the PNPS, three of whom were Ministry of Health administrators, plus two researchers. The documents were explored with discourse analysis. The article contributes to the debate on the development of the PNPS. Health promotion showed various points of disagreement, which led to the delay in the document's final approval. International induction via funding proved to be a crucial element for defining the final wording of the PNPS, reestablishing the emphasis (subject to criticism) on lifestyle changes in its "Actions". The article highlights the negotiated consensus that led to the creation of the PNPS Management Committee, with participation by various sub-sectors, an innovative structure within the Ministry of Health.

  1. How Robust Refugee Protection Policies Can Strengthen Human and National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes the case that refugee protection and national security should be viewed as complementary, not conflicting state goals. It argues that refugee protection can further the security of refugees, affected states, and the international community. Refugees and international migrants can also advance national security by contributing to a state’s economic vitality, military strength, diplomatic standing, and civic values. The paper identifies several strategies that would, if implemented, promote both security and refugee protection. It also outlines additional steps that the US Congress should take to enhance US refugee protection policies and security. Finally, it argues for the efficacy of political engagement in support of pro-protection, pro-security policies, and against the assumption that political populism will invariably impede support for refugee protection.

  2. The transition to non-lead rifle ammunition in Denmark: national obligations and policy considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels; Thomas, Vernon G.; Krone, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The issue of Denmark regulating use of lead-free rifle ammunition because of potential risks of lead exposure in wildlife and humans was examined from a scientific and objective policy perspective. The consequences of adopting or rejecting such regulation were identified. Denmark is obliged...... to examine this topic because of its national policy on lead reduction, its being a Party to the UN Bonn Convention on Migratory Species, and its role in protecting White-tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), a species prone to lead poisoning from lead ingestion. Lead-free bullets suited for deer hunting...... are available at comparable cost to lead bullets, and have been demonstrated to be as effective. National adoption of lead-free bullets would complete the Danish transition to lead-free ammunition use. It would reduce the risk of lead exposure to scavenging wildlife, and humans who might eat lead...

  3. Innovation and participation for healthy public policy: the first National Health Assembly in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanathan, Kumanan; Posayanonda, Tipicha; Birmingham, Maureen; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2012-03-01

    This paper aims to describe and disseminate the process and initial outcomes of the first National Health Assembly (NHA) in Thailand, as an innovative example of health policy making. The first NHA, held in December 2008 in Bangkok, brought together over 1500 people from government agencies, academia, civil society, health professionals and the private sector to discuss key health issues and produce resolutions to guide policy making. It adapted the approach used at the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization. Findings are derived from a literature review, document analysis, and the views and experiences of the authors, two of whom contributed to the organization of the NHA and two of whom were invited external observers. Fourteen agenda items were discussed and resolutions passed. Potential early impacts on policy making have included an increase in the 2010 public budget for Thailand's universal health coverage scheme as total public expenditure has decreased; cabinet endorsement of proposed Strategies for Universal Access to Medicines for Thai People; and establishment of National Commissions on Health Impact Assessment and Trade and Health. The NHA was successful in bringing together various actors and sectors involved in the social production of health, including groups often marginalized in policy making. It provides an innovative model of how governments may be able to increase public participation and intersectoral collaboration that could be adapted in other contexts. Significant challenges remain in ensuring full participation of interested groups and in implementing, and monitoring the impact of, the resolutions passed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats.

  5. Soviet Nationality Policy and National Identify in the Transcaucasian Republics: Drawing Together or Tearing Apart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-13

    34 -.. .. t t, r , tIhI lltcttlOg I f n0rI Om t Id Io nPnii ’e-lqa’ woein estre b’en el • f O v Oth r dwct Of An.$ ,MOuO" t dsr’•MqtlOn Hea0Q.arV’er...means of reducing discontent among ethnic minorities and soothing nationalist sentiments guided the Bolsheviks’ thinking about the path of Soviet...the Transcaucasian nationalities did not suffer the horrors of famine, collectivization, and deportation to the 30Ibid., 149-152. 31Suny, Armenia, 62

  6. Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    156 Prepared by Dick K. Nanto, Specialist in Industry and Trade, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . 157 International Labour Office...security. The economy has always been there both to provide the funds and materiel for defense and to provide economic security for most households ...Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy Congressional Research

  7. National policies for technical change: Where are the increasing returns to economic research?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavitt, Keith

    1996-01-01

    Improvements over the past 30 years in statistical data, analysis, and related theory have strengthened the basis for science and technology policy by confirming the importance of technical change in national economic performance. But two important features of scientific and technological activities in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries are still not addressed adequately in mainstream economics: (i) the justification of public fundi...

  8. Estimating the Effective Lower Bound for the Czech National Bank's Policy Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Kolcunova, Dominika; Havranek, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    The paper focuses on the estimation of the effective lower bound for the Czech National Bank's policy rate. The effective lower bound is determined by the value below which holding and using cash would be more convenient than deposits with negative yields. This bound is approximated based on storage, the insurance and transportation costs of cash and the costs associated with the loss of the convenience of cashless payments and complemented with the estimate based on interest charges, which p...

  9. Indigenous rights in Chile: National identity and majority group support for multicultural policies

    OpenAIRE

    Pehrson, Samuel; Gonzalez, Roberto; Brown, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    We examine support for policies affecting indigenous ethnic minorities in Chile. Specifically, we examine the role of national group definitions that include the largest indigenous group—the Mapuche—in different ways. Based on questionnaire data from nonindigenous Chilean students (N = 338), we empirically distinguish iconic inclusion, whereby the Mapuche are seen as an important part of Chile's history and identity on the one hand, from egalitarian inclusion, which represents the Mapuche as ...

  10. Irish foreign policy in the United Nations and European Union: influence and participation

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, John; Connolly, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations has had a central place in Irish foreign policy from the state’s accession in 1955. Both political discourse and public opinion polls indicate widespread support for the organisation as a source of international legitimacy and as the appropriate forum to make major decisions regarding peace and security; international human rights; and development. The EU has an equally central role in Ireland’s economic and social development in the last three decades, and w...

  11. Opportunities and challenges in developing a whole-of-government national food and nutrition policy: lessons from Australia's National Food Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel; Caraher, Martin; Lawrence, Mark; Friel, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The present article tracks the development of the Australian National Food Plan as a 'whole of government' food policy that aimed to integrate elements of nutrition and sustainability alongside economic objectives. The article uses policy analysis to explore the processes of consultation and stakeholder involvement in the development of the National Food Plan, focusing on actors from the sectors of industry, civil society and government. Existing documentation and submissions to the Plan were used as data sources. Models of health policy analysis and policy streams were employed to analyse policy development processes. Australia. Australian food policy stakeholders. The development of the Plan was influenced by powerful industry groups and stakeholder engagement by the lead ministry favoured the involvement of actors representing the food and agriculture industries. Public health nutrition and civil society relied on traditional methods of policy influence, and the public health nutrition movement failed to develop a unified cross-sector alliance, while the private sector engaged in different ways and presented a united front. The National Food Plan failed to deliver an integrated food policy for Australia. Nutrition and sustainability were effectively sidelined due to the focus on global food production and positioning Australia as a food 'superpower' that could take advantage of the anticipated 'dining boom' as incomes rose in the Asia-Pacific region. New forms of industry influence are emerging in the food policy arena and public health nutrition will need to adopt new approaches to influencing public policy.

  12. National and International Inequalities in Income and Wealth in a Global Growth with Free Trade and National Inflation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI-BIN ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study global monetary economic growth with heterogeneous households under free trade. The paper examines dynamics of global and national wealth and income distribution in association with monetary economic growth within an integrated framework. Money is introduced via the cash-in-advance (CIA approach. We show that the dynamics of the world economy (with any number of countries is described by a set of differential equations. We simulate equilibrium of the global economy with three countries and two types of households in each country. We also demonstrate effects of changes in technology and inflation policy. Our model demonstrates, as Grier and Grier (2007 empirically show, that the global economy exhibits absolute divergence in output levels if some determinants of steady state income are different. The study shows that as one country increases its inflation policy, the equilibrium values of the global output, consumption level and physical wealth are enhanced, and the rate of interest is lowered. The country which raises its inflation policy benefits in every aspect, but the other countries suffer in some aspects and benefit in others.

  13. Policy and governance to address depression and suicide in Bhutan: The national suicide-prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Gampo; Choki, Sonam; Jamphel, Kinga; Wangdi, Yeshi; Chogyel, Tandin; Dorji, Chencho; Nirola, Damber Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Suicide and mental disorders are a growing public health issue in Bhutan, due in part to a rapidly transitioning society. The burden of suicide has been recognized by the Royal Government of Bhutan and, as a result, it introduced the country's first ever national suicide-prevention plan in 2015. The 3-year action plan takes a holistic approach to making suicide-prevention services a top social priority, through strengthening suicide-prevention policies, promoting socially protective measures, mitigating risk factors and reaching out to individuals who are at risk of suicide or affected by incidents of suicide. This article documents Bhutan's policy and governance for addressing depression and suicide within the context of its national suicide-prevention strategy, examines progress and highlights lessons for future directions in suicide prevention. Since the endorsement of the 3-year action plan by the prime minister's cabinet, the implementation of suicide-prevention measures has been accelerated through a high-level national steering committee. Activities include suicide-prevention actions by sectors such as health, education, monastic communities and police; building capacity of gatekeepers; and improving the suicide information system to inform policies and decision-making. Suicide-prevention activities have become the responsibility of local governments, paving the way for suicide prevention as an integral mandate across sectors and at grass-root levels in the Kingdom of Bhutan.

  14. The Model of Influence of Regulatory Policy on the National Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolupaieva Irina V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at developing a model of influence of regulatory policy on the national economy. Structural changes in the national economy were analyzed, and the existing problems were determined: a significant excess of the gross external debt over the GDP of Ukraine over the last 2 years, which testifies to excessive credit load; very inconsistent dynamics of capital investments change by the sources of financing, confirming presence of unfavorable investment climate for foreign investors. The current priorities in the implementation of regulatory policy have been substantiated: increase of GDP per capita, and consequently, reduction of the total amount of arrears on all existing obligations; ensuring the availability of investments and optimizing of the structure of the sources of attracting. The result of the research on the influence of regulatory policy on the national economy is building of a model with reflection of relevant causal relationships. Its application is optimal in the context of economic substantiation of decisions on improvement of tax system.

  15. Leadership development in the English National Health Service: A counter narrative to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewison, Alistair; Morrell, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    To examine the current approach to leadership development in the English National Health Service (NHS) and consider its implications for nursing. To stimulate debate about the nature of leadership development in a range of health care settings. Good leadership is central to the provision of high quality nursing care. This has focussed attention on the leadership development of nurses and other health care staff. It has been a key policy concern in the English NHS of late and fostered the growth of leadership development programmes founded on competency based approaches. This is a policy review informed by the concept of episteme. Relevant policy documents and related literature. Using Foucault's concept of episteme, leadership development policy is examined in context and a 'counter narrative' developed to demonstrate that current approaches are rooted in competency based accounts which constitute a limited, yet dominant narrative. Leadership takes many forms and varies hugely according to task and context. Acknowledging this in the form of a counter narrative offers a contribution to more constructive policy development in the English NHS and more widely. A more nuanced debate about leadership development and greater diversity in the provision of development programmes and activities is required. Leadership development has been advocated as being crucial to the advancement of nursing. Detailed analysis of its nature and function is essential if it is to meet the needs of nurse leaders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. From Soil Survey to Land Use Planning and National Soils Policies New Developments in Soil Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheye, WH.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis of soil studies has shifted over the past decades from descriptive inventories towards a more specifie, pragmatic and problem solving approach related to land use and soil conservation. Under conditions of growing population density, land may become a source of conflict between various users : settled farmers, miners, stock breeders, foresters, urban planners, ecologists, ... In such cases, a national soils policy becomes imperative, as it provides a useful planning framework for evaluation of alternative land use scenarios and for the selection of the best options. It supports land use decisions for the future and helps in setting rules to meet the socio-political objectives, whilst preserving the delicate balance between economic and ecological aspects of land and land use. A policy is an act of intention which lays down the principes for achieving long-term objectives. The details of the policy are left to implementing strategies and programmes ; the former cover technical tools and steps for achieving the policy goals, whilst the latter are directly related to means of implementation. An example is given showing how a policy of food self-sufficiency has been realized in India.

  17. Diffusion of innovation in mental health policy adoption: what should we ask about the quality of policy and the role of stakeholders in this process? Comment on "Cross-national diffusion of mental health policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy

    2015-03-10

    In his recent study, Gordon Shen analyses a pertinent question facing the global mental health research and practice community today; that of how and why mental health policy is or is not adopted by national governments. This study identifies becoming a World Health Organization (WHO) member nation, and being in regional proximity to countries which have adopted a mental health policy as supportive of mental health policy adoption, but no support for its hypothesis that country recipients of higher levels of aid would have adopted a mental health policy due to conditionalities imposed on aid recipients by donors. Asking further questions of each may help to understand more not only about how and why mental health policies may be adopted, but also about the relevance and quality of implementation of these policies and the role of specific actors in achieving adoption and implementation of high quality mental health policies. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  18. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data-Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy City Energy Profile tool. The analysis develops a national estimate of the carbon abatement potential of realizable city actions in six specific policy areas encompassing the most commonly implemented city actions. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a 'moderate abatement scenario' by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a 'high abatement scenario' by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city's control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. In the context of U.S. climate commitments under the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP21), the estimated national abatement potential of the city actions analyzed in this report equates to about 15%-35% of the remaining carbon abatement necessary to achieve the U.S. COP21 target. Additional city actions outside the scope of this report, such as community choice aggregation (city-level purchasing of renewable energy), zero energy districts, and multi

  19. The challenges of changing national malaria drug policy to artemisinin-based combinations in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otieno Dorothy N

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgound Sulphadoxine/sulphalene-pyrimethamine (SP was adopted in Kenya as first line therapeutic for uncomplicated malaria in 1998. By the second half of 2003, there was convincing evidence that SP was failing and had to be replaced. Despite several descriptive investigations of policy change and implementation when countries moved from chloroquine to SP, the different constraints of moving to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in Africa are less well documented. Methods A narrative description of the process of anti-malarial drug policy change, financing and implementation in Kenya is assembled from discussions with stakeholders, reports, newspaper articles, minutes of meetings and email correspondence between actors in the policy change process. The narrative has been structured to capture the timing of events, the difficulties and hurdles faced and the resolutions reached to the final implementation of a new treatment policy. Results Following a recognition that SP was failing there was a rapid technical appraisal of available data and replacement options resulting in a decision to adopt artemether-lumefantrine (AL as the recommended first-line therapy in Kenya, announced in April 2004. Funding requirements were approved by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM and over 60 million US$ were agreed in principle in July 2004 to procure AL and implement the policy change. AL arrived in Kenya in May 2006, distribution to health facilities began in July 2006 coincidental with cascade in-service training in the revised national guidelines. Both training and drug distribution were almost complete by the end of 2006. The article examines why it took over 32 months from announcing a drug policy change to completing early implementation. Reasons included: lack of clarity on sustainable financing of an expensive therapeutic for a common disease, a delay in release of funding, a lack of comparative efficacy data

  20. The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio Studies (TRUTHS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul D.; Fox, Nigel P.; Lobb, Daniel; Friend, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio-Studies) is a proposed small satellite mission to enable a space-based climate observing system capable of delivering data of the quality needed to provide the information needed by policy makers to make robust mitigation and adaptation decisions. This is achieved by embedding trust and confidence in the data and derived information (tied to international standards) from both its own measurements and by upgrading the performance and interoperability of other EO platforms, such as the Sentinels by in-flight reference calibration. TRUTHS would provide measurements of incoming (total and spectrally resolved) and global reflected spectrally and spatially (50 m) solar radiation at the 0.3% uncertainty level. These fundamental climate data products can be convolved into the building blocks for many ECVs and EO applications as envisaged by the 2015 ESA science strategy; in a cost effective manner. We describe the scientific drivers for the TRUTHS mission and how the requirements for the climate benchmarking and cross-calibration reference sensor are both complementary and simply implemented, with a small additional complexity on top of heritage calibration schemes. The calibration scheme components and the route to SI-traceable Earth-reflected solar spectral radiance and solar spectral irradiance are described.

  1. Community Organizing for Healthier Communities: Environmental and Policy Outcomes of a National Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Villanueva, Sandra; Douglas, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in communities of color, partially because of structural inequities in the social and built environment (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, pollution) that restrict healthy eating and active living. Community organizing is an underexamined, grassroots health promotion approach that empowers and mobilizes community residents to advocate for, and achieve, environmental and policy changes to rectify these structural inequities. This paper presents outcomes of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative: the first national program to apply community organizing to combat childhood obesity-causing structural inequities in communities of color. Twenty-one community-based organizations and tribal nations (grantees) conducted 3-year community organizing-based interventions primarily designed to increase children's healthy food and safe recreational access. Grantees' policy wins (environmental and policy changes resulting from grantee interventions) were measured from 2009 to 2014 using semi-structured interviews conducted quarterly and 6 months post-grant, and independently coded and reviewed in 2015 by researchers and expert community organizers. The 21 grantees achieved 72 policy wins (mean=3.43, SD=1.78) across six domains: two directly addressed childhood obesity by enhancing children's healthy food (37.50%) and recreational access (33.33%), whereas four indirectly addressed obesity by promoting access to quality health care (8.33%); clean environments (9.73%); affordable housing (8.33%); and discrimination- and crime-free neighborhoods (2.78%). These findings provide compelling evidence that community organizing-based interventions designed and led by community stakeholders can achieve diverse environmental and policy solutions to the structural inequities that foment childhood obesity in communities of color. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published

  2. Framing REDD+ at National Level: Actors and Discourse around Nepal’s Policy Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi R. Bastakoti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests and carbon sequestration have become fundamental themes in climate change mitigation. The idea of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ has generated significant interest in forest governance from United Nations (UN climate strategies over the past decade. REDD+ was initially hailed as a smart and cost-effective way to mitigate climate change. As it is rolling out, ambiguities and controversies are increasingly surfacing to the stakeholders at different levels. Examining the forest governance of Nepal in detail, this research examines how relationships between national and local forest actors have changed, and how REDD+ discourses have evolved among them at the interface between global interests in carbon commodification on one hand, and local realities of community forestry on the other hand. To better understand these competing positions, the study uses a post-structural political ecology perspective with elements of discourse analysis. Using data from interviews with policy actors and members of three local community forest user groups, focus group discussions, policy event observations, and document reviews, this paper highlights how global forest carbon commodification has been affecting community forestry governance. It also illustrates different storylines that actors employ to influence policy discourse and REDD+ debates, indicating a considerable range of problem definitions and policy solutions of climate change among the actors. The analysis highlights the connection between power relationships and the evolution of discourses surrounding REDD+, and how an external discourse can reinforce or challenge local governance and the centralization of forest authority. As such, the research also offers a new application of discursive storylines to climate change discourse analysis across national and local scales. The findings emphasize the importance of a more open and transparent dialogue across Nepal

  3. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Gore, Charles; Cebolla, Beatriz; Spina, Alexander

    2017-07-26

    As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0-340). Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  4. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Lazarus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS. Methods WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI, health expenditure and physician density. Results This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0–340. Conclusion Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  5. Identifying gaps in HIV policy and practice along the HIV care continuum: evidence from a national policy review and health facility surveys in urban and rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Caoimhe; McRobie, Ellen; Oti, Samuel; Njamwea, Brian; Nyaguara, Amek; Odhiambo, Frank; Otieno, Fredrick; Njage, Muthoni; Shoham, Tara; Church, Kathryn; Mee, Paul; Todd, Jim; Zaba, Basia; Reniers, Georges; Wringe, Alison

    2017-11-01

    The last decade has seen rapid evolution in guidance from the WHO concerning the provision of HIV services along the diagnosis-to-treatment continuum, but the extent to which these recommendations are adopted as national policies in Kenya, and subsequently implemented in health facilities, is not well understood. Identifying gaps in policy coverage and implementation is important for highlighting areas for improving service delivery, leading to better health outcomes. We compared WHO guidance with national policies for HIV testing and counselling, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, HIV treatment and retention in care. We then investigated implementation of these national policies in health facilities in one rural (Kisumu) and one urban (Nairobi) sites in Kenya. Implementation was documented using structured questionnaires that were administered to in-charge staff at 10 health facilities in Nairobi and 34 in Kisumu. Policies were defined as widely implemented if they were reported to occur in > 70% facilities, partially implemented if reported to occur in 30-70% facilities, and having limited implementation if reported to occur in care and treatment policies were well aligned with WHO guidance. Policies promoting access to treatment and retention in care were widely implemented, but there was partial or limited implementation of several policies promoting access to HIV testing, and the more recent policy of Option B+ for HIV-positive pregnant women. Efforts are needed to improve implementation of policies designed to increase rates of diagnosis, thus facilitating entry into HIV care, if morbidity and mortality burdens are to be further reduced in Kenya, and as the country moves towards universal access to antiretroviral therapy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  6. Cyber Security Policy. A methodology for Determining a National Cyber-Security Alert Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin TOFAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, assuring the security of the national cyber-space has become a big issue that can only be tackled through collaborative approaches. Threats cannot be confined to a single computer system just as much as computer systems are rendered useless without being con-nected to a supporting network. The authors of this article propose an innovative architecture of a system designated to help governments collect and analyze data about cyber-security in-cidents, from different organizations, dispersed nationwide, and acting within various economic sectors. The collected data will make us able to determine a national cyber-security alert score that could help policy makers in establishing the best strategies for protecting the national cyber-space.

  7. The route to a national health policy lies through the states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, G A

    1991-01-01

    National health program legislation has been becalmed in the Congress for almost 80 years. Despite periodic cries of "crisis," legislation never emerges from committee. Periodically, campaigns have been mounted without success. Tactical efforts to circumvent direct action by legislating bits and pieces of related programs, Medicare and Medicaid, health maintenance organization support, and pre-budgeting, have complicated operation of the medical care system and stimulated intractable cost inflation. For the first 150 years of American history, responsibility for public health and welfare legislation rested with the states. Most public health policies originated in a state or a few states and then later became national legislation. The state efforts were, in effect, natural experiments. After the Depression and the flood of funding from the federal government in subsequent years, the states faded as innovators. It is proposed that funding a few state models to restimulate state initiative in this regard will provide a more effective route to a national health program.

  8. The place of public inquiries in shaping New Zealand's national mental health policy 1858–1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Warwick

    2005-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the role of public inquiries as an instrument of public policy-making in New Zealand, using mental health as a case study. The main part of the paper analyses the processes and outcomes of five general inquiries into the state of New Zealand's mental health services that were held between 1858 and 1996. Results The membership, form, style and processes used by public inquiries have all changed over time in line with constitutional and social trends. So has the extent of public participation. The records of five inquiries provide periodic snapshots of a system bedevilled by long-standing problems such as unacceptable standards, under-resourcing, and poor co-ordination. Demands for an investigation no less than the reports and recommendations of public inquiries have been the catalyst of some important policy changes, if not immediately, then by creating a climate of opinion that supported later change. Inquiries played a significant role in establishing lunatic asylums, in shaping the structure of mental health legislation, establishing and maintaining a national mental health bureaucracy within the machinery of government, and in paving the way for deinstitutionalisation. Ministers and their departmental advisers have mediated this contribution. Conclusion Public inquiries have helped shape New Zealand's mental health policy, both directly and indirectly, at different stages of evolution. In both its advisory and investigative forms, the public inquiry remains an important tool of public administration. The inquiry/cause and policy/effect relationship is not necessarily immediate but may facilitate changes in public opinion with corresponding policy outcomes long after any direct causal link could be determined. When considered from that long-term perspective, the five inquiries can be linked to several significant and long-term contributions to mental health policy in New Zealand. PMID:16216131

  9. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward? The future research in Ghana cannot progress without consulting the past. In order to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all, Ghana has begun expanding her economy with the growing Ghanaian population as a way to meet the SDG (1, which seeks to end poverty and improve well-being. There are a number of intervention strategies by Ghana’s Energy sector which provides new, high-quality, and cost-competitive energy services to poor people and communities, thus alleviating poverty. Ghana’s Energy sector has initiated the National Electrification Scheme, a Self-Help Electrification Program, a National Off-grid Rural Electrification Program, and a Renewable Energy Development Program (REDP. The REDP aims to: assess the availability of renewable energy resources, examine the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of promising renewable energy technologies, ensure the efficient production and use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources, and develop an information base that facilitates the establishment of a planning framework for the rational development and the use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources.

  10. A National Scale Sustainable Agriculture Matrix of Indicators to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The ratification of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by all member countries of the United Nations demonstrates the determination of the international community in moving towards a sustainable future. To enable and encourage accountability, independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability efforts are essential. Among all sectors, agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, namely environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of a sustainable agriculture and the feasibility of measuring it remain elusive, in part because it encompasses both biophysical and socio-economic components that are still poorly integrated. Therefore, we have been developing a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) on a national scale in order to measure country-level performance in agriculture. First proposed by Swaminathan for agricultural research and policy in 1990s, SAM is a collection of indicators measuring sustainable agriculture from environmental, social, and economic dimensions. The environmental dimension evaluates various impacts of agricultural production on the environment, such as water consumption and nutrient pollution. The economic dimension quantifies the costs and benefits for major stakeholders involved in agricultural production, including government, industry, farmers, and consumers. The social dimension considers three major aspects: 1) social welfare (e.g., hunger and poverty rate, nutritional quality, demography of rural community); 2) equity over sectors, space, and gender (e.g., access to resources/services and opportunities, distribution of income, land ownership and tenure rights); 3) systemic risk (e.g., fragility of the global agricultural production and trade system, resilience of a farm or a country to market and natural shocks). Translating the illustrative concepts into measureable indicators will not only provide an independent and transparent measurement of national performance in the

  11. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  12. National University Extension Policy: analysis of the experience of the Institute of Health Sciences of UFPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbens Martins Nascimento

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study purpose refers to the university extension, addressing the concepts of university, organization, knowledge andextension. We sought to answer the following question: Does the outcome that has been generated through projects on extension practices developed by ICS/UFPA actually fulfill the guidelines of the National University Extension Policy? The pursued objective consisted in a general analysisof the extension practices of the Institute of Health Sciences (ICS at the Federal University of Pará (UFPA in the light of the National University Extension Policy (NUEP, comprehending dialogical interaction, interdisciplinary and interprofessionalism, teaching-research-extension inseparability, impact on student training, and impact and social transformation envisaged within the Policy Extension of UFPA. The research methodology comprehended a quantitative and qualitative approach supported by bibliographic and documentary supply. It was consulted the collection of various documents, given more evidence to those focused on the university extension in 2012, contained into several instances of UFPA. A number of 80 projects and 60 reports of extension of ICS were selected for analysis in the year 2012. The results revealed that the guidelines of PNEU fell far short of being reached by the ICS products, when it came to interdisciplinarity and interprofessionalism, teaching-research-extension inseparability, and impact and social transformation. Furthermore, there was little participation by teachers, students and administrative technicians of ICS in such activity. It was concluded that the extension model of ICS consists is a welfare model, developed through service provision.

  13. Comparative Study of National Nuclear HRD Policy between Korea and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yung; Park, Min Cheol; Kim, Young June; Moon, In cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Education has been thought as one of policy instrument for innovation of science and technology. It has been asked for science and technology HRD policy to set up positive feedback system: talented students selection based on future human resource demand and supply projection, education and training, securing job stability, strong support in order to generate outperforming research result, incentive on outperforming research result, life above poverty line after retirement, talented students inflowing to the field of science and technology. Science and technology HRD policy can be discussed in general with assumption that government shall intervene in science and technology job market in case it has been concerned that science and technology job market is going to be not functioning in working order and it is expected to have serious impact in the national. It is considered that Korean and Japanese Governments have been putting importance on human resource development in strong connection with research and development when national-level comprehensive nuclear R and D and utilization plan is made. In particular, strong linkage between education and R and D is encouraged for innovative technology development, NPP exports, and enhancement of nuclear safety.

  14. Comparative Study of National Nuclear HRD Policy between Korea and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yung; Park, Min Cheol; Kim, Young June; Moon, In cheol

    2016-01-01

    Education has been thought as one of policy instrument for innovation of science and technology. It has been asked for science and technology HRD policy to set up positive feedback system: talented students selection based on future human resource demand and supply projection, education and training, securing job stability, strong support in order to generate outperforming research result, incentive on outperforming research result, life above poverty line after retirement, talented students inflowing to the field of science and technology. Science and technology HRD policy can be discussed in general with assumption that government shall intervene in science and technology job market in case it has been concerned that science and technology job market is going to be not functioning in working order and it is expected to have serious impact in the national. It is considered that Korean and Japanese Governments have been putting importance on human resource development in strong connection with research and development when national-level comprehensive nuclear R and D and utilization plan is made. In particular, strong linkage between education and R and D is encouraged for innovative technology development, NPP exports, and enhancement of nuclear safety

  15. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, C.J.; Mantell, M.; Thompson, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  16. International and national energy and oil policy - Where we are going to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welbergen, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    International and National Energy and Oil Policy-In the long run energy policy is to be based on the available energy reserves. It is necessary to use the reserves carefully and to develop new and economical energy sources in due course. The short-term policy is shaped by the availability of oil, the price level, and by the worldwide economic situation. The result is overcapacity of refineries and tankers for the coming years and unutilized production capacity in the OPEC countries. The reduction of oil consumption in the European Community with overcapacity in the domestic oil industry creates a conflict with the export intention of the producing countries. In order to avoid unnecessary investments it is necessary to have an international understanding. The energy economy of the Federal Republic of Germany faces structural problems. As a result of the reduced consumption of heavy fuel oil, the load on the refineries will be considerably lowered in the future. Cracking units are required to convert the heavy fuel oil into lighter products. Many risks are involved in the investments, since these investments run over a long term, whereas the political situation may change quickly. As far as temporary governmental measures become necessary, those should be flexible and agreeable to the economic structure, without contradicting the long term energy policies. (orig.) [de

  17. Enhancing the Resilience of the Australian National Electricity Market: Taking a Systems Approach in Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Newell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As the complexity and interconnectedness of present-day social-ecological systems become steadily more apparent, there is increasing pressure on governments, policy makers, and managers to take a systems approach to the challenges facing humanity. However, how can this be done in the face of system complexity and uncertainties? In this paper we briefly discuss practical ways that policy makers can take up the systems challenge. We focus on resilience thinking, and the use of influence diagrams, causal-loop diagrams, and system archetypes. As a case study, set in the context of the climate-energy-water nexus, we use some of these system concepts and tools to carry out an initial exploration of factors that can affect the resilience of the Australian National Electricity Market. We stress the need for the electricity sector to prepare for the impacts of global change by encouraging innovation and diversity, supporting modularity and redundancy, and embracing the need for a policy making approach that takes account of the dynamics of the wider social-ecological system. Finally, taking a longer term view, we conclude by recommending that policy makers work to reduce reliance on conventional market mechanisms, institute continuing cross-sector dialogue, and promote basic education in system dynamics.

  18. Energy efficiency and the liberalized market - new approaches in national climate protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennicke, P.

    2000-01-01

    The paper initially explains the rationale of energy policy-based governmental intervention in the liberalized electricity market ('the need for political governance'). It is shown why there is a 'demand for intelligent regulatory policy' in Germany's energy sector, despite, or rather as a consequence of the deregulation of the energy markets, and refers e.g. to a parliamentary paper of the Bundestag, (BTDrs. 14/2656, p. 9). The author continues with selecting and defining, from the stock of conceivable appropriate action and regulatory instruments, the corner stones of action plans and the range of instruments, specifically designed for the sector and the target groups, that will accelerate market penetration of the energy efficiency policies ('governance functions'). The author also shows that, due to the significance of regulatory and structurizing impacts, as well as resulting consequences to the leading paradigms of policy of this Government (opting out of nuclear power, global climate change), the electricity industry is just the right branch of industry to serve as a ''national demonstration project'' on the way towards sustainable development. (orig./CB) [de

  19. [An overview of the definition and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ricardo Bezerra; Kerr-Pinheiro, Marta Macedo; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Miranda, Richardson Machado

    2015-05-01

    The This qualitative study aimed to analyze the development and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology (NPIIH). We analyzed documents and applied an online questionnaire to the experts involved in developing the policy. The data were submitted to content analysis using the categorical thematic modality. The PNIIS is the target of debate and proposals at various levels. Provisions have appeared in parallel to regulate measures on health data and information technology. Community participation in developing this policy and the convergence of laws, standards, resolutions, and policy-making levels in a common and broadly acknowledged and enforced policy are challenges, in addition to linking the public and private sectors. The study concludes that the National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology is making gradual progress, predominantly in theoretical debates, revisions, and updates. There are numerous challenges for its implementation and a prevailing need for legitimation.

  20. Developing the National Knowledge Platform in India: a policy and institutional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Veena; Bennett, Sara; Raman, V R; Sheikh, Kabir

    2018-02-20

    The importance of strong engagement between researchers and decision-makers in the improvement of health systems is increasingly being recognised in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In 2013, in India, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare began exploring the formation of a National Knowledge Platform (NKP) for guiding and supporting public health and health systems research in the country. The development of the NKP represents an important opportunity to enhance the linkage between policy-makers and researchers from the health policy and systems research field in India. However, the development process also reflects the highly complex reality of policy-making in the Indian health sector. Our objective is to provide insight into the policy-making process for establishing a health sector knowledge platform in India, and in doing so, to analyse the enabling contextual factors, the interests and actions of stakeholders, and the varying institutional arrangements explored in the development of the NKP. We used a qualitative case study methodology, conducting 16 in-depth interviews and reviewing 42 documents. We utilised General Thematic Analysis to analyse our data. Our research team combined perspectives from both outsiders (independent researchers with no prior or current involvement with the policy) and insiders (researchers involved in the policy-making process). We found that enabling contextual factors, and a combination of government and non-governmental stakeholders with core interests in public health and health systems, were able to gain considerable momentum in moving the idea for the NKP forward. However, complex evidence-to-policy processes in the Indian health sector resulted in complications in determining the right institutional arrangement for the platform. Establishing the appropriate balance between legitimacy and independence, as well as frequent changes in institutional leadership, were found to be additional issues that stakeholders

  1. Brazil: balance of the National Tobacco Control Policy in the last decade and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Tânia Maria; Pinho, Mariana Coutinho Marques de; Perez, Cristina de Abreu; Teixeira, Ana Paula Leal; Mendes, Felipe Lacerda; Vargas, Rosa Rulff; Carvalho, Alexandre Octávio Ribeiro de; Rangel, Erica Cavalcanti; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2017-09-21

    Since 2005, Brazil has been a Party of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, an international treaty whose measures are the foundation of the National Tobacco-Control Policy (NTCP), of Brazil. The results evidence a significant decrease in the prevalence of smokers and in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. These results, however, could have been even better if there wasn't the interference of the tobacco supply chain (TSC), controlled by transnational corporations, which has become more intense over the last 10 years. These companies made Brazil not only a repository for tobacco, but also for economic and political power capable of threatening NTCP achievements. This Essay recounts the development of NTCP and the tobacco supply chain modus operandi to hamper it, and discusses how the strengthening of policies to promote alternative crops for tobacco could shield NTCP from such interference.

  2. The rise and fall of Australian physical activity policy 1996 – 2006: a national review framed in an international context

    OpenAIRE

    Bellew, Bill; Schöeppe, Stephanie; Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper provides an historical review of physical activity policy development in Australia for a period spanning a decade since the release of the US Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health in 1996 and including the 2004 WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Using our definition of 'HARDWIRED' policy criteria, this Australian review is compared with an international perspective of countries with established national physical activity policie...

  3. National energy policies: Obstructing the reduction of global CO2 emissions? An analysis of Swedish energy policies for the district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difs, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    The effect of national energy policies on a local Swedish district heating (DH) system has been studied, regarding the profitability of new investments and the potential for climate change mitigation. The DH system has been optimised regarding three investments: biomass-fuelled CHP (bio CHP), natural gas-fuelled combined cycle CHP (NGCC CHP) and biomass-fuelled heat-only boiler (bio HOB) in two scenarios (with or without national taxes and policy instruments). In both scenarios EU's tradable CO 2 emission permits are included. Results from the study show that when national policies are included, the most cost-effective investment option is the bio CHP technology. However, when national taxes and policy instruments are excluded, the DH system containing the NGCC CHP plant has 30% lower system cost than the bio CHP system. Regardless of the scenario and when coal condensing is considered as marginal electricity production, the NGCC CHP has the largest global CO 2 reduction potential, about 300 ktonne CO 2 . However, the CO 2 reduction potential is highly dependent on the marginal electricity production. Demonstrated here is that national policies such as tradable green certificates can, when applied to DH systems, contribute to investments that will not fully utilise the DH systems' potential for global CO 2 emissions reductions. - Research highlights: →Swedish energy policies are promoting biomass fuelled electricity generating technologies over efficient fossil fuel electricity generating technologies. →An efficient fossil fuel technology like the natural gas combine cycle CHP technology with high power-to-heat ratio has potential to reduce the global CO 2 emissions more than a biomass fuelled electricity generating technology. →Swedish energy policies such as tradable green certificates for renewable electricity can, when applied to district heating systems, contribute to investments that will not fully utilise the district heating systems potential for

  4. A Handbook of Globalisation and Environmental Policy, 2nd edition. National Governments Interventions in a Global Arena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijen, F.H.; Zoeteman, B.C.J.; Pieters, J.; van Seters, P.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of globalisation, national governments are increasingly exposed to international influences that present new constraints and opportunities for domestic environmental policies. This comprehensive, revised Handbook pushes the frontiers of theoretical and empirical knowledge, and

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of the Swiss national policy on reducing micropollutants in treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy; Maurer, Max; Ort, Christoph

    2014-11-04

    Contamination of freshwater with micropollutants (MPs) is a growing concern worldwide. Even at very low concentrations, MPs can have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and possibly also on human health. Switzerland is one of the first countries to start implementing a national policy to reduce MPs in the effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). This paper estimates the benefits of upgrading STPs based on public's stated preferences. To assess public demand for the reduction of the environmental and health risks of MPs, we conducted a choice experiment in a national online survey. The results indicate that the average willingness to pay per household is CHF 100 (US$ 73) annually for reducing the potential environmental risk of MPs to a low level. These benefits, aggregated over households in the catchment of the STPs to be upgraded, generate a total annual economic value of CHF 155 million (US$ 113 million). This compares with estimated annual costs for upgrading 123 STPs of CHF 133 million (US$ 97 million) or CHF 86 (US$ 63) per household connected to these STPs. Hence, a cost-benefit analysis justifies the investment decision from an economic point of view and supports the implementation of the national policy in the ongoing political discussion.

  6. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data- Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric O’Shaughnessy, Jenny Heeter, David Keyser, Pieter Gagnon, and Alexandra Aznar

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy’s City Energy Profile tool. The analysis estimates the national carbon abatement potential of the most commonly implemented actions in six specific policy areas. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a "moderate abatement scenario" by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a "high abatement scenario" by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city’s control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. City carbon abatement potential is sensitive to national and state policies that affect the carbon intensity of electricity and transportation. Specifically, the U.S. Clean Power Plan and further renewable energy cost reductions could reduce city carbon emissions overall, helping cities achieve their carbon reduction goals.

  7. Policies Regulating the Assignments of the Bachelor of Education Programme of Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sutapa

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines the policies formulated by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an open and distance learning university of India for regulating the practices related to the assignments of its Bachelor of Education programme. Following the examination it argues that some policies are formulated in the context of the…

  8. 76 FR 56973 - Office of National Marine Sanctuaries Final Policy and Permit Guidance for Submarine Cable Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... National Marine Sanctuaries Final Policy and Permit Guidance for Submarine Cable Projects AGENCY: Office of... Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS) has developed final policy and permitting guidance for submarine cable projects... that applications to install and maintain submarine cables in sanctuaries are reviewed consistently and...

  9. Sexual Assault Policies and Consent Definitions: A Nationally Representative Investigation of U.S. Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Laurie M.; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Magee, Erin P.; DeLong, Stephanie M.; Ashley, Olivia S.; Macy, Rebecca J.; Martin, Sandra L.; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Campus sexual assault (SA) policies and sexual consent definitions have not been widely studied. The study team conducted a nationally representative review of college and university websites (n = 995), assessing the prevalence of publicly accessible online policies and definitions and examining associations with school characteristics. A content…

  10. 21 CFR 1404.610 - What procedures does the Office of National Drug Control Policy use in suspension and debarment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... handle the actions as informally as practicable, consistent with principles of fundamental fairness. (a... Control Policy use in suspension and debarment actions? 1404.610 Section 1404.610 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles...

  11. Curriculum on the European Policy Agenda: Global Transitions and Learning Outcomes from Transnational and National Points of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivesind, Kirsten; Wahlström, Ninni

    2016-01-01

    This special issue examines curricula and their histories as they have evolved throughout the 21st century as part of transnational and national education policies. With a specific focus on the policy transitions that are taking place in Europe, the articles demonstrate how curriculum making processes move in different directions, following their…

  12. From "Import" to "Import-Export" Oriented Internationalization: The Impact of National Policy on Scholarly Publication in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haiying; Beckett, Gulbahar H.; Huang, Dawang

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of national research policy in China over the past three decades and its recent shift in emphasis from "import" to "import-export" oriented internationalization. Based on a policy review and interviews with three groups of academics--six journal editors in the humanities and social sciences,…

  13. Emission trade in climate policy. Follow-up recommendation with regard to the Memorandum on Climate Policy, part 1. National measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this recommendation the option to introduce tradable emission permits for greenhouse gases in the Netherlands and Europe is discussed, as well as the conditions for a national experiment with this market tool. In it's advice on the 'Memorandum on Climate Policy, part 1' the Social and Economic Council (SER) declared itself in favor of the options that are offered by emission trade for a cost-effective climate policy. In this follow-up advice on the same Memorandum the SER discusses this new, market tool for climate policy in more detail

  14. Una Política Nacional de Ciudades Justas y Sustentables. / National Policy for Fair and Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Hales Dib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ponencia ante la Comisión Asesora Presidencial para una Política Nacional de Desarrollo Urbano(Chile, conteniendo Principios y Directrices de Acción para una “Política Nacional de Ciudades Justas y Sustentables”./Presentation to the Presidential Advisory Committee for a National Urban Development Policy (Chile, containing Principles and Guidelines for Action for a "National Policy Fair andSustainable Cities".

  15. Practical Policy Applications of Uncertainty Analysis for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, M.; Sussman, F.; Cohen, J.

    2007-01-01

    International policy makers and climate researchers use greenhouse gas emissions inventory estimates in a variety of ways. Because of the varied uses of the inventory data, as well as the high uncertainty surrounding some of the source category estimates, considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the causes and magnitude of uncertainty in national emissions inventories. In this paper, we focus on two aspects of the rationale for quantifying uncertainty: (1) the possible uses of the quantified uncertainty estimates for policy (e.g., as a means of adjusting inventories used to determine compliance with international commitments); and (2) the direct benefits of the process of investigating uncertainties in terms of improving inventory quality. We find that there are particular characteristics that an inventory uncertainty estimate should have if it is to be used for policy purposes: (1) it should be comparable across countries; (2) it should be relatively objective, or at least subject to review and verification; (3) it should not be subject to gaming by countries acting in their own self-interest; (4) it should be administratively feasible to estimate and use; (5) the quality of the uncertainty estimate should be high enough to warrant the additional compliance costs that its use in an adjustment factor may impose on countries; and (6) it should attempt to address all types of inventory uncertainty. Currently, inventory uncertainty estimates for national greenhouse gas inventories do not have these characteristics. For example, the information used to develop quantitative uncertainty estimates for national inventories is often based on expert judgments, which are, by definition, subjective rather than objective, and therefore difficult to review and compare. Further, the practical design of a potential factor to adjust inventory estimates using uncertainty estimates would require policy makers to (1) identify clear environmental goals; (2) define these

  16. How the global and national levels interrelate in climate policymaking: Foreign Policy Analysis and the case of Carbon Capture Storage in Norway's foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettereng, Jo-Kristian Straete

    2016-01-01

    States struggle to develop adequate climate change mitigation policies, especially when national energy interests conflict with collective environmental concerns. It is therefore crucial to understand how viable solutions may find political support on these terms. As one such case, this paper examines Norway's explicit foreign policy to promote Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) as a mitigation measure. I suggest that a Foreign Policy Analysis framework with a norm-centered constructivist focus allows for new insights into how climate policies function as balancing strategies between external normative pressures and important domestic concerns. It reveals how Norway's CCS policy represents an extraordinary effort to bridge seemingly contradictory agendas. The Norwegian CCS case highlights how a state may engage in innovative foreign political engineering to promote solutions to its international climate commitments on terms that fit national energy needs. It shows that climate political success may depend on successfully linking the international and domestic levels by simultaneously appealing to established norms within each system. - Highlights: • A Foreign Policy Analysis framework is used to explain foreign policy in the energy-climate domain. • Norway's external strategy to promote CCS globally is traced and explained. • Both external and domestic factors influenced Norway's CCS policymaking. • Both ideational and material factors were important to legitimize this strategy.

  17. [Consensus conferences in Israel--a collaborative model for national policy making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Orna; Oberlander, Shira; Siebzehner, Miri I

    2014-07-01

    The determination of an integrated national policy on controversial issues is a challenge for health systems worldwide. A common method to reach agreements for national policies in different countries throughout the world is group discussion that involves all stakeholders. A structured model of discussion on medical technologies started in the 1970s, mostly in North America, spreading to Europe and in the last decade also crossed borders to India, South America and Israel. Public discussion in the format of a consensus conference is a complex process that includes a thorough literature review for technology assessment, combining academic information using a technique of close consultation with experts, extensive panel discussion and dialogue with representatives of the public. At the end of the process a broad consensus is determined facilitating national-level policy implementation. The multiple factors involved, the issues addressed, the nature of the health system where the intended results will be applied, as well as political and social characteristics, produce variations among different countries. Therefore, this process requires flexibility in adjusting the classic model according to the awakening needs. The advantages of this method include encouraging the appropriate utilization of existing technologies, contemporary assessment by leading experts, aligning between all involved parties, public sharing and more. The initial model of the consensus conference was implemented in an orderly, systematic, structured process which allowed broad discussion, and many factors for thorough preparation. The disadvantages are its complexity, length and cost. In order to cope with the dynamics of the health system in israel, forcing policymakers to make decisions in real time, parts of the model were adjusted to address the issues arising in the system. Hence, a new process was developed--a derivative of the original Israeli model, with an emphasis on professional reviews

  18. Work stress and depressive symptoms in older employees: impact of national labour and social policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Wahrendorf, Morten; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-11-21

    Maintaining health and work ability among older employees is a primary target of national labour and social policies (NLSP) in Europe. Depression makes a significant contribution to early retirement, and chronic work-related stress is associated with elevated risks of depression. We test this latter association among older employees and explore to what extent indicators of distinct NLSP modify the association between work stress and depressive symptoms. We choose six indicators, classified in three categories: (1) investment in active labour market policies, (2) employment protection, (3) level of distributive justice. We use data from three longitudinal ageing studies (SHARE, HRS, ELSA) including 5650 men and women in 13 countries. Information on work stress (effort-reward imbalance, low work control) and depressive symptoms (CES-D, EURO-D) was obtained. Six NLSP indicators were selected from OECD databases. Associations of work stress (2004) with depressive symptoms (2006) and their modification by policy indicators were analysed using logistic multilevel models. Risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up is higher among those experiencing effort-reward imbalance (OR: 1.55 95% CI 1.27-1.89) and low control (OR: 1.46 95% CI 1.19-1.79) at work. Interaction terms indicate a modifying effect of a majority of protective NLSP indicators on the strength of associations of effort - reward imbalance with depressive symptoms. Work stress is associated with elevated risk of prospective depressive symptoms among older employees from 13 European countries. Protective labour and social policies modify the strength of these associations. If further supported findings may have important policy implications.

  19. Dilemmas in health promotion in Brazil: the National Policy under consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Traverso-Yépez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a recurrent theme in day-to-day life, health promotion is a complex and multifaceted concept. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the dilemmas and problematic aspects of institutional ideas about health promotion. It also emphasizes the difficulty of thinking about health promotion, without also considering how to eradicate the deep social iniquities of the Brazilian context. The article develops this line of thinking in depth by analysing the National Health Promotion Policy instituted in 2006, and demonstrates the relevance of deconstructing politically correct discourses and developing processes of reflection in our health-related practices.

  20. Response to ‘The National Planning Policy Framework and Archaeology: A Discussion’

    OpenAIRE

    Rosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The CPRE believes good land-use planning is the unsung hero of environmental protection and, as defined by the National Policy Planning Framework (NPPF), the environment includes the natural, built and historic environment, of which archaeology is a part. The historic environment cons of the NPPF have been set out in the article and, in terms of archaeology in particular, the move away from public and research benefits is a step back. But there are also positives that can be taken from the ch...

  1. Local consequences of national policies - a spatial analysis of preferences for forest access reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    to test whether peoples' preferences for restrictions in forest access is influenced by spatial heterogeneity in local forest presence and quality conditions. Combining survey data with GIS information we assess the size of local forest cover, distance to nearest forest and forest quality indicators...... in a radius of 2.5 km from respondent's residence. We demonstrate that a nationally framed policy implementing access reductions to protect wildlife may have heterogeneous welfare consequences which can be described by a general disutility for access reductions and dependency on local forest attributes...

  2. The rise and fall of Australian physical activity policy 1996 - 2006: a national review framed in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellew, Bill; Schöeppe, Stephanie; Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-07-31

    This paper provides an historical review of physical activity policy development in Australia for a period spanning a decade since the release of the US Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health in 1996 and including the 2004 WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Using our definition of 'HARDWIRED' policy criteria, this Australian review is compared with an international perspective of countries with established national physical activity policies and strategies (New Zealand, Canada, Brazil, Scotland, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Finland). Methods comprised a literature and policy review, audit of relevant web sites, document searches and surveys of international stakeholders. All these selected countries embraced multi-strategic policies and undertook monitoring of physical activity through national surveys. Few committed to policy of more than three years duration and none undertook systematic evaluation of national policy implementation. This Australian review highlights phases of innovation and leadership in physical activity-related policy, as well as periods of stagnation and decline; early efforts were amongst the best in the world but by the mid-point of this review (the year 2000), promising attempts towards development of a national intersectoral policy framework were thwarted by reforms in the Federal Sport and Recreation sector. Several well received reviews of evidence on good practices in physical activity and public health were produced in the period but leadership and resources were lacking to implement the policies and programs indicated. Latterly, widespread publicity and greatly increased public and political interest in chronic disease prevention, (especially in obesity and type 2 diabetes) have dominated the framework within which Australian policy deliberations have occurred. Finally, a national physical activity policy framework for the Health sector emerged, but not as a policy vision that was

  3. The educational theory underpinning a clinical workbook for VERT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, Heather; Matthews, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of VERT (Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training) into radiotherapy departments across England was in response to the National Radiotherapy Advisory Group's (NRAG) recommendation to the Department of Health that it may assist in enhancing the clinical learning experience of student radiotherapy radiographers. It was suggested that this may help to reduce the high attrition rate of students currently experienced, particularly in the first year of training. This paper investigates how VERT may be used in the clinical setting to develop the skills of students, in order to meet this vision. We argue that using an epistemological approach, i.e. using the theory of knowledge, to support the design of the learning resource, is key to enabling the educator to fulfil these expectations. We describe the design of a generic VERT workbook for use in the clinical departments that train students for the University of Hertfordshire. The use of educational theory to underpin the aims and inform the development of the workbook is examined. We then discuss the alignment of the workbook with the curriculum in order to enhance the students' learning experience and nurture their clinical competence. Finally, we will consider the teaching strategies used during the delivered sessions and discuss how we believe they will allow us to achieve these aims.

  4. Competing Roles of the National Language and English in Malaysia and the Philippines: Planning, Policy and Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Perlas Dumanig

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of language planning and language policy in the competing roles of the national language and English in the educational system of Malaysia and the Philippines. These countries have emphasised the national language (i.e. Malay in Malaysia and Filipino in the Philippines to foster national unity, and the international language-English for global communication. Educational expansion as documented with globalisation has also repositioned the role of the English language. While English has become a necessary tool to increase competitiveness in the global market, calls to 'switch back' or 'retain' the national language to instil a sense of national unity has also been equally advocated. Although planning and policy may have specific objectives, these may not be reflected in actual language use. The findings of this study reveal the social reality of contrasting language planning and policy initiatives in Malaysia and the Philippines and the actual use of these languages.

  5. Sub-national entities’ participation in Brazil’s foreign policy and in regional integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ventura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how sub-national entities’ gradual participation in Brazilian foreign policy has come about, with reference to a decentralised scenario of the decision-making process in Itamaraty, where the ministries and presidential organs have a voice on many strategic themes, mainly concerning development. The article examines the insertion of sub-national entities into the decision-making process in the Southern Common Market (Mercosur, and concludes that in spite of the incipient participation, relevant contributions to the process of regional integration have arisen. Regarding the hypothesis that the participation of the federative entities in the decision-making process generates local and regional development, we argue that this is an alternative to increasing state efficiency. In conclusion, and despite the incipient institutionalisation that does not guarantee their vote in the decision-making process, at least their voice is heard.

  6. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Uehleke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats.

  7. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes...... regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. RESULTS: This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have...... a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine...

  8. International heat pump status and policy review 1993-1996. Part 2. National Position Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breembroek, G.; Lazaro, F.

    1999-07-01

    Four years after the publication of the International heat pump status and policy review, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump Centre set out to compile an update of this study. The update reviews developments in the years 1993-96 and provides an outlook on future developments. Where available it includes data on 1997 as well. In 1997, roughly 90 million heat pumps were in operation worldwide (55 million in 1992). The main objective of the update of the International heat pump status and policy review is to provide an assessment of basic factors affecting heat pumps, policy measures regarding heat pumps, the status of various heat pump technologies and the current and expected penetration of heat pumps in all marker sectors. The analysis is based on a survey of the heat pump situation in 18 countries: Austria, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA. In part one, for which a separate abstract has been prepared, the information from all these countries is brought together, compared and analysed. The information is gathered from detailed reviews of the situations in the individual countries, the so-called National Position Papers, which can be found in this volume (part two) of the report. The reports reveal that overall the heat pump market showed a favourable development in the years 1993-96

  9. Good governance in national solid waste management policy (NSWMP) implementation: A case study of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Seow Ta; Abas, Muhamad Azahar; Mohamed, Sulzakimin; Chen, Goh Kai; Zainal, Rozlin

    2017-10-01

    The National Solid Waste Management Policy (NSWMP) was introduced in 2007 under the Act 672. The execution of NSWMP involves stakeholders from various government agencies and a collaboration with the private sectors. Despite the initiatives taken by the stakeholders, the objectives of NSWMP failed to materialise. One of the major constraints is weak governance among stakeholders with regards to the NSWMP implementation. This paper will explore the good governance practices implemented by the stakeholders. Identifying the current good governance practices implemented by the stakeholders is crucial as it will serve as a guideline to improve good governance practice in the future. An exploratory research approach is applied in this study through in-depth interviews with several government agencies and concessionaires involved in the NSWMP implementation. A total of six respondents took part in this study. The findings of this study show that there are several good governance practices implemented in policy promotion, participation of stakeholders, and capacity enhancement programme for the staff. This study also proposed some points on good governance practices in the context of policy promotion and staff development. A paradigm shift by the stakeholders is imperative so as to enhance the good governance practice in NSWMP implementation towards an efficient solid waste management in Malaysia.

  10. The European Union Arctic Policy and National Interests of France and Germany: Internal and External Policy Coherence at Stake?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cecile; Rodon, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Coherence, a fundamental principle of European Union (EU) foreign policy remains a challenge for the EU. For example, the development of an EU Arctic policy raises both internal and external challenges as two non-Arctic member states, France and Germany, move to establish their own Arctic policies...... coordination and a clearer vision of its role in order to position itself as an effective foreign-policy stakeholder in the Arctic, in particular when new powerful actors like Asian states enter the geopolitics and geo-economics of the Arctic....

  11. Eyes to See: The Foothold of Jihadi Underpinnings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Jr, John M

    2007-01-01

    .... These underpinnings are well-established and rigorously authenticated precepts that serve as a foothold for Jihadi conduct, making Islam a ready-made ideology that suits the Jihadis' insatiable goals...

  12. Teenagers' licensing decisions and their views of licensing policies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2011-08-01

    One objective was to determine teenage licensing rates on a national basis, interest in early licensure, and reasons for delay. A second objective was to learn teenagers' opinions about licensing policies, important in states considering ways to upgrade their current licensing systems. One thousand three hundred eighty-three 15- to 18-year-olds completed an online survey in November 2010. They were drawn from a nationally representative panel of US households recruited using probability-based sampling. The panel included cell phone-only households, and Internet access was provided to those without it. Weighting procedures were applied so that the study population represented the national US population of 15- to 18-year-olds. Most teens said that they were interested in getting a license as soon as legally possible, but many had not started the process. At 16, teens were about equally divided among those who had not started, those in the learner stage, and those with a restricted or full license. At 18, 62 percent had full licenses; 22 percent had not started. For those old enough to start, lack of a car, costs, parent availability, ability to get around without a car, and being busy with other activities were leading reasons for delay. The majority of teens were not in favor of higher licensing ages. Forty-six percent thought the minimum learner age should be 16; 30 percent thought the full license age should be 18 or older. The majority approved of night (78%) and passenger (57%) restrictions, and 85 and 93 percent endorsed cell phone and texting bans, respectively. When these policies were packaged together in a single law that included an age 16 start, night, passenger, cell phone and texting bans, and a full license at age 18, 74 percent of teens were in favor. Teenagers are not as supportive of strong licensing policies as parents of teens, but there is evidence that they will support comprehensive policies likely to lead to further reductions in teen crash

  13. Resource, capital, and labor requirements of the National Energy Policy Plan: 1980 to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Acierno, J.; Beller, M.; Lamontagne, J.

    1982-08-01

    Recent prominent forecasts of future energy supply include a major role for technologies that will require substantial capital, labor, and material inputs. This report defines the direct resource requirements for the scenarios presented in the National Energy Policy Plan (NEPP), and attempts to identify potential resource constraints. The Energy Supply Planning Model (ESPM) was utilized to derive resource requirements based on energy demand, supply, and price projections under the National Energy Policy Plan. Detailed requirements for capital, person-power, materials, equipment, and land and water resources are identified on an annual basis to the year 2000. Although no obvious resource constraints were identified based directly on requirements for energy facilities, the scope of the study did not allow for consideration of activities in other areas (e.g., defense) which, when coupled with energy facility requirements, might create critical shortages in some areas (e.g., engineering labor). Also, manufacturing capability for certain specialized equipment items (e.g., large pressure vessels) which might impose limits were not explicitly considered in this analysis.

  14. Long-term forecasting of international relations as strategic planning of national security policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Podberezkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary transformation and chaos in international relations reduce its predictability, which must be compensated by strengthening the normative content of its analysis that is in fact strategic planning. The deepening of international relations in recent years allows one to make a pessimistic conclusion about the most likely and dangerous scenario for the development of international relations - «the strengthening of military power struggles among the major local human civilizations» and they represent a militarypolitical coalitions and power centers. It should be noted that an effective tool for the implementation of this confrontation is the system of military and civilian instruments used to provide comprehensive multi-factor and multi-dimensional effect on an object. Today, the most striking example of such an integrated infl uence policy is the new public diplomacy. For implementation of such an integrated approach Russia needs to reform the system of national security to include in it not only the traditional enforcement agencies, but also the organizations of business and civil society, as well as to improve coordination between its individual parts. However, the implementation of such a reform is impossible without national ideology that forms the regulatory priorities of national development and national security

  15. How do external donors influence national health policy processes? Experiences of domestic policy actors in Cambodia and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Meghani, Ankita; Liverani, Marco; Roychowdhury, Imara; Parkhurst, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Although concerns have historically been raised about the influence of external donors on health policy process in recipient countries, remarkably few studies have investigated perspectives and experiences of domestic policymakers and advisers. This study examines donor influence at different stages of the health policy process (priority setting, policy formulation, policy implementation and monitoring and evaluation) in two aid-dependent LMICs, Cambodia and Pakistan. It identifies mechanisms through which asymmetries in influence between donors and domestic policy actors emerge. We conducted 24 key informant interviews-14 in Pakistan and 10 in Cambodia-with high-level decision-makers who inform or authorize health priority setting, allocate resources and/or are responsible for policy implementation, identifying three routes of influence: financial resources, technical expertise and indirect financial and political incentives. We used both inductive and deductive approaches to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that different routes of influence emerged depending on the stage of the policy process. Control of financial resources was the most commonly identified route by which donors influenced priority setting and policy implementation. Greater (perceived) technical expertise played an important role in donor influence at the policy formulation stage. Donors' power in influencing decisions, particularly during the final (monitoring and evaluation) stage of the policy process, was mediated by their ability to control indirect financial and political incentives as well as direct control of financial resources. This study thus helps unpack the nuances of donor influence over health policymaking in these settings, and can potentially indicate areas that require attention to increase the ownership of domestic actors of their countries' health policy processes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of

  16. Clearing the air: improving smoke-free policy compliance at the national oncology hospital in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Harutyunyan, Arusyak; Petrosyan, Diana; Stillman, Frances

    2014-12-13

    Smoke-free policies shown to reduce population exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) are the norm in hospitals in many countries around the world. Armenia, a transition economy in the South Caucasus, has one of the highest male smoking rates in the European region. Although smoking in healthcare facilities has been banned since 2005, compliance with this ban has been poor due to lack of implementation and enforcement mechanisms and social acceptability of smoking. The study aimed to develop and test a model intervention to address the lack of compliance with the de jure smoking ban. The national oncology hospital was chosen as the intervention site. This study used employee surveys and objective measurements of respirable particles (PM2.5) and air nicotine as markers of indoor air pollution before and after the intervention. The intervention developed in partnership with the hospital staff included an awareness campaign on SHS hazards, creation of no-smoking environment and building institutional capacity through training of nursing personnel on basics of tobacco control. The survey analysis included paired t-test and McNemar's test. The log-transformed air nicotine and PM2.5 data were analyzed using paired t-test. The survey showed significant improvement in the perceived quality of indoor air, reduced worksite exposure to SHS and increased employees' awareness of the smoke-free policy. The number of employees reporting compliance with the hospital smoke-free policy increased from 36.0% to 71.9% (p Armenia that have failed to implement the adopted smoke-free policies.

  17. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  18. National health financing policy in Eritrea: a survey of preliminary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 58th World Health Assembly and 56th WHO Regional Committee for Africa adopted resolutions urging Member States to ensure that health financing systems included a method for prepayment to foster financial risk sharing among the population and avoid catastrophic health-care expenditure. The Regional Committee asked countries to strengthen or develop comprehensive health financing policies. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted among senior staff of selected Eritrean ministries and agencies to elicit views on some of the elements likely to be part of a national health financing policy. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent to 19 senior staff (Directors in the Ministry of Health, Labour Department, Civil Service Administration, Eritrean Confederation of Workers, National Insurance Corporation of Eritrea and Ministry of Local Government. The respondents were selected by the Ministry of Health as key informants. Results The key findings were as follows: the response rate was 84.2% (16/19; 37.5% (6/16 and 18.8% said that the vision of Eritrean National Health Financing Policy (NHFP should include the phrases ‘equitable and accessible quality health services’ and ‘improve efficiency or reduce waste’ respectively; over 68% indicated that NHFP should include securing adequate funding, ensuring efficiency, ensuring equitable financial access, protection from financial catastrophe, and ensuring provider payment mechanisms create positive incentives to service providers; over 80% mentioned community participation, efficiency, transparency, country ownership, equity in access, and evidence-based decision making as core values of NHFP; over 62.5% confirmed that NHFP components should consist of stewardship (oversight, revenue collection, revenue pooling and risk management, resource allocation and purchasing of health services, health economics research, and development of

  19. Reactions to smoke-free public policies and smoke-free home policies in the Republic of Georgia: results from a 2014 national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Topuridze, Marina; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Shishniashvili, Maia; Kegler, Michelle C

    2016-05-01

    We examined receptivity to public smoke-free policies and smoke-free home status among adults in the Republic of Georgia. In Spring 2014, we conducted a national household survey of 1163 adults. Our sample was on average 42.4 years old, 51.1 % male, and 43.2 % urban. Current smoking prevalence was 54.2 % in men and 6.5 % in women. Notably, 42.2 % reported daily secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe). Past week SHSe was 29.9 % in indoor public places and 33.0 % in outdoor public places. The majority reported no opposition to public smoke-free policies. Correlates of greater receptivity to public policies included being older, female, and a nonsmoker. Past week SHSe in homes was 54.2 %; 38.8 % reported daily SHSe at home. Only 14.3 % reported complete smoke-free home policies; 39.0 % had partial policies. The only correlate of allowing smoking in the home was being a smoker. Among smokers, correlates of allowing smoking in the home were being male and lower confidence in quitting. SHSe is prevalent in various settings in Georgia, requiring efforts to promote support for public smoke-free policies and implementation of personal policies.

  20. A national public health programme on gambling policy development in New Zealand: insights from a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Landon, Jason; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2018-03-06

    In New Zealand, a public health programme on gambling policy development is part of a national gambling harm reduction and prevention strategy mandated by the Gambling Act 2003. Funded by the Ministry of Health, the programme directs workplace/organisational gambling policies, non-gambling fundraising policies, and local council policies on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). We carried out a process evaluation of this programme to identify practical information (e.g. advocacy approaches; challenges and ameliorating strategies) that can be used by programme planners and implementers to reinforce programme effectiveness and serve to guide similar policy-focused public health initiatives elsewhere. Evaluation criteria, based on the programme's official service specifications, guided our evaluation questions, analysis and reporting. To identify informative aspects of programme delivery, we thematically analysed over 100 six-monthly implementer progress reports (representing 3 years of programme delivery) and transcript of a focus group with public health staff. Identified output-related themes included purposeful awareness raising to build understanding about gambling harms and the need for harm-reduction policies and stakeholder relationship development. Outcome-related themes included enhanced community awareness about gambling harms, community involvement in policy development, some workplace/organisational policy development, and some influences on council EGM policies. Non-gambling fundraising policy development was not common. The programme offers an unprecedented gambling harm reduction approach. Although complex (due to its three distinct policy focus areas targeting different sectors) and challenging (due to the extensive time and resources needed to develop relationships and overcome counteractive views), the programme resulted in some policy development. Encouraging workplace/organisational policy development requires increased awareness of costs to

  1. The Kenyan national response to internationally agreed sexual and reproductive health and rights goals: a case study of three policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronje, Rose N

    2013-11-01

    While priorities for, and decision-making processes on, sexual and reproductive health and rights have been determined and led mainly at the international level, conflicting power dynamics and responses at the national level in some countries have continued to pose challenges for operationalising international agreements. This paper demonstrates how these conflicts have played out in Kenya through an analysis of three policy-making processes, which led to the Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Policy (2003), the Sexual Offences Act (2006), and the National Reproductive Health Policy (2007). The paper is based on data from a broader study on the drivers and inhibitors of sexual and reproductive health policy reform in Kenya, using a qualitative, case study design. Information was gathered through 54 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with governmental and civil society policy actors and an extensive review of policy documents and media reports. The paper shows that the transformative human rights framing of access to sexual and reproductive health, supported by both a strong global women's rights movement and progressive governmental and inter-governmental actors to defeat opposition to sexual and reproductive health and rights at the international level, has not been as influential or successful at the national level in Kenya, and has made comprehensive national reforms difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The case of national health promotion policy in Australia: where to now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A; Crawford, Gemma; Signal, Louise

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Over the last three decades there has been an incremental investment in health promotion and prevention across Australia; yet, the Commonwealth Government and some state/territory governments have more recently instigated funding cuts in health promotion and prevention. This paper argues that the role of health promotion is critical in contemporary Australia and discusses strategies needed to move forward within the context of recent disinvestments. Discussion Key areas of concern relating to recent health promotion and prevention disinvestment in Australia include the abolishment of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency, the cessation of the National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health and significant cuts to Indigenous programs. These changes pose a significant threat to the health, economic and social well being of Australians and the region, particularly those that are most vulnerable. Conclusions Future health promotion and prevention efforts will require strategic leadership and action to enhance the promotion of health equity in Australia over the coming decades. We call on governments to (re)invest in health promotion and prevention both in and outside the health sector so that health promotion professionals can continue their advocacy efforts aimed at articulating their professional place in improving population health. So what? Recent changes to national health promotion and prevention policy are detrimental to the health and well being of the Australian population, particularly those most vulnerable. Sound planning to revitalise and refocus health promotion action in Australia is urgently required.

  3. An analysis of policy success and failure in formal evaluations of Australia's national mental health strategy (1992-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Francesca C; Meurk, Carla S; Head, Brian W; Hall, Wayne D; Harris, Meredith G; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2017-05-30

    Heightened fiscal constraints, increases in the chronic disease burden and in consumer expectations are among several factors contributing to the global interest in evidence-informed health policy. The present article builds on previous work that explored how the Australian Federal Government applied five instruments of policy, or policy levers, to implement a series of reforms under the Australian National Mental Health Strategy (NMHS). The present article draws on theoretical insights from political science to analyse the relative successes and failures of these levers, as portrayed in formal government evaluations of the NMHS. Documentary analysis of six evaluation documents corresponding to three National Mental Health Plans was undertaken. Both the content and approach of these government-funded, independently conducted evaluations were appraised. An overall improvement was apparent in the development and application of policy levers over time. However, this finding should be interpreted with caution due to variations in evaluation approach according to Plan and policy lever. Tabulated summaries of the success and failure of each policy initiative, ordered by lever type, are provided to establish a resource that could be consulted for future policy-making. This analysis highlights the complexities of health service reform and underscores the limitations of narrowly focused empirical approaches. A theoretical framework is provided that could inform the evaluation and targeted selection of appropriate policy levers in mental health.

  4. An evaluation of the quality of evidence available to inform current bone conducting hearing device national policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, R; Carter, A W; Haram, N; Mossialos, E; Schilder, A G M

    2017-10-01

    In 2016, NHS England published the commissioning policy on Bone Conducting Hearing Devices (BCHDs). This policy was informed by updated evidence on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of BCHDs as well as by the 2013 Bone Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) policy. Commissioning policies set the criteria for service delivery and therefore have a major impact on the care received by patients. It is important that stakeholders have a good appreciation of the available evidence informing policy, as this will promote engagement both with the policy and with future research leading on from the policy. In this article, we provide stakeholders with a transparent and pragmatic assessment of the quality of the body of evidence available to inform current BCHD national policy. (i) A systematic review of the literature on BCHDs published since the development of the 2013 policy was performed in September 2016, adhering to PRISMA recommendations. The search terms used were as follows bone conduction; bone conducting; bone anchor; BAHA; Bone Anchored Hearing Aid; Bone Conducting Hearing Device; BCHD; Bone Conducting Hearing Implant; BCHI; Sophono; Bonebridge; Soundbite; Ponto; Hearing aid; implant; device; hearing device. Publications that could inform current BCHD policy were included. The quality of included articles was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. (ii) The quality of evidence referenced by the 2013 BAHA policy was assessed using the GRADE system. (i) Of the 2576 publications on BCHDs identified by the systematic search, 39 met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Using the GRADE criteria, the quality of evidence was classified as of 'very low quality'. (ii) The 2013 BAHA policy was informed by 14 references. The GRADE system classifies the quality of evidence that informed the policy as of 'very low quality'. The GRADE system defines the body of evidence available to inform current national BCHD policy

  5. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Tuija; Hankonen, Nelli; Korkiakangas, Eveliina; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana

    2017-08-02

    Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT) Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such "retrofitting" of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) approach for this purpose. We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6). Policy recommendations targeting employees' nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB) were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively), whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%). Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence) were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46%) and changing the physical environment (44%) were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%). The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying assumptions regarding behavioural change processes may help to

  6. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Seppälä

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such “retrofitting” of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW approach for this purpose. Method We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6. Policy recommendations targeting employees’ nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. Results A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively, whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%. Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46% and changing the physical environment (44% were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%. Conclusions The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying

  7. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levy

    Full Text Available Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have.The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66% relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000 deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%, and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted.Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a set of stricter policies could further reduce

  8. Is the Monolingual Nation-State Out-of-Date? A Comparative Study of Language Policies in Australia and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolicz, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses language policy in the multilingual settings of Australia and the Philippines. Examines language policies, language curricula, government initiatives, language attitudes, and cultural maintenance in Australia. Studies language policies, national language development attempts, bilingual policies, viability of minority languages,…

  9. IMPACTS, PATTERNS, INFLUENCING FACTORS AND POLICIES OF FUELWOOD EXTRACTION IN WAY KAMBAS NATIONAL PARK, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Rakatama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled fuelwood extraction from conservation forest of Way Kambas National Park (WKNP could threaten the existing forest. This paper studies the way to tackle the forest degradation in WKNP, with less negative impacts to the local people. Study was conducted by analysing existing data and maps of WKNP in terms of forest degradation, forest inventories, current policies, survey on how fuelwood is extracted, observation on fuelwood gatherers, fuelwood demand, and identification of further policy options. Results show that the most significant factors influencing the fuelwood extraction activity in WKNP are land ownership, followed by the distance to forest area, income level, the number of household members and age of household head. In the field, the fuelwood utilization is allowed by WKNP Authority, although it is formally forbidden.It was stated that fuelwood extraction in the area should be less than 2.89 ton/ha/year to maintain its sustainability, based on the mean WNKP forest tree annual increment. The fact shows that fuelwood extraction in WKNP reduces of forest biomass stock (1.06 tons/ha/year and decreases species diversity index (from 3.05 to 2.45, species evenness index (from 1.06 to 0.91 and old-young tree ratio (from 1.29 to 1. Ecosystem quality reduction is mainly caused by destructive techniques in extracting fuelwood such as slashing, scratching cambium, and cutting trees. Therefore, recommended policy includes legalizing fuelwood extraction with restrictions, providing alternative fuelwood and other biomass energy resources outside WKNP, conducting preventive (establishing checkpoints and increasing patrols and pre-emptive (educating and campaigning efforts, collaborating with other stakeholders, and empowering local economy.

  10. Cleaner Production Practices, Environmental Management and National Policy Development in Malaysia for Electroplating Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2004-01-01

    figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention towards......Cleaner technologies (CT) have been introduced into the Malaysian Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) sector primarily by foreign donor supported project interventions. The establishment of the Environmental and Energy Technology Centre at SIRIM was funded by a grant from the Danish Co......-operation for Environment and Development (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. SMEs were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen, presenting...

  11. Tensions between Scottish National Policies for onshore wind energy and local dissatisfaction - insights from regulation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhill, Karen [School of Psychology, Tower Building, Cardiff University, Cardiff, (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Although best described as a meta theory addressing the endurance of capitalism, regulation theory can successfully be used to explore not only the economic dimensions, but also the political, socio-cultural and environmental dimensions of particular developmental strategies. Thus, it offers a framework for embedding abstract debates about social attitudes to new technologies within debates about real regulation - the economic, social and cultural relationships operating through particular places. This paper uses regulation theory and qualitative, interview-based data to analyse Scotland's drive for onshore wind energy. This approach teases out how responses to wind farms are bound up with wider debates about how rural spaces are, and should be, regulated; the tensions within and between national political objectives, local political objectives and local communities' dissatisfaction; and the connections between local actors and more formal dimensions of renewable energy policy. (Author)

  12. The National Institute of Public Health: Shaping Public Policy to Advance Population Health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magaña-Valladares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican School of Public Health was founded in 1922 by the Mexican government and was the first school of public health in Latin America. It has become one of the largest public health institutions in the developing world and is the leading institution for teaching, research and service to improve public health in Mexico and Latin America. The Institute is an important player in shaping public policy in Mexico through its mission-oriented research. Through its research initiatives, the Institute has influenced policies regarding tobacco, obesity, milk and flour fortification, malaria, cancer, environmental health, and other public health priority areas. The Institute responds to changing health workforce training needs. It currently offers 28 competency-based graduate degree programs and trains annually more than 10,000 in-service public health workers through continuing education courses. The Institute offers multiple educational formats to accomplish its mission, including face-to-face, virtual, and blended learning. It has been accredited by both national and international agencies and collaborates closely with international institutions. The Institute contributes to global health by promoting health equity, strengthening health systems, and generating evidence-based strategies to improve population health in Mexico, the Americas, and around the world.

  13. Policy implications of complementary and alternative medicine use in Australia: data from the National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Jean; Hollingsworth, Bruce

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the drivers of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in the general population in Australia and to identify key policy implications. The National Health Survey 2007/2008, a representative survey of the Australian population, provides information on CAM use (practitioners and products) in the last 12 months. All adult respondents (N=15,779) aged 18 years or older are included in this study. Logistic regression is employed to determine the effect of socio-economic, condition-specific, health behavior variables, and private health insurance status on CAM use. In addition to socio-economic variables known to affect CAM use, individuals who have a chronic condition, particularly a mental health condition, are more likely to use CAM. There does not appear to be a correlation between CAM use and more frequent General Practitioner use; however, ancillary private health insurance is correlated with a greater likelihood of CAM use, as expected. The Australian government does not currently intervene in the CAM market in a systematic way. CAM is clearly considered to be a legitimate and important component of health care for many Australians, despite the limited availability of clinical evidence for its efficacy and safety. Policy interventions may include the regulation of CAM products, practitioners, and information as well as providing subsidies for cost-effective modalities.

  14. Markets, modernisation and national interest: three faces of patient choice policy in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin; Hughes, David; Yıldırım, Türkan

    2011-03-01

    This article discusses three faces of patient choice policy in a developing country, Turkey. As part of its wider health transformation programme (HTP), Turkey has created a purchaser/provider system in which a single public purchaser channels funding to a range of public and private hospitals, and patients--in theory at least--are given significant freedoms to choose their hospital and physician. At the same time, marketisation has been softened by an emphasis on the creation of 'human-centred' services, resulting in a variety of initiatives to enhance patient rights and using a similar rhetoric to that employed in modernising 'third-way' reforms in countries such as the United Kingdom. We argue that neither markets nor modernisation fully explain the specifics of Turkish choice policy, which is also driven by the strong political imperative arising from Turkey's proximity to the European Union and its accession ambitions. Europeanisation represents an approach to markets softened by social solidarity, and gives the Turkish reforms a very different profile from neo-liberal reforms implemented in other middle income countries. However, in practice, medical workforce shortages, the uneven distribution of resources across the nation, and the lack of systematic information on provider outcomes limit the scope of choice for much of the population. In this situation, a planned allocation of resources to support equity of provision has advantages over a system where resource flows to providers are determined by individual patient choices. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Greek National Security Concerns and the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: Consensus or Divergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Theodore A. Couloumbis et al. (New York: Pella Publishing Co., 1976). 12 In a similar manner, Constantine Stephanopoulos asserted that: “National aims... Stephanopoulos , “Issues of Greek Foreign Policy,” in The Greek Paradox- Promise vs. Prerformance, ed. Graham T. Allison and Kalypso Nikolaidis...Opportunities. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2010. Stephanopoulos , Constantine. “Issues of Greek Foreign Policy.” In The Greek Paradox

  16. Responding to the challenge of antimalarial drug resistance by routine monitoring to update national malaria treatment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Lasse S; Ringwald, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Reduced sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to formerly recommended cheap and well-known antimalarial drugs places an increasing burden on malaria control programs and national health systems in endemic countries. The high costs of the new artemisinin-based combination treatments underline the use...... of rational and updated malaria treatment policies, but defining and updating such policies requires a sufficient volume of high-quality drug-resistance data collected at national and regional levels. Three main tools are used for drug resistance monitoring, including therapeutic efficacy tests, in vitro...... tests, and analyses of molecular markers. Data obtained with the therapeutic efficacy test conducted according to the standard protocol of the World Health Organization are most useful for updating national treatment policies, while the in vitro test and molecular markers can provide important...

  17. Lake Mead National Recreational Area air tour management plan and planning and National Environmental Policy Act scoping document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-19

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), in cooperation with the National Park Service (NPS), has initiated the development of an Air Tour Management Plan (ATMP) for Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LAME) pursuant to the National Parks Air Tour ...

  18. Racial, Ethnic, or National Minority? Legal Discourses and Policy Frameworks on the Roma in Hungary and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras L. Pap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by recent Hungarian legislative developments that, in reference to the Roma minority, exchanged the term “ethnic minority” with “nationality”, by providing a detailed case study of the development and morphology of policy measures and frameworks in Hungary, the article provides a general assessment of the relationship between policy instruments and terminology: that is, definitions and conceptualizations in international and domestic legal and policy documents for minority groups. The author argues that while terminology in itself is not a reliable signifier for policy frameworks, it may reveal contradictory group conceptualization and inconsistent policy-making. In regards to the Roma, the author claims that the inconsistent labelling as an ethnic, racial and national minority reflects the lack of consistent conceptualization of who the Roma are, and what should be done with them.

  19. The National Planning Policy Framework and Archaeology: A Response – How did the Profession come to this?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hinton

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition of planning policy for archaeology and the historic environment in England from Planning Policy Guidance note 16 (PPG 16 to the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF via Planning Policy Statement 5 (PPS5 is an important one. It mirrors in some ways the development of the commercial branch of archaeology, and of its professional institute, the Institute for Archaeologists (IfA. In this response I do not seek to reprise or challenge the key policy changes, magisterially summarised by Flatman and Perring, but to explore what they mean and have meant for the sector, how the discipline reacted (or should have reacted, and what it all means for professionalism.

  20. A review of management of infertility in Nigeria: framing the ethics of a national health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinloye O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Oluyemi Akinloye1,2, Ernest J Truter21Department of Chemical Pathology, Reproductive and Molecular Endocrinology Unit, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Wellness Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville Campus, Cape Town, South AfricaAbstract: Infertility has recently been construed to be a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem seems to be viewed as of low priority with reference to the effective and efficient allocation of available health resources by national governments as well as by international donors sponsoring either research or service delivery in the public health sector. In this paper the problem of infertility in Nigeria is surveyed with a view to assessing the ethical dimension of proposals to manage infertility as a public sector priority in health care delivery. The population/individual and public/private distinction in the formulation of health policy has ethical implications that cannot simply be ignored and are therefore engaged in critically assessing the problem of infertility. Cost–utility analysis (such as Quality Adjusted Life-Year composite index in the management of infertility in Nigeria entails the need for caution relevant to the country's efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals. This should remain the case whether the ethical evaluation appeals to utilitarian or contractarian (Rawlsian principles. The "worst off" category of Nigerians includes (1 underweight children less than 5 years of age, with special concern for infants (0–1 years of age and (2 the proportion of the population below a minimum level of dietary consumption. The Rawlsian ethic implies that any Federal Ministry of Health policy aimed at establishing public programs for infertility management can be considered a "fair" allocation and expenditure if, and only if, the situation for

  1. Policy Guidelines for Effective Inclusion and Reintegration of People with Chronic Diseases in the Workplace: National and European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Roka, Olga; Vasilou, Evdokia; Papadimitriou, Dimitra; Scaratti, Chiara; Kadyrbaeva, Asel; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Brecelj, Valentina; Svestkova, Olga; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Finnvold, Jon Erik; Gruber, Sonja; Leonardi, Matilde

    2018-03-11

    The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers) from seven European countries. Additionally, 20 European organizations concerned with health-related issues and employment completed an online survey. The findings reveal that employment-related challenges remain largely unaddressed. Both national and European stakeholders considered the existing legislative frameworks inadequate and appraised the co-ordination for the implementation of employment re-integration policies as ineffective. Policies targeting at work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases at European and national level should focus on consistent cooperation among all key stakeholders, awareness raising to staff and management, dissemination of effective strategies, developing research and evaluation standards and establishing monitoring systems on inclusive labour markets.

  2. Policy Guidelines for Effective Inclusion and Reintegration of People with Chronic Diseases in the Workplace: National and European Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Vlachou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers from seven European countries. Additionally, 20 European organizations concerned with health-related issues and employment completed an online survey. The findings reveal that employment-related challenges remain largely unaddressed. Both national and European stakeholders considered the existing legislative frameworks inadequate and appraised the co-ordination for the implementation of employment re-integration policies as ineffective. Policies targeting at work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases at European and national level should focus on consistent cooperation among all key stakeholders, awareness raising to staff and management, dissemination of effective strategies, developing research and evaluation standards and establishing monitoring systems on inclusive labour markets.

  3. Lessons learned and new challenges for integrated assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the first government-sponsored demands for integrated assessment to support decision making in the United States is embodied in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Over the past 25 years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supported federal agencies` in evaluating health and environmental impacts as required by NEPA. Many of ORNL`s efforts have focused on complex, programmatic assessments that break new ground and require and integrate expertise from a wide range of technical disciplines. Examples of ORNL projects that illustrate the use of integrated assessment approaches include environmental documentation for: (1) the Department of the Army`s Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, (2) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s licensing activities related to the Owens River Basin in eastern California and along a 500-mile reach of the upper Ohio River, and (3) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s decision regarding restart of the undamaged reactor (Unit 1) at Three Mile Island. Our discussion of these examples illustrates successful integrated assessment approaches and identifies new challenges facing integrated assessment activities.

  4. Nonattainment of national ambient air quality standards: implications for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.; Kotecki, R.; Senew, M.

    1979-10-01

    In accordance with the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, EPA established regulations governing new and existing sources of emissions in areas where the NAAQS are being exceeded. These requirements may constrain the implementation of a national energy policy to increase the use of coal in utilities and industries. The states designated the nonattainment areas and prepared State Implementation Plans, outlining strategies for attaining the standards by the deadline of December 31, 1982. This report contains maps of nonattainment areas for all pollutants and summaries of the attainment strategies for those pollutants most likely to affect fossil-fueled energy development - SO/sub 2/, TSP, and NO/sub x/. The review of SIPs indicates that attainment of SO/sub 2/ standards should be relatively easy. Attainment of TSP standards may be more difficult since point sources are already well controlled and further reductions in emissions will require controls on fugitive sources. NO/sub x/ nonattainment is currently limited to three small areas. The report also contains an examination of emission limitations in nonattainment areas and a national assessment of the potential constraints of nonattainment on energy development in 1985 to 1990. The assessment concludes that constraints on projected new coal-fired utilities should not be significant. Constraints on expanded industrial coal use from TSP nonattainment may be significant but the effects of SO/sub 2/ nonattainment should be limited.

  5. Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

    2004-01-01

    Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada.

  6. The Link between National Foreign Policy and the Performance of a Country in the European Union: The Polish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaminska

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the link between the adaptation of national executives and diplomats to the EU and the capacity of a state to influence EU foreign policy outcomes. It argues that, in the case of Poland, the politicization of the domestic administrative structures before 2004 constrained the ability of the state to impact on the EU’s external agenda after the enlargement. It also claims that a rapid adaptation to the EU occurred only after the Polish accession to the EU, as the will to influence the EU’s policy towards Eastern Europe was a main driver for changes in the national diplomacy.

  7. The Impact of the New Nationalism and Identity Politics on Cultural Policy-Making In Europe and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Fuelled by factors such as globalisation, European integration and migration, there is evidence of a resurgence of nationalism in Europe and beyond. This trend is being increasingly revitalised in national and regional cultural policy-making, often linked to a new focus on politics of national...... identity. At worst a future scenario of Europe might be an internationalization of nationalism which tends to colonize art, culture and "the whole way of life". To change this cultural lens requires a new narrative of Europe. It requires scientific cultural research, knowledge and insight, if the ghosts...

  8. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - Identifying Policy Translation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders' views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. In the study, interviewees referred to both 'hard and soft' elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main 'hard elements' include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The 'soft' elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years, amounting to a process best conceived as germination as opposed

  9. Frames in contestation: gendering domestic violence policies in five central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca Maria

    2014-07-01

    The article looks at the translation of international norms on domestic violence to the national level in five Central and Eastern European countries. It argues that translation brings a concept of domestic violence, which stretches gender equality ideas underpinning international norms so as to be easier to endorse by mainstream policy actors, and results in policies framed in degendered individual rights terms. The potential for keeping gender equality in focus is then guaranteed by gendering policy processes through empowerment of gender equality actors at all stages. Absence of ownership of the policy by gender equality actors risks co-optation by frames contesting gender equality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Application of theory-based evaluation for the critical analysis of national biofuel policy: A case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F N; Baharuddin, Azizan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-10-01

    Theory-based evaluation (TBE) is an effectiveness assessment technique that critically analyses the theory underlying an intervention. Whilst its use has been widely reported in the area of social programmes, it is less applied in the field of energy and climate change policy evaluations. This paper reports a recent study that has evaluated the effectiveness of the national biofuel policy (NBP) for the transport sector in Malaysia by adapting a TBE approach. Three evaluation criteria were derived from the official goals of the NBP, those are (i) improve sustainability and environmental friendliness, (ii) reduce fossil fuel dependency, and (iii) enhance stakeholders' welfare. The policy theory underlying the NBP has been reconstructed through critical examination of the policy and regulatory documents followed by a rigorous appraisal of the causal link within the policy theory through the application of scientific knowledge. This study has identified several weaknesses in the policy framework that may engender the policy to be ineffective. Experiences with the use of a TBE approach for policy evaluations are also shared in this report. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The establishment of nationalism as a state policy during the government of Col. Rafael Franco (1936 and 1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ramón Caballero Cáceres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new regime that emerged after 1936 introduced a nationalism that aimed to awaken national pride, a pride hurt, engendered in the defeat of the War against the Triple Alliance. This awakening was to return to the past to project into the future. This nationalist ideology used to the Nation as an instrument of political and historical awareness, setting up a new political landscape printed new life into Paraguayan politics. Nationalism implemented as State Policy had profound implications for the country and affected various areas of national life. The new regime established after the Revolution of 1936 adopted nationalism as State Policy, turning away from gravitating element in the political system. The adoption of nationalism involved a review of the national past, in order to claim figures of national history that had been humiliated and forgotten by the political model implemented in the country after the completion of the Triple Alliance War, from being considered from there, the governments of France and Charles A. Lopez, as role models, to consider their governments, as paradigms to mimic and allow the triumph of nationalist military political imaginary, that years later, will be transformed into Catholic and red.

  12. National and state policies influencing the care of children affected by AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, K M

    2000-04-01

    The portrait of HIV-affected children and youth that emerges from this policy overview is still one of children obscured from view by the shadow of their parents' and siblings' illness and policies that only address the needs of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, the secrecy and stigma that still surround HIV and AIDS make it difficult for HIV-affected children and youth to benefit as fully as they might from policies and programs that provide more generic types of care and assistance. Our failure as a nation to better illuminate the plight of HIV-affected children and youth can only leave us with a generation of children who are at greater risk of psychiatric illness, involvement with the criminal justice system, substance abuse, and contracting HIV. To avoid these consequences, both public and private sectors must place the spotlight on the development of new policies and programs designed to specifically meet their needs. Because the solutions defy traditional disciplinary and administrative boundaries, we also need to become more skilled at interagency planning and collaboration. No one system alone can be responsive to the many social, mental health, legal, and support needs of these children and their caretakers. More specifically, recommendations for improved systems of care to HIV-affected children, youth, and their families are as follows: To promote and fund cross-disciplinary initiatives among agencies that administer child welfare services, income supports, AIDS care, and children's mental health services at the national, state, and local levels to specifically meet the mental health, psychosocial, and permanency planning needs of HIV-affected children and youth. To provide training opportunities for Ryan White Title I, II, and III case managers on assessing the needs of HIV-affected children and youth, developmental theories and concepts, principles of family-centered care, and child welfare issues. To increase funding of the Ryan White CARE Act to

  13. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  14. Development policy for the Brazilian health industry and qualification of national public laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Silva, Hudson Pacifico da; Ibañez, Nelson; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana

    2016-11-03

    Technological innovations play a decisive role in societies' development by contributing to economic growth and the population's welfare. The state has a key role in this process by inducing innovative behavior, strategies, and decisions. This study addresses Brazil's current policy for development of the health industry and its effects on qualification of national public laboratories by contextualizing different cycles of interaction between health policy and the industrial base, discussing the government's development strategy and the transfer and absorption of health technology (through Industrial Development Partnerships), and presenting two current partnerships involving public laboratories in the production of medicines and vaccines. Resumo: As inovações tecnológicas jogam papel decisivo no processo de desenvolvimento das sociedades, visto que contribuem para gerar crescimento econômico e bem-estar da população. O Estado possui grande importância e centralidade nesse processo, pois pode induzir fortemente o comportamento, as estratégias e as decisões relativas à inovação. O presente artigo tem por objetivo investigar a atual política de desenvolvimento produtivo em saúde no Brasil e seus reflexos sobre a capacitação dos laboratórios públicos nacionais. Para essa finalidade, contextualiza os diferentes ciclos de interação entre a política de saúde e a sua base produtiva, discute a estratégia do governo brasileiro para o desenvolvimento, a transferência e a absorção de tecnologia na área da saúde (as parcerias para o desenvolvimento produtivo) e apresenta duas parcerias vigentes envolvendo laboratórios públicos para a produção de medicamentos e vacinas.

  15. Marxism and the Theoretical Underpinnings of the Bolshevic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has identified in Marxism, a useful political strength in an aggrieved masses, the unforgivable hatred of victims of capitalism for the system and an unwavering passion in an oppressed class for change, as some of the theoretical underpinnings behind all communist revolutions. This essay discusses Marxism while ...

  16. The Achievement Ideology and Top-Down National Standardized Exam Policy in Indonesia: Voices from Local English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Mukminin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to explore and describe the perspectives of local English teachers on the National Standardized Exam [NSE] policy as a high-stakes exam to gauge student performance nationally at four senior high schools in Jambi City, Indonesia. The theoretical framework of the ethics of critique, justice, and care was used to guide this study. Data for this study are collected through a demographic background survey and in-depth interviews with fifteen local English teachers. The demographic data were analyzed descriptively. The interviews data were analyzed using within-case and cross-case displays and analyses. Two salient themes with their subthemes that emerged were (1 negative perspectives on the practices and accuracy of the NSE policy and (2 unintended consequences the NSE policy (curriculum and instruction, teaching and learning, teacher motivation, student motivation, less attention to non-tested disciplines, and widespread cheating. This study provides information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. Policy implications are discussed

  17. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Harassment Policy in Jamaica: The Absence of a National Sexual Harassment Policy, and the Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    R. Peters; P.A. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    Within the Caribbean only countries such as Belize, Bahamas and Guyana have legitimized legislation against sexual harassment. Countries such as Jamaica, Barbados and St. Kitts and Nevis have draft bills before parliament. In the Jamaican context, the country in September 1981 signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which came into effect in 1984 which deals with the issue of sexual harassment under Articles 2 (Policy Measures and Legislat...

  18. Public opinion and medical cannabis policies: examining the role of underlying beliefs and national medical cannabis policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2015-01-01

    Background Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Methods Robust reg...

  19. FORMAL EDUCATION IN THE CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE, A STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND PRACTICE, PHASE 3--EDUCATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL POLICY IN SELECTED NEWLY DEVELOPING NATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HANNA, PAUL R.; LUCAS, GERARD

    FORMAL EDUCATION IN THE FORMER FRENCH COLONY, THE CONGO, WAS INVESTIGATED WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS UPON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY. TWO VERY SPECIFIC PROBLEMS WERE STUDIED--(1) THE TRANSFER OF FORMAL, FRENCH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS TO AN AFRICAN SETTING FOR THE PURPOSE OF PERFORMING NORMATIVE FUNCTIONS PRESCRIBED BY THE SOCIETY…

  20. Responding to the challenge of antimalarial drug resistance by routine monitoring to update national malaria treatment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Lasse S; Ringwald, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    additional information about changing patterns of resistance. However, some of the tests are technically demanding, and thus there is a need for more resources for training and capacity building in endemic countries to be able to adequately respond to the challenge of drug resistance....... of rational and updated malaria treatment policies, but defining and updating such policies requires a sufficient volume of high-quality drug-resistance data collected at national and regional levels. Three main tools are used for drug resistance monitoring, including therapeutic efficacy tests, in vitro...... tests, and analyses of molecular markers. Data obtained with the therapeutic efficacy test conducted according to the standard protocol of the World Health Organization are most useful for updating national treatment policies, while the in vitro test and molecular markers can provide important...

  1. Exploring Cross-National Changes in Instructional Practices: Evidence from Four Cycles of TIMSS. Policy Brief No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožman, Mojca; Klieme, Eckhard

    2017-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's (IEA's) Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) can reveal a great deal about national teaching cultures and policies. Changes in instructional practices over more than a decade may be studied from a cross-cultural perspective. Using teacher and…

  2. An Investigation of the National School Board Association Key Work Standards for Public Policy Leadership and School Board Chair Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, Roger C.

    2011-01-01

    This multiple case qualitative study addressed the National School Board Association's (NSBA) Key Work standards for public policy leadership by local school boards, and how three elite school board chairs understood and implemented those standards. Elite board chair status was defined by experience, training, and peer recognition. The study…

  3. Urban national parks in the global South: Linking management perceptions, policies and practices to water-related ecosystem services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brill, G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ): 185-195 Urban national parks in the global South: Linking management perceptions, policies and practices to water-related ecosystem services Brill G Anderson P O’Farrell PJ ABSTRACT: Protected areas have been the dominant means...

  4. Counting on Character: National Heritage Academies and Civic Education. AEI Program on American Citizenship. Policy Brief 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This policy brief is the second in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. This brief focuses on National Heritage Academies, a for-profit charter management company that runs 74 schools in Michigan and eight other states. NHA…

  5. The U.S. Forest Service and its responsibilities under the national environmental policy act: a work design problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Auer; Kenneth Richards; David N. Seesholtz; Burnell Fischer; Christian Freitag; Joshua. Grice

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service’s responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act entail a wide range of activities including scoping, scientific analysis, social and economic analysis, managing public input and involvement, media relations, regulatory analysis, and litigation. These myriad duties raise several important organizational and management questions....

  6. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the NASA GRC Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project located near Sandusky... at Plum Brook Station, which will enable NASA to meet the objectives of the Energy Policy Act of 2005...

  7. Decolonization, Educational Language Policy and Nation Building in Plural Societies: The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1950-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao

    2013-01-01

    The two decades from 1950 to 1970 were a crucial period of educational reorganization in Malaysia that stemmed from the decolonization after the Second World War. This educational reorganization sought to address the perennial issue of nation building via educational language policy. The development of Chinese education was under severe threat as…

  8. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  9. The Evolution of U.S. e-Learning Policy: A Content Analysis of the National Education Technology Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumell, Elizabeth Anne; Salajan, Florin Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to expand on existing reviews of 20 years of educational technology policy in the United States, to perform an empirical content analysis of the four National Education Technology Plan (NETP) documents issued by the Department of Education since 1996, and to provide a dialectic analysis of the evolution of…

  10. 75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “NEPA Mitigation and Monitoring.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... the environment and mandates that Federal agencies consider the environmental impacts of their... is usually completed with a ``Finding of No Significant Impact'' (FONSI) on the environment and a... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, ``NEPA...

  11. The National Nursing Assistant Survey: Improving the Evidence Base for Policy Initiatives to Strengthen the Certified Nursing Assistant Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, Marie R.; Remsburg, Robin E.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.; Bercovitz, Anita; Rosenoff, Emily; Han, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces the first National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a major advance in the data available about certified nursing assistants (CNAs) and a rich resource for evidence-based policy, practice, and applied research initiatives. We highlight potential uses of this new survey using select population estimates as examples of…

  12. Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Puig, Montse; García, Montse; Carabasa, Esther; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102). We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005) and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007) in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5) in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2) in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p 300 beds (41.1% increase; p policies (74.2% increase; p < 0.01). Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network. PMID:19473549

  13. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep F; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  14. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep F Schyns

    Full Text Available A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3; (iv blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  15. Informing National Food and Water Security Policy through Water Footprint Assessment: the Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Karandish

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Iran’s focus on food self-sufficiency has led to an emphasis on increasing water volumes available for irrigation with little attention to water use efficiency, and no attention at all to the role of consumption and trade. To better understand the development of water consumption in relation to food production, consumption, and trade, we carried out the first comprehensive water footprint assessment (WFA for Iran, for the period 1980–2010, and estimated the water saving per province associated with interprovincial and international crop trade. Based on the AquaCrop model, we estimated the green and blue water footprint (WF related to both the production and consumption of 26 crops, per year and on a daily basis, for 30 provinces of Iran. We find that, in the period 1980–2010, crop production increased by 175%, the total WF of crop production by 122%, and the blue WF by 20%. The national population grew by 92%, and the crop consumption per capita by 20%, resulting in a 130% increase in total food consumption and a 110% increase in the total WF of national crop consumption. In 2010, 26% of the total water consumption in the semi-arid region served the production of crops for export to other regions within Iran (mainly cereals or abroad (mainly fruits and nuts. Iran’s interprovincial virtual water trade grew by a factor of 1.6, which was mainly due to increased interprovincial trade in cereals, nuts, and fruits. Current Iranian food and water policy could be enriched by reducing the WFs of crop production to certain benchmark levels per crop and climatic region and aligning cropping patterns to spatial differences in water availability and productivities, and by paying due attention to the increasing food consumption per capita in Iran.

  16. Differences in national influenza vaccination policies across the European Union, Norway and Iceland 2008-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mereckiene, J

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the second cross-sectional web-based survey was undertaken by the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project across 27 European Union (EU) member states (MS), Norway and Iceland (n=29) to determine changes in official national seasonal influenza vaccination policies since a survey undertaken in 2008 and to compare the estimates of vaccination coverage between countries using data obtained from both surveys. Of 27 responding countries, all recommended vaccination against seasonal influenza to the older adult population. Six countries recommended vaccination of children aged between six months and <18 years old. Most countries recommended influenza vaccination for those individuals with chronic medical conditions. Recommendations for vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) in various settings existed in most, but not all countries. Staff in hospitals and long-term care facilities were recommended vaccination in 23 countries, and staff in out-patient clinics in 22 countries. In the 2009 survey, the reported national estimates on vaccine coverage varied by country and risk group, ranging from 1.1% - 82.6% for the older adult population; to between 32.9% -71.7% for clinical risk groups; and from 13.4% -89.4% for HCW. Many countries that recommend the influenza vaccination do not monitor the coverage in risk groups. In 2008 and 2009 most countries recommended influenza vaccination for the main risk groups. However, despite general consensus and recommendations for vaccination of high risk groups, many countries do not achieve high coverage in these groups. The reported vaccination coverage still needs to be improved in order to achieve EU and World Health Organization goals.

  17. National health surveys and health policy: impact of the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Surveys and the Reproductive Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T S; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Gordon-Strachan, G; Hamilton, P; Wilks, R J

    2012-07-01

    Over the last six decades, comprehensive national health surveys have become important data-gathering mechanisms to inform countries on their health status and provide information for health policy and programme planning. Developing countries have only recently begun such surveys and Jamaica has been at the forefront of this effort. Jamaica's Reproductive Health Surveys and programme response to their findings have resulted in an almost 50% reduction infertility rates over three decades as well as a 40% reduction in unmet contraceptive needs and a 40% reduction in unplanned pregnancies over the last two decades. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Surveys have served to reinforce the major burden that non-communicable diseases place on the society and the extent to which these are driven by unhealthy lifestyles. These surveys have shown that obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia affect approximately 50%, 25%, 10% and 10% of the adult population, respectively. These surveys have documented low rates of treatment and control for these chronic non-communicable diseases despite two major policy initiatives, the National Programme for the Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles and the creation of the National Health Fund which subsidizes healthcare provision for chronic diseases. In order to maximize the uptake of the findings of future surveys into effective health policy, there will need to be effective collaborations between academia, policy-makers, regional and international health agencies, non-government organizations and civil society. Such collaborations should take into account the social, political and economic issues, thus ensuring a more comprehensive approach to health policy and result in improvement of the nation's health status and by extension national development.

  18. National Policy for solid waste and reverse logistics of fluorescent lamps after consumption: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Cestari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent lamps are used increasingly today. Considered energy-saving lamps, they become hazardous waste at the end of their life cycle. They are composed partly of mercury, considered harmful to human health. Fluorescent lamps, together with tires and pesticide containers, fall under federal legislation that establishes and regulates their proper disposal. In 2010, Federal Law 12.305 / 2010 was created, establishing the National Policy on Solid Waste (PNRS, making businesses and consumers responsible for the proper disposal of their waste. This article aims to analyze the reverse logistics process of fluorescent lamps post-consumption, in a public education institution. The research used case studies and interviews with managers of the materials administration and warehouse departments of the institution. It was identified that since 2010, the educational institution has not been performing reverse logistics and has been accumulating hazardous material in its warehouses. This paper contributes a suggestion to improve the reverse logistics process and worker safety, and to prevent environmental risks.

  19. Challenges and opportunities of Reverse Logistics in the context of the National Solid Waste Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elaje Azevedo Simões da Mota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Law 12.305/2010, passed in 2010, made companies responsible for the solid waste issued from their production and clients’ post-consumption. In this situation, and considering the low rate of Reverse Logistics (RL activities within the metropolitan regions of Brazil’s largest cities compared to the high rate of waste produced per day, this article introduces the challenges and opportunities of introducing RL operations in the context of the National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP, in order to support and encourage companies to apply reverse processes in their production and clients’ post-consumption. To this end, the methodology used was to review the literature on the NSWP and RL, as well as unstructured interviews, allowing the challenges and opportunities for RL under the perspective of the NSWP to be presented as the main results. After checking the relevance of each topic, it was concluded that RL systems associated to the NSWP are crucial to overcoming challenges and exploiting the opportunities presented

  20. Carbon and black carbon in Yosemite National Park soils: sources, prescribed fire impacts, and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, G.; Traina, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the chemical and radiocarbon properties of black carbon recently deposited and accumulated in surface soils of six sites along an altitudinal gradient in Yosemite National Park, central California. The effect of prescribed (or controlled) forest burning on existing carbon and black carbon in surface soils was assessed to illuminate the role of this forest management and wildfire control strategy in the soil carbon cycle. The proportional contribution of fossil fuel or radiocarbon dead carbon versus biomass sources on these black carbon materials was analyzed to elucidate their origin, estimate their ages and explore the possible effects of prescribed burning on the amount of black carbon produced recently as well as historically. Supplementing these field results, we conducted a comparative spatial analysis of recent prescribed burn and wildfire coverage in Central California's San Joaquin Valley to approximate the effectiveness of prescribed burning for wildfire prevention. Federal and California policies pertaining to prescribed forest fires and/or black carbon were then evaluated for their effectiveness, air quality considerations, and environmental benefits. 13C NMR spectrum of soil surface char from study sites Prescribed burn coverage versus wildfires in central California