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Sample records for undernutrition remain common

  1. Undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for calories. Undernutrition is often obvious: People are underweight, bones often protrude, their skin is dry and ... 000 calories a day—not enough for adequate nutrition. As many as half of older people in ...

  2. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: the P-MaMiE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhin, Girmay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Dewey, Michael; Alem, Atalay; Tesfaye, Fikru; Lakew, Zufan; Worku, Bogale; Aray, Mesfin; Abdulahi, Abdulreshid; Tomlinson, Mark; Hughes, Marcus; Patel, Vikram; Prince, Martin

    2010-04-30

    Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD) appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is unclear A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS) in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of > or = six indicating high levels of CMD). Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50). There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

  3. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Abdulreshid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ≥ six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

  4. Are edible insects more or less 'healthy' than commonly consumed meats? A comparison using two nutrient profiling models developed to combat over- and undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, C L R; Scarborough, P; Rayner, M; Nonaka, K

    2016-03-01

    Insects have been the subject of recent attention as a potentially environmentally sustainable and nutritious alternative to traditional protein sources. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that insects are nutritionally preferable to meat, using two evaluative tools that are designed to combat over- and under-nutrition. We selected 183 datalines of publicly available data on the nutrient composition of raw cuts and offal of three commonly consumed meats (beef, pork and chicken), and six commercially available insect species, for energy and 12 relevant nutrients. We applied two nutrient profiling tools to this data: The Ofcom model, which is used in the United Kingdom, and the Nutrient Value Score (NVS), which has been used in East Africa. We compared the median nutrient profile scores of different insect species and meat types using non-parametric tests and applied Bonferroni adjustments to assess for statistical significance in differences. Insect nutritional composition showed high diversity between species. According to the Ofcom model, no insects were significantly 'healthier' than meat products. The NVS assigned crickets, palm weevil larvae and mealworm a significantly healthier score than beef (Pinsects were statistically less healthy than meat. Insect nutritional composition is highly diverse in comparison with commonly consumed meats. The food category 'insects' contains some foods that could potentially exacerbate diet-related public health problems related to over-nutrition, but may be effective in combating under-nutrition.

  5. Tackling community undernutrition at Lake Bogoria, Kenya: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undernutrition remains a major public health concern for many developing nations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, undernutrition affects a substantial portion of the Kenyan population, especially children and those living in rural areas. Local and sustainable means of addressing undernutrition is still lacking in ...

  6. Small area estimation of child undernutrition in Ethiopian woredas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohnesen, Thomas Pave; Ambel, Alemayehu Azeze; Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    2017-01-01

    Reducing child undernutrition is a key social policy objective of the Ethiopian government. Despite substantial reduction over the last decade and a half, child undernutrition is still high; with 48 percent of children either stunted, underweight or wasted, undernutrition remains an important child...

  7. Small area estimation of child undernutrition in Ethiopian woredas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohnesen, Thomas Pave; Ambel, Alemayehu Azeze; Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    2017-01-01

    Reducing child undernutrition is a key social policy objective of the Ethiopian government. Despite substantial reduction over the last decade and a half, child undernutrition is still high; with 48 percent of children either stunted, underweight or wasted, undernutrition remains an important child....... The estimates are small area estimations based on the 2014 Demographic and Health Survey and the latest population census. It is shown that small area estimations are powerful predictors of undernutrition, even compared to household characteristics, such as wealth and education, and hence a valuable targeting...

  8. Factors associated with undernutrition and overweight in elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Undernutrition and overweight are commonly overlooked health problems of the elderly, often due to the implicit assumption that undernutrition is a rare occurrence in old age and overweight is an invariable consequence of ageing. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 500 patients aged 60 years and ...

  9. Developments in Undernutrition in Indian Children Under Five

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Peng; Rammohan, Anu; Gwozdz, Wencke

    This study uses two waves (2004-2005 and 2011-2012) of the nationally representative Indian Human Development Survey to conduct a systematic decompositional analysis of the demographic and socio-economic factors contributing to undernutrition among children under five in India. The analytic method...... improvements on some measures, undernutrition among India's young children remains widespread. The improvements we do identify are partly attributable to changes in household wealth and maternal characteristics like body mass index and education....

  10. Undernutrition screening survey in 564,063 patients: patients with a positive undernutrition screening score stay in hospital 1.4 d longer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariël Klos; Abel Thijs; Luc Bastiaanse; Getty Huisman-de Waal; Peter Weijs; Hinke Kruizenga; Dr. Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; Ben Witteman; Wineke Remijnse-Meester; Sandra Beijer; Cora Jonkers-Schuitema; Suzanne van Keeken

    2016-01-01

    ackground: Undernutrition is a common complication of disease and a major determinant of hospital stay outcome. Dutch hospitals are required to screen for undernutrition on the first day of admission. Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence of the screening score “undernourished” with the

  11. A survey of undernutrition in children under three years of age in rural Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Leilei; Ren, Lin; Yan, Hong

    2014-02-05

    Childhood undernutrition adversely impacts child health and is one of China's largest health burdens. However, there is limited information on the current rate of childhood undernutrition in rural Western China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood undernutrition and explore its association with socio-economic characteristics in Western China. A total of 13,532 children of 0 ~ 36 months of age were recruited as subjects from 45 counties and 10 provinces in Western China with a 3-stage probability proportion to size sampling. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was used to assess the childhood undernutrition. The association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood undernutrition was analyzed using a two-level logistic regression. Based on CIAF, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under three years of age in rural Western China in 2005 was 21.7%. The two-level logistic analysis presented a large difference in undernutrition among the 10 provinces with the highest odds ratio in Guizhou (OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.50, 3.08). Older children had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. As compared to girls, boys were more likely to be undernourished (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.39). The likelihood of undernutrition was lower in subjects of Han ethnicity as opposed to subjects of minority ethnicities (OR 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65, 0.90). In addition, the education levels of the mother as well as wealth index were both negatively associated with childhood undernutrition. Childhood undernutrition still remains a large health challenge in rural Western China. This study has important policy implications for the Chinese government to improve childhood undernutrition in the surveyed areas.

  12. Nutritional interventions in community-dwelling Alzheimer patients with (risk of) undernutrition : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogsma, Erika; van Asselt, Dieneke; van Steijn, Jolanda; Veeger, Nic; van Dusseldorp, Ingeborg; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    Background: Weight loss and undernutrition are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and associated with negative health outcomes. In the current guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of AD, no recommendations for treatment of (risk of) undernutrition in community-dwelling AD patients are

  13. The European View of Hospital Undernutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Balknäs, Ulla N.; Camilo, Maria E.

    2003-01-01

    Disease-related undernutrition is significant in European hospitals but is seldom treated or prevented. In 1999, the Council of Europe decided to collect information regarding nutrition programs in hospitals, and for this purpose, a network consisting of national experts from 12 of the Partial...... Agreement member states was established. The aim was to review the current practices in Europe regarding hospital food provision, to highlight deficiencies, and to issue recommendations to improve the nutritional care and support of hospitalized patients. Five major common problems were identified: 1) lack...... of clearly defined responsibilities, 2) lack of sufficient education, 3) lack of influence and knowledge of the patients, 4) lack of cooperation between different staff groups, and 5) lack of involvement from the hospital management. To solve the problems highlighted, a combined timely and concerted effort...

  14. Interrelationships of undernutrition and neurotoxicity: food for thought and research attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter S; Palmer, Valerie S

    2012-06-01

    The neurotoxic actions of chemical agents on humans and animals are usually studied with little consideration of the subject's nutritional status. States of protein-calorie, vitamin and/or mineral undernutrition are associated with a range of neurodevelopmental, neurological and psychiatric disorders, commonly with involvement of both the central and the peripheral nervous system. Undernutrition can modify risk for certain chemical-induced neurologic diseases, and in some cases undernutrition may be a prerequisite for neurotoxicity to surface. In addition, neurologic disease associated with undernutrition or neurotoxicity may show similarities in clinical and neuropathological expression, especially in the peripheral nervous system. The combined effects of undernutrition and chemical neurotoxicity are most relevant to people with low incomes who experience chronic hunger, parasitism and infectious disease, monotonous diets of plants with neurotoxic potential (notably cassava), environmental pollution from rapid industrial development, chronic alcohol abuse, or prolonged treatment with certain therapeutic drugs. Undernutrition alone or in combination with chemical exposure is also important in high-income societies in the setting of drug and alcohol abuse, old age, food faddism, post-bariatric surgery, and drug treatment for certain medical conditions, including cancer and tuberculosis. The nutritional demands of pregnancy and lactation increase the risk of fetal and infant undernutrition and chemical interactions therewith. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The term is derived from an African word meaning “first child–second child” because a first-born ... Drugs Mentioned In This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names megestrol MEGACE cisplatin PLATINOL dronabinol MARINOL testosterone ...

  16. Undernutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Briend A. Home-based therapy for severe malnutri- tion with ready—to-use food. Arch Dis Child, 2004. 89(6):557—61. Lutter CK. Mora]O, Habicht ]-P, Rasmussen KM,. Robson DS, and Guillermo Herrera M (1990): Age. specific responsiveness of weight and length to nu- tritional supplementation. Am] Clin Nutr 51:359-. 64.

  17. Interventions targeting child undernutrition in developing countries may be undermined by dietary exposure to aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sinead; Gong, Yun Yun; Routledge, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Child undernutrition, a form of malnutrition, is a major public health burden in developing countries. Supplementation interventions targeting the major micronutrient deficiencies have only reduced the burden of child undernutrition to a certain extent, indicating that there are other underlying determinants that need to be addressed. Aflatoxin exposure, which is also highly prevalent in developing countries, may be considered an aggravating factor for child undernutrition. Increasing evidence suggests that aflatoxin exposure can occur in any stage of life, including in utero through a trans-placental pathway and in early childhood (through contaminated weaning food and family food). Early life exposure to aflatoxin is associated with adverse effects on low birth weight, stunting, immune suppression, and the liver function damage. The mechanisms underlying impaired growth and aflatoxin exposure are still unclear but intestinal function damage, reduced immune function, and alteration in the insulin-like growth factor axis caused by the liver damage are the suggested hypotheses. Given the fact that both aflatoxin and child undernutrition are common in sub-Saharan Africa, effective interventions aimed at reducing undernutrition cannot be satisfactorily achieved until the interactive relationship between aflatoxin and child undernutrition is clearly understood, and an aflatoxin mitigation strategy takes effect in those vulnerable mothers and children.

  18. Determinants of undernutrition among primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... focused mainly on preschoolers who are presumed more vulnerable.[10,11] However, interventions on school-aged children could supplement efforts in the preschool years. Determinants of undernutrition ..... socioeconomic inequality in childhood malnutrition: The case of Nigeria. Int. J Equity Health 2009 ...

  19. Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clercq, Nicolien C.; Groen, Albert K.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is the result of an inadequate balance between energy intake and energy expenditure that ultimately leads to either obesity or undernutrition. Several factors are associated with the onset and preservation of malnutrition. One of these factors is the gut microbiota, which has been

  20. The European View of Hospital Undernutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Balknäs, Ulla N.; Camilo, Maria E.

    2003-01-01

    Disease-related undernutrition is significant in European hospitals but is seldom treated or prevented. In 1999, the Council of Europe decided to collect information regarding nutrition programs in hospitals, and for this purpose, a network consisting of national experts from 12 of the Partial Ag...

  1. Adult Undernutrition in Rural Post-conflict Northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Stine; Sodemann, Morten

    2017-01-01

    -conflict areas, such as substance use, and disruption of traditional values and norms will be discussed. The high prevalence of undernutrition among men may be a result of a “syndemic” interaction between mental illness, HIV, substance abuse, and undernutrition itself, which further interacts with the social......This chapter outlines the prevalence and high-risk groups for adult undernutrition and discusses the social, behavioral, and structural mechanisms that can lead to food insecurity and undernutrition in a post-conflict setting like northern Uganda. In summary, adult undernutrition is higher...... in the post-conflict area of Uganda compared to areas that did not experience the war. Undernutrition varies by gender and age groups, higher among men than women, with young men and elderly being most likely to be underweight. Social and behavioral risk factors for undernutrition specific to post...

  2. In utero undernutrition programs skeletal and cardiac muscle metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany eBeauchamp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In utero undernutrition is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular disease during adult life. A common phenotype associated with low birth weight is reduced skeletal muscle mass. Given the central role of skeletal muscle in whole body metabolism, alterations in its mass as well as its metabolic characteristics may contribute to disease risk. This review highlights the metabolic alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle associated with in utero undernutrition and low birth weight. These tissues have high metabolic demands and are known to be sites of major metabolic dysfunction in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research demonstrates that mitochondrial energetics are decreased in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult offspring from undernourished mothers. These effects apparently lead to the development of a thrifty phenotype, which may represent overall a compensatory mechanism programmed in utero to handle times of limited nutrient availability. However, in an environment characterized by food abundance, the effects are maladaptive and increase adulthood risks of metabolic disease.

  3. Non-specific abdominal pain remains as the most common reason for acute abdomen: 26-year retrospective audit in one emergency unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, Anne; Paajanen, Paavo; Saarelainen, Heidi; Ahonen-Siirtola, Mirella; Ukkonen, Mika; Miettinen, Pekka; Paajanen, Hannu

    2017-10-01

    Distribution of diagnoses causing acute abdominal pain (AAP) may change because of population aging, increased obesity, advanced diagnostic imaging and changes in nutritional habits. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnoses causing AAP during a 26-year period. This was a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study in one emergency department (ED) covering population about 250,000. All patients admitted to the ED in 1986, 2003 and 2012 were evaluated from hospital electronic database. Demographic data, utilization of diagnostic tests, surgical treatment and discharge diagnosis were analyzed. Statistical data of population aging, obesity and alcohol consumption during 1980-2012 were obtained from national registers. The AAP patients represented 10-20% of our total ED census. The most common causes of AAP were nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP, 31-37%), acute appendicitis (11-23%), biliary disease (9-11%), bowel obstruction (5-7%), acute pancreatitis (4-8%) and acute diverticulitis (1-7%). The percentage of NSAP remained highest throughout the study period. Decrease in the number of acute appendicitis (from 23 to 11%; p audit.

  4. The European View of Hospital Undernutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Balknäs, Ulla N.; Camilo, Maria E.

    2003-01-01

    of clearly defined responsibilities, 2) lack of sufficient education, 3) lack of influence and knowledge of the patients, 4) lack of cooperation between different staff groups, and 5) lack of involvement from the hospital management. To solve the problems highlighted, a combined timely and concerted effort...... is required from national authorities and hospital staff, including managers, to ensure appropriate nutritional care and support.......Disease-related undernutrition is significant in European hospitals but is seldom treated or prevented. In 1999, the Council of Europe decided to collect information regarding nutrition programs in hospitals, and for this purpose, a network consisting of national experts from 12 of the Partial...

  5. Undernutrition of orphans and vulnerable children: a comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undernutrition of orphans and vulnerable children: a comparison of cash transfer beneficiaries and non beneficiaries in korogocho slums, Nairobi. ... undernutrition was significantly (p<0.05) associated with number of household members, number of children 6-59 months in the household and income spent on food.

  6. Undernutrition and associated factors in a Portuguese older adult community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Moreira dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition in older adults aged >75 years living in communities and to identify the main factors independently associated with undernutrition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of family physicians' medical records of 86 older adults aged >75 years living in the community studied. Their nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment. RESULTS: A total of 10.5% of the elderly were undernourished and 41.9% were at undernutrition risk. According to the logistic regression multivariable model, the following characteristics: being widowed (OR=6.7; 95%CI=1.8-24.6; being institutionalized (OR=12.6; 95%CI=1.7-90.5; or having a negative self-perception of health (OR=15.0; 95%CI=3.3-69.1 were independently associated with a significant increase of undernutrition risk. CONCLUSION: The current study shows that undernutrition is highly prevalent in Portuguese older adults aged >75 years living in communities. The major factors independently associated with their undernutrition are being widowed and institutionalized and having negative self-perception of health. The results obtained show that undernutrition and its associated factors are very serious problems for older adults and a challenge in their health care.

  7. Weight loss and undernutrition in community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's dementia From population based studies to clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogsma, E.; Asselt, D.; De Deyn, Peter

    Weight loss and undernutrition are commonly described in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been associated with various adverse outcomes. Therefore, it is important to know what the best approach is to community-dwelling AD patients with a risk of developing a poor nutritional status;

  8. Intergenerational influences on child growth and undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Zongrone, Amanda

    2012-07-01

    Intergenerational effects on linear growth are well documented. Several generations are necessary in animal models to 'wash out' effects of undernutrition, consistent with the unfolding of the secular trend in height in Europe and North America. Birthweight is correlated across generations and short maternal stature, which reflects intrauterine and infant growth failure, is associated with low birthweight, child stunting, delivery complications and increased child mortality, even after adjusting for socio-economic status. A nutrition intervention in Guatemala reduced childhood stunting; it also improved growth of the next generation, but only in the offspring of girls. Possible mechanisms explaining intergenerational effects on linear growth are not mutually exclusive and include, among others, shared genetic characteristics, epigenetic effects, programming of metabolic changes, and the mechanics of a reduced space for the fetus to grow. There are also socio-cultural factors at play that are important such as the intergenerational transmission of poverty and the fear of birthing a large baby, which leads to 'eating down' during pregnancy. It is not clear whether there is an upper limit for impact on intrauterine and infant linear growth that programmes in developing countries could achieve that is set by early childhood malnutrition in the mother. Substantial improvements in linear growth can be achieved through adoption and migration, and in a few selected countries, following rapid economic and social development. It would seem, despite clear documentation of intergenerational effects, that nearly normal lengths can be achieved in children born to mothers who were malnourished in childhood when profound improvements in health, nutrition and the environment take place before conception. To achieve similar levels of impact through public health programmes alone in poor countries is highly unlikely. The reality in poor countries limits the scope, quality and

  9. Factors Influencing Child Undernutrition in Bangladesh: A comparative study of FSNSP and DHS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Md. Mehedi; Hasib Chowdhury, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Including Bangladesh, undernutrition remains a major problem throughout the world. Evidence from Food Security Nutritional Surveillance Project (FSNSP) and Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) conducted both in 2011 reveal that nutritional vulnerability in the form of stunting (FSNSP: 40% vs. BDHS: 41%), underweight (FSNSP: 34% vs. BDHS: 36%) and wasting (FSNSP: 12% vs. BDHS: 16%) still exists highly in Bangladesh. This study aims at exploring the factors associated with child undernutrition in Bangladesh. Methodology: Two nationally representative, FSNSP conducted in 2012 and BDHS conducted in 2011, data sets were used to conduct this study. Using standard cut-offs, anthropometric criterion were applied to define child nutritional status followed by household food insecurity access scale for measuring household food security in both data sets. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to meet the study objectives. Studies were restricted among alive under five children born during last delivery of their mother. Cases having missing values for all anthropometric measurements were excluded from this study. Results: Compared to nourish mothers and food secured households, rates of stunting, underweight and wasting-both for severe and moderate- were found significantly higher among children of undernourished mothers and food insecured households. Significant lower rates of undernutrition were found among children born to educated mothers compared to that of illiterate mothers. Both FSNSP and BDHS data evidenced that children of undernourished mothers (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) were at higher risk of being moderately wasted (FSNSP: OR = 1.86, p<0.01 vs. BDHS: OR = 1.77, p<0.01), stunted (FSNSP: OR = 1.55, p<0.01 vs. BDHS: OR = 1.66, p<0.01) and underweight (FSNSP: OR = 1.69, p<0.01 vs. BDHS: OR = 1.98, p<0.01) compared to that of nourished mothers (BMI≥18.5 kg/m2) in unadjusted models. Likewise, children of food insecured households

  10. Undernutrition in children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD): its prevalence and influence on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holenweg-Gross, C; Newman, C J; Faouzi, M; Poirot-Hodgkinson, I; Bérard, C; Roulet-Perez, E

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and to explore its influence on quality of life. Seventy-two children with PIMD (47 male; 25 female; age range 2 to 15 years 4 months; mean age 8.6, SD 3.6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, including body weight, triceps skinfold thickness, segmental measures and recumbent length. Undernutrition was determined using tricipital skinfold percentile and z-scores of weight-for-height and height-for-age. The quality of life of each child was evaluated using the QUALIN questionnaire adapted for profoundly disabled children. Twenty-five children (34.7%) were undernourished and seven (9.7%) were obese. Among undernourished children only eight (32 %) were receiving food supplements and two (8%) had a gastrostomy, of which one was still on a refeeding programme. On multivariate analysis, undernutrition was one of the independent predictors of lower quality of life. Undernutrition remains a matter of concern in children with PIMD. There is a need to better train professionals in systematically assessing the nutritional status of profoundly disabled children in order to start nutritional management when necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Undernutrition management and the role of protein-enriched meals for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziylan, Canan

    2016-01-01

    Undernutrition is a major health problem in the growing elderly population. It is estimated that one in ten Dutch community-dwelling older adults is suffering from undernutrition, and one in three Dutch older adults who receive home care. Undernutrition may lead to many negative consequences,

  12. The association between chronic undernutrition and malaria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that nearly 870 ... To assess the relationship between malaria and chronic undernutrition in children aged 6 - 59 months at Bahir-Dar special zone,. Ethiopia. Methods. ..... impairment of antibody formation, decreased complement formation, and atrophy of ...

  13. Assessing the prevalence of undernutrition using the Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z-scores were calculated, and undernutrition defined as z-scores below minus two standard deviations from the median of the standard World Health Organization reference population. Results: The mean age of the children was 30.46 ± 16.40 months. There were 62 females (62.6%) and 37 males (37.4%). The data ...

  14. Determinants of undernutrition among women of reproductive age in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-01

    May 1, 2015 ... who gave birth two months prior to the survey, had undernutrition, while 48% of women aged ... In order to improve women's nutritional status, policies should focus on improving family wealth and education. Peer reviewed. ..... In: Marge Koblinsky, Judith Timyan and Jill Gay, editors. The health of women: a ...

  15. The association between chronic undernutrition and malaria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between chronic undernutrition and malaria among Ethiopian children aged 6 - 59 months: A facility-based case-control study. ... Anthropometric data were converted into nutritional indices using World Health Organization Anthro software version 3.2.2 and exported to SPSS for cleaning and analysis.

  16. Sensitive Index to Assess Risk of Morbidity in Undernutrition | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most of the studies exploring the association between undernutrition and infection have used weight for age as the index of assessment. ... Journal articles. Assessment of nutritional status in Indian preschool children using WHO 2006 Growth Standards. Download PDF. Reports. Sensitive index to assess risk of morbidity in ...

  17. Effect of correcting for gestational age at birth on population prevalence of early childhood undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Roth, Daniel E; Perdrizet, Johnna; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Bassani, Diego G

    2018-01-01

    Postmenstrual and/or gestational age-corrected age (CA) is required to apply child growth standards to children born preterm (age). Yet, CA is rarely used in epidemiologic studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which may bias population estimates of childhood undernutrition. To evaluate the effect of accounting for GA in the application of growth standards, we used GA-specific standards at birth (INTERGROWTH-21st newborn size standards) in conjunction with CA for preterm-born children in the application of World Health Organization Child Growth Standards postnatally (referred to as 'CA' strategy) versus postnatal age for all children, to estimate mean length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) z scores at 0, 3, 12, 24, and 48-months of age in the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. At birth (n = 4066), mean LAZ was higher and the prevalence of stunting (LAZ age (mean ± SD): - 0.36 ± 1.19 versus - 0.67 ± 1.32; and 8.3 versus 11.6%, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk (PAR) of stunting due to preterm birth were attenuated and changed inferences using CA versus postnatal age at birth [OR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 (95% CI 0.95, 1.82) vs 14.7 (95% CI 11.7, 18.4); PAR 3.1 vs 42.9%]; differences in inferences persisted at 3-months. At 12, 24, and 48-months, preterm birth was associated with stunting, but ORs/PARs remained attenuated using CA compared to postnatal age. Findings were similar for weight-for-age z scores. Population-based epidemiologic studies in LMICs in which GA is unused or unavailable may overestimate the prevalence of early childhood undernutrition and inflate the fraction of undernutrition attributable to preterm birth.

  18. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, peconomic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, pEconomic growth reduces child undernutrition in Ethiopia. This verifies the fact that the economic growth of the country accompanied with socio-economic development and improvement of the livelihood of the poor. Direct nutrition specific and nutrition sensitive interventions could also be recommended in order to have an impact on the massive reduction of childhood undernutrition in the country.

  19. Weight loss and undernutrition in community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's dementia: From population based studies to clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droogsma, E; van Asselt, D; De Deyn, P P

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss and undernutrition are commonly described in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been associated with various adverse outcomes. Therefore, it is important to know what the best approach is to community-dwelling AD patients with a risk of developing a poor nutritional status; however, there is currently no evidence on which to base nutritional recommendations. Expert based recommendations are that the nutritional status should be part of the work-up of all AD patients. If weight loss of 5% or more has occurred in 3-6 months or if the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) classifies a patient as undernourished, a nutritional intervention should be started. The intervention should be multifactorial and encompass treatment of the underlying proposed causes and risk factors of weight loss and undernutrition as well as improvement of the nutritional status by increasing energy and protein intake combined with daily physical activity.

  20. Climate change, crop yields, and undernutrition: development of a model to quantify the impact of climate scenarios on child undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Simon J; Kovats, R Sari; Chalabi, Zaid

    2011-12-01

    Global climate change is anticipated to reduce future cereal yields and threaten food security, thus potentially increasing the risk of undernutrition. The causation of undernutrition is complex, and there is a need to develop models that better quantify the potential impacts of climate change on population health. We developed a model for estimating future undernutrition that accounts for food and nonfood (socioeconomic) causes and can be linked to available regional scenario data. We estimated child stunting attributable to climate change in five regions in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2050. We used current national food availability and undernutrition data to parameterize and validate a global model, using a process-driven approach based on estimations of the physiological relationship between a lack of food and stunting. We estimated stunting in 2050 using published modeled national calorie availability under two climate scenarios and a reference scenario (no climate change). We estimated that climate change will lead to a relative increase in moderate stunting of 1-29% in 2050 compared with a future without climate change. Climate change will have a greater impact on rates of severe stunting, which we estimated will increase by 23% (central SSA) to 62% (South Asia). Climate change is likely to impair future efforts to reduce child malnutrition in South Asia and SSA, even when economic growth is taken into account. Our model suggests that to reduce and prevent future undernutrition, it is necessary to both increase food access and improve socioeconomic conditions, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Understanding the null-to-small association between increased macroeconomic growth and reducing child undernutrition in India: role of development expenditures and poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William; Rajaram, Ramaprasad; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that macroeconomic growth in India is not correlated with any substantial reductions in the prevalence of child undernutrition over time. This study investigates the two commonly hypothesized pathways through which macroeconomic growth is expected to reduce child undernutrition: (1) an increase in public developmental expenditure and (2) a reduction in aggregate income-poverty levels. For the anthropometric data on children, we draw on the data from two cross-sectional waves of National Family Health Survey conducted in 1992-1993 and 2005-2006, while the data for per capita net state domestic product and per capita public spending on developmental expenditure and headcount ratio of poverty were obtained from the Reserve Bank of India and the Government of India expert committee reports. We find that between 1992-1993 and 2005-2006, state-level macroeconomic growth was not associated with any substantial increases in public development expenditure or substantial reductions in poverty at the aggregate level. Furthermore, the association between changes in public development expenditure or aggregate poverty and changes in undernutrition was small. In summary, it appears that the inability of macroeconomic growth to translate into reductions in child undernutrition in India is likely a consequence of the macroeconomic growth not translating into substantial investments in development expenditure that could matter for children's nutritional status and neither did it substantially improve incomes of the poor, a group where undernutrition is also the highest. The findings here build a case to advocate a 'support-led' strategy for reducing undernutrition rather than simply relying on a 'growth-mediated' strategy. Key messages Increases in macroeconomic growth have not been accompanied by substantial increases in public developmental spending or reduction in aggregate poverty headcount ratio in India. Association between increases in public

  2. Understanding the null‐to‐small association between increased macroeconomic growth and reducing child undernutrition in India: role of development expenditures and poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William; Rajaram, Ramaprasad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Empirical evidence suggests that macroeconomic growth in India is not correlated with any substantial reductions in the prevalence of child undernutrition over time. This study investigates the two commonly hypothesized pathways through which macroeconomic growth is expected to reduce child undernutrition: (1) an increase in public developmental expenditure and (2) a reduction in aggregate income‐poverty levels. For the anthropometric data on children, we draw on the data from two cross‐sectional waves of National Family Health Survey conducted in 1992–1993 and 2005–2006, while the data for per capita net state domestic product and per capita public spending on developmental expenditure and headcount ratio of poverty were obtained from the Reserve Bank of India and the Government of India expert committee reports. We find that between 1992–1993 and 2005–2006, state‐level macroeconomic growth was not associated with any substantial increases in public development expenditure or substantial reductions in poverty at the aggregate level. Furthermore, the association between changes in public development expenditure or aggregate poverty and changes in undernutrition was small. In summary, it appears that the inability of macroeconomic growth to translate into reductions in child undernutrition in India is likely a consequence of the macroeconomic growth not translating into substantial investments in development expenditure that could matter for children's nutritional status and neither did it substantially improve incomes of the poor, a group where undernutrition is also the highest. The findings here build a case to advocate a ‘support‐led’ strategy for reducing undernutrition rather than simply relying on a ‘growth‐mediated’ strategy. Key messages Increases in macroeconomic growth have not been accompanied by substantial increases in public developmental spending or reduction in aggregate poverty headcount ratio in India

  3. Undernutrition in ART-naïve Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantakumari N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nisha Shantakumari,1 Lisha Jenny John,2 Jayadevan Sreedharan31Department of Physiology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Statistical Support Facility, Centre for Advanced Biomedical Research and Innovation, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab EmiratesThis letter is a response to the recent paper by Anigilaje and Olutola entitled "Prevalence and risk factors of undernutrition among antiretroviral-therapy-naïve subjects aged under 5 years old in Makurdi, Nigeria: a retrospective study", published in the International Journal of General Medicine.1 The relevance and importance of any sound research on undernutrition in HIV-infected children is high, and we strongly support publication of papers on this topic. However, while we appreciate the health awareness that could be generated by this paper, we have some concerns regarding this study.View the original paper by Anigilaje and Olutola.

  4. Prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition alter thyroid hormone axis function in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Lærke; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence led us to hypothesize that: 1) function of the thyroid hormone (TH) axis can be programmed by late-gestation undernutrition (LG-UN), and 2) early-postnatal-life overnutrition (EL-ON) exacerbates the fetal impacts on TH-axis function. In a 2×2 factorial experiment, 21 twin......-bearing sheep were fed one of two diets during late gestation: NORM (fulfilling energy and protein requirements) or LOW (50% of NORM). From day-3 to 6-months after birth (around puberty) the twin lambs were assigned to each their diet: conventional (CONV) or high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF), where after half...... the lambs were slaughtered. Remaining sheep (exclusively females) were fed the same moderate diet until 2-years of age (young adults). At 6-months and 2-years of age fasting challenges were conducted and target tissues were collected at autopsy. LG-UN caused adult hyperthyroidism associated with increased...

  5. Perinatal undernutrition programmes thyroid function in the adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Moreno, Rosario; Racotta, Radu; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen; Quevedo, Lucía

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that alterations in early nutrition programme physiological changes in adulthood. In the present study, we determined the effects of undernutrition during gestation and lactation on the programming of thyroid function in adult rat offspring. Perinatal undernutrition was achieved by a 40% food restriction in female Wistar rats from the mating day to weaning. On postpartum day 21, the offspring of the control and food-restricted dams were weaned and given free access to a commercial diet until adulthood. The results showed that undernourished rats exhibited decreased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) levels but had normal thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels at weaning; on day 90, these rats displayed a significant flip, exhibiting normalised T3 (total and free) and total T4 levels, but low free T4 and persistently higher TSH levels, which were maintained even on postnatal day 140. This profile was accompanied by a scarce fat depot, a lower RMR and an exacerbated sympathetic brown adipose tissue (BAT) tone (deiodinase type 2 expression) in basal conditions. Moreover, when a functional challenge (cold exposure) was applied, the restricted group exhibited partial changes in TSH (29 v. 100%) and T4 (non-response v. 17%) levels, a significant decrease in leptin levels (75 v. 32%) and the maintenance of a sympathetic BAT over-response (higher noradrenaline levels) in comparison with the control group. The findings of the present study suggest that undernutrition during the perinatal period produces permanent changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis with consequent low body weight and decreased RMR and facultative thermogenesis. We hypothesise that these changes predispose individuals to exhibiting adult subclinical hypothyroidism.

  6. Prenatal undernutrition and cognitive function in late adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    de Rooij, Susanne R.; Wouters, Hans; Yonker, Julie E.; Painter, Rebecca C.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2010-01-01

    At the end of World War II, a severe 5-mo famine struck the cities in the western part of The Netherlands. At its peak, the rations dropped to as low as 400 calories per day. In 1972, cognitive performance in 19-y-old male conscripts was reported not to have been affected by exposure to the famine before birth. In the present study, we show that cognitive function in later life does seem affected by prenatal undernutrition. We found that at age 56 to 59, men and women exposed to famine during...

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of undernutrition among antiretroviral-therapy-naïve subjects aged under 5 years old in Makurdi, Nigeria: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anigilaje EA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje,1 Ayodotun Olutola2 1Department of Paediatrics, Benue State University, Makurdi, 2Center for Clinical Care and Clinical Research, Abuja, Nigeria Background: Undernutrition is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and it contributes significantly to its morbidity and mortality. However, as far as we are aware, few studies have described the risk factors of undernutrition among HIV-infected Nigerian children. The study reported here aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of undernutrition among HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve children aged under 5 years old in Makurdi, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was undertaken at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, between June 2010 and June 2011. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine the risk factors of undernutrition. Results: Data on 182 HIV-infected children (88 males and 94 females, aged between 6 weeks and 59 months were studied. The prevalence of undernutrition was 12.1%, 33.5%, and 54.4% for underweight, wasting, and stunting, respectively. In multivariate regression analyses, being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.292, 95% [confidence interval] CI 0.104–0.820, P=0.019, the child's caregiver being on ART (AOR 0.190, 95% CI 0.039–0.925, P=0.04, and the absence of tuberculosis in the child (AOR 0.034, 95% CI 0.003–0.357, P=0.005 were independently protective against underweight. Subjects who were exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life were protected from stunting (AOR 0.136, 95% CI 0.032–0.585, P=0.007. No factor impacted significantly on wasting in multivariate analyses. Conclusion: Undernutrition among HIV-infected, ART-naïve children aged under 5 years old may be reduced if programmatic interventions are guided toward early initiation of ART among eligible HIV-infected caregivers and the promotion of HIV/tuberculosis coinfection control efforts. Also, the importance

  8. The bioelectrical impedance phase angle as an indicator of undernutrition and adverse clinical outcome in cardiac surgical patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marlieke; van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; Wanders, Dominique C. M.; de Vos, Rien; Wisselink, Willem; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background & aims: In cardiac surgical patients, undernutrition increases the risk of adverse clinical outcome. We investigated whether the bioelectrical impedance phase angle is an indicator of undernutrition and clinical outcome in cardiac surgery. Methods: In 325 cardiac surgical patients, we

  9. [Health Council of the Netherlands underestimates interactions in undernutrition in the elderly].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, D.Z.B. van; Olde Rikkert, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Health Council of the Netherlands has recently published a report on undernutrition in the elderly. Undernutrition is a huge problem associated with negative health outcomes, especially in the frail elderly. Although its review of the recent literature is useful, the report does not contribute

  10. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  11. The prevalence of undernutrition upon hospitalization in children in a developing country: A single hospital study from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way-Seah Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of undernutrition among children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Malaysia was 14%. Strategies for systematic screening and provision of nutritional support in children at risk of undernutrition as well as treatment of undernutrition in children requiring hospitalization are needed.

  12. Association of infant and young child feeding practices with undernutrition in children: evidence from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Leem, Jong Han; Kim, Hwan Cheol; Park, Myung Sook; Lee, Ji Young; Moon, So Hyun; Ko, Jung Keun

    2015-07-27

    Childhood undernutrition remains a highly influential risk factor in terms of the global burden of disease. Increasing evidence links infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices to undernutrition. However, the results are inconsistent, and more country-specific studies are needed. To determine the associations between IYCF practices and nutritional outcomes among children aged 0-23 months using a nationally representative dataset. The study used data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, and the data were analysed for children aged 0-23.9 months who had corresponding data for the outcome variables of interest (n = 890). Multiple linear and logistic regressions were undertaken and adjusted for the complex design of the survey, controlling for child, maternal, household and community characteristics. Of the 890 children included in the study, 83% received age-appropriate breastfeeding but only 48% were breastfed within 1 hour of birth. Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months of age was associated with a higher weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) and a lower probability of wasting, but the estimated effects were of borderline significance. A significant negative association was found between continued breastfeeding at 1 year and WAZ and weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ). Timely introduction of complementary feeding in children aged 6-8 months was associated with a higher WAZ [effect size (ES) 0.6, P Children who achieved minimum meal frequency had a higher WAZ (ES 0.3, P feeding practices with a sustained focus on exclusive breastfeeding to reduce undernutrition in infants and young children.

  13. Undernutrition among HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: antiretroviral therapy alone is not enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunguya Bruno F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS has exacerbated the impact of childhood undernutrition in many developing countries, including Tanzania. Even with the provision of antiretroviral therapy, undernutrition among HIV-positive children remains a serious problem. Most studies to examine risk factors for undernutrition have been limited to the general population and ART-naive HIV-positive children, making it difficult to generalize findings to ART-treated HIV-positive children. The objectives of this study were thus to compare the proportions of undernutrition among ART-treated HIV-positive and HIV-negative children and to examine factors associated with undernutrition among ART-treated HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods From September to October 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 213 ART-treated HIV-positive and 202 HIV-negative children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We measured the children's anthropometrics, socio-demographic factors, food security, dietary habits, diarrhea episodes, economic status, and HIV clinical stage. Data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate methods. Results ART-treated HIV-positive children had higher rates of undernutrition than their HIV-negative counterparts. Among the ART-treated HIV-positive children, 78 (36.6% were stunted, 47 (22.1% were underweight, and 29 (13.6% were wasted. Households of ART-treated HIV-positive children exhibited lower economic status, lower levels of education, and higher percentages of unmarried caregivers with higher unemployment rates. Food insecurity was prevalent in over half of ART-treated HIV-positive children's households. Furthermore, ART-treated HIV-positive children were more likely to be orphaned, to be fed less frequently, and to have lower body weight at birth compared to HIV-negative children. In the multivariate analysis, child's HIV-positive status was associated with being underweight (AOR = 4.61, 95% CI 1

  14. Limits to Economic Growth: Why Direct Investments Are Needed to Address Child Undernutrition in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A

    2015-11-01

    About two of every five undernourished young children of the world live in India. These high levels of child undernutrition have persisted in India for several years, even in its relatively well-developed states. Moreover, this pattern was observed during a period of rapid economic growth. Evidence from India and other developing countries suggests that economic growth has little to no impact on reducing child undernutrition. We argue that a growth-mediated strategy is unlikely to be effective in tackling child undernutrition unless growth is pro-poor and leads to investment in programs addressing the root causes of this persistent challenge.

  15. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  16. Undernutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months in East Belesa District, northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

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    Wagaye Fentahun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition remains the major public health concern in Ethiopia and continues as the underlying cause of child mortality. However, there is a scarcity of information on the magnitude and determinant factors of undernutrition. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors among children aged 6–59 months in East Belesa District, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2014. A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to select 633 study participants. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. In order to identify factors associated with undernutrition (stunting and wasting a multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR with a 95 % Confidence Interval (CI was computed to show the strength of the association. In the multivariate analysis, variables with a p-value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results In this study, about 57.7 and 16 % of the children were stunted and wasted, respectively. The odds of stunting were higher in children born to mothers who gave their first birth before 15 years of age (AOR = 2.4; 95 % CI: 1.19, 5.09 and gave prelacteal feeding to their child (AOR = 1.83; 95 % CI: 1.28, 2.61. However, lower odds of stunting were observed among children aged 36–47 months (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI: 0.22, 0.78 and had higher family monthly income, Et. Br. 750–1000, (AOR = 0.61; 95 % CI: 0.39, 0.92. Moreover, the odds of wasting were higher among children who received butter as prelacteal food (AOR = 2.32; 95 % CI:1.82, 5.31. Conclusion Child undernutrition is a critical public health problem in the study area. Advanced age of children (36–47 months and higher family monthly income were inversely associated with stunting. However, higher odds of stunting were observed among

  17. Ribosome abundance regulates the recovery of skeletal muscle protein mass upon recuperation from postnatal undernutrition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A; Sosa, Horacio A; Villegas-Montoya, Carolina; Estrada, Irma; Fleischmann, Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Nutritionally-induced growth faltering in the perinatal period has been associated with reduced adult skeletal muscle mass; however, the mechanisms responsible for this are unclear. To identify the factors that determine the recuperative capacity of muscle mass, we studied offspring of FVB mouse dams fed a protein-restricted diet during gestation (GLP) or pups suckled from postnatal day 1 (PN1) to PN11 (E-UN), or PN11 to PN22 (L-UN) on protein-restricted or control dams. All pups were refed under control conditions following the episode of undernutrition. Before refeeding, and 2, 7 and 21 days later, muscle protein synthesis was measured in vivo. There were no long-term deficits in protein mass in GLP and E-UN offspring, but in L-UN offspring muscle protein mass remained significantly smaller even after 18 months (P muscle protein synthesis when refed (P protein kinases were similar among treatments. However, activation of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 via mTOR (P muscles to recover following perinatal undernutrition depends on developmental age as this establishes whether ribosome abundance can be enhanced sufficiently to promote the protein synthesis rates required to accelerate protein deposition for catch-up growth. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  18. Prenatal origins of hypertension induced by gestational undernutrition or environmental chemical exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have shown that babies of low birth weight have high blood pressure (BP) as children and adults, suggesting prenatal cardiovascular programming. This programming has been attributed to factors including undernutrition and maternal stress during pregnancy. ...

  19. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  20. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  1. FRAGILE ENVIRONMENT, SEASONALITY AND MATERNAL AND CHILDHOOD UNDERNUTRITION IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Hossain, Mahabub; Chakraborty, Barnali; Bayes, Abdul; Rahman, A N Mahfuzur

    2017-09-18

    This study assessed whether agricultural and household incomes were the same across different agro-ecological environments in Bangladesh. An in-depth analysis of the effect of unfavourable ecologies on maternal and child malnutrition was carried out. Data were from a longitudinal data set comprising a nationally representative data sample collected in 2014 and the Food Security Nutrition Surveillance Project (FSNSP) conducted in 2011 and 2012. Anthropometric indices were used to assess the nutritional status of mothers and under-five children. The key variables of interest were food seasonality and geographical location. Data were analysed using the General Linear Model and multinomial and binary logistic regression analysis. Panel data analysis showed that household income was not equal across agro-ecological zones, indicating that the fragility of the environment affects a household's ability to access food, and thus the nutritional status of mothers and children. Coastal areas of Bangladesh were found to be less dependent on agriculture, particularly cultivation, which had diminished during last few decades. Per capita income has been increasing in coastal areas of Bangladesh, led by remittance (money sent home by migrant workers) growing at 8% per year against 6% in other areas. Regression analysis showed that a household in a coastal zone earned 19% less than one in more favourable zones. Although the income from farm practices was found to be lower in unfavourable areas, the deficiency was compensated by increased non-farm incomes. The results from the FSNSP data showed that overall the rates of stunting and wasting among under-five children were 37% and 11.7%, respectively, and nearly 28% of mothers suffered from undernutrition. A highly significant regional heterogeneity in undernutrition was found, with alarmingly high levels in the Haor Basin and coastal belt areas. There were significantly higher rates of underweight and wasting in the monsoon season

  2. Undernutrition in Patients with COPD and Its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Nakamura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the lung and whole body caused mainly by tobacco smoking. Patients with advanced COPD are in a state of undernutrition, referred to as pulmonary cachexia; the exercise performance and quality of life (QOL of these patients are deteriorated, the vital prognosis is unfavorable, and the medico-economic burden posed by poorly nourished COPD patients is high. The mainstays of COPD treatment are pharmacotherapy, mainly with bronchodilators, and non-pharmacotherapeutic approaches such as respiratory rehabilitation and nutrition counseling. Nutritional supplement therapy, consisting primarily of high calorie intake, has been demonstrated to be effective for maintaining and improving the muscle strength and exercise tolerance in poorly nourished COPD patients. The efficacy of intake of various nutrients, besides a high calorie intake, for amelioration of the disease state of COPD has also been reported. The roles of adipokines in the pathophysiology of COPD have begun to receive attention recently, and not only their regulatory effects on appetite and nutritional status, but also their influence on systemic inflammation have been increasingly clarified. We review the papers on COPD and nutrition and discuss the role of nutritional supplement therapy in the treatment of COPD.

  3. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The prevalence of undernutrition upon hospitalization in children in a developing country: A single hospital study from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Way-Seah; Ahmad, Zulfadly

    2017-10-01

    Undernourished children who require hospital care have a longer duration of hospitalization and respond poorly to modern medical therapy. The objective of the present study was to ascertain the nutritional status of children admitted to a pediatric tertiary center in Malaysia and the risk factors leading to undernutrition upon admission. In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, anthropometric measurements [weight, length/height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness were performed in 285 children aged from 3 months to 15 years who were admitted to University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur in November 2013. Acute (wasting) and chronic (stunting) undernutrition were defined as weight-for-height (WFH) and height-for-age (HFA) standard deviation (S.D.), respectively. Underweight was defined as weight-for-age definition for acute undernutrition (HFA definition of acute undernutrition, an additional eight patients were noted to have acute undernutrition (n = 40, 14%). No significant risk factors associated with undernutrition were identified. The prevalence of undernutrition among children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Malaysia was 14%. Strategies for systematic screening and provision of nutritional support in children at risk of undernutrition as well as treatment of undernutrition in children requiring hospitalization are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Prevalence of undernutrition among children in the Garhwal Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anuradha; Pant, Kiran; Puthia, Rekha; Sah, Archana

    2009-03-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of children. In India every third child is underweight, whereas in the Garhwal Himalayas only one-fifth of the children are nutritionally normal. Information regarding the causes of such low nutritional status in children of Garhwal is lacking. The present study was designed to identify factors that may influence the nutritional status of the children of the Garhwal Himalayas. Stunting, signifying long-term irreversible chronic undernutrition, was studied, along with wasting, which signifies acute undernutrition among children. Forty families from one town and one village in each of the three major agroclimatic situations (high, middle, and low hills) were selected at random (total 240 families). The nutritional status of 353 children (0 to 12 years of age) was assessed by nutritional anthropometry and compared with tables of weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores (WAZ and HAZ) identifying wasting and stunting, respectively, and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) Growth Reference charts 2007. Chi-square test was applied to analyze the effects of age, sex, altitude, and area on the nutritional status of children. Of the 353 children studied, 38.2% belonged to the school-aged group, with 7% more girls than boys. Only 11.3% of the children had normal HAZ while 10.3% had normal WAZ. The largest percentages of children (31.8% HAZ and 29.1% WAZ) were clustered in the SD1 group, that is the severely stunted or wasted group. In every age group except the 9- to 12-year group, most of the children were found in the WAZ SD1 category. Gender appeared to influence the SD1 category significantly. There were 17.0% severely stunted girls (SD1), as compared to 14.8% boys; while the percentages of WAZ girls was 16.1% and boys was 13%. The situation in the urban areas was slightly better: 6.4% of the sample had normal HAZ and 7.1% had normal WAZ, compared with 4.4% and 4.6% of the rural children. In

  6. Role of parental education in reduction of prevalence of childhood undernutrition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Belal; Khan, Md Hasinur Rahaman

    2018-02-19

    Despite progress, levels of malnutrition among children in Bangladesh are among the highest in the world and this is one of the major causes of death in children. The pace of reduction in the prevalence of undernutrition among children is still relatively low. The present study aimed to examine the association between parental education and childhood undernutrition among Bangladeshi children under 5 years of age when adjusting for potential risk factors. The data set was extracted from a nationally representative survey based on a cross-sectional study, the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2014. The base survey was conducted using a two-stage stratified sample of households. In the first stage, 600 enumeration areas (EA) were selected with probability proportional to EA size (207 EA from urban areas, 393 EA from rural areas). A total of 7173 children under 5 years from 17 863 households were considered for the analysis. A modified Poisson regression model was implemented to the data for assessing the relationship between parental education and childhood undernutrition when demographic and socio-economic covariates for the child, parents, households and clustering were adjusted. Higher parental education level was associated with lower levels of stunting and underweight, but not with wasting. Maternal and paternal education were both significantly associated with the reduction in prevalence of childhood undernutrition in Bangladesh. Paternal education appears equally as important as maternal education in reducing undernutrition prevalence among children under 5 years in Bangladesh.

  7. Undernutrition among Honduran children 12-71 months old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestel Penelope

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, the Ministry of Health of Honduras conducted a national micronutrient survey that included anthropometric measurements to determine the nutrition status of children 12-71 months old. Among the 1 744 children who participated, 38% of them were stunted, including 14% who were severely stunted; 24% were underweight, of which 4% were severely underweight; and 1% were wasted, of which 0.1% were severely wasted. The country can be divided into three groupings based on the level of stunting and underweight: 1 lowest prevalence: Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, and medium cities; 2 medium prevalence: other urban areas, the rural north, and the rural south; and 3 highest prevalence: the rural west. Using logistic regression analysis, the important determinants of stunting were found to be: mother/caretaker's and father's schooling, source of water, the dominion (geographic location and strata in which the child lived, and the "possession score" for ownership of such items as a radio, television, refrigerator, stereo system, and electric iron. The predictors for underweight were micronutrient status, diarrhea, maternal/caretaker's schooling, type of toilet, and possession score. Historical data indicate that the national prevalence of chronic undernutrition has changed little over the last 10 years despite the number of national food and nutrition plans implemented and the significant improvements in health services. It is possible that these positive interventions have been offset by the slow progress in economic development. Future nutrition interventions should take into account household-level perceived needs and priorities in order to set realistic nutrition targets.

  8. Periconceptional Undernutrition in Sheep Affects Adult Phenotype Only in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. Jaquiery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN in sheep alters fetal growth and metabolism and postnatal growth regulation, but effects on adult body composition are unknown. We investigated the effects of PCUN on adult phenotype. Singleton lambs of ewes fed normally (N, n=17 or undernourished before (UN-61-0 d, n=23, before and after (UN-61-30 d, n=19, or after (UN-2-30d, n=17 mating (d0 were weighed at birth, 12 weeks, and intermittently to adulthood. At the age of 3-4 years, body composition was assessed by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry followed by postmortem examination. Compared with N animals, male, but not female, offspring of all UN groups had greater % fat mass (all UN versus N: 9±1 versus 2±1%, P<0.001 and perirenal fat (544±36 versus 222±44 g, P=0.002, and proportionately smaller hearts (4.5±0.1 versus 5.2±0.2 g·kg−1, lungs (9.1±0.2 versus 10.6±0.5 g·kg−1, and adrenals (0.06±0.002 versus 0.08±0.003 g·kg−1. UN males also had larger testes (726±21 versus 545±32 g, P=0.007, but UN females had smaller ovaries (2.7±0.08 versus 3.4±0.4 g, P=0.01. Changes were independent of birth weight or postnatal growth velocity. Brief PCUN has sex-specific effects on adult phenotype, predominantly affecting males, which may contribute to adverse metabolic outcomes.

  9. Adaptive changes in basal metabolic rate and thermogenesis in chronic undernutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Metabolic adaptation during chronic undernutrition represents a complex integration of several processes which affect the total energy expenditure of the individual. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is reduced; reductions in BMR per unit fat free mass (FFM) is difficult to demonstrate. BMR changes in undernutrition reflect the low body weight as well as alterations in the composition of the FFM; more specifically changes in the ratio of viscera to muscle compartments of the FFM. Thermogenic responses to norepinephrine are transiently suppressed but recover rapidly on repeated stimulation. Dietary thermogenesis is enhanced possible the result of increases in tissue synthesis within the body. Changes in BMR and thermogenesis suggestive of an increase in metabolic efficiency is thus difficult to demonstrate in chronic undernutrition. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  10. Dyslipidaemia and Undernutrition in Children from Impoverished Areas of Maceió, State of Alagoas, Brazil

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    Telma M. M. T. Florêncio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic undernutrition causes reduced growth and endocrine adaptations in order to maintain basic life processes. In the present study, the biochemical profiles of chronically undernourished children were determined in order to test the hypothesis that chronic undernutrition also causes changes in lipid profile in pre-school children. The study population comprised 80 children aged between 12 and 71 months, including 60 with moderate undernutrition [height-for-age Z (HAZ scores ≤ −2 and > −3] and 20 with severe undernutrition (HAZ scores ≤ −3. Socioeconomic, demographic and environmental data were obtained by application of a questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements and information relating to sex, age and feeding habits were collected by a trained nutritionist. Blood samples were analysed for haemoglobin, vitamin A, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and serum lipids, while cortisol was assayed in the saliva. Faecal samples were submitted to parasitological investigation. Analysis of variance and χ2 methods were employed in order to select the variables that participated in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study population was socioeconomically homogeneous, while the lack of a treated water supply was clearly associated with the degree of malnutrition. Most children were parasitised and anaemia was significantly more prevalent among the severely undernourished. Levels of IGF-1 decreased significantly with increasing severity of undernutrition. Lipid analysis revealed that almost all of the children had dyslipidemia, while low levels of high-density lipoprotein were associated with the degree of undernutrition. It is concluded that chronic malnutrition causes endocrine changes that give rise to alterations in the metabolic profile of pre-school children.

  11. The time to address undernutrition in infants and young children is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complementary feeding after six months, and in populations with insufficient food, food supplements or conditional cash transfers, supplementation of vitamin A, iron and zinc for children and the prevention of infectious diseases that contribute to undernutrition by improving sanitation and water supply. Sufficient evidence ...

  12. Relationships between undernutrition prevalence among children and adult women at national and subnational level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nube, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to analyze the relationships between undernutrition prevalence rates among children and adults, both at the level of countries and at the level of smaller geographical subunits within countries (districts, provinces). Results are considered of relevance for

  13. Food insecurity and Under-Nutrition in Guatemala 107141-001

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 Dic 2015 ... The research process ended with two main outputs: i) a systemic model that helps to understand the dynamics of chronic undernutrition in different territories of Guatemala. It identifies variables, relationships and structures that should be taken into account when implementing food security policies and ...

  14. Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Bouwman, E.G.; Chen, T.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Soede, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n = 11) or fully fed throughout (n = 10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11

  15. Building convergence in science, programs, and policy actions on child undernutrition: symposium rationale and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Purnima; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2012-03-01

    Childhood stunting and wasting are often portrayed as relatively distinct manifestations of undernutrition. Little is known about how children progress from one manifestation of undernutrition to another as they grow older, nor how intervention strategies need to consider the potential overlap of these manifestations of undernutrition. While much is known about the causes of growth faltering in general, much less is known about which pre-disposing contextual and biological factors cause children to become stunted as opposed to wasted or both. Increasingly, nutrition researchers have tended to focus on one form of malnutrition or the other, lacking an integrated framework for understanding both phenomena. Similarly, some practitioner communities focus on prevention of stunting while others focus on recuperative treatment of wasting. The fragmentation of interests and perspectives on childhood undernutrition has negative consequences for advocacy efforts that aim to bring attention and resources to child nutrition across the globe. It also has serious implications for how children worldwide receive nutrition interventions and services. The symposium aimed to bring together a set of speakers from academic, practice and policy communities to discuss and debate these issues.

  16. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Childhood Undernutrition in India: Analyzing Trends between 1992 and 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Malavika A.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Berkman, Lisa F.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    Background India experienced a rapid economic boom between 1991 and 2007. However, this economic growth has not translated into improved nutritional status among young Indian children. Additionally, no study has assessed the trends in social disparities in childhood undernutrition in the Indian context. We examined the trends in social disparities in underweight and stunting among Indian children aged less than three years using nationally representative data. Methods We analyzed data from the three cross-sectional rounds of National Family Health Survey of India from 1992, 1998 and 2005. The social factors of interest were: household wealth, maternal education, caste, and urban residence. Using multilevel modeling to account for the nested structure and clustering of data, we fit multivariable logistic regression models to quantify the association between the social factors and the binary outcome variables. The final models additionally included age, gender, birth order of child, religion, and age of mother. We analyzed the trend by testing for interaction of the social factor and survey year in a dataset pooled from all three surveys. Results While the overall prevalence rates of undernutrition among Indian children less than three decreased over the 1992–2005 period, social disparities in undernutrition over these 14 years either widened or stayed the same. The absolute rates of undernutrition decreased for everyone regardless of their social status. The disparities by household wealth were greater than the disparities by maternal education. There were no disparities in undernutrition by caste, gender or rural residence. Conclusions There was a steady decrease in the rates of stunting in the 1992–2005 period, while the decline in underweight was greater between 1992 and 1998 than between 1998 and 2005. Social disparities in childhood undernutrition in India either widened or stayed the same during a time of major economic growth. While the advantages of

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood undernutrition in India: analyzing trends between 1992 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Malavika A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Berkman, Lisa F; Subramanian, S V

    2010-06-30

    India experienced a rapid economic boom between 1991 and 2007. However, this economic growth has not translated into improved nutritional status among young Indian children. Additionally, no study has assessed the trends in social disparities in childhood undernutrition in the Indian context. We examined the trends in social disparities in underweight and stunting among Indian children aged less than three years using nationally representative data. We analyzed data from the three cross-sectional rounds of National Family Health Survey of India from 1992, 1998 and 2005. The social factors of interest were: household wealth, maternal education, caste, and urban residence. Using multilevel modeling to account for the nested structure and clustering of data, we fit multivariable logistic regression models to quantify the association between the social factors and the binary outcome variables. The final models additionally included age, gender, birth order of child, religion, and age of mother. We analyzed the trend by testing for interaction of the social factor and survey year in a dataset pooled from all three surveys. While the overall prevalence rates of undernutrition among Indian children less than three decreased over the 1992-2005 period, social disparities in undernutrition over these 14 years either widened or stayed the same. The absolute rates of undernutrition decreased for everyone regardless of their social status. The disparities by household wealth were greater than the disparities by maternal education. There were no disparities in undernutrition by caste, gender or rural residence. There was a steady decrease in the rates of stunting in the 1992-2005 period, while the decline in underweight was greater between 1992 and 1998 than between 1998 and 2005. Social disparities in childhood undernutrition in India either widened or stayed the same during a time of major economic growth. While the advantages of economic growth might be reaching everyone

  18. Time-constrained mother and expanding market: emerging model of under-nutrition in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chaturvedi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of under-nutrition in India despite economic growth continue to challenge political leadership and policy makers at the highest level. The present inductive enquiry was conducted to map the perceptions of mothers and other key stakeholders, to identify emerging drivers of childhood under-nutrition. Methods We conducted a multi-centric qualitative investigation in six empowered action group states of India. The study sample included 509 in-depth interviews with mothers of undernourished and normal nourished children, policy makers, district level managers, implementer and facilitators. Sixty six focus group discussions and 72 non-formal interactions were conducted in two rounds with primary caretakers of undernourished children, Anganwadi Workers and Auxiliary Nurse Midwives. Results Based on the perceptions of the mothers and other key stakeholders, a model evolved inductively showing core themes as drivers of under-nutrition. The most forceful emerging themes were: multitasking, time constrained mother with dwindling family support; fragile food security or seasonal food paucity; child targeted market with wide availability and consumption of ready-to-eat market food items; rising non-food expenditure, in the context of rising food prices; inadequate and inappropriate feeding; delayed recognition of under-nutrition and delayed care seeking; and inadequate responsiveness of health care system and Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS. The study emphasized that the persistence of child malnutrition in India is also tied closely to the high workload and consequent time constraint of mothers who are increasingly pursuing income generating activities and enrolled in paid labour force, without robust institutional support for childcare. Conclusion The emerging framework needs to be further tested through mixed and multiple method research approaches to quantify the contribution of time limitation of

  19. Time-constrained mother and expanding market: emerging model of under-nutrition in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, S; Ramji, S; Arora, N K; Rewal, S; Dasgupta, R; Deshmukh, V

    2016-07-25

    Persistent high levels of under-nutrition in India despite economic growth continue to challenge political leadership and policy makers at the highest level. The present inductive enquiry was conducted to map the perceptions of mothers and other key stakeholders, to identify emerging drivers of childhood under-nutrition. We conducted a multi-centric qualitative investigation in six empowered action group states of India. The study sample included 509 in-depth interviews with mothers of undernourished and normal nourished children, policy makers, district level managers, implementer and facilitators. Sixty six focus group discussions and 72 non-formal interactions were conducted in two rounds with primary caretakers of undernourished children, Anganwadi Workers and Auxiliary Nurse Midwives. Based on the perceptions of the mothers and other key stakeholders, a model evolved inductively showing core themes as drivers of under-nutrition. The most forceful emerging themes were: multitasking, time constrained mother with dwindling family support; fragile food security or seasonal food paucity; child targeted market with wide availability and consumption of ready-to-eat market food items; rising non-food expenditure, in the context of rising food prices; inadequate and inappropriate feeding; delayed recognition of under-nutrition and delayed care seeking; and inadequate responsiveness of health care system and Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS). The study emphasized that the persistence of child malnutrition in India is also tied closely to the high workload and consequent time constraint of mothers who are increasingly pursuing income generating activities and enrolled in paid labour force, without robust institutional support for childcare. The emerging framework needs to be further tested through mixed and multiple method research approaches to quantify the contribution of time limitation of the mother on the current burden of child under-nutrition.

  20. Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 1 in Latin America and the Caribbean: the importance of the choice of indicator for undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K; Chaparro, Camila M; Muñoz, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of using stunting versus underweight as the indicator of child undernutrition for determining whether countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are on track to meet the component of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 pertaining to the eradication of hunger, namely to reduce undernutrition by half between 1990 and 2015. The prevalence of underweight and stunting among children less than 5 years of age was calculated for 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean by applying the WHO Child Growth Standards to nationally-representative, publicly available anthropometric data. The predicted trend (based on the trend in previous years) and the target trend (based on MDG 1) for stunting and underweight were estimated using linear regression. The choice of indicator affects the conclusions regarding which countries are on track to reach MDG 1. All countries are on track when underweight is used to assess progress towards the target prevalence, but only 6 of them are on track when stunting is used instead. Another two countries come within 2 percentage points of the target prevalence of stunting. Whether countries are determined to be on track to meet the nutritional component of MDG 1 or not depends on the choice of stunting versus underweight as the indicator. Unfortunately, underweight is the indicator officially used to monitor progress towards MDG 1. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the use of underweight for this purpose will fail to take account of the large remaining burden of stunting.

  1. Is economic growth associated with reduction in child undernutrition in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Malavika A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Berkman, Lisa F; Subramanian, S V

    2011-03-01

    Economic growth is widely perceived as a major policy instrument in reducing childhood undernutrition in India. We assessed the association between changes in state per capita income and the risk of undernutrition among children in India. Data for this analysis came from three cross-sectional waves of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 in India. The sample sizes in the three waves were 33,816, 30,383, and 28,876 children, respectively. After excluding observations missing on the child anthropometric measures and the independent variables included in the study, the analytic sample size was 28,066, 26,121, and 23,139, respectively, with a pooled sample size of 77,326 children. The proportion of missing data was 12%-20%. The outcomes were underweight, stunting, and wasting, defined as more than two standard deviations below the World Health Organization-determined median scores by age and gender. We also examined severe underweight, severe stunting, and severe wasting. The main exposure of interest was per capita income at the state level at each survey period measured as per capita net state domestic product measured in 2008 prices. We estimated fixed and random effects logistic models that accounted for the clustering of the data. In models that did not account for survey-period effects, there appeared to be an inverse association between state economic growth and risk of undernutrition among children. However, in models accounting for data structure related to repeated cross-sectional design through survey period effects, state economic growth was not associated with the risk of underweight (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.98, 1.04), stunting (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99, 1.05), and wasting (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96, 1.02). Adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic covariates did not alter these estimates. Similar patterns were observed for severe undernutrition outcomes. We failed to find consistent evidence that economic growth leads to

  2. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  3. Maternal undernutrition and fetal developmental programming of obesity: the glucocorticoid connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Branco, Ana; Keating, Elisa; Martel, Fátima

    2015-02-01

    An adequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy is crucial for the health outcome of offspring in adulthood. Maternal undernutrition during critical periods of fetal development can program the fetus for metabolic syndrome (MetS) later in life, especially when postnatally challenged with a hypernutritive diet. Adipogenesis, which begins in utero and accelerates in neonatal life, is a major candidate for developmental programming. During fetal development, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is extremely susceptible to programming, and the HPA tone is increased throughout life in undernourished conditions. As a consequence, an alteration in the expression and function of glucocorticoid (GC) receptors and of the major GC regulatory enzymes (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and -2) occurs. In this review, we will give insights into the role of maternoplacental adverse interactions under the specific context of maternal undernutrition, for later-in-life MetS development, with a special emphasis on the role of GCs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Child overweight and undernutrition in Thailand: is there an urban effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Rebecca; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Peterson, Karen E; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-05-01

    An urban advantage in terms of lower risk of child undernutrition has been observed in many developing countries, but child obesity is often more prevalent in urban than rural areas. This study aimed to assess whether urban-rural disparities in undernutrition and obesity were attributable to concentrations of socioeconomically advantaged children into urban communities or to specific aspects of the urban environment. A sample of 4610 children ages 2-10 years was derived from the 2004 Round of the Kanchanaburi Demographic Surveillance System, monitoring health and demographic change in the province of Kanchanaburi, Thailand. We used multi-level logistic regression to model the odds of short stature, underweight, and obesity for children in 102 communities. Models tested whether child socioeconomic conditions accounted for urban-rural disparities or if aspects of the social and physical environment accounted for disparities, adjusting for child characteristics. 27.8% of children were underweight, while 19.9% had short stature, and 8.3% were obese. Bivariate associations showed urban residence associated with lower risk of undernutrition and a greater risk of obesity. Urban-rural disparities in odds of short stature and underweight were accounted for by child socioeconomic characteristics. Urban residence persisted as a risk factor for obesity after adjusting for child characteristics. Community wealth concentration, television coverage, and sanitation coverage were independently associated with greater risk of obesity. Undernutrition was strongly associated with household poverty, while household affluence and characteristics of the urban environment were associated with odds of obesity. Further research is needed to characterize how urban environments contribute to children's risks of obesity in developing countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrition profile of under-five year rural children and correlates of undernutrition in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkaiah Kodavalla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High prevalence of undernutrition in Madhya Pradesh contributing to high mortality and morbidities among young children. Aims & objectives: to assess prevalence of undernutrition and its co-relates among under 5 year children in Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: It was a community based cross- sectional study carried out in all the districts of Madhya Pradesh, India using systematic random sampling. Results: A total of 22,895 children (Boys:12379, Girls:10516, mean age 26.1 months, SD 15.9, were covered. The overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was about 52%, 49% and 26% respectively. The prevalence was significantly (p<0.01 higher among boys as compared to girls. The risk of underweight, stunting and wasting was significantly higher among children belonging to SC+ST communities (OR: 1.36, 1.21 & 1.23 as compared to others, among children of illiterate parents and landless labourers (OR: 1.27, 1.32 & 1.15. The risk of stunting was significantly higher among children living in HHs without electricity (OR: 1.41 and HHs not using sanitary latrine (OR: 1.29. Similarly, the risk of wasting was significantly higher among households not having access to safe drinking water, mothers not cleaning their hands before feeding and among children with history of morbidity during preceding fortnight. Prevalence of underweight (28%, stunting (17% and wasting (34% was significantly (p<0.01 lower among children who were exclusively breast fed up to 6 months. Conclusions: Multiple risk factors are associated with childhood undernutrition and needs multi-pronged and multi-sector approach to tackle the problem. The results will help planners to develop and implement appropriate intervention strategies, for effective control and prevention of undernutrition among under-five year children in Madhya Pradesh

  6. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G; Walker, Susan P; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Christian, Parul; de Onis, Mercedes; Ezzati, Majid; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Katz, Joanne; Martorell, Reynaldo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-08-03

    Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a steady increase since 1980 and exceeds that of underweight in all regions. Prevalence of stunting of linear growth of children younger than 5 years has decreased during the past two decades, but is higher in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere and globally affected at least 165 million children in 2011; wasting affected at least 52 million children. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc result in deaths; deficiencies of iodine and iron, together with stunting, can contribute to children not reaching their developmental potential. Maternal undernutrition contributes to fetal growth restriction, which increases the risk of neonatal deaths and, for survivors, of stunting by 2 years of age. Suboptimum breastfeeding results in an increased risk for mortality in the first 2 years of life. We estimate that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011. Maternal overweight and obesity result in increased maternal morbidity and infant mortality. Childhood overweight is becoming an increasingly important contributor to adult obesity, diabetes, and non-communicable diseases. The high present and future disease burden caused by malnutrition in women of reproductive age, pregnancy, and children in the first 2 years of life should lead to interventions focused on these groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High Prevalence of Undernutrition among Elderly People in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Molla Mesele Wassie

    2014-01-01

    "Background: Nutritional status of elderly is an important determinant of their health and quality of life. Elderly people are more vulnerable for nutritional insults as compared to adults. Undernutrition among elderly people is becoming significantly high regardless of the progress on health care system. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of under nutrition among elderly people in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional st...

  8. Estimation of undernutrition and mean calorie intake in Africa: methodology, findings and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubé Maarten

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As poverty and hunger are basic yardsticks of underdevelopment and destitution, the need for reliable statistics in this domain is self-evident. While the measurement of poverty through surveys is relatively well documented in the literature, for hunger, information is much scarcer, particularly for adults, and very different methodologies are applied for children and adults. Our paper seeks to improve on this practice in two ways. One is that we estimate the prevalence of undernutrition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA for both children and adults based on anthropometric data available at province or district level, and secondly, we estimate the mean calorie intake and implied calorie gap for SSA, also using anthropometric data on the same geographical aggregation level. Results Our main results are, first, that we find a much lower prevalence of hunger than presented in the Millennium Development reports (17.3% against 27.8% for the continent as a whole. Secondly, we find that there is much less spread in mean calorie intake across the continent than reported by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO in the State of Food and Agriculture, 2007, the only estimate that covers the whole of Africa. While FAO estimates for calorie availability vary from a low of 1760 Kcal/capita/day for Central Africa to a high of 2825 Kcal/capita/day for Southern Africa, our estimates lay in a range of 2245 Kcal/capita/day (Eastern Africa to 2618 Kcal/capita/day for Southern Africa. Thirdly, we validate the main data sources used (the Demographic and Health Surveys by comparing them over time and with other available data sources for various countries. Conclusion We conclude that the picture of Africa that emerges from anthropometric data is much less negative than that usually presented. Especially for Eastern and Central Africa, the nutritional status is less critical than commonly assumed and also mean calorie intake is higher, which implies

  9. Estimation of undernutrition and mean calorie intake in Africa: methodology, findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, Cornelia F A; Keyzer, Michiel A; Nubé, Maarten

    2009-06-27

    As poverty and hunger are basic yardsticks of underdevelopment and destitution, the need for reliable statistics in this domain is self-evident. While the measurement of poverty through surveys is relatively well documented in the literature, for hunger, information is much scarcer, particularly for adults, and very different methodologies are applied for children and adults. Our paper seeks to improve on this practice in two ways. One is that we estimate the prevalence of undernutrition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for both children and adults based on anthropometric data available at province or district level, and secondly, we estimate the mean calorie intake and implied calorie gap for SSA, also using anthropometric data on the same geographical aggregation level. Our main results are, first, that we find a much lower prevalence of hunger than presented in the Millennium Development reports (17.3% against 27.8% for the continent as a whole). Secondly, we find that there is much less spread in mean calorie intake across the continent than reported by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in the State of Food and Agriculture, 2007, the only estimate that covers the whole of Africa. While FAO estimates for calorie availability vary from a low of 1760 Kcal/capita/day for Central Africa to a high of 2825 Kcal/capita/day for Southern Africa, our estimates lay in a range of 2245 Kcal/capita/day (Eastern Africa) to 2618 Kcal/capita/day for Southern Africa. Thirdly, we validate the main data sources used (the Demographic and Health Surveys) by comparing them over time and with other available data sources for various countries. We conclude that the picture of Africa that emerges from anthropometric data is much less negative than that usually presented. Especially for Eastern and Central Africa, the nutritional status is less critical than commonly assumed and also mean calorie intake is higher, which implies that agricultural production and hence income must also

  10. Undernutrition and oxidative stress as risk factors for high blood pressure in older Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa

    2009-01-01

    To determine the relationship between undernutrition and oxidative stress as risk factors for high blood pressure (HBP) in older Mexican adults. We carried out a case-control study in a convenience sample of 62 older adults, 60-80 years of age; 32 without HBP (mean age 75.8 +/- 5.1 years) and 30 with HBP (mean age 65.2 +/- 6.8 years). We measured serum lipoperoxide (LPO) levels, antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant activity and lipid profile; in addition, we evaluated the nutritional status with anthropometric measurements, the Mini Nutritional Assessment and food intake frequency. Data were analyzed with Student t and odds ratio (OR) statistical tests. We observed significantly higher LPO levels in subjects with HBP than in normotensive subjects (0.303 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.256 +/- 0.06 micromol/l; p or = 0.320 micromol/l) and an OR of 5.0 (95% CI 1.1-23.0, p < 0.05) in those with undernutrition. Our findings suggest that high LPO levels and undernutrition are significant risk factors for HBP. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. High prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia: a nationwide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Takuro; Suzuki, Yutaro; Yamazaki, Manabu; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Mori, Takao; Ozeki, Yuji; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Minami, Yoshitake; Okamoto, Kurefu; Sagae, Toyoaki; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity, and laboratory data for nutritional status in Japanese outpatients and inpatients with schizophrenia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A questionnaire conducted in inpatient and outpatient facilities in Japan. Participants The population of adult patients with schizophrenia in Japan (N=23 116). Main outcome measures The prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia. Results We conducted a large-scale investigation of the prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in 520 outpatient facilities and 247 inpatient facilities belonging to the Japan Psychiatric Hospitals Association between January 2012 and July 2013. There were 7655 outpatients and 15 461 inpatients with schizophrenia. There was a significant difference in the distribution of three body mass index levels between outpatients and inpatients (punderweight inpatients with schizophrenia was significantly higher than that among outpatients (punderweight individuals aged ≥40 years was higher in inpatients than in outpatients and in the general Japanese population. The proportion of individuals with hypocholesterolaemia was significantly higher in inpatients with schizophrenia than in outpatients (punderweight between outpatients and inpatients with schizophrenia; the proportion of severe underweight in inpatients was twofold higher than in outpatients. Conclusions The prevalence of underweight and undernutrition in Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia was higher than in outpatients and the general population. Therefore, the physical risk of inpatients should be carefully considered in clinical practice. PMID:26656016

  12. Epigenetic changes in fetal hypothalamic energy regulating pathways are associated with maternal undernutrition and twinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Ghazala; Stevens, Adam; Smith, Emma Bolton; Connor, Kristin; Challis, John R G; Bloomfield, Frank; White, Anne

    2012-04-01

    Undernutrition during pregnancy is implicated in the programming of offspring for the development of obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal programming causes epigenetic changes in fetal hypothalamic pathways regulating metabolism. This study used sheep to examine the effect of moderate maternal undernutrition (60 d before to 30 d after mating) and twinning to investigate changes in the key metabolic regulators proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in fetal hypothalami. Methylation of the fetal hypothalamic POMC promoter was reduced in underfed singleton, fed twin, and underfed twin groups (60, 73, and 63% decrease, respectively). This was associated with reduced DNA methyltransferase activity and altered histone methylation and acetylation. Methylation of the hypothalamic GR promoter was decreased in both twin groups and in maternally underfed singleton fetuses (52, 65, and 55% decrease, respectively). This correlated with changes in histone methylation and acetylation and increased GR mRNA expression in the maternally underfed singleton group. Alterations in GR were hypothalamic specific, with no changes in hippocampi. Unaltered levels of OCT4 promoter methylation indicated gene-specific effects. In conclusion, twinning and periconceptional undernutrition are associated with epigenetic changes in fetal hypothalamic POMC and GR genes, potentially resulting in altered energy balance regulation in the offspring.

  13. CO-EXISTENCE OF OVER- AND UNDERNUTRITION RELATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate nutrition is a basic human right, but globally it remains unmet for many pre-school children. Poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition continue to be obstacles to human rights, quality of life and dignity. The 1995 goal to eradicate poverty in the world by 2020 is not on target in developing countries; rather, poverty ...

  14. Undernutrition and its determinants among daily laborers working in Cobblestone project in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geteneh Moges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Undernutrition is among the most significant public health problems in the world. It is an important underlying cause of illness and death in Africa and imposes a huge cost both in human and economic terms. The aim of this study is to assess the level of undernutrition and its determinants among daily laborers working in cobblestone projects, Yeka Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A workplace-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 cobblestone daily laborers from February 20 to April 1, 2015. Systematic random sampling method was employed (with proportional allocation in three cobblestone project sites. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements (weight and height were used to collect the data. The data was entered by Epi Info version 3.5.3 then transferred to SPSS version 20 for data analysis. Results Overall, 423 respondents (of which 300, or 71%, were male participated in this study, making the response rate 100%. Among the study participants, 141 (33.3%; 95% CI: 28.8 - 38.0 were underweight (BMI<18.50. Males were more likely to experience underweight than their female counterparts: 112 (37.3% versus 29 (23.6%. Educational status, family size, income, dietary diversity and smoking had statistical significance with undernutrition in multivariate analysis. Study participants who had no education were significantly more likely to be undernourished [AOR = 7.83; 95% CI (3.78, 16.22] compared with those above secondary level education. Daily laborers with a larger family size (≥3 were three times [AOR=2.88; 95%CI; 1.54-5.40] more likely to be undernourished compared to low family size (≤2. Daily laborers who had low monthly income (<1500 ETB were significantly more likely to be undernourished [AOR= 9.77; 95%CI (4.92, 19.39] than those with high income (≥2500 ETB. Daily laborers who smoke were significantly more likely to be undernourished [AOR = 2.02; 95% CI (1.06 – 3

  15. Sensitive Index to Assess Risk of Morbidity in Undernutrition | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Nutrition Foundation of India (NFI) has put forward a new hypotheses: in Indian children, among whom stunting is common, body mass index (BMI) for age is a more sensitive index than stunting and underweight for ... Mise au point d'un indice précis pour évaluer le risque de morbidité associé à la sous-alimentation.

  16. Fetal programming of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3: evidence for an altered response to undernutrition in late gestation following exposure to periconceptual undernutrition in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, B W; Breier, B H; Keven, C L; Harding, J E; Gluckman, P D

    1998-12-01

    It has been demonstrated in several animal models that undernutrition in utero has significant long lasting effects on subsequent fetal and postnatal development. To address the hypothesis that the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may mediate such effects, our study examined whether a period of periconceptual maternal undernutrition could have a lasting influence on the IGF axis in the fetal sheep. Ewes were either allowed to feed ad libitum or kept undernourished from day 60 prior to mating until day 30 after conception, and then both groups were allowed to feed ad libitum. These groups were further divided at day 105 of gestation, either being fed ad libitum or undernourished until day 115 of gestation. Fetal and maternal blood samples were obtained at both day 105 and 115 of gestation. We describe the development of a specific homologous RIA to measure ovine IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in fetal and maternal sheep plasma. Fetal plasma IGFBP-3 and IGF-I concentrations were significantly (Pfetal plasma IGFBP-2 levels were unchanged. The degree of reduction in fetal plasma IGFBP-3 and IGF-I between day 105 and 115 of gestation as a response to acute maternal undernutrition was significantly greater (Pfetal plasma IGFBP-3 concentrations were not the result of increased proteolytic activity. These results suggest that exposure to maternal periconceptual undernutrition reprograms IGFBP-3 and IGF-I regulation in the developing sheep fetus, altering its response to undernutrition in late gestation.

  17. Maternal and child under-nutrition in rural and urban communities of Lagos state, Nigeria: the relationship and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor nutritional status of mothers has a direct and indirect consequence on their own health and that of their children. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status of mothers and their children and the risk factors for under-nutrition among mothers and children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross sectional survey conducted using the multistage random sampling technique. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, consisting of 150 each from rural and urban communities. Under-nutrition in mothers and children was determined using standard criteria. Results The prevalence of under-nutrition among mothers was significantly higher in rural than urban communities (10.7% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.014). The prevalences of underweight and stunted children were also significantly higher in rural than urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, p maternal and child under nutrition differs across rural and urban communities. Conclusions The prevalence of maternal and child under-nutrition is high in both communities although higher in rural communities. Efforts at reducing the vicious cycle of under-nutrition among mothers and children should concentrate on addressing risk factors specific for each community. PMID:23880121

  18. Does planning of births affect childhood undernutrition? Evidence from demographic and health surveys of selected South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Juel; Goli, Srinivas

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of child undernutrition in South Asia is high, as is also the unmet need for family planning. In previous literature, the biodemographic relationship of family planning, particularly birth order and birth spacing, and nutritional status of children have been assessed separately. The aim of this study was to work on the hypothesis that the planning of births comprising timing, spacing, and number of births improves child undernutrition, especially in the areas with high prevalence of stunting and underweight. We used recent Demographic and Health Survey data from four selected South Asian countries. Binary logistic regression models were applied to estimate the adjusted percentage of stunting and underweight by identified independent factors. Findings suggested that after controlling for other socioeconomic factors, children in the first birth order with >24 mo of interval between marriage and first birth have a lower risk for stunting (20%; p planning of births. The probability of child undernutrition is lower among children born with >24 mo of birth spacing than its counterpart in all birth orders, but the significance of birth spacing reduces with increasing birth orders. Appropriate planning of births using family planning methods in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce childhood undernutrition. Thus, the planning of births emerges as an important biodemographic approach to eradicate childhood undernutrition especially in developing regions like South Asia and thereby to achieve sustainable development goals by 2030. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Wilma B; Silva-Jaramillo, Katherine M; Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Belmont, Philippe; Waters, William F

    2014-12-01

    Ecuador's current nutrition policies have not taken adequate notice of the double burden of malnutrition and continue to focus on stunting and to a lesser extent on overweight, without addressing the simultaneous presence of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight or obesity (OW/OB). The aim of this article was to describe the prevalence and distribution of undernutrition (stunting, anemia, and zinc deficiency), overweight, and obesity in Ecuador to explore the evolving double burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels and to discuss whether current public health policies are addressing the double burden. Data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) was used to estimate the dual burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels in children <5 y old, school-aged children, and women of reproductive age. In 13.1% of households, mothers with excess body weight coexist with a stunted child <5 y old. Moreover, among households with overweight or obese mothers, 12.6% have an anemic child and 14% have a zinc-deficient child. At the individual levels, the coexistence of OW/OB and stunting, anemia, or zinc deficiency was found in 2.8%, 0.7%, and 8.4% of school-aged children, respectively. In addition, 8.9% and 32.6% of women aged 12-49 y have excess body weight and anemia or zinc deficiency, respectively. This article shows the coexistence of high rates of undernutrition and OW/OB at the individual, household, and national levels in Ecuador. Although integrated approaches to address the emerging double burden are required, public health policies to date have not responded adequately. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Laura E; de Onis, Mercedes; Blössner, Monika; Black, Robert E

    2004-07-01

    Previous analyses derived the relative risk (RR) of dying as a result of low weight-for-age and calculated the proportion of child deaths worldwide attributable to underweight. The objectives were to examine whether the risk of dying because of underweight varies by cause of death and to estimate the fraction of deaths by cause attributable to underweight. Data were obtained from investigators of 10 cohort studies with both weight-for-age category (-1 SD) and cause of death information. All 10 studies contributed information on weight-for-age and risk of diarrhea, pneumonia, and all-cause mortality; however, only 6 studies contributed information on deaths because of measles, and only 3 studies contributed information on deaths because of malaria or fever. With use of weighted random effects models, we related the log mortality rate by cause and anthropometric status in each study to derive cause-specific RRs of dying because of undernutrition. Prevalences of each weight-for-age category were obtained from analyses of 310 national nutrition surveys. With use of the RR and prevalence information, we then calculated the fraction of deaths by cause attributable to undernutrition. The RR of mortality because of low weight-for-age was elevated for each cause of death and for all-cause mortality. Overall, 52.5% of all deaths in young children were attributable to undernutrition, varying from 44.8% for deaths because of measles to 60.7% for deaths because of diarrhea. A significant proportion of deaths in young children worldwide is attributable to low weight-for-age, and efforts to reduce malnutrition should be a policy priority.

  1. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Symeon

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10, early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10 and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10. During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (P<0.05. At kindling, C does produced litters with higher proportions of stillborn kits (P<0.05 while the total litter size (alive and stillborn kits was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively. Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values at slaughter (70 days of age. Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  2. Prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in relation to undernutrition among children in a tea plantation community, Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgamuwa, Lahiru Sandaruwan; Iddawela, Devika; Dharmaratne, Samath D

    2018-01-25

    Ascaris lumbricoides infections are one of the commonnest intestinal nematode infections in the world, with a profound negative effect on nutritional status among underprivileged populations. In Sri Lanka, Ascaris infections and low nutritional status still persist in the plantation sector. However, research regarding the association between Ascaris infections and nutritional status is scarce. The main purpose of this study was to determine the association between Ascaris infections and physical growth among children in a plantation sector in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted among 489 children aged between 1 and 12 years ina plantation sector, Sri Lanka, from January to April 2013. Anthropometric measurements were collected to assess height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) to determine stunting, underweight and wasting respectively. Data on socio-demographic and antihelminthic treatment were ascertained using an interviewer administrated structured questionnaire. Stool samples were subjected to wet mount preparation followed byformaldehyde-ether sedimentation technique to diagnose Ascaris infection and a Kato Katz technique was performed to determine the eggs intensity. AnthroPlus, EpiInfo and SPSS software was used to analyze data. Of the study sample, 38.4% showed Ascaris lumbricoides infections. Light intensity infections (51%) were common in the infected children, followed by moderate (30%) and heavy (19%) infections. Prevalence of Ascaris infections was significantly associated with de-worming more than six months prior to the study. Prevalence of undernutrition among children was 61.7%. Forty-five per cent were underweight, while 24.1% and 21.5% of children were stunted and wasted respectively. However, no significant association was found between Ascaris infections status and undernutrition. Meanwhile, heavy intensity infections were associated with decreased values of WHZ (p = 0.020). Ascaris infections

  3. Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

  4. Decomposing the Gap in Childhood Undernutrition between Poor and Non–Poor in Urban India, 2005–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the growing evidence from other developing countries, intra-urban inequality in childhood undernutrition is poorly researched in India. Additionally, the factors contributing to the poor/non-poor gap in childhood undernutrition have not been explored. This study aims to quantify the contribution of factors that explain the poor/non-poor gap in underweight, stunting, and wasting among children aged less than five years in urban India. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–06. Descriptive statistics were used to understand the gap in childhood undernutrition between the urban poor and non-poor, and across the selected covariates. Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to explain the factors contributing to the average gap in undernutrition between poor and non-poor children in urban India. Result Considerable proportions of urban children were found to be underweight (33%), stunted (40%), and wasted (17%) in 2005–06. The undernutrition gap between the poor and non-poor was stark in urban India. For all the three indicators, the main contributing factors were underutilization of health care services, poor body mass index of the mothers, and lower level of parental education among those living in poverty. Conclusions The findings indicate that children belonging to poor households are undernourished due to limited use of health care services, poor health of mothers, and poor educational status of their parents. Based on the findings the study suggests that improving the public services such as basic health care and the education level of the mothers among urban poor can ameliorate the negative impact of poverty on childhood undernutrition. PMID:23734231

  5. Decomposing the gap in childhood undernutrition between poor and non-poor in urban India, 2005-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing evidence from other developing countries, intra-urban inequality in childhood undernutrition is poorly researched in India. Additionally, the factors contributing to the poor/non-poor gap in childhood undernutrition have not been explored. This study aims to quantify the contribution of factors that explain the poor/non-poor gap in underweight, stunting, and wasting among children aged less than five years in urban India. We used cross-sectional data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005-06. Descriptive statistics were used to understand the gap in childhood undernutrition between the urban poor and non-poor, and across the selected covariates. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to explain the factors contributing to the average gap in undernutrition between poor and non-poor children in urban India. Considerable proportions of urban children were found to be underweight (33%), stunted (40%), and wasted (17%) in 2005-06. The undernutrition gap between the poor and non-poor was stark in urban India. For all the three indicators, the main contributing factors were underutilization of health care services, poor body mass index of the mothers, and lower level of parental education among those living in poverty. The findings indicate that children belonging to poor households are undernourished due to limited use of health care services, poor health of mothers, and poor educational status of their parents. Based on the findings the study suggests that improving the public services such as basic health care and the education level of the mothers among urban poor can ameliorate the negative impact of poverty on childhood undernutrition.

  6. Adoption of Moringa oleifera to combat under-nutrition viewed through the lens of the "Diffusion of innovations" theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Melanie D; Fahey, Jed W

    2009-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, an edible tree found worldwide in the dry tropics, is increasingly being used for nutritional supplementation. Its nutrient-dense leaves are high in protein quality, leading to its widespread use by doctors, healers, nutritionists and community leaders, to treat under-nutrition and a variety of illnesses. Despite the fact that no rigorous clinical trial has tested its efficacy for treating under-nutrition, the adoption of M. oleifera continues to increase. The "Diffusion of innovations theory" describes well, the evidence for growth and adoption of dietary M. oleifera leaves, and it highlights the need for a scientific consensus on the nutritional benefits. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  7. Living alone, receiving help, helplessness, and inactivity are strongly related to risk of undernutrition among older home-dwelling people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomstad ST

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Solveig T Tomstad1, Ulrika Söderhamn2, Geir Arild Espnes3, Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway and Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Being at risk of undernutrition is a global problem among older people. Undernutrition can be considered inadequate nutritional status, characterized by insufficient food intake and weight loss. There is a lack of Norwegian studies focusing on being at risk of undernutrition and self-care ability, sense of coherence, and health-related issues among older home-dwelling people.Aim: To describe the prevalence of being at risk of undernutrition among a group of older home-dwelling individuals in Norway, and to relate the results to reported self-care ability, sense of coherence, perceived health and other health-related issues.Methods: A cross-sectional design was applied. A questionnaire with instruments for nutritional screening, self-care ability, and sense of coherence, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 450 persons (aged 65+ years in southern Norway. The study group included 158 (35.1% participants. Data were analysed using statistical methods.Results: The results showed that 19% of the participants were at medium risk of undernutrition and 1.3% at high risk. Due to the low response rate it can be expected that the nonparticipants can be at risk of undernutrition. The nutritional at-risk group had lower self-care ability and weaker sense of coherence. Living alone, receiving help

  8. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  9. Undernutrition status and associated factors in under-5 children, in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Mussie; Tinsae, Fitiwi; Haileslassie, Kiday; Seid, Oumer; Gebregziabher, Gebremedhin; Yebyo, Henock

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and associated factors in children sources (AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.09-4.14). In all children, initiation of breast-feeding within 1 to 3 h after birth (AOR, 4.06; 95% CI, 1.77-9.33), having mothers who could make financial decisions (AOR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.02-0.51), and being breast-fed for 12 to 23 mo (AOR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.40) were predictors of wasting. Moreover, in girls (AOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.25, 2.69), initiation of breast-feeding 6 h after birth (AOR, 12.94; 95% CI, 4.04-41.49) and having mothers who could make financial decisions (AOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.74) were predictors of being underweight. The undernutrition status among children sex, source of water, parents' educational status, type of food used for starting of complementary feeding, and mothers' financial decision-making ability could have an influence in undernutrition of children in this age group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Peanuts, Aflatoxins and Undernutrition in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Innocent Mupunga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the point of weaning infants from mother’s milk. It is at this critical point that childhood undernutrition occurs and the condition manifests as stunting, wasting and growth restriction and accounts for nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age in SSA. Undernutrition is multi-factorial but weaning foods contaminated with microbiological agents (bacteria and fungi and natural toxins have been shown to play a big part. While peanuts may provide good nutrition, they are also highly prone to contamination with mycotoxigenic fungi. The high nutritive value of peanuts makes them a perfect substrate for fungal growth and potential aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxins. This article reviews the nutritional value and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts, the role they play in the development of childhood malnutrition (including the different theories of aetiology and immunological problems in children. We also discuss the control strategies that have been explored and advocacy work currently taking shape in Africa to create more awareness of aflatoxins and thus combat their occurrence with the goal of reducing exposure and enhancing trade and food safety.

  11. Under-nutrition among adolescents: a survey in five secondary schools in rural Goa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sohini; Dias, Amit; Shinkre, Rajal; Patel, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    This study was done in 2008-09 to assess the nutritional status among adolescents (10-19 years of age, Classes V-XII) in 5 schools in rural Goa to inform the content of a health promotion intervention in these schools. Three methods were used. First, nutritional status was measured by assessing body mass index among 1015 students during a health camp in each school. Second, a diet analysis was done to measure energy and protein Intake of 76 randomly selected underweight students. Third, a self-report questionnaire survey measured the prevalence of hunger among 684 students. One-third of students (338; 37.8% boys and 27.5% girls) who attended the health camps were underweight and 59.2% of the 684 students who completed the survey reported experiencing hunger due to inadequate food consumption. More boys were underweight than girls (pissue and ways to address it. There is an immediate need to address the high burden of hunger and under-nutrition in adolescents of both sexes in schools by instituting routine annual monitoring of nutritional status, extending the mid-day meal programme to all school-going adolescents, providing nutritional counselling for underweight adolescents and expanding research on the causes and impact of under-nutrition and evaluation of the impact of the enhanced mid-day meal programme.

  12. Assessment of undernutrition among children below 5, using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF

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    Garima Gupta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: SDG 2.2 aims to end all forms of malnutrition by 2030. Weight for age estimate misses out chronic and acute on chronic malnutrition. An aggregate indicator-the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF can help in addressing this concern. Aim & Objective: To assess the nutritional status of under five children using CIAF and compare it with other indices. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in a resettlement colony of Delhi, between June to July 2015. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard operative procedures. Mothers of the study children were interviewed to obtain relevant information. Z scores were calculated using WHO-ANTHRO software. Nutritional status indicators were determined as per the World Health Organization 2006 child growth standards. Results: A total of 100 under-5 children were assessed. The prevalence of CIAF was 62% in our study. 35% of children were found to be underweight, 25% were wasted and 43% stunted. Mid Upper Arm Circumference detected 58.5% as undernourished. Using weight-for-age criterion for identifying undernourished children led to underestimation of the prevalence by 27%. Conclusion: CIAF can be used to provide a single, aggregated assessment of undernutrition. Use of this tool by field level workers will improve the diagnosis of undernutrition and help in early initiation of treatment.

  13. Understanding the Rapid Reduction of Undernutrition in Nepal, 2001-2011.

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    Derek D Headey

    Full Text Available South Asia has long been synonymous with unusually high rates of undernutrition. In the past decade, however, Nepal has arguably achieved the fastest recorded decline in child stunting in the world and has done so in the midst of civil war and post-conflict political instability. Given recent interest in reducing undernutrition-particularly the role of nutrition-sensitive policies-this paper aims to quantitatively understand this surprising success story by analyzing the 2001, 2006, and 2011 rounds of Nepal's Demographic Health Surveys. To do so, we construct models of the intermediate determinants of child and maternal nutritional change and then decompose predicted changes in nutrition outcomes over time. We identify four broad drivers of change: asset accumulation, health and nutrition interventions, maternal educational gains, and improvements in sanitation. Many of these changes were clearly influenced by policy decisions, including increased public investments in health and education and community-led health and sanitation campaigns. Other factors, such as rapid growth in migration-based remittances, are more a reflection of household responses to changing political and economic circumstances.

  14. Prenatal undernutrition disrupted the sexual maturation, but not the sexual behavior, in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Iwasa, Takeshi; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tokui, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Sumika; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to various stressors, including psychological, metabolic, and immune, in the perinatal period induces long-lasting effects in physiological function and increase the risk of metabolic disorders in later life. In the present study, sexual maturation and sexual behavior were assessed in prenatally undernourished mature male rats. All the pregnant rats were divided into the maternal normal nutrition (mNN) group and the maternal undernutrition (mUN) group. The mUN mothers received 50% of the amount of the daily food intake of the mNN mothers. Preputial separation and sexual behavior were observed in randomly selected pups of the mNN and mUN groups. The body weight of the mothers was significantly lighter in the mUN group than in the mNN group. Similarly, the pups in the mUN group showed a significantly lower body weight than those in the mNN group from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 15. The preputial separation day was significantly delayed in the mUN group, compared to the mNN group. Sexual behavior did not show any significant difference between the two groups. These findings indicated that prenatal undernutrition delayed sexual maturation, but did not suppress sexual behavior, in mature male rats.

  15. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  16. Nutritional intervention in acute heart failure patients with undernutrition and normalbuminemia: A subgroup analysis of PICNIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Ortega, Esmeralda; Bonilla-Palomas, Juan L; Gámez-López, Antonio L; Moreno-Conde, Mirian; López-Ibáñez, María C; Alhambra-Expósito, Rosa; Anguita Sánchez, Manuel

    2017-07-14

    Hypoalbuminemia is common in acute heart failure (HF) patients and has been associated with increased hospital mortality and long-term mortality. Undernutrition is a factor causing hypoalbuminemia. The PICNIC study results show that a nutritional intervention in undernourished acute HF patients reduces the risks of all-cause death and of readmission for HF. We aimed to investigate whether the efficacy of a nutritional intervention is consistent among the subgroups of patients with and without hypoalbuminemia. In PICNIC study, a total of 120 malnourished hospitalized patients due to acute HF were randomized to conventional HF treatment or conventional HF treatment combined with an individualized nutritional intervention. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death or readmission for worsening of HF, with a maximum follow-up of 12 months. In this post-hoc sub-analysis we assessed the interaction of the effects of a nutritional intervention among patients with and without hypoalbuminemia. Analysis was by intention to treat. 59 (49,2%) patients demonstrated hypoalbuminemia and 61 (50,8%) had normalbuminemia. At 12 months, the number of events for the primary endpoint in the intervention group compared with the control group was consistent among patients with hypoalbuminemia (28.6% intervention vs 61.3% control, HR 0,35, 95% CI 0,15-0,81) and those without (25.8% intervention vs 60% control, HR 0,35, 95% CI 0,15-0,79; interaction p = 0,86). There was no evidence that the relative efficacy of a nutritional intervention in undernourished acute HF patients was different between patients with normalbuminemia and those with hypoalbuminemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors: A cross-sectional study among rural adolescents in West Bengal, India

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    Amitava Pal

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Poverty is found to be an important factor of undernutrition among the adolescents. So there is a require to implement well-thought poverty reduction actions along with providing mass education regarding nutrition and health with a special focus on economically and socially deprived sections of the society.

  18. UNDERNUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY IN GOATS AND SHEEP, THEIR REPERCUSSION ON MOTHER-YOUNG RELATIONSHIP AND BEHAVIOURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE YOUNG

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    Angelica Terrazas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Undernutrition during pregnancy dramatically affects physiology and behaviour of mother and offspring. In the mother, undernutrition causes low body condition, which deteriorates good milk production. Likewise, it affects metabolism endocrinology and learning processes controls on offspring. Effects on females can be observed if the animal is exposed to nutrient restriction, as well as by limiting consumption, which may induce to a state of frustration due to need for food. Once given birth, consequences in the mother are mainly reflected by a poor maternal performance, low milk production, loss of body condition and limited bonding with the neonate. In the offspring case, the effects of undernutrition in prenatal life are immediate and can be observed, such as low weight at birth, lack of vitality and viability, as well as cognitive processes deterioration. Therefore, this situation may have immediate and long-term repercussions, such as: postnatal death, and alterations in cognitive capacity and normal behaviour. Conversely, it has been shown in goats that supplemental nutrition at the end of pregnancy can be a strategy that can eliminate and revert the majority of physiological and behavioural abnormalities previously mentioned. The aim of the present work is to describe the findings of undernutrition effects, during pregnancy in goats and ewes, on mother-young relationship and behavioural development of kids in the first months of life.

  19. Undernutrition, fatty acid and micronutrient status in relation to cognitive performance in Indian school children: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, A.; Muthayya, S.; Knaap, van der H.; Srinivasan, K.; Thomas, T.; Kok, F.J.; Kurpad, A.V.; Osendarp, S.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    While undernutrition and anaemia have previously been linked to poor development of children, relatively little is known about the role of B-vitamins and fatty acids on cognition. The present study aims to explore the associations between indicators of body size, fatty acid and micronutrient status

  20. Household Food Insecurity, Low Dietary Diversity, and Early Marriage Were Predictors for Undernutrition among Pregnant Women Residing in Gambella, Ethiopia

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    Mamo Nigatu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal undernutrition affects the health of both mothers and children and, as a result, has broad impacts on economic and social development. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess magnitude of undernutrition and associated factors among pregnant women in Gambella town, 2014. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 338 randomly selected pregnant women from March to April 2014. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Result. The prevalence of undernutrition among pregnant women in Gambella town was 28.6%. Pregnant women who were married before their age of eighteen, who were from food insecure households, and who had low dietary diversity score were nearly four (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.2–6.9, two (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI : 1.2–3.6, and two (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3–4.16 times more likely to be undernourished as compared to their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion. Prevalence of undernutrition among pregnant women in Gambella town was unacceptably high. Stake holders should give due consideration to health education to delay age at first marriage and mainstreaming and strengthening nutritional activities that contribute to reduction of food insecurity and consumption of unbalanced nutrients.

  1. Eradication of measles: remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Heidemarie; Hengel, Hartmut; Tenbusch, Matthias; Doerr, H W

    2016-06-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is an aerosol-borne and one of the most contagious pathogenic viruses known. Almost every MeV infection becomes clinically manifest and can lead to serious and even fatal complications, especially under conditions of malnutrition in developing countries, where still 115,000 to 160,000 patients die from measles every year. There is no specific antiviral treatment. In addition, MeV infections cause long-lasting memory B and T cell impairment, predisposing people susceptible to opportunistic infections for years. A rare, but fatal long-term consequence of measles is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Fifteen years ago (2001), WHO has launched a programme to eliminate measles by a worldwide vaccination strategy. This is promising, because MeV is a human-specific morbillivirus (i.e. without relevant animal reservoir), safe and potent vaccine viruses are sufficiently produced since decades for common application, and millions of vaccine doses have been used globally without any indications of safety and efficacy issues. Though the prevalence of wild-type MeV infection has decreased by >90 % in Europe, measles is still not eliminated and has even re-emerged with recurrent outbreaks in developed countries, in which effective vaccination programmes had been installed for decades. Here, we discuss the crucial factors for a worldwide elimination of MeV: (1) efficacy of current vaccines, (2) the extremely high contagiosity of MeV demanding a >95 % vaccination rate based on two doses to avoid primary vaccine failure as well as the installation of catch-up vaccination programmes to fill immunity gaps and to achieve herd immunity, (3) the implications of sporadic cases of secondary vaccine failure, (4) organisation, acceptance and drawbacks of modern vaccination campaigns, (5) waning public attention to measles, but increasing concerns from vaccine-associated adverse reactions in societies with high socio-economic standards and (6) clinical

  2. Forensic dentistry: 1. Identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A

    2007-12-01

    For many forensic dentists the identification of found human remains will comprise the majority of their case work. However, there is rarely a typical dental identification. The resilience of teeth and their supporting tissues to peri- and post-mortem assaults provides a wealth of information for those interested in the identity of the deceased. Chemical attack, burning, burial, submersion, and even severe head and neck trauma are all withstood by the dentition to an extent where identification is possible. The lack of a tentative identification or failure to locate dental or similar ante-mortem records is a more common reason for an odontological investigation to fail. The purpose of this review is to describe the techniques employed by forensic dentists to identify human remains and also to provide details of some of the novel developments within this area.

  3. Poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries: a multi-national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Stavros; Kupek, Emil

    2010-10-01

    The importance of reducing childhood undernutrition has been enshrined in the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the relationship between alternative indicators of poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries within the context of a multi-national cohort study (Young Lives). Approximately 2000 children in each of four countries - Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam - had their heights measured and were weighed when they were aged between 6 and 17 months (survey one) and again between 4.5 and 5.5 years (survey two). The anthropometric outcomes of stunted, underweight and wasted were calculated using World Health Organization 2006 reference standards. Maximum-likelihood probit estimation was employed to model the relationship within each country and survey between alternative measures of living standards (principally a wealth index developed using principal components analysis) and each anthropometric outcome. An extensive set of covariates was incorporated into the models to remove as much individual heterogeneity as possible. The fully adjusted models revealed a negative and statistically significant coefficient on wealth for all outcomes in all countries, with the exception of the outcome of wasted in India (Andhra Pradesh) and Vietnam (survey one) and the outcome of underweight in Vietnam (surveys one and two). In survey one, the partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of stunting, being underweight and wasting was to reduce them by between 1.4 and 5.1 percentage points, 1.0 and 6.4 percentage points, and 0.3 and 4.5 percentage points, respectively, with each unit (10%) increase in wealth. The partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of anthropometric outcomes were larger in the survey two models. In both surveys, children residing in the lowest wealth quintile households had significantly increased probabilities of being stunted in all four study countries and of being underweight in

  4. Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk, P; Bouwman, E G; Chen, T Y; Koopmanschap, R E; Soede, N M

    2017-07-01

    The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n=11) or fully fed throughout (n=10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11 in samples taken from blood vessels draining an ovary. Ultrasonographic measurements of the size of the corpora lutea did not show any effect of fasting either. However, fasted gilts had 10 to 30% lower systemic progesterone from Day 12 through Day 15 after conception (Pgilts farrowed, but fasted gilts had fewer born piglets than fully fed gilts (8.8±0.8 vs 10.9±0.5 respectively; P<0.05). In conclusion, fasting during embryo elongation can compromise embryonic survival by affecting ovarian function in the days after fasting, without having an immediate effect on LH secretion and progesterone output by the ovaries.

  5. Multidisciplinary nutritional support for undernutrition in nursing home and home-care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Gøgsig Christensen, Annette; Stenbæk Hansen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of multidisciplinary nutritional support for undernutrition in older adults in nursing home and home-care identified with the validated Eating Validation Scheme (EVS). Methods An 11 wk cluster randomized trial with a home-care (3 clusters) or nursing home (3 clusters...... was on treatment of the potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors identified with the EVS, by involving the physiotherapist, registered dietitian, and occupational therapist, as relevant and independent of the municipality's ordinary assessment and referral system. Outcome parameters were quality of life (by.......3] versus 1.3 [0.5], P = 0.021) was observed. There was a almost significant difference in mortality (2% versus 13%, P = 0.079). Conclusions Multidisciplinary nutritional support in older adults in nursing home and home-care could have a positive effect on quality of life, muscle strength, and oral care....

  6. Climate Change and Global Food Systems: Potential Impacts on Food Security and Undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S; Smith, Matthew R; Guth, Sarah; Golden, Christopher D; Vaitla, Bapu; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Dangour, Alan D; Huybers, Peter

    2017-03-20

    Great progress has been made in addressing global undernutrition over the past several decades, in part because of large increases in food production from agricultural expansion and intensification. Food systems, however, face continued increases in demand and growing environmental pressures. Most prominently, human-caused climate change will influence the quality and quantity of food we produce and our ability to distribute it equitably. Our capacity to ensure food security and nutritional adequacy in the face of rapidly changing biophysical conditions will be a major determinant of the next century's global burden of disease. In this article, we review the main pathways by which climate change may affect our food production systems-agriculture, fisheries, and livestock-as well as the socioeconomic forces that may influence equitable distribution.

  7. Environmental correlates of undernutrition among children of 3–6 years of age, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

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    Zalak Rameshbhai Matariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are lots of studies focusing on the role of reproductive and child health factors and dietary factors on the nutrition status of the child. The present study is an attempt to highlight the role of macro- and micro-environmental factors in predicting the occurrence of undernutrition in children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in field practice area of Community Medicine Department, PDU Medical College, Rajkot. The nutrition status of children was assessed using the weight for age WHO reference standards, 2006. Children below two standard deviation of the reference median (weight for age were considered as malnourished. Data were collected for sociodemographic factors, sanitation, hygiene, and attitude of mother toward her child, etc., Data were entered in MS excel, and logistic regression was used. Results: Analysis of 495 selected children showed 24% prevalence of undernutrition. Employment status of mothers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.65, drinking water quality (AOR 1.53, and cleanliness of mother's hands and clothes (AOR 1.91 significantly affected the nutrition status of the child. Children classified in fair or poor category for Briscoe's sanitation scale had 1.34 and1.92 times higher odds of being undernourished (P > 0.05, respectively. Children classified in fair or poor category for Elizabeth's microenvironment scale had 2.05 and 2.41 times higher odds of being undernourished (P < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: Water, sanitation, and hygiene-related factors, as well as microenvironmental factors, significantly affected the nutrition status of the children.

  8. PREVALENCE OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND UNDERNUTRITION AMONG URBAN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Niru; Afroz, Sadya; Tomalika, Nehlin; Momtaz, Hasina; Kabir, Md Humayun

    2018-04-10

    SummaryDespite the ongoing problems of undernutrition and infectious disease, obesity and overweight have become a major problem in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among school children aged 6-12 years in Bangladesh. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 and the study sample comprised 1768 children (980 boys; 788 girls) from eight purposively selected schools in different areas of Dhaka city. Students were interviewed about their diet and physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were made, including height, weight, mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference, hip circumference and body mass index (BMI). Undernutrition, overweight and obesity were defined using internationally accepted BMI cut-off points. Mean height, weight, BMI, MUAC, waist circumference and hip circumference values were found to be higher in boys than in girls, except at age 12 when these were found to be significantly higher in girls than in boys (p<0.05). The mean prevalence of overweight was 10.0% (boys 10.2%; girls 9.8%), and that of obesity 5.0% (boys 4.3%; girls 5.8%). The prevalence of underweight was 16.3% in boys and 12.7% in girls. The prevalence of underweight was significantly higher in poor than in rich children (22.1% vs 11.2%) and that of obesity was higher in rich than in poor children (9.9% vs 1.3%; p<0.001). A family history of obesity and hypertension emerged as a significant predictor of developing overweight and obesity (p<0.001). The data suggest that underweight and obesity co-exist in urban areas of Bangladesh, posing a challenge for the nutritional health of Bangladeshi children.

  9. Estimating the Impact of Reducing Under-Nutrition on the Tuberculosis Epidemic in the Central Eastern States of India: A Dynamic Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Oxlade

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB and under-nutrition are widespread in many low and middle-income countries. Momentum to prioritize under-nutrition has been growing at an international level, as demonstrated by the "Scaling Up Nutrition" movement. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for developing TB disease. The objective of this study was to project future trends in TB related outcomes under different scenarios for reducing under-nutrition in the adult population in the Central Eastern states of India.A compartmental TB transmission model stratified by body mass index was parameterized using national and regional data from India. We compared TB related mortality and incidence under several scenarios that represented a range of policies and programs designed to reduce the prevalence of under-nutrition, based on the experience and observed trends in similar countries.The modeled nutrition intervention scenarios brought about reductions in TB incidence and TB related mortality in the Central Eastern Indian states ranging from 43% to 71% and 40% to 68% respectively, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Modest reductions in under-nutrition averted 4.8 (95% UR 0.5, 17.1 million TB cases and 1.6 (95% UR 0.5, 5.2 million TB related deaths over a period of 20 years of intervention, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Complete elimination of under-nutrition in the Central Eastern states averted 9.4 (95% UR 1.5, 30.6 million TB cases and 3.2 (95% UR 0.7-, 10.1 million TB related deaths, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention.Our study suggests that intervening on under-nutrition could have a substantial impact on TB incidence and mortality in areas with high prevalence of under-nutrition, even if only small gains in under-nutrition can be achieved. Focusing on under-nutrition may be an effective way to reduce both rates of TB and other diseases associated with under-nutrition.

  10. The association of parental education with childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries: Comparing the role of paternal and maternal education

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Bommer, Christian; Krishna, Aditi; Harttgen, Kenneth; Subramanian, SV

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most existing research on the association of parental education with childhood undernutrition focuses on maternal education and often ignores paternal education. We systematically investigate differences in maternal and paternal education and their association with childhood undernutrition. Methods: One hundred and eighty Demographic and Health Surveys from 62 countries performed between 1990 and 2014 were analysed. We used linear-probability models to predict ch...

  11. The association of parental education with childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries: comparing the role of paternal and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Bommer, Christian; Krishna, Aditi; Harttgen, Kenneth; Subramanian, S V

    2017-02-01

    Most existing research on the association of parental education with childhood undernutrition focuses on maternal education and often ignores paternal education. We systematically investigate differences in maternal and paternal education and their association with childhood undernutrition. One hundred and eighty Demographic and Health Surveys from 62 countries performed between 1990 and 2014 were analysed. We used linear-probability models to predict childhood undernutrition prevalences, measured as stunting, underweight and wasting, for all combinations of maternal and paternal attainment in school. Models were adjusted for demographic and socio-economic covariates for the child, mother and household, country-level fixed effects and clustering. Additional specifications adjust for local area characteristics instead of country fixed effects. Both higher maternal and paternal education levels are associated with lower childhood undernutrition. In regressions adjusted for child age and sex as well as country-level fixed effects, the association is stronger for maternal education than for paternal education when their combined level of education is held constant. In the fully adjusted models, the observed differences in predicted undernutrition prevalences are strongly attenuated, suggesting a similar importance of maternal and paternal education. These findings are confirmed by the analysis of composite schooling indicators. We find that paternal education is similarly important for reducing childhood undernutrition as maternal education and should therefore receive increased attention in the literature. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  12. Undernutrition as an underlying cause of malaria morbidity and mortality in children less than five years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Laura E; Richard, Stephanie A; Black, Robert E

    2004-08-01

    Undernutrition is highly prevalent in many areas in which morbidity and mortality from malaria is unacceptably high. That undernutrition exacerbates diarrhea and respiratory infections is widely demonstrated; however, research suggests that it may exacerbate, palliate, or have little effect on malaria outcomes. This review examines the global burden of malaria associated with various nutrient deficiencies as well as underweight status in children 0-4 years of age. Although the association is complex and requires additional research, improved nutritional status lessens the severity of malaria episodes and results in fewer deaths due to malaria. Deficiencies in vitamin A, zinc, iron, folate, as well as other micronutrients are responsible for a substantial proportion of malaria morbidity and mortality. It is recommended that nutrition programs be integrated into existing malaria intervention programs. Copyright 2004 The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

  13. Epigenetic changes in the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and glucocorticoid receptor genes in the ovine fetus after periconceptional undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam; Begum, Ghazala; Cook, Alice; Connor, Kristin; Rumball, Christopher; Oliver, Mark; Challis, John; Bloomfield, Frank; White, Anne

    2010-08-01

    Maternal food restriction is associated with the development of obesity in offspring. This study examined how maternal undernutrition in sheep affects the fetal hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the appetite-regulating neuropeptides, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y, which it regulates. In fetuses from ewes undernourished from -60 to +30 d around conception, there was increased histone H3K9 acetylation (1.63-fold) and marked hypomethylation (62% decrease) of the POMC gene promoter but no change in POMC expression. In the same group, acetylation of histone H3K9 associated with the hypothalamic GR gene was increased 1.60-fold and the GR promoter region was hypomethylated (53% decrease). In addition, there was a 4.7-fold increase in hypothalamic GR expression but no change in methylation of GR gene expression in the anterior pituitary or hippocampus. Interestingly, hypomethylation of both POMC and GR promoter markers in fetal hypothalami was also identified after maternal undernutrition from -60 to 0 d and -2 to +30 d. In comparison, the Oct4 gene, was hypermethylated in both control and underfed groups. Periconceptional undernutrition is therefore associated with marked epigenetic changes in hypothalamic genes. Increase in GR expression in the undernourished group may contribute to fetal programming of a predisposition to obesity, via altered GR regulation of POMC and neuropeptide Y. These epigenetic changes in GR and POMC in the hypothalamus may also predispose the offspring to altered regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis later in life.

  14. Adolescents' undernutrition and its determinants among in-school communities of Ambo town, West Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, T; Haidar, J; Habte, D

    2010-09-01

    Adolescence is the most important period of life where growth and development are accompanied by various physical, physiological, behavioral, and social changes leading to increased demand for nutrients which could pose a greater risk of malnutrition. To assess the magnitude of adolescents' undernutrition and its determinants in public schools of Ambo town. A cross-sectional study design with analytical component was conducted between March 20 and April 10, 2008. A total of 425 in-school adolescents were assessed for their nutritional status. Weight, height and other important socio-demographic and dietary information were taken using pre-tested questionnaire. Body Mass Index (BMI) was computed and compared to the reference standards. The overall prevalence of underweight and overweight was 27.5% and 4.3% respectively. The proportion of underweight was higher in males (29.8%) than females (24.6%) while overweight were higher in females (4.9%) than males (3.8%). However, the difference noted was not significant (P = 0.4). Underweight was significantly higher in early (38.1%) than late (18.6%) adolescent (p = 0.001). The most important predictors identified for underweight were adolescent's age, menarche onset, food source for consumption and family possession of cattle (p adolescents is prevalent. To help adolescents build better futures with more civic education and life skills, an integrated nutrition and health related services that meet the needs of adolescents in the school community is recommended.

  15. Effect of undernutrition in foetal life on energy expenditure during gestation in ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, Malin P

    2008-01-01

    The long-term effect of early life undernutrition on late gestation energy expenditure (EEgest) was investigated in sheep. Ewes were fed either adequate (100%) or restricted (60%) energy and protein during late foetal life as well as during last trimester of gestation later in life, resulting...... development (EEconceptus) and homeorhetic adaptations in maternal metabolism (EEhomeorhetic). Late gestational energy and protein restriction reduced the EEgest in the AR ewes (4.1 MJ x d(-1)) but not in the RR ewes (5.2 MJ x d(-1)) compared with the AA ewes (6.8 MJ x d(-1)). Based on conceptus......-weight, no significant difference was found in EEhomeorhetic among the groups; 172, 175 and 169 kJ/kg x d(-1) in AA, AR and RR ewes, respectively. However, EEconceptus was significantly lower in AR (135 kJ/kg x d(-1)) in comparison with AA (298 kJ/kg x d(-1)) and RR (252 kJ/kg x d(-1)) ewes. In conclusion, exposure...

  16. Energy-conserving mechanisms as adaptation to undernutrition and water deprivation in the African Zebu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, V.A.; King, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In a study designed to simulate pastoral cattle management practices on marginal and rangelands in Kenya, the physiological adaptations for energy conservation were investigated in African Zebu cattle during a period of undernutrition and water deprivation. In experimental design, the food available to cattle was restricted to 50% of maintenance, watering reduced to every 2 d and distances walked increased from 8 to 16 km/d. Restricting food for nearly 3 months resulted in a 13-14% weight loss in cattle. A 2-day watering regime did not decrease food intake. Cattle that walked the longer distances lost slightly more weight but not significantly more. There was a significant overall reduction in water requirements. Slowing water turnover is seen as adaptive in a water-limited environment. The water turnover rate was determined using the tritiated water dilution technique. Higher solar intensities increased water turnover somewhat, as did extending walking distances. The resting metabolic rate of cattle on restricted food and water was reduced to 30% below that of well-fed and daily watered cattle. This reduction in metabolic requirements would result in conserving energy in dry seasons. Cattle became more thermolabile when offered smaller quantities of food. A heat debt was incurred at night and sweating rates were regulated at low levels during the day, resulting in heat storage. It is suggested that this is a mechanism by which energy is conserved through increasing thermogenesis to maintain body temperature within the normal range

  17. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  18. Development of a screening tool for detecting undernutrition and dietary inadequacy among rural elderly in Malaysia: simple indices to identify individuals at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, S; Dixon, R A; Earland, J

    1999-11-01

    Undernutrition and the consumption of poor diets are prevalent among elderly people in developing countries. Recognising the importance of the early identification of individuals at high nutritional risk, this study aimed to develop a simple tool for screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 11 randomly selected villages among the 62 in Mersing District, Malaysia. Undernutrition was assessed using body mass index, plasma albumin and haemoglobin on 285 subjects. Dietary inadequacy (a count of nutrients falling below two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances) was examined for 337 subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant predictors of undernutrition and dietary inadequacy from social and health factors, and to derive appropriate indices based on these predictions. The multivariate predictors of undernutrition were 'no joint disease', 'smoker', 'no hypertension', 'depended on others for economic resource', 'respiratory disease', 'perceived weight loss' and 'chewing difficulty', with a joint sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 84%. The equivalent predictors of dietary inadequacy were 'unable to take public transport', 'loss of appetite', 'chewing difficulty', 'no regular fruit intake' and 'regularly taking less than three meals per day', with a joint sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 47%. These predictions, with minor modification to simplify operational use, led to the production of a simple screening tool. The tool can be used by public health professionals or community workers or leaders as a simple and rapid instrument to screen individual at high risk of undernutrition and/or dietary inadequacy.

  19. Household food insecurity and dietary diversity as correlates of maternal and child undernutrition in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, C M; McLean, J; Kroeun, H; Talukder, A; Lynd, L D; Green, T J

    2015-02-01

    To assess household food insecurity and dietary diversity as correlates of maternal and child anthropometric status and anemia in rural Cambodia. Trained interviewers administered a survey to 900 households in four rural districts of Prey Veng, Cambodia. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) were used to assess household food insecurity and dietary diversity. The height, weight and hemoglobin concentration of the mother and youngest child under 5 years in each household were measured. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to assess the association between household food insecurity and dietary diversity, and child stunting and wasting, maternal thinness, maternal and child anemia. The mean (s.d.) HFIAS and HDDS scores were 5.3 (3.9) and 4.7 (1.6), respectively. The respective prevalences of mild, moderate and severe food insecurity were 33, 37 and 12%. Maternal thinness, child stunting and child wasting were present in 14.6, 25.4 and 8.1% of respondents, respectively. The risk of maternal thinness, but not child stunting or wasting, increased as the severity of household food insecurity increased. Household food insecurity was also positively associated with maternal, but not child, anemia. Household dietary diversity status was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes we assessed. Efforts to improve household food security are important as a means of promoting maternal nutritional status; however, additional research is needed to better understand the role of other factors that are driving the burden of child undernutrition in Cambodia.

  20. Quantifying and exploiting the age dependence in the effect of supplementary food for child undernutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinda Lakkam

    Full Text Available Motivated by the lack of randomized controlled trials with an intervention-free control arm in the area of child undernutrition, we fit a trivariate model of weight-for-age z score (WAZ, height-for-age z score (HAZ and diarrhea status to data from an observational study of supplementary feeding (100 kCal/day for children with WAZ [Formula: see text] in 17 Guatemalan communities. Incorporating time lags, intention to treat (i.e., to give supplementary food, seasonality and age interactions, we estimate how the effect of supplementary food on WAZ, HAZ and diarrhea status varies with a child's age. We find that the effect of supplementary food on all 3 metrics decreases linearly with age from 6 to 20 mo and has little effect after 20 mo. We derive 2 food allocation policies that myopically (i.e., looking ahead 2 mo minimize either the underweight or stunting severity - i.e., the sum of squared WAZ or HAZ scores for all children with WAZ or HAZ [Formula: see text]. A simulation study based on the statistical model predicts that the 2 derived policies reduce the underweight severity (averaged over all ages by 13.6-14.1% and reduce the stunting severity at age 60 mo by 7.1-8.0% relative to the policy currently in use, where all policies have a budget that feeds [Formula: see text]% of children. While these findings need to be confirmed on additional data sets, it appears that in a low-dose (100 kCal/day supplementary feeding setting in Guatemala, allocating food primarily to 6-12 mo infants can reduce the severity of underweight and stunting.

  1. Characteristics of undernourished older medical patients and the identification of predictors for undernutrition status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldblum, Ilana; German, Larisa; Castel, Hana; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Bilenko, Natalya; Eisinger, Miruna; Fraser, Drora; Shahar, Danit R

    2007-11-02

    Undernutrition among older people is a continuing source of concern, particularly among acutely hospitalized patients. The purpose of the current study is to compare malnourished elderly patients with those at nutritional risk and identify factors contributing to the variability between the groups. The study was carried out at the Soroka University Medical Center in the south of Israel. From September 2003 through December 2004, all patients 65 years-of-age or older admitted to any of the internal medicine departments, were screened within 72 hours of admission to determine nutritional status using the short version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). Patients at nutritional risk were entered the study and were divided into malnourished or 'at risk' based on the full version of the MNA. Data regarding medical, nutritional, functional, and emotional status were obtained by trained interviewers. Two hundred fifty-nine elderly patients, 43.6% men, participated in the study; 18.5% were identified as malnourished and 81.5% were at risk for malnutrition according to the MNA. The malnourished group was less educated, had a higher depression score and lower cognitive and physical functioning. Higher prevalence of chewing problems, nausea, and vomiting was detected among malnourished patients. There was no difference between the groups in health status indicators except for subjective health evaluation which was poorer among the malnourished group. Lower dietary score indicating lower intake of vegetables fruits and fluid, poor appetite and difficulties in eating distinguished between malnourished and at-risk populations with the highest sensitivity and specificity as compare with the anthropometric, global, and self-assessment of nutritional status parts of the MNA. In a multivariate analysis, lower cognitive function, education food consumption as well as poor appetite and chewing problems are associated with the development of malnutrition. Given the critical

  2. Polyparasite helminth infections and their association to anaemia and undernutrition in Northern Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Mupfasoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections constitute major public health problems in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we examined the functional significance of such polyparasite infections in anemia and undernutrition in Rwandan individuals. METHODS: Three polyparasite infection profiles were defined, in addition to a reference profile that consisted of either no infections or low-intensity infection with only one of the focal parasite species. Logistic regression models were applied to data of 1,605 individuals from 6 schools in 2 districts of the Northern Province before chemotherapeutic treatment in order to correctly identify individuals who were at higher odds of being anaemic and/or undernourished. FINDINGS: Stunted relative to nonstunted, and males compared to females, were found to be at higher odds of being anaemic independently of polyparasite infection profile. The odds of being wasted were 2-fold greater for children with concurrent infection of at least 2 parasites at M+ intensity compared to those children with the reference profile. Males compared to females and anaemic compared to nonanaemic children were significantly more likely to be stunted. None of the three polyparasite infection profiles were found to have significant effects on stunting. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that the levels of polyparasitism, and infection intensities in the Rwandan individuals examined here may be lower as compared to other recent similar epidemiological studies in different regions across sub-Saharan Africa. Neither the odds of anaemia nor the odds of stunting were found to be significantly different in the three-polyparasite infection profiles. However, the odds of wasting were higher in those children with at least two parasites at M+ intensity compared to those children with the reference profile. Nevertheless, despite the low morbidity levels indicated in the population under

  3. Lived experiences of self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomstad ST

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solveig T Tomstad,1,2 Ulrika Söderhamn,2 Geir Arild Espnes,3 Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 2Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayIntroduction: In a society where most older people live in their own homes, it may be expected of older individuals to exercise their potential to take care of themselves in daily life. Nutrition is a central aspect of self-care, and groups of older, home-dwelling people are at risk of undernutrition.Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that influence health and self-care among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition.Methods: Qualitative interviews were performed with eleven home-dwelling individuals who had been identified as being at risk of undernutrition. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method.Findings: Self-care as a lived experience among older, home-dwelling individuals identified to be at risk of undernutrition is about being aware of food choices and making decisions about taking healthy steps or not. In the presence of health problems, the appetite often decreases. Being able to take care of oneself in daily life is important, as is receiving help when needing it. Working at being physically and socially active and engaged may stimulate the appetite. Having company at meals is important and missed when living alone. Being present and taking each day by day, as well as considering oneself in the light of past time and previous experiences and looking ahead, is central, even when having fears for the future and the end of life

  4. The routine use of antibiotics to promote animal growth does little to benefit protein undernutrition in the developing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collignon, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Braam, P.

    2005-01-01

    Some persons argue that the routine addition of antibiotics to animal feed will help alleviate protein undernutrition in developing countries by increasing meat production. In contrast, we estimate that, if all routine antibiotic use in animal feed were ceased, there would be negligible effects...... in these countries. Poultry and pork production are unlikely to decrease by more than 2%. Average daily protein supply would decrease by no more than 0.1 g per person (or 0.2% of total protein intake). Eliminating the routine use of in-feed antibiotics will improve human and animal health, by reducing...... the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria....

  5. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; de Vos, Rien; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a

  6. Extraction of DNA from Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Suni M; McMahon, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of DNA from skeletal remains can be a delicate process. With the advent of improved extraction buffers that provide complete demineralization of the osseous materials, extraction of total genomic DNA from nearly any skeletal element is possible. This chapter describes both traditional organic and more newly developed inorganic extraction methods for fresh and dried skeletal remains.

  7. EDITORIAL MALARIA DIAGNOSIS Malaria remains the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-02

    Mar 2, 2005 ... Malaria remains the most significant parasitic disease affecting man. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to cost effective management (1). Since the identification of Plasmodium parasites in human blood in 1880, the diagnosis of malaria has remained a hot bed of scientific discussion.

  8. Prevalence and Association of Undernutrition with Quality of Life among Swedish People Aged 60 Years and Above: Results of the SNAC-B Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, M; Fagerström, C

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of undernutrition among elderly and to investigate the association of risk of undernutrition with health-related quality of life and life satisfaction controlling for age, gender, marital status, economic status, housing arrangement, education level, functional ability, and diseases. A cross-sectional study design was used for this study. The baseline data (2001-2003) of "The Swedish National Study of Aging and Care-Blekinge (SNAC-B)" was used. This population-based study focused on both home-living and special-housing residents. The participants (n=1402) were randomly selected and included both males and females 60-96 years of age residing in a municipality of south-east Sweden. The risk of undernutrition was estimated by the occurrence of at least one anthropometric measure (body mass index, mid-arm circumference, and calf circumference) below cut-off, in addition to the presence of at least one subjective measure (declined food intake, weight loss, and eating difficulty). The dependent variables, health-related quality of life and life satisfaction, were measured by the validated short form health survey (SF-12) and Liang's life satisfactions index A (LSIA), respectively. According to the criterion, 8.5% of the participants were at risk of undernutrition, and subjects at nutritional risk were significantly older, female, unmarried/widowed/divorced, residing in special housing, and functionally impaired. The risk of undernutrition was significantly associated with poor health-related quality of life, both in the physical (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.18-4.52) and mental (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.22-4.47) dimensions. However, no significant association was observed between nutritional status and life satisfaction (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.70-2.40). The risk of undernutrition significantly increases the risk of poor physical and mental health-related quality of life but has negligible impact on life satisfaction. This study also highlights the

  9. Characteristics of undernourished older medical patients and the identification of predictors for undernutrition status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisinger Miruna

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition among older people is a continuing source of concern, particularly among acutely hospitalized patients. The purpose of the current study is to compare malnourished elderly patients with those at nutritional risk and identify factors contributing to the variability between the groups. Methods The study was carried out at the Soroka University Medical Center in the south of Israel. From September 2003 through December 2004, all patients 65 years-of-age or older admitted to any of the internal medicine departments, were screened within 72 hours of admission to determine nutritional status using the short version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF. Patients at nutritional risk were entered the study and were divided into malnourished or 'at risk' based on the full version of the MNA. Data regarding medical, nutritional, functional, and emotional status were obtained by trained interviewers. Results Two hundred fifty-nine elderly patients, 43.6% men, participated in the study; 18.5% were identified as malnourished and 81.5% were at risk for malnutrition according to the MNA. The malnourished group was less educated, had a higher depression score and lower cognitive and physical functioning. Higher prevalence of chewing problems, nausea, and vomiting was detected among malnourished patients. There was no difference between the groups in health status indicators except for subjective health evaluation which was poorer among the malnourished group. Lower dietary score indicating lower intake of vegetables fruits and fluid, poor appetite and difficulties in eating distinguished between malnourished and at-risk populations with the highest sensitivity and specificity as compare with the anthropometric, global, and self-assessment of nutritional status parts of the MNA. In a multivariate analysis, lower cognitive function, education Conclusion Our study indicates that low food consumption as well as poor appetite

  10. Flood-Exposure is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Child Undernutrition in Rural Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Ranjan-Dash, Shishir; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-02-06

    Child undernutrition and flooding are highly prevalent public health issues in Asia, yet epidemiological studies investigating this association are lacking. To investigate to what extent floods exacerbate poor nutritional status in children and identify most vulnerable groups, we conducted a population-based survey of children aged 6-59 months inhabiting flooded and non-flooded communities of the Jagatsinghpur district, Odisha (India), one year after large floods in 2008. Anthropometric measurements on 879 children and child, parental and household level variables were collected through face-to-face interviews in September 2009. The association between flooding and the prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight was examined using weighted multivariate logistic regression for children inhabiting communities exposed solely to floods in 2008 and those communities repeatedly flooded (2006 and 2008) controlling for parental education and other relevant variables. We examined the influence of age on this association. Propensity score matching was conducted to test the robustness of our findings. The prevalence of wasting among children flooded in 2006 and 2008 was 51.6%, 41.4% in those flooded only in 2008, and 21.2% in children inhabiting non-flooded communities. Adjusting by confounders, the increased prevalence relative to non-flooded children in the exposed groups were 2.30 (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR); 95% CI: 1.86, 2.85) and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.43, 2.63), respectively. Among repeatedly flooded communities, cases of severe wasting in children were 3.37 times more prevalent than for children inhabiting in those non-flooded (95% CI: 2.34, 4.86) and nearly twice more prevalent relative to those flooded only once. Those children younger than one year during previous floods in 2006 showed the largest difference in prevalence of wasting compared to their non-flooded counterparts (aPR: 4.01; 95% CI: 1.51, 10.63). RESULTS were robust to alternative adjusted models and

  11. Flood-Exposure is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Child Undernutrition in Rural Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child undernutrition and flooding are highly prevalent public health issues in Asia, yet epidemiological studies investigating this association are lacking. Methods: To investigate to what extent floods exacerbate poor nutritional status in children and identify most vulnerable groups, we conducted a population-based survey of children aged 6–59 months inhabiting flooded and non-flooded communities of the Jagatsinghpur district, Odisha (India, one year after large floods in 2008. Anthropometric measurements on 879 children and child, parental and household level variables were collected through face-to-face interviews in September 2009. The association between flooding and the prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight was examined using weighted multivariate logistic regression for children inhabiting communities exposed solely to floods in 2008 and those communities repeatedly flooded (2006 and 2008 controlling for parental education and other relevant variables. We examined the influence of age on this association. Propensity score matching was conducted to test the robustness of our findings. Results: The prevalence of wasting among children flooded in 2006 and 2008 was 51.6%, 41.4% in those flooded only in 2008, and 21.2% in children inhabiting non-flooded communities. Adjusting by confounders, the increased prevalence relative to non-flooded children in the exposed groups were 2.30 (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR; 95% CI: 1.86, 2.85 and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.43, 2.63, respectively. Among repeatedly flooded communities, cases of severe wasting in children were 3.37 times more prevalent than for children inhabiting in those non-flooded (95% CI: 2.34, 4.86 and nearly twice more prevalent relative to those flooded only once. Those children younger than one year during previous floods in 2006 showed the largest difference in prevalence of wasting compared to their non-flooded counterparts (aPR: 4.01; 95% CI: 1.51, 10.63. Results

  12. Association between socio-economic status and childhood undernutrition in Bangladesh; a comparison of possession score and poverty index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Goto, Rie

    2010-10-01

    To determine how much of the variation in nutritional status of Bangladeshi children under 5 years old can be attributed to the socio-economic status of the family. Nutritional status used reference Z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). A 'possession score' was generated based on ownership of a radio, television, bicycle, motorcycle and telephone, and the availability of electricity, with categories of 0 to 4+ possessions. A five-point (quintile) 'poverty index' was created using principal component analysis. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004 was the source of data. A sample of 4891 children aged sex. Children of mothers with no education or no possessions were, on average, about 1 sd more underweight and stunted than those with higher educated mothers or with 4+ possessions. The possession score provided much greater discrimination of undernutrition than the poverty index. Nearly 50 % of children from households with no possessions were stunted, wasted or underweight (only 27 % in the poorest quintile), compared with only 3-6 % of children from households with 4+ possessions (over 13 % in the richest quintile). Maternal education and possession score were the main predictors of a child's nutritional status. Possession score was a much better indicator of undernutrition than the poverty index.

  13. Does Having a Migrant Parent Reduce the Risk of Undernutrition for Children Who Stay Behind in South-East Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P

    2013-12-01

    Many parents from South-East Asia who go overseas to work are motivated by a desire to secure a better future for their children, yet the health consequences for children who stay behind are poorly understood. This study is the first cross-country comparison to explore the relationships between parental migration and the risk of undernutrition (stunting) for primary school-aged children. The analysis uses data from the CHAMPSEA Project for children aged 9 to 11 years in the Philippines (N = 480) and Vietnam (N = 482). A series of logistic regression models compares outcomes for children living in transnational households and children living with both parents in non-migrant households in the same communities. We find no general advantage of having a migrant parent. Rather there is a reduced risk of stunting only for some left-behind children in the Philippines, whereas having a caregiver with low educational attainment is a major risk factor for all children. The findings point to a complex set of relationships between parental migration and child nutrition, possibly reflecting differential opportunities for accumulating household wealth through overseas earnings. Moreover, differences between the two countries caution against generalizing across national or cultural groups. We conclude by considering the implications of the findings for theories of transnationalism and for the UN Millennium Development Goal of reducing childhood undernutrition.

  14. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    it has died," said co-author Scott Chapman, also of Cambridge University. "This means we don't have to catch the black holes in the act to witness the big impact they have." This is the first X-ray ghost ever seen after the demise of radio-bright jets. Astronomers have observed extensive X-ray emission with a similar origin, but only from galaxies with radio emission on large scales, signifying continued eruptions. In HDF 130, only a point source is detected in radio images, coinciding with the massive elliptical galaxy seen in its optical image. This radio source indicates the presence of a growing supermassive black hole. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act NASA Joins "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs "This result hints that the X-ray sky should be littered with such ghosts," said co-author Caitlin Casey, also of Cambridge, "especially if black hole eruptions are as common as we think they are in the early Universe." The power contained in the black hole eruption was likely to be considerable, equivalent to about a billion supernovas. The energy is dumped into the surroundings and transports and heats the gas. "Even after the ghost disappears, most of the energy from the black hole's eruption remains", said Fabian. "Because they're so powerful, these eruptions can have profound effects lasting for billions of years." The details of Chandra's data of HDF 130 helped secure its true nature. For example, in X-rays, HDF 130 has a cigar-like shape that extends for some 2.2 million light years. The linear shape of the X-ray source is consistent with the shape of radio jets and not with that of a galaxy cluster, which is expected to be circular. The energy distribution of the X-rays is also consistent with the interpretation of an X-ray ghost. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra

  15. Prevalence of Undernutrition and Its Associated Factors among Children below Five Years of Age in Bure Town, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegne Amare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malnutrition is the major public health problem over the world. Developing countries are highly affected. Asian and Sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia, contribute the highest of all. The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of undernutrition and its associated factors among children below five years of age. Methods. Community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 342 study participants. Simple random sampling technique was used to select sampling kebeles and study units. Weight and height were measured using calibrated instruments. The data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 software and calculated using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software and/or World Health Organization Anthro software with aid of Stat/Transfer. Results. Overall prevalence of undernutrition was 35.5%, of which 85 (24.9%, 38 (11.1%, and 49 (14.3% were stunting, wasting, and underweight, respectively. Male children were more affected in both severe and moderate nutritional problems compared to female children. The finding showed that 27 (7.9% had severe stunting, 15 (4.4% had severe wasting, and 11 (3.2% had severe underweight, respectively. Conclusion. Undernutrition was high in Bure town among children below five years of age. Male sex, maternal educational status, low household income, preterm babies, absence of antenatal follow-up, diarrhea, and respiratory infections within one-month duration were factors affecting undernutrition.

  16. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  17. Gender discrimination in undernutrition with mediating factors among Bengalee school children from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine age and sex variations in the prevalence of underweight and stunting, and to assess the impact of some socio-economic variables on undernutrition among 6-16 year old school children of Bengalee ethnicity in Chapra, West Bengal, India. The subjects were selected randomly from various schools and madrassas of the Chapra Block. A total of 725 children (342 boys and 383 girls) aged 6-16 years were measured and data on their socio-economic status were collected. Age and sex combined rates of underweight and stunting were 44.40% and 37.20%, respectively. Weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) showed significant association with per-capita income (PCI) among boys (F=5.45) and girls (F=8.14). Height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) has also shown the association with per-capita income among boys (F=4.43) and girls (F=9.69). The WAZ was significantly associated with fathers' educational status (FOS) (t=-2.95) and the number of living rooms (NLR) (t=-2.91) among girls. The HAZ showed significant association with number of siblings (NS) among girls (F=4.25). Linear regression analyses revealed that NLR (t=2.04) and NS (t=1.95) had a significant impact on HAZ among boys. Among girls, PCI (t=3.38), FOS (t=2.87) and NLR (t=2.81) had a significant impact on WAZ and also PCI (t=3.28) and FOS (t=2.90) had a significant impact on HAZ. NLR had significant associations with underweight (χ(2)=3.59) and stunting (χ(2)=4.20) among boys. Among girls, PCI had significant associations with underweight (χ(2)=11.15) and stunting (χ(2)=11.64). FOS also showed significant associations with underweight (χ(2)=8.10) as well as stunting (χ(2)=8.28) among girls. NLR showed a significant association with underweight (χ(2)=7.75). Logistics regression analyses revealed that FOS (Wald=8.00) and NLR (Wald=4.09) were significant predictors of stunting among boys. Among girls, PCI was a significant predictor of underweight (Wald=10.95) as well as stunting (Wald=10.45). FOS, NLR and

  18. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  19. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  20. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...

  1. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  2. Maternal undernutrition does not alter Sertoli cell numbers or the expression of key developmental markers in the mid-gestation ovine fetal testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luis P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal undernutrition on ovine fetal testis morphology and expression of relevant histological indicators. Maternal undernutrition, in sheep, has been reported, previously, to alter fetal ovary development, as indicated by delayed folliculogenesis and the altered expression of ovarian apoptosis-regulating gene products, at day 110 of gestation. It is not known whether or not maternal undernutrition alters the same gene products in the day 110 fetal testis. Design and methods Mature Scottish Blackface ewes were fed either 100% (Control; C or 50% (low; L of estimated metabolisable energy requirements of a pregnant ewe, from mating to day 110 of gestation. All pregnant ewes were euthanized at day 110 and a sub-set of male fetuses was randomly selected (6 C and 9 L for histology studies designed to address the effect of nutritional state on several indices of testis development. Sertoli cell numbers were measured using a stereological method and Ki67 (cell proliferation index, Bax (pro-apoptosis, Mcl-1 (anti-apoptosis, SCF and c-kit ligand (development and apoptosis gene expression was measured in Bouins-fixed fetal testis using immunohistochemistry. Results No significant differences were observed in numbers of Sertoli cells or testicular Ki67 positive cells. The latter were localised to the testicular cords and interstitium. Bax and Mcl-1 were localised specifically to the germ cells whereas c-kit was localised to both the cords and interstitium. SCF staining was very sparse. No treatment effects were observed for any of the markers examined. Conclusions These data suggest that, unlike in the fetal ovary, maternal undernutrition for the first 110 days of gestation affects neither the morphology of the fetal testis nor the expression of gene products which regulate apoptosis. It is postulated that the effects of fetal undernutrition on testis function may be expressed

  3. Trends in nutrient intakes, nutritional status, and correlates of undernutrition among rural children below 5 years of age: The National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau Survey 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I I Meshram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of several national nutrition intervention programs that have been in operation since the past four decades, undernutrition continues to be an important public health problem in India. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the trends in food and nutrient intakes and nutritional status of children in India below 5 years of age. Setting and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in ten National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau states by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure. Methods: Data were collected on the household (HH socioeconomic and demographic particulars, and anthropometric measurements of the children, such as their length/height and weight, were noted. A 24-h dietary recall method was used for assessing dietary intake. Results: Intake of all the foodstuffs except pulses, vegetables, and fats and oils declined over a period of time (1975–1979 to 2011–2012 while the intake of all the micronutrients except Vitamins A and C declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition, i.e. underweight, stunting, and wasting has declined from 76%, 82%, and 27%, respectively in 1975–1979 to 42%, 44%, and 19%,respectively, in 2011–2012 among 1-5 year children. The severe form of undernutrition has also declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly (P < 0.01 higher among children of illiterate mothers, those belonging to lower socioeconomic status, and those living in nuclear families. Conclusions: The prevalence of undernutrition declined over the period despite the decrease in food and nutrient intake. However, the pace of decline was slower and it was attributed to improved health-care services coupled with control of communicable diseases and increase in the HHs income. Further efforts are needed to improve the literacy of parents, environmental and personal hygiene, along with the food security of HHs through a public

  4. The Minimum Cost of a Nutritious Diet Study: Building an evidence-base for the prevention of undernutrition in Afghanistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qarizada, Ahmad Nawid

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: In Afghanistan, mortality rates are amongst the highest in the world. Mean life expectancy is 62 years, U5MR is 97 deaths per 1,000 live births, and the MMR is 327 deaths per 100,000 live births while 33% of the population is food insecure. Undernutrition is alarmingly high in children under-five with global acute malnutrition rates of 8.7%, stunting 60.5% and underweight 37.7% , , and 72% are iodine and iron deficient. As part of their prevention efforts, WFP and the MOPH carried out a Cost of Diet study (CoD) in Afghanistan in late-2012. Cost of Diet Study The CoD assesses a household’s food and nutrition security based on economic constraints in accessing their nutrient requirements, especially for the most vulnerable, such as children U2 years. Objectives: 1. How important is access to nutritious food to overcome undernutrition in different areas of Afghanistan? 2. Is a nutritious diet available and affordable to the local populations? Methodology: The CoD tool used linear optimization to generate following output from market surveys and secondary household data: • A diet and the corresponding food baskets meet all nutritional requirements of a typical family, including a child U2 years, and its costs. Any other diet would be more expensive and/or would not meet their nutritional requirements. The tool calculated minimum cost of nutritious diet (MCNUT) in four livelihood zones (LHZ) of Afghanistan. Results: The MCNUT is the baseline nutritious diet. When compared to household income, it shows the number of households who cannot afford to meet their nutrient needs. The MCNUT calculates cheapest combination of food items and quantities to ensure all energy and nutrient requirements are met. It is theoretical and sometimes unrealistic. The Locally Adapted, Cost Optimised Diet (LACON), obtained using questionnaires and focus group discussions, provides a more realistic diet based on dietary preferences. Findings showed that approximately

  5. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  6. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  7. Prenatal factors contribute to the emergence of kwashiorkor or marasmus in severe undernutrition: evidence for the predictive adaptation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence E Forrester

    Full Text Available Severe acute malnutrition in childhood manifests as oedematous (kwashiorkor, marasmic kwashiorkor and non-oedematous (marasmus syndromes with very different prognoses. Kwashiorkor differs from marasmus in the patterns of protein, amino acid and lipid metabolism when patients are acutely ill as well as after rehabilitation to ideal weight for height. Metabolic patterns among marasmic patients define them as metabolically thrifty, while kwashiorkor patients function as metabolically profligate. Such differences might underlie syndromic presentation and prognosis. However, no fundamental explanation exists for these differences in metabolism, nor clinical pictures, given similar exposures to undernutrition. We hypothesized that different developmental trajectories underlie these clinical-metabolic phenotypes: if so this would be strong evidence in support of predictive adaptation model of developmental plasticity.We reviewed the records of all children admitted with severe acute malnutrition to the Tropical Metabolism Research Unit Ward of the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica during 1962-1992. We used Wellcome criteria to establish the diagnoses of kwashiorkor (n = 391, marasmus (n = 383, and marasmic-kwashiorkor (n = 375. We recorded participants' birth weights, as determined from maternal recall at the time of admission. Those who developed kwashiorkor had 333 g (95% confidence interval 217 to 449, p<0.001 higher mean birthweight than those who developed marasmus.These data are consistent with a model suggesting that plastic mechanisms operative in utero induce potential marasmics to develop with a metabolic physiology more able to adapt to postnatal undernutrition than those of higher birthweight. Given the different mortality risks of these different syndromes, this observation is supportive of the predictive adaptive response hypothesis and is the first empirical demonstration of the advantageous effects of such a

  8. Risk factors for child under-nutrition with a human rights edge in rural villages of North Wollo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, J; Abate, G; Kogi-Makau, W; Sorensen, P

    2005-12-01

    To identify the factors associated with childhood under-nutrition in North Wollo, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study. Four purposefully selected rural villages (kebeles) in North Wollo zone of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. One hundred-forty four sampled households with under five year old children (n=200) comprising of 96 male-headed, 24 female-headed and 24 landless with children aged between six and 59 months. Determinations of anthropometric measurements and various socio-economic factors. The overall prevalence rate of under nutrition as determined by stunting, underweight and wasting was 44.5%, 25.0% and 9.0% respectively with more preponderance among the toddlers. The proportion of under nutrition was higher in female-headed households. Shortage of farmland, lack of irrigation, dispossession of livestock, shortage of non-farm employment options, parental illiteracy, high number of children, water inadequacy, food taboos and wrong eating habits of families, poor child feeding practices, deprivation of health nutrition education as well as maternal attributes such as young motherhood, low body mass index and short stature of mothers influenced the nutritional status of the children. The prominent risk factors for undernutrition among children were dispossession of livestock, child food taboos and wrong eating habits of families, deprivation of health/nutrition education, short stature and early marriage of mothers. This study led to the conclusion that improvement of household resources through promotion of irrigation and initiation of income generating livelihood options can reverse the nutrition situation for better. Health and nutrition education focusing on appropriate child feeding, eradication of harmful traditional practices such as early marriage and inequitable intra-household food distribution, encouragement of family planning and nutrition interventions including food diversification is recommended.

  9. Periconceptional undernutrition and being a twin each alter kidney development in the sheep fetus during early gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaughlin, Severence M; Walker, Simon K; Kleemann, David O; Tosh, Darran N; McMillen, I Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Adaptive growth responses of the embryo and fetus to nutritional restraint are important in ensuring early survival, but they are implicated in the programming of hypertension. It has been demonstrated that kidney growth and nephrogenesis are each regulated by intrarenal factors, including the insulin-like growth factors, glucocorticoids, and the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, we have investigated the impact of periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN; from approximately 6 wk before to 7 days after conception) in singleton (control, n = 18; PCUN, n = 16) and twin pregnancies (control, n = 6; PCUN, n = 5) on the renal mRNA expression of 11beta- hydroxysteroid dehydrogensase type 1 and type 2 (11beta-HSD-1 and -2), the glucocorticoid (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptors, angiotensinogen, angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and 2 (AT2R), IGF-1 and IGF-2, and IGF1R and IGF2R at approximately 55 days gestation. There was no effect of PCUN or fetal number on fetal weight on relative kidney weight at approximately day 55 of gestation. There was an inverse relationship between the relative weight of the fetal kidney at approximately day 55 and maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in fetuses exposed to PCUN. Exposure to PCUN resulted in a higher expression of IGF1 in the fetal kidney in singleton and twin pregnancies. Being a twin resulted in higher intrarenal expression of IGF-1 and IGF-2, GR, angiotensinogen, AT1R, and AT2R mRNA at 55 days gestation. Renal 11beta-HSD-2 mRNA expression was higher in PCUN singletons, but not PCUN twins, compared with controls. Thus, there may be an adaptive response in the kidney to the early environment of a twin pregnancy, which precedes the fetal growth restriction that occurs later in pregnancy. The kidney of the twin fetus exposed to periconceptional undernutrition may also be less protected from the consequences of glucocorticoid exposure.

  10. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from spreading Common warts Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with HIV/AIDS or people who've had organ transplants Prevention To reduce your risk of common warts: Avoid direct contact with warts. This includes your own warts. Don't pick at warts. Picking may spread the ...

  12. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  13. The Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D.

    2004-01-01

    Over a three-year period, David Moore made repeated early morning visits to the chamber of the House of Commons, making photographs of unseen and overlooked areas and submitting this political environment to the scrutiny of the document. The Commons pursues archaeology of our most important debating chamber, exploring how an environment can act as a metaphor for wider societal issues. In doing so Moore creates an incisive survey of the epicentre of British politics.

  14. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  15. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  16. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  18. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  19. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed

  20. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  1. Nuclear remains an economic and ecologic asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The author herein outlines the several benefits of nuclear energy and nuclear industry for France. He first outlines that France possesses 97 per cent of de-carbonated electricity thanks to nuclear energy (77 pc) and renewable energies (20 pc, mainly hydraulic), and that renewable energies must be developed in the building and transport sectors to be able to get rid of the environmentally and financially costly fossil energies. He outlines that reactor maintenance and the nuclear fuel cycle industry are fields of technological leadership for the French nuclear industry which is, after motor industry and aircraft industry, the third industrial sector in France. He indicates that nuclear electricity is to remain the most competitive one, and that nuclear energy and renewable energies must not be opposed to it but considered as complementary in the struggle against climate change, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to get rid of the prevalence of fossil energies

  2. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  3. Palynological Investigation of Mummified Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Karl J; Amaral, Marina Milanello do; Wall, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    Pollen analysis was applied to a mummified homicide victim in Nebraska, U.S.A., to determine the location of death. A control sample showed the normal ambient pollen in the garage crime scene. Ambient windborne types, common in the air of the region, dominated the control. Internal samples were analyzed from the sacrum, intestine, and diaphragm. Microfossils were recovered from the rehydrated intestine lumen. The intestinal sample was dominated by Brassica (broccoli). The sacrum sample was high in dietary types but with a showing of ambient types. The pollen from the diaphragm was dominated by ambient pollen similar to the control samples. The discovery of diverse pollen spectra from within a single mummy was unexpected. They show that ingested and inhaled pollen mixed in the corpse. The data linked the decedent to a specific crime scene in her Nebraska home in the southern tier of eastern counties on the border with Kansas. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  5. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  6. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  7. Study protocol: cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary nutritional support for undernutrition in older adults in nursing home and home-care: cluster randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Gøgsig Christensen, Annette; Stenbæk Hansen, Birthe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Older adults in nursing home and home-care are a particularly high-risk population for weight loss or poor nutrition. One negative consequence of undernutrition is increased health care costs. Several potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors increase the likelihood of weight loss......-effectiveness of nutritional support among undernourished older adults and none of these have used such a multidisciplinary approach. METHODS: An 11 week cluster randomized trial to assess the cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary nutritional support for undernutrition in older adults in nursing home and home.......The primary outcome parameter will be change in quality of life (by means of Euroquol-5D-3L). Secondary outcomes will be: physical performance (chair stand), nutritional status (weight, Body Mass Index and hand-grip strength), oral care, fall incidents, hospital admissions, rehabilitation stay, moving...

  8. THE RETURNS OF FAMILY PLANNING: MACRO-LEVEL ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE ON WOMEN'S ANAEMIA AND CHILDHOOD UNDERNUTRITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Juel; Goli, Srinivas

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of family planning on the levels of women's anaemia and child undernutrition at the aggregate level using the compiled databases of the World Bank, UNICEF and the Economist Intelligence Unit. Correlation scatter matrix plots and multivariate OLS regression models were employed to assess the effect of family planning on women's anaemia and child nutritional status across countries. At the aggregate level, the bivariate correlation estimates found that the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) was negatively associated with women's anaemia (r=-0.62, pplanning influences the nutritional status of women and children. Family planning helps in avoiding shorter birth intervals, unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, which would otherwise result in nutrient depletion among mothers and further increase the risk of undernutrition in their children.

  9. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  10. Health-seeking behaviour and community perceptions of childhood undernutrition and a community management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) programme in rural Bihar, India: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Doris; Burza, Sakib

    2015-12-01

    Since 2009, Médecins Sans Frontières has implemented a community management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) programme in rural Biraul block, Bihar State, India that has admitted over 10 000 severely malnourished children but has struggled with poor coverage and default rates. With the aim of improving programme outcomes we undertook a qualitative study to understand community perceptions of childhood undernutrition, the CMAM programme and how these affected health-seeking behaviour. Semi-structured and narrative interviews were undertaken with families of severely malnourished children, non-undernourished children and traditional and allopathic health-care workers. Analysis of transcripts was by qualitative content analysis. Biraul, Bihar State, India, 2010. One hundred and fifty people were interviewed in individual or group discussions during fifty-eight interviews. Undernutrition was not viewed as a disease; instead, local disease concepts were identified that described the clinical spectrum of undernutrition. These concepts informed perception, so caregivers were unlikely to consult health workers if children were 'only skinny'. Hindu and Muslim priests and other traditional health practitioners were more regularly consulted and perceived as easier to access than allopathic health facilities. Senior family members and village elders had significant influence on the health-seeking behaviour of parents of severely malnourished children. The results reaffirm how health education and CMAM programmes should encompass local disease concepts, beliefs and motivations to improve awareness that undernutrition is a disease and one that can be treated. CMAM is well accepted by the community; however, programmes must do better to engage communities, including traditional healers, to enable development of a holistic approach within existing social structures.

  11. Consensus statement of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: indicators recommended for the identification and documentation of pediatric malnutrition (undernutrition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patricia J; Nieman Carney, Liesje; Corkins, Mark Richard; Monczka, Jessica; Smith, Elizabeth; Smith, Susan Elizabeth; Spear, Bonnie A; White, Jane V

    2014-12-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, utilizing an evidence-informed, consensus-derived process, recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic indicators be used to identify and document pediatric malnutrition (undernutrition) in routine clinical practice. The recommended indicators include z scores for weight for height/length, body mass index for age, length/height for age, or mid-upper arm circumference when a single data point is available. When two or more data points are available, indicators may also include weight-gain velocity (younger than 2 years of age), weight loss (2 to 20 years of age), deceleration in weight for length/height z score, and inadequate nutrient intake. The purpose of this consensus statement is to identify a basic set of indicators that can be used to diagnose and document undernutrition in the pediatric population (ages 1 month to 18 years). The indicators are intended for use in multiple settings, such as acute, ambulatory care/outpatient, residential care, etc. Several screening tools have been developed for use in hospitalized children. However, identifying criteria for use in screening for nutritional risk is not the purpose of this paper. Clinicians should use as many data points as available to identify and document the presence of malnutrition. The universal use of a single set of diagnostic parameters will expedite the recognition of pediatric undernutrition, lead to the development of more accurate estimates of its prevalence and incidence, direct interventions, and promote improved outcomes. A standardized diagnostic approach will also inform the prediction of the human and financial responsibilities and costs associated with the prevention and treatment of undernutrition in this vulnerable population, and help to further ensure the provision of high-quality, cost-effective, nutrition care. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the American

  12. Increasing socioeconomic inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India: trends between 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Kumari, Divya; Singh, Aditya

    2015-10-01

    This article examines the trends and pattern in socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight and wasting among children aged inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India has increased over the study period. The salient findings of this study call for separate programmes targeting the children of lower socioeconomic groups in urban population of India. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  13. Periconceptional undernutrition programs changes in insulin-signaling molecules and microRNAs in skeletal muscle in singleton and twin fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Shervi; Morrison, Janna L; Williams-Wyss, Olivia; Suter, Catherine M; Humphreys, David T; Ozanne, Susan E; Zhang, Song; Maclaughlin, Severence M; Kleemann, David O; Walker, Simon K; Roberts, Claire T; McMillen, I Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition around the time of conception is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adulthood. We determined the effect of maternal undernutrition in the periconceptional period (PCUN, i.e., 60 days prior to 6 days after conception) and the preimplantation period (PIUN, i.e., 0-6 days after conception) on mRNA expression and protein abundance of key insulin-signaling molecules as well as the global microRNA expression in quadriceps muscle of singleton and twin fetal sheep in late gestation. In singleton fetuses, exposure to PCUN resulted in lower protein abundance of PIK3CB (P < 0.01), PRKCZ (P < 0.05), and pPRKCZ (Thr410) (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle compared to controls. In PIUN singletons, there was a higher protein abundance of IRS1 (P < 0.05), PDPK1 (P < 0.05), and SLC2A4 (P < 0.05) compared to controls. In twins, PCUN resulted in higher protein abundance of IRS1 (P < 0.05), AKT2 (P < 0.05), PDPK1 (P < 0.05), and PRKCZ (P < 0.001), while PIUN also resulted in higher protein abundance of IRS1 (P < 0.05), PRKCZ (P < 0.001), and SLC2A4 (P < 0.05) in fetal muscle compared to controls. There were specific patterns of the types and direction of changes in the expression of 22 microRNAs in skeletal muscle after exposure to PCUN or PIUN and clear differences in these patterns between singleton and twin pregnancies. These findings provide evidence that maternal undernutrition around the time of conception induces changes in the expression of microRNAs, which may play a role in altering the abundance of the key insulin-signaling molecules in skeletal muscle and in the association between PCUN undernutrition and insulin resistance in adult life.

  14. Resistance remains a problem in treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Martin; Ehret, Robert; Wienbreyer, Andreas; Walter, Hauke; Berg, Thomas; Baumgarten, Axel

    2014-01-01

    those new classes will become more common and rates of multiclass resistance will be increasing.

  15. The relationship of undernutrition/psychosocial factors and developmental outcomes of children in extreme poverty in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Berhanu Nigussie; Abessa, Teklu Gemechu; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Kolsteren, Patrick; Granitzer, Marita

    2018-02-09

    Extreme poverty is severe deprivation of basic needs and services. Children living in extreme poverty may lack adequate parental care and face increased developmental and health risks. However, there is a paucity of literature on the combined influences of undernutrition and psychosocial factors (such as limited play materials, playground, playtime, interactions of children with their peers and mother-child interaction) on children's developmental outcomes. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to ascertain the association of developmental outcomes and psychosocial factors after controlling nutritional indices. A community-based cross-sectional study design was used to compare the developmental outcomes of extremely poor children (N = 819: 420 girls and 399 boys) younger than 5 years versus age-matched reference children (N = 819: 414 girls and 405 boys) in South-West Ethiopia. Using Denver II-Jimma, development in personal-social, language, fine and gross motor skills were assessed, and social-emotional skills were evaluated using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE). Nutritional status was derived from the anthropometric method. Independent samples t-test was used to detect mean differences in developmental outcomes between extremely poor and reference children. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to identify nutritional and psychosocial factors associated with the developmental scores of children in extreme poverty. Children in extreme poverty performed worse in all the developmental domains than the reference children. Among the 819 extremely poor children, 325 (39.7%) were stunted, 135 (16.5%) were underweight and 27 (3.3%) were wasted. The results also disclosed that stunting and underweightness were negatively associated with all the developmental skills. After taking into account the effects of stunting and being underweight on the developmental scores, it was observed that limited play activities

  16. Catch-up growth following food restriction exacerbates adulthood glucose intolerance in pigs exposed to intrauterine undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Meng; Zhuo, Yong; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of food restriction followed by controlled refeeding on glucose tolerance in pigs exposed to intrauterine malnutrition. Pregnant sows (n = 11) were assigned to either a control (C) group or an undernutrition (U) group (75% of C) during gestation. At postnatal 68 d, the offspring (n = 16) were placed on either a cafeteria feeding (CF) group or a food-restricted (FR) group (75% of CF) for 6 wk. After that, all offspring were fed ad libitum until 189 d (dpn189). The results showed that maternal malnutrition induced offspring glucose intolerance, which was demonstrated by increased serum glucose and triacylglycerol content at dpn189, as well as increased area under the blood glucose curve (AUC) during the intravenous glucose tolerance test (i.v.GTT) (P food restriction followed by controlled refeeding further increased serum glucose content at dpn189 and AUC during i.v.GTT in pigs born from U sows (P food restriction can exacerbate glucose intolerance in offspring exposed to intrauterine malnutrition. This may be caused by increased hepatic gluconeogenesis, decreased muscle glucose transport, and impaired hepatic insulin signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. From Undernutrition to Overnutrition: The Evolution of Overweight and Obesity among Young Men in Switzerland since the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Kaspar; Bender, Nicole; Floris, Joël; Pfister, Christian; Rühli, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic continues, new approaches are needed to understand the causes. We analyzed data from an evolutionary perspective, stressing developmental plasticity. We present diachronical height, weight, and BMI data for 702,902 Swiss male conscripts aged 18-20 years, a representative, standardized and unchanged data source. From 1875 to 1879, the height distribution was slightly left-skewed; 12.1% of the conscripts were underweight, overweight and obesity were rare. The BMI-to-height relationship was positive but not linear, and very short conscripts were particularly slim. Since the 1870s, Swiss conscripts became taller, a trend that markedly slowed in the 1990s. In contrast, weight increased in two distinct steps at the end of the 1980s and again after 2002. Since 2010, BMI did not increase but stabilized at a high level. The body of young men adapted differently to varying living conditions over time: First, less investment in height and weight under conditions of undernutrition and food uncertainty; second, more investment in height under more stable nutritional conditions; third, development of obesity during conditions of plateaued height growth, overnutrition, and decreasing physical activity. This example contributes to the evaluation of hypotheses on human developmental plasticity. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Targeting the underlying causes of undernutrition. Cost-effectiveness of a multifactorial personalized intervention in community-dwelling older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pols-Vijlbrief, Rachel; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Bosmans, Judith E; Twisk, Jos W R; Visser, Marjolein

    2017-12-01

    Undernutrition in old age is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Treatment by caloric supplementation results in weight gain, but compliance is poor in the long run. Few studies targeted underlying causes of undernutrition in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multifactorial personalized intervention focused on eliminating or managing the underlying causes of undernutrition to prevent and reduce undernutrition in comparison with usual care. A randomized controlled trial was performed among 155 community-dwelling older adults receiving home care with or at risk of undernutrition. The intervention included a personalized action plan and 6 months support. The control group received usual care. Body weight, and secondary outcomes were measured in both groups at baseline and 6 months follow-up. Multiple imputation, linear regression and generalized estimating equation analyses were used to analyze intervention effects. In the cost-effectiveness analyses regression models were bootstrapped to estimate statistical uncertainty. This intervention showed no statistically significant effects on body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, grip strength, gait speed and 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical component scale as compared to usual care, but there was an effect on the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey mental component scale (0-100) (β = 8.940, p=0.001). Borderline significant intervention effects were found for both objective and subjective physical function measures, Short Physical Performance Battery (0-12) (β = 0.56, p=0.08) and ADL-Barthel score (0-20) (β = 0.69, p=0.09). Societal costs in the intervention group were statistically non-significantly lower than in the control group (mean difference -274; 95% CI -1111; 782). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the probability of cost-effectiveness was 0.72 at a willingness-to-pay of 1000

  19. Influence of Maternal Undernutrition and Overfeeding on Cardiac Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor and Ventricular Size in Fetal Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Ford, Stephen P.; Nijland, Mark J.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ren, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Intrauterine nutrition status is reported to correlate with risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Either under- or over-nutrition during early to mid gestation contributes to altered fetal growth and ventricular geometry. This study was designed to examine myocardial expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α (CTNFRα) and its down-stream mediator signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on maternal under- or over-nutrition-induced changes in fetal heart weight. Multiparous ewes were fed with 50% (nutrient-restricted, NR), 100% (control) or 150% (overfed, OF) of NRC requirements from 28 to 78 days of gestation (dG; Term 148 dG). Ewes were euthanized on day 78, and the gravid uteri and fetuses recovered. Ventricular protein expression of CTNFRα, STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3, insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) were quantitated using western blot. Plasma cortisol levels were higher in both NR and OF fetuses whereas plasma IGF-1 levels were lower and higher, in NR and OF fetuses. Fetal weights were reduced by 29.9% in NR ewes and were increased by 22.2% in fetuses from OF ewes compared to control group. Nutrient restriction did not affect fetal heart or ventricular weights whereas overfeeding increased heart and ventricular weights. Protein expression of CTNFRα in fetal ventricular tissue was reduced in OF group whereas STAT3 and pSTAT3 levels were reduced in both NR and OF groups. Expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP3 was unaffected in either NR or OF group. These data suggested that compared with maternal undernutrition, intrauterine overfeeding during early to mid gestation is associated with increases fetal blood concentrations of cortisol and IGF-1 in association with ventricular hypertrophy where reduced expression of CNTFRα and STAT3 may play a role. PMID:17869083

  20. Trends of child undernutrition in rural Ecuadorian communities with differential access to roads, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Velma K; Dombecki, Carolyn; Trostle, James; Mogrovejo, Patricia; Castro Morillo, Nancy; Cevallos, William; Goldstick, Jason; Jones, Andrew D; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2018-02-07

    Road access can influence protective and risk factors associated with nutrition by affecting various social and biological processes. In northern coastal Ecuador, the construction of new roads created a remoteness gradient among villages, providing a unique opportunity to examine the impact of roads on child nutritional outcomes 10 years after the road was built. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements were collected from 2,350 children road access. Logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed the longitudinal association between village remoteness and prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight, overweight, obesity, and anaemia. We examined the influence of socio-economic characteristics on the pathway between remoteness and nutrition by comparing model results with and without household-level socio-economic covariates. Remoteness was associated with stunting (OR = 0.43, 95% CI [0.30, 0.63]) and anaemia (OR = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44, 0.70]). Over time, the prevalence of stunting was generally decreasing but remained higher in villages closer to the road compared to those farther away. Obesity increased (0.5% to 3%) over time; wasting was high (6%) but stable during the study period. Wealth and education partially explained the better nutritional outcomes in remote vs. road villages more than a decade after some communities gained road access. Establishing the extent to which these patterns persist requires additional years of observation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Nutrition transition in China: the growth of affluent diseases with the alleviation of undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X S; Ge, K Y

    1995-09-01

    Since 1950, the annual GNP in China increased from 104 to 1401 Yuan per capita, while household real purchasing power quadrupled. In addition, food production and distribution also rose. China's improved standard of living has brought about several health changes: a reduction in diseases of poverty (high infant mortality, communicable disease, nutritional deficiency), the doubling of life expectancy from 35 years in the 1950s to 67 (male) and 71 (female) years, but it has increased diseases of affluence, such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. The three leading causes of death in China today are cancer, cerebrovascular disease, and myocardial infarction, while deaths from tuberculosis and acute infectious illness are markedly reduced. About 60 million of the population suffer from hypertension and a quarter that number has diabetes. Because China is a vast territory with different levels of development and types of diet, pockets of nutritional deficiency remain; about 35 million people are undernourished. While most of the population receive sufficient macronutrients to satisfy the Chinese RDA, they frequently lack micronutrients. Childhood rickets and iron deficiency anaemia are prevalent in rural regions and close to half of the children under three years of age in the autonomous regions and provinces suffer from these conditions. Chinese diets are changing. They are becoming more westernised and people are consuming more food of animal origin. This is most noticeable in cities where, in 1988, fat accounted for 30% of the caloric intake (up from 26% in 1981). In urban areas about 10% of woman and 5% of men are now obese. China is encouraging citizens to eat a variety of foods along more traditional lines, with plant foods constituting the bulk of intake, and a lesser amount of food of animal origin. In 1993, the State Council approved a national position paper entitled "Outlines for China's Food Structure Reform and Development in the 1990s". The government

  2. Under-nutrition at baseline and health services utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Brown, Cynthia J.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Kilgore, Meredith L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; West, Delia Smith; Locher, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Older adults receiving Medicare home health services who experience under-nutrition may be at increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. We sought to identify the association between baseline nutritional status and subsequent health service utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services. Design This was a longitudinal study using questionnaires and anthropometric measures designed to assess nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA]) at baseline and health services utilization and mortality status at six-month and one-year follow-ups. Setting Participants were evaluated in their homes. Participants 198 older adults who were receiving Medicare home health services. Results Based upon MNA, 12.0% of patients were Malnourished, 51.0% were At Risk for Malnourishment, and 36.9% had Normal Nutrition Status. Based upon body mass index (BMI), 8.1% of participants were underweight, 37.9% were normal weight, 25.3% were overweight, and 28.8% were obese. Using multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, participants who were Malnourished or At Risk for Malnourishment were more likely to experience subsequent hospitalization, emergency room visit, home health aide use, and mortality for the entire sample and hospitalization and nursing home stay for overweight and obese participants. Conclusions Experiencing under-nutrition at the time of receipt of Medicare home health services was associated with increased health services utilization and mortality for the entire sample, and with increased health services utilization only for the overweight and obese subsample. Opportunities exist to address risk of under-nutrition in patients receiving home health services, including those who are overweight or obese, to prevent subsequent adverse health outcomes. PMID:21527170

  3. Impact of embryo number and maternal undernutrition around the time of conception on insulin signaling and gluconeogenic factors and microRNAs in the liver of fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Shervi; Morrison, Janna L; Williams-Wyss, Olivia; Suter, Catherine M; Humphreys, David T; Ozanne, Susan E; Zhang, Song; MacLaughlin, Severence M; Kleemann, David O; Walker, Simon K; Roberts, Claire T; McMillen, I Caroline

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to determine whether exposure of the oocyte and/or embryo to maternal undernutrition results in the later programming of insulin action in the liver and factors regulating gluconeogenesis. To do this, we collect livers from singleton and twin fetal sheep that were exposed to periconceptional (PCUN; -60 to 7 days) or preimplantation (PIUN; 0-7 days) undernutrition at 136-138 days of gestation (term = 150 days). The mRNA and protein abundance of insulin signaling and gluconeogenic factors were then quantified using qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and global microRNA expression was quantified using deep sequencing methodology. We found that hepatic PEPCK-C mRNA (P < 0.01) and protein abundance and the protein abundance of IRS-1 (P < 0.01), p110β (P < 0.05), PTEN (P < 0.05), CREB (P < 0.01), and pCREB (Ser(133); P < 0.05) were decreased in the PCUN and PIUN singletons. In contrast, hepatic protein abundance of IRS-1 (P < 0.01), p85 (P < 0.01), p110β (P < 0.001), PTEN (P < 0.01), Akt2 (P < 0.01), p-Akt (Ser(473); P < 0.01), and p-FOXO-1 (Thr24) (P < 0.01) was increased in twins. There was a decrease in PEPCK-C mRNA (P < 0.01) but, paradoxically, an increase in PEPCK-C protein (P < 0.001) in twins. Both PCUN and PIUN altered the hepatic expression of 23 specific microRNAs. We propose that the differential impact of maternal undernutrition in the presence of one or two embryos on mRNAs and proteins involved in the insulin signaling and gluconeogenesis is explained by changes in the expression of a suite of specific candidate microRNAs.

  4. Impact of embryo number and periconceptional undernutrition on factors regulating adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and metabolism in adipose tissue in the sheep fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Shervi; Morrison, Janna L; Williams-Wyss, Olivia; Ozanne, Susan E; Zhang, Song; Walker, Simon K; Kleemann, David O; MacLaughlin, Severence M; Roberts, Claire T; McMillen, I Caroline

    2013-10-15

    Maternal undernutrition around the time of conception is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adulthood. We hypothesized that maternal undernutrition during the periconceptional (PCUN: -60 to 7 days) and/or preimplantation (PIUN: 0-7 days) periods would result in a decrease in UCP1 expression and the abundance of insulin signaling molecules and an increase in the abundance of factors that regulate adipogenesis and lipogenesis in fetal perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) and that these effects would be different in singletons and twins. Maternal PCUN and PIUN resulted in a decrease in UCP1 expression in PAT, and PIUN resulted in higher circulating insulin concentrations, an increased abundance of pPKCζ and PDK4, and a decreased abundance of Akt1, phosphorylated mTOR, and PPARγ in PAT in singleton and twin fetuses. In singletons, there was also a decrease in the abundance of p110β in PAT in the PCUN and PIUN groups and an increase in total AMPKα in PAT in the PIUN group. In twins, however, there was an increase in the abundance of mTOR in the PCUN group and an increase in PDK2 and decrease in total AMPKα in the PIUN group. Thus exposure to periconceptional undernutrition programs changes in the thermogenic capacity and the insulin and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathway in visceral fat, and these effects are different in singletons and twins. These findings are important, as the thermogenic capacity of brown fat and the insulin sensitivity of visceral fat are important determinants of the risk of developing obesity and an insulin resistance phenotype in later life.

  5. Metabolic effects of different protein intakes after short term undernutrition in artificially reared infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    des Robert, Clotilde; Li, Nan; Caicedo, Ricardo; Frost, Susan; Lane, Robert; Hauser, Nicholas; Neu, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Early postnatal nutrition is involved in metabolic programming. Small for gestational age and premature babies commonly receive insufficient dietary protein during the neonatal period due to nutrition intolerance, whereas high protein formulas are used to achieve catch up growth. Neither the short term, nor the long term effects of such manipulation of protein intake are known. We hypothesized that high or low protein intake during infancy would induce metabolic alterations both during early-life and in adulthood. Gastrostomized neonatal rat pups received either 50% (P50%), 100% (P100%), or 130% (P130%) of the normal protein content in rat milk from the 7th to the 15th day of life (D7 to D15), when they were either sacrificed or placed with mothers for the long term study. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed at D230. Long term rats were sacrificed at D250. At D15, weight of P50% pups was lower than P100% and P130% pups. Neither liver and kidney mass, nor islet beta-cell areas were altered. Brain weight (adjusted to body weight) was higher in P50% vs. P130% (p<0.05). Insulin/glucose ratio was lower in P50% vs. P130%. Expression of GLUT4 on adipocyte cell membrane and GLUT2 in liver cytosol was significantly enhanced in P50% vs. P130%. Long term, neither GTT results nor body nor organ weights differed between groups. In neonatal rats, higher protein intakes via the enteral route led to enhanced short term weight gain, insulin resistance, and modified expression of glucose transporters. However, these differences were not sustained.

  6. Consensus statement of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: indicators recommended for the identification and documentation of pediatric malnutrition (undernutrition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patricia; Carney, Liesje Nieman; Corkins, Mark R; Monczka, Jessica; Smith, Elizabeth; Smith, Susan E; Spear, Bonnie A; White, Jane V

    2015-02-01

    The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.), utilizing an evidence-informed, consensus-derived process, recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic indicators be used to identify and document pediatric malnutrition (undernutrition) in routine clinical practice. The recommended indicators include z scores for weight-for-height/length, body mass index-for-age, or length/height-for-age or mid-upper arm circumference when a single data point is available. When 2 or more data points are available, indicators may also include weight gain velocity (Dietetics.

  7. Serum phosphate and magnesium in children recovering from severe acute undernutrition in Ethiopia: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hother, Anne-Louise; Girma, Tsinuel; Rytter, Maren J H; Abdissa, Alemseged; Ritz, Christian; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André; Friis, Henrik; Kæstel, Pernille

    2016-11-05

    Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have increased requirements for phosphorus and magnesium during recovery. If requirements are not met, the children may develop refeeding hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia. However, little is known about the effect of current therapeutic diets (F-75 and F-100) on serum phosphate (S-phosphate) and magnesium (S-magnesium) in children with SAM. Prospective observational study, with measurements of S-phosphate and S-magnesium at admission, prior to rehabilitation phase and at discharge in children aged 6-59 months admitted with SAM to Jimma Hospital, Ethiopia. Due to shortage of F-75, 25 (35 %) children were stabilized with diluted F-100 (75 kcal/100 ml). Of 72 children enrolled, the mean age was 32 ± 14 months, and edema was present in 50 (69 %). At admission, mean S-phosphate was 0.92 ± 0.34 mmol/L, which was low compared to normal values, but increased to 1.38 ± 0.28 mmol/L at discharge, after on average 16 days. Mean S-magnesium, at admission, was 0.95 ± 0.23 mmol/L, and increased to 1.13 ± 0.17 mmol/L at discharge. At discharge, 18 (51 %) children had S-phosphate below the normal range, and 3 (9 %) had S-phosphate above. Most children (83 %) had S-magnesium above normal range for children. Both S-phosphate and S-magnesium at admission were positively associated with serum albumin (S-albumin), but not with anthropometric characteristics or co-diagnoses. Using diluted F-100 for stabilization was not associated with lower S-phosphate or S-magnesium. Hypophosphatemia was common among children with SAM at admission, and still subnormal in about half of the children at discharge. This could be problematic for further recovery as phosphorus is needed for catch-up growth and local diets are likely to be low in bioavailable phosphorus. The high S-magnesium levels at discharge does not support that magnesium should be a limiting nutrient for growth in the F-100 diet. Although diluted F-100

  8. Assessment of the Future Health Burden Attributable to Undernutrition under the Latest Scenario Framework for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shota; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Kanae, Shinjiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Shin, Yonghee; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Akemi; Honda, Yasushi

    2014-05-01

    There are growing concerns that future food security will be negatively affected by various factors, such as changes in socioeconomic and climate conditions. The health burden attributable to childhood undernutrition is among the most severe problems related to food crisis in the world. This study assessed the health burden attributable to childhood underweight through 2050 focusing on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), by considering the latest scenarios for climate change studies (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs)) and conducting sensitivity analysis. We used three SSPs (SSP1, SSP2 and SSP3) as future population and gross domestic products (GDP), three RCPs (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for a greenhouse gas emissions constraint, and 12 Global Circulation Models (12 GCMs) to estimate climate conditions. A regression model for estimating DALYs attributable to childhood underweight (DAtU) was developed using the relationship between DAtU and childhood stunting. A logarithmic relationship was proposed for the regression model. We combined a global computable general equilibrium model, a crop model (M-GAEZ), and two regression models to assess the future health burden. We found that i) world total DAtU decreases from 2005 by 23 ~ 60% in 2030 depending on the socioeconomic scenarios. DAtU decreases further by 2050 for SSP1 and SSP2 scenario, whereas it slightly increases for SSP3. Per capita DAtU also decreases in all regions under either scenario in 2050, but the decreases vary significantly by regions and scenarios. ii) the impact of climate change is relatively small in the framework of this study but, on the other hand, socioeconomic conditions have a great impact on the future health burden. The impact of changes in socioeconomic conditions on the health burden is greater in the regions where current health burden is high. iii) parameter uncertainty of the regression models is the second largest factor on

  9. Impact of maternal undernutrition on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in sheep at different ages postnatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadio, S E; Kotsampasi, B; Papadomichelakis, G; Deligeorgis, S; Kalogiannis, D; Menegatos, I; Zervas, G

    2007-03-01

    cortisol levels at the age of 5.5 months (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 respectively) and with higher cortisol levels (P < 0.01) at 10 months of age than males. It is concluded that the HPA axis is programmable by altered nutrition in utero. The sensitivity of the axis to exogenous stimulation is enhanced during early postnatal life and attenuated with age, suggesting a role for the postnatal influences in resetting of the HPA axis and emphasizing the importance of identifying the impact of maternal undernutrition at several time points after birth.

  10. Stable isotopes, niche partitioning and the paucity of elasmosaur remains in the Maastrichtian type area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Janssen, Renée; Van Baal, Remy R.; Jagt, John W M; Mulder, Eric W A; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2017-01-01

    Remains of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are exceedingly rare in the type-Maastrichtian strata (Late Cretaceous, southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium), in stark contrast to relatively common skeletal remains of mosasaurs. Here, we present an analysis of δ13C stable isotope values for tooth enamel

  11. Age variations in anthropometric and body composition characteristics and undernutrition among female Bathudis: a tribal population of Keonjhar District, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Kaushik; Chakraborty, Falguni; Bisai, Samiran

    2007-09-01

    A cross-sectional study of 183 female Bathudis, a tribal population of the Keonjhar District, Orissa, India, was undertaken to investigate age variations in anthropometric and body composition characteristics and nutritional status. The subjects were categorized into three age groups: 50 years. Height, weight, circumferences and skinfolds data were collected. Body mass index (BMI) and several body composition variables and indices were derived using standard equations. The results revealed that there existed significant negative age variations for most of the anthropometric and body composition variables and indices. Correlation studies of age with these variables and indices revealed significant negative correlations. Linear regression analyses revealed that for all variables, age had a significant negative impact. Studies on the nutritional status of these women revealed that with increasing age, there was an increase in the frequency of undernutrition. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that among Bathudi women, age was significantly negatively related with anthropometric and body composition variables and indices. Moreover, with increasing age, the level of undernutrition increased.

  12. Association between economic growth and early childhood undernutrition: evidence from 121 Demographic and Health Surveys from 36 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Harttgen, Kenneth; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Finlay, Jocelyn; Klasen, Stephan; Subramanian, S V

    2014-04-01

    Economic growth is widely regarded as a necessary, and often sufficient, condition for the improvement of population health. We aimed to assess whether macroeconomic growth was associated with reductions in early childhood undernutrition in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from 121 Demographic and Health Surveys from 36 countries done between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 31, 2011. The sample consisted of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of children aged 0-35 months, and the outcome variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting. The main independent variable was per-head gross domestic product (GDP) in constant prices and adjusted for purchasing power parity. We used logistic regression models to estimate the association between changes in per-head GDP and changes in child undernutrition outcomes. Models were adjusted for country fixed effects, survey-year fixed effects, clustering, and demographic and socioeconomic covariates for the child, mother, and household. Sample sizes were 462,854 for stunting, 485,152 for underweight, and 459,538 for wasting. Overall, 35·6% (95% CI 35·4-35·9) of young children were stunted (ranging from 8·7% [7·6-9·7] in Jordan to 51·1% [49·1-53·1] in Niger), 22·7% (22·5-22·9) were underweight (ranging from 1·8% [1·3-2·3] in Jordan to 41·7% [41·1-42·3] in India), and 12·8% (12·6-12·9) were wasted (ranging from 1·2% [0·6-1·8] in Peru to 28·8% [27·5-30·0] in Burkina Faso). At the country level, no association was seen between average changes in the prevalence of child undernutrition outcomes and average growth of per-head GDP. In models adjusted only for country and survey-year fixed effects, a 5% increase in per-head GDP was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 0·993 (95% CI 0·989-0·995) for stunting, 0·986 (0·982-0·990) for underweight, and 0·984 (0·981-0·986) for wasting. ORs after adjustment for the full set of covariates were 0·996 (0·993-1·000) for stunting, 0

  13. Preventing undernutrition in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick

    The first 1000 days (from conception to 24 months) of a child’s life are critical for long-term mental and physical development. This period is clearly marked as the optimal period of preventing malnutrition and named the “window of opportunity”. The first phase of complementary feeding (about 6......-12 months) is the most critical. This is the transitional phase when solid foods gradually start to replace breast milk. The typical diet of complementary food in low-income countries is dominated by a single starch-rich staple, with little vegetables and fruits and few or no animal source foods (ASF...... technique. Linear regression was used to assess the association of sex, breastfeeding, stunting and wasting as correlates of fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI) and body mass index (BMI). This study showed that boys had a higher FFMI at 6 and 15 months of age. Stunted infants aged 6 months had...

  14. Knowledge of integrated management of childhood illnesses community and family practices (C-IMCI) and association with child undernutrition in Northern Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukunya, David; Kizito, Samuel; Orach, Tonny; Ndagire, Regina; Tumwakire, Emily; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Mupere, Ezekiel; Kiguli, Sarah

    2014-09-19

    Childhood undernutrition is a major challenge in Uganda with a prevalence of wasting and stunting at 5% and 33%, respectively. Community and family practices of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (C-IMCI) was introduced in sub-Saharan Africa early after the year 2000. C-IMCI was postulated to address major childhood morbidity and mortality challenges with nutrition as one of the outcomes. The association between knowledge patterns of C-IMCI and undernutrition has not been fully established especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was done to address the prevalence of stunting and wasting and the association with the knowledge and practices of C-IMCI among caretakers in Gulu district, Northern Uganda. This was a community-based cross-sectional study among 442 caretaker-child pairs. A standardized questionnaire was employed to assess the knowledge and practices of the C-IMCI among caretakers including four practices: breastfeeding, immunization, micronutrient supplementation and complementary feeding. Weight and height of children (6-60 months) were recorded. Wasting and stunting were defined as weight-for-height and height-for-age z-score, respectively, with a cut-off reporting Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used to explore associations using SAS statistical software. The percentage of caretakers who had adequate knowledge on C-IMCI (basic knowledge within each pillar) was 13%. The prevalence of wasting and stunting were 8% and 21%, respectively. Caretakers' lack of knowledge of C-IMCI was associated with both wasting (OR 24.5, 95% CI 4.2-143.3) and stunting (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.3-12.4). Rural residence was also associated with both wasting (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.5-6.5) and stunting (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.7). Children younger than 25 months were more likely to be wasted (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-10.0). We found a low level of overall knowledge of the C-IMCI of 13.3% (n = 59). There is also a high prevalence of childhood

  15. Social determinants of inequities in under-nutrition (weight-for-age) among under-5 children: a cross sectional study in Gumla district of Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Keya; Sinha, Rajesh Kumar; Kundu, Alok Kumar; Shankar, Dhananjay; Gope, Rajkumar; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta K

    2016-07-08

    Jharkhand, a state with substantial tribal population in Eastern India has very high rate of undernutrition. The study tries to understand the social determinants of inequities in under-nutrition (weight-for-age) among children aged less than 5 years, in Gumla District of the State. Cross sectional study of 1070 children from 32 villages of 4 Blocks of Gumla District. 54.3 % (95 % CI 51.3-57.3) children were found to be underweight (less than -2SD), with insignificant difference between girls and boys. Multivariate analysis showed that poverty was the single most important predictor of undernutrition, where a child from the poorest quintile was 70 % more likely to be underweight (aOR 1.70, CI 1.13-2.57), compared to one from the least poor group (Quintile 5). While the difference in weight-for-age status between Scheduled Tribes and "OBC and other communities" was non-significant (95 % OR 1.12, CI 0.88-1.42) in the study context; community disaggregated data revealed that there were large variations within the tribal community, and numerically smaller communities also ranked lower in wealth, and their children showed poorer nutritional status. Other factors like maternal education beyond matriculation level also had some bearing. Bivariate analysis showed that chances of a child being underweight (Educational attainment of mothers did not show any significant difference between tribal and non-tribal communities. Overall nutritional status of children in Gumla is very grim and calls for immediate interventions, with universal coverage. Risk was almost equal for both genders, and for tribal and non-tribal population, though within tribal communities, it was slightly higher for smaller tribal communities, calling for soft targeting. Comprehensive programme addressing poverty and higher education for girls would be important to overcome the structural barriers, and should be integral part of any intervention. The study highlights the importance of soft targeting

  16. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis, classification...

  17. Protective roles of selenium and zinc against postnatal protein-undernutrition-induced alterations in Ca(2+)-homeostasis leading to cognitive deficits in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Sandhir, Rajat; Adenuga, Gbenga A

    2015-06-01

    Postnatal protein-undernutrition impacts on mental development and cognition in children and can lead to problem with attention and unresponsiveness which compromise children's ability to learn. These behavioral disorders might be due to alteration in calcium homeostasis as calcium plays critical roles in fundamental functions of neuron. The role of low protein diet as well as Se and Zn supplementation on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, calpain and caspase-3 activities from rat cortex and cerebellum were investigated. Well-fed (WF) and low protein diet-fed (LPDF) rats were given diets containing 16% and 5% casein, respectively, for a period of 10 weeks. Then, the rats were supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15 mgL(-1) and 227 mgL(-1), respectively, in drinking water for 3 weeks. The results obtained from the study showed a significant increase in [Ca(2+)]i; calpain and caspase-3 activities as well as increase transfer latency in water maze study and reductions in Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activities for LPDF rats compared to WF rats. Se and Zn supplementation to LPDF rats reversed the elevation in [Ca(2+)]i, calpain and caspase-3 activities and restored the cognitive deficits and the activities of Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Conclusively, protein-undernutrition results in the accumulation of synaptosomal calcium and inhibition of calcium transporters presumably via free radical generations and results in cognitive impairment which also probably results from neuronal death in rats through calpain activation and the caspase cascade mechanisms. However, Se and Zn supplementations ameliorated the anomalies observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validity and user-friendliness of the minimal eating observation and nutrition form – version II (MEONF – II for undernutrition risk screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Vallén

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the criterion-related validity and user-friendliness of the Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form – Version II (MEONF – II and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST in relation to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA. In addition, the effect of substituting body mass index (BMI with calf circumference (CC was explored for the MEONF-II. Methods: The study included 100 patients who were assessed for nutritional status with the MNA (full version, considered here to be the gold standard, and screened with the MUST and the MEONF-II. The MEONF-II includes assessments of involuntary weight loss, BMI (or calf circumference, eating difficulties, and presence of clinical signs of undernutrition. Results: The MEONF-II sensitivity (0.73 and specificity (0.88 were acceptable. Sensitivity and specificity for the MUST were 0.57 and 0.93, respectively. Replacing the BMI with CC in the MEONF-II gave similar results (sensitivity 0.68, specificity 0.90. Assessors considered MEONF-II instructions and items to be relevant, easy to understand and complete (100%, and the questions to be relevant (98%. MEONF-II and MUST took 8.8 and 4.7 minutes to complete, respectively, and both were considered relevant and easy to finish. In addition, MEONF-II was thought to reveal problems that allows for nursing interventions. Conclusions: The MEONF-II is an easy to use, relatively quick, and sensitive screening tool to assess risk of undernutrition among hospital inpatients, which allows for substituting BMI with CC in situations where measures of patient height and weight cannot be easily obtained. High sensitivity is of primary concern in nutritional screening and the MEONF-II outperforms the MUST in this regard.

  19. Embryonic protein undernutrition by albumen removal programs the hepatic amino acid and glucose metabolism during the perinatal period in an avian model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Willems

    Full Text Available Different animal models have been used to study the effects of prenatal protein undernutrition and the mechanisms by which these occur. In mammals, the maternal diet is manipulated, exerting both direct nutritional and indirect hormonal effects. Chicken embryos develop independent from the hen in the egg. Therefore, in the chicken, the direct effects of protein deficiency by albumen removal early during incubation can be examined. Prenatal protein undernutrition was established in layer-type eggs by the partial replacement of albumen by saline at embryonic day 1 (albumen-deprived group, compared to a mock-treated sham and a non-treated control group. At hatch, survival of the albumen-deprived group was lower compared to the control and sham group due to increased early mortality by the manipulation. No treatment differences in yolk-free body weight or yolk weight could be detected. The water content of the yolk was reduced, whereas the water content of the carcass was increased in the albumen-deprived group, compared to the control group, indicating less uptake of nutrients from the yolk. At embryonic day 16, 20 and at hatch, plasma triiodothyronine (T3, corticosterone, lactate or glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen content were not affected by treatment. At embryonic day 20, the plasma thyroxine (T4 concentrations of the albumen-deprived embryos was reduced compared to the control group, indicating a decreased metabolic rate. Screening for differential protein expression in the liver at hatch using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed not only changed abundance of proteins important for amino acid metabolism, but also of enzymes related to energy and glucose metabolism. Interestingly, GLUT1, a glucose transporter, and PCK2 and FBP1, two out of three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis were dysregulated. No parallel differences in gene expressions causing the differences in protein abundance could be detected

  20. The shared mitochondrial genome of Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata and Rupicapra rupicapra cartusiana: old remains of a common past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Trinidad; González, Iago; Essler, Sabine E; Fernández, Margarita; Domínguez, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has largely been used for species delimitation. However, mtDNA introgression across species boundaries can lead to inconsistent phylogenies. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial genome in the chamois, genus Rupicapra, show the presence of three well differentiated clades, West (mtW), Central (mtC) and East (mtE), each with a geographically restricted distribution. The complete mtDNAs of the clades mtW and mtE (main representatives of the two currently considered species R. pyrenaica and R. rupicapra respectively) have been reported. In the present study, we sequenced the clade mtC present in populations from both species inhabiting the central area of Europe: the Apennines (R. pyrenaica ornata) and the Chartreuse Mountains (R. rupicapra cartusiana). The phylogenetic comparison with the genomes of Caprini highlights the ancient presence of chamois in Europe relative to the fossil record, and the old age of the chamois clade mtC that was split from the clade mtW in the early Pleistocene. The separation of R. pyrenaica ornata and R. rupicapra cartusiana female lineages was recent, dating of the late Pleistocene. Our data represent an example of mtDNA introgression of resident females of Chartreuse Mountains into immigrant males of R. rupicapra due to male-biased migration and female phylopatry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bird remains from the Maastrichtian type area (Late Cretaceous)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Schulp, A. S.; Jagt, J. W M

    2008-01-01

    Remains of Late Cretaceous birds are rare, which is especially true for Europe and the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage (southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium) in particular. In the present paper, we record new remains (isolated tarsometatarsus and radius) that document the presence of both

  2. Casuistry as common law morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  3. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  4. Micro-distribution and mechanical characteristics analysis of remaining oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the water drive reservoir enters extra high water cut stage (greater than 80%, remaining oil distribution becomes increasingly dispersed. Research on micro residual oil in pore appears particularly important for reservoir development at extra high water cut stage. Oil occurrence characteristics recognition helps to understand the distribution of remaining oil and the mechanical characteristics of oil is the guide for tapping the remaining oil. On the basis of pore scale oil–water two phase flow experiments, micro distribution of remaining oil is divided into four occurrence states in accordance with oil features at different stage of water flooding, the flake of remaining oil, oil column, oil droplet and oil film. A quantitative characterization method of remaining oil occurrence states is established. By using micro numerical simulation method, change rules of four occurrence states of remaining oil during the process of water displacement and the mechanical characteristics of different occurrence state of remaining oil are analyzed. Results show that the continuous oil phase gradually transforms to discontinuous phase and even to dispersed phases during the water flooding process. At extra high water cut stage, most of remaining oil are dispersed oil columns, oil droplets and oil films, which are the main target of remaining oil to be tapped. By changing water flow direction or increasing the displacement pressure gradient, the surface adsorption force acting on oil columns are overcome, and then the oil columns begin to move and finally to be produced out. Oil droplets in pore-throat center are scoured and carried out by water as the increase of the injection volume, while the oil droplets in blind ends and the oil films are extracted out by adding chemicals to reduce the interfacial tension, so as to enhance oil recovery. For water flooding reservoir, the corresponding tapping measures for four types of oil occurrence states brought

  5. Method for recovering elemental silicon from cutting remains.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulset, Torgeir; Julrud, Stein; Cassayre, Laurent; Chamelot, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Taxil, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for recovering elemental silicon cutting remains containing silicon particles, wherein the method comprises manufacturing solid anodes from the cutting remains, arranging one or more manufactured anode (s) in an electrolytic cell with a molten salt electrolyte and one or more cathode (s), and applying a potential difference between the one or more anode (s) and cathode (s) to obtain an oxidation of metallic silicon in the one or more anode (s), tran...

  6. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Bodner, D

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experts opinions consensus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI). BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use...... of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of SCI. These standards document the remaining motor and sensory function that a person may have; however, they do not provide information about the status of a person's autonomic function. METHODS: Based on this deficiency, the American Spinal Injury...... Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) commissioned a group of international experts to develop a common strategy to document the remaining autonomic neurologic function. RESULTS: Four subgroups were commissioned: bladder, bowel, sexual function and general autonomic function. On...

  7. Conventional nutritional indices and Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure: which seems more appropriate for assessing under-nutrition among children? A cross-sectional study among school children of the Bengalee Muslim Population of North Bengal,Indi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Sen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Stunting, wasting and under-weight have been conventionally utilized to assess the prevalence of under-nutrition among children. As these indices grossly underestimate this prevalence mainly due to overlapping of the children into multiple categories of anthropometric failure, there is a need for an appropriate single measure to assess this prevalence and identify the more susceptible individuals. The present study tries to ascertain whether the use of the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF is more appropriate than the conventional indices for the estimation of under-nutrition among children.

    Methods: The present cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of under-nutrition using both the conventional indices and the CIAF among 1143 children aged between 5 years to 11 years (565 boys; 578 girls belonging to the Bengalee Muslim Population (BMP, and residing in the district of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. The children were selected using a multi-stage stratified random sampling procedure. The data was collected during the period from February 2009 to May 2010. Height and weight of the children were recorded using standard procedures. The conventional anthropometric indices and the CIAF were compared with the National Center for Health Statistics reference data to determine the prevalence of under-nutrition. A child having a value 2SD’s below that of the reference median in any of these indices was classified as suffering from under-nutrition. All the necessary approvals and consents were obtained from the Gram Panchayets and school authorities, and the study was conducted in accordance with the ethical guidelines for human experiments as laid down in the Helsinki Declaration of 2000.

    Results: Using the conventional indices, the prevalence of under-nutrition was observed to be 17.4% (wasting, 38.5% (stunting and 47.0% (under

  8. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kjellström

    Full Text Available In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS, the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  9. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Brief Communication: Sexual dimorphic expression of myostatin and follistatin like-3 in a rat trans-generational under-nutrition model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Murray D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The detrimental effects of maternal under-nutrition during gestation on fetal development are well known with an increased propensity of metabolic disorders identified in the adult offspring. Understanding exactly how and by which molecular pathways inadequate nutrition can impact upon offspring phenotype is critical and necessary for the development of treatment methods and ultimately prevention of any negative health effects. Myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle development, has recently been shown to effect glucose homeostasis and fat deposition. The involvement of myostatin in glucose metabolism and adipogenesis thus supports its ability to act in the continued alterations to the postnatal phenotype of the offspring. This hypothesis was examined in the current study using a trans-generational gestationally under-nourished rat model exposed to a high-fat (HF diet post-weaning. The body weight, body fat, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of the offspring, both male and female, were investigated in relation to the protein expression of myostatin and its main inhibitor; follistatin like-3 (FSTL-3, in skeletal muscle of mature offspring. Sexual dimorphism was clearly evident in the majority of these measures, including myostatin and FSTL-3 expression. Generally males displayed higher (P myostatin precursor and dimer expression than females, which was especially apparent (P in both chow and HF trans-generationally undernourished (UNAD groups. In females only, myostatin precursor and dimer expression was altered by both trans-generational under-nutrition and postnatal diet. Overall FSTL-3 expression did not differ between sexes, although difference between sexes within certain treatments and diets were evident. Most notably, HF fed UNAD females had higher (P FSTL-3 expression than HF fed UNAD males. The former group also displayed higher (P FSTL-3 expression compared to all other female groups. In summary, myostatin may prove

  11. Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Grootes, Pieter M; Kerautret, Bertrand; Dujardin, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

  12. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... in Greenland either fossil or extant. The fossil fauna includes the weevil Rutidosoma globulus which is at present extremely rare in Greenland. Its rarity might indicate that it is a recent immigrant, but the fossil finds provide a minimum date for its arrival at around 5840 cal. years B. P. Other remains...

  13. Access to Medicines : Common problems, common solutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates four cross-cutting controversies in access to medicines – aspects of pharmaceutical R&D, equity, generics policy and scale up. Chapter 2 describes the state of pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). It finds that failure rates remain high with the probability of

  14. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  15. Ziegler–Natta Polymerization and the Remaining Challenges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1954. In this article, I will briefly explain this reaction and how it marked the beginning of a material that we come across ev- ery day in our daily lives. I will quickly review the progress made since this discovery and what has been achieved in the last seven decades, the current state-of-the-art, and the remain- ing challenges.

  16. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  17. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  18. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  19. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  20. Measurement of remaining storage, rate of siltation, and rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    To determine, how much water is still available in the impounding reservoir after many years of siltation, the authors embarked a boat and measured the remaining storage of the reservoir as 349,911 m3. Thereafter calculated rate of siltation between years 1966 and 2009 as 6,600 m3/y, rate of erosion in the drainage basin ...

  1. Five reasons why South African librarianship remains untransformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article identifies five reasons why South African librarianship remains untransformed. These reasons are the result of misunderstandings by librarians about the historical process, social change, political change, professional change and the intellectual roles of librarians. Suggestions for dealing with these ...

  2. Fossil remains of fungi, algae and other organisms from Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fungal remains and other fossils from Cainophytic strata of Jamaica have been compared with species described in mycological and algological publications. Only in a few cases morphologically related taxons have been encountered. The stratigraphie significance of these Jamaican fossils is unknown as

  3. Palmar, Patellar, and Pedal Human Remains from Pavlov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trinkaus, E.; Wojtal, P.; Wilczyński, J.; Sázelová, Sandra; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, June (2017), s. 73-101 ISSN 1545-0031 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Gravettian * human remains * isolated bones * anatomically modern human s * Upper Paleolithic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://paleoanthro.org/media/journal/content/PA20170073.pdf

  4. Who wants to conserve remaining forest fragments in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increasing number of international projects are therefore trying to preserve remaining forests and to transfer the management of these for- ests to local communities. However, it is not known how impor- tant the preservation of forest fragments are to local people. We therefore explore the importance of forest fragments as ...

  5. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  6. More fossil bear remains in some Dutch collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Seven fossil specimens, inscribed in five different Dutch collections, are identified as remains of brown bears, Ursus arctos L. Three items are postcranial skeletal parts, two are isolated teeth and two are mandibular fragments. Five fossils have been collected from the North Sea bottom in the

  7. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the ...

  8. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  9. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  10. Food and nutritional care in hospitals: how to prevent undernutrition-report and guidelines from the Council of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Balknas, U. N.; Furst, P.

    2001-01-01

    hospital food provision, to highlight deficiencies and to issue guidelines to improve the nutritional care and support of hospitalized patients. Five major problems seemed to be common in this context: 1) lack of clearly defined responsibilities; 2) lack of sufficient education; 3) lack of influence...

  11. Differential effect of chronic undernutrition on the fiber type composition of fascicles in the extensor digitorum longus muscles of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Mendoza, Enrique; Rodríguez-Torres, Erika Elizabeth; López-García, Kenia; Hinojosa-Rodríguez, Cindy Xilonen; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that chronic low food consumption alters the composition and metabolism of the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDLm) fiber types. EDLm is constituted by four independent fascicles (F2-F5) of different sizes; their constitution and metabolism, however, as well as how chronic undernourishment affects these is virtually unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the relative fiber type composition and metabolism of each independent fascicle in the EDLm, using control and chronically undernourished young male rats by using the alkaline ATPase and NADH-TR histochemical techniques. Our results indicate that all control fascicles showed a higher percentage of intermediate fibers (P0.05), except for F3, in which oxidative fibers increased (P<0.05). After determining the possible predominant metabolism expressed in intermediate fibers, we propose that chronic undernutrition induces the transformation of fast-glycolytic to intermediate-oxidative/glycolytic fibers, mainly in F3 and F5. Our observations confirm that chronic undernourishment differentially affects the fiber types of each fascicle in the EDLm, which could alter their individual physiological contractile properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Programming maternal and child overweight and obesity in the context of undernutrition: current evidence and key considerations for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Kavle, Justine; Perry, Abigail; Nyaku, Albertha

    2017-05-01

    The goals of the present targeted review on maternal and child overweight and obesity were to: (i) understand the current situation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with regard to recent trends and context-specific risk factors; and (ii) building off this, identify entry points for leveraging existing undernutrition programmes to address overweight and obesity in LMIC. Trends reveal that overweight and obesity are a growing problem among women and children in LMIC; as in Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, where the prevalence among urban women is approaching 50 %. Four promising entry points were identified: (i) the integration of overweight and obesity into national nutrition plans; (ii) food systems (integration of food and beverage marketing regulations into existing polices on the marketing of breast-milk substitutes and adoption of policies to promote healthy diets); (iii) education systems (integration of nutrition into school curricula with provision of high-quality foods through school feeding programmes); and (iv) health systems (counselling and social and behaviour change communication to improve maternal diet, appropriate gestational weight gain, and optimal infant and young child feeding practices). We conclude by presenting a step-by-step guide for programme officers and policy makers in LMIC with actionable objectives to address overweight and obesity.

  13. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  14. Safety provision for nuclear power plants during remaining running time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With the phasing-out of the industrial use of nuclear energy for the power generation, the risk of the nuclear power plants has not been eliminated in principle, but only for a limited period of time. Therefore, the remaining nine nuclear power plants must also be used for the remaining ten years according to the state of science and technology. Regulatory authorities must substantiate the safety requirements for each nuclear power plant and enforce these requirements by means of various regulatory measures. The consequences of Fukushima must be included in the assessment of the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany. In this respect, the regulatory authorities have the important tasks to investigate and assess the security risks as well as to develop instructions and orders.

  15. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  16. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Kl; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-07-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  17. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  19. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  20. Middle Paleolithic and Uluzzian human remains from Fumane Cave, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Bailey, Shara E; Peresani, Marco; Mannino, Marcello A; Romandini, Matteo; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-05-01

    The site of Fumane Cave (western Lessini Mountains, Italy) contains a stratigraphic sequence spanning the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic. During excavations from 1989 to 2011, four human teeth were unearthed from the Mousterian (Fumane 1, 4, 5) and Uluzzian (Fumane 6) levels of the cave. In this contribution, we provide the first morphological description and morphometric analysis of the dental remains. All of the human remains, except for Fumane 6, are deciduous teeth. Based on metric data (crown and cervical outline analysis, and lateral enamel thickness) and non-metric dental traits (e.g., mid-trigonid crest), Fumane 1 (lower left second deciduous molar) clearly belongs to a Neandertal. For Fumane 4 (upper right central deciduous incisor), the taxonomic attribution is difficult due to heavy incisal wear. Some morphological features observed in Fumane 5 (lower right lateral deciduous incisor), coupled with the large size of the tooth, support Neandertal affinity. Fumane 6, a fragment of a permanent molar, does not show any morphological features useful for taxonomic discrimination. The human teeth from Fumane Cave increase the sample of Italian fossil remains, and emphasize the need to develop new methods to extract meaningful taxonomic information from deciduous and worn teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  2. Some Common Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/appendixb.html Appendix B: Some Common Abbreviations To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. This is a list of some common abbreviations and acronyms. Abbreviation Stands for More information ABG ...

  3. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions What's in this article? Flatfeet Toe Walking ...

  4. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Primary ... PIDDs Genetics & Inheritance Talking to Your Doctor Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by low levels of ...

  5. Plant macro remains from Early Historic Vessel, Gilund, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S Naik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The macrobotanical remains were recovered from the Early Historic vessel from Gilund, Rajasthan by employing dry and wet sieving techniques in the Palaeobotany laboratory. The retrieved archaeobotanical material was in carbonized and semi-carbonized state. It involves cultivated barley grains, a single cut grain of rice and a seeds of weed plant along with a bulk of wood charcoal pieces. These could survive in the carbonized state by being exposed to heat or fire. The impressions of grass leaves were found on well backed brickbats occurred in the vessel. Few molluscan shells were also retrieved during wet sieving.

  6. Remaining teeth, cardiovascular morbidity and death among adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Gamborg, M

    2008-01-01

    disease was increased by 50% (HR=1.50; 95% CI: 1.02-2.19). Risk for coronary heart disease was increased by 31%, but was not significant, after the adjustment for education, age, smoking, diabetes, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure and body mass index (HR= 1.31; 95% CI: 0.74-2.31). Associations were......OBJECTIVE: To examine if number of remaining teeth was associated with development of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over 5-12 years. METHODS: Prospective observational study among 1474 men and 1458 women born 1922, 1932, 1942 or 1952 from The Danish MONICA follow up study (MONItoring...

  7. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  8. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  9. Kidney disease in children: latest advances and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, John F; Goldstein, Stuart L; Pape, Lars; Schaefer, Franz; Shroff, Rukshana C; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-03-01

    To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, cardiovascular health, and growth and nutrition, are all discussed within the context of paediatric and neonatal patients with kidney disease. Our global panel of researchers describe areas in which further studies and clinical advances are needed, and suggest ways in which research in these areas should progress to optimize renal care and long-term outcomes for affected patients.

  10. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  11. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us.

  12. Management of undernutrition and failure to thrive in children with congenital heart disease in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Andrew C; Balachandran, Rakhi; Vaidyanathan, Balu; Khan, Amina; Kumar, R Krishna

    2017-12-01

    Poor growth with underweight for age, decreased length/height for age, and underweight-for-height are all relatively common in children with CHD. The underlying causes of this failure to thrive may be multifactorial, including innate growth potential, severity of cardiac disease, increased energy requirements, decreased nutritional intake, malabsorption, and poor utilisation of absorbed nutrition. These factors are particularly common and severe in low- and middle-income countries. Although nutrition should be carefully assessed in all patients, failure of growth is not a contraindication to surgical repair, and patients should receive surgical repair where indicated as soon as possible. Close attention should be paid to nutritional support - primarily enteral feeding, with particular use of breast milk in infancy - in the perioperative period and in the paediatric ICU. This nutritional support requires specific attention and allocation of resources, including appropriately skilled personnel. Thereafter, it is essential to monitor growth and development and to identify causes for failure to catch-up or grow appropriately.

  13. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  14. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  15. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  16. REMAINED DENTAL PARTICLES IN THE JAWS OF EDENTULOUSPATIENTS (ISFAHAN. 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MOSHARRAF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Remained teeth and other lesions such as cysts, abcesses and tumors is one of the important problems in edentulous patients. In a cross-sectional study, 330 edentulous patients were evaluated radiographically. The radiographic evaluation of patients revealed the presence of 86 residual roots in 58 radiographs. 17.58% of patients had residual roots & 5.8% of patients had Impacted teeth. 58.1% of residual roots and 45% of impacted teeth were in the maxilla and others were in mandible. Maximum Percentage of residual roots (58.1% and impacted teeth (70% were found in molar region. In this study revealed 23.3% of examined patients had remaining dental fragments. From these patients, 5.76% had impacted teeth and 17.58% had residual roots, and maximum percentage of rooth fragments (58.1% were found in molar region. In similar study by spyropoulus, maximum percentage of root fragments (45.6% reported in molar region and maximum percentage of impacted teeth were found in molar and canine region (41.2% in molar and 41.2 in canine region. In this study, 58.1% of root fragments and 45% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla but in spyropoulos" report, 71.9% of root fragments and 94.1% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla.

  17. Fossil human remains from Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Quam, Rolf; Carretero, José Miguel; Barciela González, Virginia; Blasco, Ruth; Cuartero, Felipe; Sañudo, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Systematic excavations carried out since 1989 at Bolomor Cave have led to the recovery of four Pleistocene human fossil remains, consisting of a fibular fragment, two isolated teeth, and a nearly complete adult parietal bone. All of these specimens date to the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene (MIS 7-5e). The fibular fragment shows thick cortical bone, an archaic feature found in non-modern (i.e. non-Homo sapiens) members of the genus Homo. Among the dental remains, the lack of a midtrigonid crest in the M(1) represents a departure from the morphology reported for the majority of Neandertal specimens, while the large dimensions and pronounced shoveling of the marginal ridges in the C(1) are similar to other European Middle and late Pleistocene fossils. The parietal bone is very thick, with dimensions that generally fall above Neandertal fossils and resemble more closely the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca (SH) adult specimens. Based on the presence of archaic features, all the fossils from Bolomor are attributed to the Neandertal evolutionary lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  20. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-10-01

    A fine modelling of the material' behaviour can be necessary to study the mechanical strength of nuclear power plant' components under cyclic loads. Ratchetting is one of the last phenomena for which numerical models have to be improved. We discuss in this paper on use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening to improve the description of ratchetting in biaxial loading tests. It's well known that Chaboche elastoplastic model with two non linear kinematic hardening variables initially proposed by Armstrong and Frederick, usually over-predicts accumulation of ratchetting strain. Burlet and Cailletaud proposed in 1987 a non linear kinematic rule with a radial evanescence remain term. The two models lead to identical formulation for proportional loadings. In the case of a biaxial loading test (primary+secondary loading), Burlet and Cailletaud model leads to accommodation, when Chaboche one's leads to ratchetting with a constant increment of strain. So we can have an under-estimate with the first model and an over-estimate with the second. An easy method to improve the description of ratchetting is to combine the two kinematic rules. Such an idea is already used by Delobelle in his model. With analytical results in the case of tension-torsion tests, we show in a first part of the paper, the interest of radial evanescence remain term in the non linear kinematic rule to describe ratchetting: we give the conditions to get adaptation, accommodation or ratchetting and the value of the strain increment in the last case. In the second part of the paper, we propose to modify the elastoplastic Chaboche model by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters which can be identified independently on biaxial loading tests. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. We use the experimental results on the austenitic steel 316L at room

  2. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  3. Food and nutritional care in hospitals: how to prevent undernutrition-report and guidelines from the Council of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Balknas, U. N.; Furst, P.

    2001-01-01

    of the patients; 4) lack of co-operation among all staff groups; and 5) lack of involvement from the hospital management. To solve the problems highlighted, a combined 'team-effort' is needed from national authorities and ail staff involved in the nutritional care and support, including hospital managers. (C......In 1999 the Council of Europe decided to collect information regarding Nutrition programmes in hospitals and for this purpose a network consisting of national experts from eight of the Partial Agreement member states was established. The aim was to review the current practice in Europe regarding...... hospital food provision, to highlight deficiencies and to issue guidelines to improve the nutritional care and support of hospitalized patients. Five major problems seemed to be common in this context: 1) lack of clearly defined responsibilities; 2) lack of sufficient education; 3) lack of influence...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE DRUM REMAINING LIFETIME IN THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav M Živković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper analysis of stress and thermal-elastic-plastic strain of the drum is performed. Influence of modified thickness, yield stress and finite element model of welded joint between pipe and drum on assessment of the remaining lifetime of the drum in the thermal power plant is analyzed. Two analyses are compared. In the first, drum is modeled by shell and by 3D finite elements with projected geometrical and material data of drum. Then, the drum is modeled by shell and by 3D finite elements with modified thickness and yield stress. The analysis show that detailed modeling of stress concentration zones is necessary. Adequate modeling gives lower maximal effective plastic strain and increased number of cycles and, in that case, 3D finite elements are better comparing to shell finite elements.

  5. TMI in perspective: reactor containment stands up, difficult decisions remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Co. is increasing its commitment to nuclear energy after reviewing the performance of the Three Mile Island reactor containment systems. Both the reactor vessel and the secondary containment remained intact and no radiation was reported in the soil or water. The public discussion of energy options which followed the accident will benefit both the public and technical community even if there is a temporary slowdown in nuclear power development. The realities of energy supplies have become evident; i.e., that nuclear and coal are the only available options for the short-term. The discussion should also lead to better personnel training, regulatory reforms, risk-sharing insurance, and international standards. The public hysteria triggered by the accident stemmed partly from the combination of unfortunate incidents and the media coverage, which led to hasty conclusions

  6. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  7. Methodology in subliminal psychodynamic activation: basic questions remain unanswered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudin, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Birgegard and Sohlberg recently implied that the interchange between them and Fudin in 1999 to 2000 resolved methodological issues in subliminal psychodynamic activation research. There remain, however, unresolved problems, both logical and empirical, which impair interpretations of findings in this area. These issues include questions concerning the value of the presentation of partial vs complete messages and the parameters involved in the information processing of such stimuli. The pursuit of solutions to these problems would be most efficacious if such research were brought more in line with experimental principles and established procedures used in the presentation of subliminal stimuli. In the absence of these efforts, research in subliminal psychodynamic activation will probably continue to tend toward circular reasoning and the production of ambiguous results that will never reach a wide audience.

  8. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the interest which lies in non-linear kinematic hardening rule with radial evanescence remain term as proposed for modelling multiaxial ratchetting. From analytical calculations in the case of the tension/torsion test, this ratchetting is compared with that proposed by Armstrong and Frederick. A modification is then proposed for Chaboche's elastoplastic model with two non-linear kinematic variables, by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. Using biaxial ratchetting tests on stainless steel 316 L specimens at ambient temperature, it is shown that satisfactory modelling of multiaxial ratchetting is obtained. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  9. Tactile display on the remaining hand for unilateral hand amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human rely profoundly on tactile feedback from fingertips to interact with the environment, whereas most hand prostheses used in clinics provide no tactile feedback. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility to use a tactile display glove that can be worn by a unilateral hand amputee on the remaining healthy hand to display tactile feedback from a hand prosthesis. The main benefit is that users could easily distinguish the feedback for each finger, even without training. The claimed advantage is supported by preliminary tests with healthy subjects. This approach may lead to the development of effective and affordable tactile display devices that provide tactile feedback for individual fingertip of hand prostheses.

  10. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  11. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  12. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  13. Remaining useful life prediction of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance: Application to draught fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Hua; Si, Xiao-Sheng; Zio, Enrico

    2018-02-01

    Current degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction studies share a common assumption that the degrading systems are not maintained or maintained perfectly (i.e., to an as-good-as new state). This paper concerns the issues of how to model the degradation process and predict the remaining useful life of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance activities, which can restore the health condition of a degrading system to any degradation level between as-good-as new and as-bad-as old. Toward this end, a nonlinear model driven by Wiener process is first proposed to characterize the degradation trajectory of the degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, where negative jumps are incorporated to quantify the influence of imperfect maintenance activities on the system's degradation. Then, the probability density function of the remaining useful life is derived analytically by a space-scale transformation, i.e., transforming the constructed degradation model with negative jumps crossing a constant threshold level to a Wiener process model crossing a random threshold level. To implement the proposed method, unknown parameters in the degradation model are estimated by the maximum likelihood estimation method. Finally, the proposed degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction method are applied to a practical case of draught fans belonging to a kind of mechanical systems from steel mills. The results reveal that, for a degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, our proposed method can obtain more accurate remaining useful life predictions than those of the benchmark model in literature.

  14. Should sustainability and resilience be combined or remain distinct pursuits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Redman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has become common for sustainability science and resilience theory to be considered as complementary approaches. Occasionally the terms have been used interchangeably. Although these two approaches share some working principles and objectives, they also are based on some distinct assumptions about the operation of systems and how we can best guide these systems into the future. Each approach would benefit from some scholars keeping sustainability science and resilience theory separate and focusing on further developing their distinctiveness and other scholars continuing to explore them in combination. Three areas of research in which following different procedures might be beneficial are whether to prioritize outcomes or system dynamics, how best to take advantage of community input, and increasing the use of knowledge of the past as a laboratory for potential innovations.

  15. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  16. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  17. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  18. Completely open-foldable domes remaining cool in sunshine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Deelen, Sander; Hoogendoorn, Pieter W.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; Sonner, Thomas; Simoes, Roberto; Grassin, Olivier; Fischer, Andreas; Visser, Simon; Thewissen, Kristof

    2016-07-01

    These open-foldable very light-weight domes, based on very strong textile membranes highly tensioned between steel bows, are designed for bad-weather protection and maintenance of instruments for astronomical, meteorological and civil-engineering measurements and have extremely high wind stability. The domes of the GREGOR telescope and the Dutch Open Telescope are the two existing prototypes. Improvements were developed with all parts light-colored to remain cool in solar light. The new specially made connection parts (eyes) between the textile parts are made from white-colored PETP, a very strong and UV-stable synthetic, and have a better geometrical shape giving higher stability. The rubber seal tubes on top of the dome were of black-colored chloride rubber CR (neoprene), strong and UV stable, but very warm in sunlight. New UV-stable EPDM rubber tubes were produced in natural light color. To get this rubber stiff enough to give good sealing, a black-colored stiff EPDM rubber is put inside the light-colored one. Tests were performed and the forces necessary for compression of the rubber tubes were measured. An inside black tube with a circa 1.3 times larger compression force than the original black tubes was applied. The assembling of the black tubes into the light-colored tubes was successfully applied at the DOT and GREGOR domes.

  19. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  20. Anion exchange membrane fuel cells: Current status and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Dekel, Dario R.; Page, Miles; Bae, Chulsung; Yan, Yushan; Zelenay, Piotr; Kim, Yu Seung

    2018-01-01

    The anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) is an attractive alternative to acidic proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which to date have required platinum-based catalysts, as well as acid-tolerant stack hardware. The AEMFC could use non-platinum-group metal catalysts and less expensive metal hardware thanks to the high pH of the electrolyte. Over the last decade, substantial progress has been made in improving the performance and durability of the AEMFC through the development of new materials and the optimization of system design and operation conditions. In this perspective article, we describe the current status of AEMFCs as having reached beginning of life performance very close to that of PEMFCs when using ultra-low loadings of Pt, while advancing towards operation on non-platinum-group metal catalysts alone. In the latter sections, we identify the remaining technical challenges, which require further research and development, focusing on the materials and operational factors that critically impact AEMFC performance and/or durability. These perspectives may provide useful insights for the development of next-generation of AEMFCs.

  1. Dentognathic remains of an Afropithecus individual from Kalodirr, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossie, James B; MacLatchy, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We describe here the well-preserved dentognathic remains of an Afropithecus individual from the early Miocene site of Kalodirr in northern Kenya. The specimen includes a nearly complete dentition in which most of the crowns are undamaged and unworn. The new information gleaned from this specimen adds to our knowledge of this genus in several ways. Afropithecus exhibits an atypical pattern of canine dimorphism, and is probably more easily sexed by the pattern of variation in its upper premolars. Both phenomena are likely related to the modification of its antemolar dentition for the purpose of sclerocarp harvesting. The new fossils clarify the role in this adaptation of the premolars, which appear specialized for initiating and propagating cracks in large food items bearing protective coats. Comparison with other Miocene apes suggests that the closest known relative of Afropithecus is Nacholapithecus, to which Equatorius is more distantly related. Morotopithecus shares some primitive traits with Afropithecus, but lacks the derived features shared by the latter and Nacholapithecus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  3. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  4. Canonical Wnt signaling in the oligodendroglial lineage--puzzles remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Sohn, Jiho; Hammond, Elizabeth; Chang, Marcello; Pleasure, David

    2015-10-01

    The straightforward concept that accentuated Wnt signaling via the Wnt-receptor-β-catenin-TCF/LEF cascade (also termed canonical Wnt signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling) delays or blocks oligodendrocyte differentiation is very appealing. According to this concept, canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and for persistent hypomyelination in periventricular leukomalacia. This has given rise to the hope that pharmacologically inhibiting this signaling will be of therapeutic potential in these disabling neurological disorders. But current studies suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays distinct roles in oligodendrogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and myelination in a context-dependent manner (central nervous system regions, developmental stages), and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling interplays with, and is subjected to regulation by, other central nervous system factors and signaling pathways. On this basis, we propose the more nuanced concept that endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity is delicately and temporally regulated to ensure the seamless development of oligodendroglial lineage cells in different contexts. In this review, we discuss the role Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oligodendrocyte development, focusing on the interpretation of disparate results, and highlighting areas where important questions remain to be answered about oligodendroglial lineage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prenatally diagnosed severe CDH: mortality and morbidity remain high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Megan A; Werner, Nicole L; Gajarski, Robert; Gadepalli, Samir; Hirschl, Ronald; Barks, John; Treadwell, Marjorie C; Ladino-Torres, Maria; Kreutzman, Jeannie; Mychaliska, George B

    2016-07-01

    This study sought to evaluate prenatal markers' ability to predict severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia(CDH) and assess this subgroup's morbidity and mortality. A retrospective review was performed between 2006 and 2014. Prenatal criteria for severe CDH included: liver herniation, lung-to-head ratio (LHR) CDH met severe criteria. Mean LHR: 1.04±0.35, o/eLHR: 31±10% and o/eTLV: 20±7%. Distribution was 72% LCDH, 24% R-CDH. Overall survival: 38%. ECMO requirement: 92%. Patch rate: 91%. Mean ventilator-free days in 60: 7.1±14. Supplemental oxygen at discharge was required in 27%. In this prenatally diagnosed severe cohort, 58%(15/26) had persistent PHtn post-ECMO requiring inhaled nitric oxide±epoprostenol. Comparing patients with and without PHtn: mean ECMO duration 18±10 days versus 9±7 days (p=0.01) and survival 20% versus 72% (p=0.006). A combination of prenatal markers accurately identified severe CDH patients. Outcomes of this group remain poor and persistent PHtn contributes significantly to mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Analysis of Data Remaining on Second Hand ADSL Routers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Szewczyk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In theory an ADSL router is capable of providing immense security capabilities including but not limited to wireless encryption, denial of service prevention through firewall rule sets, and logging facilities for review or analysis of network events. However, most laymen may be unaware of the intricacies of the security measures available to them. As a result a vast array of information could remain on ADSL routers once the device is sold, including the users’ approach to security, Internet usage habits, or more importantly confidential user or account information. This paper presents the findings of data acquired from second hand ADSL routers purchased during the first quarter of 2011. The outcomes demonstrate that individuals are not removing their identity adequately and are leaving confidential data which may lead to detrimental outcomes if misused. The paper also demonstrates that the overall security of these devices is alarmingly low, and thus many consumers may fall victim to new and emergent Internet based crimes.

  8. The double burden household in sub-Saharan Africa: maternal overweight and obesity and childhood undernutrition from the year 2000: results from World Health Organization Data (WHO) and Demographic Health Surveys (DHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2014-10-31

    Previous studies have characterized an increasing trend of double burden households, or households with individuals experiencing both undernutrition and obesity, in countries undergoing a nutrition transition. Although most prior studies indicate the prevalence of double burden households is highest in middle-income countries, there is some support for an increase in double burden households in sub-Saharan African countries as well. Using data from the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of double burden households in sub-Saharan African countries was calculated and the associations between prevalence of overweight/obese adults and underweight, stunted and wasted children were evaluated at the country and household (DHS only) levels. Restricted analyses and frequencies were calculated using urban-only datasets. Surveys from 28 African countries were available using WHO data and 26 from the DHS surveys. Only surveys that were conducted after 2000 were included in analyses. Using the WHO datasets, there were inverse associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults and underweight, stunting and wasting in children. Correspondingly, there were positive associations between adult underweight and child underweight, stunting and wasting. These associations were not significant in a smaller sample size using urban-only surveys. The prevalence of double burden households in DHS datasets was low: under 5 percent for obese mothers and underweight, stunted or wasted child pairs with a slightly higher percentage for overweight mothers and children with undernutrition. Restricting the analysis to urban only populations did not increase the frequencies of double burden households significantly. There was a low prevalence of double burden households in recent data from sub-Saharan Africa. Countries that have a high prevalence of child undernutrition correspondingly have a high prevalence of adult

  9. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...... educational background and job rotation....

  10. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  11. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  12. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  13. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  14. Common Elements of Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberts, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    .... It is now common for multiple organizations to work collaboratively in pursuit of a single mission, which creates a degree of programmatic and process complexity that can be difficult to manage effectively...

  15. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... being "polluted" by the state and market logic and maintain their distinctness rooted in civil society´s values and logics. Through a historical case analysis of the Egmont Foundation from Denmark (a corporate philanthropic foundation from 1920), the paper shows how concrete gift-giving practices...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...

  16. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  17. Dentin-smear remains at self-etch adhesive interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Atsushi; De Munck, Jan; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, André; Van Ende, Annelies; Matsumoto, Mariko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Kuboki, Takuo; Yatani, Hirofumi; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-10-01

    The bonding potential of 'mild' self-etch adhesives may be compromised due to smear interference, as they may not dissolve/penetrate the smear layer effectively due to their relatively low acidity. We observed that the thickness of the dentin smear layer differed depending on the surface-preparation methodology used. The interaction of an (ultra-)mild self-etch adhesive (Clearfil S3 Bond, Kuraray Noritake) with human dentin, prepared either using a medium-grit diamond bur ('thick', clinically relevant smear layer) or 600-grit SiC-paper ('thin' smear layer), or just fractured (smear-free), was evaluated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Non-demineralized/demineralized 30-100nm interfacial cross-sections were prepared following common TEM-specimen processing and diamond-knife ultra-microtomy. The adhesive did not dissolve the bur-cut, nor the SiC-ground smear layer, but impregnated it. Within this 'resin-smear complex', hydroxyapatite was abundantly present. At fractured dentin, this complex was not present, while the actual layer of interaction of the adhesive was limited to about 100nm. Non-demineralized 'ultra-thin' (30-50nm) sections confirmed the interfacial ultra-structure to differ for the three surface-preparation methods. An electron dense band was consistently disclosed at the adhesive interface, most likely representing the documented chemical interaction of the functional monomer 10-MDP with Ca. The dentin surface-preparation method significantly affects the nature of the smear layer and the interaction with the ultra-mild self-etch adhesive. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  19. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  20. Thermal behavior remains engaged following exercise despite autonomic thermoeffector withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Nicole T; Chapman, Christopher L; Sackett, James R; Abdul-Rashed, Jabril; McBryde, Muhamed; Johnson, Blair D; Gathercole, Rob; Schlader, Zachary J

    2018-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that thermal behavior during the exercise recovery compensates for elevated core temperatures despite autonomic thermoeffector withdrawal. In a thermoneutral environment, 6 females and 6 males (22 ± 1 y) cycled for 60 min (225 ± 46 W metabolic heat production), followed by 60 min passive recovery. Mean skin and core temperatures, skin blood flow, and local sweat rate were measured continually. Subjects controlled the temperature of their dorsal neck to perceived thermal comfort using a custom-made neck device. Neck device temperature provided an index of thermal behavior. Mean body temperature, calculated as the average of mean skin and core temperatures, provided an index of the stimulus for thermal behavior. To isolate the independent effect of exercise on thermal behavior during recovery, data were analyzed post-exercise the exact minute mean body temperature recovered to pre-exercise levels within a subject. Mean body temperature returned to pre-exercise levels 28 ± 20 min into recovery (Pre: 33.5 ± 0.2, Post: 33.5 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.20), at which point, mean skin temperature had recovered (Pre: 29.6 ± 0.4, Post: 29.5 ± 0.5 °C, P = 0.20) and core temperature (Pre: 37.3 ± 0.2, Post: 37.5 ± 0.3 °C, P = 0.01) remained elevated. Post-exercise, skin blood flow (Pre: 59 ± 78, Post: 26 ± 25 PU, P = 0.10) and local sweat rate (Pre: 0.05 ± 0.25, Post: 0.13 ± 0.14 mg/cm 2  min -1 , P = 0.09) returned to pre-exercise levels, while neck device temperature was depressed (Pre: 27.4 ± 1.1, Post: 21.6 ± 7.4 °C, P = 0.03). These findings suggest that thermal behavior compensates for autonomic thermoeffector withdrawal in the presence of elevated core temperatures post-exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. POINT CLOUD METRICS FOR SEPARATING STANDING ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS AND LOW VEGETATION IN ALS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Opitz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Airborne Laser Scanning survey into archaeological research and cultural heritage management has substantially added to our knowledge of archaeological remains in forested areas, and is changing our understanding of how these landscapes functioned in the past. While many types of archaeological remains manifest as micro-topography, several important classes of features commonly appear as standing remains. The identification of these remains is important for archaeological prospection surveys based on ALS data, and typically represent structures from the Roman, Medieval and early Modern periods. Standing structures in mixed scenes with vegetation are not well addressed by standard classification approaches developed to identify bare earth (terrain, individual trees or plot characteristics, or buildings (roofed structures. In this paper we propose an approach to the identification of these structures in the point cloud based on multi-scale measures of local density, roughness, and normal orientation. We demonstrate this approach using discrete-return ALS data collected in the Franche-Comte region of France at a nominal point density of 8 pts/m2, a resolution which, in coming years, will become increasingly available to archaeologists through government supported mapping schemes.

  2. Disulfide bridges remain intact while native insulin converts into amyloid fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Kurouski

    Full Text Available Amyloid fibrils are β-sheet-rich protein aggregates commonly found in the organs and tissues of patients with various amyloid-associated diseases. Understanding the structural organization of amyloid fibrils can be beneficial for the search of drugs to successfully treat diseases associated with protein misfolding. The structure of insulin fibrils was characterized by deep ultraviolet resonance Raman (DUVRR and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy combined with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. The compositions of the fibril core and unordered parts were determined at single amino acid residue resolution. All three disulfide bonds of native insulin remained intact during the aggregation process, withstanding scrambling. Three out of four tyrosine residues were packed into the fibril core, and another aromatic amino acid, phenylalanine, was located in the unordered parts of insulin fibrils. In addition, using all-atom MD simulations, the disulfide bonds were confirmed to remain intact in the insulin dimer, which mimics the fibrillar form of insulin.

  3. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as "important," as "sacred," and as a vehicle to continue intense and physical relationships with the dead. Based on quantitative and qualitative data this article illustrates the ambiguity of such relationships. It highlights the diverse experiences, unexpected challenges, and moral obligations that can be evoked by the deceased's ashes, where the latter are seen as embedded in material practices and entangled in social relationships.

  4. The association between common physical impairments and dementia in low and middle income countries, and, among people with dementia, their association with cognitive function and disability. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jotheeswaran, A T; Liu, Zhaorui; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D

    2011-05-01

    Chronic physical comorbidity is common in dementia. However, there is an absence of evidence to support good practice guidelines for attention to these problems. We aimed to study the extent of this comorbidity and its impact on cognitive function and disability in population-based studies in low and middle income countries, where chronic diseases and impairments are likely to be both common and undertreated. A multicentre cross-sectional survey of all over 65 year old residents (n = 15 022) in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru. We estimated the prevalence of pain, incontinence, hearing and visual impairments, mobility impairment and undernutrition according to the presence of dementia and its severity, and, among those with dementia, the independent contribution of these impairments to cognitive function and disability, adjusting for age, gender, education and dementia severity. Incontinence, hearing impairment, mobility impairment and undernutrition were consistently linearly associated with the presence of dementia and its severity across regions. Among people with dementia, incontinence, hearing impairment and mobility impairment were independently associated with disability in all regions while the contributions of pain, visual impairment and undernutrition were inconsistent. Only hearing impairment made a notable independent contribution to cognitive impairment. There is an urgent need for clinical trials of the feasibility, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of regular physical health checks and remediation of identified pathologies, given the considerable comorbidity identified in our population based studies, and the strong evidence for independent impact upon functioning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Why does Bangladesh remain so poor? Part II: eight answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1985-01-01

    Bangladeshis of varying background all over the country were asked why they think poverty persists to such an extent in Bangladesh. Their answers provide a new perspective on the situation. The initial response often blames outside and natural causes -- floods, droughts, lack of resources, low demand for the country's exports, or historic exploitation. It is true that Bangladesh has virtually no mineral resources except gas. Yet, the soil, water, and human labor add up to a huge potential. The Third Five Year Plan emphasizes use of the soil, irrigation, tanks, rivers, and human labor. These provide the only hope for reducing poverty a little during the next 5 years. Bangladeshis as well as foreign observers most commonly cite overpopulation as the cause of poverty. Population growth is a cause of present poverty in Bangladesh but is not the only cause of poverty. The Third Five Year Plan goal to reduce annual growth to 1.8% is ambitious, but even if it is achieved the population will double in a few decades. As it would most likely be impossible for Bangladesh to support such numbers and maintain political and economic stability, such growth will have to be prevented. Poverty in Bangladesh is party a result of the long history of low urbanization, weak institutions, spotty and inadequate physical infrastructure, and insufficient entrapreneurship. Other reasons cited as causes of persisting poverty include illiteracy, idleness, class exploitation, the selfishness of individuals, and a lack of trust among people. All of the efforts of the poor themselves, various agencies, and the government, as examined in the 1st part of this discussion, fail to indicate any reason to hope that poverty in Bangladesh can be dramatically reduced any time soon. The Third Five Year Plan foresees a possible reduction of the number of those in poverty by 10%. According to the Plan itself, those in or near poverty comprise 85% of the people. The conditions under which the people of some

  6. Overweight and Undernutrition in the Cases of School-Going Adolescents in Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereje Yohannes Teferi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among school adolescents in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 18–June 10, 2015. A multistage sampling was used to select a random sample of 690 adolescents from selected schools. Data on sociodemographic information were collected by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were made by using a digital Seca scale and height measuring board by trained data collectors. Data were entered into Epi-Data version 3.1 software and exported to SPSS version 20. World Health Organization (WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyze anthropometric data. Both binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were done to identify factors associated with the malnutrition of adolescents. Result. The overall prevalence of thinness, stunting, and overweight/obesity among school adolescents was 4.7% (95% CI: 3%–6.4%; 5.2% (95% CI: 3.4%–7%; and 5.0% (95% CI: 3.4%–6.7%, respectively. Being male (AOR = 4.07; 95% CI: 2.35–7.02, learning at a government school (AOR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.20–0.65, mothers with no formal education (AOR = 4.03; 95% CI: 1.82–8.92, owning no cattle (AOR = 4.92; 95% CI: 2.08–11.64, skipping meals (AOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.05–2.74, and illness in 2 weeks prior to survey (AOR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.49–4.78 were significantly associated with thinness. However, males, students who had their house, and no cattle were more likely to develop overweight/obesity. Maternal education of secondary school (AOR = 0.214; 95% CI: 0.054–0.846 was significantly associated with the stunting. Conclusion. The study showed the coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition among school adolescents in the study area. There needs to implement evidence-based school nutrition education and health policies and programs to

  7. Undernutrition, Vitamin A and Iron Deficiency Are Associated with Impaired Intestinal Mucosal Permeability in Young Bangladeshi Children Assessed by Lactulose/Mannitol Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Hossain

    Full Text Available Lactulose/mannitol (L:M test has been used as a non-invasive marker of intestinal mucosal -integrity and -permeability (enteropathy. We investigated the association of enteropathy with anthropometrics, micronutrient- status, and morbidity in children.The urine and blood samples were collected from 925 children aged 6-24 months residing in Mirpur slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh during November 2009 to April 2013. L:M test and micronutrient status were assessed in the laboratory of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b following standard procedure.Mean±SD age of the children was 13.2±5.2 months and 47.8% were female. Urinary- lactulose recovery was 0.264±0.236, mannitol recovery was 3.423±3.952, and L:M was 0.109±0.158. An overall negative correlation (Spearman's-rho of L:M was found with age (rs = -0.087; p = 0.004, weight-for-age (rs = -0.077; p = 0.010, weight-for-length (rs = -0.060; p = 0.034, mid-upper-arm-circumference (rs = -0.098; p = 0.001 and plasma-retinol (rs = -0.105; p = 0.002; and a positive correlation with plasma α-1-acid glycoprotein (rs = 0.066; p = 0.027. However, most of the correlations were not very strong. Approximately 44% of children had enteropathy as reflected by L:M of ≥0.09. Logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age (infancy (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.35; p = 0.027, diarrhea (AOR = 4.00; p = 0.039 or fever (AOR = 2.18; p = 0.003 within previous three days of L:M test were the risk factors of enteropathy (L:M of ≥0.09.Enteropathy (high L:M is associated with younger age, undernutrition, low vitamin A and iron status, and infection particularly diarrhea and fever.

  8. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains and associated funerary... the human remains was made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...

  9. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  10. A Language in Common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963

    This collection of articles reprinted from the "London Times Literary Supplement" indicates the flexibility of English as a common literary language in its widespread use outside the United States and England. Major articles present the thesis that English provides an artistic medium which is enriched through colloquial idioms in the West Indies…

  11. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival naevus (Fig. 11). Conjunctival naevi are common and are located in the interpalpebral bulbar conjunctiva close to the limbus or at the caruncle. The naevus is a discrete, flat or slightly elevated sessile lesion. The colour can be from pale to brown to a dark black. If present from birth to 6 months it is considered a ...

  12. Common eye emergencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-11

    Oct 11, 2007 ... episcleritis, scleritis, uveitis and acute-angle closure glaucoma. Acute conjunctivitis. Acute conjunctivitis may be bacterial, viral or allergy related. Bacterial conjunctivitis. Acute bacterial conjunctivitis begins unilaterally with hyperaemia, irritation, tearing, and a mucopurulent discharge. Common pathogens ...

  13. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  14. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than...

  15. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  16. Is Context Common Ground?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens Sand

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the relation between the how’s and why’s of humour, by gradually moving from the contextual compositionality of conversational implication to a broadened perspective on the open- ended nature of conversation and the purpose humour serves in developing ‘common ground’....

  17. Common mistakes of investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Wai Pong Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance is an actively discussed topic in the academic and investment circle. The main reason is because behavioral finance challenges the validity of a cornerstone of the modern financial theory: rationality of investors. In this paper, the common irrational behaviors of investors are discussed

  18. [Economic Loss of Remaining Contents in Molecular Target Drug Preparation and the Simulation for Cost Saving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Eiseki; Kimura, Michio; Fukuoka, Tomohiro; Okada, Kazutomo; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2016-06-01

    While preparing an anticancer drug, even if it is an expensive molecular target drug, the remainder is not divided and saved for use in other patients; instead, it is discarded, resulting in waste of medical resources. In this study, we examined the economic loss in terms of medical costs by calculating the discarded amounts of 12 commonly used molecular target drugs at Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Japan between January 2012 and December 2014. We found, on average, that drugs valued at ¥ 52,593,182 were discarded annually. In particular, the discarded amounts of relatively expensive drugs, such as bevacizumab, bortezomib, and rituximab, were valued at ¥ 16,646,300, ¥ 15,866,289, and ¥ 8,401,324, respectively. Among these, the average amount of waste per administration of bortezomib was particularly expensive, at a cost of ¥ 67,325. Bortezomib is a commonly used treatment, resulting in excessive cumulative discarded cost. In an effort to save cost, we should consider using small capacity standard injections. Development of a simulation that used the remaining drug contents from only 1 day showed that bevacizumab alone accounts for an average cost saving of ¥1 2,542,191(75.3%) per year. This study suggests that effectively utilizing the remaining drug contents would ensure efficient use of medical resources, thereby reducing economic losses.

  19. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie D; Churchill, Jennifer D; King, Jonathan L; Stoljarova, Monika; Gill-King, Harrell; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-10-17

    Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin), and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA). The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP) and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian). Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that substantially more genetic information can be obtained from

  20. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie D. Ambers

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Results Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin, and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA. The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian. Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. Conclusions This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that

  1. The effect of limb amputation on standing weight distribution in the remaining three limbs in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Grayson Lee; Millis, Darryl

    2017-01-16

    Despite the fact that limb amputation is a commonly performed procedure in veterinary medicine, quantitative data regarding outcomes are lacking. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of limb amputation on weight distribution to the remaining three limbs at a stance in dogs. Ten dogs with a prior forelimb amputation and ten dogs with a prior hindlimb amputation; all of which had no history of orthopaedic or neural disease in the remaining three limbs were included in the study. Standing weight bearing was evaluated with a commercial stance analyzer in all dogs. Five valid trials were obtained and a mean percentage of weight bearing was calculated for each remaining limb. The dogs with a previous forelimb amputation, and also those with a previous hindlimb amputation, had the largest mean increase in weight bearing in the contralateral forelimb. In conclusion, proactive monitoring of orthopaedic disease in the contralateral forelimb may be advisable in dogs with a previous limb amputation. In addition, when determining candidacy for a limb amputation, disease of the contralateral forelimb should be thoroughly evaluated.

  2. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  3. 'Historicising common sense'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.

  4. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  5. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Schwartz

    Full Text Available Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet" yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd c. BCE and Diodorus Siculus (1(st c. BCE], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human

  6. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  7. Of urban commons

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Erling

    2016-01-01

    The paper is part of a joint presentation with Marius Grønning at the 5th International and Interdisciplinary Symposium of the European Academy of Land Use and Development (EALD) held in Oslo 3-5 September 2015. Last summer visitors to the Oslo opera house were met with the following announcement: “Here comes the “Opera Commons” explaining: “Operaallmenningen”, the Opera Commons, “will be a multi-functional meeting place for cultural events, recreational activities and people passing throu...

  8. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  9. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  10. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  11. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  12. Prenatal undernutrition results in greater lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in hypothalamic TNF-α expression, but does not affect the equivalent changes in the serum levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone, in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Mayila; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-02-01

    Immune stress can cause reproductive dysfunction. Some hypothalamic factors such as pro-inflammatory cytokines play pivotal roles in reproductive disorders under immune stress conditions. Recently, it has been reported that prenatal undernutrition affects not only metabolic functions, but also the responses of physiological functions to immune stress in adulthood. In this study, the long-term effects of prenatal undernutrition on the responses of hypothalamic pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6) expression; reproductive endocrine factors; i.e., the serum levels of gonadotropins and testosterone; and hypothalamic kisspeptin expression to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined in male rats. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups; i.e., the normally nourished group and the undernourished (50% food restricted) group. The offspring of the normally nourished mothers (control) and undernourished mothers (the intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR] group) were sub-divided into saline-injected and LPS (500 μg, i.p.)-injected groups at 10 weeks of age. The rats' hypothalamic pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were measured and compared between the control and IUGR groups. The hypothalamic pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels of the LPS-injected rats were significantly higher than those of the saline-injected rats in both the control and IUGR groups. The changes in the hypothalamic expression level of TNF-α, but not those of the other cytokines, induced in response to LPS were more marked in the IUGR group than in the control group. On the other hand, although the serum LH and testosterone levels of the LPS-injected rats were significantly lower than those of the saline-injected rats in both the control and IUGR groups, their levels did not differ between the control and IUGR groups under the LPS-injected conditions. These results suggest that prenatal

  13. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  14. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  15. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; de Botton, Stéphane; Quesnel, Bruno; Commes, Thérèse; Jourdan, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Bernard, Olivier; Pata-Merci, Noemie; Solier, Stéphanie; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Dinger, Marcel E.; Cowley, Mark J.; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Meyer, Vincent; Artiguenave, François; Deleuze, Jean-François; Preudhomme, Claude; Stratton, Michael R.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Padron, Eric; Ogawa, Seishi; Koscielny, Serge; Figueroa, Maria; Solary, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14±5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents is associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect. PMID:26908133

  16. Genomic Variation of Inbreeding and Ancestry in the Remaining Two Isle Royale Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Kardos, Marty; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2017-03-01

    Inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry have traditionally been estimated with pedigree information, however, molecular genomic data can provide more detailed examination of these properties. For example, pedigree information provides estimation of the expected value of these measures but molecular genomic data can estimate the realized values of these measures in individuals. Here, we generate the theoretical distribution of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry for the individuals in the pedigree of the Isle Royale wolves, the first examination of such variation in a wild population with a known pedigree. We use the 38 autosomes of the dog genome and their estimated map lengths in our genomic analysis. Although it is known that the remaining wolves are highly inbred, closely related, and descend from only 3 ancestors, our analyses suggest that there is significant variation in the realized inbreeding and relatedness around pedigree expectations. For example, the expected inbreeding in a hypothetical offspring from the 2 remaining wolves is 0.438 but the realized 95% genomic confidence interval is from 0.311 to 0.565. For individual chromosomes, a substantial proportion of the whole chromosomes are completely identical by descent. This examination provides a background to use when analyzing molecular genomic data for individual levels of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry. The level of variation in these measures is a function of the time to the common ancestor(s), the number of chromosomes, and the rate of recombination. In the Isle Royale wolf population, the few generations to a common ancestor results in the high variance in genomic inbreeding. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Common sense and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Since the dawn of the nuclear age nearly four decades ago, the United States has been firmly commited to the objective of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. That principle is embodied in the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), support for which has been a basic tenet of US foreign policy and a basic security interest of the world at large ever since. The Reagan administration remains firmly committed to the goal of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Such proliferation could trigger new and grave dangers for America's security and well-being and indeed for that of all the world's peoples. Desperate leaders in future high-stakes conflicts might not shrink from nuclear blackmail or even from the use of nuclear weapons if they were available. A conventional clash between nuclear-armed states in a conflict-prone region might escalate by accident or miscalculation to a local nuclear exchange. It cannot be discounted that such a nuclear clash might threaten to involve the superpowers themselves. With proliferation, also, terrorist groups could more easily acquire nuclear weapons to extort concessions. Preventing the spread of nuclear weapons, then, is not solely of interest to the superpowers: it is vital to all countries and regions. The security of the countries in those regions to which nuclear weapons might spread would be most immediately and seriously affected. By their adherence to the NPT, more than 100 countries have recognized this fact

  18. THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE HUMAN REMAINS FROM BUIA, DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO MACCHIARELLI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 on a site at Uadi Aalad (Abbate et al. 1998 led to the discovery of one-million-year-old human remains. They consist of a cranium in excellent preservation condition (UA-31, two permanent teeth (UA-222 and UA-369, and three pelvic portions (UA-173, UA-405 and UA-466, the latter recovered on 2003. The cranium and the postcranial remains represent a single adult individual, likely of female sex. The cranium evidences a blend of "erectus-like" and progressive morpho-architectural features, the latter more commonly found in the Middle Pleistocene. Preparation and restoration of the specimens (notably, of the virtually complete UA-31 face were only completed on September 2003. The revision, refinement, and integration of our previous analytical and interpretative work (cf. Abbate et al. 1998; Macchiarelli et al. 2002 is in progress within the context of the paleoanthropological reord currently available for the African Early to Middle Pleistocene.

  19. Mortality among homeless women who remain unclaimed after death: An insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Aayushi; Behera, Chittaranjan; Chopra, Saurav; Bhardwaj, D N

    2016-01-01

    Some homeless people remain unclaimed after death. Although women constitute a minor proportion among the homeless, they represent a more vulnerable section. We reviewed the major autopsy characteristics and causes of death among women whose bodies remained unclaimed after death. We analysed the autopsy records and inquest papers of unclaimed bodies of women for the period 2006-12 at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Most women whose bodies were unclaimed were 21 to 60 years old with a mean age of 45 years. Natural events (53.5%), largely attributable to acute/chronic lung diseases, were identified as the most common cause of death. Accidental deaths were predominant among the unnatural causes. Most bodies of women were found on the footpath besides the road (56.1%). The problems of physical/sexual abuse, acute chest infections and road traffic accidents are all aggravated in the situation of homelessness. More affordable shelters are needed to preferentially accommodate women. Also, awareness about the existing medical facilities needs to be increased.

  20. Role of Sediment Size and Biostratinomy on the Development of Biofilms in Recent Avian Vertebrate Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Peterson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann's canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling, and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.

  1. Role of sediment size and biostratinomy on the development of biofilms in recent avian vertebrate remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Lenczewski, Melissa E.; Clawson, Steven R.; Warnock, Jonathan P.

    2017-04-01

    Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann’s canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling), and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken) buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.

  2. Reformulating the commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrom Elinor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The western hemisphere is richly endowed with a diversity of natural resource systems that are governed by complex local and national institutional arrangements that have not, until recently, been well understood. While many local communities that possess a high degree of autonomy to govern local resources have been highly successful over long periods of time, others fail to take action to prevent overuse and degradation of forests, inshore fisheries, and other natural resources. The conventional theory used to predict and explain how local users will relate to resources that they share makes a uniform prediction that users themselves will be unable to extricate themselves from the tragedy of the commons. Using this theoretical view of the world, there is no variance in the performance of self-organized groups. In theory, there are no self-organized groups. Empirical evidence tells us, however, that considerable variance in performance exists and many more local users self-organize and are more successful than it is consistent with the conventional theory . Parts of a new theory are presented here.

  3. Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colding, J.; Barthel, S.; Bendt, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Ernstson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three

  4. Threads of common knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  5. Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the “Tophet”) yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3rd c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1st c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  6. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains... made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  7. How Common Is the Common Core? A Global Analysis of Math Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliqi, David

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. educational system is undergoing rapid and substantial changes with many states grappling with the adoption of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM). Important research questions remain unanswered regarding the potential efficacy of the CCSSM to improve student math performance compared with students around the globe.…

  8. Identity, Commons and Sustainability: An Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Setti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Commons represent a wide, heterogeneous class of resources but its composition is the subject of growing tensions. The question “What is a commons?” has become even more complex while the answer still remains elusive. Current research focuses on two main attributes of commons—nonexclusivity and rivalry—centered on regulatory and operational aspects, conveying the notion of usability. Instead, this study argues that the definition of commons should be derived from their function. It is proposed that identity, in its individual and collective integrated dimensions, is the ultimate goal of commons. Despite the pivotal function that commons can perform, availability of resources is indeed just one of the conditions for human development. Moreover, commons can deploy their identity-oriented functions only if a sustainability transition is pursued. Based on these considerations, the study analyzes the concept of sustainability, and addresses the question “What is to be sustained?” While the capability approach offers a coherent conceptualization of the diversity of individuals—a crucial issue for sustainability—some limitations arise when it is adopted as evaluative space of well-being. This study argues that the assumed notion of identity delivers a broader concept of sustainability and delineates the ultimate goal of sustainability (sustainable identity.

  9. Ruling the Commons. Introducing a new methodology for the analysis of historical commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine de Moor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress in recent years, the evolution of commons over the long run remains an under-explored area within commons studies. During the last years an international team of historians have worked under the umbrella of the Common Rules Project in order to design and test a new methodology aimed at advancing our knowledge on the dynamics of institutions for collective action – in particular commons. This project aims to contribute to the current debate on commons on three different fronts. Theoretically, it explicitly draws our attention to issues of change and adaptation in the commons – contrasting with more static analyses. Empirically, it highlights the value of historical records as a rich source of information for longitudinal analysis of the functioning of commons. Methodologically, it develops a systematic way of analyzing and comparing commons’ regulations across regions and time, setting a number of variables that have been defined on the basis of the “most common denominators” in commons regulation across countries and time periods. In this paper we introduce the project, describe our sources and methodology, and present the preliminary results of our analysis.

  10. Salmonella enterica isolated from infections in Australian livestock remain susceptible to critical antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sam; Groves, Mitchell D; Trott, Darren J; Chapman, Toni A; Turner, Bernadette; Hornitzky, Michael; Jordan, David

    2014-02-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen causing a variety of diseases in humans and animals. Many countries are reporting an increase in the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. enterica in food animals. The aim of this study was to determine whether S. enterica isolated from livestock in New South Wales, Australia, have similar resistance traits to those reported internationally. Salmonella enterica (n=165) from clinical infections in food animals between 2007 and 2011 were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. Also, 22 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), 3 integrons and 18 plasmid replicon types were screened for using PCR. Most isolates (66.1%) remained susceptible to all antimicrobials; 8.5% of the isolates were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. Antimicrobials with the highest prevalence of resistance were sulfafurazole (28.5%), ampicillin (17.0%), tetracycline (15.8%) and trimethoprim (8.5%). There was no resistance to fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporins. The most common ARGs were blaTEM (15.2%), sul2 (10.3%), tetB (9.1%), tetA (5.5%), aphA1 (4.8%) and dhfrV (4.8%). Class 1 integrons (7.9%) and IncFIIA (69.7%) were the most commonly detected integron and plasmid replicon types, respectively. Class 1 integrons were positively associated with MDR phenotypes and ARG carriage (P≤0.001). Internationally prominent MDR serovars associated with severe disease in humans (e.g. AmpC-positive Salmonella Newport) were not detected. Overall, the comparatively favourable resistance status of S. enterica in Australian livestock represents minimal public health risk associated with MDR strains and supports a conservative approach to the registration of antimicrobial drug classes in food-producing animals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Hypotonic Maintenance Intravenous Fluids and Hospital-Acquired Hyponatremia Remain Common in Children Admitted to a General Pediatric Ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shikha; Basu, Srikanta; Moritz, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate maintenance intravenous fluid-prescribing practices and the incidence of hospital-acquired hyponatremia in children admitted to a general pediatric ward. This is a prospective observational study conducted over a 2-month period in children ages 2 months to 5 years who were admitted to a general pediatric ward and who were receiving maintenance intravenous fluids. The composition, rate, and duration of intravenous fluids were chosen at the discretion of the treating physician. Serum biochemistries were obtained at baseline and 24 h following admission. Patients who were at high risk for developing hyponatremia or hypernatremia or had underlying chronic diseases or were receiving medications associated with a disorder in sodium and water homeostasis were excluded. Intravenous fluid composition and the incidence of hyponatremia (sodium fluids; 87.5% received 0.18% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 14.3% received 0.45% NaCl. Forty percent of patients (17/42) with a serum sodium (SNa) less than 140 mEq/L experienced a fall in SNa with 12.5% of all patients (7/56) developing hospital-acquired or aggravated hyponatremia (126-134 mEq/L) with fall in SNa between 2 and 10 mEq/L. Administration of hypotonic fluids was a prevalent practice in children admitted to a general pediatric ward and is associated with acute hospital-acquired hyponatremia.

  12. Use of hypotonic maintenance intravenous fluids and hospital-acquired hyponatremia remain common in children admitted to a general pediatric ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Moritz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate maintenance intravenous fluid prescribing practices and the incidence of hospital-acquired hyponatremia in children admitted to a general pediatric ward.Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted over a 2-month period in children ages 2 months to 5 years who were admitted to a general pediatric ward and who were receiving maintenance intravenous fluids. The composition, rate and duration of intravenous fluids was chosen at the discretion of the treating physician. Serum biochemistries were obtained at baseline and 24 hours following admission. Patients who were at high risk for developing hyponatremia or hypernatremia or had underlying chronic diseases or were receiving medications associated with a disorder in sodium and water homeostasis were excluded. Intravenous fluid composition and the incidence of hyponatremia (sodium < 135 mEq/L were assessed. Results: Fifty-six children were enrolled. All received hypotonic fluids; 87.5% received 0.18% sodium chloride (NaCl and 14.3% received 0.45% NaCl. Forty percent of patients (17/42 with a serum sodium less than 140 mEq/L experienced a fall in serum sodium with 12.5% of all patients (7/56 developing hospital-acquired or aggravated hyponatremia (126 – 134 mEq/L with fall in serum sodium between 2 – 10 mEq/L.Conclusions: Administration of hypotonic fluids was a prevalent practice in children admitted to a general pediatric ward and is associated with acute hospital-acquired hyponatremia.

  13. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs.

  14. Common Czech vs colloquial Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Иванович Изотов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a phenomenon of Common Czech in respect to Standard Czech is regarded. Main features of Common Czech are described. Linguistic situation in Czech Republic is compared to the classical diglossia situation.

  15. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  16. Microscopic Void Detection for Predicting Remaining Life in Electric Cable Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, David A.; Avila, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    A reliable method of testing for remaining life in electric cable insulation has continued to elude the nuclear industry as it seeks to extend the life and license of its nuclear stations. Until recently, a trendable, measurable electrical property has not been found, and unexpected cable failures continue to be reported. Most reliable approaches to date rely on monitoring mechanical properties, which are assumed to degrade faster than the insulation's electrical properties. This paper introduces a promising technique based on void characterization, which is dependent on an electrical property related to dielectric strength. A relationship between insulation void characteristics (size and density) and the onset of partial discharge is known to exist. A similar relationship can be shown between void characteristics and unacceptable leakage currents (another typical cable failure criterion). For low-voltage cables, it is believed void content can be correlated to mechanical property degradation.This paper will report on an approach for using void information, research results showing the existence of trendable void characteristics in commonly used electric insulation materials, and techniques for detecting the voids (both laboratory- and field-based techniques). Acoustical microscopy was found to be potentially more suitable than conventional ultrasound for nondestructive in situ detection and monitoring of void characteristics in jacketed multiconductor insulation while ignoring the jacket. Also, optical and scanning electron microscope techniques will play an essential role in establishing the database necessary for continued development and implementation of this promising technique

  17. Teeth as a source of DNA for forensic identification of human remains: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Denice; Austin, Jeremy J

    2013-12-01

    Teeth and bones are frequently the only sources of DNA available for identification of degraded or fragmented human remains. The unique composition of teeth and their location in the jawbone provide additional protection to DNA compared to bones making them a preferred source of DNA in many cases. Despite this, post-mortem changes in the structure and composition of teeth, and the location and diagenesis of DNA within them are poorly understood. This review summarises current knowledge of tooth morphology with respect to DNA content and preservation, and discusses the way in which post-mortem changes will affect the recovery of DNA from teeth under a range of commonly used extraction protocols. We highlight the benefits and pitfalls of using specific tooth tissues for DNA extraction and make recommendations for tooth selection and sampling that will maximise DNA typing success. A comprehensive understanding of tooth structure and an appreciation of the relationship between DNA and mineralized tissues in post-mortem teeth are critical for optimal sample selection. More informed sampling methods that target specific tooth tissues will increase the likelihood of successful genetic analysis and allow for efficient and timely missing persons case work and disaster victim identification response. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcaneal spurs: examining etiology using prehistoric skeletal remains to understand present day heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2012-09-01

    Calcanei are the most common sites for bony spurs. Although calcaneal enthesophytes have been extensively researched, many unknowns remain. Whether biological factors, such as age, weight and genetics, play a greater role in calcaneal spur etiology than activity is still unknown. The current study examines 121 adults from a prehistoric hunter-gatherer population to aid in understanding bony spur etiology. Calcaneal spurs are scored as present or absent on the dorsal or plantar side; they are analyzed in regards to their relationships with age, sex, osteoarthritis, cortical index, femoral head breadth and muscle markers. Dorsal and plantar spurs frequencies increase with age (chi-squares=16.90, 7.268, Psspurs were more frequent than plantar spurs (chi-square=38.000; Pcalcaneal spurs and upper limb and lower limb osteoarthritis (chi-squares=5.587, 7.640, Psspurs are in part the result of activities, but plantar spurs may be a more modern phenomena resulting from long periods of standing and excess weight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New criteria to assess the remaining useful life of industrial turbine oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, W.F.; Stachowiak, G.W. [Univ. of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    Oxidative deterioration of mineral-based turbine oils has traditionally been measured by changes in an oil`s physical properties such as viscosity or total acid number or by long standard oxidation tests taking up to 5000 hours to complete. Recently, the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to measure the oxidative stability of a range of lubricants as it provides precise results, uses only microliter quantities of sample and is faster than the other commonly utilized oxidation tests. In this study, criteria was developed to assess the remaining useful life (RUL) of a commercially available steam turbine oil using the technique of sealed capsule differential scanning calorimetry (SCDSC). The turbine oil was artificially oxidized and the results obtained with SCDSC experiments were correlated with infrared spectroscopy analysis forming a safe/unsafe zone map which reflects the RUL of the oil at a given time. The zone map developed was then compared with results obtained from industrially oxidized turbine oils and a good correlation was achieved. It was found that this technique of assessment of a turbine oil`s RUL provides reliable and accurate data and can be implemented in condition monitoring programs. It allows optimization of an oil`s drainage period resulting in significant savings and reduced environmental impact. 18 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  1. resistance in the common bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Two studies, one on performance of six common bean parental genotypes and another on inheritance of resistance to Phaeosariopsis griseola (Pg) in the common bean were carried out in Malawi. Common bean entries namely; Chimbamba, Nasaka, RC 15, CAL 143 and Mexico 54 were evaluated on ...

  2. ANALISIS IMPLEMENTASI PROGRAM PENANGGULANGAN GIZI BURUK PADA ANAK BALITA DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS MEDAN LABUHAN, KOTA MEDAN TAHUN 2008 (ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CHILDREN UNDERNUTRITION IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM IN WORKING AREA MEDAN LABUHAN HEALTH C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulhaida Lubis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Medan Labuan Health Centre has the highest number of severe underweight children among the other health centrein Medan City, North Sumatera Province. The study performed to analyze the implementation of children undernutrition improvement programme. This research is descriptive qualitative study conducted in February-May 2009. The subjects of the research are head of health centre, nutritionist, and 25 cadre leaders of Posyandu. The data from in-depth interviews is processed using the EZ-Tex, presented in a matrix, and data is analyzed using comparison methods of Fixed (constant comparative method. Nutritionist is only found one person for 2 villages with 25 subvillages, while many cadres are not active, frequently changing and less skilled. The infrastructure is limited, the scales are not standardized and there are no tools for body length/height measurements. One of two villages does not undertake 5 tables Posyandu. Growth monitoring of underfive children are still low. Achievement of toddler weight gain (N/D from January to December 2008 is 34.58 percent to 69.35 percent of the target coverage of 80 percent. Complementary feeding distribution is not in accordance with the guidelines. The feeding that is only purposed to undernutrition children from poor families are also given to all the children who come to Posyandu. Coverage of exclusive breastfeeding between January-November 2008 is 1.45 to 6.36 percent, rather than the target coverage of 80 percent. These problems are caused by insufficient knowledge and awareness of community about child carring pattern and the lack of cadres participation in Posyandu. From input, process, or output perspective, the of malnutrition improvement programme implementation in Medan Labuan health care is not good enough. Keywords: undernutrition, children under-fives, program, implementation       ABSTRAK Puskesmas Medan Labuhan merupakan Puskesmas yang memiliki jumlah balita gizi buruk paling

  3. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide.

  4. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M M J; de Vos, Rien; De Mol, Bas A J M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a low-fat free mass index (FFMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), and secondly, to assess their association with postoperative adverse outcomes. Between February 2008 and December 2009, a single-center observational cohort study was performed (n=325). A low FFMI was set at ≤14.6 in women and ≤16.7 in men measured using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. To compare the accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire in detecting low FFMI sensitivity, specificity, and other accuracy test characteristics were calculated. The associations between the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and adverse outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) presented. Sensitivity and receiver operator characteristic-based area under the curve to detect low FFMI were 59% and 19%, and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.82) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.68) for the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, respectively. Accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool improved when age and sex were added to the nutritional screening process (sensitivity 74%, area under the curve: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82]). This modified version of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, but not the original Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool or Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, was associated with prolonged intensive care unit and hospital stay (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.4; odds ratio: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.7). The accuracy to detect a low FFMI was considerably higher for the Malnutrition

  5. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park Service... funerary objects in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository professional staff in consultation with...

  6. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  7. Prognosis and patterns of failure for the extubation of patients who remain intubated after head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graboyes, Evan M; Bradley, Joseph P; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Cavallone, Laura F; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the rate of failure, patterns of failure, and prognostic factors for patients who remain intubated after head and neck surgery and then undergo delayed extubation. Retrospective chart review of all otolaryngology patients who remained intubated after head and neck surgery and then underwent delayed extubation between 2006 and 2013. The incidence and patterns of extubation failure were analyzed. Univariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for postextubation failure. Fifteen of the 129 patients (12%) who remained intubated after head and neck surgery and underwent delayed extubation subsequently failed and required either repeat intubation or an emergency surgical airway. The most common reasons for failure were hemorrhage (47%) and upper airway edema (33%). Failure typically occurred within 6 hours of extubation. Twenty-seven percent of the patients who failed extubation (4/15) required an emergency surgical airway. On univariable logistic regression analysis, ligation of a major neck vessel predicted extubation failure (odds ratio=5.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-18.23). Postextubation failure in carefully selected patients undergoing delayed extubation after head and neck surgery is infrequent and most commonly due to postoperative bleeding. Prospective data are required to facilitate safe and quality care for these patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christian, Parul; Lee, Sun Eun; Donahue Angel, Moira; Adair, Linda S.; Arifeen, Shams E.; Ashorn, Per; Barros, Fernando C.; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Hao, Wei; Hu, Gang; Humphrey, Jean H.; Huybregts, Lieven; Joglekar, Charu V.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Kolsteren, Patrick; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Liu, Enqing; Martorell, Reynaldo; Osrin, David; Persson, Lars-Ake; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Richter, Linda; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Tielsch, James; Victora, Cesar G.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Black, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30-40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years.

  9. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  10. Five Theses on the Common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Roggero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available I present five theses on the common within the context of the transformations of capitalist social relations as well as their contemporary global crisis. My framework involves ‘‘cognitive capitalism,’’ new processes of class composition, and the production of living knowledge and subjectivity. The commons is often discussed today in reference to the privatizationand commodification of ‘‘common goods.’’ This suggests a naturalistic and conservative image of the common, unhooked from the relations of production. I distinguish between commons and the common: the first model is related to Karl Polanyi, the second to Karl Marx. As elaborated in the postoperaista debate, the common assumes an antagonistic double status: it is boththe plane of the autonomy of living labor and it is subjected to capitalist ‘‘capture.’’ Consequently, what is at stake is not the conservation of ‘‘commons,’’ but rather the production of the common and its organization into new institutions that would take us beyond the exhausted dialectic between public and private.

  11. Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Gastric Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Patrizia; Vacca, Angelo; Dammacco, Franco; Racanelli, Vito

    2018-02-02

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immunodeficiency disorder with a high incidence of gastrointestinal manifestations and an increased risk of gastric carcinoma and lymphoma. This review discusses the latest advancements into the immunological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of gastric malignancies in patients with CVID. The exact molecular pathways underlying the relationships between CVID and gastric malignancies remain poorly understood. These include genetics, immune dysregulation and chronic infections by Helicobacter pylori . Further studies are needed to better stratify the risk for cancer in these patients, to elaborate surveillance programs aimed at preventing these complications, and to develop new and more effective therapeutic approaches.

  12. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  13. Why Common Ground Thinking Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Modesto (California) City Schools discovered common-ground thinking during a crisis over a safe-schools policy. Instead of shunning controversy, schools should face issues, invite all stakeholders, get training, formulate and approve policy, and train staff and the community to understand common-ground (religious neutrality) thinking. (MLH)

  14. Causas do declínio acelerado da desnutrição infantil no Nordeste do Brasil (1986-1996-2006 Causas de la disminución acelerada de la desnutrición infantil en Noreste de Brasil (1986-1996-2006 Causes of the accelerated decline in child undernutrition in Northeastern Brazil (1986-1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Lovadino de Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a variação temporal na prevalência de desnutrição infantil na região Nordeste do Brasil, em dois períodos sucessivos, identificando os principais fatores responsáveis pela evolução observada em cada período. MÉTODOS: Os dados analisados provêm de amostras probabilísticas da população de crianças menores de cinco anos estudadas por inquéritos domiciliares do programa Demographic Health Surveys realizados em 1986 (n=1.302, 1996 (n=1.108 e 2006 (n=950. A identificação dos fatores responsáveis pela variação na prevalência da desnutrição (altura para idade OBJETIVO: Describir la variación temporal en la prevalencia de desnutrición infantil en la región Noreste de Brasil, en dos períodos sucesivos, identificando los principales factores responsables por la evolución observada en cada período. MÉTODOS: Los datos analizados provienen de muestras probabilísticas de la población de niños menores de cinco años estudiados por pesquisas domiciliares del programa Demographic Health Surveys realizados en 1986 (n=1.302, 1996 (n=1.108 y 2006 (n=950. La identificación de los factores responsables por la variación en la prevalencia de la desnutrición (altura para edad OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in prevalence of child undernutrition in Northeastern Brazil in two successive time periods, identifying, in each period, the major factors responsible for these changes. METHODS: Data analyzed are from probabilistic samples of underfives from three Demographic Health Surveys carried out in 1986 (n=1,302, 1996 (n=1,108, and 2006 (n=950. Identification of factors responsible for temporal changes in child undernutrition (height-for-age below < -2 z took into account time changes in five potential determinants of child nutritional status, statistical modeling of the independent association between determinants and risk of undernutrition, and calculation of attributable fractions. RESULTS: Prevalence of child

  15. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Donald W.; Herbst, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later sta...

  16. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  17. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  18. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  19. Governing of common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    Agreed strategy is to govern common cause failures by the application of diversity, to assure that the overall plant safety objectives are met even in the case that a common cause failure of a system with all redundant trains is assumed. The presented strategy aims on the application of functional diversity without the implementation of equipment diversity. In the focus are the design criteria which have to be met for the design of independent systems in such a way that the time-correlated failure of such independent systems according a common cause can be excluded deterministically. (author)

  20. Implementation of Remaining Useful Lifetime Transformer Models in the Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lybeck, Nancy J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pham, Binh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rusaw, Richard [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Bickford, Randall [Expert Microsystems, Orangevale, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Research and development efforts are required to address aging and reliability concerns of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. As most plants continue to operate beyond the license life (i.e., towards 60 or 80 years), plant components are more likely to incur age-related degradation mechanisms. To assess and manage the health of aging plant assets across the nuclear industry, the Electric Power Research Institute has developed a web-based Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite for diagnosis and prognosis. FW-PHM is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases, comprised of the Diagnostic Advisor, the Asset Fault Signature Database, the Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and the Remaining Useful Life Database, that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of prognostic models for generator step-up transformers in the FW-PHM Suite. One prognostic model discussed is based on the functional relationship between degree of polymerization, (the most commonly used metrics to assess the health of the winding insulation in a transformer) and furfural concentration in the insulating oil. The other model is based on thermal-induced degradation of the transformer insulation. By utilizing transformer loading information, established thermal models are used to estimate the hot spot temperature inside the transformer winding. Both models are implemented in the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW-PHM Suite. The Remaining Useful Life Advisor utilizes the implemented prognostic models to estimate the remaining useful life of the paper winding insulation in the transformer based on actual oil testing and operational data.

  1. Upper Palaeolithic ritualistic cannibalism at Gough's Cave (Somerset, UK): The human remains from head to toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Silvia M; Saladié, Palmira; Cáceres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Parfitt, Simon A

    2015-05-01

    A recurring theme of late Upper Palaeolithic Magdalenian human bone assemblages is the remarkable rarity of primary burials and the common occurrence of highly-fragmentary human remains mixed with occupation waste at many sites. One of the most extensive Magdalenian human bone assemblages comes from Gough's Cave, a sizeable limestone cave set in Cheddar Gorge (Somerset), UK. After its discovery in the 1880s, the site was developed as a show cave and largely emptied of sediment, at times with minimal archaeological supervision. Some of the last surviving remnants of sediment within the cave were excavated between 1986 and 1992. The excavations uncovered intensively-processed human bones intermingled with abundant butchered large mammal remains and a diverse range of flint, bone, antler, and ivory artefacts. New ultrafiltrated radiocarbon determinations demonstrate that the Upper Palaeolithic human remains were deposited over a very short period of time, possibly during a series of seasonal occupations, about 14,700 years BP (before present). The human remains have been the subject of several taphonomic studies, culminating in a detailed reanalysis of the cranial remains that showed they had been carefully modified to make skull-cups. Our present analysis of the postcrania has identified a far greater degree of human modification than recorded in earlier studies. We identify extensive evidence for defleshing, disarticulation, chewing, crushing of spongy bone, and the cracking of bones to extract marrow. The presence of human tooth marks on many of the postcranial bones provides incontrovertible evidence for cannibalism. In a wider context, the treatment of the human corpses and the manufacture and use of skull-cups at Gough Cave have parallels with other Magdalenian sites in central and western Europe. This suggests that cannibalism during the Magdalenian was part of a customary mortuary practice that combined intensive processing and consumption of the bodies with

  2. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons.

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  4. Communication, timing, and common learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 1 (2011), s. 230-247 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : common knowledge * learning * communication Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2011

  5. The illusion of common ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Harvey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    When people talk about “common ground”, they invoke shared experiences, convictions, and emotions. In the language sciences, however, ‘common ground’ also has a technical sense. Many taking a representational view of language and cognition seek to explain that everyday feeling in terms of how...... isolated individuals “use” language to communicate. Autonomous cognitive agents are said to use words to communicate inner thoughts and experiences; in such a framework, ‘common ground’ describes a body of information that people allegedly share, hold common, and use to reason about how intentions have...... language to synergetic coordination between biological agents who draw on wordings to act within cultural ecosystems. Crucially, human coordination depends on, not just bodies, but also salient patterns of articulatory movement (‘wordings’). These rich patterns function as non-local resources that...

  6. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States. The two most common types are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (the names ... You may need a procedure called surgical lymph node biopsy to check if the cancer has spread ...

  8. Facts about the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different viruses. Rhinovirus is the most common cause, accounting for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other ... Current Pathway Introduction Treatment Options Side Effects Emotional Challenges Life Planning Summary '; if (window.location.href.indexOf(" ...

  9. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  11. Forest commons and local enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the inf...

  12. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  13. Forest commons and local enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-09-09

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

  14. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants - Interim Study FY13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  15. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  16. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of

  17. Observations on food remains in faeces of elephant, leopard and crabeater seals

    OpenAIRE

    Green, K.; Williams, R.

    1986-01-01

    Faecal material of leopard, crabeater and elephant seals was collected from the vicinity of Davis station, Antarctica. Very few identifiable remains were found in elephant seal droppings. Fish remains, mainly of Pleuragramma antarcticum, were found in both leopard and crabeater seal droppings. The mysid Antarctomysis maxima was also found in crabeater seal droppings and amphipods and decapod crustaceans in leopard seal droppings.

  18. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  19. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  20. Autoimmune cytopenias related to common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Petric

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common variable immunodeficiency disorders are characterised by defective antibody production leading to recurrent infections. Noninfective complications are a consequence of autoimmunity, granuloma and polyclonal lymphoid infiltration. We often detect autoimmune cytopenias before primary immunodefciency is confirmed. Patients and methods: We report a case of 39-year old man with recurrent respiratory infections, autoimmune thrombocytopenia and haemolytic anemia who had common varible immunodeficiency confirmed. He had a lack of serum IgG, IgA and IgM, bronchiectasis, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatic granuloma, autoimmune gastritis with B12 deficiency and Evans syndrome. We treated autoimmune cytopenias with methylprednisolon and cyclosporine. After substitution therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin the frequency of espiratory infections decreased. Occurrence of diarrhea is suspected for enteropathy, however, hystologic identification is required. Because of patologically changed gastric mucosa and signs of polyclonal lymphoid infiltration, the patient is at high risk for malignancy and the outcome of the disease remains unpredictable. Conclusions: Generally, we discover common variable immunodeficiency at management of noninfective complications, in wich intravenous immunoglobulin are not effective. Autoimmune cytopenias and some other complications are successfully treated with glucocorticoids. Careful monitorig of these patients is important because of a high risk for malignancy.

  1. Evaluation of common organisms causing vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shazia A; Amir, Fauzia; Altaf, Shagufta; Tanveer, Raazia

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal discharge is very common problem among females. Alteration in balance of normal vaginal organisms can cause the overgrowth of the bacteria that creates vaginal discharge. It is common among sexually active women yet there still remain gaps in our knowledge of this infectious disorder. To evaluate the frequency of bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis (VC), vaginal trichomoniasis and Group B streptococcus in women complaining of vaginal discharge in our setup. A total of 100 women of reproductive age group with the complaint of vaginal discharge were included in the study. After filling proforma patients were examined by speculum examination and two high vaginal swabs (HVS) were collected aseptically from each patient. One swab was used for making wet mount for clue cells, pus cells and for motility of Trichomonas vaginalis. The other swab was used to check pH and Amine test. The growth was confirmed by Gram staining in each case. Gardnerrella vaginalis were isolated in 28%, Group B streptococcus in 5% and T. vaginolis in 4% of women. Gardnerella vaginalis causing BV is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in otherwise healthy women of reproductive age group in our setup.

  2. Taphonomic analysis of the hominin remains from Swabian Jura and their implications for the mortuary practices during the Upper Paleolithic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Conard, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    The symbolic behavior of human beings usually is manifested in different ways such as figurative art, musical traditions, spoken language or complex funerary behavior. The Paleolithic sites of the Swabian Jura contain a rich archaeological record including the oldest evidence of musical instruments and figurative art which indicates complex cognitive abilities of the Paleolithic Homo sapiens that colonized Europe. Nevertheless, there is no evidence for burials in the Swabian caves during the Paleolithic. This raises questions regarding the kind of mortuary practices that existed in this region during the Paleolithic. In this paper, we address these questions from a taphonomic perspective by analyzing the hominin remains recovered in caves of the Swabian Jura. Whatever the funerary behavior was during the Early and Middle Upper Paleolithic, we have no evidence to document these practices. The Magdalenian hominin remains from Brillenhöhle, however, display anthropic modifications that have been hotly debated in the past. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the assemblage displays traces of butchery similar to those recorded in the faunal remains. In addition to the cut marks, we have documented intentional breakage and human tooth marks, suggesting that the consumption of human corpses took place during the Magdalenian at Brillenhöhle. Similar anthropic modifications have also been documented in Magdalenian horizon at Hohle Fels. This suggests that the cannibalism practices during the Magdalenian were more common than previously expected during the Magdalenian in the Swabian Jura.

  3. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  4. inheritance of resistance to common bacterial blight in common

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Pastor-Corrales, 1991; Zapata et al., 2009; 2010). Quantitative inheritance was observed by Honna. (1956) after making original interspecific crosses between resistant P. acutifolius 'tepary 4' and susceptible P. vulgaris. It is also critical to have durable sources of resistance to Xap. Sources of resistance to Xap in common ...

  5. Long-Term Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Undernutrition on Cannabinoid Receptor-Related Behaviors: Sex and Tissue-Specific Alterations in the mRNA Expression of Cannabinoid Receptors and Lipid Metabolic Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-López, María T.; Arco, Rocío; Decara, Juan; Vázquez, Mariam; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Rosario Noemi; Alén, Francisco; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition causes long-lasting alterations in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in offspring. It is still unknown whether both, the endocannabinoid (eCB) machinery and the lipid metabolism are implicated in long-term adaptive responses to fetal reprogramming caused by maternal undernutrition. We investigated the long-term effects of maternal exposure to a 20% standard diet restriction during preconceptional and gestational periods on the metabolically-relevant tissues hypothalamus, liver, and perirenal fat (PAT) of male and female offspring at adulthood. The adult male offspring from calorie-restricted dams (RC males) exhibited a differential response to the CB1 antagonist AM251 in a chocolate preference test as well as increased body weight, perirenal adiposity, and plasma levels of triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, bilirubin, and leptin. The gene expression of the cannabinoid receptors Cnr1 and Cnr2 was increased in RC male hypothalamus, but a down-expression of most eCBs-metabolizing enzymes (Faah, Daglα, Daglβ, Mgll) and several key regulators of fatty-acid β-oxidation (Cpt1b, Acox1), mitochondrial respiration (Cox4i1), and lipid flux (Pparγ) was found in their PAT. The female offspring from calorie-restricted dams exhibited higher plasma levels of LDL and glucose as well as a reduction in chocolate and caloric intake at post-weaning periods in the feeding tests. Their liver showed a decreased gene expression of Cnr1, Pparα, Pparγ, the eCBs-degrading enzymes Faah and Mgll, the de novo lipogenic enzymes Acaca and Fasn, and the liver-specific cholesterol biosynthesis regulators Insig1 and Hmgcr. Our results suggest that the long-lasting adaptive responses to maternal caloric restriction affected cannabinoid-regulated mechanisms involved in feeding behavior, adipose β-oxidation, and hepatic lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:28082878

  6. Analysis of Information Remaining on Hand Held Devices Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-06-01

    resellers.The study was carried out by the security research team at the BT IT Futures Centre in conjunction with Edith Cowan University in Australia and the University of Glamorgan in the UK. The basis of the research was to acquire a number of second hand held devices from a diverse range of sources and then determine whether they still contained information relating to a previous owner or whether the information had been effectively removed. The devices that were obtained for the research were supplied blind to the researchers through a third party. The ‘blind’ supply of the devices meant that the people undertaking the research were provided with no information about the device and that the source of the devices and any external markings were hidden from them. This process was put in place to ensure that any findings of the research were based solely on the information that could be recovered from the digital storage media that was contained within the device.The underlying methodology that was used in the research was based on the forensic imaging of the devices. A forensic image of a device is a copy of the digital media that has been created in a scientifically sound manner to a standard that is acceptable to the courts. This procedure was implemented to ensure that the evidential integrity of the devices was maintained, with the devices also then being stored in a secure manner.  All subsequent research was then conducted on the image of the device. This was considered to be a sensible precaution against the possibility that information discovered on a device might indicate criminal activity and require the involvement of law enforcement.  Following the forensic imaging of the devices, the images that were created were then analyzed to determine whether any information remained and whether it could be easily recovered using commonly available tools and techniques that anyone who had purchased the device could acquire.

  7. The Messiness of Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    that a distinction between the non-civil and the civil is more fruitful, if we want to understand the past, present and future messiness in place in defining the common good. Based on an ethnographic case analysis of a Danish corporate foundation between 1920 and 2014 the paper shows how philanthropic gift......Civil society and its philanthropic and voluntary organisations are currently experiencing public and political attention and demands to safeguard society’s ‘common good’ through social cohesion and as providers of welfare services. This has raised the question by both practitioners and researchers......-giving concepts, practices and operational forms throughout history have played a significant role in defining the common good and its future avenues. Through an analytical attitude based on microhistory, conceptual history and the sociology of translation it shows that civil society’s institutional logic always...

  8. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Undernutrition and Overnutrition Burden for Diseases in Developing Countries: The Role of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers to Assess Disease Risk and Interventional Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mastorci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased life expectancy, urbanization, and unhealthy lifestyle characterized by a shift towards a sedentary lifestyle and decreased energy expenditure are considered the main drivers of epidemiological transition. In particular, developing countries are facing a double burden caused by coexisting under- and over-nutrition, which causes a change in the disease profile from infectious diseases to a chronic degenerative pattern. This review discusses the under- and over-nutrition context in Mauritania and India, two countries that are experiencing a nutritional transition, and where we began a collaboration with local medical staff to integrate interventional and diagnostic guidelines. If many studies about diet and its relationship to non-communicable diseases are available for India, very few nutrition and cardiovascular risk studies have been conducted in Mauritania. Presently, with the exponential increase of nutrition-related diseases, targeted approaches are needed to provide balanced diets in parallel with the development of national preventive health systems and screening programs adapted to local needs. In this context, the measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers could be promising as an additive tool to assess cardiovascular (CV risk in general population, and ameliorating prevention in patients at CV risk or with overt CV disease. Moreover, the possibility of improving the outcome by the direct employment of antioxidant remains plausible. Moreover, studies on the content of antioxidant in different foods may be helpful to develop a balanced diet, and achieve the maximal nutritional and functional properties of cultivars with benefits for human health.

  10. Knowing What Others Know: Common Knowledge, Accounting, and Capital Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam NMI Sunder

    2001-01-01

    The concept of common knowledge concerning higher orders of knowledge has seen exciting new developments in the fields of philosophy, game theory, statistics, economics and cognitive science in the recent decades. Even though information lies at the heart of accounting and capital markets research, these new developments have remained at the periphery of these fields. Common knowledge thinking may significantly advance our understanding of financial reporting, analysis, securities valuation, ...

  11. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico

    2006-01-01

    and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  12. Elderly with remaining teeth report less frailty and better quality of life than edentulous elderly: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, A R; Spoorenberg, Slw; Peters, L L; Meijer, Hja; Raghoebar, G M; Vissink, A; Wynia, K; Visser, A

    2017-05-01

    To assess oral status and self-reported oral health in community-living elderly and to determine differences between relevant subgroups of oral status (remaining teeth, edentulous, implant-retained overdentures) and case complexity (robust, frail, complex care needs). In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 1325 Dutch community-living elderly (≥75 years of age) were asked to complete validated questionnaires on frailty, activities of daily living (ADL), complexity of care needs, and QoL. Data on oral status, self-reported oral health, dental care, general health, and medication use were assessed. Differences between relevant subgroups were determined. Data of 1026 (77%) elderly (median 80 years, IQR 77-84) were analyzed: 39% had remaining teeth, 51% were edentulous, and 10% had implant-supported overdentures. Elderly with complex care needs (n = 225, 22%) and frail elderly (n = 217, 21%) were more often edentulous and reported more oral problems than robust elderly (n = 584, 57%). Elderly persons with remaining teeth were less frail, had better QoL and ADL, and used fewer medicines than edentulous elderly. Elderly with implant-supported overdentures performed better on frailty and QoL than edentulous elderly with conventional dentures. Community-living elderly commonly suffer from oral health problems, in particular elderly with complex care needs. QoL, ADL, and general health are higher among community-living elderly with remaining teeth and implant-supported overdentures than in edentulous elderly. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... to have a relationship of shared group identity with the particular human remains and associated...

  14. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  15. Determining postmortem interval using glycoproteinous adhesion deposits by Balanus improvisus on human skeletal and dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytheway, Joan A; Pustilnik, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    An anthropological analysis was conducted on skeletal and dental remains brought to the Galveston County Medical Examiner's office. The skeletal remains were dry, fragmented, and absent of typical fluvial characteristics. During microscopic examination, semitransparent, circular objects were discovered on the dentition, the mandible, tibial plateau, and distal femur. The objects were glycoproteinous adhesions deposited by the acorn barnacle, Balanus improvisus. B. improvisus is an intertidal barnacle found in estuaries in Galveston Bay. Basal diameter of the adhesions on the dentition were significantly smaller than those found on the postcranial bones (p = 0.010), indicating two consecutive cohorts adhered to the bone and dentition. As settlement typically occurs once a year, this would indicate that the remains were in the fluvial environment for at least 375-410 days. It is important in geographic areas that have prevalent fluvial environments that human remains, particularly dentition, are microscopically examined for marine life evidence. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic criteria used to identify patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome remain controversial. The present prospective longitudinal follow-up study was designed to identify whether certain criteria assessed during standardized initial

  17. BTC method for evaluation of remaining strength and service life of bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This report presents the BTC method; a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for evaluation of remaining : strength and residual life of bridge cables. The BTC method is a probability-based, proprietary, patented, and peerreviewed : methodology...

  18. Geotechnical research on Jiangnan Tu-Dun tomb historical remains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiang; Onitsuka, Katsutada

    2004-03-01

    Geotechnical research on historical remains can provide new data and distinctive viewpoint for research on soil mechanics. Two Jiangnan Tu-Dun tombs historical remains were investigated by means of in situ and laboratory geotechnical tests. In the present paper the geotechnical properties of these man-made earthworks, especially ageing effect on consolidation and direct shear, and compaction properties of earth fill are discussed.

  19. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  20. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean adults aged 19 and older. The data were taken from the 2012–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Men had, on average, significantly more remaining teeth than women did. Women brushed their teeth more often than men per day and were more likely to brush their teeth after meals. The participants with higher education levels or household income had significantly more remaining teeth; the number of daily tooth brushing was positively associated with the number of remaining teeth; urban residents had significantly more remaining teeth than rural residents; and elderly adults had fewer remaining teeth than younger adults had (all with P teeth than maxillary teeth, but among molars, they had more maxillary teeth than mandibular teeth. Elementary graduates with low household income had fewer remaining teeth than did university graduates with high household income (P teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. The participants who brushed their teeth fewer times per day, those with low household incomes and/or education levels, and those who lived in rural districts had significantly higher prevalence of tooth loss than did other groups in Korean adults. Participants had more anterior and premolar teeth on mandible, but they had more molars on maxilla. In addition, participants with high socioeconomic status were more likely to lose their molar teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. PMID

  1. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean a...

  2. Cremated human and animal remains of the Roman period--microscopic method of analysis (Sepkovcica, Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincak, Zdravka; Mihelić, Damir; Bugar, Aleksandra

    2007-12-01

    Human and animal cremated osteological remains from twelve graves of Roman Period from archaeological site Sepkovcica near Velika Gorica (Turopolje region, NW Croatia) were analysed. Beside the content of urns and grave pits, fillings of grave vessels like bowls, pots and amphoras from twentytwo grave samples were included in this study. The preservation of osteological and dental remains of human and animal origin was very poor, majority of fragments hardly reach lengths of 10 mm. Weight of each specimen barely exceeds 100 g per person. Apart from traditional macroscopic methods of analysing cremated remains, microscopic method for determination of age at death was also tested. Fragments of femoral bone diaphysis of eighteen persons whose remains had been found on the site were analysed. Person's age at death was presented in the range of five or ten years, and the long bone fragments of a child (infants) were detected. Taxonomic position for each analysed specimen was determined by microscopic analysis of animal cremated bones. Analysis results confirm validity of microscopic method in determination of age at death for human remains and taxonomic qualification of cremated animal remains from archaeological sites.

  3. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  4. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera

    2005-11-01

    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  5. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...

  6. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  7. Common sleep disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present.

  8. Antihistamines for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sutter, An I M; Saraswat, Avadhesh; van Driel, Mieke L

    2015-11-29

    The common cold is an upper respiratory tract infection, most commonly caused by a rhinovirus. It affects people of all age groups and although in most cases it is self limiting, the common cold still causes significant morbidity. Antihistamines are commonly offered over the counter to relieve symptoms for patients affected by the common cold, however there is not much evidence of their efficacy. To assess the effects of antihistamines on the common cold. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1948 to July week 4, 2015), EMBASE (2010 to August 2015), CINAHL (1981 to August 2015), LILACS (1982 to August 2015) and Biosis Previews (1985 to August 2015). We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using antihistamines as monotherapy for the common cold. We excluded any studies with combination therapy or using antihistamines in patients with an allergic component in their illness. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We collected adverse effects information from the included trials. We included 18 RCTs, which were reported in 17 publications (one publication reports on two trials) with 4342 participants (of which 212 were children) suffering from the common cold, both naturally occurring and experimentally induced. The interventions consisted of an antihistamine as monotherapy compared with placebo. In adults there was a short-term beneficial effect of antihistamines on severity of overall symptoms: on day one or two of treatment 45% had a beneficial effect with antihistamines versus 38% with placebo (odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 0.92). However, there was no difference between antihistamines and placebo in the mid term (three to four days) to long term (six to 10 days). When evaluating individual symptoms such as nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea and sneezing, there was some beneficial effect of the sedating antihistamines compared to placebo (e.g. rhinorrhoea on day three: mean difference (MD) -0

  9. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Donald W; Herbst, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later stages of lipedema have a classic "column leg" appearance, with masses of nodular fat, easy bruising, and pain. Despite this relatively common disease, there are few physicians who are aware of it. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed with lifestyle-induced obesity, and/or lymphedema, and subjected to unnecessary medical interventions and fat-shaming. Diagnosis is largely clinical and based on criteria initially established in 1951. Treatment of lipedema is effective and includes lymphatic support, such as complete decongestive therapy, and specialized suction lipectomy to spare injury to lymphatic channels and remove the diseased lipedema fat. With an incidence that may affect nearly 1 in 9 adult women, it is important to generate appropriate awareness, conduct additional research, and identify better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lipedema so these women can obtain the care that they need and deserve.

  10. Natriuretic peptides in common valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Christopher D; Ray, Simon; Ng, Leong L; McCann, Gerry P

    2010-05-11

    Valvular heart disease, particularly aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation, accounts for a large proportion of cardiology practice, and their prevalence is predicted to increase. Management of the asymptomatic patient remains controversial. Biomarkers have been shown to have utility in the management of cardiovascular disease such as heart failure and acute coronary syndromes. In this state-of-the-art review, we examine the current evidence relating to natriuretic peptides as potential biomarkers in aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. The natriuretic peptides correlate with measures of disease severity and symptomatic status and also can be used to predict outcome. This review shows that natriuretic peptides have much promise as biomarkers in common valvular heart disease, but the impact of their measurement on clinical practice and outcomes needs to be further assessed in prospective studies before routine clinical use becomes a reality. Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of undernutrition and iron deficiency in pre-school children from different socioeconomic regions in the city of Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejas, A R; Wyatt, C J; Ramírez, M J

    2001-02-01

    Lack of adequate food and in particular high quality protein, is one of the causes of malnutrition in children which could result in retarded growth. Iron deficiency is common in populations where protein sources are of vegetable origin; however in northern Mexico where the bean consumption is high, anemia is not a problem. The primary staples in the Mexican diet are corn tortillas and beans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric condition of children 4-6 years old living in the city of Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico and to determine the prevalence of anemia. Mean Z scores for children 4-6 years old living in poor conditions in the city of Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico showed significant differences between socioeconomic groups (p<0.002) for height/age (H/A) and weight/age (W/A) (p<0.001) after adjusting for age and sex. Weight/height (W/H) was not different (p=0.30). By using the Waterlow classification system, 28.8% of the pre-school children of this study were stunted and only 0.9% were classified as wasted. There were no children that presented both stunting and wasting. Iron deficiency was very prevalent in both boys and girls, ranging from 56-79% depending on the indicator used. When classified by the combination of serum ferritin, % transferrin saturation and hemoglobin values, 23.7% of the children were classified as anemic, 11.9% in a state of iron deficiency and 13.6% with low iron reserves.

  12. Nurses' clinical decision-making for preserving nursing home residents' remaining abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Mi So; Kim, Su Jin; Chang, Sung Ok

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to clarify and conceptualise nurses' clinical decision-making for preserving the remaining abilities of nursing home residents suffering from physical-cognitive functional decline. Older adults experience physical, psychological and social changes, but their remaining abilities differ across individuals. This study used a qualitative research to gain a deeper understanding of nursing homes nurses' clinical decision-making. In-depth interviews with 32 experienced nurses were undertaken. The data were analysed using conventional content analysis. Six categories and 58 subcategories of nursing practice related to managing the remaining abilities of residents with physical-cognitive functional decline were generated. The results of this study revealed five themes: (1) seeing residents' potential, (2) physical, emotional and psychosocial care in daily routines, (3) keeping personalised charts, (4) encouraging, promoting and physical and emotional support and (5) preparing residents for more independent living. The results were categorised into nurses' personal strategies based on their experience, practical nursing knowledge, nursing interventions and nursing evaluation criteria. The themes reflected positive views on the residents' functional abilities and the nursing homes nurses' perception that their goal was to help residents achieve their highest level of independence. Preserving nursing home residents' remaining abilities represents nurses' optimistic view of residents' functional status. Routine care tailored for preserving the remaining abilities of individual nursing home residents with physical-cognitive functional decline is needed. Preserving the remaining abilities of nursing home resident is supported by therapeutic interactions including close contact as well as physical and emotional support. Nurses' main goal in working with residents with remaining abilities is improving their independence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Work-related factors influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Patterson, Erin; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; Cranley, Lisa

    Health care is shifting out of hospitals into community settings. In Ontario, Canada, home care organizations continue to experience challenges recruiting and retaining nurses. However, factors influencing home care nurse retention that can be modified remain largely unexplored. Several groups of factors have been identified as influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed including job characteristics, work structures, relationships and communication, work environment, responses to work, and conditions of employment. The aim of this study was to test and refine a model that identifies which factors are related to home care nurse intentions to remain employed for the next 5 years with their current home care employer organization. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented to test and refine a hypothesized model of home care nurse intent to remain employed. Logistic regression was used to determine which factors influence home care nurse intent to remain employed. Home care nurse intent to remain employed for the next 5 years was associated with increasing age, higher nurse-evaluated quality of care, having greater variety of patients, experiencing greater meaningfulness of work, having greater income stability, having greater continuity of client care, experiencing more positive relationships with supervisors, experiencing higher work-life balance, and being more satisfied with salary and benefits. Home care organizations can promote home care nurse intent to remain employed by (a) ensuring nurses have adequate training and resources to provide quality client care, (b) improving employment conditions to increase income stability and satisfaction with pay and benefits, (c) ensuring manageable workloads to facilitate improved work-life balance, and (d) ensuring leaders are accessible and competent.

  14. Common criteria for usability review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The propose of this paper is to present a literature review, in a grouping of common criteria for usability approaches of Bastien and Scapin (1993), Nielsen (1994), Shnneiderman(1998), Dix et al (1998), Preece et al (2005) and ISO 9241-110 (2006). After establishment of prerequisites for knowledge of the general characteristics of the users who will use the system, are defined and explained the criteria in common: consistency, user control, ease of learning, flexibility, errors management, reduction of excess and visibility system status. Although there is no determination as to which criteria should be considered when developing an interface and each author presents some specificity in their approach, it is observed that there is equivalence in the measures adopted usability.

  15. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  16. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  17. [Study of remains and dental wastes of a First World War German rest camp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R; Tzortzis, S; Desfosses, Y; Signoli, M; Tardivo, D

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the analysis of dental remains and waste from the dental office of a German rest camp of the First World War in order to study the living conditions of the soldiers, the care policy and the prosthetic rehabilitation techniques used in this context. The study included both dental and prosthetic remains, revealed during the excavation. The criteria to determine dental and periodontal health were the presence or absence of caries, wear, tartar and periodontal lesion. Location, severity and frequency of each of these parameters were examined. Regarding the prosthetic remains, the type of prosthesis and the materials used were determined. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) dental remains were analyzed. A high prevalence of large caries, especially in the molar areas, was highlighted. The incisal areas had however more wear and tartar. 183 casts of plaster dental arcade allowed to highlight a significant proportion of posterior edentulous. Prosthetic remains and laboratory waste revealed the use of vulcanite and porcelain for making dentures.

  18. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  19. IN BEANS TO COMMON BLIGHT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-05-12

    May 12, 1993 ... RxR bean lines to common bacterial blight. Thé F, were advanced to F; and in each cross over 250 F2 plants were used to evaluate for the number of genes controÜing résistance using Mendelian genetics and. Stanifield 's formula. The plants were inoculated by razor blade method on the leaves and by ...

  20. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting.

  1. LEADERS AND PROJECTS - COMMON ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vacar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a small part of a long empirical and practical research and it began from the necessity of models to be followed in organizations and the way they can generate that expected behavior from others. Nowadays, projects seem to be the modern way of doing things in organizations because of their advantages. The article tries to present common issues between leaders and projects, both of them being as determinant factors for organizational success.

  2. The Threat of Common Method Variance Bias to Theory Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The need for more theory building scholarship remains one of the pressing issues in the field of HRD. Researchers can employ quantitative, qualitative, and/or mixed methods to support vital theory-building efforts, understanding however that each approach has its limitations. The purpose of this article is to explore common method variance bias as…

  3. DNA markers provide insight about common lime in historicalplantings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Thomsen, Pernille; Rasmussen, Christine Waage

    2014-01-01

    As part of the restoration process of an avenue of common lime (Tilia × europaea) from 1760 in the Royal Danish Gardens, all remaining trees were genotyped with DNA markers before they were felled. As such, information about the nature of the plant material (clonal versus non-clonal) and mode of ...

  4. George Combe and common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain.

  5. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  6. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Peled

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  7. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  8. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  9. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting and quantifying ongoing decay of organic archaeological remains - a discussion of different approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    In situ preservation is increasingly a preferred option for managing archaeological remains, as there is a wish to preserve some undisturbed remains for later generations to investigate using new methods and asking new questions. However, in situ preservation is only a viable option if the remains...... are well protected and are not undergoing rapid decay, and it requires a detailed knowledge of decay processes and rates. For instance it is well established that the presence of water is of paramount importance for the preservation of organic material, and there are several examples where archaeological....... Thus, for the management of archaeological sites it is necessary to develop tools and methods that allow us to discover ongoing decay as fast as possible. Furthermore, in order to prioritize between excavation, in situ preservation and mitigation the decay rate should be evaluated on a quantitative...

  11. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  12. Assessment of the potential for exploitation of the remaining reserves of coal in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodarski, K.; Bijanska, J.

    2014-01-01

    In mining areas belonging to the Polish mining companies, there is a significant amount of coal, contained in remaining reserves, that have not been exploited so far. For years, the mines have been evaluating the possibility of its exploitation, since it would expand its resource base and would extend its useful life. In addition, exploitation of the remaining reserves can minimize stress concentration zones in the soil, the rebel y improving conditions for maintenance of excavations and limiting the risk of shock rock. (Author)

  13. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jarillo, M; Caravaca-Sánchez, F; Sánchez-Alcaraz, C; Luna, A

    2016-10-01

    This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  14. Remaining lifetime determination and refurbishment of gas turbine components. Methods, measuring data acquisition and data assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattheij, Sjef; Gooren, Luc; Gun, Marius van der [Sulzer TS Venlo B.V. (Sulzer Elbar B.V.), Venlo (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Hot section components of gas turbines are expensive consumables. In the past, repair and reconditioning of gas turbine components was predominantly focussing on the repair of mechanical damage. Today the focus is shifting to assessing the remaining life time expectancy in parallel with rejuvenation of base material and recoating of components. The presentation will use a number of examples to demonstrate the methods and measuring technologies that are used for the remaining lifetime analysis like 3D dimensional inspection, base material condition determination, wall thickness measurement technologies and others. (orig.)

  15. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  16. Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventions to decrease the burden of childhood malnutrition are urgently needed, as millions of children die annually owing to undernutrition and hundreds of millions more are left cognitively and physically stunted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a pervasive chronic subclinical inflamm...

  17. Small mammals of the Mongolian mountain steppe region near Erdensant: insights from live-trapping and bird pellet remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. Isaac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known of the distribution, abundance and ecology of small mammals in Mongolia and as a result there is scant knowledge of the effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on small mammal populations. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of small mammals in mountain steppe habitat from live-trapping and analysis of mammal remains from raptor pellets and below nests. During live-trapping, root voles ( Microtus oeconemus were the most commonly caught species accounting for 47.5 % of captures, striped hamsters ( Cricetulus barabensis and pika ( Ochotona hyperborea accounted for 30 % and 22.5 % of captures respectively. Temperature influenced trapping success, with small mammals appearing to avoid being active at temperatures over 20 ̊C. The three species caught on the trapping grid appeared to avoid competition for resources through both temporal and spatial differences in the use of available habitat. Mammals identified from raptor pellets and other remains included the grey hamster ( Cricatulus migratorius , Siberian marmot ( Marmota sibirica , red fox ( Vulpes vulpes , long-tailed souslik ( Citellus undulatus and the Daurian mole ( Myospalax aspalax. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conservation of mammals in Mongolia and their co-existence with livestock and humans.

  18. New postcranial remains of large toxodontian notoungulates from the late Oligocene of Mendoza, Argentina and their systematic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Hernández Del Pino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the Deseadan (late Oligocene Quebrada Fiera locality, Mendoza Province, Argentina, has provided a large amount of mammal remains. Taxonomic studies have shown the presence of faunal elements common with other Deseadan associations from Patagonia and lower latitudes (Salla, Bolivia, as well as endemic taxa of different groups of mammals (Notohippidae, Leontiniidae, Homalodotheriidae, Hegetotheriidae, and Metatheria and even a gastropod. In this work, we present a taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of a set of postcranial fossils of three families of the suborder Toxodontia (Notoungulata. The postcranial elements are assigned to taxa previously recognized at Quebrada Fiera, such as the leontiniid Gualta cuyana and the homalodotheriid Asmodeus petrasnerus, but also to the family Toxodontidae that is represented by Proadinotherium sp. and another larger toxodontid; a few dental remains of Proadinotherium are also included as this is the first time that toxodontids from Quebrada Fiera are described. In the case of A. petrasnerus, an almost complete calcaneum allows us to expand the diagnosis of this taxon. The bones assigned to G. cuyana enlarge the anatomical knowledge of this species. In turn, the presence of the genus Proadinotherium extends its geographic distribution in Argentina and adds to the extra-Patagonian record of P. saltoni from Salla, Bolivia. Phylogenetic results do not differ much from previous analyses using postcranial characters, and the obtained consensus trees show low node supports. The various phylogenetic analyses performed here provide a more robust framework to interpret the relationships of the studied taxa.

  19. COMMON APPROACH ON WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The world population has doubled since the 60’s, now reaching 7 billion – it is estimated it will continue growing. If in more advanced economies, the population is starting to grow old and even reduce in numbers, in less developed countries, population numbers are registering a fast growth. Across the world, the ecosystems are exposed to critical levels of pollution in more and more complex combinations. Human activities, population growth and shifting patterns in consumer nature are the main factors that are at the base of thin ever-growing burden on our environment. Globalization means that the consumer and production patterns from a country or a region contribute to the pressures on the environment in totally different parts of the world. With the rise of environmental problems, the search for solutions also begun, such as methods and actions aimed to protect the environment and to lead to a better correlation between economic growth and the environment. The common goals of these endeavors from participating states was to come up with medium and long term regulations that would lead to successfully solving environmental issues. In this paper, we have analyzed the way in which countries started collaborating in the 1970’s at an international level in order to come up with a common policy that would have a positive impact on the environment. The European Union has come up with its own common policy, a policy that each member state must implement. In this context, Romania has developed its National Strategy for Waste Management, a program that Romania wishes to use to reduce the quantity of waste and better dispose of it.

  20. Between Theory and History: "The Remains of the Day" in the International Relations Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Anthony F., Jr.; Lang, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Recommends using Kazuo Ishiguro's "The Remains of the Day" to teach international relations by focusing on the normative elements of international relations, the importance of history, and the relationship between theory and history. Explores the use of one theory, feminism, in the novel and provides suggestions for other novels. (CMK)

  1. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit status...

  2. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  3. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work? : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna; van den Heuvel, Swenneke; Geuskens, Goedele; Ybema, Jan Fekke; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Robroek, Suzan

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  4. Remaining Challenges for the Use of RtI with Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire E.; Rollins, Karen; Johnsen, Susan K.; Pereles, Daphne A.; Omdal, Stuart; Baldwin, Lois; Brown, Elissa F.; Abernethy, Sherry H.; Coleman, Mary Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the challenges that might be faced if gifted education moves toward an RtI (Response to Intervention) approach. The challenges they share can be used as discussion points for planning and reflection. In spite of the remaining challenges, the authors conclude that RtI is certainly changing the face of education and that gifted…

  5. Beyond Race and Gender: Motivating Enlisted Personnel to Remain in Today's Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    ... to remain in the military than do the race, gender, or racial climate variables. Satisfaction with pay and benefits has a significant positive effect on the likelihood that respondents will stay in the military, but pride in service is more robust...

  6. Detection Method of the Remaining Files Based on Logs Regarding Changed Directory and Hash Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    There are a lot of information leakages because the files are copied from the removable storage medium and are left in the storage unit of personal computer without deleting. In order to prevent human mistakes, this paper proposes a method for detecting the remaining files copied from the removable storage medium. The proposed method records logs regarding changed information registering in a directory that is management list of files in storage unit and the hash values of file contents. The remaining files are detected when the removable storage medium removes from the personal computer, and they are displayed on the monitor. The detection processing works in five steps. First, copy operation toward file is detected by tracing the sequence of logs. Secondly, files copied from the removable storage medium are distinguished based on hash values. Thirdly, file operation and folder operation to copied files are distinguished. Fourthly, the deletion operation against the copied file is detected by using file name and path matching. Finally, file name and path using for tracing are changed according to folder operation. In case of the deletion operation is not found, it is judged that copied files are remaining. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the storage unit.

  7. Mild traumatic brain injury diagnosis frequently remains unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljula, Jussi; Cygnel, Hanna; Mäkinen, Elina; Tuomivaara, Veli; Karttunen, Vesa; Karttunen, Ari; Hillbom, Matti

    2012-12-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in subjects with craniofacial fractures are usually diagnosed by emergency room physicians. We investigated how often TBI remains unrecorded in these subjects, and whether diagnostic accuracy has improved after the implementation of new TBI guidelines. All subjects with craniofacial fractures admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 and in 2007 were retrospectively identified. New guidelines for improving the diagnostic accuracy of TBI were implemented between 2000 and 2006. Clinical symptoms of TBI were gathered from notes on hospital charts and compared to the recorded diagnoses at discharge. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for TBI to remain unrecorded. Of 194 subjects with craniofacial fracture, 111(57%) had TBI, 40 in 1999 and 71 in 2007. Fifty-one TBIs (46%) remained unrecorded at discharge, 48 being mild and 3 moderate-to-severe. Subjects with unrecorded TBI were significantly less frequently referred to follow-up visits. Failures to record the TBI diagnosis were less frequent (29/71, 41%) in 2007 than in 1999 (22/40, 55%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The most significant independent predictor for this failure was the clinical specialty (other than neurology/neurosurgery) of the examining physician (palcohol intoxication did not hamper the diagnosis of TBI. TBIs remain frequently unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures. Recording of mild TBI slightly but insignificantly improved after the implementation of new guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New fossil remains of Homo naledi from the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, John; Elliott, Marina; Schmid, Peter; Churchill, Steven E; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Roberts, Eric M; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Garvin, Heather M; Williams, Scott A; Delezene, Lucas K; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick; Kivell, Tracy L; Laird, Myra F; Tawane, Gaokgatlhe; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Bailey, Shara E; Brophy, Juliet K; Meyer, Marc R; Skinner, Matthew M; Tocheri, Matthew W; VanSickle, Caroline; Walker, Christopher S; Campbell, Timothy L; Kuhn, Brian; Kruger, Ashley; Tucker, Steven; Gurtov, Alia; Hlophe, Nompumelelo; Hunter, Rick; Morris, Hannah; Peixotto, Becca; Ramalepa, Maropeng; van Rooyen, Dirk; Tsikoane, Mathabela; Boshoff, Pedro; Dirks, Paul HGM; Berger, Lee R

    2017-01-01

    The Rising Star cave system has produced abundant fossil hominin remains within the Dinaledi Chamber, representing a minimum of 15 individuals attributed to Homo naledi. Further exploration led to the discovery of hominin material, now comprising 131 hominin specimens, within a second chamber, the Lesedi Chamber. The Lesedi Chamber is far separated from the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave system, and represents a second depositional context for hominin remains. In each of three collection areas within the Lesedi Chamber, diagnostic skeletal material allows a clear attribution to H. naledi. Both adult and immature material is present. The hominin remains represent at least three individuals based upon duplication of elements, but more individuals are likely present based upon the spatial context. The most significant specimen is the near-complete cranium of a large individual, designated LES1, with an endocranial volume of approximately 610 ml and associated postcranial remains. The Lesedi Chamber skeletal sample extends our knowledge of the morphology and variation of H. naledi, and evidence of H. naledi from both recovery localities shows a consistent pattern of differentiation from other hominin species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24232.001 PMID:28483039

  9. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H

    2017-11-01

    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  11. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.; van den Heuvel, S.; Geuskens, G.; Ybema, J.F.; de Wind, A.; Burdorf, A.; Robroek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  12. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); G.A. Geuskens (Goedele); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); A. de Wind (Astrid); A. Burdorf (Alex); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in

  13. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience

  14. Editorial Forestry faces big issues to remain sustainable — a role for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantation forestry remains an attractive land use, both from an economic perspective through the production of costeffective wood and from a sustainable development perspective through the generation of jobs in rural areas. The forest industry directly employs over 100 000 people and if one considers that all of plantation ...

  15. Plantar pressures in diabetic patients with foot ulcers which have remained healed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owings, T. M.; Apelqvist, J.; Stenström, A.; Becker, M.; Bus, S. A.; Kalpen, A.; Ulbrecht, J. S.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    The recurrence of foot ulcers is a significant problem in people with diabetic neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to measure in-shoe plantar pressures and other characteristics in a group of neuropathic patients with diabetes who had prior foot ulcers which had remained healed. This was an

  16. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A remarkable collection of Late Pleistocene reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) remains from Woerden (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kolfschoten, Thijs; van der Jagt, Inge; Beeren, Zoe; Argiti, Vasiliki; van der Leije, Judith; van Essen, Hans; Busschers, Freek S.; Stoel, Pieter; van der Plicht, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Woerden, in the central part of The Netherlands, is a locality where the amateur-archaeologist Pieter Stoel collected several thousands of fossil mammalian remains of Pleistocene age. The stratigraphically-mixed assemblage includes a broad variety of taxa including species that are indicative of

  18. Stratigraphy and chronology of the WLH 50 human remains, Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Spooner, Nigel; Magee, John; Thorne, Alan; Simpson, John; Yan, Ge; Mortimer, Graham

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

    2010-11-09

    The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia.

  20. New fossil remains ofHomo naledifrom the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, John; Elliott, Marina; Schmid, Peter; Churchill, Steven E; Ruiter, Darryl J de; Roberts, Eric M; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Garvin, Heather M; Williams, Scott A; Delezene, Lucas K; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick; Kivell, Tracy L; Laird, Myra F; Tawane, Gaokgatlhe; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Bailey, Shara E; Brophy, Juliet K; Meyer, Marc R; Skinner, Matthew M; Tocheri, Matthew W; VanSickle, Caroline; Walker, Christopher S; Campbell, Timothy L; Kuhn, Brian; Kruger, Ashley; Tucker, Steven; Gurtov, Alia; Hlophe, Nompumelelo; Hunter, Rick; Morris, Hannah; Peixotto, Becca; Ramalepa, Maropeng; Rooyen, Dirk van; Tsikoane, Mathabela; Boshoff, Pedro; Dirks, Paul Hgm; Berger, Lee R

    2017-05-09

    The Rising Star cave system has produced abundant fossil hominin remains within the Dinaledi Chamber, representing a minimum of 15 individuals attributed to Homo naledi . Further exploration led to the discovery of hominin material, now comprising 131 hominin specimens, within a second chamber, the Lesedi Chamber. The Lesedi Chamber is far separated from the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave system, and represents a second depositional context for hominin remains. In each of three collection areas within the Lesedi Chamber, diagnostic skeletal material allows a clear attribution to H. naledi . Both adult and immature material is present. The hominin remains represent at least three individuals based upon duplication of elements, but more individuals are likely present based upon the spatial context. The most significant specimen is the near-complete cranium of a large individual, designated LES1, with an endocranial volume of approximately 610 ml and associated postcranial remains. The Lesedi Chamber skeletal sample extends our knowledge of the morphology and variation of H. naledi , and evidence of H. naledi from both recovery localities shows a consistent pattern of differentiation from other hominin species.