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Sample records for undernourished jamaican children

  1. Feasibility of integrating early stimulation into primary care for undernourished Jamaican children: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Christine; Baker-Henningham, Helen; Walker, Susan; Gernay, Jacqueline; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2004-07-10

    To assess the feasibility of integrating early psychosocial stimulation into primary care for undernourished children and to determine the effect on children's development and mothers' knowledge and practices of childrearing. Cluster randomised controlled trial. 18 clinics in three Jamaican parishes. 139 undernourished children aged 9 to 30 months and their mothers enrolled in intervention or control clinics. Weekly home visits by community health aides for one year in addition to usual duties. Parenting issues were discussed with the mothers and play activities were demonstrated with the children using homemade materials. Children's scores on the Griffiths mental development scales and mothers' knowledge and practices of childrearing measured by questionnaires. Children from the intervention group showed significant improvements in development: developmental quotient, 7.8 points (95% confidence interval 4.5 to 11.1); hearing and speech, 10.7 (5.9 to 15.4 points); hand and eye coordination, 6.8 (3.4 to 10.1 points); and performance subscale, 11.0 (5.6 to 16.4 points). No improvements were shown on the locomotor subscale. The mothers from the intervention group showed improved knowledge and practices of childrearing. Change in children's body mass index and height independently affected change in development. Integrating parenting skills and early psychosocial stimulation for undernourished children into primary care was feasible and effective in improving the children's development and mothers' knowledge and practices of childrearing.

  2. Undernourished Children and Milk Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Briend, André; Sangild, Per T; Thymann, Thomas; Rytter, Maren H; Hother, Anne-Louise; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2016-03-01

    Lactose is an important energy source in young mammals, and in fully breast-fed human infants, it constitutes around 40% of the total daily energy intake. The role of lactose in feeding of undernourished infants and young children is not well described. A narrative review of the potential positive and negative effects of lactose in the treatment of undernourished children. Searches were conducted using PUBMED and Web of Science up to July 2015. Relevant references in the retrieved articles were included. Lactose may exhibit several health benefits in young children, including a prebiotic effect on the gut microbiota and a positive effect on mineral absorption. Studies in piglets suggest there might also be a stimulating effect on growth, relative to other carbohydrates. Lactose intolerance is a potential concern for undernourished children. Most undernourished children seem to tolerate the currently recommended (low lactose level) therapeutic foods well. However, a subgroup of severely undernourished children with secondary lactase deficiency due to severe diarrhea or severe enteropathy may benefit from products with even more restricted lactose content. At limited extra costs, lactose or lactose-containing milk ingredients may have beneficial effects if added to food products for undernourished children. Lactose may be an overlooked beneficial nutrient for young and undernourished children. Research is needed to define the balance between beneficial and detrimental effects of lactose in undernourished children at different ages and with different degrees of diarrhea and intestinal integrity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Undernourished children and milk lactose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Briend, André; Sangild, Per Torp

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactose is an important energy source in young mammals, and in fully breast-fed human infants, it constitutes around 40% of the total daily energy intake. The role of lactose in feeding of undernourished infants and young children is not well described. OBJECTIVE: A narrative review...... of the potential positive and negative effects of lactose in the treatment of undernourished children. METHODS: Searches were conducted using PUBMED and Web of Science up to July 2015. Relevant references in the retrieved articles were included. RESULTS: Lactose may exhibit several health benefits in young...... children, including a prebiotic effect on the gut microbiota and a positive effect on mineral absorption. Studies in piglets suggest there might also be a stimulating effect on growth, relative to other carbohydrates. Lactose intolerance is a potential concern for undernourished children. Most...

  4. The clinical and anthropometric profile of undernourished children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the clinical profile and the severity of anthropometric failure of undernourished children aged under 5 admitted to. Nyangabgwe Referral ..... Signs and symptoms of the children on admission (N=113). Age group. (months). Oedema n (%). Fever n (%). Vomiting n (%). Diarrhoea n (%). Coughing n (%). Anaemia.

  5. The clinical and anthropometric profile of undernourished children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Although Botswana is a middle-income country, undernutrition among children younger than 5 years of age is still seen in various parts of the country. There is little information on the clinical and anthropometric profile of undernourished children in this age group admitted to hospitals in Francistown, Botswana.

  6. Low postprandial circulating inactive ghrelin: role of early satiety in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Falahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-11-01

    To determine difference in the levels of circulating inactive ghrelin between undernourished and healthy children. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in undernourished children from southwestern Iran, from July 2011 through July 2012. Postprandial inactive ghrelin levels were measured in 40 undernourished children and sex- and age-matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. The levels of postprandial inactive ghrelin were considerably lower in undernourished compared to the healthy children (6.4 vs. 12.9, P < 0.001). Among the undernourished children, the level of inactive ghrelin was significantly lower in girls than in boys (5.8 vs. 7.1, P = 0.032). Thus, the levels of inactive ghrelin was found to be low in undernourished children compared to healthy children. Early loss of appetite might be a result of low circulating inactive ghrelin levels in the postprandial state in undernourished children.

  7. Nutrition rehabilitation of undernourished children utilizing Spiruline and Misola

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    Biondi Daniela M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition constitutes a public health problem throughout the world and particularly in developing countries. Aims The objective of the study is to assess the impact of an elementary integrator composed of Spiruline (Spirulina platensis and Misola (millet, soja, peanut produced at the Centre Medical St Camille (CMSC of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, on the nutritional status of undernourished children. Materials and methods 550 undernourished children of less than 5 years old were enrolled in this study, 455 showed severe marasma, 57 marasma of medium severity and 38 kwashiorkor plus marasma. We divided the children randomly into four groups: 170 were given Misola (731 ± 7 kcal/day, 170 were given Spiruline plus traditional meals (748 ± 6 kcal/day, 170 were given Spiruline plus Misola (767 ± 5 kcal/day. Forty children received only traditional meals (722 ± 8 kcal/day and functioned as the control group. The duration of this study was eight weeks. Results and Discussion Anthropometrics and haematological parameters allowed us to appreciate both the nutritional and biological evolution of these children. The rehabilitation with Spiruline plus Misola (this association gave an energy intake of 767 ± 5 kcal/day with a protein assumption of 33.3 ± 1.2 g a day, both greater than Misola or Spiruline alone, seems to correct weight loss more quickly. Conclusion Our results indicate that Misola, Spiruline plus traditional meals or Spiruline plus Misola are all a good food supplement for undernourished children, but the rehabilitation by Spiruline plus Misola seems synergically favour the nutrition rehabilitation better than the simple addition of protein and energy intake.

  8. Evaluation of oral microbiota in undernourished and eutrophic children using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, M; Erbiti, S; Delgado, A; Cardenas, I L

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among nutritional status, gingival health and the composition of oral microbiota in children of a public school from a very poor area of San Miguel de Tucuman. Forty-five children ranging in age from 6 to 14 years old, 13 males and 32 females were studied. Twenty of these children were undernourished (Lejarraga-Morasso Table) and twenty-five were eutrophic. A clinical study that included DMF and dmf indexes, Löe Silness Plaque Index and bleeding on probing was performed. For microbiological study, saliva samples without stimulation were taken; aliquots of them were immediately placed in TAE buffer pH 7.6, adding NaOH (N and keeping at -70 °C until processed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method to check the presence of 40 oral microorganism species. Positive bleeding on probing was present in more than 80% of children, without significant differences between eutrophic and undernourished groups. Same result were obtain for the other clinical indexes (p > 0.05, Two Way ANOVA). Significant differences were found for some oral microorganism species, with a higher percentage of undernourished children harboring them. That was the case of S. gordonii (p Gingivitis and bleeding on probing would not be related to nutritional status in the groups of children studied. There were significant differences for the presence of some of the main periodontal pathogen species between eutrophic and undernourished children. It would be important to study the meaning of significant differences found for the other microorganisms more deeply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Creativity in a Sample of Jamaican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Danielle D.; Copeland, Daelynn; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and creativity among a sample of Jamaican students and their parents. A total of 54 parents and 66 students participated in the study. Results revealed that the authoritarian style of parenting is the most salient predictor of creativity in children and that this…

  10. Psychosocial stimulation improves the development of undernourished children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Jena D; Huda, Syed N; Khatun, Fahmida; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M

    2006-10-01

    Undernutrition in early childhood is associated with poor mental development and affects 45% of children in Bangladesh. Although limited evidence shows that psychosocial stimulation can reduce the deficits, no such interventions have been reported from Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP) has provided nutrition supplementation to undernourished children through community nutrition centers (CNCs). We added psychosocial stimulation to the treatment of undernourished children in a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects on children's development and growth and mothers' knowledge. Twenty CNCs were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups with 107 children in each group. We also studied 107 nonintervened better-nourished children from the same villages. Pre- and postintervention measurements included children's height, weight, development assessed on Bayley Scales, behavior ratings during the test, and a questionnaire on mothers' knowledge of childrearing. The intervention comprised home visits and group meetings with mothers and children for 12 mo. Intervention benefited children's mental development (4.6 +/- 2.0, P = 0.02), vocalization (0.48 +/- 0.23, P = 0.04), cooperation (0.45 +/- 0.16, P = 0.005), response-to-examiner (0.50 +/- 0.15, P = 0.001), emotional tone (0.33 +/- 0.15, P = 0.03), and mothers' knowledge (3.5 +/- 0.49, P < 0.001). At the end, undernourished controls had poorer mental (-4.6 +/- 2.0, P = 0.02) and motor (-6.6 +/- 2.2, P = 0.003) development, were more inhibited (-0.35 +/- 0.16, P = 0.03), fussier (-0.57 +/- 0.16, P < 0.001), less cooperative (-0.48 +/- 0.17, P = 0.005), and less vocal (-0.76 +/- 0.23, P = 0.001) than better-nourished children. Intervened children scored lower only in motor development (-4.4 +/- 2.3, P = 0.049). Neither group of undernourished children improved in nutritional status, indicating that treatment had no effect. In conclusion, adding child development activities to the

  11. Follow-up Assessment of Under-nourished Children Under Integrated Child Development Services Scheme in Tapi District, India.

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    Desai, Kanan T; Nayak, Sunil N; Patel, Prakash B; Modi, Bhautik P; Gharat, Vaibhav V; Bansal, Rajkumar

    2014-06-01

    India shares the largest burden of under-nutrition in world. The aim of this study was to conduct follow-up assessment of under-nourished children attending anganwadi center (AWC). This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in 50 AWC of Tapi district. Total 529 children aged 1-6 years diagnosed as under-nourished before 1 year were included. Pre-structured questionnaire was used for present day assessment of these children followed by Epi-info mediated analysis. Children of literate mothers had higher weight gain. Ninety percent of children attended anganwadi regularly, however 25% of children dropped out for more than 1 month. In 1 year, growth had faltered in 20% children and was stagnant in 63% of them. Children who were treated for under-nutrition; that completed course at Child Development and Nutrition Center; and whose parents were counseled about the under-nourished status of child had higher weight gain than their counterparts. Parents of under-nourished children must be counseled about the nutritional status of their child. In cases of under-nourished child, referral to higher center must be ensured by health worker. Supplementary feeding as a long-term solution to country's under-nutrition problem should be studied in detail with the alternative solutions.

  12. Cryptosporidium infection in undernourished children with HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: AIDS and Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) severely impair the immune system Cryptosporidium has over the last two decades emerged as a life threatening disease. The study attempts to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in malnourished children with HIV/AIDS. Method: Blood and stool ...

  13. Perceptions of Child Body Size and Health Care Seeking for Undernourished Children in Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ashorn, Ulla

    2016-12-01

    Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally, but little is known about the ability of adults to detect different types of child undernutrition in low-income countries. We used focused ethnographic methods to understand how Malawian parents and grandparents describe the characteristics they use to identify good and poor child growth, their actual or preferred patterns of health seeking for undernourished children, and the perceived importance of child undernutrition symptoms in relation to other childhood illnesses. Malawians value adiposity rather than stature in assessing child growth. Symptoms of malnutrition, including wasting and edema, were considered the least severe childhood illness symptoms. Parents delayed health care seeking when a child was ill. When they sought care, it was for symptoms such as diarrhea or fever, and they did not recognize malnutrition as the underlying cause. These findings can be used to tailor strategies for preventing and treating growth faltering in Malawian children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children.

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    Monyeki, M A; Koppes, L L J; Kemper, H C G; Monyeki, K D; Toriola, A L; Pienaar, A E; Twisk, J W R

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary school children in Ellisras, South Africa. A cross-sectional study. The study consisted of 462 boys and 393 girls who were aged 7-14 y. Five body composition measures were assessed: BMI, SSF, %BF, FFM and WHR. Nine physical fitness test items were assessed: standing long jump, bent arm hang, sit-ups, 10 x 5 m shuttle run, 50 m sprint, 1600 m run, flamingo balance, sit and reach, plate tapping. BMI was highly correlated with FFM (r = 0.7, P sit and reach (B = -7.48, P = 0.01). In contrast, significant relationships were found between BMI and standing long jump (B = 0.74, P = 0.04), sit and reach (B = 0.51, P sit and reach (B = 0.04, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations were found between FFM and bent arm hang (girls, B = -0.06, P = 0.05), 1600 m run (girls, B = -2.33, P = 0.003) and 50 m run (boys, B = -0.11, P = 0.006). FFM was significantly associated with standing long jump (boys, B = 0.99, P sit and reach (boys, B = 0.59, P = 0.03). In the present study in undernourished children, body composition was significantly related to physical fitness, but not always in the expected direction. It is therefore important to note that in this population, BMI should not be interpreted as a measure of fatness/overweight, but rather as an indicator of muscle mass.

  15. Head growth of undernourished children in rural Nepal: association with demographics, health and diet.

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    Miller, Laurie C; Joshi, Neena; Lohani, Mahendra; Singh, Rupa; Bhatta, Nisha; Rogers, Beatrice; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Ghosh, Shibani; Mahato, Shubh; Singh, Padma; Webb, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Brain development in early childhood is a key determinant of later cognition, social achievement and educational success. Head circumference (HC) measurements are a simple method to assess brain growth, yet reports of these measurements are uncommon in nutritional surveys of undernourished children. To evaluate HC measurements in a population of rural Nepali children and relate these measurements to demographics, health and diet. An observational study of head growth was nested within a longitudinal evaluation of a livestock-based agricultural intervention in rural Nepal. Between 538 and 689 children (aged 6 months to 8 years) were measured (height, weight, HC) at each of six survey visits. A total of 3652 HC measurements were obtained. Results were converted to Z-scores (WHO Anthro). Mean head circumference Z-scores (HCZ) diminished progressively over the first 4 years of life; a decline of 30% occurred between 3 and 4 years of age (-1.73 to -2.45, P children children was explained by WAZ and ASF consumption. HCs reflect brain size in young children; brain size is linked to cognitive function. Poor head growth represents another facet of the 'silent emergency' of child undernutrition. Routine HCZ assessments may contribute to better understanding of the links between poverty and cognitive development.

  16. Contribution of radioimmunological techniques on the management of undernourished children in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbodj, M.; Gassama, S.S.; Sow, H.T.; Ndoye, O.; Ndong, B.; Diarra, M.; Sarr, M.; Diagne, I.; Diouf, S.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition in children continues to be a major health burden in Senegal. The main objective of this study was to discuss the existence of a thyroid disease induced by the various deficiencies, among which iodine, in these children and to assess the effects of the treatment on the thyroid function. Materials and methods Sixty eight children divided in a random way in two groups according to the addition or not of marine algae Hypnea to the traditional nutritional supplementation were included in the study. To appreciate at the same time the nutritional and biological state and to follow the evolution under treatment, the anthropometric parameters were the ratios: weight/age, weight/size, and height/age. Radioimmunoassays of free T3, free T4 and immunoradiometric assays of TSH were carried out in undernourished children before and after supplementation enriched or not in algae. Other blood parameters were measured among them protides, magnesium, and hemoglobin. Results They showed two types of biological abnormalities: low T3 syndrome (8.6%), compensated functional hypothyroidism (9%). The treatment induced neither iodine overload, nor thyroid disease. Conclusion In the program of nutritional rehabilitation, the isotopic techniques allow us to establish the low prevalence (17.6%) of the disturbances of the thyroid function (low T3 syndrome and compensated functional hypothyroidism, thus providing the differential diagnosis), and to confirm the absence of any thyroid disease induced by the iodine supply of the marine algae Hypnea. (authors)

  17. Blood Lead Concentrations in Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting by early childhood. Lead is a toxic metal shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Several studies have investigated the possible association between exposure to lead and ASD, but their findings are conflicting. Using data from 100 ASD cases (2–8 years of age) and their age- and sex-matched typically developing controls, we investigated the association between blood lead concentrations (BLC) and ASD in Jamaican children. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as exposure to potential lead sources. We used General Linear Models (GLM) to assess the association of BLC with ASD status as well as with sources of exposure to lead. In univariable GLM, we found a significant difference between geometric mean blood lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.25 μg/dL cases vs. 2.73 μg/dL controls, p lead concentrations of ASD cases and controls (2.55 μg/dL vs. 2.72 μg/dL, p = 0.64). Our results do not support an association between BLC and ASD in Jamaican children. We have identified significant confounders when assessing an association between ASD and BLC. PMID:25546274

  18. Chronic undernourishment in school-aged children: itineraries of nutritional neglect and official programs in indigenous communities of Guerrero, Mexico

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    Paul Hersch-Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of different elements of the nutritional dynamics in a predominantly indigenous municipality in Guerrero, Mexico, we explore the relevance of the concept of itineraries of nutritional neglect in order to broaden the understanding of avoidable health damage. In the framework of a process of accompaniment of the Health Commission of the Regional Coordination of Community Authorities - Community Police, the following methodological strategies were applied throughout the year 2015: a a review of official programs by means of the analysis of technical documents and interviews with health personnel; b the compilation of local narratives from families of undernourished children through interviews and participatory observation; c the somatometric measurement of 151 children in three elementary schools. We highlight the technical and cultural inadequacy of official nutrition programs and the existence of different scales (individual, familial, community, state, structural and dimensions (economic, environmental, cultural, institutional, affective-emotional of neglect, materialized in high rates of chronic undernourishment.

  19. Body Composition, Muscular Strength and Bone Status among Undernourished Children in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Despite significant advances in social and economic development, undernutrition remains a devastating public health problem that affects millions of children across the globe, particularly in developing nations. It is important to understand how changes in nutritional status affect physical health and function, so that undernutrition-related alterations can be identified and interpreted correctly. This paper aimed to determine the impact of undernutrition in children through the assessment of three nutrition-related indicators: body composition, muscular strength and bone status. This study is part of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). A total of 208 school children (102 boys, 106 girls) in the age range of 7 to 10 years were included in this analysis, of which 104 were underweight (WAZ<-2SD) and 104 were normal-weight group (-2SD≤WAZ≤+2SD), individually-matched for sex, age, and ethnicity. Anthropometric measurements included weight and height; and body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscular strength of both hands was assessed independently by hand-held dynamometer. Bone status was evaluated using a radial quantitative ultrasound system at one-third distal radius of the non-dominant hand. Anthropometric measurements and bone status were not significantly different between the sexes. Boys had significantly higher muscular strength and lean mass (p<0.05), but lower fat mass when compared to the girls (p<0.01). In both sexes, the undernourished group presented significantly lower anthropometric and body composition measurements and muscular strength than their normal-weight counterparts (p<0.001). However, no significant differences were observed for bone status between the two weight groups in boys (p = 0.09) and girls (p = 0.98). These findings imply that undernutrition can have profound negative impact on body composition as well

  20. Severe eosinophilic meningitis owing to Angiostrongylus cantonensis in young Jamaican children: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Gilbert, Tracy; Lindo, John F; Henry, Sonia; Brown, Paul; Christie, Celia D C

    2014-05-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an endemic and emerging disease that affects adults and children in Jamaica. Most cases resolve without sequelae, but young children are at high risk of neurological damage and death. Treatment with corticosteroids and albendazole is considered safe for adults and children, but protocols for its use in children have not been established. A 19-month-old infant with permanent neurological sequlae caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis is reported, and five other Jamaican cases are summarized. A review of the literature of children with permanent neurological sequlae and death is presented. Children <5 years (especially <2) were at increased risk of incomplete recovery and death if they presented with bulbar signs, flaccid paresis and coma. None of the severe or fatal cases received early intervention with anthelminthics, and disease progression was not altered with corticosteroids. In view of the pathophysiology, necropsy reports and animal studies, it seems that the early use of larvicidals may change the course of severe presentations.

  1. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, M.A.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Monyeki, K.D.; Toriola, A.L.; Pienaar, A.E.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary

  2. Using the Uganda National Panel Survey to analyze the effect of staple food consumption on undernourishment in Ugandan children

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    Michelle M. Amaral

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals Report, 2015, documents that, since 1990, the number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa has increased by 33% even though it has fallen in all other world regions. Recognizing this, in 2011 the Government of Uganda implemented a 5-year Nutrition Action Plan. One important tenet of the Plan is to lessen malnutrition in young children by discouraging over-consumption of nutritionally deficient, but plentiful, staple foods, which it defines as a type of food insecurity. Methods We use a sample of 6101 observations on 3427 children age five or less compiled from three annual waves of the Uganda National Panel Survey to measure undernourishment. We also use the World Health Organization’s Child Growth Standards to create a binary variable indicating stunting and another indicating wasting for each child in each year. We then use random effects to estimate binary logistic regressions that show that greater staple food concentrations affect the probability of stunting and wasting. Results The estimated coefficients are used to compute adjusted odds ratios (OR that estimate the effect of greater staple food concentration on the likelihood of stunting and the likelihood of wasting. Controlling for other relevant covariates, these odds ratios show that a greater proportion of staple foods in a child’s diet increases the likelihood of stunting (OR = 1.007, p = 0.005 as well as wasting (OR = 1.011, p = 0.034. Stunting is confirmed with subsamples of males only (OR = 1.006, p = 0.05 and females only (OR = 1.008, p = 0.027, suggesting that the finding is not gender specific. Another subsample of children aged 12 months or less, most of whom do not yet consume solid food, shows no statistically significant relationship, thus supporting the validity of the other findings. Conclusion Diets containing larger proportions of staple foods are associated with greater

  3. Using the Uganda National Panel Survey to analyze the effect of staple food consumption on undernourishment in Ugandan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Michelle M; Herrin, William E; Gulere, Grace Bulenzi

    2017-07-19

    The United Nations' Millennium Development Goals Report, 2015, documents that, since 1990, the number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa has increased by 33% even though it has fallen in all other world regions. Recognizing this, in 2011 the Government of Uganda implemented a 5-year Nutrition Action Plan. One important tenet of the Plan is to lessen malnutrition in young children by discouraging over-consumption of nutritionally deficient, but plentiful, staple foods, which it defines as a type of food insecurity. We use a sample of 6101 observations on 3427 children age five or less compiled from three annual waves of the Uganda National Panel Survey to measure undernourishment. We also use the World Health Organization's Child Growth Standards to create a binary variable indicating stunting and another indicating wasting for each child in each year. We then use random effects to estimate binary logistic regressions that show that greater staple food concentrations affect the probability of stunting and wasting. The estimated coefficients are used to compute adjusted odds ratios (OR) that estimate the effect of greater staple food concentration on the likelihood of stunting and the likelihood of wasting. Controlling for other relevant covariates, these odds ratios show that a greater proportion of staple foods in a child's diet increases the likelihood of stunting (OR = 1.007, p = 0.005) as well as wasting (OR = 1.011, p = 0.034). Stunting is confirmed with subsamples of males only (OR = 1.006, p = 0.05) and females only (OR = 1.008, p = 0.027), suggesting that the finding is not gender specific. Another subsample of children aged 12 months or less, most of whom do not yet consume solid food, shows no statistically significant relationship, thus supporting the validity of the other findings. Diets containing larger proportions of staple foods are associated with greater likelihoods of both stunting and wasting in Ugandan children. Other

  4. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Aluminum Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal with known health effects in animals and humans. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST genes and enzymes play a major role in detoxification of several heavy metals. Besides a direct relationship with oxidative stress; aluminum decreases GST enzyme activities. Using data from 116 Jamaican children; age 2–8 years; with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and 116 sex- and age-matched typically developing (TD children; we investigated the association of polymorphisms in three GST genes (GSTP1; GSTM1; and GSTT1 with mean blood aluminum concentrations in children with and without ASD. Using log-transformed blood aluminum concentration as the dependent variable in a linear regression model; we assessed the additive and interactive effects of ASD status and polymorphisms in the three aforementioned GST genes in relation to blood aluminum concentrations. Although none of the additive effects were statistically significant (all p > 0.16; we observed a marginally significant interaction between GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695 and ASD status (p = 0.07; even after controlling for parental education level and consumption of avocado; root vegetables; and tuna (canned fish. Our findings indicate a significantly lower (p < 0.03 adjusted geometric mean blood aluminum concentration for TD children who had the Val/Val genotype (14.57 µg/L; compared with those with Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotypes who had an adjusted geometric mean of 23.75 µg/L. However; this difference was not statistically significant among the ASD cases (p = 0.76. Our findings indicate that ASD status may be a potential effect modifier when assessing the association between GSTP1 rs1695 and blood aluminum concentrations among Jamaican children. These findings require replication in other populations.

  5. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Aluminum Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Pitcher, Meagan R.; Bressler, Jan; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Loveland, Katherine A.; Christian, MacKinsey A.; Grove, Megan L.; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Beecher, Compton; McLaughlin, Wayne; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal with known health effects in animals and humans. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes and enzymes play a major role in detoxification of several heavy metals. Besides a direct relationship with oxidative stress; aluminum decreases GST enzyme activities. Using data from 116 Jamaican children; age 2–8 years; with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and 116 sex- and age-matched typically developing (TD) children; we investigated the association of polymorphisms in three GST genes (GSTP1; GSTM1; and GSTT1) with mean blood aluminum concentrations in children with and without ASD. Using log-transformed blood aluminum concentration as the dependent variable in a linear regression model; we assessed the additive and interactive effects of ASD status and polymorphisms in the three aforementioned GST genes in relation to blood aluminum concentrations. Although none of the additive effects were statistically significant (all p > 0.16); we observed a marginally significant interaction between GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695) and ASD status (p = 0.07); even after controlling for parental education level and consumption of avocado; root vegetables; and tuna (canned fish). Our findings indicate a significantly lower (p aluminum concentration for TD children who had the Val/Val genotype (14.57 µg/L); compared with those with Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotypes who had an adjusted geometric mean of 23.75 µg/L. However; this difference was not statistically significant among the ASD cases (p = 0.76). Our findings indicate that ASD status may be a potential effect modifier when assessing the association between GSTP1 rs1695 and blood aluminum concentrations among Jamaican children. These findings require replication in other populations. PMID:27834815

  6. Spirulina Supplements Improved the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Children Quickly and Significantly: Experience from Kisantu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féfé Khuabi Matondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet. Both groups of children were assessed on day zero, day 15, and day 30. Results. After treatment, the weight-for-age Z scores and weight-for-height Z scores increased significantly in the intervention group. At day 15, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean corpuscular volume, total proteins, and albumin (p<0.05 in both groups, in favour of the intervention group, and at day 30, this difference extended to all of the studied parameters (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study found that the nutritional status of undernourished children who received Spirulina supplements as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre improved quickly and significantly.

  7. Nutritional Status and Infectious Disease of Undernourished Children under five in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, from April to December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomina Caesarea Nurhasanah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undernutrition frequently occurs in children under five. If not treated, it will cause acute health effects and affect on cognitive development, social, physical work capacity and productivity. Undernutrition can be accompanied by the presence of infectious disease that can worsen the children’s nutritional status. This study aimed to describe the nutritional status and infectious disease of undernutrition children under five in Jatinangor Subdistrict. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out to 7 parents and undernourished children under five, in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor. It was conducted from April to December 2012. The inclusion criterias were undernourished children under five with a history of infectious disease in the previous year, and the parents were willing to participate in this study. Exclusion criteria were parents and/or the children who were not at home when the collection of the data was conducted.. Data collection was conducted using measurement of nutritional status, in depth interview and environmental observation. The data were presented in tables, figures and narration. Results: Three subjects with undernutrition (-3SD to -2SD and four subjects with severe undernutrition (<-3SD. Factors affecting poor nutritional status were weight loss, no significant weight gain, diet and eating habit, and onset of disease. Commonly occurred infectious diseases were common cold, diarrhea, fever and cough. Some factors affecting infectious diseases were family member transmission, immunization, and treatment behavior. Conclusions: Poor nutritional status and infectious diseases contribute to undernutrition in children under five.

  8. Evaluation of the impact of a nutritional program for undernourished children in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Iná S; Gigante, Denise P; Coitinho, Denise C; Haisma, Hinke; Valle, Neiva C J; Valente, Gicele

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness on child growth and body composition of a supplementary feeding program (Milk Supplement Program), a prospective, controlled study was conducted in Northeast Brazil. When entering the Program, children from 10 municipalities with the highest coverage rates in the Program

  9. Beneficial effect of cyproheptadine on body mass index in undernourished children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Fallahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-12-01

    Cyproheptadine hydrochloride (CH) is a first-generation antihistamine which is used as an appetite stimulant. This study was designed to identify the role of CH therapy on weight gain, linear growth and body mass index in children with mild to moderate undernutrition. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled. The present randomized, double-blinded controlled trial included 77 evaluable patients, aged 24-64 months with undernutrition. The patients were randomized to receive cyproheptadine with multivitamin, or multivitamin over a period of four weeks. The weight, height and body mass index were measured at the baseline, four weeks after intervention and four weeks after discontinuation. A significant higher body mass index was observed among CH-treated patients after 8 weeks intervention with cyproheptadine compared with the control group (P<0.041). Mean weight gain after eight weeks was 0.11 kg in the control group and 0.60 kg in the CH group. There were no significant differences in changes of weight and height velocity across the study between CH-treated and control group at the end of study. In our study, cyproheptadine promotes increase in body mass index in children with mild to moderate undernutrition after four weeks treatment.

  10. Influence of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from an iron-fortified, chocolate-flavored milk drink in Jamaican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, L; Walczyk, T; Morris, A; Hurrell, R F

    1998-05-01

    The influence of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from an iron-fortified, chocolate-flavored milk drink (6.3 mg total Fe per serving) was evaluated with a stable-isotope technique in 20 6-7-y-old Jamaican children. Each child received two test meals labeled with 5.6 mg 57Fe and 3.0 mg 58Fe as ferrous sulfate on 2 consecutive days. Three different doses of ascorbic acid (0, 25, and 50 mg per 25-g serving) were evaluated in two separate studies by using a crossover design. Iron isotope ratios were measured by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. In the first study, iron absorption was significantly greater (P iron absorption was 1.6% (range: 0.9-4.2%) and 5.1% (2.2-17.3%) for the test meals containing 0 and 25 mg ascorbic acid, respectively. In the second study, a significant difference (P iron absorption was observed when the ascorbic acid content was increased from 25 to 50 mg: geometric mean iron absorption was 5.4% (range: 2.7-10.8%) compared with 7.7% (range: 4.7-16.5%), respectively. The chocolate drink contained relatively high amounts of polyphenolic compounds, phytic acid, and calcium, all well-known inhibitors of iron absorption. The low iron absorption without added ascorbic acid shows that chocolate milk is a poor vehicle for iron fortification unless sufficient amounts of an iron-absorption enhancer are added. Regular consumption of iron-fortified chocolate milk drinks containing added ascorbic acid could have a positive effect on iron nutrition in population groups vulnerable to iron deficiency.

  11. [Nutritional rehabilitation of undernourished and nutritionally at-risk children admitted to a supplementary food program in Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Rita Maria Monteiro; França Junior, Ivan; Souza, Maria de Fátima Marinho

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional rehabilitation of undernourished children admitted to a program entitled Incentives to Fight Nutritional Deficiencies (ICCN) in Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brazil. The study included 724 children (6 to 24 months old) from July 1999 to July 2001. The indices used to evaluate baseline nutritional status were weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and length-for-age, defining normal as z score > or = -1, at-risk as > or = -2 and -3, and severe malnutrition as age index, and the results were analyzed considering the average z score variation at the end of the 12-month program. After 12 months, nutritional status had improved in all categories, while the best results were in children with more intense baseline nutritional deficiency. Gains in length were 1.12, 0.82, 0.57, and 0.45 z scores for the severe and moderate malnutrition, nutritional risk, and normal categories, respectively. The ICCN in Mogi das Cruzes thus demonstrated effective nutritional improvement for program beneficiaries.

  12. Beneficial effect of nutritional supportive plan among under-nourished children in poor families in Iran with collaborating Ministry of Health and Emam Khomeini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaei, Mina; Zarei, Maryam; Araste, Razieh; Kamali, Behroo

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition in the form of Protein – Energy Malnutrition (PEM) and micro nutrient deficiencies, is one of the most important health problems in developing countries, Iran included. The purpose of this study was to improve nutritional status among under-nourished children in poor families. Methods: A total of 50,000 children under 5 (girls and boys) in 30 provinces in Iran which suffered by moderate and severe malnutrition participated (<-2SD weight for age) in this program. Malnourished children belong to poor families were determined; weights and heights were measured and anthropometric indicators were determined based on WHO, 2007. Then, these malnourished children were introduced to Imam Khomeini Foundation. Khomeini Foundation as one of the biggest NGO in Iran which supports poor families since 1979. This study collaborated with Ministry of Welfare, Ministry of Health and Emam Khomeini. They have started to receive monthly supportive food basket which could support their daily nutritional requirements. This basket included (meat, egg, cheese, legumes, milk, tuna fish, chicken, liquid oil). Along with food support community health workers were actively involved with counseling of mothers on the nutritional requirements of children. Nutritional support cut for whoever has been improved nutritional status. However, nutritional education still had continued. Results: The results of monitoring & evaluation (according to anthropometric indicators) of this plan have shown around more than 45% of children that received food basket had consistently improved nutritional status. Conclusion: Likewise other intervention nutrition programs in developing countries this project showed that inter sector collaboration have been the best way for decreasing malnutrition in children. (author)

  13. Asthma clinic attendance improves quality of life of Jamaican asthmatic children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Gilbert, T E; Thame, M; Bailey, K

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing incidence of paediatric asthma, there has been a corresponding increase in the physical, emotional and financial burden. This has led to a greater interest in determining the impact of asthma and its treatment on many aspects of patient functioning and wellbeing. To assess the usefulness of the Asthma Clinic established in Jamaica in 1997 by ascertaining whether there has been improvement in quality of life of children and care-givers who attend the clinic. The quality of life of patients and their parents/care-givers before attending the Asthma Clinic of Bustamante Hospital for Children in Kingston, Jamaica was compared with that of 1 year afterwards. Parents or guardians were interviewed using the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire which consists of three domains [symptoms (ten questions), emotional (eight questions) and activity (five questions)] and the Pediatric Asthma Caregiver's Quality of life Questionnaire which consist of two domains [emotional (nine questions) and activity (four questions)]. Quality of life improved in patients and their parents/care-givers in all domains. Attendance at an asthma clinic in Jamaica improved the quality of life of asthmatic children and their parents/care-givers.

  14. Jamaican bible remix

    OpenAIRE

    Beckford, R.; Bean, T.

    2017-01-01

    The Jamaican Bible Remix is a conceptual musical collection. The album samples audio from Di Jamiekan Nyuu Testiment (The Jamaican New Testament) and triangulates it with themes from black liberation theology, and soundscapes from the black British music canon.  The result is a new type of gospel music or Social Gospel Music. \\ud \\ud Diverse genres from the black British music canon, such as UK Soul, Drum n Bass, Grime, and Jazz embellish the album. Genres are chosen to underline particular t...

  15. Effects of a Cereal and Soy Dietary Formula on Rehabilitation of Undernourished Children at Ouagadougou, in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The New Misola consists of millet soybean, peanut, vitamins, minerals, and industrial amylase. Our objective is to demonstrate that porridge made from local grains and legumes restores the nutritional balance of malnourished children. The study was carried on 304 malnourished children aged 6–48 months including 172 girls and 132 boys from Saint Camille Medical Centre. At the beginning, these malnourished children had a WHZ z-score of −3.10 and a WAZ z-score of −3.85, which reflected, according to WHO, a severe malnutrition. After eight weeks of nutritional rehabilitation, a normal WHZ of −1.41 was obtained. These children recovered more than those in a similar study performed in 2006 with the old formula of Misola. This study shows that malnutrition remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso. It should be necessary that public health services and the epidemiologists work in synergy with nutritionists and “nutrigenetics” in order to combat malnutrition efficiently.

  16. Undernourishment and Public Policy in India | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scientists, donors, and Indian policymakers are puzzled why India has the highest percentage of undernourished children in the world. This project explores the reasons why the country's high economic growth rate has not translated into better nutrition for its people, particularly poor women and children. It aims to shape ...

  17. The impact of public expenditure on undernourishment distribution in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Macías, Lidia; Palma-Solís, Marco; Zapata-Vázquez, Rita E

    2013-09-01

    The status of undernourishment in children under the age of five in Mexico is open to debate. Linked to poverty, underweight and stunting, the rates of undernourishment are reported to be diminishing, although poverty remains an incessant problem. This study was done to determine whether there is an association between public expenditure and underweight and stunting distribution in Mexico based on data from the 2006 health and population census and from macroeconomic, social, and demographic variables. We used principal component analysis to reduce the number of variables and analyze their behavior. Multiple regressions showed that underweight and stunting are significantly associated with the marginalization index, support from the Sistema Nacional para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia (DIF) supplies and breakfast program, the gross domestic product per capita, and expenditure from the Opportunities program. Further, public expenditure aimed to combat undernourishment is inadequately oriented to address the needs of the poor.

  18. Jamaican Child-Rearing Practices: The Role of Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E.; Mosby, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Examines child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. Also examines the plausibility of the assumption that harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for current social problems of that nation. Recommends approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and…

  19. Nutrition and education: a randomized trial of the effects of breakfast in rural primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C A; Walker, S P; Chang, S M; Grantham-McGregor, S M

    1998-10-01

    Hunger during school may prevent children in developing countries from benefiting from education. Although many countries have implemented school feeding programs, few programs have been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of giving breakfast to undernourished and adequately nourished children. The undernourished group comprised 407 children in grades 2-5 in 16 rural Jamaican schools (weights-for-age -1 SD). Both groups were stratified by class and school, then randomly assigned to breakfast or control groups. After the initial measurements, breakfast was provided every school day for 1 school year. Children in the control group were given one-quarter of an orange and the same amount of attention as children in the breakfast group. All children had their heights and weights measured and were given the Wide Range Achievement Test before and after the intervention. School attendance was taken from the schools' registers. Compared with the control group, height, weight, and attendance improved significantly in the breakfast group. Both groups made poor progress in Wide Range Achievement Test scores. Younger children in the breakfast group improved in arithmetic. There was no effect of nutritional group on the response to breakfast. In conclusion, the provision of a school breakfast produced small benefits in children's nutritional status, school attendance, and achievement. Greater improvements may occur in more undernourished populations; however, the massive problem of poor achievement levels requires integrated programs including health and educational inputs as well as school meals.

  20. Corn-soy-blend fortified with phosphorus to prevent refeeding hypophosphatemia in undernourished piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hother Nielsen, Anne-Louise; Lykke Jensen, Mikkel; Martinussen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soy-blends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified...

  1. The nutritional quality of an infant food from quinoa and its effect on the plasma level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in undernourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruales, Jenny; de Grijalva, Yolanda; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Nair, Baboo M

    2002-03-01

    An infant food product was manufactured by drum drying a pre-cooked slurry of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) flour. The chemical composition shows that the product is a potential source of valuable nutrients, like protein (16%), vitamin E (19 mg/kg), thiamine (0.7 mg/100 g), iron (70 mg/kg), zinc (48 mg/kg) and magnesium (1.8 g/kg), all the values expressed on dry basis, to pre-school children (of 5 years of age). The animal feeding experiments with rats showed a net protein utilisation (NPU) of 68, digestibility (TD) 95 and biological value (BV) 71. The level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the plasma of the children who consumed a supplementary portion of 2 x 100 g of the above infant food product showed an increase after a period of 15 days, while the plasma level of IGF-1 in the children of the control group as well as the reference group did not show any significant increase.

  2. [Body mass index and tri-ponderal mass index of 1,453 healthy non-obese, non-undernourished millennial children. The Barcelona longitudinal growth study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Antonio; Yeste, Diego; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Gussinyé, Miquel; Ferrández, Ángel; Clemente, María; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica

    2018-02-22

    Body mass index-for age (BMI) and tri-ponderal mass index-for-age (TMI) values of healthy non-underweight, non-obese millennial children have not been reported until now. We aimed to obtain these values. Longitudinal growth study (1995-2017) of 1,453 healthy non-underweight, non-obese millennial children, from birth (n = 477) or from 4 years of age (n = 976) to 18 years in girls and 19 years in boys (25,851 anthropometric measurements). In each sex, mean BMI-for-age values increased from birth to one year, declined until 5and increased from then onwards. Mean TMI-for-age values decreased abruptly during the first 6years of age and slowly thereafter, in both sexes. Although, at some ages, mean BMI-for age values differed statistically between sexes, differences were scant and of poor clinical significance. The same occurred for TMI-for-age values. BMI-for-age cut-off values to define underweight status (-2 SD) were similar to those proposed by Cole and the WHO for both sexes. However, BMI-for-age cut-off values to define obesity (+2 SD) were lower in both sexes (1.0-5.3) than those proposed by Cole and similar to those proposed by the WHO until 12 in girls and 14 in boys and lower (1.0-4.8) from these ages onwards. BMI-for-age and TMI-for-age values of healthy non-underweight, non-obese millennial children are provided. No clinically relevant differences were observed between sexes. These values may be used to measure underweight status and obesity in present pediatric populations and to evaluate the relationship between BMI-for-age and TMI-for-age in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Inclusion in Jamaican Primary Schools: Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Attitudes, and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms, Jillian Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Inclusive education has become an international phenomenon; however, many developing countries struggle with its implementation. At last assessment of the Jamaican educational system in 2004, findings revealed exclusionary practices which are in contrast to international standards on education. Many children with special needs may not be receiving…

  4. ‘Urmitella timonensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., ‘Blautia marasmi’ sp. nov., ‘Lachnoclostridium pacaense’ sp. nov., ‘Bacillus marasmi’ sp. nov. and ‘Anaerotruncus rubiinfantis’ sp. nov., isolated from stool samples of undernourished African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-P.-T. Pham

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here the main characteristics of five new species ‘Urmitella timonensis’ strain Marseille-P2918T (CSUR P2918, ‘Blautia marasmi’ strain Marseille-P2377T (CSUR P2377, ‘Lachnoclostridium pacaense’ strain Marseille-P3100T (CSUR P3100, ‘Bacillus marasmi’ strain Marseille-P3556T (CSUR P3556 and ‘Anaerotruncus rubiinfantis’ strain MT15T (CSUR P2276, which were isolated recently from stool samples taken from undernourished children in Niger and Senegal using microbial culturomics.

  5. Evaluation of the impact of a nutritional program for undernourished children in Brazil Avaliação do impacto de um programa de suplementação alimentar para crianças desnutridas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná S. Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effectiveness on child growth and body composition of a supplementary feeding program (Milk Supplement Program, a prospective, controlled study was conducted in Northeast Brazil. When entering the Program, children from 10 municipalities with the highest coverage rates in the Program (intervention group were compared to non-beneficiary children from 10 municipalities with the lowest coverage rates (control group. A total of 219 children aged 6-18 months were enrolled. At entry, both groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, and nutritional status. There were frequent gaps in delivery of the supplement, no extra milk was provided to siblings less than 5 years of age, intra-household redistribution of milk was high, and maternal compliance with recommendations was low. Adjusted analyses by multilevel modelling showed average changes in weight, length, weight-age and length-age Z-scores, and % body water (deuterium method, at 6 months, of 1.53kg, 6.34cm, 0.33, 0.05, and 1.11% respectively among supplemented children as compared to 1.54kg, 6.5cm, 0.26, 0.07, and 4.10% among controls, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Thus, the Program failed to compensate for nutritional deficiencies in undernourished children in Northeast Brazil.Um estudo prospectivo, controlado foi realizado no Nordeste do Brasil para avaliar a efetividade de um programa de suplementação alimentar (Programa do Leite sobre crescimento infantil e composição corporal. Ao ingressar no programa, crianças de dez municípios com as maiores taxas de cobertura do programa (intervenção foram comparadas a crianças não-beneficiárias de dez municípios com as menores taxas de cobertura (controle. Um total de 219 crianças de 6-18 meses de idade foram arroladas. Ao entrar no estudo, ambos os grupos eram comparáveis quanto a sexo, idade e estado nutricional. Houve freqüentes falhas na entrega do suplemento, não foi fornecido leite para os

  6. Job satisfaction of Jamaican elementary school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers-Jenkinson, Fay; Chapman, David W.

    1990-09-01

    This study investigated correlates of job satisfaction among public (N=190) and private (N=100) Jamaican elementary school teachers. Emphasis was on the identification of factors that could be affected through administrative intervention. Results indicated that the quality of school working conditions and respondents' relationships with other teachers were significantly related to satisfaction for both public and private school teachers. School prestige and parental encouragement were also significant predictors for public school teachers; leadership style, organizational structure, and teacher-parent relationships predicted job satisfaction for private school teachers. Implications of these findings for Jamaican education are discussed.

  7. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats

    OpenAIRE

    de Queiroz, Camila AA; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves C; Frota, Priscila B; Figueiredo, Ítalo L; Aragão, Karoline S; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C; de Carvalho, Cibele BM; Lima, Aldo Ângelo M; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Guerrant, Richard L; Moore, Sean R; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    Background WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc’s anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Methods Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Br...

  8. Testosterone and Jamaican Fathers : Exploring Links to Relationship Dynamics and Paternal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Reece, Jody; Coore-Desai, Charlene; Dinall, Twana; Pellington, Sydonnie; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates relationships between men's testosterone and family life in a sample of approximately 350 Jamaican fathers of children 18-24 months of age. The study recognizes the role of testosterone as a proximate mechanism coordinating and reflecting male life history allocations within specific family and cultural contexts. A sample of Jamaican fathers and/or father figures reported to an assessment center for an interview based on a standardized questionnaire and provided a saliva sample for measuring testosterone level. Outcomes measured include subject demographics such as age and relationship status as well as partnership quality and sexuality and paternal attitudes and behavior. The variation in these fathers' relationship status (e.g., married co-residential fathers, fathers in new non-residential relationships) was not associated with men's testosterone. Too few stepfathers participated to enable a direct test of the prediction that stepfathers would have higher testosterone than biological fathers, although fathers who reported living with partners' (but not his own) children did not have higher testosterone than fathers not reporting residing with a non-biological child. Fathers' relationship quality was negatively related to their testosterone. Measures of paternal attitudes and behavior were not related to fathers' testosterone. Consistent with previous ethnography, this sample of Jamaican fathers exhibited variable life history profiles, including residential status. We discuss why fathers' relationship quality was found to be negatively related to their testosterone level, but other predictions were not upheld.

  9. Jamaican child-rearing practices: the role of corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E; Mosby, Gail

    2003-01-01

    The family is the most prominent social group that exists. It prepares its members for the various roles they will perform in society. Yet, the literature has unequivocally singled out the family as the most violent social group, with parental violence against children being the most prevalent type of family violence. While societies like the United States, Japan, and Sweden have taken a hard line on physical punishment and shifted to a gentler approach to discipline, harsh disciplining of children persists elsewhere. In the Caribbean, and Jamaica in particular, child-rearing and disciplinary practices that would warrant child abuse charges in other Western societies are rampant. This article examines the child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. It also examines the plausibility of the assumption that the harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for the current social problems of that island nation. We recommend approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and societal practices that compromise children's development and well-being.

  10. Corn-Soy-Blend Fortified with Phosphorus to Prevent Refeeding Hypophosphatemia in Undernourished Piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hother, Anne-Louise; Lykke, Mikkel; Martinussen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    product (CSB+) and a product further fortified with skim milk powder (CBS++). Methods Using a piglet model of undernourished children, we hypothesized that feeding of CSB+, CSB++ or CSB+ with added whey permeate (CSB+/wp) would help to prevent refeeding hypophosphatemia. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age...... in the CSB++ and CSB+/wp pigs were able to maintain their plasma phosphate at a similar level as before refeeding. Conclusion We conclude that fortification of CSB with only monocalcium-phosphate does not prevent hypophosphatemia. Dairy products like skim milk powder or whey permeate may represent relevant...

  11. An Exploration of Jamaican Mothers’ Perceptions of Closeness and Intimacy in the Mother–Child Relationship during Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniesha Burke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on Jamaican mother–child relationships has had a limited focus on authoritarian parenting styles and selected discipline practices such as corporal punishment. This study examined Jamaican mothers’ experiences of closeness and connectedness with their children to provide a holistic perspective on Jamaican-parent–child relationships. Thirty mothers (17 middle class and 13 lower class living in Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica, participated in a 1-h to 1.5-h semi-structured, open-ended interview regarding their 8- to 12-year-old children. Thematic analyses indicated that mothers experienced closeness through intimate interactions (e.g., shared projects, shared physical affection, mutuality, and child self-disclosure and parent–child nurturance. Both mothers and children were active in creating contexts for closeness. Mothers also reported experiences that temporarily damaged their connection with their children. The findings suggest that the construct of parent–child intimacy may be useful in teasing out the psychological meanings and interpersonal processes of parent–child relatedness in cultural research.

  12. An Exploration of Jamaican Mothers’ Perceptions of Closeness and Intimacy in the Mother–Child Relationship during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taniesha; Kuczynski, Leon; Perren, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Research on Jamaican mother–child relationships has had a limited focus on authoritarian parenting styles and selected discipline practices such as corporal punishment. This study examined Jamaican mothers’ experiences of closeness and connectedness with their children to provide a holistic perspective on Jamaican-parent–child relationships. Thirty mothers (17 middle class and 13 lower class) living in Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica, participated in a 1-h to 1.5-h semi-structured, open-ended interview regarding their 8- to 12-year-old children. Thematic analyses indicated that mothers experienced closeness through intimate interactions (e.g., shared projects, shared physical affection, mutuality, and child self-disclosure) and parent–child nurturance. Both mothers and children were active in creating contexts for closeness. Mothers also reported experiences that temporarily damaged their connection with their children. The findings suggest that the construct of parent–child intimacy may be useful in teasing out the psychological meanings and interpersonal processes of parent–child relatedness in cultural research. PMID:29312035

  13. An Exploration of Jamaican Mothers' Perceptions of Closeness and Intimacy in the Mother-Child Relationship during Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Taniesha; Kuczynski, Leon; Perren, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Research on Jamaican mother-child relationships has had a limited focus on authoritarian parenting styles and selected discipline practices such as corporal punishment. This study examined Jamaican mothers' experiences of closeness and connectedness with their children to provide a holistic perspective on Jamaican-parent-child relationships. Thirty mothers (17 middle class and 13 lower class) living in Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica, participated in a 1-h to 1.5-h semi-structured, open-ended interview regarding their 8- to 12-year-old children. Thematic analyses indicated that mothers experienced closeness through intimate interactions (e.g., shared projects, shared physical affection, mutuality, and child self-disclosure) and parent-child nurturance. Both mothers and children were active in creating contexts for closeness. Mothers also reported experiences that temporarily damaged their connection with their children. The findings suggest that the construct of parent-child intimacy may be useful in teasing out the psychological meanings and interpersonal processes of parent-child relatedness in cultural research.

  14. Gut bacteria that prevent growth impairments transmitted by microbiota from malnourished children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undernourished children exhibit impaired development of their gut microbiota. Transplanting microbiota from 6- and 18-month-old healthy or undernourished Malawian donors into young germ-free mice that were fed a Malawian diet revealed that immature microbiota from undernourished infants and children...

  15. Recuperação nutricional de crianças desnutridas e em risco nutricional em programa de suplementação alimentar no Município de Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brasil Nutritional rehabilitation of undernourished and nutritionally at-risk children admitted to a supplementary food program in Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Monteiro Goulart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a recuperação nutricional de crianças inscritas no programa Incentivo ao Combate às Carências Nutricionais (ICCN no Município de Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brasil. Foram estudadas 724 crianças de 6 a 24 meses inscritas no ICCN, no período de julho de 1999 a julho de 2001. Para avaliar o estado nutricional inicial, utilizaram-se os índices peso/idade, peso/comprimento e comprimento/idade, sendo considerada eutrófica crianças com escore z > -1; em risco > -2 e -3 e desnutrida grave This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional rehabilitation of undernourished children admitted to a program entitled Incentives to Fight Nutritional Deficiencies (ICCN in Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brazil. The study included 724 children (6 to 24 months old from July 1999 to July 2001. The indices used to evaluate baseline nutritional status were weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and length-for-age, defining normal as z score > -1, at-risk as > -2 and -3, and severe malnutrition as < -3. Nutritional evolution was evaluated using the length-for-age index, and the results were analyzed considering the average z score variation at the end of the 12-month program. After 12 months, nutritional status had improved in all categories, while the best results were in children with more intense baseline nutritional deficiency. Gains in length were 1.12, 0.82, 0.57, and 0.45 z scores for the severe and moderate malnutrition, nutritional risk, and normal categories, respectively. The ICCN in Mogi das Cruzes thus demonstrated effective nutritional improvement for program beneficiaries.

  16. Does school breakfast benefit children's educational performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, L; Ani, C C; Grantham-mcgregor, S

    1997-09-01

    This article reviews several research studies on the impact of the lack of breakfast among students. Recent data reveal that about 20% of Nigerian children were wasted or had weight-for-height measurements under the 5th percentile of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard. In Ghana, 41% of children were underweight or had a weight-for-age under -2 standard deviations of the NCHS standards. In Tanzania, about 34% of children were underweight. Many more students in Africa are attending school, but many are leaving primary school early or failing secondary school examinations. It is argued that poor nutritional status affects children's ability to learn. Research reveals several hypotheses about how breakfast affects children's cognition, behavior, and school performance. Children may not attend school at all due to the inability to purchase food to eat at school, or insufficient food resources at home to provide sufficient energy to walk long distances to school. In four studies, two in the USA and the others in Peru and Jamaica, findings reveal that when undernourished children missed breakfast, they performed worse in tests of cognition. Adequately nourished children's performance was unaffected by missing breakfast. A study in four Jamaican schools found that children had more creative ideas when they received a breakfast for 2 weeks than when they did not receive breakfast. Two Swedish studies found that children with a high-calorie breakfast improved in cognition compared to those receiving a low-calorie breakfast. One study found that children in well-equipped classrooms paid more attention in class after having breakfast. Children in overcrowded classes and poorly equipped schools were less likely to pay attention after breakfast. Long-term effects are less well studied, but findings clearly support the benefits of breakfast.

  17. Representações sociais da equipe de enfermagem sobre a criança desnutrida e sua família Representaciones sociales del equipo de enfermeros sobre el niño desnutrido y su familia Social representations of a nursing team about undernourished children and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Ciampone

    1999-07-01

    in nursing practice with the undernourished children and their families. Our objectives were: to understand the social representations of the nursing team about undernourished children and their families and to analyze how these representations can interfere in the process of taking care. Based on qualitative research principles, authors adopted the social representations theoretical method. For data collection and analysis, authors used the projective techniques and speech subject analysis, respectively. Results showed an innocent conception by nursing professionals, that reproduces in the practical field a strong moral code and hygienic habits to the family and it does not propitiate the formation of a critical conscience about their citizenship rights.

  18. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Camila A A; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves C; Frota, Priscila B; Figueiredo, Italo L; Aragão, Karoline S; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C; de Carvalho, Cibele B M; Lima, Aldo Ângelo M; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Guerrant, Richard L; Moore, Sean R; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2014-08-05

    WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc's anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Brazil regional diet (RBD) for two weeks, followed by oral gavage with a saturated lactose solution (30 g/kg) in the last 7 days to induce osmotic diarrhea. Animals were checked for diarrhea daily after lactose intake. Blood was drawn in order to measure serum zinc levels by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were euthanized to harvest jejunal tissue for histology and cytokine profiles by ELISA. In a subset of animals, spleen samples were harvested under aseptic conditions to quantify bacterial translocation. Oral zinc supplementation increased serum zinc levels following lactose-induced osmotic diarrhea. In undernourished rats, zinc improved weight gain following osmotic diarrhea and significantly reduced diarrheal scores by the third day of lactose intake (p diarrhea and undernutrition and support the use of zinc to prevent the vicious cycle of malnutrition and diarrhea.

  19. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  20. Where Do Jamaican Adolescents Turn for Psychological Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dahra Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stigma about mental health is a significant problem in Jamaica and the wider English-speaking Caribbean. In general, negative attitudes and opinions about mental illness have been found to negatively impact psychological help-seeking among several populations. Objective: This study examined Jamaican adolescents' preferential sources of…

  1. The Acquisition of Jamaican Creole: Null Subject Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisser, Tamirand Nnena; Durrleman, Stephanie; Rizzi, Luigi; Shlonsky, Ur

    2016-01-01

    This article provides the first systematic analysis of early subject omission in a creole language. Basing our analysis on a longitudinal corpus of natural production of Jamaican Creole (JC), we observe that early subject drop is robustly attested for several months. Early subject omission is basically confined to the clause initial position,…

  2. "Schooling Is Fooling": Why Do Jamaican Boys Underachieve in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Odette

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways in which females, as pupils and teachers, are linked, in teachers' accounts, to the educational underachievement of Jamaican boys. Interviews with 47 teachers reveal the crucial role sex/gender identity plays in educational failure. Additionally problematic is the lack of male role models. (GR)

  3. Premature exfoliation of the teeth in a hypocalcemic undernourished African girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aliyu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature exfoliation of the primary dentition is a rare phenomenon which may be associated with local disorders of the teeth and systemic diseases; however its association with hypocalcemia and malnutrition is uncommon. Nutritional rickets occurs mostly in developing countries despite some of these countries being sunny. Therefore, emphasis is now shifting toward the role of hypocalcemia as the predominant cause of nutritional rickets. Rickets is often described as a disease of growing bones; hence, it should ordinarily not be seen in malnourished children. This, however, has been refuted over the years. Therefore, a case of an undernourished hypocalcemic Nigerian child is reported who presented with premature exfoliation of the central lower incisors with delayed eruption of other primary dentition.

  4. Growth of children receiving a dehydrated potato-soy protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rations distributed by food aid programs are intended to improve the growth of undernourished children. In practice, food programs target individual children and provide a supplement to the family that is intended to increase the energy and nutrient intake of undernourished children. Multiple food rations are available yet ...

  5. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

  6. Creating a Digital Jamaican Sign Language Dictionary: A R2D2 Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Gregory; Soutar, Iris

    2015-01-01

    The Jamaican Association for the Deaf, in their responsibilities to oversee education for individuals who are deaf in Jamaica, has demonstrated an urgent need for a dictionary that assists students, educators, and parents with the practical use of "Jamaican Sign Language." While paper versions of a preliminary resource have been explored…

  7. Versions, Dubs and Riddims: Dub and the Transient Dynamics of Jamaican Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vendryes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dub emerged in Jamaica in the early 1970s, and, for a decade, it became a prolific and intensely innovative dimension of Jamaican popular music. Yet, during the mid-1980s, while dub flourished at the international level, influencing popular music in general, the genre of dub declined in popularity in Jamaica. How could this musical innovation, so evidently associated with Jamaica, expand and develop internationally while at the same time decline in Jamaica itself? In this paper, I explore the modalities and evolution of Jamaican music production and consumption. Through a description of the Jamaican music industry context, with reference to individual artists’ paths and a summary of Jamaican dub production, I show that even as the Jamaican music milieu was highly favorable to the emergence of dub, dub proliferated as a genre only by developing ties to a diaspora of international audiences and practitioners.

  8. Occupational stress, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K V; Smith, A P

    2016-08-01

    Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction. Police officers from the Jamaican police force completed a questionnaire using a cross-sectional design. We analysed the data using hierarchical regression. The study group consisted of 134 police officers; the response rate was 94%. Negative work characteristics, lower levels of positive work factors and work support and emotion-focused coping styles were associated with increased levels of depression (F(8, 125) = 7.465, P health outcomes was mediated by perceived stress. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between positive work characteristics and depression. Stress management and intervention programmes should address modifiable work conditions, monitor stress levels and reduce maladaptive coping. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  9. Interpersonal competence and sex risk behaviours among Jamaican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman-Mills, S; Carpenter, K

    2013-01-01

    Of particular public health concern to the Jamaican authorities is the consistently high numbers of new HIV infections among adolescents and young adults. The thrust in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns has largely been toward an increase in knowledge and attitudes as opposed to personality variables. However, it is widely believed that persons with high interpersonal skills may be less likely to engage in sex risk behaviours. This study investigated interpersonal competence as a personality characteristic associated with sexual risk-taking among Jamaican adolescents. A cross-sectional survey of 500 adolescents, ages 13-18 years (250 males and 250 females) from nine randomly selected secondary government schools within Kingston and St Andrew was used. The sample ensured maximum variation in age groups. The BarOn EQ-i:YV(S) was utilized to provide a measure of interpersonal competence and the Sex Risk Scale from the Adolescent Risk Inventory acted as a measure of sex risk behaviours. The Spearman's rho correlational statistic was used to investigate the hypothesis. Of the students surveyed, 58.6% reported that they were sexually active; 31.8% reported having multiple sexual partners and 28.2% reporting inconsistent condom use. A significant, inverse relationship was observed between interpersonal competence and sex risk behaviours (p adolescents with high interpersonal skills are less likely to participate in risky sexual behaviours. Therefore, interventions aimed at reducing risky adolescent sexual practices might benefit from the inclusion of strategies to build interpersonal skills.

  10. A metabolomics approach to evaluate the effects of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) treatment in undernourished young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molz, Patrícia [Nutrition Course, Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Ellwanger, Joel Henrique [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Eliete Iochims dos Santos, Carla; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Campos, Deivis de [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio [Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Prá, Daniel [Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Putzke, Marisa Terezinha Lopes [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech, E-mail: silviafr@unisc.br [Nutrition Course, Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Undernourishment is characterized by a decrease of the metabolic rate as a result of lack of nutrients important to life. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) can be an alternative to reverse undernourishment. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolic changes and consequent elemental concentrations found in undernourished rats and undernourished rats treated with shiitake mushroom (n = 12 rats each group). To determine the elemental concentration, blood samples were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). For metabolomics, blood samples were tested under Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that the supplementation with shiitake mushroom in undernourished rats altered the composition of blood proteins, elements and volume. Several strong correlations were observed between the elemental concentrations and metabolic parameters.

  11. A cultural heuristic approach to the study of Jamaican undergraduate students' achievement motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Karen E; Zusho, Akane

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually based sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. This mixed-methods study examined why Jamaican undergraduate students are motivated or unmotivated and how this relates to the extant literature on achievement motivation. This study was conducted in two phases and consisted of 175 and 189 Jamaican undergraduate students across phases one and two, respectively. First, a qualitative investigation using open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews explored Jamaican undergraduate students' conceptualization of motivation and the factors that positively or negatively impacted their motivation. The second phase consisted of using prototype theory to capture a hierarchical cognitive representation of Jamaican students' motivation using coded themes derived from phase one of the study. The overall results indicated that personal, cognitive, contextual, and sociocultural factors are important determinants of Jamaican undergraduate students' academic motivation and that sociocultural (e.g., familial, economic, religious) factors appear to play a more critical role in impacting their motivation. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Prevalence of pre- and postpartum depression in Jamaican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Santosh

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal depression during pregnancy has been studied less than depression in postpartum period. The aims of this study were to find out the prevalence of prepartum and postpartum depression and the risk factors associated in a cohort of Afro-Jamaican pregnant women in Jamaica. Methods The Zung self-rating depression scale instrument was administered to 73 healthy pregnant women at 28 weeks gestation and at 6 weeks postpartum for quantitative measurement of depression. Blood samples were collected at 8, 28, 35 weeks gestation and at day 1 and 6 weeks postpartum to study the thyroid status. Results Study demonstrated depression prevalence rates of 56% and 34% during prepartum and postpartum period, respectively. 94% women suffering depression in both periods were single. There were significant variations in both FT3 and TT4 concentrations which increased from week 8 to week 28 prepartum (p th week (p 3, TT4 and TSH there were no significant between group differences in concentrations. The major determinants of postpartum depression were moderate and severe prepartum depression and change in TT4 hormone concentrations. Conclusion High prevalence of depression was found during pre- and postpartum periods. Single mothers, prepartum depression and changes in TT4 were factors found to be significantly associated with postpartum depression.

  13. Phototherapy improves healing of cutaneous wounds in nourished and undernourished Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Meireles, Gyselle Cynthia Silva; de Barros Vieira, Alessandro Leonardo; Almeida, Darcy; Carvalho, Carolina Montagn; dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2004-01-01

    A wound represents the interruption of the continuity of tissue that is followed by damage or cellular death. Wound healing occurs due to a competitive mechanism between the synthesis and lysis of collagen. Any factor that increases collagen lysis or reduces its synthesis may result in changes in the healing process, i.e., nutritional deficiencies. Phototherapies have been suggested as an effective method to improve wound healing. This study evaluated, histologically, the differences in the healing of cutaneous wounds in nourished and undernourished rats following laser therapy or illumination by polarized light. Fifty nourished or undernourished Wistar rats had a standardized wound created on the dorsum and were divided into 6 subgroups: Group 1--Control (Standard diet; n=5); Group 2--Control (DBR; n=5); Group 3--Standard diet + laser therapy (lambda635nm; 20J/cm2, n=5; or 40J/cm2, n=5); Group 4--Standard diet + Bioptron (lambda400-2000nm; 20J/cm2, n=5; or 40 J/cm2, n=5); Group 5--DBR + laser therapy (lambda635nm; 20J/cm2, n=5; or 40J/cm2, n=5); Group 6--DBR + Bioptron (lambda400-2000nm; 20J/cm2, n=5; or 40 J/cm2, n=5). The first application of the treatment was carried out immediately after surgery and repeated every 24 h during 7 days. Specimens were routinely processed (wax, cut and stained with H&E and Picrosirius stain) and analyzed under light microscopy. Analysis included re-epithelization, inflammatory infiltrate, and fibroblastic proliferation. Picrosirius stained slides were used to perform descriptive analysis of the collagen fibers. The results showed the best results for nourished and undernourished groups treated with polarized light at a dose of 20J/cm2 and the undernourished groups irradiated with the laser light. It is concluded that the nutritional status influenced the progression of the healing process as well as the quality of the healed tissue and that the use of both modalities of phototherapy resulted in a positive biomodulatory effect in

  14. A theoretical framework of the good health status of Jamaicans: using econometric analysis to model good health status over the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    .052-1.455; rural area:), education (secondary: 95%CI=1.167-1.576; tertiary: 95%CI=1.466-2.820; primary or below: OR=1.00), social support (95%CI=0.745-0.964), gender (95%CI=1.281-1.706), psychological affective conditions (negative affective: 95%CI=0.939-0.980; positive affective: 95%CI:1.047-1.107), number of males in household (95%CI:1.066-1.235), number of children in household (95%CI=1.117-1.266) and previous health status. The study concludes that good health status across the three age cohorts can be modelled using data for Jamaicans. Health status is determined by a number of non-biological factors, and that poor health status is difficult to model as a low proportion of the data was correctly classified. Public health requires research with which to make more informed decisions, which means that this study offers an understanding of Jamaicans as well as young adults; middle aged adults and elderly.

  15. The prevalence of diabetes in a rural population of Jamaican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florey, C du V; McDonald, H; McDonald, J; Miall, W E

    1972-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes, the interrelationship of blood glucose, serum insulin, and lipids, and their relationship to ischemic heart dise ase in a rural Jamaican community were investigated. The people were mo stly of West African descent. Occupations were primarily agricultural w ith much physical labor. Approximately 80% of total claories in their d iet were from carbohydrates. Of 696 25-64 year old persons, a response rate of 77.3% was achieved. The patients, after an overnight fast, drank a 7-oz bottle of Glucola which was the equivalent of a 100 gm glucose load. Electrocardiograms (EKGs), blood pressure readings, a chest X-ray, and skinfold tests for obesity were done. A family history was obtained. Blood and urine specimens were taken before the glucose was given. 1 hour after the glucose was given, blood and urine specimens were also taken. Those with blood glucose of 180 mg% or more were given a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. Of the 525 persons who had the 1-hour test, 23 were found to be glycosuric. Of these, 11 were not shown to be diabetic by the 3-hour glucose test. Of the 502 with negative urines, 34 were positive on blood tests. The rates increased with age, except in the oldest age groups (p less than .05 for males and p less than .001 for females). There was no relationship between the number of live births and the 1-hour blood glucose tests. There was neither increase in the diagnosis of diabetes nor increase in variance with number of children. The known diabetics were fatter and had higher triglycerides than others. Cholesterol was higher in all male diabetics but not in females. Only 2 persons experiencing effort pain had EKG changes. Data from this study indicate that no statistically significant association exists between levels of glycemia and blood pressure or prevalence of cardiovascular disease. The physical fitness acquired from walking and working in a hilly area may be a factor.

  16. Studies on protein turnover and energy expenditure in chronically undernourished adults during stress of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Shetty, P.S.; Reeds, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Chronic undernutrition in man leads to adaptive responses which could reduce the requirements for dietary energy and protein. It is also possible that these adaptive responses, which are economical in nature, could lead to a decreased capacity for combating stress. Undernourished people are more susceptible to infections, and during these stresses, show different patterns of protein and energy metabolism from well-nourished subjects. Animal models have clearly shown a diminished response to tissue injury, in terms of the anabolic acute phase response. It is proposed to study the effect of prior nutritional status on the degree to which an infective stress stimulates the acute phase protein synthesis by the liver. In addition, the supply of amino acids to the liver in conditions of stress could come from the breakdown of body tissue proteins, particularly muscle. It is intended to study muscle protein turnover by the use of 13 C-leucine in undernourished subjects under conditions of stress. Since whole body protein turnover can be measured by two methods, using 15 N-glycine and 13 C-leucine, a comparison of these two methods will initially be made in chronically undernourished subjects. It is also intended to study daily energy expenditure in the subject by an isotopic method, i.e. the appearance of 13 CO 2 in the breath after the administration of 13 C-bicarbonate. (author). 8 refs

  17. Historiographic analysis of the Jamaican 'Shakatani' scotoma from the short stories of Erna Brodber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, F W

    2013-01-01

    To use historiography in the analysis of the fictional writings of a Jamaican novelist to identify aspects of psychopathology of Jamaican people. Each of 12 stories of "The World is a High Hill" by novelist Erna Brodber was assigned an explanatory title and a 'psychic centrality'. A narrative qualitative analysis of the fourteen main themes of each story was created using a Lickert scale, calculating the psychopathological penetrance or weighted significance of each theme. The four main psychic centrality containments that emerged from this analysis were the black/white racial paradox (n = 4, 33%) and the partisan/political paradox (n = 1, 8%), the sexual/duplicity paradox (n = 5, 43%) and the social/spiritual paradox (n = 2, 17%). Five of fourteen themes reached maximal penetrance: family (92%), representation of generations with families (92%), issues of intimacy (92%), sex (75%) and issues of dependency (67%). Seven themes - personal and social conflicts (64%), issues of child development (53%), sexual identity (50%), pregnancy (48%), and political (42%), racial (36%), and religious (33%) conflicts reached moderate penetrance. The two themes of migration (30%) and homosexuality (14%) reached minimal penetrance. The analysis reveals a profound and practical historiographic representation of the contemporary scotoma that currently paralyses many Jamaicans as a product of the enslavement of Africans in the New World, and mirrors the clinical syndrome of personality disorder revealed from contemporary Jamaican medical research.

  18. A Cultural Heuristic Approach to the Study of Jamaican Undergraduate Students' Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Karen E.; Zusho, Akane

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there have been increasing calls to develop a more contextually based sociocultural perspective of achievement motivation. Aim: This mixed-methods study examined why Jamaican undergraduate students are motivated or unmotivated and how this relates to the extant literature on achievement motivation. Sample(s): This…

  19. Using Rap and Jamaican Dance Hall Music in the Secondary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out in a secondary school in the Island of Jamaica. One grade 7 class (n = 20) and one grade 9 class (n = 23) were taught a six-week unit of lessons aimed at facilitating student listening, performing and composing. Rap and Jamaican dance hall music were used as the stimulus for students' rhythmic…

  20. Correlations among Jamaican 12th-Graders' Five Variables and Performance in Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Deen-Paul; Soyibo, Kola

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out if the level of performance of selected Jamaican Grade 12 students on an achievement test on the concept of genetics was satisfactory; if there were statistically significant differences in their performance on the concept linked to their gender, self-esteem, cognitive abilities in biology, school-type and…

  1. Family Violence and Aggression and Their Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Jamaican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…

  2. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Dysfunction in Jamaican Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaby, Antoneal N.; Morgan, Kai A. D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between early traumatic sexualization and later sexual dysfunction in a sample of 100 Jamaican adults while identifying the linkages between age, frequency of abuse, and gender on sexual functioning. Participants were selected via purposive and convenience sampling and divided equally into comparison and…

  3. A Culturometric Exploration of Intrusions of Globalisation on Transnational Identities: The Jamaican Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice BOUFOY-BASTICK

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Trans-national identity is a composite of individual and group identity development, construction and negotiation. It is of importance to the collective and to the individual. Its significance extends from collective national action through its influences on governmental policy to the individual who simply asks, "Who am I?" Globalization and modern labor movements between countries with diasporic populations complicate the already complex rapidly changing interdependencies of cultural-ethnic identities comprising individual and collective trans-national identity. This paper utilizes an instrument for assessing, comparing and tracking the changing composite cultural-ethnic identities of individuals and groups that comprise trans-national identity. The instrument is the Cultural Index (Boufoy-Bastick, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008; a two-item ipsative scale capable of being grounded in each group's definition of their own identity. Jamaican respondents (N=126 participated in a one-on-one Mall interrupt survey to assess the relative contributions of Jamaican, African and Anglo-American cultures to their trans-national identity. Gender and age comparisons, tested for both construct and concurrent validity, showed that Anglo-American culture currently has a significantly smaller impact on Jamaican's collective trans-national identity than do both African and Jamaican cultures. The research is important for monitoring the intrusions of Globalization on the trans-national identities of diasporic communities.

  4. Serum vitamin A levels among malnourished children aged 6 - 59 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control hospital-based descriptive study carried out at the Institute of Child. Health (ICH) Banzazzau, Zaria. Systematic sampling method was adopted to select undernourished children aged 6-59 months for the study. Serum vitamin A level was.

  5. Effect of exogenous melatonin on embryo viability and uterine environment in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M I; Forcada, F; Sosa, C; Casao, A; Sartore, I; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A; Abecia, J A

    2013-09-01

    The effect of exogenous melatonin on embryo viability in undernourished ewes was investigated. At lambing, 24 ewes were treated (+MEL) or not (-MEL) with a melatonin implant. After 45 days, both groups were fed to provide 1.5 (Control, C) or 0.5 (Low, L) times daily maintenance requirements, so that experimental groups were: C-MEL, C+MEL, L-MEL and L+MEL. Ewes were mated (Day 0) and on Day 5 embryos were recovered and classified according to their developmental stage and morphology. Ovaries were used for in vitro fertilization and uterine horns were processed to study progesterone and oestrogen receptor (PR and ERα) expression by inmunohistochemistry. After 21 days, groups L-MEL and L+MEL had an average weight loss of 10kg (Pmelatonin effect was particularly evident in undernourished ewes, increasing both viability (L+MEL: 65%; L-MEL: 25%; Ppregnancy rates (L+MEL: 66.6%; L-MEL: 16.6%; Pmelatonin nor their interaction had a significant effect on the in vitro oocyte development. Melatonin treatment tended to increase the percentage of positive cells to PR in deep glandular epithelium, independently of diet (P=0.09), and the greatest staining intensity of PR was observed in the luminal and superficial glandular epithelia (Pmelatonin implants at lambing during the breeding season improve the viability of embryos recovered from undernourished ewes, although this effect seems not to be mediated at the oocyte competence level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Programming of intermediate metabolism in young lambs affected by late gestational maternal undernourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Sanne; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff

    2007-01-01

    Effects of moderate maternal undernourishment during late gestation on the intermediary metabolism and maturational changes in young lambs were investigated. 20 twin-bearing sheep, bred to two different rams, were randomly allocated the last 6 wk of gestation to either a NORM diet [barley, protein...... wk) programming effects of late prenatal malnutrition on the glucose-insulin homeostasis and metabolism were manifested: LOW lambs had less insulin-secretory capacity, but this was apparently compensated for by increased target tissue sensitivity for insulin, and adipose lipolytic capacity increased...... during fasting. Thereby, glucose may be spared throguh increased lipid oxidationn, but overall energetic efficiency is apparently deteriorated rather than improved....

  7. The Jamaican adolescent: an assessment of knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, H H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of adolescent Jamaicans in a church youth group, regarding HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 45 adolescents from a Jamaican youth group completed a modified version of the AIDS Attitude Scale (AAS). The subjects were assessed for having empathy or avoidance towards people with HIV/AIDS. A focus group discussion after completion of the AAS provided information about the participants' knowledge regarding HIV transmission and self-protection. The adolescents' responses on the AAS indicated strong empathy (4.66) and an overall supportive attitude (+1.77) for people with HIV/AIDS. While the adolescents incorrectly felt that HIV/AIDS was being spread mainly by homosexual encounters in their country, other responses regarding mode of transmission were quite accurate. Since these adolescents were practicing abstinence and the avoidance of drugs and alcohol, they weren't worried about protecting themselves from the transmission of HIV; however, when asked what they would tell their friends outside of the church about HIV protection, most subjects were able to provide accurate information. These findings indicate that Jamaican adolescents actively committed to the teachings of the church are generally knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS and supportive of people with HIV/AIDS. Nurses and other health care professionals working with members of the church youth groups to develop peer educator programs, would have effective role models to help influence the sexual behaviors of their adolescents.

  8. The use of protein hydrolysate improves the protein intestinal absorption in undernourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Coutinho Eridan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients residing in endemic areas for schistosomiasis in Brazil are usually undernourished and when they develop the hepatosplenic clinical form of the disease should usually receive hospital care, many of them being in need of nutritional rehabilitation before specific treatment can be undertaken. In the mouse model, investigations carried out in our laboratory detected a reduced aminoacid uptake in undernourished animals which is aggravated by a superimposed infection with Schistosoma mansoni. However, in well-nourished infected mice no dysfunction occurs. In this study, we tried to improve the absorptive intestinal performance of undernourished mice infected with S. mansoni by feeding them with hydrolysed casein instead of whole casein. The values obtained for the coefficient of protein intestinal absorption (cpia among well-nourished mice were above 90% (either hydrolysed or whole protein. In undernourished infected mice, however, the cpia improved significantly after feeding them with hydrolysed casein, animals reaching values close to those obtained in well-nourished infected mice.

  9. Valuing psychiatric patients' stories: belief in and use of the supernatural in the Jamaican psychiatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl C A B; Carpenter, Karen A; Peltzer, Karl; Weaver, Steve

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine illness presentation and understand how psychiatric patients make meaning of the causes of their mental illnesses. Six Jamaican psychiatric patients were interviewed using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview Schedule. Of the 6, 3 representative case studies were chosen. The hermeneutic phenomenological approach and the common sense model were used in the formulation of patients' explanatory models. Results indicate that psychiatric patients actively conceptualized the causes and resultant treatment of their mental illnesses. Patients' satisfaction and compliance with treatment were dependent on the extent to which practitioners' conceptualization matched their own, as well as practitioners' acknowledgement of patients' concerns about causation, prognosis, and treatment.

  10. Experiences of Jamaican men who have undergone no-scalpel vasectomy at the University of the West Indies

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    Vernon DaCosta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Vernon DaCosta1, Tenaj Lewis1, Sean Wynter1, Loxley Christie1, John Harriott1, Joseph Frederick1, Marvin Reid21University Hospital of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2University of the West Indies, Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Mona, Kingston, JamaicaObjective: The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction and morbidity associated with no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV of men at the University of the West Indies (UWI as well as to determine whether preoperative counseling modulated the reported NSV experience.Methods: A 10-year retrospective cohort study of men undergoing NSV at Hugh Wynter Fertility Management Unit (HWFMU of the University of the West Indies from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008. The demographics of the patients, complications of the procedure, and postoperative follow-up were assessed. Patient satisfaction with the procedure was assessed by a questionnaire.Results: During this period, 82 NSVs were performed. Approximately, 91% of the men are married, 7% single, and 2% divorced. The mean (±SD age of the clients was 39 ± 5.8 years, the procedure was done after siring three (median children (min = 0, max = 7 and 3.3 ± 3.8 years after the last child was born. Ninety-two percent (92.6% reported the experience as good and not associated with any significant pain. There was one failure (1.21% but there were no pregnancies resulting from this case. Follow-up to date has indicated that 96.3% of patients interviewed would recommend this procedure and have no regrets.Conclusion: The complication rate in this study was very low. The experiences of more than 98% of gentlemen who underwent NSV were overwhelmingly positive. Most men reported an improved libido with only a single gentleman regretting his procedure.Keywords: no scalpel vasectomy, Jamaican men, experiences

  11. "Digitize Me": Generating E-Learning Profiles for Media and Communication Students in a Jamaican Tertiary-Level Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-McKoy, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an e-learning profile for a group of media and communication students enrolled in a Jamaican tertiary-level institution in order to make informed decisions most the appropriate [online] learning complement for these students. The objectives sought to determine the e-learning profile of media and…

  12. An Exploratory Study of the Child Disciplinary Practices of Jamaican Immigrant Parents in the United States: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Stephaney S.; Smith, Delores E.; Bryan, Julia A.; Steele, Janeé M.

    2016-01-01

    Jamaican immigrant students are highly represented in U.S. public schools, primarily in regions concentrated throughout the east coast. Many of these students and their families have personal and social concerns that have implications for school counselors. In particular, scholars suggest that among this population, harsh methods of child…

  13. Melatonin improves placental efficiency and birth weight and increases the placental expression of antioxidant enzymes in undernourished pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans G; Hansell, Jeremy A; Raut, Shruti; Giussani, Dino A

    2009-05-01

    Melatonin participates in circadian, seasonal and reproductive physiology. Melatonin also acts as a potent endogenous antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and upregulating antioxidant pathways. The placenta expresses melatonin receptors and melatonin protects against oxidative damage induced in rat placenta by ischemia-reperfusion. One of the most common complications in pregnancy is a reduction in fetal nutrient delivery, which is known to promote oxidative stress. However, whether melatonin protects placental function and fetal development in undernourished pregnancy is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal treatment with melatonin on placental efficiency, fetal growth, birth weight and protein expression of placental oxidative stress markers in undernourished pregnancy. On day 15 of pregnancy, rats were divided into control and undernourished pregnancy (35% reduction in food intake), with and without melatonin treatment (5 microg/mL drinking water). On day 20 of gestation, fetal biometry was carried out, the placenta was weighed and subsequently analyzed by Western blot for xanthine oxidase, heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and 70, catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1). A separate cohort was allowed to deliver to assess effects on birth weight. Maternal undernutrition led to a fall in placental efficiency, disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation and a reduction in birth weight. Maternal treatment with melatonin in undernourished pregnancy improved placental efficiency and restored birth weight, and it increased the expression of placental Mn-SOD and catalase. The data show that in pregnancy complicated by undernutrition, melatonin may improve placental efficiency and birth weight by upregulating placental antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Transcriptome sequencing and annotation for the Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis.

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    Timothy I Shaw

    Full Text Available The Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis is one of the most common bats in the tropical Americas. It is thought to be a potential reservoir host of Tacaribe virus, an arenavirus closely related to the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses. We performed transcriptome sequencing and annotation from lung, kidney and spleen tissues using 454 and Illumina platforms to develop this species as an animal model. More than 100,000 contigs were assembled, with 25,000 genes that were functionally annotated. Of the remaining unannotated contigs, 80% were found within bat genomes or transcriptomes. Annotated genes are involved in a broad range of activities ranging from cellular metabolism to genome regulation through ncRNAs. Reciprocal BLAST best hits yielded 8,785 sequences that are orthologous to mouse, rat, cattle, horse and human. Species tree analysis of sequences from 2,378 loci was used to achieve 95% bootstrap support for the placement of bat as sister to the clade containing horse, dog, and cattle. Through substitution rate estimation between bat and human, 32 genes were identified with evidence for positive selection. We also identified 466 immune-related genes, which may be useful for studying Tacaribe virus infection of this species. The Jamaican fruit bat transcriptome dataset is a resource that should provide additional candidate markers for studying bat evolution and ecology, and tools for analysis of the host response and pathology of disease.

  15. Dynamic Duos? Jamaican Fruit Bats (Artibeus jamaicensis Do Not Show Prosocial Behavior in a Release Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hoffmaster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Once thought to be uniquely human, prosocial behavior has been observed in a number of species, including vampire bats that engage in costly food-sharing. Another social chiropteran, Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, have been observed to engage in cooperative mate guarding, and thus might be expected to display prosocial behavior as well. However, frugivory and hematophagy diets may impose different selection pressures on prosocial preferences, given that prosocial preferences may depend upon cognitive abilities selected by different ecological constraints. Thus, we assessed whether Jamaican fruit bats would assist a conspecific in an escape paradigm in which a donor could opt to release a recipient from an enclosure. The test apparatus contained two compartments—one of which was equipped with a sensor that, once triggered, released the trap door of the adjacent compartment. Sixty-six exhaustive pairs of 12 bats were tested, with each bat in each role, twice when the recipient was present and twice when absent. Bats decreased their behavior of releasing the trapdoor in both conditions over time, decreasing the behavior slightly more rapidly in the recipient absent condition. Bats did not release the door more often when recipients were present, regardless of the recipient; thus, there was no clear evidence of prosocial behavior.

  16. Lower Body Symmetry and Running Performance in Elite Jamaican Track and Field Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are–on average–significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes. PMID:25401732

  17. Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Trivers

    Full Text Available In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet are-on average-significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes.

  18. Education and employment levels among Jamaican patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Bertilee; Curtis-Downes, Desdemona; Gibson, Roger C

    2013-05-01

    Comparisons between persons with bipolar disorder and those with schizophrenia are not well researched in the Caribbean. To compare the educational and occupational attainments in Jamaicans diagnosed with these two disorders. Data on diagnosis, educational level, type of employment and other basic socio-demographic variables were collected from Jamaican hospital patients who were newly diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Fisher's exact and χ2 tests, as well as binary logistic regression, were used to explore how these characteristics varied according to diagnosis. Statistical significance was taken at p educational attainment than bipolar disorder (p = .022 for educational level attained; p = .026 for completion of secondary school). The majority (87.1%) of the 93 patients included in the analysis had no specific marketable job skills. However, the proportion of persons with bipolar disorder who had such skills was three times the corresponding proportion of persons with schizophrenia. The low educational achievement among persons with schizophrenia makes education a potentially important area for interventions targeted at this group. Because gross deficiencies in job skills were common to both patient groups, improvement in job skill levels is an important goal for persons with either of these disorders.

  19. Gender and age variations in the self-image of Jamaican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D E; Muenchen, R A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. The relatively few studies that have been done regarding self-perceptions of these youth are not only dated but have utilized a unidimensional conceptualization of the self. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire which employs a multidimensional construct of the self was administered to a sample of 174 Jamaican adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M = 15.90 years, SD = 1.21). Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender was found to be significant on one self-image dimension: Morals, while age differences were evident on six dimensions: Social Relationships, Morals, Sexual Attitudes, Mastery of the External World, Vocational and Educational Goals, and Emotional Health. The results in some instances were contrary to those of past research. Discussion focused on cultural socialization and other factors affecting youth in Jamaican society.

  20. Renal and Hepatic Function in Hypercholesterolemic Rats Fed Jamaican Bitter Yam (Dioscorea polygonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoy, Marsha-Lyn; Grant, Kevin; Asemota, Helen; Simon, Oswald; Omoruyi, Felix

    2015-06-01

    We reported that Jamaican bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) has antilipemic potential in rats; however there is limited data on the toxicological profile of the yam. We therefore investigated the effects of bitter yam consumption for 6 or 12 weeks on renal and hepatic function in rats fed a high (4%) cholesterol diet. Twenty four rats were divided into six groups (n = 4); three of which were used for each investigation (6 or 12 weeks). One group was administered 4% cholesterol diet, while the yam group had the cholesterol diet supplemented with 5% bitter yam. The control group was fed standard rat chow. Liver and kidney function tests were performed on serum, liver and kidney. Histological studies were conducted on liver samples. Acute toxicity tests were performed in rats and mice administered a single high dose of bitter yam (10 g/kg). Activities of liver and kidney AST and ALT differed (p ≤ .02) between control rats and those fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 12 weeks. Albumin to globulin ratio was reduced (p = .03) in rats fed cholesterol with bitter yam for 6 weeks as compared to the control group. Serum urea concentration was higher (p < .05) in rats fed bitter yam as compared to normal chow for 6 weeks. The cholesterol diet caused extensive fat deposition in liver cells; however this was inhibited by co-administration of bitter yam. Long-term administration of Jamaican bitter yam may induce slight changes in renal and hepatic functions.

  1. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

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    Karen Pacheco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

  2. Documentation Experiences for Jamaican SLOWPOKE-2 Conversion from HEU to LEU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, T.-A.; Dennis, H.; Antoine, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Jamaican SLOWPOKE–2 (JM–1) is a 20 kW research reactor manufactured by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and has been operating since March 1984, in the department of the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS), at the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus in Kingston, Jamaica. The pool type reactor has been primarily used for Neutron Activation Analysis in environmental, agricultural, geochemical, health-related studies and mineral exploration. The University, assisted by the IAEA under the GTRI/RERTR program, is currently in the process of converting from HEU to LEU. Extensive documentation on policies, general requirements, elements of the conversion quality assurance (QA) system and conversion QA administrative procedures is required for the conversion. The core conversion activities are being carried out in accordance with current international standards and regulatory guidelines of the newly established Jamaican Radiation Safety Authority (RSA) with agreement between the RSA and IAEA or DOE related to Nuclear Safety and Control. The documentation structure has taken into consideration nuclear safety and licensing, LEU fuel design and conversion analysis, LEU fuel procurement and fabrication, removal of HEU fuel and reactor maintenance and conversion and commissioning, with the conversion QA manual at the apex of the structure. To a large extent, the documentation format will adhere to that of the IAEA applicable regulatory standards and guidance documents. The major challenge of the conversion activities, it is envisioned, will come from the absence of any previous regulatory framework in Jamaica; however, a timeline for the process, which includes training and equipping of regulators, will guide operation. (author)

  3. The effect of testosterone and a nutritional supplement on hospital admissions in under-nourished, older people

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    Cameron Ian D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss and under-nutrition are relatively common in older people, and are associated with poor outcomes including increased rates of hospital admissions and death. In a pilot study of 49 undernourished older, community dwelling people we found that daily treatment for one year with a combination of testosterone tablets and a nutritional supplement produced a significant reduction in hospitalizations. We propose a larger, multicentre study to explore and hopefully confirm this exciting, potentially important finding (NHMRC project grant number 627178. Methods/Design One year randomized control trial where subjects are allocated to either oral testosterone undecanoate and high calorie oral nutritional supplement or placebo medication and low calorie oral nutritional supplementation. 200 older community-dwelling, undernourished people [Mini Nutritional Assessment score 2: 7.5% over 3 months]. Hospital admissions, quality-adjusted life years, functional status, nutritional health, muscle strength, body composition and other variables will be assessed. Discussion The pilot study showed that combined treatment with an oral testosterone and a supplement drink was well tolerated and safe, and reduced the number of people hospitalised and duration of hospital admissions in undernourished, community dwelling older people. This is an exciting finding, as it identifies a treatment which may be of substantial benefit to many older people in our community. We now propose to conduct a multi-centre study to test these findings in a substantially larger subject group, and to determine the cost effectiveness of this treatment. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN 12610000356066

  4. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

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    Singh DKA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Devinder KA Singh,1 Zahara A Manaf,2 Noor Aini M Yusoff,3 Nur A Muhammad,2 Mei Fang Phan,1 Suzana Shahar2 1Physiotherapy Program, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Nutrition and Dietetics Program, School of Health Care Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 3ASIA Metropolitan University, Cheras, Malaysia Purpose: The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical ­performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions.Methods: Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63 years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test, biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels, and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered.Results: The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL, and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L. A significant

  5. Increased rates of body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, and suicide attempts in Jamaican teens with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt-Poulose, Komal; James, Kenneth; Reid, Marvin; Harrison, Abigail; Asnani, Monika

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to examine the association of body image and weight perceptions with risk of depression and suicidal attempts in Jamaican adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Adolescents with SCD and a national sample of Jamaican adolescents completed a questionnaire examining body image, weight perceptions, and risk for depression. Perceived and desired body images were similar for both groups. Adolescents with SCD had higher levels of "negative body satisfaction" (43.9% vs. 33.9%; P = 0.03), risk for depression (28.7% vs. 19.3%; P = 0.01), and attempted suicide (12.4% vs. 6.6%; P = 0.02) than national sample. Risk of depression was higher in those who perceived themselves to be over or underweight, and lower in those with more friends and attending school. Females and those with body image dissatisfaction were more likely to have attempted suicide. Within the SCD adolescents, girls were at greater odds of having mental health issues. Jamaican adolescents with SCD have significantly higher rates of negative body satisfaction and depressive symptoms, and nearly twice the rate of attempted suicide, compared with their healthy peers. This underscores the need for healthcare professionals to better explore and discuss healthy weight, body satisfaction, and coping with the demands and uncertainties of having a chronic illness with Jamaican adolescents with SCD, even while promoting body acceptance and good self-esteem. Screening for mood disorders is strongly recommended and gender-specific interventions should be developed. Healthcare professionals need to encourage positive social interactions that improve adolescents' mental health. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Esquistossomose mansônica em camundongos experimentalmente subnutridos Mansoni schistosomiasis in experimentally undernourished mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Magalhães

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo sobre o desenvolvimento da esquistossomose mansônica em camundongos submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica. Foram constituídos 4 grupos de Mus musculus "Swiss" da seguinte forma: 1 não infectados, normoprotéicos; 2 infectados, normoprotéicos; 3 não infectados, hipoprotéicos e 4 infectados, hipoprotéicos. Os animais foram sacrificados com 60 dias de infecção, aos 90 dias de idade. Verificou-se que os esquistossomos sofreram os efeitos da subnutrição do hospedeiro, principalmente os vermes machos, que além de terem seu desenvolvimento prejudicado, tiveram seu número reduzido aproximadamente pela metade. O número de granulomas foi menor nos roedores subnutridos e o tamanho da lesão foi reduzido. Houve acentuada leucopenia nos animais submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica, principalmente nos infectados subnutridos. A linfopenia e a eosinopenia acentuadas sugeriram que o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro foi afetado pela subnutrição. A taxa de mortalidade foi muito mais elevada nos animais infectados submetidos à dieta hipoprotéica. Concluiu-se que os camundongos subnutridos resistiram menos à infecção esquistossomótica apesar de terem apresentado menor número de lesões granulomatosas.Mansoni schistosomiasis was studied in mice fed on a low protein diet. Four groups of the Swiss breed Mus musculus were used in an experiment with two factors, each with two levels: 1-non-infected, normal diet; 2 - infected, normal diet ; 3 - non-infected, low protein diet; 4 - infected, low protein diet. The mice were killed for observation at age 90 days, after 60 days of infection, for those infected. It was found that the worms suffered the effects of malnutrition, mainly males, whose population count was cut by half, in addition to poor individual growth. The hepatic granuloma count was found to be smaller in the undernourished group; while the corresponding lesions were also generally smaller. There was a marked leukopenia in

  7. Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Program of Post-graduation in Clinical and Experimental Physiopathology; Alves, Erika Gomes; Gonzalez, Gabriele Paula; Barbosa, Thais Barcellos Cortez; Lima, Veronica Demarco; Nascimento, Renata; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Saba, Celly Cristina Alves do Nascimento [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. of Physiological Sciences]. E-mail: cellysaba@terra.com.br; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. Materials and methods: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR) compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C). After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy) or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola). Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy) until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean {+-} mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. Results: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results significantly lower in relation to the control group (7% C-soy). However, computed tomography has found significant differences in abdominal fat distribution for the groups 19% FR-soy and 19% FR-canola. Conclusion: Computed tomography has demonstrated that the abdominal fat distribution may be dependent on the type of vegetable oil included in the diet. (author)

  8. Effect of transporting an evidence-based, violence prevention intervention to Jamaican preschools on teacher and class-wide child behaviour: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S

    2018-01-01

    Based on extensive piloting work, we adapted the Incredible Years (IY) teacher-training programme to the Jamaican preschool setting and evaluated this adapted version through a cluster-randomised trial. Twenty-four community preschools in Kingston, Jamaica were randomly assigned to intervention (12 schools, 37 teachers) or control (12 schools, 36 teachers). The intervention involved training teachers in classroom management through eight full-day training workshops and four individual 1-h in-class support sessions. Outcome measurements included direct observation of teachers' positive and negative behaviours to the whole class and to high-risk children and four observer ratings: two measures of class-wide child behaviour and two measures of classroom atmosphere. Measures were repeated at a six-month follow-up. Significant benefits of intervention were found for teachers' positive [effect size (ES) = 3.35] and negative (ES = 1.29) behaviours to the whole class and to high-risk children (positive: ES = 0.83; negative: ES = 0.50) and for observer ratings of class-wide child behaviour (ES = 0.73), child interest and enthusiasm (ES = 0.98), teacher warmth (ES = 2.03) and opportunities provided to share and help (ES = 5.72). At 6-month follow-up, significant benefits of intervention were sustained: positive behaviours (ES = 2.70), negative behaviours (ES = 0.98), child behaviour (ES = 0.50), child interest and enthusiasm (ES = 0.78), teacher warmth (ES = 0.91), opportunities to share and help (ES = 1.42). The adapted IY teacher-training programme produced large benefits to teacher's behaviour and to class-wide measures of children's behaviour, which were sustained at 6-month follow-up. Benefits were of a similar magnitude to those found in a pilot study of the minimally adapted version that required significantly more in-class support for teachers.

  9. [Nutritional condition and serum protein concentration in children (6-12 years old) of Chacopata Sucre State, Venezuela (December--January, 1997)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Solange; García, Andrés Gerardi; Lugo, Raquel Salazar

    2004-01-01

    A biochemical and anthropometrical study of 175 children (6-12 years old) from Chacopata, Sucre State was done (December--January, 1997). The children were evaluated by combined anthropometrical indicators (OMS), clinical, nutritional and biochemical tests. The results showed 81.71% well-nourished children, 4.57% obese children and 13.72% with some degree of undernutrition: 3.43% acute undernourished and 10.29% chronic undernourished. Total seric proteins including fractions: albumin, alfa-1 alfa-2, beta and gamma globulins as well as total globulins and albumin/globulin indexes were at the normal reference range for children (6-12 years old). A significative increase in alfa-1 globulin (0.18+/-0.08 g/dl; 8-9 years old group) and decrease of alfa-2 globulin (0.71+/-0.11 g/dl; 10-12 year old group) was observed. Biochemical results associated with nutritional condition showed normal values, moreover, this biochemical index decreased in the undernourished group. A significant decrease of the seric beta globulin in the undernourished children (0.72+/-0,12 g/dl) with respect to the well-nourished children (0.79+/-0.15) was found. In children (6-12 years old) from Chacopata, compensated chronic undernourishement is prevalent.

  10. [Serum levels of Zn in children with different degress of nutritional deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesty-Valbuena, Alis; Pereira-Medero, Nayda; Núñez-González, José Rafael de Jesús; García, Doris; de Villaroel, Monserrat Vicente; Granadillo, Víctor; Manzanilla, José; Fernández, Denny

    2006-12-01

    The importance of Zinc (Zn) as a necessary oligoclement for human nutrition begins in the first three decades of life. At the moment, the role that Zn plays in the infantile nutrition is very well-known, acquiring a special connotation in children with proteic-energetics malnutrition (PEM). In this study the daily ingestion and the serum measuremets of Zn were determined in 64 undernourished children (light, mild and severe) and in 25 eutrophic children with ages between 1 to 5 years, belonging to families of the strata IV and V according to the Graffar scale corrected by age. The results of the serum values of Zn were for the light undernourished of 39.73 +/- 14.97 microg/dL (30.38 microg/dL-44.56 microg/dL), for the mild undernourished of 35.07 +/- 28.13 microg/dL (27.76 microg/dL-65.80 microg/dL) and for the severe undernourished of 15.48 +/- 10.44 microg/dL (5.57 microg/dL-28.56 microg/dL), which were diminished in relation with the control group, 76.71 +/- 33.29 microg/dL (45.75 microg/dL - 78.27 microg/dL) with p < 0.0001. Equally, there were significant differences (p < 0.001) among the group of severe undernourished with the light undernourished and normal subjects. In relation with the daily ingestion of Zn, a statistically significant difference was observed only (p < 0.001) in the severe undernourished, 1.87 +/- 0.54 mg/día (1.20 mg/día-2.87 mg/día) when comparing them with the light undernourished, 5.48 +/- 0.98 mg/día (3.50 mg/día-7.87 mg/día), the mild undernourished, 4.99 +/- 1.24 mg/día (4.10 mg/día-11.42 mg/día) ) and the normal subjects, 6.22 +/- 0.98 mg/día (4.8 mg/día-8.02 mg/día). There was a positive correlation between ingestion and seric values of Zn when the 3 undernourished groups were studied. These results allow to conclude that both the seric values of Zn and its ingestion show modifications in relation with the degree of nutritional deficiency.

  11. Investigation of essential oil extracts from four native Jamaican species of Bursera for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junor, G O; Porter, R B R; Facey, P C; Yee, T H

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial infection with organisms resistant to antibiotics have increased during the last few decades worldwide. Because of this increase, the authors decided to subject the essential oils from the stem, leaves and fruits of the four native Jamaica species of Bursera to microbial studies. Steam distillate extracts from different parts of four native Jamaican spp of Bursera simaruba (Red Birch), Bursera lunanii (Black Birch), Bursera hollickii and Bursera aromatica (Siboney) were tested for their antibacterial activity against six common pathogens: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylocococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus group A (BHSA) using a disk diffusion assay. The investigation revealed that extracts from two of the four plants tested were active against all the pathogens. These were extracts from the fruits and stems of B. simaruba and those from the fruit of B. lunanii. This study gives credence to the ongoing search for locally available plants whose extracts possess significant antimicrobial activity. This may be useful in the development of naturally derived pharmaceuticals.

  12. Personal Networks and Migration Decision: The Case of Jamaican Brain Drain

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    Rosalyn NEGRÓN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain drain is the phenomena where the most educated citizens of a country migrate to countries with better opportunities. This typically affects developing countries more negatively than developed countries. Given the close proximity to the US and the high standard of education of its citizens, Jamaica tends to be particularly hard hit by this brain drain. In this paper I examine intentions to migrate among skilled and educated Jamaicans. Specifically, I explore to what extent the composition of their personal network affects their decision to migrate. The data set consists of 62 university students, roughly half of who intended to migrate. Data were collected on 40 people that they knew, including information about social support provided by their social networks. The socioeconomic data about respondents did not predict intentions to migrate. However, students at Campion College, a prestigious high school linked to upper middle class status, were significantly more likely to express an interest in migration than students from other schools. Frequency of travel abroad was negatively related to intention to migrate for those that had traveled at least once. The proportion of network members that provided informational and career advice was significantly higher for those that intended to migrate. Implications of these findings for immigration policy in Jamaica and receiving countries are discussed.

  13. Analysis of the Jamaican Slowpoke-2 Research Reactor for the Conversion from HEU to LEU Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, F.; Dennis, Haile T.

    2014-01-01

    The Jamaican SLOWPOKE-2 (JM-1) is a 20 kW research reactor manufactured by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited that has been operating for 30 years at the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus in Kingston, Jamaica. The University, with IAEA assistance under the GTRI/RERTR program, is currently in the process of converting from HEU to LEU. Full-reactor neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses were performed, using MCNP5 and PLTEMP/ANL v4.1 respectively, on both the existing HEU and proposed LEU core configurations. Although conversion will result in the full nominal reactor power increasing from 20 kW to approximately 22 kW, in order to maintain the 1012 n·cm-2 s-1 flux in the inner irradiation channels, and maximum fuel temperature to increase from ~82°C to ~113°C, the analysis illustrates that increased safety margins will be obtained. No significant reactor behavior changes are expected and the characteristic SLOWPOKE-2 reactor inherent safety features will be preserved.

  14. The antihypertensive effects of the Jamaican Cho-Cho (Sechium edule).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, E A; Guppy, L J; Nelson, M

    2000-03-01

    The experiments reported in this study constitute a preliminary investigation into the possible hypotensive effect of the Jamaican Cho-Cho (Sechium edule). Experiments were conducted in a random and blind fashion on two sub species of Sechium edule. Both the pulp and the peel were examined for hypotensive activity. Water-soluble extracts were prepared from these components of the fruit and injected into anaesthetised rats. Various cardiovascular parameters were measured including heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and several ECG intervals. We report that all extracts tested produced a fall in blood pressure with little change in ECG intervals. Extract B produced the least change in heart rate with a fall in MAP of approximately 23 mmHg. Changes in heart rate with all extracts appeared to be minimal as an ED25 value could only be determined for extract A, and ED10 values could not be evaluated for extracts C and D. The mechanism(s) by which these extracts produce their hypotensive effects could not be determined in these preliminary experiments. However, it appears not to involve direct effects on cardiac tissue. This conclusion is based on the finding that it took a minimum of 10 to 15 seconds for the hypotensive action to manifest post bolus. Future experiments will be aimed at delineating the mechanism(s) involved in decreasing MAP.

  15. Age as a predictive factor of mammographic breast density in Jamaican women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Deanne; Reid, Marvin; James, Michael

    2002-06-01

    AIM: We sought to determine the relationship between age, and other clinical characteristics such as parity, oestrogen use, dietary factors and menstrual history on breast density in Jamaican women. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective study was done of 891 patients who attended the breast imaging unit. The clinical characteristics were extracted from the patient records. Mammograms were assessed independently by two radiologists who were blinded to the patient clinical characteristics. Breast densities were assigned using the American College of Radiology (ACR) classification. RESULTS: The concordance between the ACR classification of breast density between the two independent radiologists was 92% with k = 0.76 (SE = 0.02, P < 0.001). Women with low breast density were heavier (81.3 {+-} 15.5 kg vs 68.4 {+-} 14.3 kg,P < 0.0001, mean {+-} standard deviation (SD)) and more obese (body mass index (BMI), 30.3 {+-} 5.8 kg m{sup -2} vs 26.0 {+-} 5.2 kg m{sup -2}, P < 0.0001). Mammographic breast density decreased with age. The age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for predictors significantly related to high breast density were parity, OR = 0.79 (95%CI:0.71, 0.88), weight, OR = 0.92 (95% CI:0.91, 0.95), BMI, OR = 0.83 (95% CI:0.78, 0.89), menopause, OR = 0.51 (95% CI:0.36, 0.74) and a history of previous breast surgery, OR 1.6 (95% CI:1.1, 2.3). CONCLUSION: The rate decline of breast density with age in our population was influenced by parity and body composition. Soares, D. et al. (2002)

  16. Correlates of conflict, power and authority management, aggression and impulse control in the Jamaican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, G; Hickling, F W

    2013-01-01

    The object of this study is to establish the correlates of the phenomenology of conflict and power management in the Jamaican population. A total of 1506 adult individuals were sampled from 2150 households using a stratified sampling method and assessed using the 12 questions of the Jamaica Personality Disorder Inventory (JPDI) on the phenomenology of conflict and power management that are grouped into the psychological features of aggressive social behaviour, unlawful behaviour, socially unacceptable behaviour and financial transgressive behaviour. The database of responses to the demographic and JPDI questionnaires was created and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. Of the national population sampled, 69.1% denied having any phenomenological symptoms of abnormal power management relations while 30.9% of the population admitted to having some degree of conflict and power management, ranging from mild (10.3%), to moderate (17.1), or severe (3.5%). There were 46.55% of the population which had problems with aggressive social behaviour, 9.33% had problems with unlawful behaviour, 9.58% had problems with unacceptable social behaviour and 37.74% had problems with financial transgressive behaviour. Significant gender and socio-economic class patterns for conflict and power management were revealed. This pattern of conflict and power management behaviour is critical in understanding the distinction between normal and abnormal expression of these emotions and actions. Nearly one-third of the sample population ` studied reported problems with conflict, abnormal power and authority management, impulse control and serious aggressive and transgressive behaviour.

  17. A Study of Factors Affecting the Adoption of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by Instructions in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Niccardo S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors affecting the acceptance of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by lnstructors in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions is an important topic that's relevant to not only educational institutions, but developers of software for on line learning. The use of the unified theory of acceptance and use of…

  18. Bullying of Students by Teachers and Peers and Its Effect on the Psychological Well-Being of Students in Jamaican Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Audrey M.; Stair, Angela Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 225 Jamaican university students were asked to recall their bullying experiences at elementary and high schools. Being verbally humiliated, robbed, and beaten were the top three frequently-occurring experiences. Acts of bullying by peers and educators were compared for their impact on students' psychological well being. Educator but…

  19. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M-L; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  20. "Digitize Me": Generating E-Learning Profiles for Media and Communication Students in a Jamaican Tertiary-Level Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Stewart-McKoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to develop an e-learning profile for a group of media and communication students enrolled in a Jamaican tertiary-level institution in order to make informed decisions most the appropriate [online] learning complement for these students. The objectives sought to determine the e-learning profile of media and communication students but more specifically, the profile examined students’ demographic data, their technology access, usage, proficiency and comfort levels as well as their learning styles, preferences, behaviours, strategies and their preferences for specific teaching styles. The research utilised a survey research design and the participants involved in the research were ninety-eight students from all year groups in the programme. Findings reveal that the “typical” media and communication student is a young Jamaican adult with limited technology access, usage and proficiency, who stays connected with others largely by phone texts, phone calls, emails, instant messages and posts via the Facebook social network, who has a visual-learning orientation, is a sequential learner who is extrinsically motivated and who readily employs surface learning strategies.

  1. Acquisition of the Closing Diphthongs /əʊ/ and /eɪ/ in English L2 and Jamaican Creole

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    Ahmed Mousa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the claim that the strategies used by second/foreign language learners are, more or less, the same as those used by speakers of pidgin/creole languages. To this end, the speech of two speakers of the well-known Broad Jamaican Creole is compared with the performance of Saudi learners of English, with respect to the pronunciation of the closing diphthongs /əʊ/ and /eɪ/. The results show that the above claim is valid. Also, the behavior of the two groups corroborates that of child language, which will be taken as external evidence that adds to the existent literature of the logical problem of language learning. The behavior of the speakers in the three domains (i.e., L1, L2, and pidgin/creole languages goes hand in hand with norms of historical change. That is, the two diphthongs have historically developed from the monophthongs used as substitutes. In addition, the centrality component in these diphthongs is a marked parameter, which is yet to be set before they could be mastered. The substitutes made by the speakers of Jamaican Creole and by Arab learners are the same chosen by the child.

  2. The upper arm muscle and fat area of Santal children: an evaluation of nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sutanu Dutta; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the growth pattern of upper arm muscle area (UAMA), upper arm fat area (UAFA) and upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) and assessment of magnitude of undernutrition on the basis of these parameters in Santal children. UAMA and UAFA of 890 (473 boys and 417 girls) Santal children aged 5-12 years were calculated from mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skinfold. Growth curves of UAFA-for-age and UAMA by height in Santal boys and girls are placed at lower level of reference curve indicating severe undernutrition. The growth curves of UAMA-for-age in Santal children of both sexes do not indicate severe undernutrition. 17.13% Santal boys and 20.63% girls were truly undernourished on the basis of three Z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and UAMAH of each subject. Santal children have more UAMA and less UAFA compared to similar undernourished children of Sugalis. Growth curves of UAFA-for-age and UAMA by height are good indicators of nutritional status in Santal children. UAMA and UAFA may not be similarly affected in undernourished children of every community. A comprehensive approach to identify the truly undernourished child has been suggested from this study.

  3. Association Between Body Weight at Weaning and Remodeling in the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adult Mice With Undernourishment In Utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmura, Yukiko Kobayashi; Kanayama, Naohiro; Muramatsu, Keiko; Tamura, Naoaki; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazunao; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Aoe, Seiichiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Suganami, Takayoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth in infancy considerably increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood especially among neonates born small. To investigate the mechanism involved, we developed an animal model of undernourishment in utero by maternal caloric restriction, in which the Z scores of body weight at weaning (19.5 days) positively correlated with parameters of obesity, metabolic disorders, and remodeling of subcutaneous adipose tissue, such as numbers of macrophages in adipose tissue, the ratio of inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, estimated by gene expression of specific antigens, and the relative ratio of small adipocytes less than 30 μm in diameter, on a high-fat diet at 17 weeks of age. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible connection between infantile body weight and adipose tissue remodeling in obesity after undernourishment in utero. PMID:23296035

  4. Inflammation polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk in Jamaican men: Role of obesity/body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Bhawna; Jackson, Maria D; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Devarajan, Karthik; Flores-Obando, Rafael E; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Aiken, William; Kimbro, Kevin; Jones, Dominique Z; Kidd, LaCreis R; Ragin, Camille

    2017-12-15

    African ancestry and obesity are associated with higher risk of prostate cancer (PC). In a pilot study, we explored interactions between obesity (as measured by waist to hip ratio (WHR)) and inflammatory SNPs in relation to PC risk among Jamaican men. This study evaluated 87 chemokine and cytokine associated SNPs in obese and normal weight cases (N=109) and controls (N=102) using a stepwise penalized logistic regression approach in multivariable analyses. Upon stratification by WHR (normal weight (WHRobese (WHR≥0.90)), inheritance of CCR6 rs2023305 AG+GG (OR=1.75, p=0.007), CCR9 rs7613548 AG+GG (OR=1.71, p=0.012) and IL10ra rs2229113 AG+GG (OR=1.45, p=0.01) genotypes was associated with increase in overall or low grade (Gleason scoremen. These odds were elevated among obese men who possessed the CCR5 rs1799987 AG+GG (OR=1.95, p=0.003) and RNASEL rs12135247 CT+TT genotypes (OR=1.59, p=0.05). CCR7 rs3136685 AG+GG (p=0.032) was associated with a 1.52-1.70 fold increase in the risk of high grade cancer (Gleason score≥7) among obese men. CCR7 variant emerged as an important factor associated with high grade PC risk among obese men in our analyses. Overall, genetic loci found significant in normal weight men were not significant in obese men and vice-versa, partially explaining the role of obesity on PC risk among black men. Also, older age was an important risk factor both in normal weight and obese men but only with regard to low grade PC. Associations of inflammatory SNPs with obesity are suggestive and require further validation in larger cohorts to help develop an understanding of PC risk among obese and non-obese men of African descent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Guía de atención integral al paciente desnutrido en el Servicio de Urgencias Guide of comprehensive care to undernourished patient at an emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Rodolfo Alfonso Novo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se define una estrategia secuencial de conductas con el niño desnutrido que acude al Servicio de Urgencia del policlínico o del hospital. Esta estrategia está basada en la necesidad de estandarizar la atención al paciente que es remitido por el Médico de Familia al escalón superior de atención de salud y que es recibido de inicio por un personal médico y paramédico en un servicio de urgencias. Se hace muy necesario elevar el conocimiento y el nivel de desempeño respecto a este tipo de paciente, cuyo seguimiento es en extremo importante, ya que de él depende en muchos casos el pronóstico de vida. La aplicación consecuente de esta atención integral asegura la buena evolución del paciente. Se concluye en que el desnutrido, por sus características muy especiales, necesita una atención de emergencia de elevada calidad que consiga la disminución del riesgo de morbilidad y mortalidad.This paper described a sequential strategy of behaviours that should be followed in the case of an undernourished child that goes to the Emergency Service at the polyclinics or hospital. This strategy is based on the need of standardizing the care to a patient who has been referred by the family physician to the upper level of health care and initially received by a medical and paramedical staff in an emergency room. It is indispensable to raise the level of knowledge and performance in treating this kind of patient whose follow-up is extremely important, since most of the time life prognosis depends on it. The implementation of this comprehensive care assures the good course of recovery of the patient. It was concluded that the undernourished children, because of their very special characteristics, need a high quality care at the emergency service that leads to reduction in morbidity and mortality risks.

  6. Gestational Undernourishment Modifies the Composition of Skeletal Muscle Transverse Tubule Membranes and the Mechanical Properties of Muscles in Newborn Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tonathiu Ramírez-Oseguera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Skeletal muscle (SM constitutes more than 40% of the body weight in adulthood. Transports dietary glucose mainly through the insulin-dependent glucose transporter (Glut-4 located in the Transverse tubule membrane system (TT. The TT development ends shortly after birth. The TT membrane hosts the proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling and glucose uptake. Glycaemic regulation through movement is a key function of fully developed skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to characterize the effect of gestational undernourishment (GUN in rats GLUT-4 expression and on the protein/lipid content of the TT membranes. We also examined the effect of GUN on the mechanical properties of muscles as an indication of the metabolic condition of the SM at birth. Methods: Isolated TT membrane from SM of GUN rats were used to study lipid/protein content and protein stability by differential scanning calorimetry. The effect of GUN on the SM mechanical properties was determined in isolated Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscle. Results: We demonstrate that compared to control, GUN in the new-born produces; i decreases body weight; ii diminution in SM mass; iii decreases the formation of TT membranes; iv expresses TT membrane proteins with higher thermal stability. The TT membrane expression of GLUT-4 in GUN offspring was twice that of controls. The isolated EDL of GUN offspring was 20% stronger as measured by contractile force and more resistant to fatigue relative to controls. Conclusion; These results provide the first evidence of adaptive changes of the SM in new-borns exposed to severe gestational food restriction. The effects of GUN on muscle at birth are the first step toward detrimental SM metabolic function, contributing to the physiopathology of metabolic diseases in adulthood.

  7. Reported Hours of Sleep, Diabetes Prevalence and Glucose Control in Jamaican Adults: Analysis from the Jamaica Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008

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    Chisa G. Cumberbatch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are limited data on sleep duration and diabetes from developing countries. We therefore examined the relationship between reported hours of sleep, diabetes prevalence and glucose control in Jamaican adults. Methods. Data on reported hours of sleep and diabetes (based on glucose measurement and medication use from a national survey of 15–74-year-old Jamaicans were analyzed. Results. The 2,432 participants (31% M, Age 42±16 years, BMI 27.6±6.6 kg/m2, diabetes prevalence 12% reported sleeping 8.2±1.8 hours. In men, sleeping less than 6 hours (OR (95% CI = 2.65 (1.09–6.48 or more than 10 hours (OR (95% CI = 4.36 (1.56–12.19 was associated with diabetes when adjusted for age, BMI, and family history of diabetes. In women sleeping less than 6 hours was associated with a reduced likelihood of diabetes after adjusting for the same confounders ((OR (95% CI = 0.43 (0.23–0.78. There was no significant association between sleep and glucose control. Conclusion. Insufficient and excessive sleep was associated with increased diabetes prevalence in Jamaican men but not women.

  8. Morphological aspects of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from nourished and undernourished mice: a comparative analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy

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    Neves Renata Heisler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition hampers the course of schistosomiasis mansoni infection just as normal growth of adult worms. A comparative morphometric study on adult specimens (male and female recovered from undernourished (fed with a low protein diet - regional basic diet and nourished (rodent commercial laboratory food, NUVILAB white mice was performed. Tomographic images and morphometric analysis of the oral and ventral suckers, reproductive system and tegument were obtained by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. Undernourished male specimens presented smaller morphometric values (length and width of the reproductive system (first, third and last testicular lobes and thickness of the tegument than controls. Besides that, it was demonstrated that the dorsal surface of the male worms bears large tubercles unevenly distributed, but kept grouped and flat. At the subtegumental region, vacuolated areas were detected. It was concluded that the inadequate nutritional status of the vertebrate host has a negative influence mainly in the reproductive system and topographical somatic development of male adult Schistosoma mansoni, inducing some alterations on the structure of the parasite.

  9. Perioperative oral nutritional supplements in normally or mildly undernourished geriatric patients submitted to surgery for hip fracture: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Carretero, José I; Iglesias, Borja; Balsa, José A; Arrieta, Francisco; Zamarrón, Isabel; Vázquez, Clotilde

    2010-10-01

    Oral nutritional supplements have been recommended after orthopedic surgery in geriatric patients. This has been shown to be effective even in normally nourished or mildly undernourished geriatric patients. Whether perioperative administration of these products is also effective and suitable is not known. Randomized, controlled, open, paralleled two-arms clinical trial, comparing energy-protein supplements (40 g of protein and 400 kcal per day), with no intervention in normally nourished or mildly undernourished patients. Outcomes were serum proteins, body mass index, postoperative complications among others. 60 Elderly patients were included. Patients in the intervention group (n = 30) ingested 52.2 ± 12.1% of the prescribed supplements per day for 5.8 ± 1.8 days before surgery and until hospital discharge. There was a significant change in serum albumin at follow-up (F = 22.536, P supplemented proteins per day (OR[95%CI] = 0.925[0.869-0.985]) were associated with less postoperative complications (R(2) = 0.323, χ(2) = 11.541, P = 0.003). Perioperative supplements in geriatric patients with hip fracture submitted to surgery showed better recovery of plasma proteins. Higher daily protein intakes were associated with less postoperative complications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Rural-Urban Migration and the Jamaican Child. PICPEMCE Technical Documents No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodber, Erna

    The Census of Jamaica conducted in 1982 is the most recent survey of internal migration in Jamaica. To determine the sociological, psychological, and anthropological factors which influence the educational adaptation of children moving from rural zones to urban environments in Jamaica, this census and additional interviews with children in five…

  11. Aquaporin-4 Immuneglobulin G testing in 36 consecutive Jamaican patients with inflammatory central nervous system demyelinating disease

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    Sherri Sandy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO in Jamaica are lacking. Here we reviewed the clinical records of 700 patients undergoing neurological evaluation at the Kingston Public Hospital, the largest tertiary institution in Jamaica over a 4 month period. We investigated the diagnostic utility of Aquaporin-4 ImmuneglobulinG (AQP4-IgG testing in 36 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of an inflammatory demyelinating disorder (IDD of the central nervous system (CNS. Patients were classified into 3 categories: i NMO, n=10; ii multiple sclerosis (MS, n=14 and iii unclassified IDD (n=12. All sera were tested for AQP-IgG status by cell binding assay (Euroimmun. No MS cases were positive. Ninety per cent of NMO cases were positive. Four of 12 patients with unclassified IDD tested positive for AQP4-IgG. AQP4-IgG seropositivity was associated with a lower socioeconomic status, higher EDSS (P=0.04 and lower pulmonary function than the seronegative cases (P=0.007. Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity may account for a significant proportion of Jamaican CNS IDDs.

  12. 'The white blood cell always eat the red': how Jamaicans with sickle cell disease understand their illness.

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    Anderson, Moji; Asnani, Monika

    2016-01-01

    To explore lay understandings of sickle cell disease (SCD) among Jamaicans living with the illness. There is no qualitative research on this subject in Jamaica, where SCD is the most common genetic disorder. Thirty in-depth semi-structured interviews (50% males, 50% urban residence) were conducted with adult patients attending the Sickle Cell Unit in Jamaica. Transcribed data were analysed using thematic analysis. Patients' narratives focused on two main themes: lay understandings of how SCD works (using ideas of attack and fortification, and blockage and flow); and what causes the illness (lay ideas of inheritance). The most common description of SCD was that their white blood cells were 'eating/sucking out/feeding on' their red blood cells. Hence, treatment required 'building up' their blood, while a key to good health was ensuring an unimpeded flow of blood. Most participants believed SCD was hereditary, but there were various understandings of the mechanism and probability of its transmission. Belief in the possibility of transmitting SCD was not always a barrier to reproduction, nor did participants always insist on their partner or child being tested. Participants engaged in medical pluralism, a dynamic combination of folk and biomedical beliefs. Their concerns, experiences and interpretations were powerful motivators of reproductive and screening behaviour. Their narratives of SCD transcend the individual to express social, societal and cultural realities. Health care professionals and policy-makers should communicate clearly to ensure understanding, and recognize and engage with their patients' sociocultural context.

  13. Calcification of the lower respiratory tract in relation to flight development in Jamaican fruit bats (Phyllostomidae, Artibeus jamaicensis).

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    Carter, Richard T

    2017-04-01

    The production of echolocation calls in bats along with forces produced by contraction of thoracic musculature used in flight presumably puts relatively high mechanical loads on the lower respiratory tract (LRT). Thus, there are likely adaptations to prevent collapse or distortion of the bronchial tree and trachea during flight in echolocating bats. By clearing and staining (Alcian blue and Alizarin red) LRTs removed from nonvolant neonates, semivolant juveniles, volant subadults, and adult Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis), I found that calcification of the tracheal, primary bronchial, and secondary bronchial (lobar) cartilage rings occurs over the span of about 3 days and coincides with later developmental stages of flight and the increased production of echolocation calls. Tracheal rings that are immediately adjacent to the larynx calcified first, followed by more caudal tracheal rings and then the rings of the primary and secondary bronchi. I suggest that calcification of LRT cartilage rings in echolocating bats provides increased rigidity to counter the thoracic compressions incurred during flight. Calcification of the LRT rings is an adaptation to support the emission of laryngeally produced echolocation calls during flight in bats. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  14. The Change from within Program: Bringing Restorative Justice Circles for Conflict Resolution to Jamaican Schools

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    Ferguson, Therese; Chevannes, Pauletta

    2018-01-01

    The Small Island Developing State of Jamaica, in the Caribbean region, is facing significant environmental, economic, and social challenges. Violence has become a serious challenge for Jamaica and several other countries in the region; the level of violence against and among children is particularly disturbing. Perhaps even more troubling is the…

  15. Transcriptional, translational, and physiological signatures of undernourished honey bees (Apis mellifera) suggest a role for hormonal factors in hypopharyngeal gland degradation.

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    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Meador, Charlotte A D; Snyder, Lucy A; Schwan, Melissa R; Maes, Patrick; Jones, Beryl M; Walton, Alexander; Anderson, Kirk E

    2016-02-01

    Honey bee colonies function as a superorganism, where facultatively sterile female workers perform various tasks that support the hive. Nurse workers undergo numerous anatomical and physiological changes in preparation for brood rearing, including the growth of hypopharyngeal glands (HGs). These glands produce the major protein fraction of a protein- and lipid-rich jelly used to sustain developing larvae. Pollen intake is positively correlated with HG growth, but growth in the first three days is similar regardless of diet, suggesting that initial growth is a pre-determined process while later HG development depends on nutrient availability during a critical window in early adulthood (>3 d). It is unclear whether the resultant size differences in nurse HG are simply due to growth arrest or active degradation of the tissue. To determine what processes cause such differences in HG size, we catalogued the differential expression of both gene transcripts and proteins in the HGs of 8 d old bees that were fed diets containing pollen or no pollen. 3438 genes and 367 proteins were differentially regulated due to nutrition. Of the genes and proteins differentially expressed, undernourished bees exhibited more gene and protein up-regulation compared to well-nourished bees, with the affected processes including salivary gland apoptosis, oogenesis, and hormone signaling. Protein secretion was virtually the only process up-regulated in well-nourished bees. Further assays demonstrated that inhibition of ultraspiracle, one component of the ecdysteroid receptor, in the fat body caused larger HGs. Undernourished bees also had higher acid phosphatase activity, a physiological marker of cell death, compared to well-nourished bees. These results support a connection between poor nutrition, hormonal signaling, and HG degradation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effect of subchronic and chronic exposure to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on the aggressive behavior induced by food competition in undernourished dominant and submissive pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinelli, C; Ison, M; Rodríguez Echandía, E L

    1996-02-01

    The acute administration of 5-HTP was reported to block in undernourished dominant pigeons the aggressive attacks induced in a submissive partner by food competition. In the present study, undernourished pigeons with previously consolidated dominance were submitted to subchronic and chronic 5-HTP treatment. Adult males (n = 28) were kept at 80% of their body weight by a restricted diet. These were divided in pairs made of a previously ranked dominant subject (total time spent in aggression higher than 200 s/20 min) and a submissive one of similar body weight (time spent in aggression between 90 and 150 s/20 min). The same pairs were exposed to a daily 20 min interaction during each experiment in an observation chamber bearing a central feeder. The time spent in aggressive behavior, feeder control behavior and eating behavior was recorded. Intratest body weight gain was also recorded. In Experiment 1, 8 pairs of pigeons were exposed to a daily trial for 4 successive days (pretreatment-scores). The dominant subjects were then injected subcutaneously, 30 min. before trials, with 7.5 mg/kg 5-HTP from day 5 to day 8 (Treatment scores). The Recovery scores were obtained through a 4-trial post-treatment schedule. In Experiment 2 different pigeons were used. The pretreatment and recovery scores were obtained according to a 16-trial schedule (16 days). Both 4-day (subchronic) and 16-day (chronic) 5-HTP treatments attenuated aggression by the dominant subjects and reduced their intra-test body weight gain but did not decrease dominance for feeder control. The recovery scores of total aggression in subchronic experiments returned to pretreatment scores. In chronic experiments, instead, the recovery scores of aggression remained lower than pretreatment scores, whereas body-weight-gain scores came back to pretreatment values. This suggests that dominant subjects submitted to chronic 5-HTP might have learned to maintain dominance and feeder control in a virtual absence of

  17. Effects of oral nutritional supplements in normally nourished or mildly undernourished geriatric patients after surgery for hip fracture: a randomized clinical trial.

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    Botella-Carretero, José I; Iglesias, Borja; Balsa, José A; Zamarrón, Isabel; Arrieta, Francisco; Vázquez, Clotilde

    2008-01-01

    Oral nutritional supplements have been recommended after orthopedic surgery in geriatric patients to reduce postoperative complications. However, tolerability of supplements could be a limitation, and their universal use is not supported by the heterogeneity of previous studies, especially in patients without malnutrition. This study is a randomized, controlled, open, parallel, 3-arm clinical trial comparing supplementation with protein powder dissolved in liquids to aim at 36 g of protein per day, energy and protein supplements to aim at 37.6 g of protein and 500 kcal per day, or no intervention in normally nourished or mildly undernourished patients. Outcomes were serum albumin, prealbumin, retinol-binding globulin, and body mass index, among others. Postoperative complications were also recorded. Ninety patients aged 83.8 +/- 6.6 years were included. The mean ingested amount of supplements was 41.1% +/- 20.6% in the protein powder supplement group and 51.4% +/- 13.2% in the energy protein supplement group (t = 2.278, P = .027). Postoperative supplements had no effect on the nutrition status during in-hospital follow-up, as assessed by serum albumin (P = .251), prealbumin (P = .530), retinol-binding globulin (P = .552), or body mass index (P = .582). Multivariate analysis showed that length of hospital stay with an established complication until its resolution (beta = .230, P = .031), total hospital stay (beta = .450, P Oral nutritional supplements in normally nourished or only mildly undernourished geriatric patients with hip fracture submitted to surgery may be of interest for patients with postoperative complications and long hospital stays.

  18. Ontogeny of the larynx and flight ability in Jamaican fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) with considerations for the evolution of echolocation.

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    Carter, Richard T; Adams, Rick A

    2014-07-01

    Echolocating bats have adaptations of the larynx such as hypertrophied intrinsic musculature and calcified or ossified cartilages to support sonar emission. We examined growth and development of the larynx relative to developing flight ability in Jamaican fruit bats to assess how changes in sonar production are coordinated with the onset of flight during ontogeny as a window for understanding the evolutionary relationships between these systems. In addition, we compare the extent of laryngeal calcification in an echolocating shrew species (Sorex vagrans) and the house mouse (Mus musculus), to assess what laryngeal chiropteran adaptations are associated with flight versus echolocation. Individuals were categorized into one of five developmental flight stages (flop, flutter, flap, flight, and adult) determined by drop-tests. Larynges were cleared and stained with alcian blue and alizarin red, or sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Our results showed calcification of the cricoid cartilage in bats, represented during the flap stage and this increased significantly in individuals at the flight stage. Thyroid and arytenoid cartilages showed no evidence of calcification and neither cricoid nor thyroid showed significant increases in rate of growth relative to the larynx as a whole. The physiological cross-sectional area of the cricothyroid muscles increased significantly at the flap stage. Shrew larynges showed signs of calcification along the margins of the cricoid and thyroid cartilages, while the mouse larynx did not. These data suggest the larynx of echolocating bats becomes stronger and sturdier in tandem with flight development, indicating possible developmental integration between flight and echolocation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genetic analyses determine connectivity among cave and surface populations of the Jamaican endemic freshwater crab Sesarma fossarum in the Cockpit Country

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    Manuel Stemmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jamaican freshwater crab Sesarma fossarum (Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae is endemic to western central Jamaica where it occurs in cave and surface streams of karst regions. In the present study, we examine the population genetic structure of the species, providing evidence for intraspecific differentiation and genetic substructure among twelve sampled populations. Interestingly, crabs from caves appear genetically undistinguishable from representatives of nearby surface waters, despite previously observed and described morphometric differentiation. In contrast, genetic isolation takes place among populations from rivers and caves belonging to different watersheds. In one case, even populations from different tributaries of the same river were characterized by different genotypes. Overall, the species shows low haplotype and nucleotide diversities, which indicates a high homogeneity and point towards a relatively recent intraspecific radiation and diversification. Our results on the genetic diversification of S. fossarum helps to reconstruct unknown subterranean water flow and cave connections in its native range, allowing prediction of its further dispersal and differentiation potential. Unfortunately, its natural habitat of Jamaican cockpit karst, which also is home to several other endemic species and is a globally-recognized Key Biodiversity Area, is under imminent threat of intensive bauxite mining.

  20. Nutritional Status And Its Association With Diabetes Mellitus In School Children, India

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    Muninarayana C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor health and nutrition may impair both the growth and intellectual development of school children. Incidence of malnutrition related childhood diabetes mellitus has increased and continues to be on the rise.Objectives: To assess the nutritional status by anthropometry and to screen for diabetes by capillary blood examination of school children. Design: Longitudinal study Setting: The study was carried out at Sri R.L.Jalappa Central School, Kolar from August 2008 to December 2009. Methods: All the school children were interviewed with pre-designed and pre-tested proforma. Height, Weight was measured by standard procedures. The nutritional status was analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI for age. The school children were also screened for diabetes mellitus by Finger stick capillary random plasma glucose testing. The children were followed up for any major medical problems during the study period.Participants: All the students studying in the school during study period.Results: Mean height and weight of children were found comparable to the ICMR pooled data. However, compared to NCHS standards and affluent Indian children the mean height and weight were found to be much inferior at all ages. According to BMI for age as per NCHS most of the children were undernourished (79.2% and 3 children (0.6% were overweight. Out of 495 children screened for diabetes 14 children had hyperglycaemia (>160mg/dl. These 14 children were further tested by oral glucose tolerance test and found to have normal blood sugars levels. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The magnitude of malnutrition among school going children was found to be 79%. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus, hence under nutrition was associated with diabetes mellitus.

  1. The burden of gestational diabetes mellitus in Jamaican women with a family history of autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes La carga de la diabetes mellitus gestacional en mujeres de Jamaica con antecedentes familiares de diabetes autosómica dominante tipo 2

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael R. Irving; James L. Mills; Eric G. Choo-Kang; Errol Y. Morrison; Santosh Kulkarni; Rosemarie Wright-Pascoe; Wayne Mclaughlin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine if Jamaican women of African descent with a family history of early onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes have greater odds of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than those without a family history of the disease. METHODS: A comparative study was conducted of two groups of pregnant Jamaican women: the first with a family history of early onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes; the second with no history of the disease. Incidence, odds for developing G...

  2. The occurrence of black corals in Jamaican reef environments, with special reference to Stichopathes lutkeni (Antipatharia:Antipathidae

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    G.F Warner

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to record the species of Antipatharia on Jamaican reefs and to carry out limited studies on densities and sizes of the common species.In addition,a cliff face created by dredging in 2002 provided the opportunity to study growth of newly settled colonies.Observations since 1998 and measurements since 2001 were made using SCUBA at depths down to 35 m.Seven species of Antipatharia were observed on steep coral reef escarpments below 25 m depth.The commonest species was the unbranched "wire coral " Stichopathes lutkeni .Other common species included the fan-shaped black corals Antipathes atlantica and A. gracilis .Frequently encountered species included commercially important A.caribbeana and a species with an unusual,scrambling growth form, A. rubusiformis.The other major commercial species in the Caribbean, Plumapathes pennacea ,and a cave-dwelling species,A.umbratica ,were rarely observed.Greatest black coral abundance occurred on steep slopes of hard substrata in low light intensity but exposed to the long-shore current. Combined densities of the commoner Antipatharia at 30 m deep at Rio Bueno on the north coast,ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 m-2 (eleven 10 m x 1 m belt transects,1-25 colonies per transect,68 colonies in total.Forty-six of the 68 colonies were S.lutkeni ,while nearby at Discovery Bay at 30-35 m,55 out of 59 colonies were S.lutkeni. There was a significant difference between the mean length of colonies in these two populations of S.lutkeni (100 cm and 80 cm,respectively,probably relating to habitat.A third population of S.lutkeni growing at 15-20 m deep on the recently dredged cliff had a much smaller mean length of 36.6 cm (n=27.The largest individual measured 83 cm long,indicating a minimum growth rate of the unbranched corallum of 2.1 mm per day.

  3. A study of acute phase and transport protein synthesis in undernourished men using simulated infection and uniformly 15N-labelled Spirulina Platenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Soares, M.J.; Sekhar, R.V.; Reeds, P.J.; Fjeld, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that acute phase protein synthesis is accelerated and transport protein synthesis is decelerated in adult men in whom the stress of infection is superimposed upon undernutrition. As a pilot study, four chronically undernourished men and two well-nourished controls were studied on two occasions separated by four days; the second session was conducted 24 hours after the administration of typhoid vaccine. Basal urine and blood samples were collected and then subjects were given priming oral doses of 15 N-Spirulina (13.5mg/kg body weight) and oral doses (3.5mg/kg body weight) every 30 min for the next six hours. Meals were aliquoted during the dosing period. Blood samples were collected at four, five and six hours. 15 N enrichment in different fractions of plasma i.e., albumin, non-albumin and amino acids, was measured by combustion GC-IRMS. Total urinary nitrogen was measured by Kjeldahl. 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Low transformation growth factor-β1 production and collagen synthesis correlate with the lack of hepatic periportal fibrosis development in undernourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Andreia Ferreira Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Undernourished mice infected (UI submitted to low and long-lasting infections by Schistosoma mansoni are unable to develop the hepatic periportal fibrosis that is equivalent to Symmers’ fibrosis in humans. In this report, the effects of the host’s nutritional status on parasite (worm load, egg viability and maturation and host (growth curves, biology, collagen synthesis and characteristics of the immunological response were studied and these are considered as interdependent factors influencing the amount and distribution of fibrous tissue in hepatic periovular granulomas and portal spaces. The nutritional status of the host influenced the low body weight and low parasite burden detected in UI mice as well as the number, viability and maturation of released eggs. The reduced oviposition and increased number of degenerated or dead eggs were associated with low protein synthesis detected in deficient hosts, which likely induced the observed decrease in transformation growth factor (TGF-β1 and liver collagen. Despite the reduced number of mature eggs in UI mice, the activation of TGF-β1 and hepatic stellate cells occurred regardless of the unviability of most miracidia, due to stimulation by fibrogenic proteins and eggshell glycoproteins. However, changes in the repair mechanisms influenced by the nutritional status in deficient animals may account for the decreased liver collagen detected in the present study.

  5. An evaluation of nutritional status of children in Anganwadi Centre of Hyderabad district of Andhra Pradesh stateusing WHO z- score technique

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    Shanawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India the nationwide Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS uses the I.A.P criteria to grade under nutrition. The current WHO recommendation is to use Z score or the standard deviation system to grade under nutrition. Although widely recommended the z scores have not been widely used in India, especially in community based studies. AIMS & OBJECTIVES 1. To assess the socio-demographic profile of 0-72 months age group of children. 2. To find out the nutritional status of children using WHO z- score technique. METHODOLOGY A cross sectional, community-based was done in ICDS Anganwadi centers among the 400 ICDS children (0-6 years RESULTS There are (47.5% undernourished and (16.5% severely malnourished children according to WHO z score technique. Males (49.5% are comparatively more under nourished than females (45.5%. Female infants (31.2% are less undernourished when compared to male infants (50%. Literacy of mother had significance over the nutritional status of their children (p˂0.05. CONCLUSION The present study shows that there are still many children who are undernourished and severely malnourished in our country, even after 36 years of ICDS services. There is need to use WHO standards at the grass route levels to correctly identify the burden of under nutrition. Z score technique is simple to use, reliable and easy to understand at grass route level by health workers.

  6. Longitudinal variation in the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of a typical North coast Jamaican river

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    Eric. J. Hyslop

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrate fauna plays a major role in river ecosystems, especially those of tropical islands. Since there is no information on the distribution of benthic invertebrates along a Jamaican river, we report here on the composition of the benthic fauna of the Buff Bay river, on the Northern coast of Jamaica. A total of 14 samples were collected from five sites, using kick nets and a Surber sampler, between May 1997 and October 1998. We also examined the applicability of the rhithron/potamon model, and some of the premises of the River Continuum Concept (RCC in relation to the distribution of invertebrate taxa. The results showed a total of 38 taxa of identified invertebrates. A group of dominant taxa, composed mainly of immature stages of insects, occurred at all sites. Two notable characteristics of the river were the absence of a true potamonic fauna and the low representation of the shredder functional feeding group in the community We conclude that, while there was minor variation in the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna among the sites, this was a response to local conditions within the river system. The characteristics of the community did not conform to either of the models.La fauna bentónica de macroinvertebrados juega un papel importante en los ecosistemas fluviales, especialmente los de las islas tropicales. En vista de que hay poca información disponible para los ríos de Jamaica, presentamos la composición de la fauna bentónica de la bahía riverina Buff, en la costa norte de Jamaica. Para ello, recolectamos un total de 14 muestras en cinco sitios, mediante el uso de redes de golpe y trampa Surber, entre mayo 1997 y octubre 1998. También se examinó la aplicabilidad del modelo de subdivisión de ríos ritrón/potamón y algunas de las premisas del concepto de Río como un Continuo, en relación con la distribución de los táxones de invertebrados. Los resultados mostraron un total de 38 táxones de

  7. The effect of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women and child physical growth in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Briony; Buettner, Petra; Watt, Kerrianne; Clough, Alan; Brimblecombe, Julie; Judd, Jenni

    2015-10-01

    The beneficial effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on subsequent child growth is unclear and may depend upon the mother entering pregnancy adequately nourished or undernourished. Systematic reviews to-date have included studies from high-, middle- and low-income countries. However, the effect of balanced protein energy supplementation should not be generalised. This review assesses the effect of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women from low- and middle-income countries on child growth. A systematic review of articles published in English (1970-2015) was conducted via MEDLINE, Scopus, the Cochrane Register and hand searching. Only peer-reviewed experimental studies analysing the effects of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women from low- and middle-income countries with measures of physical growth as the primary outcome were included. Two reviewers independently assessed full-text articles against inclusion criteria. Validity of eligible studies was ascertained using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (EPHPP QAT). In total, seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies reported on birthweight, five on birth length, three on birth head circumference, and one on longer-term growth. Standardised mean differences were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis. Balanced protein energy supplementation significantly improved birthweight (seven randomised controlled trials, n = 2367; d = 0.20, 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.38, P = 0.02). No significant benefit was observed on birth length or birth head circumference. Impact of intervention could not be determined for longer-term physical growth due to limited evidence. Additional research is required in low- and middle-income countries to identify impacts on longer-term infant growth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The occurrence of black corals in Jamaican reef environments, with special reference to Stichopathes lutkeni (Antipatharia:Antipathidae

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    G.F Warner

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to record the species of Antipatharia on Jamaican reefs and to carry out limited studies on densities and sizes of the common species.In addition,a cliff face created by dredging in 2002 provided the opportunity to study growth of newly settled colonies.Observations since 1998 and measurements since 2001 were made using SCUBA at depths down to 35 m.Seven species of Antipatharia were observed on steep coral reef escarpments below 25 m depth.The commonest species was the unbranched "wire coral " Stichopathes lutkeni .Other common species included the fan-shaped black corals Antipathes atlantica and A. gracilis .Frequently encountered species included commercially important A.caribbeana and a species with an unusual,scrambling growth form, A. rubusiformis.The other major commercial species in the Caribbean, Plumapathes pennacea ,and a cave-dwelling species,A.umbratica ,were rarely observed.Greatest black coral abundance occurred on steep slopes of hard substrata in low light intensity but exposed to the long-shore current. Combined densities of the commoner Antipatharia at 30 m deep at Rio Bueno on the north coast,ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 m-2 (eleven 10 m x 1 m belt transects,1-25 colonies per transect,68 colonies in total.Forty-six of the 68 colonies were S.lutkeni ,while nearby at Discovery Bay at 30-35 m,55 out of 59 colonies were S.lutkeni. There was a significant difference between the mean length of colonies in these two populations of S.lutkeni (100 cm and 80 cm,respectively,probably relating to habitat.A third population of S.lutkeni growing at 15-20 m deep on the recently dredged cliff had a much smaller mean length of 36.6 cm (n=27.The largest individual measured 83 cm long,indicating a minimum growth rate of the unbranched corallum of 2.1 mm per day.El propósito de este estudio fue registrar las especies de Antipatharia en los arrecifes de Jamaica y realizar estudios preliminares sobre densidades y tama

  9. Redefining personality disorder: a Jamaican perspective Redefinición del trastorno de la personalidad desde una perspectiva de Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W Hickling

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize and assess the factor structure of phenomenological features of DSM-IV personality disorder diagnosis in Jamaican patients and determine any similarities with those of traditional criteria, associations with disorder severity, and/or significant relationships between variables to inform the current debate on the relevance of established personality disorder diagnostics. METHODS: This was a case-control study. All the patients included were seen by one private psychiatric practice from 1974 to 2007. The study sample group (n = 351 were patients diag nosed as having a personality disorder (DSM-IV Axis II. The control group was composed of patients with DSM-IV Axis I clinical disorders, who had not been diagnosed with a personality disorder, and matched exactly on gender, and closely on age, as well as socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: Of the 351 individuals in the study sample group, 166 (47.3% were male and 185 (53.7% were female; 50 (14.2% were white and 301 (85.8% were black; 293 (83.5% were born and raised in Jamaica; and 202 (57.6% were from socioeconomic classes I and II. Mean age was 33.92 (standard deviation 10.236. Disaggregating the phenomenology, the conventional DSM-IV personality disorder diagnoses disappeared. Factor analysis of 38 clinical phenomena identified five components: psychosis, major depression, power management problems, psychosexual issues, and physiological dependency. Independent t-tests revealed patients without personality disorder had significantly higher mean scores for psychosis; both groups scored equally for depression; and those with personality disorder had significantly higher mean scores on the remaining factors. Analysis of variance indicated these factors differed significantly for three levels of severity (mild, moderate, and severe. CONCLUSIONS: The phenomenology clustering into three major groups suggested an Axis I (clinical diagnostic disorder of impulse control and

  10. Nutritional status of children in two districts of the mountain region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, M; Neopane, A K; Singh, U K; Aryal, N; Agrawal, K; Shrestha, B

    2013-09-01

    Nutritional status is a prime indicator of health. Generally, three anthropometric indicators are often used to assess nutritional status during childhood and adolescence: underweight (weight-for-age), stunting (height- for-age) and thinness (BMI-for-age). Malnutrition in children is a major public health problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to assess nutritional status among children attending health camps in two mountainous districts in Nepal. Five hundred and seventy five children below 15 years of age attending the medical camp in Humla and Mugu districts in October 2011 were assessed for nutritional status. For children less than five years, weight for age, weight for height and height for age as per WHO classification, and for children between five to 15 years age specific values of height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were calculated. In Humla district, 28.2% children were undernourished, 8.8% wasted and 22.4% stunted in less than five years. In the same age group, 31.7% children were undernourished, 9.4% wasted and 29.4% stunted in Mugu district. In the age group five to 15 years, thinness was seen in 22.4% and 29.4% children in Humla and Mugu respectively. Malnutrition (underweight, stunting, wasting and thinness) still constitutes a major health problem among Nepalese children, particularly in mountainous regions.

  11. The effects of concept and vee mappings under three learning modes on Jamaican eighth graders' knowledge of nutrition and plant reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Okechukwu; Soyibo, Kola

    2004-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate if the experimental students' post-test knowledge of nutrition and plant reproduction would be improved more significantly than that of their control group counterparts based on their treatment, attitudes to science, self-esteem, gender and socio-economic background. Treatment involved teaching the experimental students under three learning modes--pure cooperative, cooperative-competitive and individualistic whole class interpersonal competitive condition--using concept and vee mappings and the lecture method. The control groups received the same treatment but were not exposed to concept and vee mappings. This study's second objective was to determine which of the three learning modes would produce the highest post-test mean gain in the subjects' knowledge of the two biology concepts. The study's sample comprised 932 eighth graders (12-13-year-olds) in 14 co-educational comprehensive high schools randomly selected from two Jamaican parishes. An integrated science performance test, an attitudes to science questionnaire and a self-esteem questionnaire were used to collect data. The results indicated that the experimental students (a) under the three learning modes, (b) with high, moderate, and low attitudes to science, and (c) with high, moderate, and low self-esteem, performed significantly better than their control group counterparts. The individualist whole class learning mode engendered the highest mean gain on the experimental students' knowledge, while the cooperative-competitive learning mode generated the highest mean gain for the control group students.

  12. LOCOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN UNDERNOURISHED RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRAMSBERGEN, A; WESTERGA, J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of undernutrition on the development of locomotion were studied in fourteen rats. Mothers received about 40% of normal quantities of standard laboratory food from the 5th day of gestation until weaning at the 21st day after birth. Qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of locomotion

  13. Undernutrition in children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD): its prevalence and influence on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holenweg-Gross, C; Newman, C J; Faouzi, M; Poirot-Hodgkinson, I; Bérard, C; Roulet-Perez, E

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and to explore its influence on quality of life. Seventy-two children with PIMD (47 male; 25 female; age range 2 to 15 years 4 months; mean age 8.6, SD 3.6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, including body weight, triceps skinfold thickness, segmental measures and recumbent length. Undernutrition was determined using tricipital skinfold percentile and z-scores of weight-for-height and height-for-age. The quality of life of each child was evaluated using the QUALIN questionnaire adapted for profoundly disabled children. Twenty-five children (34.7%) were undernourished and seven (9.7%) were obese. Among undernourished children only eight (32 %) were receiving food supplements and two (8%) had a gastrostomy, of which one was still on a refeeding programme. On multivariate analysis, undernutrition was one of the independent predictors of lower quality of life. Undernutrition remains a matter of concern in children with PIMD. There is a need to better train professionals in systematically assessing the nutritional status of profoundly disabled children in order to start nutritional management when necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (phome environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of undernutrition among children below 5, using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF

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    Garima Gupta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: SDG 2.2 aims to end all forms of malnutrition by 2030. Weight for age estimate misses out chronic and acute on chronic malnutrition. An aggregate indicator-the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF can help in addressing this concern. Aim & Objective: To assess the nutritional status of under five children using CIAF and compare it with other indices. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in a resettlement colony of Delhi, between June to July 2015. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard operative procedures. Mothers of the study children were interviewed to obtain relevant information. Z scores were calculated using WHO-ANTHRO software. Nutritional status indicators were determined as per the World Health Organization 2006 child growth standards. Results: A total of 100 under-5 children were assessed. The prevalence of CIAF was 62% in our study. 35% of children were found to be underweight, 25% were wasted and 43% stunted. Mid Upper Arm Circumference detected 58.5% as undernourished. Using weight-for-age criterion for identifying undernourished children led to underestimation of the prevalence by 27%. Conclusion: CIAF can be used to provide a single, aggregated assessment of undernutrition. Use of this tool by field level workers will improve the diagnosis of undernutrition and help in early initiation of treatment.

  16. A Cohort Study of Health Effects of HTLV-I Infection in Jamaican Children and their Associations with Viral, Immunologic and Host Genetic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    sisters Irene, Pat, Jane , Sara, Catherine (thanks for the laptop) and brothers Jim, Dan and Terry who have always been proud of my accomplishments...Plewig G. Seborrheic dermatitis. In: Fitzpatrick TB, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, Freedberg IM, Austen KF (eds): Dermatology in General Medicine. New

  17. Beliefs and cultural values of the undernourished child's family Creencias y valores culturales de la familia del niño desnutrido Crenças e valores culturais da família da criança desnutrida

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    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze the meanings of the mothers' participation in looking after their undernourished child. METHODS: An ethnographic approach was adopted, focusing on group dynamics within the family. RESULTS: Family influence in undernourished child care and the prevention of current and future practices related to the factors impede quality care. CONCLUSION: The cultural meanings that guide mothers, in terms of care, support, education and culture, are sustained by the social structure and have direct effects on the quality of people's life, as individuals and as social groups.OBJETIVO: Identificar y analizar el significado de la participación de las madres en el cuidado del niño desnutrido. MÉTODOS: Fue utilizado el abordaje etnográfico, focalizando en la dinámica de grupo dentro de la familia. RESULTADOS: Fue evidenciado que la familia influye en el cuidado al niño desnutrido y la prevención de las actuales y futuras prácticas relacionadas a los factores culturales que impiden la calidad del cuidado. CONCLUSIÓN: El significado que conduce la madre, en relación al cuidado y soporte, educación y cultura son sustentados por una estructura social y tiene efectos directos en la calidad de vida de las personas, como individuos y también como grupo social.OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar o significado da participação das mães no cuidado da criança desnutrida. MÉTODOS: Foi utilizada uma abordagem etnográfica, focalizando na dinâmica de grupo dentro da família. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciado que a família influencia no cuidado à criança desnutrida e a prevenção das atuais e futuras práticas relacionadas aos fatores culturais impedem a qualidade do cuidado. CONCLUSÃO: O significado que conduz a mãe, em relação ao cuidado e suporte, educação e cultura são sustentados por uma estrutura social e tem efeitos diretos na qualidade de vida das pessoas, como indivíduos e também como grupo social.

  18. [Association between nutritional status and physical abilities in children aged 6 to 18 years in Medellin (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cruz, A; Figueroa Suárez, J; Osorio Ciro, J; Rodríguez Chavarro, N; Gallo Villegas, J

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional disorders in childhood may cause a decline in motor abilities and increased morbidity and mortality in adulthood. To assess the association between nutritional status and motor abilities. A cross-sectional study was performed that included 12,872 children aged between 6 and 18 years who underwent a clinical evaluation and various physical tests. Among the children, 66% had a Tanner maturation stage 1 and 2, 6% were under-nourished, and 12.2% were at risk of overweight and obesity. The obese children had a decrease in aerobic power (in 2.72 mL O2 kg(-1)·min(-1); 95%CI: 1.89 to 3.56; Pchildren showed a decrease in speed (0.13 m·sec; 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.20; Pnutritional status and motor abilities in the children included in this study. Obese children showed the worst results in physical tests, and the under-nourished ones showed a decrease in speed, explosive strength and strength endurance. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. COMPARISON OF WHO GROWTH STANDARDS WITH INDIAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS STANDARDS OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN AN URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali B Dhone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child undernutrition is internationally recognized as an important public health indicator for monitoring nutritional status and health in populations. Prevalence of under nutrition is very high in India; especially in urban slums. Objective: To compare the prevalence of under nutrition among underfive children using WHO growth standards with IAP standards.Methods: Community based cross sectional study was done during November-2008 to December-2009 in urban field practice area of Medical College Pune, India. All the underfive children (336 were enumerated by house to house survey. Parents were informed about the objectives of the study and their written consent was obtained. Anthropometric measurements of the children who were available during the study period were carried out as per WHO guidelines and IAP standards. Various indices of nutritional status were expressed in standard deviation units (z scores from the reference median. Epi-Info 2002 and Primer of Bio-statistics software package was used for statistical analysis.Results: Total 336 children were enumerated by house to house visit. Only 319 children were available during the study. Weights were recorded according to WHO and IAP standards. It was found that boys were more undernourished than girls by using WHO standards (P<0.005. When weights of girls were compared according to these two standards the girls were found to be more undernourished by WHO standards but difference was not statically significant.

  20. Reduced expressions of calmodulin genes and protein and reduced ability of calmodulin to activate plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase in the brain of protein undernourished rats: modulatory roles of selenium and zinc supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Khera, Alka; Sandhir, Rajat; Adenuga, Gbenga A

    2016-03-01

    The roles of protein undernutrition as well as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) supplementation on the ability of calmodulin (CaM) to activate erythrocyte ghost membrane (EGM) Ca(2+)-ATPase and the calmodulin genes and protein expressions in rat's cortex and cerebellum were investigated. Rats on adequate protein diet and protein-undernourished (PU) rats were fed with diet containing 16% and 5% casein, respectively, for a period of 10 weeks. The rats were then supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15 and 227 mg l(-1), respectively, in drinking water for 3 weeks. The results obtained from the study showed significant reductions in synaptosomal plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) activity, Ca(2+)/CaM activated EGM Ca(2+) ATPase activity and calmodulin genes and protein expressions in PU rats. Se or Zn supplementation improved the ability of Ca(2+)/CaM to activate EGM Ca(2+)-ATPase and protein expressions. Se or Zn supplementation improved gene expression in the cerebellum but not in the cortex. Also, the activity of PMCA was significantly improved by Zn. In conclusion, it is postulated that Se and Zn might be beneficial antioxidants in protecting against neuronal dysfunction resulting from reduced level of calmodulin such as present in protein undernutrition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Environmental correlates of undernutrition among children of 3–6 years of age, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

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    Zalak Rameshbhai Matariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are lots of studies focusing on the role of reproductive and child health factors and dietary factors on the nutrition status of the child. The present study is an attempt to highlight the role of macro- and micro-environmental factors in predicting the occurrence of undernutrition in children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in field practice area of Community Medicine Department, PDU Medical College, Rajkot. The nutrition status of children was assessed using the weight for age WHO reference standards, 2006. Children below two standard deviation of the reference median (weight for age were considered as malnourished. Data were collected for sociodemographic factors, sanitation, hygiene, and attitude of mother toward her child, etc., Data were entered in MS excel, and logistic regression was used. Results: Analysis of 495 selected children showed 24% prevalence of undernutrition. Employment status of mothers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.65, drinking water quality (AOR 1.53, and cleanliness of mother's hands and clothes (AOR 1.91 significantly affected the nutrition status of the child. Children classified in fair or poor category for Briscoe's sanitation scale had 1.34 and1.92 times higher odds of being undernourished (P > 0.05, respectively. Children classified in fair or poor category for Elizabeth's microenvironment scale had 2.05 and 2.41 times higher odds of being undernourished (P < 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: Water, sanitation, and hygiene-related factors, as well as microenvironmental factors, significantly affected the nutrition status of the children.

  2. Dyslipidaemia and Undernutrition in Children from Impoverished Areas of Maceió, State of Alagoas, Brazil

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    Telma M. M. T. Florêncio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic undernutrition causes reduced growth and endocrine adaptations in order to maintain basic life processes. In the present study, the biochemical profiles of chronically undernourished children were determined in order to test the hypothesis that chronic undernutrition also causes changes in lipid profile in pre-school children. The study population comprised 80 children aged between 12 and 71 months, including 60 with moderate undernutrition [height-for-age Z (HAZ scores ≤ −2 and > −3] and 20 with severe undernutrition (HAZ scores ≤ −3. Socioeconomic, demographic and environmental data were obtained by application of a questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements and information relating to sex, age and feeding habits were collected by a trained nutritionist. Blood samples were analysed for haemoglobin, vitamin A, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and serum lipids, while cortisol was assayed in the saliva. Faecal samples were submitted to parasitological investigation. Analysis of variance and χ2 methods were employed in order to select the variables that participated in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study population was socioeconomically homogeneous, while the lack of a treated water supply was clearly associated with the degree of malnutrition. Most children were parasitised and anaemia was significantly more prevalent among the severely undernourished. Levels of IGF-1 decreased significantly with increasing severity of undernutrition. Lipid analysis revealed that almost all of the children had dyslipidemia, while low levels of high-density lipoprotein were associated with the degree of undernutrition. It is concluded that chronic malnutrition causes endocrine changes that give rise to alterations in the metabolic profile of pre-school children.

  3. Morbilidad bucal: Su relación con el estado nutricional en niños de 2 a 5 años de la Consulta de Nutrición del Hospital Pediátrico Docente de Centro Habana Oral morbidity and its relationship with the nutritional status of 2-5 years-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Quiñónez Ybarra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe la morbilidad de las principales afecciones bucales y su relación con el estado nutricional y peso al nacer en niños de 2 a 5 años de edad. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal donde se evaluaron 230 niños, de ellos 115 eutróficos y 115 desnutridos, según tablas de referencia cubana de peso y talla, exámenes bioquímicos y exámenes clínicos, utilizándose como variables: estado nutricional, peso al nacer, índice coe-d, retardo del brote dentario, lesiones de esmalte, maloclusión e índice PMA. Para su procesamiento estadístico se aplicaron pruebas Chi cuadrado con un nivel de confiabilidad del 95 % (alfa 0,05. Se concluye que el índice coe-d fue de 0,14 para los eutróficos y de 0,71 para los desnutridos. El brote dentario estuvo retardado en el 2,63 % en los eutróficos, mientras que los desnutridos fue del 39,4 % y estuvo más retardado en los bajo peso al nacer, desnutridos, con el 75 %. Solo aparecieron lesiones de esmalte en el grupo de desnutridos (22,60 % y se incrementó en los bajo peso de este grupo (34,61 %. El porcentaje de maloclusión en el grupo eutrófico fue de 36,52 %, en los desnutridos 62,6 % y aumentó en los de bajo peso, con el 84,61 %. Se apreció como trastorno periodontal el 26,92 % de gingivitis moderada en niños desnutridos de bajo peso.The present paper describes the morbidity of the main oral diseases and their relationship with nutritional status and low birthweight in 2-5 years-old children. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to evaluate 230 children - 115 eutrophic and 115 undernourished- according to the Cuban weight-size reference tables, biochemical and clinical examinations, using variables such as nutritional status, birthweight, coe-d index, dental eruption retardation, dental enamel lesions, malocclusion, and PMA index. For statistical processing, Chi-square test with a 95% confidence interval (alpha 0,05 was applied. It was

  4. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class.

  5. Assessment of growth and feeding practices in children with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, V K; Muda, Wan Abdul Manan Wan

    2005-01-01

    Feeding difficulties in cleft lip and palate (CLP) infants is commonly observed and is the most traumatic experience the family has to face. These infants are undernourished and have compromised growth. The purpose of this study was to 1) assess general health and growth parameters in children with CLP and in normal children; and 2) investigate the feeding methods of CLP infants and normal infants. A total of 221 children from birth to six years of both sexes, with CLP (60 children) and normal (161 children) were selected. The CLP and normal children were divided into three subgroups by age. The practice of feeding the infants in subgroup I was assessed using standard piloted questionnaires. The assessment of growth was done at baseline and at six months in all the subgroups.The general well being of the children was assessed by noting the number of common infections. Results showed that a significantly higher percentage of mothers with normal babies (p < 0.01) had a positive attitude towards breast feeding. When compared to normal children, CLP children were more susceptible to infections (p < 0.05) and measured significantly lower on the height growth curve(p < 0.05). Hence, height can be used to monitor growth in CLP children.

  6. Acute Dehydrating Gastro-enteritis Undernourished Infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-08-03

    Aug 3, 1974 ... The use of half-strength. Oarrow's solution in 2;5% dextrose water, with supple- mentary intravenous sodium bicarbonate and oral potas- sium, rapidly corrected the electrolyte and acid-base dis- turbances. No significant difference resulted when this regimen was modified by variations in the rate, volume or.

  7. Efficacy of supplementation in Filipino children

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    Charisse Marie S Tayao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. Objective: The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb, hematocrit (Hct, reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Methodology: Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Study Design: Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. Results: A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25 of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12 of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13. Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC count

  8. Efficacy of supplementation in filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayao, Charisse Marie S

    2015-01-01

    At present, in the absence of an anemia prevention and screening program in Barangay Vasra, this will aid in the formation of programs that would teach about this health related issue, with an intervention that could be used efficiently by the health workers at the non-government organization run center. The aim of the following study is to establish the efficacy of iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation in improving the hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), reticulocyte count and red cell indices of anemic undernourished children 5-10 years of age at Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Anemic undernourished male and female children 5-10 years of age enrolled in the Supplementary Feeding Program of Lingap Center, Barangay Vasra, Quezon City. Prospective, experimental trial comparing two interventions-iron supplementation alone versus iron and ascorbic acid supplementation. A total of 25 children participated in this study, with a majority being female at 52% (13/25) of the total. Those who received iron supplementation alone for 6 months, while there were 50% (6/12) of either sex, whereas subjects who took iron and ascorbic acid supplementation for 6 months were predominantly female at 53.85% (7/13). Data obtained before and after iron supplementation alone revealed that there was an increase among the levels of Hgb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and reticulocyte count, with the rise statistically significant. Hematological values gained before and after iron and ascorbic acid supplementation uncovered that there was an augmentation among the levels of Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and reticulocyte count, with the improvement statistically significant. Encompassing both interventions, the differences in findings were statistically significant in red blood cell (RBC) count, with the level progression statistically significant. Overall, the results

  9. The effects of breakfast on behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie eAdolphus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behaviour, cognitive and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behaviour is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behaviour in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality and SBPs have a positive effect on children’s academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behaviour in class.

  10. [Classification of Colombian children with malnutrition according to NCHS reference or WHO standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Claudia; Bermúdez, Juliana; Echeverri, Claudia; Estrada, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    A descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the concordance of National Center for Health Statistics reference (NCHS) used to classify undernourished children from Colombia with the WHO Child Growth Standards. We used data from children aged 6 to 59 months with acute malnutrition (Z Infantil" nutrition program in Colombia. Indicators height-for-age, weight for-height were analyzed when they were admitted to the hospital and weight for-height leaving the hospital. A statistical method used to compare means was T-student. Correlation coefficient intraclass (CCI) and Kappa index evaluated the concordance between NCHS and OMS; McNemar method evaluated the changes on the nutritional classification for children according to growth devices used. Of the total number of children classified as normal by NCHS, 10.4% were classified as stunted by WHO. 64% of the children admitted to the hospital presented acute malnutrition according to NCHS, of these 44,8% presented severe emaciation according to OMS, indeed severe emaciation increased of 36,0% to 63,3% using OMS. 5% of children leaving the hospital could need to stay more days if they had been evaluated with OMS. Growth devices shown high concordance in height-for-age (CCI = 0,988; k= 0,866) and weight for-height (CCI = 0,901; k = 0,578). Concluded that OMS growth standards classified more malnourished children and more severe states, in addition more malnourished children could be hospitalized and they could stay more days.

  11. In Jamaica, Community Aides for Disabled Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Marigold J.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major goals of the Jamaican Early Stimulation Project is to develop a low cost model for providing early identification of disability and intervention services. Journal availability: see EC 133 861. (Author)

  12. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective endocarditis - children; Congenital heart disease - endocarditis - ...

  13. Nutritional status of pavement dweller children of Calcutta City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S K; Mishra, R; Biswas, R; Kumar, S; Halder, A; Chatterjee, T

    1999-01-01

    Pavement dwelling is likely to aggravate malnutrition among its residents due to extreme poverty, lack of dwelling and access to food and their exposure to polluted environment. Paucity of information about nutritional status of street children compared to that among urban slum dwellers, squatters or rural/tribal population is quite evident. The present study revealed the magnitude of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) and few associated factors among a sample of 435 underfives belonging to pavement dweller families and selected randomly from clusters of such families, from each of the five geographical sectors of Calcutta city. Overall prevalence of PEM was found almost similar (about 70%) to that among other 'urban poor' children viz. slum dwellers etc., but about 16% of them were found severely undernourished (Grade III & V of IAP classification of PEM). About 35% and 70% of street dweller children had wasting and stunting respectively. Severe PEM (Grade III & IV) was more prevalent among 12-23 months old, girl child, those belonged to illiterate parents and housewife mothers rather than wage earners. It also did increase with increase of birth rate of decrease of birth interval.

  14. An epidemiological study of urban and rural children in Pakistan: examining the relationship between delayed psychomotor development, low birth weight and postnatal growth failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal I; Raza, Syed A; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2015-03-01

    Low birth weight is known to be associated with postnatal growth failure. It is not yet established that both conditions are determinants of psychomotor development. The study investigated whether or not low birth weight leads to delayed psychomotor development of a child, and whether it can be mitigated by adequate postnatal growth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh province, Pakistan. Assessment of 1234 children less than 3 years of age included Bayley's Scale of Infant Development II, socioeconomic questionnaire and anthropometry; WHO standards were used to calculate z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age. The underlying study hypotheses were tested through multiple regression modelling. Out of 1219 children, 283 (23.2%) had delayed psychomotor development and 639 (52.4%) were undernourished according to the composite index of anthropometric failure. Strong negative associations with the psychomotor development index were detected between stunting and being underweight, with a larger magnitude of effect for stunting (ppsychomotor index increased by 2.07 points with every unit increase in height-for-age z-score. The relationship between low birth weight and psychomotor development appears to be mediated largely by postnatal growth and nutritional status. This association suggests that among undernourished children there is significant likelihood of a group that is developmentally delayed. It is important to emphasize developmental needs in programmes that target underprivileged children. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Complementary Feeding Practices of Mothers and Their Perceived Impacts on Young Children: Findings from KEEA District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egyir, Bridget K; Ramsay, Samantha A; Bilderback, Barry; Safaii, SeAnne

    2016-09-01

    Objective Appropriate and timely complementary feeding practices are fundamental to a child's growth, health, and development during the first 2 years of life. This study aimed to understand (1) Ghanaian mother's complementary feeding practices, and (2) their perceived and observed impacts of complementary feeding on their children. Methods Ghanaian mothers with children 4-24 months of age were recruited from four communities in the Komenda Edina Eguafo Abrem district in the Central Region of Ghana (n = 99). A qualitative methodological approach with focus group interview discussions was used. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted, and were audio recorded and transcribed. The audio transcriptions were coded and analyzed into pertinent themes, meta-themes, and theoretical concepts. Results Over 80 % (85) of mothers reported poor knowledge about the effects of complementary feeding on their children and 45 % (45) of the children were undernourished, indicating inappropriate complementary feeding practices. Some mothers held misconceptions about the effect of food on children's health. Four overarching themes were identified: (1) mothers' background knowledge about food, child health and growth outcomes, (2) mothers' motivation in feeding their children, (3) barriers to feeding, (4) foods mothers offered their children. Conclusion for Practice Nutrition education on complementary feeding is needed for Ghanaian mothers. Health facilities and community outreach programs could be a venue to provide education to mothers regarding infant and young child feeding practices in Ghana.

  16. Relationship between water compartments, body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and blood pressure in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łątka, Monika; Wójtowicz, Kinga; Drożdż, Tomasz; Dąbrowska, Ewelina; Kwinta, Przemko; Pietrzyk, Jacek Antoni; Drożdż, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is becoming more widely used in clinical practice as a method of body composition analysis. In healthy children blood pressure (BP) changes with age, body mass and height. Until now the relation between water compartments and BP in healthy children has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition as well as water compartments (measured by electrical bioimpedance) and BP. The study was performed in 72 children (32 girls and 40 boys) aged: 6-7 and 12-13 years. BIA measurements were taken using Nutriguard Data Input device with Bianostic electrodes and following parameters were calculated: total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), intra- and extracellular water (ICW, ECW) and phase angle alpha. BP was measured twice using the oscillometric method. Elevated BP > 95th percentile for gender, age and height were observed in 9 children. A significant correlation between systolic (S)BP and TBW (R = 0.4023, p obesity (BMI > 95th percentile). Growth disorders were found in 6 children (5 of them being undernourished). In the studied children SBP and DBP correlated with water compartments, lean body and fat masses derived from BIA. The problem of unrecognized hypertension and malnutrition in children and adolescents is still underestimated in the Polish population.

  17. Tomografia computadorizada na avaliação da distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal de ratos alimentados com rações hiperlipídicas após desnutrição neonatal Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever repercussões da ração suplementada com óleo de soja ou óleo de canola, por meio da tomografia computadorizada, na distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal, após desmame de ratos desnutridos durante a lactação. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratas lactantes submetidas a restrição alimentar (RA em 50%, de acordo com o consumo das lactantes controles (C. Após o desmame, filhotes desnutridos receberam ração contendo 19% de óleo de soja (RA-soja 19% ou óleo de canola (RA-canola 19%. Os filhotes do grupo controle receberam ração contendo 7% de óleo de soja (C-soja 7%. Aos 60 dias de idade, foram realizadas medidas corporais e das áreas de tecido adiposo abdominal por meio de tomografia computadorizada. Após sacrifício, tecido adiposo abdominal foi excisado e pesado. Os dados foram expressos como média ± erro-padrão da média, considerando o nível de significância de p OBJECTIVE: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C. After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola. Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean ± mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. RESULTS: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results

  18. Desnutrición infantil, coeficiente de desarrollo y su relación con el medio ambiente: un estudio piloto Desnutrição infantil, coeficiente do desenvolvimento e sua relação com o meio ambiente: um estudo piloto Infant undernourishment, the development coefficient and its relation to the environment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Luz Alvarez

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Fueron estudiados los factores socioculturales que podrían estar influyendo en el desarrollo psicomotor normal del lactante desnutrido. La muestra consistió en 32 díadas madrelactante: 16 tenían CD normal (Grupo A y 16 CD bajo lo normal (Grupo B según el Test de Bailey aplicado a los lactantes recién ingresados a un Centro de Recuperación Nutricional. Los resultados muestran que había algunas diferencias en los antecedentes de los lactantes: Los lactantes del Grupo A eran producto de un embarazo deseado (pEstudam-se os fatores sócio-culturais que poderiam estar influenciando no desenvolvimento psicomotor normal do lactente desnutrido. A amostra consistiu de 32 pares mãe-criança: 16 com coeficiente de desenvolvimento (CD normal (grupo A e 16 com CD abaixo do normal (grupo B de acordo com o teste de Bailey aplicado a lactentes que ingressavam a um centro de recuperação nutricional. Havia diferenças nos antecedentes das crianças: os lactentes do grupo A eram fruto de gravidez desejada (p The socio-cultural factors that might be influencing the normal psychomotor development of the undernourished infant are studied. The sample consisted of 32 mother-infant dyads: 16 having normal DQ (Group A and 16 having a below normal DQ (Group B according to Bailey's Test applied to infants who entered a Nutritional Recuperation Center. Results showed that there were some differences in the infants' backgrounds: infants of Group A were the product of a wished-for pregnancy (p < .05, and were separated less from their mother's side (p < .007 than was the case in Group B. No differences were found in the socio-cultural and demographic background of the mothers. The infants' external environment was different in aspects observed within the neighborhood: there were fewer negative aspects in Group A than in Group B (p < .003 and more positive in Group A than in B (p < .001. The infant's internal environment as related to the mother was also different

  19. Development of norms for executive functions in typically-developing Indian urban preschool children and its association with nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Sumithra; Thomas, Tinku; Shetty, Priya; Thennarasu, K; Raman, Vijaya; Khanna, Deepti; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2018-02-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are essential and important for achieving success in children's everyday lives and play a fundamental role in children's cognitive, academic, social, emotional and behavioral functioning. A cross-sectional study was carried out to develop age- and sex-specific norms for EFs using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) among 2- to 5-year-olds from urban Bangalore, India. In addition, the association between EFs and anthropometric measures, a marker of nutritional status, is also examined. Primary caregivers of 412 children, equally distributed by age and sex, participated. Raw scores for each domain and indices were converted to standard t-scores and percentiles were computed. A t-score at or above 63 corresponding to the 90th percentile was considered as the cutoff for executive dysfunction in this sample. The prevalence of executive dysfunction is 10% based on the Global Executive Composite score of the BRIEF-P. The cutoff score for identifying executive dysfunction using existing United States (US) norms is higher compared to the cutoff score obtained in the current study. Therefore, using US norms for Indian children could result in the prevalence of executive dysfunction been underestimated. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that stunted and underweight children have significantly elevated EF scores after adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic status (SES; p executive dysfunction and implementing interventions to improve their future prospects. This study also shows that undernourished children are more likely to have executive dysfunction.

  20. The prevalence of undernutrition upon hospitalization in children in a developing country: A single hospital study from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Way-Seah; Ahmad, Zulfadly

    2017-10-01

    Undernourished children who require hospital care have a longer duration of hospitalization and respond poorly to modern medical therapy. The objective of the present study was to ascertain the nutritional status of children admitted to a pediatric tertiary center in Malaysia and the risk factors leading to undernutrition upon admission. In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, anthropometric measurements [weight, length/height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness were performed in 285 children aged from 3 months to 15 years who were admitted to University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur in November 2013. Acute (wasting) and chronic (stunting) undernutrition were defined as weight-for-height (WFH) and height-for-age (HFA) standard deviation (S.D.), respectively. Underweight was defined as weight-for-age definition for acute undernutrition (HFA definition of acute undernutrition, an additional eight patients were noted to have acute undernutrition (n = 40, 14%). No significant risk factors associated with undernutrition were identified. The prevalence of undernutrition among children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Malaysia was 14%. Strategies for systematic screening and provision of nutritional support in children at risk of undernutrition as well as treatment of undernutrition in children requiring hospitalization are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children starting antiretroviral therapy in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, A F; Tuho, M Z; Ekra, K A; Kouakou, J; Shiraishi, R W; Adjorlolo-Johnson, G; Marlink, R; Ellerbrock, T V

    2014-04-01

    In Côte d'Ivoire, more than 2000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children aged tuberculosis (TB) incidence and determinants among ART enrollees. A nationally representative retrospective cohort study among 2110 children starting ART during 2004-2008 at 29 facilities. At ART initiation, the median age was 5.1 years; 82% had World Health Organization Stage III/IV, median CD4% was 11%, 42% were severely undernourished (weight-for-age Z-score [WAZ] tuberculosis treatment. Documentation of TB screening before ART declined from 63% to 46% during 2004-2008. Children taking anti-tuberculosis treatment at ART enrollment had a lower median CD4% (9.0% vs. 11.0%, P = 0.037) and a higher prevalence of WAZ children considered TB-free at ART enrollment, TB incidence was 6.28/100 child-years during days 0-90 of ART, declining to 0.56/100 child-years after 180 days. Children with one unit higher WAZ at ART enrollment had 13% lower TB incidence (adjusted HR 0.87, 95%CI 0.77-1.00, P= 0.047). Ensuring clinician compliance with TB screening before ART and ensuring earlier ART initiation before children suffer from advanced HIV disease and nutritional compromise might reduce TB morbidity during ART.

  2. The importance of milk and other animal-source foods for children in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-09-01

    Milk and other animal-source foods are concentrated dietary sources of macro- and micronutrients. Despite a global increase in milk production and consumption over the past decades, milk and other animal-source foods are often lacking in the diets of children in developing countries. To evaluate the importance of milk and other animal-source food intake in promoting the growth, development, and health of children in low-income countries. Original research articles describing observational and intervention studies with unfortified milk, fortified milk, and other animal-source foods in children were identified by searching the PubMed database. Consumption of milk and other animal-source foods by undernourished children improves anthropometric indices and cognitive function and reduces the prevalence of biochemical and functional nutritional deficiencies, reducing morbidity and mortality. Unfortified and fortified milk used in supplementation trials has been well tolerated and widely accepted by parents and children. To improve the dietary quality of children in low-income countries and further the effort to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in accordance with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, additional research is necessary to identify and implement programs and policy supporting increased intake of milk and other animal-source foods.

  3. Factors associated With the development of motor proficiency in school children of Kolkata: A cross-sectional study to assess the role of chronic nutritional and socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Satabdi; Ghosh, Tusharkanti; Dutta Chowdhury, Sutanu; Wrotniak, Brian H; Chandra, Ananga Mohan

    2016-09-01

    Development of coordinated movements is determined among others by individual growth and environmental factors, but the dynamic relationship between motor proficiency and potential contributing factors such as chronic nutritional status and socio-economic status (SES) is not known in school children of Kolkata. To characterize the motor proficiency in school children of Kolkata and to investigate association of chronic nutritional and SES on motor proficiency. Motor proficiency in 843 school children of Kolkata aged 5-12 years was assessed by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor-Proficiency-Second Edition-Short Form (BOT-2 SF). Chronic nutritional status was determined from height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) using WHO reference and SES was measured using the updated Kuppuswamy's scale. Children's motor proficiency was poor compared with the reference values. Children classified as severely undernourished and children of lower SES were found to be "below average" and "well-below average" in motor proficiency categories compared with normal nourished groups and children of upper SES. Children's BOT-2 SF standardized scores decreased incrementally with the severity of chronic undernutrition and lower grades of SES. Chronic undernutrition and lower SES are associated with poorer motor proficiency in children. Understanding the complex interrelationships that shape childen's motor skills can help inform the development of health promotion programs and tailored interventions to help children reach their full potential. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:734-744, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Taking Responsibility : the Jamaican Economy since Independence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support a public event (national conference) to launch the report, as well as the production of audio-visual material to generate debate and engage a broad constituency in policy dialogue. The project will also involve the preparation of a feasibility study and business plan for the research organization ("think ...

  5. Homophobia, stigma and HIV in Jamaican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Figueroa, J Peter; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2011-02-01

    Success in addressing HIV and AIDS among men who have sex with men, a key population in the global epidemic, is impeded by homophobia. Homophobia as a barrier to HIV prevention and AIDS treatment is a particularly acute problem in the prison setting. In this qualitative study, we explore HIV and AIDS, stigma and homosexuality in the largest all male prison in Jamaica by conducting iterative in-depth interviews with 25 inmates. Participant narratives unveil a purposeful manipulation of beliefs related to homosexuality that impedes an effective response to HIV and AIDS both in prison and wider society. Findings indicate that homophobia is both a social construction and a tangible tool used to leverage power and a sense of solidarity in a larger political and economic landscape. This use of homophobia may not be unique to Jamaica and is an important issue to address in other low- and middle-income post-colonialist societies.

  6. Experiences of violence and deficits in academic achievement among urban primary school children in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Meeks-Gardner, Julie; Chang, Susan; Walker, Susan

    2009-05-01

    children's experiences of three different types of violence and their academic achievement. The study points to the need for validated violence prevention programs to be introduced in Jamaican primary schools. Such programs need to train teachers in appropriate classroom management and discipline strategies and to promote children's social and emotional competence and prevent aggression.

  7. Dor na criança desnutrida: percepção da mãe Dolor en el niño malnutrido: percepción de la madre Pain in undenourished children: the mother's perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Coelho Barbosa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar a percepção da mãe quanto a dor no seu filho desnutrido. Pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, utilizando entrevistas semi-estruturadas no Instituto de Prevenção à Desnutrição e a Excepcionalidade - IPREDE (Fortaleza-Ceará. As informantes foram mães que acompanhavam seus filhos desnutridos. De acordo com a análise surgiram as categorias: Busca à Instituição; Descrição da dor e Como cuidar da dor. Conclui-se, a necessidade de um trabalho da sociedade, respeitando os direitos do cidadão e sua cultura, com o intuito de reverter a dor na criança desnutrida.El objetivo de esa investigación cualitativa era identificar la opinión de madres respecto al dolor de su hijo malnutrido. Se realizó entrevistas semiestructuradas en el Instituto para la Prevención a la Desnutrición y Excepcionalidad - IPREDE (Fortaleza-Ceará-Brasil. Los participantes fueron las madres que acompañaban a sus hijos malnutridos. El análisis reveló las siguientes categorías: Búsqueda de la institución; Descripción del dolor y Cómo cuidar del dolor. Se concluye que es necesario un trabajo de la sociedad, respetando los derechos del ciudadano y su cultura, con objeto de revertir el dolor del niño malnutrido.This qualitative study aimed to identify how mothers perceive pain in their undernourished children. Semistructured interviews were realized at the Institute for the Prevention of Malnutrition and Exceptionality - IPREDE (Fortaleza-Ceará-Brazil. Participants were mothers who accompanied their undernourished children. Data analysis revealed the following categories: Coming to the Institution; Pain description and How to take care of the pain. Society needs to take actions, in respect of citizens' rights and culture, with a view to reverting this picture of pain in undernourished children.

  8. The burden of gestational diabetes mellitus in Jamaican women with a family history of autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes La carga de la diabetes mellitus gestacional en mujeres de Jamaica con antecedentes familiares de diabetes autosómica dominante tipo 2

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    Rachael R. Irving

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine if Jamaican women of African descent with a family history of early onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes have greater odds of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM than those without a family history of the disease. METHODS: A comparative study was conducted of two groups of pregnant Jamaican women: the first with a family history of early onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes; the second with no history of the disease. Incidence, odds for developing GDM, and metabolic profiles in first and second trimesters were assessed using SPSS 11.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States. RESULTS: The incidence of GDM was 12.0 % in women with a family history of early onset autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes and 1.5% in women without a family history of the disease (P OBJETIVOS: Determinar si las mujeres jamaicanas de ascendencia africana con antecedentes familiares de inicio temprano de diabetes autosómica dominante tipo 2 tienen mayor probabilidad de desarrollar diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG que las que no tienen esos antecedentes familiares. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio comparativo con dos grupos de mujeres jamaicanas embarazadas: el primero con mujeres que tenían antecedentes familiares de inicio temprano de diabetes autosómica dominante tipo 2 y el segundo con mujeres sin antecedentes familiares de esa enfermedad. Se empleó el programa SPSS v. 11.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, Estados Unidos de América para analizar los resultados y calcular la incidencia, la probabilidad de desarrollar DMG y los perfiles metabólicos en el primer y el segundo trimestres de gestación. RESULTADOS: La incidencia de DMG fue de 12,0% en las mujeres con antecedentes familiares de inicio temprano de diabetes autosómica dominante tipo 2 y de 1,5% en las mujeres sin antecedentes familiares de esa enfermedad (P < 0,05. Las mujeres del primer grupo tuvieron nueve veces más probabilidades de desarrollar DMG que las

  9. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise

    2016-05-01

    Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 articles were included in the review. Most studies considered the acute effect of a single breakfast (n = 34). The acute studies looked at breakfast compared with no breakfast (n = 24) and/or comparisons of breakfast type (n = 15). The effects of chronic school breakfast program interventions were evaluated in 11 studies. The findings suggest that breakfast consumption relative to fasting has a short-term (same morning) positive domain-specific effect on cognition. Tasks requiring attention, executive function, and memory were facilitated more reliably by breakfast consumption relative to fasting, with effects more apparent in undernourished children. Firm conclusions cannot be made about the acute effects of breakfast composition and the effects of chronic breakfast interventions because there are too few studies and these largely report inconsistent findings. This review also highlights methodologic limitations of the existing research. These include a lack of research on adolescents, few naturalistic breakfast manipulations or testing environments, small samples, and insensitive cognitive tests. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Growth & development of Indian children adopted in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proos, Lemm A

    2009-11-01

    More than 6800 children from India have been adopted in Sweden over the last four decades. At arrival many were undernourished and suffered from infectious diseases. Catch-up growth was common. Unexpectedly, cases of early pubertal development were subsequently reported. In order to investigate the growth and development of adopted children more in detail we studied 114 children adopted from India prospectively during two years. The majority were stunted at arrival and caught up in height and weight after two years. Psychomotor retardation and common infections diminished fairly soon. Those that were stunted did not attain the higher catch-up levels of those not stunted at arrival. Low birthweight also limited the degree of catch-up growth. 107 girls were analysed retrospectively in another study. The median menarcheal age was 11.6 yr (range 7.3-14.6 yr) which is significantly earlier than the mean in Swedish and privileged Indian girls (13.0 and 12.4-12.9 yr, respectively). The pubertal linear growth component was normal in duration and magnitude but likewise started 1.5 yr earlier. The final height/age was 154 cm (-1.4 SDS) and the weight/age 46.9 kg (-1.1 SDS) 8 per cent were 145 cm or shorter. Stunting limited catch-up growth and final height. Those that were most stunted at arrival, and had the fastest catch-up growth, had the earliest menarche. Good maternal and child nutrition is necessary for full expression of a child's growth potential. What is lost in growth early in life can only partially be recovered by catch-up growth. Such growth is associated with risk for early pubertal development which abbreviates the childhood growth period and limits final height. The mechanism underlying the early pubertal development, and the optimal management of nutrition rehabilitation after chronic malnutrition, need to be clarified by further studies.

  11. Aspectos culturais no cuidado familiar à criança com desnutrição - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.4519 Cultural aspects in family care for children with malnutrition - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.4519

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição de Maria de Albuquerque

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar o fator cultural que interfere no cuidado do filho desnutrido e propor ações de Educação Popular em Saúde na assistência à criança desnutrida. Trata-se de uma pesquisa-ação desenvolvida no Núcleo de Atenção Médica Integrada – NAMI, realizada no período de janeiro a julho de 2008. Participaram deste estudo oito mães e um pai, cujas idades variavam de 20 a 48 anos. A coleta de dados realizou-se mediante entrevistas semi-estruturadas e oficinas educativas, em que se utilizou análise de conteúdo de Bardin. Após organização dos resultados, foram identificadas as categorias: uma desnutrição desconhecida; oficinas educativas e saber popular; consciência do cuidado. O resultado aponta para uma nova consciência no cuidado com o filho desnutrido na cultura da comunidade. Recomendam-se intervenções de Educação Popular em Saúde adequadas para grupos culturalmente distintos. Nesta perspectiva, há de se considerar o conjunto de propostas, viabilizando e incentivando a Educação Popular, para buscar mudanças na constituição de novos sujeitos e práticas comprometidas com o rompimento das barreiras sociais, econômicas e políticas.This study aimed to identify the cultural factor that interferes with the care of undernourished children and to propose actions of Popular Health Education in the assistance of undernourished children. It regards an action research developed at the Nucleus of Integrated Medical Attention – NAMI, performed between January and July 2008. Eight mothers and one father took part in the study, with ages varying from 20 to 48 years old. The data collection took place by means of semi-structured interviews and educational workshops, which were used in the Bardin content analysis. After organizing the result, the following categories were identified: unknown malnutrition; educative workshops and popular knowledge; conscience of care. The results point to a new conscience at the

  12. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoos, Y.; Brunser, O.; Lawson, F.; Muzeke, A.; Ndjaye, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    It is stated that in developing countries a high rate of Helicobacter pylori infection among newborns and young children occurs. It is further assumed that this incidence may lead to inhibition of defense mechanism (inhibition of acid secretion) against bacteria, per orally ingested. This may result in excessive colonisation of the small intestine by bacteria. This situation may become a major cause for chronic malnutrition and diarrhoea syndrome with failure to thrive. This project aims at determining the occurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children at young age. It is aimed also at tracing the relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection and the state of undernourishment. Finally it is aimed at comparing the usefulness of pre-/probiotics as anti-infection treatment. The methods used to demonstrate above mentioned parameters are based on stable isotopes, 13 CO 2 and H 2 breath tests mainly. To assess nutritional status and progress in growth conventional anthropometric techniques will be used, complementary to the results obtained by stable isotopes. It is put forward that the use of pre-/probiotics, instead of antibiotics, will suppress upper gastrointestinal infection and restore the intestinal cell capacity to assimilate all food ingredients. (author)

  13. Anthropometric Profile of Children Attending Anganwadi Centers under Integrated Child Development Sevices (ICDS Scheme in Doiwala Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Deep Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In any community, Mothers and Children constitutes not only priority group, but they are also a “Vulnerable” or “Special-risk Group”. Similarly in India our biggest problem is malnutrition among under five year old children. To break the vicious cycle of malnutrition, morbidity reduced learning capacity and mortality India launched the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme in 1975. It is the foremost symbol of India’s commitment to her children Rationale: Forty percent of the world's severely under-nourished under-five children live in India so the present study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children availing the services under Integrated Child Development Service Scheme in Uttarakhand. Objective: To estimate the level of nutrition in children attending Anganwadi centers of Doiwala block. Methods: Out of these Seven ICDS project areas, Doiwala Block was chosen for the study purpose since it is also the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, HIMS. 19 AWC was selected by using Simple Random Sampling technique in Doiwala block. All the children aged between 3- 6years attending Anganwadi centers were included in community based, cross sectional study. Predesigned pretested anthropometric survey tool with local adaptability and minor modification for local suitability was adopted to collect information pertaining to growth monitoring of the children [Adopted from WHO child growth standard 2006]. Children were weighed, and their height and MUAC were recorded. Weight for age, height for age and MUAC for age was calculated using WHO growth references .Nutritional status according to the WHO Child Growth Standards was analysed using WHO Anthro statistical software. Results: 200 children were surveyed. From the total population 110 are males and 90 are females. After the analysis of weight for age with anthro software it was found that 20.9% of children lie within -2 SD with a mean

  14. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champ, Claire L

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 articles were included in the review. Most studies considered the acute effect of a single breakfast (n = 34). The acute studies looked at breakfast compared with no breakfast (n = 24) and/or comparisons of breakfast type (n = 15). The effects of chronic school breakfast program interventions were evaluated in 11 studies. The findings suggest that breakfast consumption relative to fasting has a short-term (same morning) positive domain-specific effect on cognition. Tasks requiring attention, executive function, and memory were facilitated more reliably by breakfast consumption relative to fasting, with effects more apparent in undernourished children. Firm conclusions cannot be made about the acute effects of breakfast composition and the effects of chronic breakfast interventions because there are too few studies and these largely report inconsistent findings. This review also highlights methodologic limitations of the existing research. These include a lack of research on adolescents, few naturalistic breakfast manipulations or testing environments, small samples, and insensitive cognitive tests. PMID:27184287

  15. Growth in Children with Cerebral Palsy during five years after Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy: a practice-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight is reported as a side effect of SDR. The aims were to study the development of weight, height and body mass index (BMI during five years after SDR. Methods This prospective, longitudinal and practice-based study included all 56 children with CP spastic diplegia undergoing SDR from the start in March 1993 to April 2003 in our hospital. The preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels were I-II in 17, III in 15, IV-V in 24 children. Median age at SDR was 4.3 years (range 2.4-7.4 years. Weight and height/recumbent length were measured. Swedish growth charts for typically developing children generated weight, height and BMI z-scores for age and gender. Results The preoperative median z-scores were for height -1.92 and for body mass index (BMI -0.22. Five years later, the median BMI z-score was increased by + 0.57 (p + 2 SD increased (p The individual growth was highly variable, but a tendency towards increasing stunting with age was seen in severe gross motor dysfunction (GMFCS levels IV-V and the opposite, a slight catch-up of height in children with walking ability (GMFCS levels I-III. Conclusions These are the first available subtype- and GMFCS-specific longitudinal growth data for children with CP spastic diplegia. Their growth potential according to these data should be regarded as a minimum, as some children were undernourished. It is unknown whether the spasticity reduction through SDR increased the weight gain velocity, or if the relative weight increase was part of the general "obesity epidemic". For some children the weight increase was highly desirable. In others, it resulted in overweight and obesity with risk of negative health effects. Weight and height should be monitored to enable early prevention of weight aberrations also causing problems with mobility, activity and participation.

  16. Undernourishment and Public Policy in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Those articles will feed into policy development through briefs, website content for the Institute of Development Studies, other online platforms, and the publication of an edited book and/or journal issue. A symposium in India will share research results with key policymakers, researchers, civil society, and the media in order ...

  17. Altered placental development in undernourished rats: role of maternal glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Maternal undernutrition (MUN during pregnancy may lead to fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, which itself predisposes to adult risk of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. IUGR may stem from insufficient maternal nutrient supply or reduced placental nutrient transfer. In addition, a critical role for maternal stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs has been suggested to contribute to both IUGR and the ensuing risk of adult metabolic syndrome. While GC-induced fetal organ defects have been examined, there have been few studies on placental responses to MUN-induced maternal stress. Therefore, we hypothesize that 50% MUN associates with increased maternal GC levels and decreased placental HSD11B. This in turn leads to decreased placental and fetal growth, hence the need to investigate nutrient transporters. We measured maternal serum levels of corticosterone, and the placental basal and labyrinth zone expression of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase B 1 (HSD11B-1 predominantly activates cortisone to cortisol and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC to corticosterone, although can sometimes drive the opposing (inactivating reaction, and HSD11B-2 (only inactivates and converts corticosterone to 11-DHC in rodents in control and MUN rats at embryonic day 20 (E20. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of nutrient transporters for glucose (SLC2A1, SLC2A3 and amino acids (SLC38A1, 2, and 4. Our results show that MUN dams displayed significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels compared to control dams. Further, a reduction in fetal and placental weights was observed in both the mid-horn and proximal-horn positions. Notably, the placental labyrinth zone, the site of feto-maternal exchange, showed decreased expression of HSD11B1-2 in both horns, and increased HSD11B-1 in proximal-horn placentas, but no change in NR3C1. The reduced placental GCs catabolic capacity was accompanied by downregulation of SLC2A3, SLC38A1, and SLC38A2 expression, and by increased SLC38A4 expression, in labyrinth zones from the mid- and proximal-horns. In marked contrast to the labyrinth zone, the basal zone, which is the site of hormone production, did not show significant changes in any of these enzymes or transporters. These results suggest that dysregulation of the labyrinth zone GC "barrier", and more importantly decreased nutrient supply resulting from downregulation of some of the amino acid system A transporters, may contribute to suboptimal fetal growth under MUN.

  18. The Dynamics of Food Supply and Undernourishment in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa (SSA). This paper examines the dynamics of food supply in SSA for a panel of 42 countries over the period 1994-2009. Ordinal measures of national food supply status of SSA countries are generated from daily calorie supply per ...

  19. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

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    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  20. Acute dehydrating gastro-enteritis in undernourished infants | Beatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of half-strength Oarrow's solution in 2;5% dextrose water, with supplementary intravenous sodium bicarbonate and oral potassium, rapidly corrected the electrolyte and acid-base disturbances. No significant difference resulted when this regimen was modified by variations in the rate, volume or type of intravenous ...

  1. Undernourishment and Public Policy in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It aims to shape policies underlying the development of India's proposed National Food Security Act. As well, it will help restructure the public food distribution system and the delivery of social welfare programs that affect food and nutritional security. The project's two streams are led by the National Council for Applied ...

  2. Are parents in tune with music their adolescent children enjoy? Are there missed opportunities for sexual and reproductive health dialogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder-Nevins, D; James, K; Bailey, A; Eldemire-Shearer, D

    2011-03-01

    The perspectives of adolescents were solicited on the issue of sexual and reproductive health messages they received through dancehall music as well as their perceptions of parents' views of such messages and adolescents' indulgence with this genre of music. This sequential mixed methods study was completed in 2008. The study's qualitative component was summarized as the novel ALODAC (Ask, Listen and Observe, Discuss, Analyse and Confirm) model, involving a series of steps to engage adolescents 10-19 years to share their perspectives on sexual and reproductive health messages enunciated in the dancehall music to which they listen. The quantitative component saw 1626 adolescents in public schools responding to an interviewer-administered questionnaire which included questions about their families and how they respond to dancehall content. Five messages determined from content analysis of songs on adolescents' music menu were used to initiate discussions with adolescents about the issues. Almost equal proportions of respondents in the survey lived with either their mothers (37.3%) or both parents (35.6%). Most adolescents reported enjoying dancehall music and learning specific messages even when some parents were against use of such music. There were significant gender differences observed regarding perceptions about parents agreement with lyrics on transactional sex (p music their adolescent children listen to does not seem to affect the pleasure and lessons adolescents gain from this medium. Opportunities for discussing sexual issues common in Jamaican dancehall music exist but are missed.

  3. Labor market returns to early childhood stimulation : a 20-year followup to an experimental intervention in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Lopez, Susan; Gertler,Paul J.; Grantham-Mcgregor,Sally; Heckman,James J.; Pinto,Rodrigo Ribeiro Antunes; Vermeersch,Christel M. J.; Walker, Susan; Zanolini, Arianna

    2013-01-01

    This paper finds large effects on the earnings of participants from a randomized intervention that gave psychosocial stimulation to stunted Jamaican toddlers living in poverty. The intervention consisted of one-hour weekly visits from community Jamaican health workers over a 2-year period that taught parenting skills and encouraged mothers to interact and play with their children in ways t...

  4. Transporting evidence-based interventions across cultures: using focus groups with teachers and parents of pre-school children to inform the implementation of the Incredible Years Teacher Training Programme in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, H

    2011-09-01

    Evidence-based programmes to prevent and treat conduct problems in young children are available, but there is limited information on the extent to which they can be effectively transported to developing countries. This study used focus group discussions with parents and teachers of pre-school children to investigate whether an evidence-based programme - the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Training Programme - could be transported to the Jamaican pre-school setting. Ten focus group discussions were held with 50 pre-school teachers and 47 parents of pre-school children. For each focus group, a semi-structured questioning guide was used to explore parents' and teachers' perceptions of the dimensions and causes of problem behaviour in young children and strategies used to manage child behaviour. All focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed, and thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Parents and teachers shared similar views of what constitutes good behaviour and poor behaviour, and both parents and teachers believed that the major influences on children's behaviour are factors in the home. Many appropriate and useful strategies for managing child behaviour were used including showing children affection, spending time with children, using praise, incentives and rewards and withdrawing privileges and using timeout as consequences for misbehaviour. Some inappropriate strategies were also used, especially corporal punishment, although there was a general consensus within all groups that this is not desirable or effective. Through the focus groups, it was clear that parents and teachers were familiar with many of the strategies and principles introduced through the IY Teacher Training Programme, and the programme was largely compatible with their values and beliefs. However, some topics require additional emphasis thus lengthening the time required for training. It was also evident that there is a strong perceived need for training in child behaviour

  5. Comparison of measles complications in well-nourished and mal-nourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisar, Imran; Ahmad, Ameer; Ahmad, Fiaz; ullah Mazhar, Atta

    2009-01-01

    Measles is the most common and the most infectious of the viral infections of childhood. It can cause severe pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, and death. A significant proportion of deaths due to measles in young children worldwide are attributable to low weight for age To compare the measles complications in well-nourished and mal-nourished children, this cross-sectional study was conducted at Paediatric out-patient department and paediatric unit 1 Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur. Total 120 patients were included in the study. All patients presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of measles according to WHO criteria. These patients were divided into well-nourished and malnourished according to the modified Gomez classification. Both groups were evaluated for measles complications like pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, corneal ulceration, thrombocytopenia, otitis media and myocarditis by detailed history and complete physical examination, and statistically analysed. In the studied patients, 75 were males and 45 were females. Mean age was 23 months. Fifty-nine (49.2%) patients were well-nourished and 61 (50.8%) were undernourished. Fifty-two (43.3%) patients were having pneumonia. Fifty-three (44.2%) patients were having diarrhoea. Twenty-six (21.7%) patients were having encephalitis. Corneal ulceration was found in 9 (7.5%) patients. Thrombocytopenia and otitis media was present in 1 patient in each group. Fourteen patients expired. Measles is a global epidemic problem having many serious complications, including pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, corneal ulcerations etc. Moreover these complications are more frequent in under nourished children. Efforts should be made to improve the nutritional status of the children and to eradicate this disease by effective vaccination.

  6. Mortality after Inpatient Treatment for Severe Pneumonia in Children: a Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngari, Moses M; Fegan, Greg; Mwangome, Martha K; Ngama, Mwanajuma J; Mturi, Neema; Scott, John Anthony Gerard; Bauni, Evasius; Nokes, David James; Berkley, James A

    2017-05-01

    Although pneumonia is a leading cause of inpatient mortality, deaths may also occur after discharge from hospital. However, prior studies have been small, in selected groups or did not fully evaluate risk factors, particularly malnutrition and HIV. We determined 1-year post-discharge mortality and risk factors among children diagnosed with severe pneumonia. A cohort study of children aged 1-59 months admitted to Kilifi County Hospital with severe pneumonia (2007-12). The primary outcome was death pneumonia, 1041 (25%) had severe acute malnutrition (SAM), 267 (6.4%) had a positive HIV antibody test, and 364 (8.7%) died in hospital. After discharge, 2279 KHDSS-resident children were followed up; 70 (3.1%) died during 2163 child-years: 32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 26, 41) deaths per 1000 child years. Post-discharge mortality was greater after admission for severe pneumonia than for other diagnoses, hazard ratio 2.5 (95% CI 1.2, 5.3). Malnutrition, HIV status, age and prolonged hospitalisation, but not signs of pneumonia severity, were associated with post-discharge mortality. Fifty-two per cent (95% CI 37%, 63%) of post-discharge deaths were attributable to low mid-upper arm circumference and 11% (95% CI 3.3%, 18%) to a positive HIV test. Admission with severe pneumonia is an important marker of vulnerability. Risk stratification and better understanding of the mechanisms underlying post-discharge mortality, especially for undernourished children, are needed to reduce mortality after treatment for pneumonia. © 2017 The Authors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparison of measles complications in well nourished and mal-nourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaisar, I.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, A.

    2009-01-01

    Measles is the most common and the most infectious of the viral infections of childhood. It can cause severe pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, and death. A significant proportion of deaths due to measles in young children worldwide are attributable to low weight for age. To compare the measles complications in well-nourished and mal-nourished children, this cross-sectional study was conducted at Paediatric out-patient department and paediatric unit 1 Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur. Total 120 patients were included in the study. All patients presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of measles according to WHO criteria. These patients were divided into well nourished and malnourished according to the modified Gomez classification. Both groups were evaluated for measles complications like pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, corneal ulceration, thrombocytopenia, otitis media and myocarditis by detailed history and complete physical examination, and statistically analysed. In the studied patients, 75 were males and 45 were females. Mean age was 23 months. Fifty-nine (49.2%) patients were well-nourished and 61 (50.8%) were undernourished. Fifty-two (43.3%) patients were having pneumonia. Fifty-three (44.2%) patients were having diarrhoea. Twenty-six (21.7%) patients were having encephalitis. Corneal ulceration was found in 9 (7.5%) patients. Thrombocytopenia and otitis media was present in 1 patient in each group. Fourteen patients expired. Measles is a global epidemic problem having many serious complications, including pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, corneal ulcerations etc. Moreover these complications are more frequent in under nourished children. Efforts should be made to improve the nutritional status of the children and to eradicate this disease by effective vaccination. (author)

  8. Protective effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination in children with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, but not the pulmonary disease. A case-control study in Rosario, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifachich, Elena; Chort, Monica; Astigarraga, Ana; Diaz, Nora; Brunet, Beatriz; Pezzotto, Stella Maris; Bottasso, Oscar

    2006-04-05

    A hospital-based case-control study was carried out at the Vilela Children's Hospital in Rosario, Argentina, to measure the protection conferred by BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB). The study included 148 newly diagnosed cases of TB (75 males and 73 females, mean age 3.34+/-2.97 years, S.D.), 134 of them with pulmonary TB and 14 cases with extra-pulmonary disease. Controls (425 males and 357 females, 3.39+/-2.98 years) were selected randomly among children who attended to the Hospital showing, neither respiratory diseases nor any other infectious illnesses. Information on BCG vaccination history was assessed from scars or immunisation records. All participants were negative to human immunodeficiency virus and belonged to the lower and upper-lower socioeconomic status, being similar in place of residence and ethnic characteristics. Rate of vaccinated children was 92.6% of cases and 94.5% of controls (3.4 and 3.9% of them without scars, respectively). Regarding the total cases, the protective association between BCG and TB was statistically insignificant, as was for the pulmonary form. Among cases with extra-pulmonary disease, vaccine effectiveness attained significance [79% (95% CI=26-94)], no matter their age, sex or nutritional status. BCG vaccination exerted a beneficial role in extra-pulmonary TB, even in children not seriously undernourished.

  9. Aspectos culturais no cuidado familiar à criança com desnutrição = Cultural aspects in family care for children with malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Albuquerque Frota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar o fator cultural que interfere no cuidado do filho desnutrido e propor ações de Educação Popular em Saúde na assistência à criança desnutrida. Trata-se de uma pesquisa-ação desenvolvida no Núcleo de Atenção Médica Integrada – NAMI, realizada no período de janeiro a julho de 2008. Participaram deste estudo oito mães e um pai, cujas idades variavam de 20 a 48 anos. A coleta de dados realizou-se mediante entrevistas semi-estruturadas e oficinas educativas, em que se utilizou análise de conteúdo de Bardin. Após organização dos resultados, foram identificadas as categorias: uma desnutrição desconhecida; oficinas educativas e saber popular; consciência do cuidado. O resultado aponta para uma nova consciência no cuidado com o filho desnutrido na cultura da comunidade. Recomendam-se intervenções de Educação Popular em Saúde adequadas para grupos culturalmente distintos. Nesta perspectiva, há de seconsiderar o conjunto de propostas, viabilizando e incentivando a Educação Popular, para buscar mudanças na constituição de novos sujeitos e práticas comprometidas com o rompimento das barreiras sociais, econômicas e políticas.This study aimed to identify the cultural factor that interferes with the care of undernourished children and to propose actions of Popular Health Education in the assistance of undernourished children. It regards an action research developed at the Nucleus of Integrated Medical Attention – NAMI, performed between January and July 2008. Eight mothers and one father took part in the study, with ages varying from 20 to 48 years old. The data collection took place by means of semi-structured interviews and educational workshops, which were used in the Bardin content analysis. After organizing the result, the following categories were identified: unknown malnutrition; educative workshops and popular knowledge; conscience of care. The results point to a new conscience at the

  10. Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of children's learning is emerging. This new field differs from the old in recognizing that children's learning includes active as well as passive mechanisms and qualitative as well as quantitative changes. Children's learning involves substantial variability of representations and strategies within individual children as well as…

  11. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan K Desai

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test, demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05. After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score, children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1 * min(-1 had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively. This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their

  12. A survey of undernutrition in children under three years of age in rural Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Leilei; Ren, Lin; Yan, Hong

    2014-02-05

    Childhood undernutrition adversely impacts child health and is one of China's largest health burdens. However, there is limited information on the current rate of childhood undernutrition in rural Western China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood undernutrition and explore its association with socio-economic characteristics in Western China. A total of 13,532 children of 0 ~ 36 months of age were recruited as subjects from 45 counties and 10 provinces in Western China with a 3-stage probability proportion to size sampling. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was used to assess the childhood undernutrition. The association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood undernutrition was analyzed using a two-level logistic regression. Based on CIAF, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under three years of age in rural Western China in 2005 was 21.7%. The two-level logistic analysis presented a large difference in undernutrition among the 10 provinces with the highest odds ratio in Guizhou (OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.50, 3.08). Older children had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. As compared to girls, boys were more likely to be undernourished (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.39). The likelihood of undernutrition was lower in subjects of Han ethnicity as opposed to subjects of minority ethnicities (OR 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65, 0.90). In addition, the education levels of the mother as well as wealth index were both negatively associated with childhood undernutrition. Childhood undernutrition still remains a large health challenge in rural Western China. This study has important policy implications for the Chinese government to improve childhood undernutrition in the surveyed areas.

  13. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition in infants and young children in Rwanda: implications for attainment of the Millennium Development Goal to end poverty and hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnès; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Rukundo, Alphonse; Ratnayake, Niloo; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayumba, Josephine; Dowdle, Bridget; Chopyak, Elena; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-12-29

    Progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) to end poverty and hunger has lagged behind attainment of other MDGs due to chronic poverty and worldwide inequity in access to adequate health care, food, clean water, and sanitation. Despite ongoing challenges, Rwanda has experienced economic progress and the expansion of the national public health system during the past 20 years. However, protein-energy malnutrition in children under five is still a major concern for physicians and government officials in Rwanda. Approximately 45% of children under the age of five in Rwanda suffer from chronic malnutrition, and one in four is undernourished. For years, health facilities in Rwanda have used incorrect growth references for measuring nutritional status of children despite the adoption of new standards by the World Health Organization in 2006. Under incorrect growth references used in Rwanda, a number of children under five who were severely underweight were not identified, and therefore were not treated for malnutrition, thus potentially contributing to the under five mortality rate. Given that one in ten children suffer from malnutrition worldwide, it is imperative that all countries with a burden of malnutrition adopt the most up-to-date international standards for measuring malnutrition, and that the problem is brought to the forefront of international public health initiatives. For low income countries in the process of improving economic conditions, as Rwanda is, increasing the identification and treatment of malnutrition can promote the advancement of MDG1 as well as physical and cognitive development in children, which is imperative for advancing future economic progress.

  14. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition in infants and young children in Rwanda: implications for attainment of the Millennium Development Goal to end poverty and hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binagwaho Agnès

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1 to end poverty and hunger has lagged behind attainment of other MDGs due to chronic poverty and worldwide inequity in access to adequate health care, food, clean water, and sanitation. Despite ongoing challenges, Rwanda has experienced economic progress and the expansion of the national public health system during the past 20 years. However, protein-energy malnutrition in children under five is still a major concern for physicians and government officials in Rwanda. Approximately 45% of children under the age of five in Rwanda suffer from chronic malnutrition, and one in four is undernourished. For years, health facilities in Rwanda have used incorrect growth references for measuring nutritional status of children despite the adoption of new standards by the World Health Organization in 2006. Under incorrect growth references used in Rwanda, a number of children under five who were severely underweight were not identified, and therefore were not treated for malnutrition, thus potentially contributing to the under five mortality rate. Given that one in ten children suffer from malnutrition worldwide, it is imperative that all countries with a burden of malnutrition adopt the most up-to-date international standards for measuring malnutrition, and that the problem is brought to the forefront of international public health initiatives. For low income countries in the process of improving economic conditions, as Rwanda is, increasing the identification and treatment of malnutrition can promote the advancement of MDG1 as well as physical and cognitive development in children, which is imperative for advancing future economic progress.

  15. Essential fats: how do they affect growth and development of infants and young children in developing countries? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Harika, Rajwinder K; Eilander, Ans; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2011-10-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to play an essential role in the development of the brain and retina. Intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. However, total fat intake, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA intakes are often low among pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children in developing countries. As breast milk is one of the best sources of ALA and DHA, breastfed infants are less likely to be at risk of insufficient intakes than those not breastfed. Enhancing intake of ALA through plant food products (soy beans and oil, canola oil, and foods containing these products such as lipid-based nutrient supplements) has been shown to be feasible. However, because of the low conversion rates of ALA to DHA, it may be more efficient to increase DHA status through increasing fish consumption or DHA fortification, but these approaches may be more costly. In addition, breastfeeding up to 2 years and beyond is recommended to ensure an adequate essential fat intake in early life. Data from developing countries have shown that a higher omega-3 fatty acid intake or supplementation during pregnancy may result in small improvements in birthweight, length and gestational age based on two randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this effect. Limited data from developing countries suggest that ALA or DHA supplementation during lactation and in infants may be beneficial for growth and development of young children 6-24 months of age in these settings. These benefits are more pronounced in undernourished children. However, there is no evidence for improvements in growth following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children >2 years of age. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Pancreatitis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007679.htm Pancreatitis - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pancreatitis in children occurs when the pancreas becomes swollen ...

  17. Intussusception - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral infection Englarged lymph node in the intestine Polyp or tumor The reason for the problem is more likely to be found in older children. Intussusception can affect both children and adults. However, ...

  18. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  19. Acute necrotising gingivitis in young children from villages with and without noma in Niger and its association with sociodemographic factors, nutritional status and oral hygiene practices: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Cionca, Norbert; Mossi, Mahamadou Abdoulaye; Pittet, Didier; Mombelli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that acute necrotising gingivitis precedes noma disease and that noma clusters in some villages in certain regions of low- and middle-income countries. We sought to assess the prevalence of gingivitis with bleeding in young children from villages with or without a history of noma and to analyse epidemiological differences related to sociodemographic characteristics, nutritional status and oral hygiene practices. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 440 children aged between 2 and 6 years from four villages in the Zinder region of southeast Niger in Africa. In two villages, cases of noma have repeatedly been detected; in the other two, noma has never been identified. We randomly selected 110 participants from each village. The prevalence of acute necrotising gingivitis was significantly higher in the noma villages compared with the non-noma villages (6.8% vs 0.9%; p=0.001). We found differences between the four villages regarding socioeconomic factors, stunting, undernourishment and oral hygiene practices. The type of oral hygiene procedures influenced the amount of dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Children using sand, coal or other abrasive products instead of a toothbrush had a significantly increased likelihood to be diagnosed with acute necrotising gingivitis (p=0.041). Our data suggest that efforts to prevent noma should focus on populations with a high prevalence of acute necrotising gingivitis and include nutritional support and attempts to introduce safe and efficient oral hygiene practices to improve gingival health.

  20. Epilepsy - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizure disorder - children; Convulsion - childhood epilepsy; Medically refractory childhood epilepsy; Anticonvulsant - childhood epilepsy; Antiepileptic drug - childhood epilepsy; AED - childhood epilepsy

  1. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools......, with their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to erase...

  2. O estado de nutrição de crianças internadas por tôdas as causas em hospital assistencial do município de S. Paulo The nutritional status in children interned irrespective of diagnosis in an assistencial Hospital in the city of S. Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondina Rosenburg

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sôbre o estado de nutrição de 2.007 crianças entre 0 e 24 meses de idade, internadas num Hospital Assistencial do Município de São Paulo, revela que o percentual total de desnutridos corresponde a cêrca de 3/4 da população observada. O percentual total de distróficos foi menor em 1963 do que em 1961, mas em 1969 ultrapassou o de 1963. O maior percentual de desnutridos em grau mais avançado (D³, que se encontrava, em 1961 e 1963, no primeiro semestre do segundo ano de vida, deslocou-se em 1969, para o segundo semestre do primeiro ano de vida.The nutritional status of 2.007 children, between zero to 24 months, admitted to an Assistential Hospital of S. Paulo City irrespective of diagnosis, was studied. The total percentage of distrophics in all grades reached almost 3/4 of the supervisioned children. The percentual decrease of undernourished children observed in 1963 did not persist in 1969. The greatest percentage of children in D3 which in 1961 and 1963 was found in the first semester of the 2nd year of life, displaced itself in 1969 to the 2nd semester of the first year of life.

  3. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and potential academic benefits.

  4. Gastroesophageal reflux disease - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic esophagitis - children; Reflux esophagitis - children; GERD - children; Heartburn - chronic - children; Dyspepsia - GERD - children ... GERD. Certain factors can lead to GERD in children, including: Birth defects, such as hiatal hernia , a ...

  5. Thinness among preschool children residing in rural area: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh K Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The legacy of malnutrition especially among preschool children is a huge obstacle to overall national development. India is home to more than one-third of the world′s under-nourished children. While there is global acceptance that body mass index (BMI should be used for assessment of obesity/adiposity in children, there has not been a similar consensus regarding use of BMI for assessment of under-nutrition in children. Materials and Methods: The present study was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out in a primary health center between January and December 2011. Study population comprised of 697 children aged between 2 and 5 years. Weight (kg and height (cm measurements were taken on each subject, and BMI was computed. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Cole′s age- and sex-specific cut-off points of BMI. One-way ANOVA (F-test was performed to test for age differences in means of weight, height, and BMI using SPSS statistical package. Results: A total of 339 boys and 358 females were studied. Result showed that age-combined prevalence of under-nutrition (Grades I, II, and III combined among boys and girls was 63.4% and 58.6% respectively with an overall prevalence of 61.7%. There were significant mean differences between ages among boys in weight (F = 4.160; P < 0.001 and height (F = 6.502; P < 0.001. However, no significant mean differences between ages for BMI (F = 1.098; P = 0.295. Similar findings were seen among girls where in significant differences were observed in weight (F = 3.125, P < 0.001 and height (F = 6.895; P < 0.001 but not with BMI (F = 1.091; P = 0.311. Conclusion: Our study provided evidence that these children were under acute and chronic nutritional stress in the form of thinness.

  6. Heart failure in children - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congestive heart failure - children; Cor pulmonale - children; Cardiomyopathy - children; CHF - children; Congenital heart defect - heart failure in children; Cyanotic heart disease - heart failure in children; Birth ...

  7. Shamans, shepherds, scientists, and others in Jamaican fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Johnson

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Study of the evolution of the character of the Obeah practioner in a selection of novels set in Jamaica and written in the late 19th and 20th c. Author relates the changing image of the Obeah practioner to changes in social outlook and demonstrates one way in which literature responds to changing social relationships. Portraits of the Obeah practioner became increasingly complex as fiction was placed in an historical revisionist framework.

  8. Case Series of Ruptured Jamaican Berry Aneurysms Four Decades ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their aneurysms, which were diagnosed through contrast carotid angiography, were all clipped through fronto-lateral craniotomy under general anaesthesia. The procedures were well tolerated by the patients. There were no complications and no gross additional neurological deficits postoperatively. The wounds had ...

  9. Depression and loneliness in Jamaicans with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Norma A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease (SCD is the commonest genetic disorder in Jamaica, and has life-long implications for those afflicted with it. It is well known that depression and loneliness may exist in those with chronic diseases, but the coexistence of depression and loneliness in people with sickle cell disease is not clear. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and loneliness in the Jamaica Sickle Cell Cohort Study and its age and sex matched controls. Methods 277 patients with SCD and 65 controls were administered a questionnaire that studied demographics, disease severity, depression, and loneliness. Regression analyses were done to examine relationships between outcomes and associated variables. Results Depression was found in 21.6% of patients and 9.4% in controls. Loneliness scores were also significantly higher in patients (16.9 ± 5.1 than in controls (14.95 ± 4.69. Depression was significantly associated with unemployment [OR = 2.9, p-value: In patients with SCD, depression was significantly associated with being unemployed (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2,4.6, p-value:0.01, presence of a leg ulcer (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4, p-value: 0.001, frequent visits (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 8.9, p-value: 0.019, and frequent painful crises (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.8, p-value: 0.035. Not being employed (Coef.: 2.0; p-value: 0.004 and higher educational attainment (tertiary vs. primary education, Coef.: -5.5; p-value: Conclusions Health workers need to actively look for and manage these problems to optimize their patients' total biopsychosocial care.

  10. Resource Allocation Models and Accountability: A Jamaican Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) may be funded privately, by the state or by a mixture of the two. Nevertheless, any state financing of HE necessitates a mechanism to determine the level of support and the channels through which it is to be directed; that is, a resource allocation model. Public funding, through resource allocation models,…

  11. Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease: Jamaican Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, K; Gibson, F; Gardner, R; Warren, L; Fisher, C; Higgs, D; Happich, M; Kulozik, A; Hambleton, I; Serjeant, B E; Serjeant, G R

    2015-09-22

    To review the history of newborn screening for sickle cell disease with especial reference to Jamaica. A summary was done of the history, the development of associated laboratory technology and the implementation of newborn screening for sickle cell disease in Jamaica. Screening was initiated at Victoria Jubilee Hospital, Kingston from 1973-1981, reactivated in 1995 and extended to the University Hospital of the West Indies in 1997 and to Spanish Town Hospital in 1998. From August 2008, there was a progressive recruitment of 12 hospitals in the south and west of Jamaica which has raised the frequency of islandwide newborn coverage from 25% in 1973 to 81%. The results of this extended programme in southwest Jamaica are presented. Dried blood spots collected from the umbilical cord proved stable, cheap and efficient; mean sample collection rates were 98%, maternal contamination occurred in sickle cell (SS) disease, 125 with sickle cell-haemoglobin C (SC) disease and 36 with sickle cell-beta thalassaemia. Of the 327 babies with clinically significant sickle cell syndromes, all except five who died within seven days of birth were confirmed by four to six weeks and recruited to local sickle cell clinics. Early detection of sickle cell disease and recruitment to clinics is known to reduce its morbidity and mortality. The methods currently detailed provide an effective and economic model of newborn screening which may be of value elsewhere.

  12. Project Oasis : A Case Study in Jamaican Development Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gayle, Dennis J.; Drori, Israel D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is concerned with development administration in practice, at the level of a particular project which was implemented in the Caribbean island of Jamaica in 1979. We are essentially concerned with the problem of the degree of fit between operational project objectives and the management of

  13. Two New Oxodolastane Diterpenes from the Jamaican Macroalga Canistrocarpus cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sanjay; Murray, JeAnn; Delgoda, Rupika; Gallimore, Winklet

    2017-05-30

    The chemical investigation of the organic extract of Canistrocarpus cervicornis, collected at Drunken Man's Cay at Port Royal, Jamaica, has led to the isolation of two new dolastane diterpenes 4 R -acetoxy-8 S ,9 S -epoxy-14 S -hydroxy-7-oxodolastane ( 1 ) and 4 R -hydroxy-8 S ,9 S -epoxy-14 S -hydroxy-7-oxodolastane ( 2 ) and the previously isolated dolastane (4 R ,9 S ,14 S )-4,9,14-trihydroxydolast-1(15),7-diene ( 3 ) as a major diterpene constituent. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1 - 3 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines PC3 and HT29. The results revealed that the dolastane diterpenes ( 1 - 3 ) displayed moderate, concentration dependent, cytotoxicity.

  14. Two New Oxodolastane Diterpenes from the Jamaican Macroalga Canistrocarpus cervicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Campbell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of the organic extract of Canistrocarpus cervicornis, collected at Drunken Man’s Cay at Port Royal, Jamaica, has led to the isolation of two new dolastane diterpenes 4R-acetoxy-8S,9S-epoxy-14S-hydroxy-7-oxodolastane (1 and 4R-hydroxy-8S,9S-epoxy-14S-hydroxy-7-oxodolastane (2 and the previously isolated dolastane (4R,9S,14S-4,9,14-trihydroxydolast-1(15,7-diene (3 as a major diterpene constituent. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1–3 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines PC3 and HT29. The results revealed that the dolastane diterpenes (1–3 displayed moderate, concentration dependent, cytotoxicity.

  15. Jamaican survey boosts maternal and child health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-05-23

    May 23, 2012 ... By documenting the leading causes of problems for pregnant women and babies, the researchers made the case for improving their care. Mothers were screened for hypertension, tested (and promptly treated) for syphilis, and encouraged to deliver in hospitals if they had risk factors or lived in remote areas.

  16. Depression and loneliness in Jamaicans with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Monika R; Fraser, Raphael; Lewis, Norma A; Reid, Marvin E

    2010-06-07

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the commonest genetic disorder in Jamaica, and has life-long implications for those afflicted with it. It is well known that depression and loneliness may exist in those with chronic diseases, but the coexistence of depression and loneliness in people with sickle cell disease is not clear. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and loneliness in the Jamaica Sickle Cell Cohort Study and its age and sex matched controls. 277 patients with SCD and 65 controls were administered a questionnaire that studied demographics, disease severity, depression, and loneliness. Regression analyses were done to examine relationships between outcomes and associated variables. Depression was found in 21.6% of patients and 9.4% in controls. Loneliness scores were also significantly higher in patients (16.9 +/- 5.1) than in controls (14.95 +/- 4.69). Depression was significantly associated with unemployment [OR = 2.9, p-value: loneliness.In patients with SCD, depression was significantly associated with being unemployed (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2,4.6, p-value:0.01), presence of a leg ulcer (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4, p-value: 0.001), frequent visits (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 8.9, p-value: 0.019), and frequent painful crises (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.8, p-value: 0.035). Not being employed (Coef.: 2.0; p-value: 0.004) and higher educational attainment (tertiary vs. primary education, Coef.: -5.5; p-value: loneliness after adjusting for genotype. Health workers need to actively look for and manage these problems to optimize their patients' total biopsychosocial care.

  17. uninfected children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To bridge the management gap between nutritional rehabilitation for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and chronic malnutrition, ... Chronically malnourished children with superimposed SAM benefit from the use of RUTF as much as children without ... France), an energy-dense lipid paste made of peanut butter, milk powder ...

  18. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  19. [Social stratification and nutritional anthropometry in children under 15 years old La Escalera, Lara State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villanueva, Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez, Graciela; Papale-Centofanti, Jham; Rodríguez, Dioslibeth; Mendoza, Norelis; Berné, Yelitza

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. From the 852 million of undernourished estimated by FAO between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. Malnutrition in Venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. This work was done with children under 15 years old from La Escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the NBI and Graffar Méndez Castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. The higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. Malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. The least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to NBI; although the Graffar Mendez Castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. Relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother's educational level, three patterns were observed: III, IV and V, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. The predominating mother's educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. It should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother's educational level.

  20. Difficult Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...

  1. Chronic Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Children/Pediatric Chronic Pancreatitis in Children Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? ... will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are children ...

  2. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  3. Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)

  4. Wild Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children are…

  5. Nutritional quality of diets fed to young children in urban slums can be improved by intensive nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palwala, Misba; Sharma, Shweta; Udipi, Shobha A; Ghugre, Padmini S; Kothari, Gopa; Sawardekar, Pradeep

    2009-12-01

    Almost half of India's children under 3 years of age are undernourished and at risk for illness and death. Poor complementary feeding practices contribute substantially to the problem. Promoting appropriate feeding practices is critical for ensuring child survival, health, and nutrition. Nutrition education is a feasible intervention and has the potential to help achieve the Millennium Goals, provided it is implemented appropriately. However, in existing programs, education is too generalized and based on information transfer. To develop and implement a need-based, situation-specific education program for mothers to bring about changes in complementary feeding practices, with emphasis on the quantity and nutritional quality of complementary feeds. Four hundred fourteen mothers or caregivers from five slums in Mumbai participated in a 3-month intervention study. Gaps in complementary feeding practices were identified at baseline. Education was given by trained fieldworkers, first to groups of 8 to 10 mothers or caregivers using innovative modules and demonstrations, followed by weekly monitoring and reinforcement. A simple checklist was used at each follow-up to assess impact, identify practices not adopted, and provide further inputs. Data collected at three follow-ups were compared with baseline and analyzed by SPSS using the chi-square test, the t-test, and ANOVA to assess whether feeding practices of the mothers or caregivers were altered favorably. The intervention process used in this study, the modules used, and the use of the checklist as a monitoring tool were successful in favorably changing complementary feeding practices. Incorporation of these in existing Growth Monitoring and Promotion programs would help to improve child nutrient intakes and thus reduce the prevalence of undernutrition.

  6. Children's Stereotypes of Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…

  7. Health allowance for improving the nutritional status and development of 3-5-year-old left-behind children in poor rural areas of China: study protocol for a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian; Adab, Peymané; Hemming, Karla; Yang, Lina; Qin, Hong; Li, Mingzhi; Deng, Jing; Shi, Jingcheng; Chen, Jihua

    2015-08-18

    Left-behind children (LBC) are recognised as a new social group in China. LBC are young children who are abandoned in rural villages whilst their parents travel to distant urban centres for employment (a new generation of migrant workers). Following the rapid growth in the number of migrant workers, the LBC population is also rapidly increasing. These children are usually left to be raised by elderly grandparents, a single parent, or sometimes distant relatives or neighbours who have limited resources, tend to have a poor education and sometimes are in frail health. Over 40 % of the 61 million LBC in China who are under 5 years old are undernourished, which affects their long-term health and abilities. An intervention that combines a conditional cash transfer (CCT) with nutrition education offers a potential solution. A cluster randomised controlled trial design will be used to allocate 40 villages to the intervention arm (20 villages) or control arm (20 villages). The caregivers and all of the 3-5-year-old LBC will be the target population. Caregivers in the intervention arm will receive a cash allowance conditional on attending nutrition education sessions, ensuring that the LBC will use basic public health services over a 12-month period. At the baseline, midterm (month 6) and end (month 12) of the intervention period, evaluations will be conducted in all 40 villages. Multilevel generalised linear models will be used to analyse the impact of the intervention on nutrition status and other outcomes, adjusting for baseline levels using an analysis of covariance approach. The cost of the intervention will also be estimated. If found to be cost-effective, the findings will inform the development of a sustainable model to improve nutrition status among LBC in rural areas of China. Chinese Trial Register (ChiCTR) identifier: CTXY-140003-2 . Registered on 19 Aug 2014.

  8. in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jabłońska-Jesionowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic rhinitis in children may have different causes, both local – with changes being present only in the nasalcavity – or systemic, with nasal congestion as one of the symptoms of a bigger clinical picture.Aim. the aim of this study was to draw attention to a very rare congenital cause of chronic rhinitis in children – which is hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.Material and methods. A 6-month-old boy was admitted to the department of pediatric otolaryngology of Warsaw medicalUniversity due to chronic nasal obstruction present from birth. Clinical investigation included anterior and posterior rhinoscopy and fiberoscopy of nasopharynx. the mri was also performed before admission. Complete blood count, serum iron level,serum thyroid hormones and level of igG, igA, igm were examined to exclude anaemia, ozaena and hypothyroidism. Antinuclear antibodies (AnA and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (AnCA tests were also ordered to exclude granulomatosiswith polyangiitis. next, a mucosal biopsy of the nasal cavity was performed to exclude primary ciliary dyskinesia. Allergic pricktests were also performed.Results. After genetic tests, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia was diagnosed.Conclusions. 1. every case of chronic nasal congestion in children requires not only adequate treatment, but also thoroughclinical investigation. 2. nasal obstruction may be due to local causes, systemic diseases and genetic disorders. 3. hypohidroticectodermal dysplasia is a very rare genetic disorder that causes severe, even life threatening symptoms, one of which is chronicrhinitis.

  9. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  10. Treating Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  12. Intestinal Polyps (in Children)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these inherited conditions. What are the symptoms of polyps? Children with polyps usually pass blood in the stools. ... to have another colonoscopy. Children that have several polyps, or children whose families have special polyposis syndromes, may need ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is ... this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's ( ...

  14. Divorce: Helping Children Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alicia S.; McBride, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Examines children's reactions to the divorce process and explores ways in which adults can promote growth and adjustment in children of divorce. Suggests ways in which parents, teachers, and counselors can help children. (RC)

  15. Hodgkin lymphoma - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Hodgkin disease - children; Cancer - Hodgkin lymphoma - children; Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma ... of cancer is unknown. But, certain factors may play a role in ... Common early childhood infections also may increase the risk.

  16. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow's milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  1. Prevalence of severe acute malnutrition and associated sociodemographic factors among children aged 6 months–5 years in rural population of Northern India: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Singh Bhadoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 documented that nearly 57 million children are undernourished in India, which is one-third of the world's share. We planned a study to identify the prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM among children aged <5 years in a rural population of Northern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 2 blocks of District Meerut during 2012–2014. A total of 70 villages were identified and all children in the age group 6–60 months were approached through house-to-house visits. Data on sociodemographic profile and anthropometry were collected utilizing standards methods and equipment. The Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height (WHZ were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO reference data as standard. SAM (severe wasting was defined as per the WHO criteria (WHZ score −3 standard deviation or severe visible wasting or bipedal edema. Results: A total of 19,449 children were screened and 18,463 children (age, 32.6 ± 15.4 years, and 53.4% males were enrolled, and 466 were excluded due to erroneous age estimation and physical deformities. The prevalence of SAM was 2.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.02–2.44%, (409/18,463. Multivariate logistic regression documented age (odds ratio [OR]: 0.97, 95% CI 0.96–0.98, nuclear family (OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.54, lower occupation of head of family (OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.05–1.59, and lower paternal education (OR: 1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.91 as independent predictor of SAM. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAM was lower (2.2% in this Northern district of India as compared to national prevalence (7.9%. Younger age, nuclear family, lower parental education, and poor occupation of the head of the family predispose a child to SAM.

  2. Immunizing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jody Macdonald

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.

  3. Why Children Misbehave

    OpenAIRE

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on why children misbehavior.

  4. Children Solve Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) ...

  6. Effective Nutrition Intervention to Treat Children Under 5 Years Old Suffering MAM in Public Primary Health Care Services in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: In El Salvador Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) affects less than 1% of children under 5 years old. The importance of MAM has been neglected as a public health issue. Although moderate wasting is not a condition of medical urgency, it can easily deteriorate. If some of these undernourished children with moderate wasting do not receive adequate support, they may progress towards severe acute malnutrition (SAM), defined by the presence of severe wasting and/or bilateral pitting oedema, which is a life-threatening condition. Since 2010, a complementary feeding program for children from 6 to 59 months old was implemented at the primary health clinics for the management of moderate malnutrition. Program was implemented in 100 municipalities identified with the greatest levels of poverty at national level and it consists of a corn-soy fortified flour to be prepared at home as a poudrige given to children during the routine health controls. During the first months of program implementation, an acceptability test was conducted and it was determined that more than 85% of children had good acceptance of the product. The treatment consists of 45 grams per day of complementary food. Mothers were instructed on how to prepare the product and every month they would have to bring their children to the clinic to receive complementary food and control weight gain. If mothers did not attend the control, a health promotion worker would go visit the mother at their home and bring the complementary food to the child. Objective: Assess the results on nutritional status of children under 5 years old with MAM treated with complementary food during health controls at primary health facilities in El Salvador during January to October 2013. Methods: Transversal study. Inclusion criteria was children 6 to 59 months old attending health controls coming from prioritize municipalities, diagnose with MAM by a health professional without other disease or infections that

  7. Conventional nutritional indices and Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure: which seems more appropriate for assessing under-nutrition among children? A cross-sectional study among school children of the Bengalee Muslim Population of North Bengal,Indi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Sen

    2011-06-01

    -weight. However, with the use of the CIAF, this prevalence increased to 57.6% and included both single and multiple anthropometric failures. The prevalence of CIAF was observed to be higher among boys (60.4% than girls (54.8%, although the differences were not statistically significant (chi-value = 0.96; d.f. 1, p> 0.05. Using the conventional indices too, boys were more affected than girls (stunting: chi-value = 0.20; d.f. 1, p> 0.05; wasting: chi-value = 1.94; d.f. 1, p> 0.05; under-weight: chi-value = 2.81; d.f. 1, p> 0.05.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that under-nutrition among BMP children is a serious health issue. According to our results, the majority of these childrenaged between 5 and 11 years were under-weight, followed by stunting and wasting. The use of the CIAF increased this prevalence. The potential advantage and appropriateness of using CIAF over conventional indices for evaluating child under-nutrition is discussed. Further studies are recommended for the comprehensive understanding of the scenario of under-nourishment in different Indian populations using CIAF. Nutritional intervention programmes are necessary to improve the nutritional status of the children covered in course of this study.

  8. Torture in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level.

  9. Characteristics of undernourished older medical patients and the identification of predictors for undernutrition status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisinger Miruna

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition among older people is a continuing source of concern, particularly among acutely hospitalized patients. The purpose of the current study is to compare malnourished elderly patients with those at nutritional risk and identify factors contributing to the variability between the groups. Methods The study was carried out at the Soroka University Medical Center in the south of Israel. From September 2003 through December 2004, all patients 65 years-of-age or older admitted to any of the internal medicine departments, were screened within 72 hours of admission to determine nutritional status using the short version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF. Patients at nutritional risk were entered the study and were divided into malnourished or 'at risk' based on the full version of the MNA. Data regarding medical, nutritional, functional, and emotional status were obtained by trained interviewers. Results Two hundred fifty-nine elderly patients, 43.6% men, participated in the study; 18.5% were identified as malnourished and 81.5% were at risk for malnutrition according to the MNA. The malnourished group was less educated, had a higher depression score and lower cognitive and physical functioning. Higher prevalence of chewing problems, nausea, and vomiting was detected among malnourished patients. There was no difference between the groups in health status indicators except for subjective health evaluation which was poorer among the malnourished group. Lower dietary score indicating lower intake of vegetables fruits and fluid, poor appetite and difficulties in eating distinguished between malnourished and at-risk populations with the highest sensitivity and specificity as compare with the anthropometric, global, and self-assessment of nutritional status parts of the MNA. In a multivariate analysis, lower cognitive function, education Conclusion Our study indicates that low food consumption as well as poor appetite and chewing problems are associated with the development of malnutrition. Given the critical importance of nutritional status in the hospitalized elderly, further intervention trials are required to determine the best intervention strategies to overcome these problems.

  10. Characteristics of undernourished older medical patients and the identification of predictors for undernutrition status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldblum, Ilana; German, Larisa; Castel, Hana; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Bilenko, Natalya; Eisinger, Miruna; Fraser, Drora; Shahar, Danit R

    2007-11-02

    Undernutrition among older people is a continuing source of concern, particularly among acutely hospitalized patients. The purpose of the current study is to compare malnourished elderly patients with those at nutritional risk and identify factors contributing to the variability between the groups. The study was carried out at the Soroka University Medical Center in the south of Israel. From September 2003 through December 2004, all patients 65 years-of-age or older admitted to any of the internal medicine departments, were screened within 72 hours of admission to determine nutritional status using the short version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). Patients at nutritional risk were entered the study and were divided into malnourished or 'at risk' based on the full version of the MNA. Data regarding medical, nutritional, functional, and emotional status were obtained by trained interviewers. Two hundred fifty-nine elderly patients, 43.6% men, participated in the study; 18.5% were identified as malnourished and 81.5% were at risk for malnutrition according to the MNA. The malnourished group was less educated, had a higher depression score and lower cognitive and physical functioning. Higher prevalence of chewing problems, nausea, and vomiting was detected among malnourished patients. There was no difference between the groups in health status indicators except for subjective health evaluation which was poorer among the malnourished group. Lower dietary score indicating lower intake of vegetables fruits and fluid, poor appetite and difficulties in eating distinguished between malnourished and at-risk populations with the highest sensitivity and specificity as compare with the anthropometric, global, and self-assessment of nutritional status parts of the MNA. In a multivariate analysis, lower cognitive function, education food consumption as well as poor appetite and chewing problems are associated with the development of malnutrition. Given the critical importance of nutritional status in the hospitalized elderly, further intervention trials are required to determine the best intervention strategies to overcome these problems.

  11. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: The Reference Therapy for Undernourished Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Samaras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD combines the deleterious effects of chronic hypoxia, chronic inflammation, insulin-resistance, increased energy expenditure, muscle wasting, and exercise deconditioning. As for other chronic disorders, loss of fat-free mass decreased survival. The preservation of muscle mass and function, through the protection of the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, is an important challenge in the management of COPD patients. As the prevalence of the disease is increasing and the medical advances make COPD patients live longer, the prevalence of COPD-associated nutritional disorders is expected to increase in future decades. Androgenopenia is observed in 40% of COPD patients. Due to the stimulating effects of androgens on muscle anabolism, androgenopenia favors loss of muscle mass. Studies have shown that androgen substitution could improve muscle mass in COPD patients, but alone, was insufficient to improve lung function. Two multicentric randomized clinical trials have shown that the association of androgen therapy with physical exercise and oral nutritional supplements containing omega-3 polyinsaturated fatty acids, during at least three months, is associated with an improved clinical outcome and survival. These approaches are optimized in the field of pulmonary rehabilitation which is the reference therapy of COPD-associated undernutrition.

  12. Early metabolic defects in dexamethasone-exposed and undernourished intrauterine growth restricted rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Somm

    Full Text Available Poor fetal growth, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, is a worldwide health concern. IUGR is commonly associated with both an increased risk in perinatal mortality and a higher prevalence of developing chronic metabolic diseases later in life. Obesity, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome could result from noxious "metabolic programming." In order to better understand early alterations involved in metabolic programming, we modeled IUGR rat pups through either prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoid (dams infused with dexamethasone 100 µg/kg/day, DEX or prenatal undernutrition (dams feeding restricted to 30% of ad libitum intake, UN. Physiological (glucose and insulin tolerance, morphometric (automated tissue image analysis and transcriptomic (quantitative PCR approaches were combined during early life of these IUGR pups with a special focus on their endocrine pancreas and adipose tissue development. In the absence of catch-up growth before weaning, DEX and UN IUGR pups both presented basal hyperglycaemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and pancreatic islet atrophy. Other early metabolic defects were model-specific: DEX pups presented decreased insulin sensitivity whereas UN pups exhibited lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion and more marked alterations in gene expression of pancreatic islet and adipose tissue development regulators. In conclusion, these results show that before any catch-up growth, IUGR rats present early physiologic, morphologic and transcriptomic defects, which can be considered as initial mechanistic basis of metabolic programming.

  13. Tonsillectomies and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...

  14. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  15. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 15, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  16. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, ... to test their independence. To get over separation anxiety, children need to: Feel safe in their home. Trust ...

  17. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese TV Violence and Children No. 13; Updated December 2014 ... violent. Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that ...

  18. Cough in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Cough in children TTR Share | Cough in Children This article has been reviewed by ... MD, FAAAAI As a parent, hearing your child cough may make you feel uneasy. Yet an occasional ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ...

  20. Controversial Books for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, La Vinia Jean

    1979-01-01

    Discusses children's books which have caused controversies pertaining to ethnic stereotyping, labeling, sex instruction, and offensive language, and maintains that controversy is beneficial in that it keeps librarians aware of children's interests. (FM)

  1. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  2. Traveling with children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not suit the child's needs. Small crackers, unsugared cereals, and string cheese make good snacks. Some children can eat fruit without problems. Cookies and sugared cereals make for sticky children. When flying with babies ...

  3. Cold medicines and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000942.htm Cold medicines and children To use the sharing features on ... children younger than age 4. About OTC Cold Medicines Cold medicines do not cure or shorten a ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does the equipment look ... being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, children may experience some discomfort from having to ...

  5. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  6. Sleepwalking and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... event. It is most often triggered by poor sleep habits. In children, sleepwalking starts between ages 6 and 12. It occurs more often in boys than girls. Children outgrow ... to stick to a bedtime routine may help reduce the problem.

  7. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...

  9. Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Divorce and Children No. 1; Updated December 2013 One out of every two marriages today ends in divorce and many divorcing families include children. Parents who ...

  10. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000355.htm Screen time and children To use the sharing features on ... videos is considered unhealthy screen time. Current Screen Time Guidelines Children under age 2 should have no ...

  11. Exercise and activity - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm Exercise and activity - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Children should have many chances to play, run, bike, and play sports during the day. They should ...

  12. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazkova V.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  13. Cholecystectomy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....

  14. Children and grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lie about what is going on. Children are smart. They pick up on dishonesty and will wonder why you are lying. NOT force children who are afraid to go to funerals. Find other ways for your children to remember and honor the deceased. For example, you can light a candle, pray, float a balloon to the ...

  15. Generalized anxiety disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAD - children; Anxiety disorder - children ... The cause of GAD is unknown. Genes may play a role. Children with family members who have an anxiety disorder also may be more likely to have one. Stress may be a factor in developing GAD. Things ...

  16. Children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H B

    1997-01-01

    Limited attention has been directed in the dental literature to the emotional, economic and associated consequences of divorces on children. A general introduction is provided on 1) the numbers of children involved in divorces in different single-parent population groups, with 2) emphasis on the emotional impact of divorce on children and 3) the potential significance for pediatric dental practices.

  17. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  18. Children and the Nintendo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Suzanne M.

    The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…

  19. Kidney Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is Kidney Cancer in Children? Kidney (renal) tumors are very rare in children. Still, the three most common renal tumors found ... treatable and curable. What are the Types of Kidney Cancer in Children? Male urinary tract Medical Illustration Copyright © ...

  20. Children of Different Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Bundgaard, Helle

    2007-01-01

    an apparent paradox in daily practice where on the one hand staff attempt to mute differences between children on the assumption that all children are equal and should be treated as such, while on the other hand distinctions are in practice established when children behave in ways considered inappropriate...

  1. Nordic Children's Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Barbro; Mäkelä, Johanna; Roos, Gun

    2009-01-01

    A study of the different food messages that children encounter and their own reflections of these messages was carried out among fifty-nine children from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.The children took photos of their "foodscapes," including school, home, shops, streets, cafés and restauran...

  2. Writing in Preliterate Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Jean Emile; Fayol, Michel

    1992-01-01

    Dictated words and pictures by 48 young French children, aged 3 to 6 years, demonstrated that young children have the capacity to produce graphics that exhibit some of the characteristics of writing. Developmental stages in children's recognition that their own efforts were not true writing were identified. (SLD)

  3. Constipation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, Merit M.; Boluyt, Nicole; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of childhood constipation has been estimated at 0.7% to 29.6% in the general population worldwide; most children have no obvious aetiological factors. One third of children with chronic constipation continue to have problems beyond puberty. Half of children with chronic faecal impaction

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  5. Children's participation in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...

  6. Children and media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, M

    1989-01-01

    Program developers in India's mass media are turning to the discipline of child development to increase their sensitivity to the special needs and capacities of child audiences. Children are particularly susceptible to having their thoughts, feelings, values, and behavior influenced by media programming. In India, radio is the medium with the greatest opportunity to communicate with children and programming for young people includes educational material, variety programs, quiz shows, drama, and live programs in which children participate. The 1st Children's Film Festival was held in India in 1952 and India participates in the International Center of Films for Children and Young People. Television enjoys popularity among children, illiterates, and the poor, but its potential to create social awareness, change behaviors, and raise the standard of living of the Indian people has not been fully realized. Drama is less able to reach large numbers of children, but offers children the opportunity to participate directly in the portrayal of different characters and emotions. Recently, the tradition of puppetry has been rivived and integrated into India's school curriculum. Finally, India is taking steps to expand the number of books available to children and the Government has established 2 trusts to support the publication of children's literature. Regardless of the form of media, it is important for parents to play a role in ensuring the appropriateness of the programming for the child and processing its content.

  7. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  8. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  9. Fever in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Fever in Infants and ChildrenBecause young children are not ... Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants and Children Fever Fever in Infants and Children Foot Problems Genital ...

  10. Design for children's apps

    OpenAIRE

    MORANTE BONET, MIRIAM; Costa Ferrer, María; Rodríguez Calatayud, María Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Are children under 2 years old exposed to apps? Which ones? How often? What kind of apps would be best suited for small children based on their physical and cognitive development, the evolution of their play patterns and their ability to interact with mobile devices? How to design apps as appropriate as possible for children under 2 years old? These are some of the main questions that are answered through the research presented in this publication. An investigation that demonstra...

  11. Why Are Children Poor?

    OpenAIRE

    Victor R. Fuchs

    1986-01-01

    Data from the 1960, 1970, and 1980 Censuses of Population and the Current Population Surveys of 1980 and 1985 are used to describe and analyze the economic position of children with special emphasis on cross-section differences and variation over time in the incidence of poverty. Between 1959 and 1979 the income available to children tended to follow the same pattern as adult income, but between 1979 and 1984 the trends for children were very unfavorable. Poverty rose, average income fell, an...

  12. Domestic violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  13. Epilepsy surgery in children

    OpenAIRE

    Sita Jayalakshmi; Sudhindra Vooturi; Swapan Gupta; Manas Panigrahi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 60% of all patients with epilepsy suffer from focal epilepsy syndromes. In approximately 15% of these patients, the seizures are not adequately controlled with anticonvulsive drugs, and such patients are potential candidates for surgical treatment and majority are children. Epilepsy surgery in children, who have been carefully chosen, can result in either seizure freedom or a marked (>90%) reduction in seizures in approximately two-third of children with intractable seizures. In...

  14. Children with pervasive refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M

    1991-01-01

    Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed.

  15. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  16. Gastrointestinal Polyps in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Chun Wang; Hung-Chang Lee; Chun-Yan Yeung; Wai-Tao Chan; Chuen-Bin Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal polyps are common in children. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic findings, management, pathology, and recurrence of gastrointestinal polyps in children at Mackay Memorial Hospital. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 50 children with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyps managed at Mackay Memorial Hospital between January 1984 and April 2007. Demographic data; clinical features; polyp size...

  17. Conspicuous firesetting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, J G

    1981-01-01

    The records of 79 children whose firesetting led to referral to a Children's Hearing (the Scottish equivalent of a juvenile court) were examined. All but one of the children were boys. They had very disturbed backgrounds, with much family disruption and absent or unemployed fathers. Firesetting was predominantly a group activity and the damage caused was extensive. Although the children frequently engaged in other offences, in over 90 per cent there was no recurrence of reported firesetting within the limited period of possible follow-up.

  18. [Kidney injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doletskiĭ, S Ia; korol'kova, I A; Shanidze, V V

    1975-02-01

    Anatomo-topographic features of the kidneys in children mostly condition a great incidence of its damage, compared with adults. One hundred and fifty children with renal injuries were observed, 147 of them with closed injuries and 3 -- with open ones. In 10 cases a trauma of anomalously developed kidneys was noted. 124 children were treated conservatively, 26 children were operated upon, in 16 of them organ-preserving operations were performed, in 10 children -- nephrectomay. Late results were followed up in 51 children in terms from 6 months to 10 years (40 patients were treated conservatively and 11 -- were operated upon). As a result of the conducted control investigation all patients were subdivided into three groups: practically healthy children (25), children with roentgenoradiological changes on the part of the injured kidney but without signs of clinico-laboratory symptomatics (11) children with posttraumatic complications (15). An analysis of late results enabled to revise indications to surgery in an acute period of trauma in behalf of their extension.

  19. Spirometry in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Kana Ram

    2013-06-01

    Respiratory disorders are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in children. Spirometry is a useful investigation for diagnosing and monitoring a variety of paediatric respiratory diseases, but it is underused by primary care physicians and paediatricians treating children with respiratory disease. We now have a better understanding of respiratory physiology in children, and newer computerised spirometry equipment is available with updated regional reference values for the paediatric age group. This review evaluates the current literature for indications, test procedures, quality assessment, and interpretation of spirometry results in children. Spirometry may be useful for asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital or acquired airway malformations and many other respiratory diseases in children. The technique for performing spirometry in children is crucial and is discussed in detail. Most children, including preschool children, can perform acceptable spirometry. Steps for interpreting spirometry results include identification of common errors during the test by applying acceptability and repeatability criteria and then comparing test parameters with reference standards. Spirometry results depict only the pattern of ventilation, which may be normal, obstructive, restrictive, or mixed. The diagnosis should be based on both clinical features and spirometry results. There is a need to encourage primary care physicians and paediatricians treating respiratory diseases in children to use spirometry after adequate training.

  20. Inhalant allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) ... are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  2. Preparing Children for Heart Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospital or in the neighborhood. Learn more about: Feeding Tips Children's Special Needs Learn more about your child and ... Cardiac Catheterizations Heart Transplants Preparing Children for Surgery - Feeding Tips - Children's Special Needs Physical Activity Recommendations for Heart Health • ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risks? What are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known ... newborns, infants and older children. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  4. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Contact Us Share ACE presents key information ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  5. Children of Deaf Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaerde, B.; Baker, A.E.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.

    2016-01-01

    The hearing children of Deaf parents grow up in two cultures with two languages. They are similar to other bilingual, bicultural children in many ways but are special also. They can be in conflict between two worlds and often carry an extra burden of responsibility in functioning as a bridge between

  6. Strike Laws, Not Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, a coalition of child advocacy groups, the Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth, and the Law, challenged Section 43 of Canada's criminal code, which permits "reasonable force" in disciplining children. The heavily debated issue turns on judges' varied interpretations. A court decision is expected by year's end. (MLH)

  7. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  8. Allergic rhinosinusitis in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    sent in persistent allergic rhinitis will eventually occur in the mucous mem- branes of the ostiomeatal units in the middle meati leading ultimately to allergic inflammation of the sinuses. The other important factor is that sinusi- tis may also occur as a result of viral infections in these allergic children as it does in normal children.

  9. Pancreatitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyasekaran, Malathi; Biradar, Vishnu; Ramaswamy, Ganesh; Srinivas, S; Ashish, B; Sumathi, B; Nirmala, D; Geetha, M

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic disease in children has a wide clinical spectrum and may present as Acute pancreatitis (AP), Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP), Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and Pancreatic disease without pancreatitis. This article highlights the etiopathogenesis and management of pancreatitis in children along with clinical data from five tertiary care hospitals in south India [Chennai (3), Cochin and Pune].

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also very helpful. Often, a monitor with children's programming and/or children’s DVDs are available in the ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT ( ...

  11. Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Helping Children in Rural Areas Children's Mental Health Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when ...

  12. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  13. Counseling Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    This guide on counseling abused children was written to help counselors meet the needs of children and adolescents and to provide ways of working with the child's family. Chapter 1 presents an overview of child maltreatment by identifying types of maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect)…

  14. Constipation in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in up to one third of children at some stage during their development.1 Up to 25% of children who are referred ... a daily soft bowel action, which should be maintained for at least three months prior to gradual withdrawal while .... intervention as being effective in treatment.10. So what are the cornerstones of treatment?

  15. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  16. The Punishment of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…

  17. Children's Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Sarah, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The federal government makes more than 200 distinct investments in children. These include traditional children's initiatives like education and child abuse and neglect prevention. They also include other investments that improve the lives of kids, like Medicaid and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly Food Stamps). Following a…

  18. Latchkey Children and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Karen

    Various agencies are attempting to meet the needs of latchkey children through programs run by parent alliances, community organizations, social service agencies, youth groups, schools, businesses, churches, and private day care centers. Studies of latchkey children during the past 15 years have concentrated on measuring the effects of self-care…

  19. Young Children as Curators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Literature that addresses young children's learning in galleries and museums typically concentrates on what is already offered and discusses what has proven to be effective, or not, in accommodating their needs. This article offers insight into how objects can be explored with early years children at school, to create greater understanding of…

  20. Children, Divorce and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Janice M.

    1981-01-01

    An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)

  1. Divorce and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Mark J.

    The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)

  2. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  3. Being Real for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    1995-01-01

    Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…

  4. Culture and Children's Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…

  5. Defending America's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Marian Wright

    1989-01-01

    For imperative moral and practical reasons, our commitment to children must transcend political rhetoric and produce a continuum of programs beginning before birth and sustained until adulthood. Children need defenses against preventable infant mortality, childhood diseases, homelessness, unsafe childcare, and early sex and parenthood. Families…

  6. Children's participation in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig

    2012-01-01

    In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the 10 planning of/and participation in both education...

  7. Children's knowledge about medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna B.; Zimmer, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    of the path analytic model analyzed. Children, aged 7 and 10 years, and their primary caregivers were interviewed during 1992 and 1993. Recruiting was done at summer camps in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and environs, resulting in a convenience sample of 101 children, all white and middle class. Ordinary least...

  8. Horses Helping Children Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Louise B.; Lindsey, Allison

    2017-01-01

    A review of Animal-Assisted Therapy and related terms such as "Animal-Assisted Activities" is presented as an introduction to the exploration of additional equine applications with children. Animal-Assisted Therapy has been studied, but Animal-Assisted Activities with children facing normal developmental struggles has not received much…

  9. Adopted Children and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Adopted Children & Discipline Page Content Article Body Some parents are hesitant to discipline the child they have adopted. They may set fewer limits than they would for a birth child. They ...

  10. Dengue in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Groot, R. de

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with

  11. Poliomyelitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Koloskova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of poliomyelitis in children. The history of this disease and the current state of morbidity in Ukraine are considered. The features of the clinical pattern in children are described. Diagnostic criteria and treatment methods are presented.

  12. Gifted Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.

    2011-01-01

    Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…

  13. CHRONIC CONSTIPATION IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    E.G. Tsymbalova

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses questions of classification, anatomic and physiological peculiarities and pathogenetic aspects of chronic constipations forming in children. The problems of diagnostics of chronic constipation and its treatment with spasmolytics are analyzed.Key words: children, chronic constipation, diagnostics, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2): 173–179)

  14. Monitoring asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W; Baraldi, Eugenio; Brand, Paul L P; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Eber, Ernst; Frischer, Thomas; Hedlin, Gunilla; Kulkarni, Neeta; Lex, Christiane; Mäkelä, Mika J; Mantzouranis, Eva; Moeller, Alexander; Pavord, Ian; Piacentini, Giorgio; Price, David; Rottier, Bart L; Saglani, Sejal; Sly, Peter D; Szefler, Stanley J; Tonia, Thomy; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C

    2015-04-01

    The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. To reach this goal in children with asthma, ongoing monitoring is essential. While all components of asthma, such as symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, may exist in various combinations in different individuals, to date there is limited evidence on how to integrate these for optimal monitoring of children with asthma. The aims of this ERS Task Force were to describe the current practise and give an overview of the best available evidence on how to monitor children with asthma. 22 clinical and research experts reviewed the literature. A modified Delphi method and four Task Force meetings were used to reach a consensus. This statement summarises the literature on monitoring children with asthma. Available tools for monitoring children with asthma, such as clinical tools, lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammatory markers, are described as are the ways in which they may be used in children with asthma. Management-related issues, comorbidities and environmental factors are summarised. Despite considerable interest in monitoring asthma in children, for many aspects of monitoring asthma in children there is a substantial lack of evidence. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  15. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Renk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005. Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered.

  16. Children's bone health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials Children ...

  18. 2018-05-01T08:41:37Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grooming undernourished children causes children to start life at mentally sub optimal levels. This becomes a serious developmental threat. Lack of education especially amongst women disadvantages children, especially as far as healthy practices like breastfeeding and child healthy foods are concerned. Adverse climatic ...

  19. Hypercalcemic Disorders in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M

    2017-01-01

    Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present...... with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms. The causes...... of hypercalcemia in children can be classified as parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent or PTH-independent, and may be congenital or acquired. PTH-independent hypercalcemia, i.e. hypercalcemia associated with a suppressed PTH, is commoner in children than PTH-dependent hypercalcemia. Acquired causes of PTH...

  20. Children with Usher syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods: This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral...... disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results: Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation......, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion: Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral...

  1. Pesticides and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, Vincent F.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  2. A Comparative Study of Behavior Problems among Left-Behind Children, Migrant Children and Local Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the prevalence of behavioral problems among left-behind children, migrant children and local children in China, and to compare the risks of behavioral problems among the three types of children. Data on 4479 children aged 6–16 used in this study were from a survey conducted in China in 2017. The school-age version of the Children Behavior Checklist was used to measure children’s behavioral problems. Descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, and logistic regressions were conducted. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 18.80% and 13.59% for left-behind children and migrant children, respectively, both of which were higher than that of local children. Logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustments for individual and environmental variables, the likelihood of total, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems for left-behind children and migrant children were higher than those for local children; left-behind children had a higher likelihood of internalizing problems than externalizing problems, while migrant children had a higher prevalence of externalizing problems. Left-behind children had a higher prevalence of each specific syndrome than migrant and local children. Both individual and environmental factors were associated with child behavioral problems, and family migration may contribute to the increased risks. Left-behind and migrant children were more vulnerable than local children to behavioral problems.

  3. Informational Books for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Mega Asri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ignorance of reading activity is a result of condition in which people are not accustomed to read because they are not familiar with the culture of writing. It is fueled by the entry of telecommunications technologies and broadcasting, especially children digital native generation. The ability to speak and communicate in children is very influential in the development of social interaction. Besides the language and communication skills are directly related to the process of thinking and developments in the search for solutions to problems in children. Informational books is one medium that can help the development of language and communication skills in children. Informational books can convey knowledge of all the things they want to know the child, about science, about everything that exists and happens around the child to see the writing in a language that has a characteristic and image. The method used is literature study and data collection techniques to conduct a study review of the relevant literature. Informational books children as a means of communication, various forms of media including books have a major influence in shaping attitudes and behavior of children. A wide variety of informational books that has developed its own current trend where its use on children in need of assistance.

  4. Equestrian injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Alex G; Wiggins, Alexandra; Chen, Mike K; Kays, David W; Islam, Saleem; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Equestrian activities are regarded by some as high-risk sports, and our recent experience suggested this to be true. We undertook this study to review our experience with pediatric equestrian injuries. After institutional review board approval, we reviewed emergency department and hospital admissions for children 0 to 18 years, with equestrian trauma, over an 11-year period. There were 164 encounters with 135 girls and 29 boys. Most injuries (82%) occurred after falling or being thrown from the animal, and only 12% occurred during jumping or rodeo competitions. The remaining injuries were secondary to being trampled, kicked, or trapped under the animal. Eighty-seven children required hospital admission. Lacerations and contusions (58%) or orthopedic injuries (31%) were most common in the emergency department cohort. In the admission cohort, injury sites included orthopedic (34%), head (23%), abdomen (21%), and chest (11%). Multiple injuries occurred in 13%. A significant number of children required surgical interventions, including 19 orthopedic procedures, 4 laparotomies, 3 facial reconstructions, and 2 craniotomies. The average length of stay was nearly 4 days, with 60% of the children requiring intensive care admission. There were no deaths. One child was discharged to rehab, the rest were sent home. In our experience, more than one third of the children admitted after sustaining injuries in horse-related sports required surgical interventions. Children participating in equestrian activities are at risk for substantial injury, and pediatric care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating these children.

  5. Benign pneumatosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, L.Z.; Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Background. In pediatrics, pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is usually due to necrotizing enterocolitis in premature newborns. Beyond infancy, PI is uncommon. ''Benign pneumatosis'' is PI in patients with few or no symptoms that resolves with conservative management. Objective. Our goal was to better characterize benign PI in children. Our investigation focused on identifying underlying risk factors, symptoms at time of diagnosis, management and outcome. Materials and methods. Available medical records and radiographs of children with pneumatosis intestinalis from 1990 to 1998 were reviewed for underlying conditions, symptoms at time of radiographs, management and outcome. Results. Thirty-seven children (mean age 4 years) were included. Thirty-two children had identifiable risk factors. Twenty -five children were immunocompromised by their underlying conditions or therapeutic regimen. Thirty-five children were managed conservatively with resolution of PI. Two patients, however, required surgery and one patient died. Conclusion. Benign pneumatosis does occur in children. The majority have underlying risk factors, most commonly related to immunosuppression. Clinical deterioration is the most useful indicator for surgical intervention. In most patients PI resolves with conservative management. (orig.)

  6. Detention of Immigrant Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Julie M; Griffin, Marsha; Shapiro, Alan J

    2017-05-01

    Immigrant children seeking safe haven in the United States, whether arriving unaccompanied or in family units, face a complicated evaluation and legal process from the point of arrival through permanent resettlement in communities. The conditions in which children are detained and the support services that are available to them are of great concern to pediatricians and other advocates for children. In accordance with internationally accepted rights of the child, immigrant and refugee children should be treated with dignity and respect and should not be exposed to conditions that may harm or traumatize them. The Department of Homeland Security facilities do not meet the basic standards for the care of children in residential settings. The recommendations in this statement call for limited exposure of any child to current Department of Homeland Security facilities (ie, Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement facilities) and for longitudinal evaluation of the health consequences of detention of immigrant children in the United States. From the moment children are in the custody of the United States, they deserve health care that meets guideline-based standards, treatment that mitigates harm or traumatization, and services that support their health and well-being. This policy statement also provides specific recommendations regarding postrelease services once a child is released into communities across the country, including a coordinated system that facilitates access to a medical home and consistent access to education, child care, interpretation services, and legal services. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Onychomycosis in Icelandic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurgeirsson, B; Kristinsson, K G; Jonasson, P S

    2006-08-01

    Onychomycosis is a rare disorder in children. Few studies exist on the incidence or prevalence of onychomycosis in children. To examine the epidemiology of childhood onychomycosis in Iceland during the period 1982-2000. Results from all mycological samples taken from children in Iceland from 1982 to 2000 were examined. Information about the requesting physician, unique social security number, date of birth, sex, results of culture and microscopy were registered. Growth of a dermatophyte was taken as an indication of a case of onychomycosis. During the period 1982-2000 a total of 493 samples from 408 Icelandic children, aged 0-17 years, were examined. Dermatophytes were cultured from 148 (30.0%) samples. During the period 1982-85, the mean annual incidence of positive cultures was 1.65 per 100,000, increasing to 21.30 per 100,000 for the years 1996-2000. Trichophyton rubrum was the dominating organism and was found in 102/148 cases positive for the growth of a dermatophyte. The incidence of positive dermatophyte cultures increased with age and was found in eight children aged 0-4, and in 57 children aged 10-14 years. Onychomycosis is rare in children, but increases with age. It seems that onychomycosis increased during the study period, but it is not clear if this was due to a true increase in the prevalence of onychomycosis or an increased awareness of onychomycosis, or both.

  8. Vesicoureteric reflux in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela A Kari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2% had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8% children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV (46.8%, neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%, non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB (21.5%, or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%. Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux.

  9. Hearing Aid and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Fatahi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.

  10. RECURRENT CROUP IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Piskunova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examination of 1849 children, entering children's infectioushospitalofVladivostokwith the clinical picture of croup of viral etiology. The clinical features of primary and recurrent croup are described. Frequency of recurrent croup inVladivostokis 8%. Children with a recurrent croup had the burdened premorbid background, and also persistent herpetic infections (cytomegalic infection in 42,9% cases, cytomegalic infection in combination with the herpes simplex virus -1. Frequency of croups substantially rose in the period of epidemic of influenza.

  11. Tuberculosis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tania A

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death worldwide from a single bacterial pathogen. The World Health Organization estimates that annually 1 million children have tuberculosis (TB) disease and many more harbor a latent form. Accurate estimates are hindered by under-recognition and challenges in diagnosis. To date, an accurate diagnostic test to confirm TB in children does not exist. Treatment is lengthy but outcomes are generally favorable with timely initiation. With the End TB Strategy, there is an urgent need for improved diagnostics and treatment to prevent the unnecessary morbidity and mortality from TB in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing children for allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...... or recurrent or severe symptoms suggestive for allergy should undergo an appropriate diagnostic work-up, irrespective of their age. Adequate allergy testing may also allow defining allergic trigger in common symptoms. We provide here evidence-based guidance on when and how to test for allergy in children based...

  13. Environmental Design for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mary, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The special issue of the journal, Children in Contemporary Society, contains 17 brief articles on environmental design for young handicapped and normal children. Articles have the following titles: "Introduction", "Environmental Design and Architecture", "Why Is Environmental Design Important to Young Children", "Children's Hospital National…

  14. Cohabitation and Children's Family Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…

  15. Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as…

  16. Seeing Children's Pleasure with Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…

  17. Sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wormald, R

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.

  18. Children's Literature on Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, James

    Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including the: kidneys and bladder. bones. liver and ... PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and ...

  20. Secondhand Smoke and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoking also is associated with neonatal death from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, the major cause of death ... fluid are the most common cause of children’s hearing loss. When they do not respond to medical treatment, ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine ... supplements and if he or she has any allergies. Also inform your doctor of any recent illnesses ...

  2. Building Resilience in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to succeed in life. That is why Kenneth Ginsburg, M.D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing ... resilience in children, teens, and young adults. Dr. Ginsburg has identified seven “C”s of resilience, recognizing that “ ...

  3. Children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløvgaard, Marius; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Sørensen, Thomas Lund

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of Greenlandic children's disease pattern and contacts to the health care system are sparse and have focused on the primary health care sector. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the disease pattern and use of health care facilities of children aged 0-10 in two Greenlandic...... cohorts. METHODS AND DESIGN: In a retrospective, descriptive follow-up of the Ivaaq (The Greenland Child Cohort) and the CLEAR (climate changes, environmental contaminants and reproductive health) birth cohorts (total n=1,000), we reviewed medical records of children aged 6-10 in 2012 with residence...... in Nuuk or Ilulissat (n=332). Data on diseases and health care system contacts were extracted. Diagnoses were validated retrospectively. Primary health care contacts were reviewed for a random sample of 1:6. RESULTS: In 311 children with valid social security number, the total number of health care system...

  4. Headache in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soee, Ann Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific multidisciplinary treatment programme for children with headache and to describe the concept and settings of the Children's Headache Clinic in Denmark. Method: All new patients were included and evaluations were conducted...... after six and 12 months. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments were offered by a team of specialists (physicians, headache nurses, a physiotherapist and a psychologist). Patients: The subjects comprised 169 children (mean age 11.7 (range 4-17), 91 females, 78 males), 39% of whom suffered...... from chronic headache (≥15 days/month). All children were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition; 20% had migraine, 34% tension-type headache, 27% mixed headache, 4% medication- overuse headache, and 15% were diagnosed with other types of headaches...

  5. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Design. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20...... homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. Findings. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation...

  6. Giving Medicine to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Share Tweet ... right medicine and the right amount More in Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos ...

  7. Treating Children as Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her own style and needs, initially because of birth order and inborn traits, and later because of experiences. ... appropriately for their child's developmental age and needs. Birth order and family size also influence your children's development. ...

  8. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano T. DeMarco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.

  9. Preschool Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    Differences in behavioral, social, and school functioning of 58 preschool-age (3 -5 years) children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 36 normal controls were examined at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.

  10. Children and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as: Calcium gylcerophosphate (Prelief) Yoga Relaxation techniques Pelvic floor physical therapy Oral IC therapies for children with IC include ... Prostatitis Constipation Endometriosis Fibromyalgia Irritable Bowel ... Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  12. Children with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition in elementary school cannot understand algebra in high school. The child, trying very hard to learn, becomes more and more frustrated, and develops emotional problems such as low self-esteem in the face of repeated failure. Some children ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) ... molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can be superimposed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... beforehand, especially if sedation is to be used. Most nuclear medicine exams will involve an injection in ... PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and ...

  15. Pityriasis Versicolor in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Miskeen

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A six year survey revealed 132 cases of pityriasis versicolor in children below 10 years of age. This constituted 6.70/o of all cases of pityriasis versicol and 24.8 % of cutaneous

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... stool. Your child should also drink plenty of water to help flush the radioactive material from his ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's ( ... with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera ...

  18. Healthy Environments for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BY POISONOUS FUMES! ...PLAYTIME ACCIDENTS... NO SWIMMING ...AND DROWNING!! 11 SO, WITH SO MANY DANGERS, WHAT CAN ... BE WELL VENTILATED! AND SMOKERS SHOULD AVOID SMOKING NEAR CHILDREN! WE MUST TAKE CARE TO PREVENT DISEASES ...

  19. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón

    2012-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  20. Evacuation of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run

    Saving human lives is the highest priority in case of fire, according to fire codes around the world. Codes state that everyone should be able to escape to safety in case of fire. In order to design buildings that enable this the available safe egress time (ASET) must be held up against...... is to provide new data and information on children’s evacuation, which is a step towards including children in evacuation models and calculations. Little is known about children’s evacuation characteristics in fire compared to other parts of the population. In recent years there has been more focus on children......, indicating that an alarm with audio signal is preferable to a light signal only or no alarm at all. Children’s evacuation cannot be described using adults’ evacuation models throughout. Young children are slower than adults and travel speed increases with age. At the age of 12 years children can be described...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... computer aids in creating the images from the data obtained by the gamma camera. A probe is ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to help ... children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or hand. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. ... or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to the exam, but they may be given ...

  5. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood. The pediatrician will most often draw the child's growth curve on a growth chart . Children with growth ... Most cases are not preventable. Review your child's growth chart ... child's growth rate, evaluation by a specialist is recommended.

  6. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including ...

  8. Parental Investments in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta

    This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis on qu...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to ...

  10. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into the kidney (reflux). bone cancer, infections and trauma. gastrointestinal bleeding and motility. tumors and the spread of cancerous cells in the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid ...

  12. Dental Exam for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months to 1 year. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and the American Dental Association recommend scheduling a ... age children and adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry recommends scheduling regular dental checkups, with the most ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need sedation for the imaging. During this procedure, parents are usually allowed and often encouraged to stay ... discomfort from having to remain still during imaging. Parents are encouraged to stay with their children to ...

  14. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be placed into the bladder, which may cause temporary discomfort. It is important that your child ... images are being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, children may experience some discomfort from ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child is taking as well as vitamins and herbal supplements and if he or she has any ... What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also very helpful. Often, a monitor with children's programming and/or children’s DVDs are available in the ... techniques for a variety of indications, and the functional information gained from nuclear medicine exams is often ...

  18. Talipes equinovarus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timaev M.Kh.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal of the review is to present data on etiology, prevalence, classification of different types TEN/ in children. Mechanisms of pathological foot type, indications for conservative and surgical methods of treatment have been analyzed.

  19. Epilepsy - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000127.htm Epilepsy in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has epilepsy . People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  20. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT ( ...

  3. Ibuprofen dosing for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000772.htm Ibuprofen dosing for children To use the sharing features ... much of this medicine can be harmful. How Ibuprofen can Help Your Child Ibuprofen is a type ...

  4. Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    2009-01-01

    supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....

  5. Polyps in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Adolph, Vincent R.; Bernabe, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Children with polyps usually present with bleeding or pain. Most pediatric intestinal polyps are sporadic and are not associated with malignancy. Polyposis syndromes are also well described in children. Peutz–Jeghers syndrome is the most common hamartomatous polyposis condition. Although the polyps are not thought to be premalignant in most patients, there is an increased risk of other cancers. Familial adenomatous polyposis is also seen in childhood and is associated with a very high risk of...

  6. Children's participation in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... that children’s participation unfolds throughout the entire project; it shapes funding proposals, research problems and design activities and is, in turn, itself being shaped by these....

  7. Hemorrhagic Stroke in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan M.D., Lori C.; Hillis M.D., Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research ...

  8. Brain SPECT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Baulieu, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author)

  9. Illustration in children's literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Pascolati

    2017-01-01

    Since the origins of children's literature, the image plays an important role in the construction of the meanings of this literary text, but its participation in the children's book goes from mere coadjuvant to primacy in relation to the written word. In line with the growth of the publishing production of picture books, its presence in the classroom and theoretical-critical reflections about its contribution to literary reading, I develop here some ideas about different roles played by the i...

  10. Snoring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasneek; Waters, Karen Ann

    2015-09-01

    Chronic snoring (≥4 nights per week) is not benign. Otherwise healthy children with chronic snoring and evidence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy can be referred directly for adenotonsillectomy. Snoring children snoring or without significant medical comorbidities can be managed with a combination of medical and surgical interventions listed herein. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Symptomatic epilepsy in children

    OpenAIRE

    Еlaginykh E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Research goals were to evaluate the etiological structure of symptomatic epilepsy in children, age structure of period of disease manifestation, average length of latent period among children with different characters of lesions, dependence between frequency of seizures and character of lesion. Material and methods. A total of 180 case-records of patients with symptomatic epilepsy were analyzed by the next criteria: anamnesis, materials of electroencephalogram and neurovisualization. Results....

  12. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  13. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  14. CHILDREN AS TARGET MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    SOMESFALEAN Vasilica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the reasons that lead marketers to give greater importance to children, how to explain this increased potential that children have on the existing market and strategies that marketers and companies use in order to reach this market. To this end we analyzed a series of articles, studies and research conducted on the subject, with implications in psychology, sociology, but especially in marketing. The results obtained show very interesting issues regard...

  15. Mobile telephony and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karipidis, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the possibility of adverse health effects related to radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure from mobile phones and their associated base stations. Of particular public concern in this context are children. In its report the Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (IEGMP) recommended that the widespread use of mobile phones by children should be discouraged citing that children may be more vulnerable because of their developing nervous system, their greater absorption of energy in the tissue of the head and a longer lifetime of exposure. However, more recently the Health Council of the Netherlands disagreed with the IEGMP and concluded that there is no convincing scientific data to restrict children from using mobile phones. The World Health Organization states that none of there centre views have found that exposure to the RF fields form mobile phones or their base stations causes any adverse health consequence. However there has been limited scientific research specifically focussed on children. Future research will be required to address the issue of mobile telephony and children. Copyright (2004) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  16. To children with love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K T

    1995-01-01

    People debating population growth in India and why adults in India choose to bear so many children seem to either not understand or overlook that people in India like children; the more the better. Indeed, children interest every Indian, with new mothers receiving advice on baby care from all quarters. The child is king in India, spoiled, but generally well-behaved. It could be that children receive so much attention from many loving relatives that they do not need to act out in order to get attention. Having a child is the focus and meaning of married life. Without a child, life loses its color and joy. Moreover, childless couples face the insecurity of not having children to care for them once they grow old. The author notes her failure to observe children who were poorly adjusted and sad because they habitually shared a bed with their parents. As concerned individuals ponder the perils of global population growth, they might consider the merit of the Indian view on the subject.

  17. TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Esposito

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB in children is a neglected aspect of the TB epidemic despite it constituting 20% or more of all TB cases in many countries with high TB incidence. Childhood TB is a direct consequence of adult TB but remains overshadowed by adult TB because it is usually smear-negative. Infants and young children are more likely to develop life-threatening forms of TB than older children and adults due to their immature immune systems. Therefore, prompt diagnoses are extremely important although difficult since clinical and radiological signs of TB can be non-specific and variable in children. Despite undeniable advances in identifying definite, probable, or possible TB markers, pediatricians still face many problems when diagnosing TB diagnosis. Moreover, curing TB can be difficult when treatment is delayed and when multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens are the cause of the disease. In these cases, the prognosis in children is particularly poor because MDR-TB treatment and treatment duration remain unclear. New studies of diagnostic tests and optimal treatment in children are urgently needed with the final goal of developing an effective anti-TB vaccine.

  18. Heelys injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D; Arjandas, M; Lim, K B L; Lee, E H

    2006-05-01

    Heelys, a type of shoes with stealth wheels, are extremely popular among children in Singapore. The widespread availability of cheap imitations has led to a proliferation of young users. Coupled with a total lack of safety equipment and instructions, these shoes can lead to significant injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and type of injuries sustained by children using Heelys. During a seven-month period from February to August 2004, all children treated at the Paediatric Orthopaedic Department of the KK Women's and Children's Hospital, were asked if the injury was sustained while "heeling". All the patients were reviewed by the authors. A total of 37 patients with significant injuries sustained while "heeling" were identified. Their radiographs and clinical charts were reviewed. The patients and/or their parents were also interviewed to obtain additional information. Upper limb injuries were by far the most common. Distal radius fractures and elbow injuries predominated. None of the children used safety gear. "Heeling" can lead to serious injuries despite the relatively low velocity involved. Children and their parents need to be educated on the use of safety gear.

  19. Children as digital rights agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    the role of the “adult world” is. We need to focus more on the active role that children and adolescents play, according to age, skills and various capacities, in identifying, reflecting upon and acting according to opportunities and challenges in relation to digital media and digital rights (Hartman et al...... 2007). The paper presents a model for analyzing the intersecting levels of children as agents in relation to digital risks and rights: Children as peer-to-peer agents. Children provide mutual practical guidance; experience sharing; advice. re. to risk and harm. Children as advocates/ politicians....... Children participate in youth parliaments; media councils; Safer Internet day; IGF; NGOs, Children as informants. Children contribute to research; media coverage; content providers; reporters (of negative content/ behavior The model is primarily supported by empirical data from the Net Children Go Mobile...

  20. Can the Jamaican Security Forces Successfully Reduce the Violent Impact of Gangs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    movements in the form of local gangs, youth gangs and juvenile delinquents. In between these two extremes are other gangs of varied forms, composition and...also experiences high unemployment and high exposure to crime making them easy recruits for gangs (see appendix A). Anthony Harriott, Professor of...typical socio-economic factors. The socio-economic factors include poverty, widespread unemployment and absence of educational opportunities, lack of

  1. Cost of care of chronic non-communicable diseases in Jamaican patients: the role of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Fray-Aiken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic cost of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (CNCDs and the portion attributable to obesity among patients in Jamaica. METHODS: The cost-of-illness approach was used to estimate the cost of care in a hospital setting in Jamaica for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, breast cancer, colon cancer, osteoarthritis, and high cholesterol. Cost and service utilization data were collected from the hospital records of all patients with these diseases who visited the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI during 2006. Patients were included in the study if they were between15 and 74 years of age and if female, were not pregnant during that year. Costs were categorized as direct or indirect. Direct costs included costs for prescription drugs, consultation visits (emergency and clinic visits, hospitalizations, allied health services, diagnostic and treatment procedures. Indirect costs included costs attributed to premature mortality, disability (permanent and temporary, and absenteeism. Indirect costs were discounted at 3% rate. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 554 patients (40% males (60% females. The economic burden of the nine diseases was estimated at US$ 5,672,618 (males 37%; females 63% and the portion attributable to obesity amounted to US$ 1,157,173 (males 23%; females 77%. Total direct cost was estimated at US$ 3,740,377 with female patients accounting for 69.9% of this cost. Total indirect cost was estimated at US$ 1,932,241 with female patients accounting for 50.6% of this cost. The greater cost among women was not found to be statistically significant. Overall, on a per capita basis, males and females accrued similar costs-of-illness (US$ 9,451.75 vs. US$ 10,758.18. CONCLUSIONS: In a country with per capita GDP of less than US$ 5,300, a per capita annual cost of illness of US$ 10,239 for CNCDs is excessive and has detrimental implications for the health and development of Jamaica.

  2. Marital Satisfaction: Factors for Black Jamaicans and African Americans Living in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nivischi Ngozi

    2009-01-01

    Marital satisfaction is the strongest predictor for happiness in many areas of life (Russel & Wells, 1994). A satisfying marriage is associated with better general adjustment and fewer health problems (Bray & Jouriles, 1995). Factors that contribute to marital satisfaction reported by researchers include religion and spirituality (Anthony,…

  3. The Determinants of Sexual Intercourse Before Age 16 Years Among Rural Jamaican Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi J. Ekundayo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual and family factors have been hypothesized to influence adolescent sexual behavior, but the extent to which this is true for adolescents in Jamaica as a whole and for those in rural areas in particular, has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to identify individual and family factors associated with initiation of sexual activity before the age of 16 among rural adolescents in Jamaica. We analyzed data for 469 sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the rural parish of Hanover. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict independent influences of these factors. The mean age at sexual debut was 11 years for boys and 15 years for girls. Early adolescent sexual activity was associated with liberal attitudes about negative sexual outcomes (OR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.34-2.87 and first sexual partner not being a steady boyfriend or girlfriend (OR = 4.19, 95%CI = 1.62-10.84. Female gender (OR = 0.16, 95%CI = 0.07-0.36 and older age at time of survey were protective (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.32-0.52. Girls who were early starters were more likely to have been initiated by partners who were not steady boyfriends. They also reported liberal attitude towards negative sexual outcomes. Boys were mainly influenced by liberal attitude towards negative sexual outcomes. Being older was protective for both genders. Considering the high rates of HIV and adolescent pregnancy in this population, reproductive health programs that attempt to delay age at first sex should begin early in primary school before adolescents become sexually active.

  4. Occupational Stress Factors and Coping Strategies among Jamaican High School Science Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola

    1994-01-01

    To help in redressing a lack of studies on science teacher stress worldwide, this study reports on data from 230 high school teachers in Jamaica using a 40-item self-report instrument. The implications of the findings for the retention of science teachers and effective science teaching are underlined. (LZ)

  5. Lipid profile of type 2 diabetic and hypertensive patients in the Jamaican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : Previous studies have shown that diabetes mellitus (DM increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in females to a greater extent than in males. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the lipid profiles of type 2 diabetic males and females. Materials and Methods : The study included 107 type 2 diabetic patients (41 males and 66 females, and 122 hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients (39 males and 83 females, aged 15 years and older. Total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C concentrations were assayed for each group using standard biochemical methods. Results : The mean TC, TG, VLDL-C, HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations, TG/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios were higher in type 2 diabetic and hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic, and hypertensive non-diabetic control subjects, although these were not significant (P > 0.05. Hypertensive type 2 diabetic females had significantly higher serum TC (7.42 ± 1.63 mmol/L than hypertensive non-diabetic males (5.76±1.57 mmol/L; P 0.05. Conclusion : This study demonstrated that dyslipidemia exists in our type 2 diabetic population with greater TC in hypertensive type 2 diabetic females compared with hypertensive type 2 diabetic males. This suggests that hypertensive type 2 diabetic females are exposed more profoundly to risk factors including atherogenic dyslipidemia compared with males.

  6. Nutritional and nutraceutical comparison of Jamaican Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) and Psidium guajava (common guava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook-Russell, Kayanne P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Facey, Petrea C; Bowen-Forbes, Camille S

    2012-09-15

    Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) is one of many underutilised edible fruits that grow wild in Jamaica, and could potentially be commercially exploited to yield health and economic benefits. In this study, the total phenolics, proximate contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of P. cattleianum and P. guajava (common guava), a well-known species, were compared. Strawberry guavas were found to be superior to common guavas in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, total phenolics and vitamin C content. They also possessed relatively high fibre content (24.9%). The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of strawberry guavas showed cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory activities of 18.3% and 26.5%, respectively (250 μg/mL), indicating anti-inflammatory activity. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of P. guajava showed 56.4% (COX-2) and 44.1% (COX-1) inhibitory activity, respectively. Additionally, nine compounds were isolated from strawberry guava fruits, some of which demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that strawberry guavas are beneficial for health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodiversity and Education for Sustainable Development in Teacher Education Programmes of Four Jamaican Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Figueroa, Marceline

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an account of biodiversity education in a national teacher education project in Jamaica. Four case studies are examined here. Document analyses and interviews of educators and student teachers are used to explore how biodiversity was addressed in teacher education curricula, the processes and outcomes of learning in education…

  8. Contraceptive use among Jamaican teenage mothers Uso de anticonceptivos por madres adolescentes jamaiquinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonna Lou Caleb Drayton

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the prevalence of contraceptive use among teenage mothers who were participating, and teenage mothers who were not participating, in a program in Jamaica that had been established to deal with the country's serious problem of repeat pregnancies among adolescents. Methods. A historical cohort design was used to assess the impact that the Women's Centre of Jamaica Foundation (WCJF Programme for Adolescent Mothers had on contraceptive use among the target population of adolescents 16 years and under who had experienced a first live birth in 1994. Results. Contraceptive use at first intercourse was found to be higher among WCJF program participants (44% than among nonparticipants (37%, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.35. Contraceptive use after first live birth was also higher among WCJF program participants (94% than among nonparticipants (86%, and this difference was significant (P = 0.04. Contraceptive prevalence at last intercourse (in 1998 did not differ between participants and nonparticipants (both 69%. Conclusions. Contraceptive use among this population in Jamaica was highest when the respondents' perception of vulnerability to pregnancy was most acute, that is, after the first live birth. All adolescents, both males and females, need to be educated about the importance of sustained and effective use of contraception in order to reduce the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.Objetivos. Comparar la prevalencia del uso de anticonceptivos entre madres adolescentes que estaban participando o no en un programa instaurado en Jamaica para abordar el grave problema que en este país representan los embarazos repetidos en adolescentes. Métodos. Se usó un diseño de cohorte histórica para evaluar el impacto del Programa para Madres Adolescentes del Centro de Mujeres de la Fundación Jamaica (The Women's Centre of Jamaica Foundation: WCJF sobre el uso de anticonceptivos en la población de adolescentes de 16 años o menos que habían tenido su primer niño vivo en 1994. Resultados. El uso de anticonceptivos en el primer coito fue más frecuente entre las participantes en el programa del WCJF (44% que entre las que no participaron (37%, pero la diferencia no fue significativa (P = 0,35. El uso de anticonceptivos tras el nacimiento del primer niño vivo también fue mayor entre las participantes en el programa (94% que entre las que no participaron (86%, y esta diferencia fue significativa (P = 0,04. La prevalencia del uso de anticonceptivos en el último coito (en 1998 fue igual en ambos grupos (69%. Conclusiones. El uso de anticonceptivos en esta población jamaiquina fue más frecuente cuando la percepción de las encuestadas de su vulnerabilidad al embarazo era más aguda, esto es, después del nacimiento del primer niño vivo. Es necesario educar a todos los adolescentes de ambos sexos acerca de la importancia del uso continuo y eficaz de anticonceptivos, con el fin de reducir el riesgo de embarazos no deseados y de enfermedades de transmisión sexual.

  9. Academic-related stress among graduate students in nursing in a Jamaican school of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kimarie; Anderson-Johnson, Pauline; McPherson, Andrea Norman

    2016-09-01

    Graduate students perceive their education as highly stressful, have consistently rated their stress levels as above average and have consistently scored above average on stress scales. The consequences of stress include negative academic outcomes, reduction in cognitive ability, impaired coping and incompletion of graduate studies. Stress is also associated with physical and psychological symptoms such as altered appetite, sleep pattern disturbances and headache. A descriptive correlational design was used to determine the perceived levels and sources of academic-related stress among students enrolled in a Master of Science in Nursing (MScN) degree programme at school of nursing in urban section of Jamaica. The Perceived Stress Scale-14 and Stress Survey were used to collect data from the 81 students enrolled in full or part time study in the MScN programme. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS version 20. The majority (50.9%) were moderately stressed while 22.8% and 24.6% had high and low levels of stress respectively. Stress associated with the preparation for and prospect of final examinations received the highest overall mean stress rating, causing "a lot of stress". Attendances at classes and relationships with lecturers received the lowest mean stress rating. Research was not listed as a stressor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Jamaican CARICOMP Site: using a temporal data set to assist in managing coastal resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gayle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Discovery Bay is one of nine sites around Jamaica’s coastline, soon to gain the legislative protection of Fish Sanctuary (and Scientific Reserve status. Cumulative natural and anthropogenic impacts drove the 1980’s coral to algae phase shift. Discovery Bay CARICOMP data (1994 to 2007 showed an increase in coral cover from less than 5% reported in the mid 1980’s to 11.7±0.31% (mean±SE despite chronically high algal cover (61.4±2.2% at 9m. Coral cover has been sustained despite low urchin densities (0.99±0.91 urchins m-2, low juvenile coral abundance (2.15±0.19 corals m-2 and coral mortality from repeated bleaching events. Community metrics from the CARICOMP site were compared to an adjacent reef habitat which was found to have higher coral cover (16.36±3.1%, as well as higher urchin (13.7±0.84m-2 and juvenile coral (9.7±1.7m-2 densities. Large branching coral species were absent along the CARICOMP transects and sparse at the nearby shallow reef. Both sites continue to be heavily overfished. Local history records the use of spatially and temporally isolated management strategies which have attempt to rehabilitate various aspects of this area. This unique temporal data set (based on the CARICOMP Methods Manual 2000 provides a baseline for evaluating Government (inaction and is used to justify proposals for ecosystem management which could facilitate phase shift reversal in a coral dominated system. An ecosystem approach that implements several concurrent strategies within and adjacent to the Reserve could accelerate the recovery process. The long term viability and benefit of both old and new marine protected or reserve areas could be enhanced through coral gardening on artificial reef structures with a view to restoring the reefs’ three-dimensional complexity. Such actions could heoretically accelerate phase reversal to coral dominated reefs common in the area prior to the devastating impacts of the 1980s. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 63-69. Epub 2010 October 01.Discovery Bay es uno de los nueve sitios alrededor de Jamaica, pronta a obtener la protección legislativa como Santuario de Pesca (y Reserva Científica. Los impactos naturales y antropogénicos acumulativos de la década de 1980 condujo a cambio de fase de coral a algas. Los datos CARICOMP de Discovery Bay (1994 a 2007 mostraron un aumento en la cobertura de coral de menos del 5% informada a mediados de 1980 a 11.7±0.31% (media±ES a pesar la alta cobertura crónica de algas (61.4±2,2% a 9m de profundidad. La cobertura de coral se ha mantenido a pesar de las densidades bajas de erizo de mar (0.99±0.91 erizos m-2, baja abundancia de juveniles de coral (2.15±0.19 m corales-2 y mortalidad de corales debido a fenómenos de blanqueo repetitivos. Estadísticas de la comunidad del sitio CARICOMP contrasta con un hábitat de arrecife adyacente que tienen mayor obertura de coral (16.36±3.1%, de erizos (13.7±0.84 m-2 y de juveniles de coral (9.7±1.7 m-2. Especies de coral de grandes ramas estaban ausentes de los transectos CARICOMP y eran pocos en los arrecifes poco profundos cercanos. Ambos sitios siguen siendo, en gran medida, objeto de sobrepesca. La historia local registra el uso de estrategias de gestión espacial y temporalmente aisladas que se implementaron en el pasado para intentar rehabilitar a diversos aspectos de esta área degradada. Los datos temporales de CARICOMP establecen una base única base para la evaluación "en" acción del Gobierno y se utiliza para justificar las propuestas de gestión de los ecosistemas que podrían facilitar la reversión de fase a un sistema dominado por corales. Un enfoque de ecosistemas que implementa varias estrategias simultáneas dentro y adyacente a la Reserva podría acelerar el proceso de recuperación. La viabilidad a largo plazo y el beneficio de viejas y nuevas áreas marinas protegidas o reservas podría ser mejorada a través de cultivo de coral en arrecifes artificiales con el fin de restablecer la complejidad tridimensional de los arrecifes coralinos. Tales acciones podrían, teóricamente, acelerar la reversión de fase a coral como era común en el área antes de los impactos devastadores de la década de 1980.

  11. Cervical dysplasia and cancer and the use of hormonal contraceptives in Jamaican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smikle Monica

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to determine whether use of hormonal contraceptives is associated with cervical dysplasia and cancer in a population where there is widespread use of hormonal contraception and the rates of cervical cancer remain high at 27.5/100,000. Methods A case-control study was conducted among women visiting the colposcopy and gynaelogical clinics at a tertiary referral hospital. Two hundred and thirty six cases CIN I (72, II (59, III (54, cancer (51 and 102 controls, consented and were interviewed on use of contraceptives using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs associated with use of hormonal contraception in cases and controls and in low and high risk cases. Recruitment was carried out from 2001–2002. Results Contraceptives used were: oral contraceptives – 35%, injections (depot medroxy progesterone acetate (Depo-provera – 10%, Intrauterine devices – 2%, combinations of these and tubal ligation – 30%. 23% reported use of 'other' methods, barrier contraceptives or no form of contraception. Barrier contraceptive use was not significantly different between cases and controls. Current and/or past exposure to hormonal contraceptives (HC by use of the pill or injection, alone or in combination with other methods was significantly higher in the cases. In multivariate analysis with age and number of sexual partners as co-variates, use of hormonal contraception was associated both with disease, [OR, 1.92 (CI 1.11, 3.34; p = 0.02] and severity of the disease [OR, 2.22 (CI 1.05, 4.66 p = 0.036]. When parity and alcohol consumption were added to the model, hormonal contraception was no longer significant. The significant association with high risk disease was retained when the model was controlled for age and number of sexual partners. Depo-provera use (with age and number of sexual partners as covariates was also associated with disease [OR, 2.43 (CI 1.39, 4.57, p = 0.006] and severity of disease [OR 2.51 (1.11, 5.64 p = 0.027]. With parity and alcohol added to this model, depo-provera use retained significance. Exposure to HC > 4 years conferred more risk for disease and severity of disease. Conclusion Hormonal contraception did confer some risk of dysplasia and women using HC should therefore be encouraged to do regular Pap smear screening.

  12. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation in an Eleven-Year-Old Jamaican Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of an eleven-year-old boy presenting with progressive extrapyramidal signs and dementia. His imaging findings demonstrated the classic eye-of-the-tiger sign on T2W magnetic resonance imaging. He was diagnosed with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN. This is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of coenzyme A metabolism, caused by mutations in PANK2. This is the first reported case of PKAN from the Caribbean.

  13. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and placental weight determine birth weight in normal Jamaican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, J M; Davidson, S; Hall, J S; Jackson, A A

    1999-12-01

    Birth weight is related to neonatal health and long-term risk of chronic disease. Since animal studies have shown that birth outcome is related to placental function, the present project was designed to explore the relationship between birth weight and placental growth and composition with maternal factors during pregnancy among normal term pregnancies in 51 primiparous and 40 multiparous women delivering at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Both groups were followed from 15 weeks of gestation to term. The primiparous group was generally younger than the multiparous (mean age 22 +/- 4 versus 31 +/- 5 yr). They were significantly lighter (55 +/- 8 versus 61 +/- 9 kg) with a lower body mass index (21 +/- 3 versus 23 +/- 4 kg/m2) during early pregnancy, but gained more weight during pregnancy, 11 kg compared with 8 kg, respectively. The duration of pregnancy was similar for both groups. Although the size of the placenta was not significantly different between the two groups, the mean weight of the multiparous placentae was more than that of the primiparous placentae. Also, for all mothers both placental weight and initial maternal weight related directly to birth weight. Placental non collagen protein (NCP), sodium and potassium contents were significantly higher for multiparous women and were related to birth weight. The primiparous group had babies who were significantly lighter, 3.03 kg compared with 3.36 kg, for the multiparous and this could be attributed to differences in placental function and maternal weight. When account was taken of the difference in maternal weight at the start of pregnancy and the difference in placental weight, parity no longer explained any of the differences in birth weight. It is concluded that maternal body weight at the time of becoming pregnant and the early development of the placenta determine the efficiency with which nutrients might be delivered to the foetus and hence foetal growth. The difference in birth weight between primiparous and multiparous women can be explained by the differences in maternal weight at the time of becoming pregnant.

  14. Gender and Age Variations in the Self-Image of Jamaican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E.; Muenchen, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender significantly influenced morals, while age differences affected six other dimensions. Some results contradicted past research. (RJM)

  15. Visualizing Caribbean Performance (Jamaican Dancehall and Trinidadian Carnival) as Praxis: An Autohistoria of Kiki's Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, A'Keitha

    2016-01-01

    I discuss my journey in the construction, pedagogy, and philosophy of the dance technique CaribFunk™. CaribFunk fuses Afro-Caribbean (traditional and social dance), classical ballet, modern, and fitness elements. It also encourages exploration of self while investigating identity, citizenship, and culture through a kinesthetic expression of the…

  16. How male sound pressure level influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding female mate preference is important for determining the strength and direction of sexual trait evolution. The sound pressure level (SPL acoustic signalers use is often an important predictor of mating success because higher sound pressure levels are detectable at greater distances. If females are more attracted to signals produced at higher sound pressure levels, then the potential fitness impacts of signalling at higher sound pressure levels should be elevated beyond what would be expected from detection distance alone. Here we manipulated the sound pressure level of cricket mate attraction signals to determine how female phonotaxis was influenced. We examined female phonotaxis using two common experimental methods: spherical treadmills and open arenas. Both methods showed similar results, with females exhibiting greatest phonotaxis towards loud sound pressure levels relative to the standard signal (69 vs. 60 dB SPL but showing reduced phonotaxis towards very loud sound pressure level signals relative to the standard (77 vs. 60 dB SPL. Reduced female phonotaxis towards supernormal stimuli may signify an acoustic startle response, an absence of other required sensory cues, or perceived increases in predation risk.

  17. Cane toads a threat to West Indian wildlife: mortality of Jamaican boas attributable to toad ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron S. Wilson; Susan E. Koenig; Rick van Veen; Erika Miersma; D. Craig. Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    The notorious ‘‘cane toad’’ (Bufo marinus) is considered to be one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. A native of South and Central America, Mexico, and the Rio Grande Valley of the United States, this large toad was intentionally introduced to islands in the Caribbean, and subsequently throughout the southern Pacific, as a biological control agent to...

  18. Children at health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, H R

    1992-01-01

    In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the

  19. Sleep disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Karen A; Suresh, Sadasivam; Nixon, Gillian M

    2013-10-21

    Sleep disorders are very common in childhood and are often amenable to simple advice and parental education. Questions about sleep should be an integral part of every paediatric consultation. Children with underlying syndromes or complex medical conditions often have multiple sleep issues. Excessive sleepiness in children requires careful history-taking and consideration of specialised investigation. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common condition in childhood with important health implications. The high prevalence of OSA warrants rigorous attempts to identify children at higher risk and manage them appropriately. Adenotonsillectomy is a highly efficacious therapy for paediatric OSA. A current major issue is to improve ways of distinguishing mild from severe OSA before a child undergoes adenotonsillectomy, as those with more severe disease are at increased risk of postoperative complications and should undergo adenotonsillectomy in a tertiary centre. Children with obesity and other comorbid conditions are at increased risk of persisting OSA despite adenotonsillectomy. Topical (nasal) steroids and/or anti-inflammatory agents have a role in the non-surgical treatment of mild OSA. Continuous positive airway pressure and orthodontic interventions are treatment options for treatment of persisting OSA in children.

  20. Trichotillomania in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Novak, Jeroen; Iorizzo, Matilde; Grimalt, Ramon; Oranje, Arnold P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichotillomania is an often underdiagnosed condition. Little is known about trichotillomania in childhood. We aimed to analyze the characteristics of children with trichotillomania to increase information on this condition. Methods A retrospective study of an electronic database was performed in a tertiary children's hospital. Information from patients with trichotillomania was systematically classified under the categories ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’, ‘where’, ‘why’, and ‘how’. Results A total of 33 patients had a diagnosis of trichotillomania (28 females, 5 males; peak age between 3 and 4 years). Scalp involvement was most common and nail biting was observed in 5 patients. Only 51.5% of patients had parents who noticed their child's hairpulling. Hair on or under the bed was the most common clue suggesting that hairpulling occurred. Triggering factors identified in 16 children included physical appearance, family-related issues, school-related issues, and concurrent illness. The noninvasive hair pull test was negative in all children. There was a high non-follow-up rate, and treatment outcomes varied. Conclusion A set of 6 specific questions, based on the ‘5Ws and 1H’ principle, facilitates the gathering of important information on children with unexplained nonscarring hair loss and helps clinicians be cognizant of possible outcomes of trichotillomania. This will be especially useful to clinicians who are not familiar with this elusive condition. PMID:27172263

  1. Preputial retraction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Abhinav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess preputial retractability in children at various ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty boys attending the hospital were included in the study. Children with hypospadias or history of preputial manipulation were excluded. Preputial anatomy was studied and subjects were classified into five groups as described by Kayaba et al . RESULTS: The prepuce could not be retracted at all so as to make even the external urethral meatus visible in 61.4% children aged 0-6 months while this decreased to only 0.9% in children aged 10-12 years. At the other end of the spectrum, while prepuce could not be fully retracted in any child below 6 months, it could be done in about 60% in the age group of 10-12 years. CONCLUSION Preputial nonseparation is the major cause of preputial nonretraction in the pediatric age group. Prepuce spontaneously separates from the glans as age increases and true phimosis is rare in children. Surgical intervention should be avoided for nonseparation of prepuce.

  2. Playground injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeini, Hassan Sadeghi; Lindqvist, Kent; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Mirlohi, Amir Hossein; Dalal, Koustuv

    2011-06-24

    Rapid urbanization and unplanned population development can be detrimental to the safety of citizens, with children being a particularly vulnerable social group. In this review, we assess childhood playground injuries and suggest safety mechanisms which could be incorporated into playground planning. Inclusion criteria were "children" as the focus group, "playground" as the main field of study, and "unintentional injury" and "safety" as the concepts of study. The keywords used for the PubMed search were "playground", "children", and "injury". Initially we 182 articles. After screening according to inclusion criteria, 86 articles were found, and after reading the abstracts and then the full text, 14 articles were finally included for analysis. The papers reviewed included four case-control studies, three case studies, three descriptive studies, two interventional studies, one retrospective study, one cross-sectional study, and one systematic review. Playground-related fractures were the most common accidents among children, underscoring the importance of safety promotion and injury prevention in playgrounds, lowrisk equipment and playing hours (week days associated with higher risk), implementation of standards, preventing falls and fall-related fractures, and addressing concerns of parents about unsafe neighborhoods. With the exception of one study, all of the reviewed papers had not implemented any practical safety plan. Safe engineering approaches were also ignored. We recommend a systematic safety approach based on the "safety circle" which includes three main areas, ie, equipment, environment, and children.

  3. Marketing foods to children: a comparison of nutrient content between children's and non-children's products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lythgoe, Amelia; Roberts, Caireen; Madden, Angela M; Rennie, Kirsten L

    2013-12-01

    The predominance of marketing of products high in fat, sugar and/or salt to children has been well documented and implicated in the incidence of obesity. The present study aimed to determine whether foods marketed to children in UK supermarkets are nutritionally similar to the non-children's equivalent, focusing on food categories that may be viewed as healthier options. Nutritional data were collected on yoghurts (n 147), cereal bars (n 145) and ready meals (n 144) from seven major UK supermarkets and categorised as children's or non-children's products based on the characteristics, promotional nature or information on the product packaging. Fat, sugar and salt content was compared per 100 g and per recommended portion size. UK. Per 100 g, children's yoghurts and cereal bars were higher in total sugars, fat and saturated fat than the non-children's; this was significant for all except sugar and total fat in cereal bars. Per portion these differences remained, except for sugars in yoghurts. Conversely children's ready meals were significantly lower in these nutrients per portion than non-children's, but not when expressed per 100 g. Children's yoghurts and ready meals had significantly lower sodium content than non-children's both per portion and per 100 g. Significant differences between the nutritional composition of children's and non-children's products were observed but varied depending on the unit reference. A significant number of products marketed towards children were higher in fat, sugar and salt than those marketed to the general population.

  4. Research Consortium for the Development of Agriculture in Haiti ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Even before it was hit by a devastating earthquake in January 2010, Haiti's children suffered some of the worst rates of undernutrition in Latin America and the Caribbean. According to UNICEF, in 2005, one out of every three children under five was stunted or chronically undernourished. Since the earthquake, agriculture ...

  5. SAMJ FORUM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-01

    Sep 1, 2006 ... of the average weight for Cape Coloured children of this age.' Thus was the stage set for remarkable reports on an ... Eight of the undernourished children showed slow activity and a lack of alpha patterns suggestive of ... the current generation of researchers would address. Three examples come to mind.

  6. Scaling Up Small-Scale Food Processing for Therapeutic and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nourishment and better health Therapeutic foods are energy-dense, micronutrient-enriched pastes or bars designed to provide high-density nutrition for severely undernourished children. Complementary foods are designed for the diets of all children between the ages of 6 to 24 months. Researchers from the National ...

  7. Prevalence of Food Insecurity and Utilization of Food Assistance Program: An Exploratory Survey of a Vermont Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shamima; Pinckney, Richard G.; Keeney, Dorigen; Frankowski, Barbara; Carney, Jan K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Access to sufficient food--in terms of both quality and quantity--is especially critical for children. Undernourishment during childhood and adolescence can have health implications, both short and long term. The prevalence of food insecurity was assessed in a sample of Vermont school children, as well as the relationship between food…

  8. Integrated Approach to Address Food and Nutrition Security in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrated Approach to Address Food and Nutrition Security in the Philippines. Malnutrition remains a serious problem in the Philippines, especially among children. Could integrated garden and nutrition programs at schools help address the problem? An estimated 3 million children in the Philippines are undernourished.

  9. Terrorism, Trauma and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjai, M M; Chandrashekhar, N; Raju, Uma; Jog, S S; Arora, P

    2005-10-01

    Terrorist attacks, armed conflict and all forms of catastrophe, tax our ability to cope, understand and respond to the situation. Children are more vulnerable. 16 children, victims of a terrorist attack in an army residential camp were managed for their physical injuries and evaluated for psychological trauma. All patients recovered from physical injuries, except one baby of two months, who died due to severe chest trauma. 5 children presented with Acute Stress Reaction. 3 recovered well and two, showed persistent poor scholastic performance even after one year. A terrorist attack, not only results in physiscal scars but also causes psychological trauma, which requires emotional support and needs to be followed up on a long term basis.

  10. Spinal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.; Carty, H.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  11. [Cataract surgery in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, S

    2000-01-01

    Cataract extraction in children has improved and became more popular over the past few decades but, due to particular features of children's eyes, still remains controversial--especially regarding the intraocular lens implantation. In contrast to adults, indications for cataract surgery in children are much more difficult to determine. Since subjective visual acuity cannot be obtained, greater reliance must be placed on the morphology and location of the lens opacity, and the behavior of the child. Forced preferential looking and visual evoked potentials can be helpful, but they should not be the only criteria. In management of pediatric cataract, correction of postoperative aphakia is still an incompletely resolved problem. Conventionally, optical correction is achieved by spectacles or contact lenses. The power of both spectacles and contact lenses can be readily adjusted to compensate for ocular growth. The success of both depends significantly on parental compliance and the child's acceptance. Hutchinson reported that 44% children with aphakia stopped wearing glasses or contact lenses 2 months after surgery. Contact lens wearing can also result in a number of corneal complications, including infectious keratitis, corneal vascularization and hypoxic corneal ulceration. IOL implantation is theoretically superior to glasses and contact lenses since it provides almost immediate optical correction which is much more reliable because it does not depend on parental or child's compliance. Still, there are many controversies about IOL implantation in infants and young children like IOL-size, material, IOL power calculation, prevention and management of secondary cataract, as well as long term safety of IOLs in children's eyes. Although short-term anatomic results after cataract extraction and primary IOL implantation in children are excellent and stable, long-term follow-up is necessary to answer questions about the long-term safety of implants in children's eyes. A

  12. Illustration in children's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pascolati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the origins of children's literature, the image plays an important role in the construction of the meanings of this literary text, but its participation in the children's book goes from mere coadjuvant to primacy in relation to the written word. In line with the growth of the publishing production of picture books, its presence in the classroom and theoretical-critical reflections about its contribution to literary reading, I develop here some ideas about different roles played by the illustration in children's literature. To do so, I analyze some books in which the images have a preponderant role in the narrative progression, the construction of characters and the revelation of the child's perspective on the world.

  13. Thinking of the children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Universal Children's Day is organized each year by the United Nations Children's Fund to draw attention to the desperate plight of millions of babies and young people throughout the world. The date this year in most countries is 2 October. Despite all the efforts of UNICEF and other agencies including the IAEA, it is estimated that there are still 300 000 000 children who either cannot find enough food to stave off hunger, or who cannot obtain the protein which will keep them healthy and alert. Many advances have been made in helping to make crops more abundant, in developing protein content of foods and in dealing with the diseases arising from malnutrition. Our photograph was taken in Jamaica, where investigations into malnutrition and its effects are being made by the UK Medical Research Council under an IAEA research contract

  14. Environmental Protection Agency, Protecting Children's Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Protecting Children's Environmental Health Children are often more vulnerable to pollutants ... during development. Learn more about children's health, the environment, and what you can do. Basic Information Children ...

  15. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  16. Restorative Justice in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Existing school health programmes in Uganda target children above five years for de-worming, oral hygiene and frequent vaccination of girls of reproductive age. Objective:To assess primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases they experience and medicines used in order to suggest reforms ...

  18. Connecting Children's Stories to Children's Literature: Meeting Diversity Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Amour, Melissa J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a method for increasing elementary school children's multicultural awareness by sharing their own written stories in the context of multicultural children's literature. Describes how classroom activities can promote multicultural awareness through by allowing children to practice democracy, analyze the circumstances of one's life;…

  19. Profiles of Children: 1970 White House Conference on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This book of charts of comparative statistics was compiled to help the 1970 White House Conference on Children evaluate past efforts to improve the well-being of America's children. First, it presents data about aspects of the world into which American children are born, such as population, urbanization, income levels, incidence of disease,…

  20. Immigration Enforcement Practices Harm Refugee Children and Citizen-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H.

    2018-01-01

    Aggressive immigration enforcement hurts the very youngest children. Refugee and U.S.-born children of undocumented immigrants experience many childhood adversities, compromising their development and health. Refugee children flee traumatizing violence in their home countries, face grueling migrations, and are harmed further by being held in…

  1. Impact of the Children's Television Act on Children's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra; Kotler, Jennifer; Kuhl, Alison; Riboli, Michael

    The impact of the Children's Television Act, which requires broadcasters to provide educational and informational programs for children, was examined by having 141 second through sixth graders watch 16 popular and unpopular television programs and then assess the motivational appeal of, and children's learning from, these programs. Popular and…

  2. LACTASE DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Shcherbak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article is the lactase deficiency in children. The most frequent clinical manifestations — diarrhea and flatulence —are not specific to this pathology. Symptoms, typical for the majority of the diseases nosologies of the digestive system, lack of timely laboratory diagnosis, and, often, lack of pediatricians awareness about the specifics of this disease are the cause of lactase deficiency under-diagnostics. The article describes in detail the physiopathological mechanisms, clinical picture, diagnosis and dietary correction of lactase deficiency, the data concerning the prevalence of this disease are cited.Key words: lactose, lactase deficiency, children, health food.

  3. Hepatic tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, J T

    2001-02-01

    Although they account for only 1% to 4% of solid tumors in children, hepatic tumors and pseudotumors offer a diagnostic challenge to the clinician seeing only an occasional case. Metastatic lesions such as neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, and lymphoma are the most common neoplasm seen in the liver, but 10 distinct primary tumors and pseudotumors of the liver occur with some regularity, and a few others may be seen rarely, including leiomyosarcoma, rhabdoid tumor, and endodermal sinus tumor. Five of these neoplasms--hepatoblastoma, infantile hemangio-endothelioma, mesenchymal hamartoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree--occur only in children and are the major focus of the article.

  4. Asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with an increased number of days lost from school, exacerbations and days in hospital. Furthermore, children with uncontrolled asthma have more frequent contacts with the health-care system. Recent...... have been developed. They are all based on various questionnaires, but their validation has been difficult because we have no golden standard to compare with. It seems as if the tests are most valuable when they suggest that the disease is poorly controlled because a large proportion of children...

  5. Children and chiropractic care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Hestbaek, Lise

    2009-01-01

    care profession has convincingly assumed the responsibility of spinal and musculoskeletal health for children. Considering the magnitude of the challenges ahead for both researchers and clinicians, this may be a good opportunity for doctors of chiropractic to take responsibility and engage...... in a determined effort to bring forward evidence-based strategies for prevention of spinal pain and other musculoskeletal problems. Chiropractors may play a significant role in finding and implementing evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies aimed at infants, children, and adolescents....

  6. When cities move children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant Klinker, Charlotte; Schipperijn, Jasper; Toftager, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel method to assess context-specific physical activity patterns using accelerometer and GPS. The method efficiency is investigated by providing descriptive results on the use of domains and subdomains, and assessing how much of children's and adolescents' daily activity...... time can be classified by these domains and subdomains. Four domains and 11 subdomains were defined as important contexts for child and adolescent behaviour. During weekdays (n=367) and weekend days (n=178) the majority of children and adolescents spent time in active transport, urban green space...

  7. Trichotillomania in Iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Tarighati

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports trichotillomania in eight Iranian children (7 girls and 1 boy .It is rarely seen in children and adolescents. Although some subjects are psychiatrically normal, but some suffer from depressive disorder, neurosis, or personality problems. Separation from key figure, denial of femininity/and inadequate mother-child relationship play important roles either in the etiology of trichotillomania or psychiatric disorders. Finally therapeutic interventi.ons according to the cultural factors were mentioned. Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Tehran Univer sity. Formerly, chief, Child Psychiatric Dept. Roozbeh Hospital Teheran University, Medical School.

  8. Hematogenous osteomyelitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Halken, S; Damholt, V

    1986-01-01

    In a 10-year period, 31 children, including 9 infants, were treated for hematogenous osteomyelitis. Fifteen children were treated closed and 16 open. Thirteen of 14 positive cultures were Staphylococcus aureus. Three recurrences could possibly have been prevented by a more aggressive primary...... approach. At follow-up after 5 (1-12) years, 3 neonates had developed severe growth disturbances despite optimal initial treatment. Acceptable results were obtained with antibiotic therapy for 6 weeks or more. We recommend ampicillin and a penicillinase-resistant penicillin, unless bacterial resistance...

  9. Optics and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Manuel F M; De Campos, J Ayres; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra; Vazquez-Dorrio, Jose B

    2011-01-01

    Light and Optics are subjects that 'naturally' attracts the interest and sympathy of children even from very early ages. In this communication, we present a series of experiments and support material designed in this hands-on perspective, to be used to introduce the study of light and optics to kindergarten and early basic school students. Our hands-on investigative approach leads the students, aged 4 to 10 years, to observe the experiment and discover themselves, in a critical and active way, different aspects of light and optics. Preparing funny eye catching situations and experiments predispose the children to work, effectively, enjoying themselves while building up their self-confidence.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sedation or anesthesia is to be used. In general, children who have recently been ill will not ... for several hours prior to the exam. In general, children who have recently been ill will not ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to be used. In general, children who have recently been ill will not be sedated or anesthetized. ... to the exam. In general, children who have recently been ill will not be sedated or anesthetized. ...

  12. CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents. Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and measures of regional (central) adiposity. High prevalence of markers of dysmetabolic state in urban adolescents. ~10% prevalence of dysglycemia in overweight / obese school children.

  13. Helping Grieving Children and Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... renewed grief. Understanding how children and teens view death It is helpful to know how children understand ... or her. Expressing your emotions can encourage your son or daughter to share his or her own ...

  14. Children's knowledge of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2011-03-01

    Children everywhere are fascinated by the sky, stars and Sun. Emerging evidence from cultures throughout the world suggests that even young children can acquire knowledge of the Earth and its place in the Universe.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and ...

  16. Snacks and sweetened drinks - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choosing healthy snacks and drinks for your children can be hard. There are many options. ... Encourage children to drink a lot of water. Avoid sodas, sport drinks, and flavored waters. Stay away from drinks made with sugar or ...

  17. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray ... Materials Anesthesia Safety Children and Radiation Safety Images related to Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Videos related ...

  19. Parenting School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life. For some children, however, school may cause frustration and stress. Learning disabilities can interfere with the ... money. It may also require parental patience and tolerance as children experiment with different programs before finding ...

  20. Children and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from studies of adults were applied to children. Today, the National Institutes of Health requires that children ... with protecting the public against unfair and deceptive business practices. A key area of its work is ...