WorldWideScience

Sample records for undermining participatory practices

  1. Participatory Activities in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Frederik; Sørensen, Vicki

    Through a series of participatory activities within a product development project, we analyse how these activities influence the design process and how new meaning is created through the interaction of crossing intentions (Larsen, 2010). By focusing on a specific theme in the project we reflect...... on how participatory activities are a key part in establishing important interactions between participants resulting in new design approaches. At other times participatory activities become a part of blurring these new approaches when performing new participatory activities towards developing new...... iterations of the concept in focus. We conclude that participatory activities can play a key part in the uptake of user knowledge but that a participatory innovation approach of establishing collaboration between crossing intentions can as well be considered provocative and as such, result in resistance...

  2. Participatory Design in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés-Rico, Laura; Piedrahita-Solórzano, Giovanny

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a project for the social development of ICTs, which used a participatory design approach and sought to have a high social impact on a community of craftswomen (embroiderers from Cartago, Colombia). Participating in this project implied active dialogue with the community to recognize the knowledge of each participant and achieve culturally relevant representations materialized in technological artifacts. We posit dialogue, representation and recognit...

  3. The History of Participatory Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alacovska, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This article charts the historical stability and continuity of participatory and crowdsourcing practices. Theoretically, it suggests that the blurring of the boundaries between audiences and producers, with the ensuing result of user-generated content, is by no means solely the upshot of new medi...

  4. Practice of Participatory Governance in Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алена Сергеевна Перезолова

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the idea of participatory democracy. The article provides case study of pilot projects aimed to engage citizens for public participation in different forms, such as: participatory budgeting, participatory modeling, public consultations and other participatory practices. The concept of public participation implied in most common methods of consultation as local meetings, public hearings, creation of working groups, public dialogue commissions, workshops, discussion forums on Web sites, contests of ideas and projects, crowdfunding projects, cooperation citizens initiatives and more consumerist type as polls and focus groups. The ability to work together becomes a resource for growth of civic consciousness, where citizens become active actors, who able to participate in public policy, resource mobilization, independent projects for realization and formation of social capital. The challenge for participatory democracy is maturity degree of civil society and examined examples of participatory practices are pilot projects that aimed formation of civic consciousness.

  5. How Participatory Budgeting Changes the Meaning and Practices of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rios Alves Nunes da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n2p301   What does it mean to be a citizen today? In an era where boundaries are being questioned, where identities are being transformed, where social and political claims are being updated from the traditional ‘recognition’ or ‘redistribution’ discourse to a more globalized discourse supported by a theoretical appeal to human rights, it is important to clarify where the ‘citizen’ stands, morally and politically speaking. This paper is supported by a a strong moral and political reading of citizenship, echoing some republican tradition where citizenship is associated with virtue; and b the assumption that there is a strong correlation between virtuous citizens and a virtuous republic or ‘democracy’. In order to reflect upon the transformations of the concept of citizenship I will look at some of the practices it involves, more precisely, I will look into the participatory budgeting experience in Portugal trying to show how the progressive implementation of such measure promises to bring Portuguese’s democracy to a new level with a more robust practice of citizenship. This paper has three moments: first, I will situate myself from a theoretical standpoint, regarding the concept of citizenship I want to defend. I will show how the way in which we conceive citizenship a will determine the forms and shapes democracy can take and b will influence the future of democracy, insofar it can contribute, enhance or undermine democratic aspirations and goals. Second, after arguing for an active sense of citizenship I will advance the argument that the future of democracy lies in participatory practices, in which the citizen plays a key role. Third, I will turn to a case study in order to illuminate my theoretical argument. Having participatory budgeting experiment in Portugal as paradigmatic case of analysis, I will identify some elements present in the Portuguese case that corroborate our

  6. Seven Dirty Words: Hot-Button Language That Undermines Interprofessional Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Peter S

    2017-08-01

    An increasingly common goal of health professions education is preparing learners to collaborate with the full range of members on a health care team. While curriculum developers have identified many logistical and conceptual barriers to interprofessional education, one overlooked factor threatens to undermine interprofessional education and practice: language. Language reveals the mental metaphors governing thoughts and actions. The words that faculty members and health care providers use send messages that can-consciously or not-undermine explicit lessons about valuing each member of the care team. Too often, word choices make visible hierarchies in health care that may contradict overt messages about collaboration.In this Perspective, the author draws on his experience as an outsider coming to academic medicine, noticing that certain words triggered negative responses in colleagues from different professions. He reflects on some of the most charged (or hot-button) words commonly heard in health care and educational settings and suggests possible alternatives that have similar denotations but that also have more collaborative connotations. By exploring seven of these dirty words, the author intends to raise awareness about the unintended effects of word choices. Changing exclusionary language may help promote the adoption of new metaphors for professional relationships that will more easily facilitate interprofessional collaboration and reinforce the formal messages about collaborative practice aimed at learners.

  7. The construction of fictional space in participatory design practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the creation of fictional space in participatory design and relates the notion of fictional space to the more general conception of design space as a space created through the situated practices of participants. The notion of fictional space provides insights for understanding...... the process through which participants in participatory design create a design space in which established conventions of everyday practice are altered or suspended. With inspiration from literary theory, it is argued that the production of fictional space may be understood in terms of participants practicing...... games of make-believe mediated by props. The motivation for discussing fictional space is traced through ongoing work on designing new exhibition spaces for museums. Through a case study from a participatory design session, it is explored how games of make-believe progress and the role of props...

  8. Staging a Professional Participatory Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2002-01-01

    Use and users have an important and acknowledged role to most designers of interactive systems. Nevertheless any touch of user hands does not in itself secure development of meaningful artifacts. In this article we stress the need for a professional PD practice in order to yield the full...

  9. Do Treatment Manuals Undermine Youth-Therapist Alliance in Community Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, David A.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Some critics of treatment manuals have argued that their use may undermine the quality of the client-therapist alliance. This notion was tested in the context of youth psychotherapy delivered by therapists in community clinics. Method: Seventy-six clinically referred youths (57% female, age 8-15 years, 34% Caucasian) were randomly…

  10. Undermining Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper engages the ongoing soft balancing debate by suggesting a new analytical framework for states’ countervailing strategies—a negative balancing model—to explain why states do not form alliances and conduct arms races to balance against power or threats as they previously did. Negative...... balancing refers to a state's strategies or diplomatic efforts aiming to undermine a rival's power. By contrast, positive balancing means to strengthen a state's own power in world politics. I argue that a state's balancing strategies are shaped by the level of threat perception regarding its rival...... in which the relatively low-threat propensity of the system renders positive balancing strategies incompatible with state interests after the Cold War. Instead, states have employed various negative balancing strategies to undermine each other's power, especially when dealing with us primacy. China...

  11. Participatory approaches for environmental governance: theoretical justifications and practical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, Sybille

    2003-01-01

    A key justification for the rapid development of participatory approaches for environment and sustainable development governance stems from the characteristics of environmental issues. Environmental issues - and radioactive waste disposal is a good example - typically present four important physical characteristics: complexity, uncertainty, large temporal and spatial scales, and irreversibility, which all have consequences on what can be called the social characteristics of environmental issues. These include: social complexity and conflicts of interests, transversality, diffuse responsibilities and impacts, no clear division between micro- and macro-levels, and short-term costs of dealing with the issue associated with benefits which might occur only in the long-term. In turn, these physical and social characteristics determine the type of problem-solving processes needed to tackle environmental issues. It appears that the problem-solving processes best suited to confront global environmental issues will be dynamic processes of capacity-building, - aiming at innovative, flexible and adjustable answers, - allowing for the progressive integration of information as it becomes available, and of different value judgements and logics, - involving various actors from different backgrounds and levels. In promoting more democratic practices, these processes additionally should supersede traditional politics and allow co-ordination across different policy areas. It is deemed that participatory approaches have the potential to meet these problem-solving requirements

  12. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical...... experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  13. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  14. Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johansson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

  15. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2), which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

  16. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Lindsey

    Full Text Available The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2, which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

  17. How Participation Creates Citizens: Participatory Governance as Performative Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Turnhout

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation is a prominent feature of many decision-making and planning processes. Among its proclaimed benefits is its potential to strengthen public support and involvement. However, participation is also known for having unintended consequences which lead to failures in meeting its objectives. This article takes a critical perspective on participation by discussing how participation may influence the ways in which citizens can become involved. Participation unavoidably involves (1 restrictions about who should be involved and about the space for negotiation, (2 assumptions about what the issue at stake is, and (3 expectations about what the outcome of participation should be and how the participants are expected to behave. This is illustrated by a case study about the Dutch nature area, the Drentsche Aa. The case study demonstrates how the participatory process that took place and the restrictions, assumptions, and expectations that were involved resulted in six forms of citizen involvement, both intended and unintended, which ranged between creativity, passivity, and entrenchment. Based on these findings, the article argues that participation does not merely serve as a neutral place in which citizens are represented, but instead creates different categories of citizens. Recognizing this means reconceiving participation as performative practice. Such a perspective goes beyond overly optimistic views of participation as a technique whose application can be perfected, as well as pessimistic views of participation as repression or domination. Instead, it appreciates both intended and unintended forms of citizen involvement as meaningful and legitimate, and recognizes citizenship as being constituted in interaction in the context of participation.

  18. 'Just a GP': a mixed method study of undermining of general practice as a career choice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Hugh; Banner, Kimberley; Collingwood, Helen; Merritt, Kymberlee

    2017-11-03

    Failure to recruit sufficient applicants to general practice (GP) training has been a problem both nationally and internationally for many years and undermining of GP is one possible contributing factor. The aim of our study was to ascertain what comments, both negative and positive, are being made in UK clinical settings to GP trainees about GP and to further explore these comments and their influence on career choice. We conducted a mixed methods study. We surveyed all foundation doctors and GP trainees within one region of Health Education England regarding any comments they experienced relating to a career in GP. We also conducted six focus groups with early GP trainees to discuss any comments that they experienced and whether these comments had any influence on their or others career choice. Positive comments reported by trainees centred around the concept that choosing GP is a positive, family-focused choice which facilities a good work-life balance. Workload was the most common negative comment, alongside the notion of being 'just a GP'; the belief that GP is boring, a waste of training and a second-class career choice. The reasons for and origin of the comments are multifactorial in nature. Thematic analysis of the focus groups identified key factors such as previous exposure to and experience of GP, family members who were GPs, GP role models, demographics of the clinician and referral behaviour. Trainees perceived that negative comments may be discouraging others from choosing GP as a career. Our study demonstrates that negative comments towards GP as a career do exist within clinical settings and are having a potential impact on poor recruitment rates to GP training. We have identified areas in which further negative comments could be prevented by changing perceptions of GP as a career. Additional time spent in GP as undergraduates and postgraduates, and positive GP role models, could particularly benefit recruitment. We recommend that undermining of GP

  19. Participatory Action Research for Development of Prospective Teachers' Professionality during Their Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, Aina

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of participatory action research during pedagogical practice facilitates sustainable education because its objective is to understand professional practice, enrich the capacity of involved participants and an opportunity to make inquiries for the improvement of quality. In the research of professional practice, subjects explore…

  20. Participatory Design in Emergency Medical Service: Designing for Future Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Palen, Leysia Ann

    2006-01-01

    We describe our research—its approach, results and prod-ucts—on Danish emergency medical service (EMS) field or “pre-hospital” work in minor and major incidents. We dis-cuss how commitments to participatory design and attention to the qualitative differences between minor and major incidents...

  1. Participatory design for computerization of clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie; Pedersen, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    have on the final solution and (2) to explore the potential benefits - and disadvantages - of participatory design (PD) as an approach to design. However, rather than attempting to comprehensively cover the whole field of PD pertinent to healthcare, we focus on providing details on three aspects of PD...

  2. Adapting New Media Literacies to Participatory Spaces: Social Media Literacy Practices of Multilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Osman

    2017-01-01

    Approaching the new media literacies as social practices through the lens of Participatory Culture Framework, the present study adapted new media literacies to online social networks and examined the social media literacy practices of international graduate students (IGSs). The data was collected through an online survey of 90 IGSs,…

  3. Improving ethical and participatory practice for marginalized populations in biomedical HIV prevention trials: lessons from Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Allman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. METHODS: In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP guided this work. RESULTS: Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. DISCUSSION: Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical

  4. Improving ethical and participatory practice for marginalized populations in biomedical HIV prevention trials: lessons from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan; Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Kaplan, Karyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP) guided this work. Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical and participatory practice in other parts of the world where

  5. The case for integrating grounded theory and participatory action research: empowering clients to inform professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teram, Eli; Schachter, Candice L; Stalker, Carol A

    2005-10-01

    Grounded theory and participatory action research methods are distinct approaches to qualitative inquiry. Although grounded theory has been conceptualized in constructivist terms, it has elements of positivist thinking with an image of neutral search for objective truth through rigorous data collection and analysis. Participatory action research is based on a critique of this image and calls for more inclusive research processes. It questions the possibility of objective social sciences and aspires to engage people actively in all stages of generating knowledge. The authors applied both approaches in a project designed to explore the experiences of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse with physical therapy and subsequently develop a handbook on sensitive practice for clinicians that takes into consideration the needs and perspectives of these clients. Building on this experience, they argue that the integration of grounded theory and participatory action research can empower clients to inform professional practice.

  6. Linking Participatory Action Research, Global Education, and Social Justice: Emerging Issues from Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukko, Mervi; Fertig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the practical, ontological, and epistemological similarities and differences between global education and participatory action research (PAR). The paper starts by presenting classical definitions of action research, highlighting their similarities with the ideas of global education. Considering the aim of global education…

  7. Participatory governance of urban green spaces: Trends and practices in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, van der Alexander; Elands, B.H.M.; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca; Gerőházi, E.; Steen Moller, Maja; Buizer, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Green spaces provide a variety of benefits that contribute to more
    healthy and attractive cities. This paper, building upon results of the EU
    FP7 GREEN SURGE project, aims to identify, describe and categorize innovative
    participatory governance practices characterized by

  8. Participatory Theater, Is It Really? A Critical Examination of Practices in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Scharinger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dance, music, and oral narratives are an important and vibrant part of cultural practice and heritage in Timor-Leste. But while Timorese people have used such creative methods and processes during rituals, celebrations, and their fight for independence, today arts and artistic expression become an increasingly popular strategy in development cooperation. Especially diff erent forms of so-called participatory theater with origins in development cooperation, arts, and social movements, present themselves as innovative, participatory, and well applicable in terms of capacity building and stimulating positive social transformation. Based on the author’s experience and observations, this article critically examines the alliance between various stakeholders in Timor-Leste engaging with the fact that the current scene of participatory theater can hardly be seen as an independent grassroots or even social movement, rather than an initiated top-down process by donors with specific agendas.

  9. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…

  10. Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorck von Korff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called "messes" or "wicked problems." The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

  11. Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety: A Farm and Research Team Participatory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Kit; Krenz, Jen; Harrington, Marcy; Palmández, Pablo; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Development of the Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety guide used participatory research strategies to identify and evaluate solutions that reduce pesticide exposures for workers and their families and to disseminate these solutions. Project principles were (1) workplace chemicals belong in the workplace, and (2) pesticide handlers and farm managers are experts, with direct knowledge of production practices. The project's participatory methods were grounded in self-determination theory. Practical solutions were identified and evaluated based on five criteria: practicality, adaptability, health and safety, novelty, and regulatory compliance. Research activities that had more personal contact provided better outcomes. The Expert Working Group, composed of farm managers and pesticide handlers, was key to the identification of solutions, as were farm site visits. Audience participation, hands-on testing, and orchard field trials were particularly effective in the evaluation of potential solutions. Small work groups in a Regional Advisory Committee provided the best direction and guidance for a "user-friendly" translational document that provided evidence-based practical solutions. The "farmer to farmer" format of the guide was endorsed by both the Expert Working Group and the Regional Advisory Committee. Managers and pesticide handlers wanted to share their solutions in order to "help others stay safe," and they appreciated attribution in the guide. The guide is now being used in educational programs across the region. The fundamental concept that farmers and farmworkers are innovators and experts in agricultural production was affirmed by this study. The success of this process demonstrates the value of participatory industrial hygiene in agriculture.

  12. Communities of practice in participatory approaches to environmental regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mads Lægdsgaard; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    for change in agricultural contexts. The hypothesis is that the processes in the case project can be analysed by applying concepts of the theory of communities of practice. The first analytical component is a test for learning prerequisites conducted by the concepts of domain, community and practice....... The second component concerns identity changes among involved farmers and the third component introduces the concept of boundary objects to concrete cooperative processes in the case project. We find that the stakeholder approach is problematic in catchment areas because communities of practice are rare...... in interest groups and organisations. On the basis of the theory of communities of practice, we suggest to integrate both knowledge production and knowledge implementation in the work-related social setting of each individual farm....

  13. Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. A multiprofessional 'expert' group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  14. Participatory integrated coastal zone management in Vietnam: Theory versus practice case study: Thua Thien Hue province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieke Abelshausen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management processes have undergone a shift from a top-down approach to a bottom-up approach. This bottom-up approach allows for a more apprehensive inclusion of stakeholders. In traditional hierarchical societies a combination of both is considered more desirable. This combination is described as a participatory approach that allows for bi-directional knowledge sharing. The question asked is whether this theoretical approach is viable in practice, taking into account different social, political and cultural influences. Qualitative research in bi-directional knowledge sharing and stakeholder participation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM was conducted in the provinces of Thua Thien Hue in Vietnam. Qualitative research was conducted using coding analysis. This analysis showed that in practice a great reluctance for change affects the implementation of ICZM. This reluctance is directly related to the level of power of stakeholders and the level to which stakeholders are embedded in the top-down tradition. Two contradicting results emerged. On the one hand the theoretical understanding of participatory ICZM is highest when reluctance for change is highest and vice versa. On the other hand a decrease in power results in an increase of the sustainability of the implementation of participatory ICZM. This research concluded that a ‘platform or structure’ is essential to achieve sustainability. In the Vietnamese context the tradition of power results in a platform which is both formal and non-formal. A non-formal platform is needed to create social capital, whereas a formal platform will limit the risk for arbitrariness and allow for institutionalisation.

  15. Systematic implementation of evidence-based practice in a clinical nursing setting : a participatory action research project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandra van der Loo; Gerrie Bours; Anna Beurskens; Albine Moser; Jolanda Friesen-Storms

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To describe the process of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) in a clinical nursing setting. Background: EBP has become a major issue in nursing, it is insufficiently integrated in daily practice and its implementation is complex. Design: Participatory action

  16. Cultural order and participatory local development: structure for the occupational therapist practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes Correia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cultural Order is understood as the expression of a game of interdependencies determinations between local and global social groups, pairs identified by productions, values and behavior that consciously guide the life projects and the expansion of a collective freedom. Based on a Social Science research and with theoretical mark of Nobert Elias and Amartya Sen, this article aims to present a theoretical-practice structure of the approach in participatory local development- PLD to the occupational therapist surround by the construction of collective life projects, in order to operationalize in the practice of the community question, understood as the strengths that singularize the participation. We discuss the use of the PLD approach to the occupational therapist in a flexible structure, aiming to guarantee its domain, the Human Occupation, and the set of interventions, technologies, sustained in the management of the activities of daily living. The approach in participatory local development presents itself as an important structural outline to the community actions, and it is the occupational therapist role to be an articulator of the Local Cultural Order dimensions, to deal with the target population their work processes of continuity in collective life projects and expansion of freedom.

  17. Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed...... focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter...... concludes with some guidance and recommendations for further reading. An introduction to Participatory Design is followed by explanations of how practitioners and researchers in the field understand participation and practice and how design is approached as a process driven by social interaction...

  18. Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    concludes with some guidance and recommendations for further reading. An introduction to Participatory Design is followed by explanations of how practitioners and researchers in the field understand participation and practice and how design is approached as a process driven by social interaction......The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed...... focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter...

  19. International cooperation for food and nutrition security: Systematization of the participatory, contextualized, and intersectoral educational practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene BURLANDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study systematized the experience gained with the project Construindo capacidades em segurança alimentar e nutricional no Brasil, Canadá e Angola (2004-2010, Building food and nutrition security skills in Brazil, Canada, and Angola, whose objective was to qualify actions that promote food and nutrition security in the three countries using different educational practices. The activities were organized in the following subprojects: (a online distance learning courses; (b workshops to train managers, government technicians, representatives of civil society organizations, and social subjects who offered to act as a link between communities; and (c local pilot projects. The present study reports this experience. The educational practices implemented in the municipalities of Araçuaí (MG, Juazeiro (BA, and Fortaleza (CE were analyzed based on systematized information in the project reports and activity records (texts and photographs. The analytical reference was based on the concept of food and nutrition education, guided by the fundamentals of Popular Education and Paulo Freire; on the concept of food and nutrition security; and on the following analytical dimensions: participation, contextualization of educational practices, and intersectoriality. The results evidenced how educational practices contributed to the construction of shared concepts of food and nutrition security from an intersectoral and participatory perspective that values the peculiarities of diet in different socioeconomic and cultural contexts, and highlights daily situations and local traditions. They also expose the limits and potentialities of an experience of this magnitude, conducted from an interdisciplinarity perspective and using participatory methods.

  20. Sustainability, Participatory Culture, and the Performance of Democracy: Ascendant Sites of Theory and Practice in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandy, Doug

    2011-01-01

    Art education is a systemic and extensive network within which children, youth, and adults make and learn about material culture. This lecture considers three sites of theory and practice that I see as ascendant in circulating through this network. These sites are sustainability, participatory culture, and performing democracy. I argue that…

  1. Participatory Research Into Inclusive Practice: Improving Services for People With Long Term Neurological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Cook

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available People with long-term conditions are intensive users of health services as well as being long term users of social care and community services. In the UK, the Department of Health has suggested that the development of a more inclusive approach to services could furnish benefits to people with long-term conditions and financial savings for service providers. Researchers with a varied set of expertise and experience (users of neuro-rehabilitation services, staff working in services, people working with third sector agencies and university academics adopted a participatory research approach to work together to explore what inclusion might look and feel like for people who are long term users of health services. The element of critique and mutual challenge, developed within the research process, disturbed current presentations of inclusion and inclusive practice. It revealed that the more usually expected components of inclusion (trust, respect and shared responsibility whilst necessary for inclusive practice, are not necessarily sufficient. Inclusion is revealed as a complex and challenging process that requires the active construction of a critical communicative space for dialectical and democratic learning for service development.

  2. Empowering marginalized communities in water resources management: addressing inequitable practices in Participatory Model Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Cameron; Adamowski, Jan

    2015-04-15

    Within the field of water resource management, Group Model Building (GMB) is a growing method used to engage stakeholders in the development of models that describe environmental and socioeconomic systems to create and test policy alternatives. While there is significant focus on improving stakeholder engagement, there is a lack of studies specifically looking at the experiences of marginalized communities and the barriers that prevent their fuller participation in the decision-making process. This paper explores the common issues and presents recommended improved practices, based on anti-oppression, related to the stages of problem framing, stakeholder identification and selection, workshop preparation, and workshop facilitation. For problem defining and stakeholder selection, the major recommendations are to engage diverse stakeholder communities from the earliest stages and give them control over framing the project scope. With regards to planning the model building workshops, it is recommended that the facilitation team work closely with marginalized stakeholders to highlight and address barriers that would prevent their inclusion. With the actual facilitation of the workshops, it is best to employ activities that allow stakeholders to provide knowledge and input in mediums that are most comfortable to them; additionally, the facilitation team needs to be able to challenge problematic interpersonal interactions as they manifest within conversations. This article focuses on building comfortability with political language so that the systemic oppression in which existing participatory processes occur can be understood, thus allowing GMB practitioners to engage in social justice efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and

  4. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture

    Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile

  5. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    , performative, and participatory practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-human- geographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement...... towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  6. Telling stories of war through the screen. Participatory video approaches and practice for peace in conflict-affected contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Baú

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By bringing together literatures of Communication for Development and Conflict Transformation, this paper provides a theoretical illustration of the impact of participatory video as a tool for overcoming hostility among groups, as well as for healing and re-connecting communities that have endured loss and suffering as a consequence of civil war and inter-communal violence. This is accompanied by a number of practical experiences of projects implemented by organizations on the ground. This type of scenario, often characterized by a lack of dialogue among groups, has been recognized to be fertile ground for the setting up of community media, where people are given the means for self-expression. In particular, video productions created through participatory methodology can be effective tools for dealing with the hostility and grief that linger after a civil war, as they provide those channels of communication that are needed for effective development interventions aimed at community healing.

  7. Participatory Land Administration on Customary Lands: A Practical VGI Experiment in Nanton, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Asiama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Land information is one of the basic requirements for land management activities such as land consolidation. However, the dearth of land information on customary lands limits the development and application of land consolidation. This paper presents and discusses the results of an experiment carried out to test the potential of participatory land administration applied on customary lands in support of land consolidation. A brief overview of the evolution of crowdsourced, voluntary, and participatory approaches is provided alongside newly related insights into neogeography and neo-cadastre, and fit-for-purpose and pro-poor land administration. The concept of participatory land administration is then developed in this context. The area of the experiment is in Northern Ghana where the process was developed together with the local farming community. The study involved collecting land information relating to farms over a two-week period, using a mobile app and a satellite image, based on participatory land administration. The results show that Participatory Land Administration can potentially support land consolidation, though further investigation is needed on how it can be integrated into the formal land registration system, into an actual land consolidation project.

  8. Ethnographic Evidence of an Emerging Transnational Arts Practice?: Perspectives on U.K. and Mexican Participatory Artists' Processes for Catalysing Change, and Facilitating Health and Flourishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, Anni

    2014-03-01

    This article reports new ethnographic research exploring community-based, participatory arts practice in Northern England and Mexico City. Noting the value of an ethnographic approach, the study investigated whether commonalities discovered in practitioners' approaches are significant enough to constitute a generalisable participatory arts methodology, transcending significant contextual differences, and recognisable across national boundaries. Shared characteristics emerged in practitioners' modes of engagement with groups, and strategies for catalysing change; clear convergences from which a core methodology in community-based participatory arts for change is distilled. It suggests the opening of liminal spaces in which participants can reflect, rehearsing fresh ways of engaging in transformative dialogues in relation to the world in which they live. This article presents the study findings as a grounded characterisation of 'participatory arts practice': a complex but potentially powerful mechanism, in use within numerous community health projects, and evident in diverse settings, despite little or no exchange of ideas between practitioners.

  9. Exploring social inclusion strategies for public health research and practice: The use of participatory visual methods to counter stigmas surrounding street-based substance abuse in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterbusch, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the participatory visual research design and findings from a qualitative assessment of the social impact of bazuco and inhalant/glue consumption among street youth in Bogotá, Colombia. The paper presents the visual methodologies our participatory action research (PAR) team employed in order to identify and overcome the stigmas and discrimination that street youth experience in society and within state-sponsored drug rehabilitation programmes. I call for critical reflection regarding the broad application of the terms 'participation' and 'participatory' in visual research and urge scholars and public health practitioners to consider the transformative potential of PAR for both the research and practice of global public health in general and rehabilitation programmes for street-based substance abuse in Colombia in particular. The paper concludes with recommendations as to how participatory visual methods can be used to promote social inclusion practices and to work against stigma and discrimination in health-related research and within health institutions.

  10. Applying community-based participatory research to better understand and improve kinship care practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chukwudozie, Oge; Feinstein, Clare; Jensen, Celina

    2015-01-01

    While the principles behind community-based participatory research are firmly established, the process of taking community-based participatory research with children and youth to scale and integrating it into the programming of non-governmental organizations has been scarcely documented....... This article reflects on the experiences of Save the Children in implementing a multicountry community-based participatory research program to increase understanding of kinship care in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The article discusses challenges faced and lessons learned...... and highlights how the research process enabled action and advocacy initiatives at different levels-leading to an increase in support and policy attention for children living in kinship care....

  11. Evidence of a transnational arts and health practice methodology? A contextual framing for comparative community-based participatory arts practice in the UK and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, Anni; Mantecón, Ana Rosas

    2013-08-08

    This paper draws on new research exploring community-based, participatory arts practice in Northern England and Mexico City to discuss contextual influences on artists' practice, and whether a common practice model can be identified. The international comparison is used to interrogate whether such a practice model is transnational, displaying shared characteristics that transcend contextual differences. The study used multi-site ethnography to investigate the participatory practice of more than 40 artists. Participant observation and extended individual and group dialogues provided data on practice in a diverse range of art forms and settings, analysed using open coding and grounded theory principles. Findings locate differences in practitioners' motivations, and perceptions of the work's function; however, key similarities emerge across both sites, in practitioners' workshop methodologies and crucially in their creative strategies for catalysing change. A model is presented distilling the key elements of a common practice methodology, found across the study and across art forms. The discussion notes where divergences echo nationalities of contributors, drawing inferences about the level of influence of national context in this work, and concludes with the implications of these findings for potential international collaboration, to face challenges within the community arts and health sector globally.

  12. Systematic implementation of evidence-based practice in a clinical nursing setting: a participatory action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen-Storms, Jolanda H H M; Moser, Albine; van der Loo, Sandra; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Bours, Gerrie J J W

    2015-01-01

    To describe the process of implementing evidence-based practice in a clinical nursing setting. Evidence-based practice has become a major issue in nursing, it is insufficiently integrated into daily practice and its implementation is complex. Participatory action research. The main participants were nurses working in a lung unit of a rural hospital. A multi-method process of data collection was used during the observing, reflecting, planning and acting phases. Data were continuously gathered during a 24-month period from 2010 to 2012, and analysed using an interpretive constant comparative approach. Patients were consulted to incorporate their perspective. A best-practice mode of working was prevalent on the ward. The main barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice were that nurses had little knowledge of evidence-based practice and a rather negative attitude towards it, and that their English reading proficiency was poor. The main facilitators were that nurses wanted to deliver high-quality care and were enthusiastic and open to innovation. Implementation strategies included a tailored interactive outreach training and the development and implementation of an evidence-based discharge protocol. The academic model of evidence-based practice was adapted. Nurses worked according to the evidence-based practice discharge protocol but barely recorded their activities. Nurses favourably evaluated the participatory action research process. Action research provides an opportunity to empower nurses and to tailor evidence-based practice to the practice context. Applying and implementing evidence-based practice is difficult for front-line nurses with limited evidence-based practice competencies. Adaptation of the academic model of evidence-based practice to a more pragmatic approach seems necessary to introduce evidence-based practice into clinical practice. The use of scientific evidence can be facilitated by using pre-appraised evidence. For clinical practice

  13. Participatory processes for public lands: Do provinces practice what they preach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren F. Miller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we analyze the current spaces for public participation in Crown (public land management through a comparative study that focuses on the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. We define spaces for public participation as opportunities for meaningful public involvement in the decision-making arena of forest management. We examine the experiences of public participation in these provinces in an exploratory study comparing perceptions of participatory processes and outcomes of the processes in these two provinces based on 15 years (1999-2014 of informant experience. The objective is to understand more fully the barriers and bridges to meaningful public participation and relate these perceptions to on-the-ground implementation. A primary goal is to understand how, over time, processes with unsatisfying outcomes shape the perceptions of the participants. Rather than focusing on one particular participatory process, this comparative study assesses participation over time to identify the limitations in the participatory environments of these two provinces. We take a qualitative research approach using semistructured interviews with 42 forestry stakeholders, combined with participant observation and document analysis. This research reveals: (1 the importance of historical and cultural context as ongoing power imbalances shape the current dialogue and spaces for participation; (2 periods of robust and sound attempts at public participation in both provinces, with disappointments in implementation giving rise to a sense of futility, a closed system, and mistrust of government and industry over time; (3 a system of privileged access in opposition to the ideals of deliberative democracy and an equitable decision-making process; (4 in New Brunswick, public land policy implementation that is not reflective of participatory processes or of interests outside government and industry; (5 in Nova Scotia, recent efforts to incorporate values

  14. "Bounded" empowerment: analyzing tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research in urban public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Newlan, Sami; Douglas, Laura; Hubbard, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    This multi-method study examines tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research (YPAR) in urban high schools among 15 semester-cohorts. Student participants in the present study were 77 ethnically diverse youth from four high schools in a major metropolitan school district. Data were gathered using systematic classroom observations, interviews with teachers and students involved in the projects, and participant observation. The two most commonly-constrained phases of the YPAR project were issue selection and action steps. A central tension in the issue selection phase for projects enacted across multiple semester cohorts was the tension between original inquiry and "traction:" Sticking with the same topic enabled sustained building of strategic alliances and expertise for making change, but limited the incoming cohort's power to define the problem to be addressed. In further analyses, we identified processes that promoted student power despite continuity-related constraints-teachers' framing and buy-in strategies, "micro-power" compensation, and alignment of students' interests with the prior cohort-as well as constraints in other phases of the projects. This study's findings regarding the promotion of youth power in the face of constraints advance the integration of theory and practice in youth-led research and have implications for participatory research more broadly.

  15. Participatory Action Research in clinical nursing practice in a medical ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerholt, Mette; Wagner, Lis; Lindhardt, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Background: Action research with a participatory approach (PAR) was used as research design in a medical ward but stopped midway because of lack of active actor participation in the actions. Aim: To describe challenges and barriers influencing lack of participation. Setting: A medical hospital ward...... framework and conditions are present not only prior to but during the entire project process. Implications. The study shows that PAR is not always suitable as research approach in a busy hospital ward. Furthermore, the study outlines methodological questions in relation to use of PAR....

  16. A situated practice of ethics for participatory visual and digital methods in public health research and practice: a focus on digital storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrium, Aline C; Hill, Amy L; Flicker, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    This article explores ethical considerations related to participatory visual and digital methods for public health research and practice, through the lens of an approach known as "digital storytelling." We begin by briefly describing the digital storytelling process and its applications to public health research and practice. Next, we explore 6 common challenges: fuzzy boundaries, recruitment and consent to participate, power of shaping, representation and harm, confidentiality, and release of materials. We discuss their complexities and offer some considerations for ethical practice. We hope this article serves as a catalyst for expanded dialogue about the need for high standards of integrity and a situated practice of ethics wherein researchers and practitioners reflexively consider ethical decision-making as part of the ongoing work of public health.

  17. Participatory innovation process for testing new practices for soil fertility management in Chókwè Irrigation Scheme (Mozambique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Reparaz, Maite; de Vente, Joris; Famba, Sebastiao; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Barberá, Gonzalo G.

    2015-04-01

    Integrated water and nutrient management are key factors to increase productivity and to reduce the yield gap in irrigated systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. These two elements are affected by an ensemble of abiotic, biotic, management and socio-economic factors that need to be taken into account to reduce the yield gap, as well as farmers' perceptions and knowledge. In the framework of the project European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we are carrying out a participatory innovation process in Chókwè irrigation scheme (Mozambique) based on stakeholders engagement, to test new practices for soil fertility management that can increase yields reducing costs. Through a method combining interviews with three farmers' associations and other relevant stakeholders and soil sampling from the interviewed farmers' plots with the organization of Communities of Practices, we tried to capture how soil fertility is managed by farmers, the constraints they find as well as their perceptions about soil resources. This information was the basis to design and conduct a participatory innovation process where compost made with rice straw and manure is being tested by a farmers' association. Most important limitations of the method are also evaluated. Our results show that socio-economic characteristics of farmers condition how they manage soil fertility and their perceptions. The difficulties they face to adopt new practices for soil fertility management, mainly related to economic resources limitations, labour availability, knowledge time or farm structure, require a systemic understanding that takes into account abiotic, biotic, management and socio-economic factors and their implication as active stakeholders in all phases of the innovation process.

  18. Participatory urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas are planned structures that cannot easily be changed. Urban areas do however still afford physical spaces for various types of leisure expression and participation, from street art to parkour and from urban gaming to artistic happenings. Thus, while citizens who inhabit the urban areas...... cannot directly influence their structures, they can influence their contours through such leisure practices. In this chapter focus will be on how citizens’ engagement in locative leisure activities may allow them to co-create urban space. This participatory urbanism is a form of everyday democracy......, which includes awareness of the structures in which we live as well as participation in the public sphere. Locative media projects shape events which seek to address everyday democracy. Specifically engaging in locative media projects can help create leisure experiences in the urban landscape that allow...

  19. Involving migrants in the development of guidelines for communication in cross-cultural general practice consultations: a participatory learning and action research project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Reilly-de Brún, M.P.; Macfarlane, A.; Brun, T. de; Okonkwo, E.; Bonsenge Bokanga, J.S.; Almeida Silva, M. de; Ogbebor, F.; Mierzejewska, A.; Nnadi, L.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van; Weel, C. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to involve migrants and other key stakeholders in a participatory dialogue to develop a guideline for enhancing communication in cross-cultural general practice consultations. In this paper, we focus on findings about the use of formal versus informal

  20. Visualizing the Crowd Web-based Participatory Practices as Innovative Tools in drawing and mapping Milano Città Metropolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Villa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many new questions arise with regard to Web3.0- based technologies, which are more and more frequently used by non-experts to generate and share geographic information, new collective urban visions and place-based knowledge. This paper discusses the role of participatory planning and mapping practices in the context of Milan metropolitan region. In particular taking into account the collaborative use of new technologies (such as the use of microblogging and geo-social networks within the processes of social sharing of the great urban transformations. Specific attention is given to the problems of perception and definition of shared landscape quality. In this context, the role of expert knowledge in the analysis and definition of the social perception of the urban landscape is now changing rapidly and radically.

  1. Assessing participatory practices in community-based natural resource management: experiences in community engagement from southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Leventon, J; Nshimbi, M; Chama, F; Kafwifwi, A; Muledi, J I; Kaumbu, J-M K; Falcao, M; Muhorro, S; Munyemba, F; Kalaba, G M; Syampungani, S

    2014-05-01

    The emphasis on participatory environmental management within international development has started to overcome critiques of traditional exclusionary environmental policy, aligning with shifts towards decentralisation and community empowerment. However, questions are raised regarding the extent to which participation in project design and implementation is meaningful and really engages communities in the process. Calls have been made for further local-level (project and community-scale) research to identify practices that can increase the likelihood of meaningful community engagement within externally initiated projects. This paper presents data from three community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) project case studies from southern Africa, which promote Joint Forest Management (JFM), tree planting for carbon and conservation agriculture. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, community-level meetings, focus groups and interviews. We find that an important first step for a meaningful community engagement process is to define 'community' in an open and participatory manner. Two-way communication at all stages of the community engagement process is shown to be critical, and charismatic leadership based on mutual respect and clarity of roles and responsibilities is vital to improve the likelihood of participants developing understanding of project aims and philosophy. This can lead to successful project outcomes through community ownership of the project goals and empowerment in project implementation. Specific engagement methods are found to be less important than the contextual and environmental factors associated with each project, but consideration should be given to identifying appropriate methods to ensure community representation. Our findings extend current thinking on the evaluation of participation by making explicit links between the community engagement process and project outcomes, and by

  2. Notes on Women Who Rock: Making Scenes, Building Communities: Participatory Research, Community Engagement, and Archival Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Habell-Pallán

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2011, Women Who Rock (WWR has brought together scholars, archivists, musicians, media-makers, performers, artists, and activists to explore the role of women and popular music in the creation of cultural scenes and social justice movements in the Americas and beyond. The project promotes generative dialogue and documentation by “encompassing several interwoven components: project-based coursework at the graduate and undergraduate levels; an annual participant-driven conference and film festival; and an oral history archive hosted by the University of Washington Libraries Digital Initiatives Program that ties the various components together” (Bartha 8. In our courses, programming, and archive, we examine the politics of performance, social identity, and material access in music scenes, cultures, and industries. Performance studies scholar Daphne Brooks argues that the “confluence of cultural studies, rock studies, and third wave feminist critical studies makes it possible now more than ever to continue to critique and re-interrogate the form and content of popular music histories” (58. WWR implements this approach, asking how particular stories of popular music determine a performer, band, or scene’s “legendary” status or excision from the official annals of memory. WWR reshapes conventional understandings of popular music studies by initiating collective methods of participatory research, as well as community collaboration and dialogue. By way of WWR, we seek to transform traditional models of popular music studies, instigating new convergences between academic disciplines and critical approaches that create alternative histories and new forms of knowledge.

  3. Are we asking the right questions? A review of Canadian REB practices in relation to community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guta, Adrian; Wilson, Michael G; Flicker, Sarah; Travers, Robb; Mason, Catherine; Wenyeve, Gloria; O'Campo, Patricia

    2010-06-01

    Access barriers to effective ethics review continue to be a significant challenge for researchers and community-based organizations undertaking community-based participatory research (CBPR). This article reports on findings from a content analysis of select (Behavioural, Biomedical, Social Sciences, Humanities) research ethics boards (REBs) in the Canadian research context (n = 86). Existing ethics review documentation was evaluated using 30 CBPR related criteria for their sensitivity to relevant approaches, processes, and outcomes. A linear regression was conducted to determine whether specific organizational characteristics have an impact on the CBPR sensitivity: (1) region of Canada, (2) type of institution (university or a healthcare organization), (3) primary institutional language (English or French) and (4) national ranking with respect to research intensiveness. While only research intensiveness proved statistically significant (p = .001), we recognize REB protocol forms may not actually reflect how CBPR is reviewed. Despite using a single guiding ethical framework, REBs across Canada employ a variety of techniques to review research studies. We report on these differences and varying levels of sensitivity to CBPR. Finally, we highlight best practices and make recommendations for integrating CBPR principles into existing ethics review.

  4. Best practice guidelines for stroke in Cameroon: An innovative and participatory knowledge translation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cockburn

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe how a group of front-line practitioners collaborated with academics and students to develop best practice guidelines (BPG for the management and rehabilitation of stroke in adult patients in Cameroon. Method: A working group was established and adapted internationally recognised processes for the development of best practice guidelines. The group determined the scope of the guidelines, documented current practices, and critically appraised evidence to develop guidelines relevant to the Cameroon context. Results: The primary result of this project is best practice guidelines which provided an overview of the provision of stroke rehabilitation services in the region, and made 83 practice recommendations to improve these services. We also report on the successes and challenges encountered during the process, and the working group’s recommendations aimed at encouraging others to consider similar projects. Conclusion: This project demonstrated that there is interest and capacity for improving stroke rehabilitation practices and for stroke guideline development in Africa.

  5. Best practice guidelines for stroke in Cameroon: An innovative and participatory knowledge translation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the adherence to stroke guidelines in high-income countries has been shown to be associated with improved patient outcomes, the research, development and implementation of rehabilitation related guidelines in African countries is lacking.Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe how a group of front-line practitioners collaborated with academics and students to develop best practice guidelines (BPG for the management and rehabilitation of stroke in adult patients in Cameroon.Method: A working group was established and adapted internationally recognised processes for the development of best practice guidelines. The group determined the scope of the guidelines, documented current practices, and critically appraised evidence to develop guidelines relevant to the Cameroon context.Results: The primary result of this project is best practice guidelines which provided an overview of the provision of stroke rehabilitation services in the region, and made 83 practice recommendations to improve these services. We also report on the successes and challenges encountered during the process, and the working group’s recommendations aimed at encouraging others to consider similar projects.Conclusion: This project demonstrated that there is interest and capacity for improving stroke rehabilitation practices and for stroke guideline development in Africa.

  6. Queering Participatory Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…

  7. Involving migrants in the development of guidelines for communication in cross-cultural general practice consultations: a participatory learning and action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; MacFarlane, Anne; de Brún, Tomas; Okonkwo, Ekaterina; Bonsenge Bokanga, Jean Samuel; Manuela De Almeida Silva, Maria; Ogbebor, Florence; Mierzejewska, Aga; Nnadi, Lovina; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2015-09-21

    The aim of this research was to involve migrants and other key stakeholders in a participatory dialogue to develop a guideline for enhancing communication in cross-cultural general practice consultations. In this paper, we focus on findings about the use of formal versus informal interpreters because dialogues about these issues emerged as central to the identification of recommendations for best practice. This qualitative case study involved a Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research methodology. The sample comprised 80 stakeholders: 51 from migrant communities; 15 general practitioners (GPs) and general practice staff; 7 established migrants as peer researchers; 5 formal, trained interpreters; and 2 service planners from the national health authority. Galway, Ireland. There was 100% consensus across stakeholder groups that while informal interpreters have uses for migrants and general practice staff, they are not considered acceptable as best practice. There was also 100% consensus that formal interpreters who are trained and working as per a professional code of practice are acceptable as best practice. Policymakers and service planners need to work in partnership with service providers and migrants to progress the implementation of professional, trained interpreters as a routine way of working in general practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. A Teacher's Schoolyard Tale: Illuminating the Vagaries of Practicing Participatory Action Research (PAR) Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This single case study, situated within a larger narrative inquiry project, closely examines the professional stories told by one Project Grow teacher. Project Grow is a 10-year-old collaborative interdisciplinary environmental education project at a New York City alternative public high school. Through the practice of an innovative …

  9. Roadmap for a participatory research-practice partnership to implement evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D

    2012-12-01

    Our research team has undertaken implementation of evidence in the form of practice guideline recommendations for populations in hospital, community, and long-term care settings with diverse provider and patient populations (people with chronic wounds, e.g., pressure and leg ulcers, heart failure, stroke, diabetes, palliative care, cancer, and maternity care). Translating evidence into clinical practice at the point of care is a complex and often overwhelming challenge for the health system as well as for individual practitioners. To ensure that best available evidence is integrated into practice, "local evidence" needs to be generated and this process accomplishes a number of things: it focuses all involved on the "same page," identifies important facilitating factors as well as barriers, provides empirical support for planning, and in itself is a key aspect of implementation. In doing this work, we developed a roadmap, the Queen's University Research Roadmap for Knowledge Implementation (QuRKI) that outlines three major phases of linked research and implementation activity: (1) issue identification/clarification; (2) solution building; and (3) implementation, evaluation, and nurturing the change. In this paper, we describe our practical experience as researchers working at point-of-care and how research can be used to facilitate the implementation of evidence. An exemplar is used to illustrate the fluid interplay of research and implementation activities and present the range of supporting research. QuRKI serves as a guide for researchers in the formation of a strategic alliance with the practice community for undertaking evidence-informed reorganization of care. Using this collaborative approach, researchers play an integral role in focusing on, and using evidence during all discussions. We welcome further evaluation of its usefulness in the field. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must be...... be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation.......In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must...

  11. Self-Transcendence Values, Relationships, and Participatory Practice in Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodie Tal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to reveal the circumstances that encourage versus those that block children’s participation in the context of daily teacher-children encounters in preschools in Israel. Six cases were selected for analysis—three in which children’s participation was enabled and three in which children’s participation was blocked by teachers or student-teachers. Participants in the study were five student-teachers doing fieldwork as part of their professional preparation as well as two teachers. Analysis yielded the following conclusions: meaningful participation takes place in the context of a personal, caring relationship with an educator. For challenging situations that require decisions about enabling or denying children’s participation, self-transcendence values need to be activated by student-teachers or teachers. Activation of these values is the outcome of personal mental struggle, which is strengthened by having clear, articulated goals to include children in guided and nonguided social encounters. This study suggests that a teacher’s espousal of self-transcendence values is among the attributes that have an impact on teachers’ representations of relationships, their interactions with children, and the children’s participation in daily, preschool social encounters, whose quality may in turn affect the relationships with children. Documentation and critical reflection need to be incorporated into educational practice so that decision-making in challenging situations will be the product of thorough deliberation.

  12. Development of a practical toolkit using participatory action research to address health inequalities through NGOs in the UK: Challenges and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirewa, Blessing

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a practical toolkit to support non-government organizations (NGOs) in tackling health inequalities in the UK and to highlight the challenges and lessons learned. A mixed qualitative methodology within an action research framework was conducted. Semi-structured questionnaires, focus group interviews and discussions with an expert reference group aimed to identify the important themes and produce the toolkit content. A practical guide of information materials for NGOs working on addressing health inequalities was subsequently developed and successfully piloted. The experience of using participatory action research revealed a number of lessons and challenges. The key challenges were lack of training and experience in conducting action research, costs and insufficient resources, slow and time-consuming process, lack of commitment from marginalized groups, and differences in emphasis of goals and vision among participants. The main lessons learned were importance of effective leadership and project management skills, importance of integrating researchers and the researched as equal partners, creation and nurturing of trust, importance of evaluating and piloting processes, importance of engaging with marginalized groups, and use of evidence base in decision making. The lessons and challenges enumerating herein are of value to researchers aiming to implement participatory action research in developing checklists, tools, practical guidance and frameworks, and they offer important areas to consider before starting such projects. In addition, this offers an insight into how the dynamics of participatory action research methodology evolved in the development of the toolkit. Future research and initiatives in this area should focus on ways to improve the toolkit and make it more relevant to a wider community, and methods for evaluating the impact of the toolkit on practice.

  13. Participatory Action Research for High School Students: Transforming Policy, Practice, and the Personal with Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Julio; Romero, Augustine

    2011-01-01

    The authors discuss how participatory action research (PAR) informs the pedagogy and epistemology of the social justice education. PAR facilitates students' engagement in their social context and acquisition of knowledge to initiate personal and social transformation. The scope of research contains knowledge about social justice issues negatively…

  14. Participatory Design Research as a Practice for Systemic Repair: Doing Hand-in-Hand Math Research with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…

  15. Material practices for meaningful engagement: An analysis of participatory learning and action research techniques for data generation and analysis in a health research partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brún, Tomas; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Papadakaki, Maria; Saridaki, Aristoula; Lionis, Christos; Burns, Nicola; Dowrick, Chris; Gravenhorst, Katja; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Van Weel, Chris; Van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; MacFarlane, Anne

    2018-02-01

    The material practices which researchers use in research partnerships may enable or constrain the nature of engagement with stakeholder groups. Participatory learning and action (PLA) research approaches show promise, but there has been no detailed analysis of stakeholders' and researchers' experiences of PLA techniques for data generation and co-analysis. To explore stakeholders' and researchers' experiences of PLA techniques for data generation and co-analysis. The EU RESTORE implementation science project employed a participatory approach to investigate and support the implementation of guidelines and training initiatives (GTIs) to enhance communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations. We developed a purposeful sample of 78 stakeholders (migrants, general practice staff, community interpreters, service providers, service planners) from primary care settings in Austria, England, Greece, Ireland and The Netherlands. We used speed evaluations and participatory evaluations to explore their experiences of two PLA techniques-Commentary Charts and Direct Ranking-which were intended to generate data for co-analysis by stakeholders about the GTIs under analysis. We evaluated 16 RESTORE researchers' experiences using interviews. We conducted thematic and content analysis of all evaluation data. PLA Commentary Charts and Direct Ranking techniques, with their visual, verbal and tangible nature and inherent analytical capabilities, were found to be powerful tools for involving stakeholders in a collaborative analysis of GTIs. Stakeholders had few negative experiences and numerous multifaceted positive experiences of meaningful engagement, which resonated with researchers' accounts. PLA techniques and approaches are valuable as material practices in health research partnerships. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Iterative participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental...... iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record...... system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design....

  17. Participatory telerobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  18. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text...

  19. Participatory epidemiology: the contribution of participatory research to epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bach

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiology has contributed in many ways to identifying various risk factors for disease and to promoting population health. However, there is a continuing debate about the ability of epidemiology not only to describe, but also to provide results which can be better translated into public health practice. It has been proposed that participatory research approaches be applied to epidemiology as a way to bridge this gap between description and action. A systematic account of what constitutes participatory epidemiology practice has, however, been lacking. Methods A scoping review was carried out focused on the question of what constitutes participatory approaches to epidemiology for the purpose of demonstrating their potential for advancing epidemiologic research. Relevant databases were searched, including both the published and non-published (grey literature. The 102 identified sources were analyzed in terms of comparing common epidemiologic approaches to participatory counterparts regarding central aspects of the research process. Exemplary studies applying participatory approaches were examined more closely. Results A highly diverse, interdisciplinary body of literature was synthesized, resulting in a framework comprised of seven aspects of the research process: research goal, research question, population, context, data synthesis, research management, and dissemination of findings. The framework specifies how participatory approaches not only differ from, but also how they can enhance common approaches in epidemiology. Finally, recommendations for the further development of participatory approaches are given. These include: enhancing data collection, data analysis, and data validation; advancing capacity building for research at the local level; and developing data synthesis. Conclusion The proposed framework provides a basis for systematically developing the emergent science of participatory epidemiology.

  20. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...... this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting......, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities...

  1. Digital publics and participatory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. McNely

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.

  2. Ethical Research Practice or Undue Influence? Symbolic Power in Community- and Individual-Level Informed Consent Processes in Community-Based Participatory Research in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brear, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    In community-based participatory research (CBPR), community-level consent is assumed to enhance ethical rigor, when obtained prior to individual informed consent. However, community leaders' permission to conduct research may influence individuals' agency to decline participation. This article presents findings of a Bourdieusian analysis of ethnographic data documenting CBPR in rural Swaziland. The findings reveal that the "symbolic power" of leaders who provide community-level consent constrains individual agency and reproduces existing relations of power, if individual informed consent is simply a procedure. However, when informed consent is a process that introduces notions of autonomy and rights, it can disrupt power relations. Implications for ethical CBPR practice, and ethnography's value for developing theory from real-world research ethics practice, are discussed.

  3. Sustainable innovation backcasting and participatory decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesch, U.; Quist, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory intervention methods can be seen as tools to solve the problems that are the results of locked-in institutional practices. To repair such institutional problems, participatory tools have to address three sets of questions.First, who to select as a participant, and what is the function

  4. Participatory visual methodologies in global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Claudia M; Sommer, Marni

    2016-01-01

    This Introduction serves to map out a range of participatory visual approaches, as well as critical issues related to the use of participatory visual methodologies in global health. In so doing, it offers both an overview of these innovative practices in global health and a consideration of some of the key questions that researchers might ask themselves in design and implementation.

  5. Moving from theory to practice: A participatory social network mapping approach to address unmet need for family planning in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igras, Susan; Diakité, Mariam; Lundgren, Rebecka

    2017-07-01

    In West Africa, social factors influence whether couples with unmet need for family planning act on birth-spacing desires. Tékponon Jikuagou is testing a social network-based intervention to reduce social barriers by diffusing new ideas. Individuals and groups judged socially influential by their communities provide entrée to networks. A participatory social network mapping methodology was designed to identify these diffusion actors. Analysis of monitoring data, in-depth interviews, and evaluation reports assessed the methodology's acceptability to communities and staff and whether it produced valid, reliable data to identify influential individuals and groups who diffuse new ideas through their networks. Results indicated the methodology's acceptability. Communities were actively and equitably engaged. Staff appreciated its ability to yield timely, actionable information. The mapping methodology also provided valid and reliable information by enabling communities to identify highly connected and influential network actors. Consistent with social network theory, this methodology resulted in the selection of informal groups and individuals in both informal and formal positions. In-depth interview data suggest these actors were diffusing new ideas, further confirming their influence/connectivity. The participatory methodology generated insider knowledge of who has social influence, challenging commonly held assumptions. Collecting and displaying information fostered staff and community learning, laying groundwork for social change.

  6. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L.

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  7. Participatory heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and preservation. Participatory Heritage explores issues including, how to manage copyright, ownership, orphan works, open data access to heritage representations and artefacts, crowdsourcing, cultural heritage amateurs, information as a commodity or information as public domain, sustainable preservation......This new book provides a wide range of international guidance and perspectives on the issues surrounding the preservation of local cultural heritage, ranging from formal cultural heritage institutions to individual community members in the associated processes of creation, organization, access, use......, and attitudes towards openness. The book demonstrates that in order for personal and community-based documentation and artefacts to be preserved and included in social and collective histories, individuals and community groups need the technical and knowledge infrastructures of support that formal cultural...

  8. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant...... approaches, compares them in terms of goals, methods and basic philosophy, and shows how they may beneficially enrich one another. We will present an industrial innovation case that has been instrumental to the development of what we have termed ‘Participatory Innovation’. Based on this we will list...... the challenges such an approach sets to innovation management, and discuss research directions we see as fundamental to the development of the field of user-driven innovation. Udgivelsesdato: September...

  9. Promoting Mental Health and Community Participation: A study on participatory arts practice, creativity and play in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze a participative health experience involving art, creativity and play, in articulation with the strategy of Comprehensive Primary Health Care focused on mental health. This experience is conducted by a network of institutions in Buenos Aires City.This is an exploratory and descriptive case study based on qualitative research methodologies. From an ethnographic perspective, the fieldwork revolved around interviews and participant observation records. The systematization process followed qualitative analysis content techniques. The outcomes describe a practice cored in intersectoral work, community participation, occupation of public space, creation of community gathering spaces and conformation of solidarity ties for addressing complex psychosocial issues. The main participatory processes focused on community organization and collective artistic creations are described. It is concluded that this experience shows great transforming potential, creating community conditions suitable for joint decision making on the health- illness care process itself.

  10. Community health workers support community-based participatory research ethics: lessons learned along the research-to-practice-to-community continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-11-01

    Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR.

  11. The social representation of public space for the design and management of sustainable territories A theoretical-practical and methodological proposal for participatory planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Natalie Contreras-Lovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La representación social del espacio público para el diseño y gestión de territorios sostenibles. Una propuesta teórica-práctica y metodológica para un urbanismo participativo. ResumenA partir de la gestión integral participativa se orienta el desarrollo espacial de los territorios vistos desde el individuo, para comprender la gestión, acción y ordenamiento territorial, desde la diferencia entre la ciudad entendida como lo que es y el espacio público como objeto de observación. Las vías para recolectar la información fueron la revisión bibliográfica y, a partir de la aplicación de una metodología mixta, se evidenciaron las representaciones vivenciales de los individuos que construyen el saber y el conocimiento a partir del espacio cultural vivido, en donde las experiencias y las prácticas del espacio prevalecen en el desarrollo de un urbanismo participativo. La propuesta se consolida a partir del hacer, el saber y el evaluar, en una trialéctica del ambiente humanizado. Se concluye con los aportes de la propuesta en términos teóricos, prácticos y metodológicos, con el fin de validar una gestión humana participativa en la cual el individuo se vaya convirtiendo en un ser creativo que fomente la calidad de vida y el bienestar social.Palabras clave: desarrollo urbano, diseño urbano, espacio público, gestión urbana, imaginarios urbanos, participación ciudadana. The social representation of public space for the design and management of sustainable territoriesA theoretical-practical and methodological proposal for participatory planningAbstractFrom participatory integrated management, spatial development of the territories seen by the individual is oriented to understand the management, action and land from the difference between the city understood as what it is and public space as an object of observation. The ways to collect the information were the literature review and from the application of a mixed methodology

  12. Workplace wellness programs: how regulatory flexibility might undermine success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act revised the law related to workplace wellness programs, which have become part of the nation's broader health strategy. Health-contingent programs are required to be reasonably designed. However, the regulatory requirements are lax and might undermine program efficacy in terms of both health gains and financial return. I propose a method for the government to support a best-practices approach by considering an accreditation or certification process. Additionally I discuss the need for program evaluation and the potential for employers to be subject to litigation if programs are not carefully implemented.

  13. Neural basis of the undermining effect of monetary reward on intrinsic motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Matsumoto, Madoka; Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the widespread belief that people are positively motivated by reward incentives, some studies have shown that performance-based extrinsic reward can actually undermine a person's intrinsic motivation to engage in a task. This “undermining effect” has timely practical implications, given the burgeoning of performance-based incentive systems in contemporary society. It also presents a theoretical challenge for economic and reinforcement learning theories, which tend to assume that monetary incentives monotonically increase motivation. Despite the practical and theoretical importance of this provocative phenomenon, however, little is known about its neural basis. Herein we induced the behavioral undermining effect using a newly developed task, and we tracked its neural correlates using functional MRI. Our results show that performance-based monetary reward indeed undermines intrinsic motivation, as assessed by the number of voluntary engagements in the task. We found that activity in the anterior striatum and the prefrontal areas decreased along with this behavioral undermining effect. These findings suggest that the corticobasal ganglia valuation system underlies the undermining effect through the integration of extrinsic reward value and intrinsic task value. PMID:21078974

  14. Perspectives on past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Zagozewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  15. Perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices: a community-based participatory research project in three Saskatchewan first nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-04-28

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  16. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities. PMID:21573032

  17. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant appr...... the challenges such an approach sets to innovation management, and discuss research directions we see as fundamental to the development of the field of user-driven innovation. Udgivelsesdato: September......An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant...... approaches, compares them in terms of goals, methods and basic philosophy, and shows how they may beneficially enrich one another. We will present an industrial innovation case that has been instrumental to the development of what we have termed ‘Participatory Innovation’. Based on this we will list...

  18. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Alhaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0% are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0% are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals. Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%, barks (31.6%, roots (10.6%, and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage.

  19. Participatory Epidemiology of Ethnoveterinary Practices Fulani Pastoralists Used to Manage Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Other Cattle Ailments in Niger State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Babalobi, O O

    2015-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary practices are locally available and affordable to Fulani pastoralists in Niger State, Nigeria, to whom conventional veterinary services are often not readily available and are relatively expensive. This study was designed to identify and document medicinal plant and nonplant materials used by this group in the management of cattle diseases. Participatory rural appraisal tools of checklist, semistructured interview, probing, transect, and triangulations were used to assess Fulani pastoralists existing knowledge on traditional veterinary practices in nine pastoral communities spread across the state. Fifty medicinal materials and seven traditional preventive practices are in use against CBPP and other cattle disease conditions. Of these, 38 (76.0%) are medicinal plants and 12 (24.0%) are nonplant materials (edible earth materials and minerals). Family Fabaceae was most commonly mentioned while leaves were the most common parts used. Most of these materials are administered by drenching with few others mixed with feed. Proportions of plant parts used include leaves (47.4%), barks (31.6%), roots (10.6%), and 2.6% of each of rhizomes, fruits, seeds, and whole plants. Of recently used ingredients are kerosene and spent engine oil. Further research into the active ingredients of ethnoveterinary materials and dosages is necessary to guide their usage.

  20. Pursuing Aesthetic Inquiry in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We introduce aesthetic inquiry as an important perspective to pursue in Participatory Design. Within the scope of tradition and transcendence we pursue aesthetic inquiry by tipping the scale towards transcendence and by staging offline loops for detached reflection by use of imaginative artefacts....... Although aesthetic inquiry to some extent resides in most Participatory Design practice, we see the need for elaborating this perspective and to further build Participatory Design practice, tools and techniques that address this issue. The Fictional Inquiry technique is presented as an illustrating example...... of a design technique for pursuing aesthetic inquiry by using fictional narratives to temporarily by-pass the existing structures of meaning and expectations within a given practice. We illustrate how Fictional Inquiry was utilized in a participatory design project in which two design concepts...

  1. Tying Knots: Participatory Infrastructuring at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2017-01-01

    Today, most design projects are infrastructuring projects, because they build on technologies, competencies and practices that already exist. While infrastructuring was originally seen as being full of conflicts and contradictions with what is already present, we find that many contemporary reports...... dispersed within these networks. To illustrate and discuss the process of participatory infrastructuring we use a case study from an educational context. This particular project contains a diverse set of design activities at many organizational levels revolving around technology, decision-making, competence...... of the literature on infrastructuring, participatory design, and activity theory, and leads to a revised understanding of, for example, learning and conflicts in participatory infrastructuring....

  2. Participatory Action as a Research Method with Public Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Cheryl; Cohen, Benita; Mignone, Javier; Chartier, Mariette J; Lutfiyya, Zana

    2018-02-28

    This article explores and describes participatory action research as a preferred method in addressing nursing practice issues. This is the first study that used participatory action research with public health nurses in Canada to develop a professional practice model. Participatory action research is a sub-category of action research that incorporates feminist and critical theory with foundations in the field of social psychology. For nurses, critical analysis of long-established beliefs and practices through participatory action research contributes to emancipatory knowledge regarding the impact of traditional hierarchies on their practice. This study used participatory action, a non-traditional but systematic research method, which assisted participants to develop a solution to a long-standing organizational issue. The stages of generating concerns, participatory action, acting on concerns, reflection and evaluation were implemented from 2012-2013 in an urban Canadian city, to develop a professional practice model for public health nurses. Four sub-themes specific to participatory action research are discussed. These are 'participatory action research engaged public health nurses in development of a professional practice model;' 'the participatory action research cycles of 'Look, Think, Act' expanded participants' views;' 'participatory action research increased awareness of organizational barriers;' and 'participatory action research promoted individual empowerment and system transformation. This study resulted in individual and system change that may not have been possible without the use of participatory action research. The focus was engagement of participants and recognition of their lived experience, which facilitated public health nurses' empowerment, leadership and consciousness-raising. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Scandinavian Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian...... PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process......, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize...

  4. Provotypes for Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared

    2012-01-01

    Central to multi-stakeholder processes of participatory innovation is to generate knowledge about ‘users’ and to identify business opportunities accordingly. In these processes of collaborative analysis and synthesis, conflicting perceptions within and about a field of interest are likely...... to surface. Instead of the natural tendency to avoid these tensions, we demonstrate how tensions can be utilized by embodying them in provocative types (provotypes). Provotypes expose and embody tensions that surround a field of interest to support collaborative analysis and collaborative design explorations...... across stakeholders. In this paper we map how provotyping contributes to four related areas of contemporary Interaction Design practice. Through a case study that brings together stakeholders from the field of indoor climate, we provide characteristics of design provocations and design guidelines...

  5. Participatory heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    institutions can provide. In other words, both groups need each other. Divided into three core sections, this book explores: Participants in the preservation of cultural heritage; exploring heritage institutions and organizations, community archives and group Challenges; including discussion of giving voices...... to communities, social inequality, digital archives, data and online sharing Solutions; discussing open access and APIs, digital postcards, the case for collaboration, digital storytelling and co-designing heritage practice....

  6. The value of cultural theory for participatory processes in natural resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra, M.A.; Permadi, D.B.; Yasmi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Participation is viewed as an important means for promoting the sustainable management of natural resources. However, participation is not always successful. Conflicting values and power inequalities are all factors that can severely undermine participatory processes. Where so far the main focus of

  7. Participatory Design with Dyslectics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangeli, Panagiota; Stage, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Participatory Design has been used successfully in many projects but the question is how participatory design works with people with a cognitive disorder like dyslexia. In this study, we analyzed observations of participatory design sessions with dyslectic participants for developing designs...... of a reading software application by applying two participatory design methods: the IDEAS and CI methods. Furthermore, we conducted online surveys to gather information on dyslectics participants’ and their special-education teachers’ opinion regarding the participatory design process, methods and final...... designs. The results indicate that participatory design works effectively with dyslectic people provided the participation of Proxy Users to represent dyslectics, when it is necessary, the participation of an experienced on dyslexia facilitator who has the knowledge to address incidents caused due...

  8. Participatory Communication and Sustainability Development: Case Study of Coal Mining Environment in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda Fitryarini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to analyze about participatory communication, especially those currently practiced in coal mining communities in Samarinda, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. In addition, specific practices to facilitate participatory communication are identified and discussed. This essay is based on the author's research on environmental conflicts in coal mining areas. The conclusion of this essay is that community participatory communication in coal mining industry area is still at a pseudo participatory stage.

  9. Adapting participatory and agile software methods to participatory rural development

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Andy; Rizvi, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents observations from a project that combines participatory rural development methods with participatory design techniques to support a farmers’ co-operative in Madhya Pradesh, India

  10. Sustaining Participatory Design in the organization - Infrastructuring with Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolmsten, Johan

    D thesis is about sustaining Participatory Design in the organization to enable users to influence the development of the IT infrastructure that supports their work practices. The empirical research is based on a long-term action research study, where this researcher works as an embedded researcher...... IT management in order to relate the development of their local software support in an integrated infrastructure. The results of the action research report four interlinked improvements to sustain Participatory Design in the organization concerning structuring end-user influence in the organizational arena...... the following contributions: (1) Shop floor IT management is a core capability for innovation, and is a driver for sustained PD in the organization. Users on the shop floor trigger infrastructure development when their IT applications need to be technically and organizationally integrated. (2) A flexible...

  11. Participatory IT-support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support coined ‘participatory IT-support’. The paper presents...

  12. Evaluation in participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2016-01-01

    his paper focuses on evaluation in Participatory Design (PD), and especially upon how the central aims of mutual learning, empowerment, democracy and workplace quality have been assessed. We surveyed all Participatory Design Conference papers (1990-2014) and papers from special journal issues on PD...

  13. Assessing Vital Signs: Applying Two Participatory Evaluation Frameworks to the Evaluation of a College of Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…

  14. The field of Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törpel, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, the field of Participatory Design is introduced, including the description of a number of its specific approaches. After an introduction in some of the issues in Participatory Design, approaches within the field of Participatory Design and relevant for the field of Participatory...... Design are outlined....

  15. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M

    2016-12-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives

  16. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference Vol. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    information and communication technologies, work, healthcare, learning, new media and digital culture, community settings, architecture and the urban environment, visual communication, interaction design and service design to mention some of the fields involved. The Short Papers programme captures...... that provide insightful examples of ‘with whom’ contemporary participatory design activities are being undertaken. Here we have examples of participatory design being conducted at the scale of low income households, to neighbourhoods, geographically tied communities and distributed communities of practice......Participatory Design in an Era of Participation : Introduction to volume 2 Participatory Design is a diverse collection of principles and practices aimed at making technologies, tools, environments, businesses and social institutions more responsive to human needs. A central tenet of Participatory...

  17. Participatory design based research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Falk, Lars; Jensen, Louise Bach

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  18. Institutional Interpretation of Participatory TA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses why and how the history and the current state of participatory technology assessment (referred to as pTA; not to be confuse with PTA, which stands for parliamentary TA), especially in Denmark, may be understood in terms of institutionalization. The core argument is that whi...... of developing the framework, however, will be to serve as a conceptual resource for the long-term strategic outlooks of organizational entrepreneurs working to establish or continue pTA practices within STI policy-making....

  19. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  20. On the alleged memory-undermining effects of daydreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Cleere, Colleen; Merckelbach, Harald; Peters, Maarten; Jelicic, Marko; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2016-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined the memory-undermining effects of daydreaming for (un)related stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, we tested whether daydreaming fosters forgetting of semantically interrelated material and hence, catalyzes false memory production. In Experiment 3, we examined the memory effects of different daydreaming instructions. In Experiment 1, daydreaming did not undermine correct recall of semantically interrelated words, nor did it affect false memories. In Experiment 2, we again failed to find that daydreaming exerted memory-undermining effects a. In Experiment 3, no memory effects were obtained using different daydreaming instructions. Together, our studies fail to show appreciable memory-undermining effects of daydreaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Introduction: The Participatory Turn in Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Krivý

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Footprint examines the recent participatory turn in urban planning and urban design. It discusses the co-opting of participatory processes by planning departments, the systematic disregard of inequalities, and the empowering of the market resulting from the ‘anti-statism’ present in many participatory schemes.What is the relationship between the institutionalisation of participation and the practices of autonomy, self-organisation, and inclusion? When and how does genuine empowerment of collectives take place? Does the demand for the empowerment of local organisations and communities strengthen the market forces at the expense of central government?This issue attempts to problematise ‘participation’, to call attentions to some of its shortcomings, deficits, and limitations, not in order to necessarily bypass the demand for the democratisation of the urban, but in order to rectify and strengthen it.

  2. Relational Expertise in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2014-01-01

    This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social...

  3. Five Enunciations of Empowerment i Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertner, Sara Marie; Kragelund, Anne Mie; Malmborg, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design has been defined as having 'user's democratic participation and empowerment at its core' (Correia and Yusop, 2008). The PD discourse has a strong moral and rhetorical claim by its emphasis on users' empowerment. This paper is a result of a student project, guided by a curiosi......' position 4) Researchers' practice 5) Reflexive practice. These categories exist conjointly in the literature and suggest that empowerment is not just a moral and politically correct design goal, but a challenged and complex activity....

  4. Accreditation and Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    Model (DQM). In 2015, in an attempt to reduce “bureaucratic process requirements” and “focus on specific goals and results,” the Danish government decided to discontinue this system (The Danish Ministry of Health, 2015, p. 2). In this paper, we introduce a participatory design approach known as effects...

  5. Participatory Innovation in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; de Lille, Christine

    2010-01-01

    of product development companies. The mentioned companies like for example Microsoft (Sanders, 2004) are in a privileged position, having the possibilities to spend time, manpower and budget on extensive user studies and explore participatory design projects. But how does the Small-to-Medium sized Enterprise...

  6. Health Participatory Sensing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clarke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of participatory sensing in relation to the capture of health-related data is rapidly becoming a possibility due to the widespread consumer adoption of emerging mobile computing technologies and sensing platforms. This has the potential to revolutionize data collection for population health, aspects of epidemiology, and health-related e-Science applications and as we will describe, provide new public health intervention capabilities, with the classifications and capabilities of such participatory sensing platforms only just beginning to be explored. Such a development will have important benefits for access to near real-time, large-scale, up to population-scale data collection. However, there are also numerous issues to be addressed first: provision of stringent anonymity and privacy within these methodologies, user interface issues, and the related issue of how to incentivize participants and address barriers/concerns over participation. To provide a step towards describing these aspects, in this paper we present a first classification of health participatory sensing models, a novel contribution to the literature, and provide a conceptual reference architecture for health participatory sensing networks (HPSNs and user interaction example case study.

  7. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  8. Increasing the general level of academic capacity in general practice: introducing mandatory research training for general practitioner trainees through a participatory research process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Hansen, Lars Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    , and research skills to GP clinicians; and creating an awareness of the potential benefits of critical appraisal in training GP surgeries. METHODS: Development and implementation of a faculty and a programme through a participatory action research-inspired project, with process evaluation from the beginning...... skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics...... of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP...

  9. To each participatory sciences. Conditions for a participatory biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis SALLES

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and scientific requirements for a citizen science monitoring programme on biodiversity in Arcachon Bay (France. The sociological study reveals tensions between different conceptions of what a citizen science programme should be: a means for storing oriented-data; a new way to co-create scientific knowledge; a political communication tool; a way to develop citizen stewardship; or a place for expressing activist environmental demands. Citizen science programmes also tend to reveal tensions between participatory governance and classical management of environmental issues. Despite a seeming consensus amongst actors on biodiversity conservation, in practice contests over different citizen science conceptions have the potential to re-define environmental issues, to re-specify relationships between science and society and outline new management priorities.

  10. A discursive formation that undermined integration at a historically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thinking; the dominant discursive frame of teachers was one of student deficit. These regularities point to a discursive formation (Foucault, 1977) that undermine integration and would reproduce previous racialised inequalities. Finally, an explanation of the discursive formation is touched on followed by recommendations.

  11. Monitoring and analysis of surface changes from undermining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kajzar, Vlastimil; Doležalová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2013), s. 1-10 ISSN 1802-5420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : undermining * surface changes * surveying methods Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining http://gse.vsb.cz/2013/LIX-2013-4-1-10.pdf

  12. Failing the vulnerable: Three new consent norms that will undermine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... shows, using a range of case studies, how important HIV-related research will be halted or undermined if the current provisions ... of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa; and African Centre for Migration and Society, .... contemporary issues that must be responded to.

  13. Materials in Participatory Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen

    This dissertation presents three years of academic inquiry into the question of what role materials play in interaction design and participatory design processes. The dissertation aims at developing conceptual tools, based on Deweys pragmatism, for understanding how materials aid design reflection....... It has been developed using a research-through-design approach in which the author has conducted practical design work in order to investigate and experiment with using materials to scaffold design inquiry. The results of the PhD work is submitted as seven separate papers, submitted to esteemed journals...... and conferences within the field of interaction design and HCI. The work is motivated both by the growing interest in materials in interaction design and HCI and the interest in design processes and collaboration within those fields. At the core of the dissertation lies an interest in the many different materials...

  14. Exploring participatory methodologies in organizational discourse analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2014-01-01

    Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new contribu......Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new......-and practices by dealing with challenges of methodological overview, responsive creativity and identity-struggle. The potentials hereof are demonstrated and discussed with cases of two both critical and co-creative practices, namely ‘organizational modelling’ and ‘fixed/unfixed positioning’ from fieldwork...

  15. Participatory planning intercultural: Reflections for social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Gómez Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the nineties, participatory planning has emerged as a linking strategy for various social, political, economic and cultural sectors that assessed it as a potential for building consensus in the making of local processes forsocial improvement. Similarly, it was legitimized as a setting for practice for professionals trained in the social sciences, mainly Social Work. This article, from a geopolitical and geo-cultural perspective, presents contextual elements that determined the configuration of participatory planning in Latin America. These elements shall be staged in order to redefine diversity and the intercultural perspective that has been linked to this mobilizing strategy, against the institutionalized discourse of development and for the emergence of crisis and ruptures with this social paradigm from other practices and worldviews of life in the territories.

  16. Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenson, Rene; Flores, Walter; Shukla, Abhay; Kagis, Maija; Baba, Amuda; Ryklief, Ashraf; Mbwili-Muleya, Clara; Kakde, Dhananjay

    2011-07-01

    By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

  17. PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela PUSCASU; Radu SILAGHI

    2013-01-01

    Participatory management and leadership can enhance an organization's effectiveness and capacity by the fact that the only asset a manager has are the people. If people show loyalty, and are willing to work at full capacity and to make extra efforts, if they trust their leaders and feel safe, then the results and efficiency will be increased. The more one can delegate the decision-making and responsibilities, the more loyalty and trust one will have from the employees.

  18. Health Participatory Sensing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Clarke; Robert Steele

    2014-01-01

    The use of participatory sensing in relation to the capture of health-related data is rapidly becoming a possibility due to the widespread consumer adoption of emerging mobile computing technologies and sensing platforms. This has the potential to revolutionize data collection for population health, aspects of epidemiology, and health-related e-Science applications and as we will describe, provide new public health intervention capabilities, with the classifications and capabilities of such p...

  19. "Eh! I Felt I Was Sabotaged!": Facilitators' Understandings of Success in a Participatory HIV and IPV Prevention Intervention in Urban South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Washington, Laura; Jewkes, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Participatory approaches to behaviour change dominate HIV- and intimate partner violence prevention interventions. Research has identified multiple challenges in the delivery of these. In this article, we focus on how facilitators conceptualize successful facilitation and how these understandings may undermine dialogue and critical consciousness,…

  20. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference Vol. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research, CSCL (computer supported collaborative learning), ICT4D (information and communication technology for development), design anthropology, design psychology, design Industry and the Arts. The conference has helped to broaden participatory approaches in design around a variety of arenas including....... • In “Expanding the ‘How’ of Participatory Design”, five papers provide insights into techniques and methods that support novel perspectives on how participatory design activities might be practiced or reflected upon. This includes examples that should benefit practitioners and researchers who wish to think...... and approaches that they might consider. Interactive Exhibitions is a new format at PDC and aims to enable the sharing of concrete participatory design experiences in an interactive format during the main PDC 2016 conference program. Submissions were divided into three tracks – Research, Industry cases, and Arts...

  1. Revolutionizing education: Youth participatory action research in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Richards-Schuster

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews 'Revolutionizing education', a deeply reflective and retrospective book of scholarship on critical questions about youth participatory action research. The book contains a series of case study chapters that examine how youth participatory action research transforms young people and the social contexts in which they live as well as the learnings and implications yielded from this research. The book examines youth participatory action research both for its radical and revolutionary challenge to 'traditional research' practices but also for its active focus on research as a vehicle for increasing critical consciousness, developing knowledge for 'resistance and transformation' and for creating social change. It represents an important contribution to the field of youth participatory action research and community-based research.

  2. A framework to promote collective action within the One Health community of practice: Using participatory modelling to enable interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral and multi-level integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Binot

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of a One Health (OH approach in this context calls for improved integration among disciplines and improved cross-sectoral collaboration, involving stakeholders at different levels. For sure, such integration is not achieved spontaneously, implies methodological guidelines and has transaction costs. We explore pathways for implementing such collaboration in SEA context, highlighting the main challenges to be faced by researchers and other target groups involved in OH actions. On this basis, we propose a conceptual framework of OH integration. Throughout 3 components (field-based data management, professional training workshops and higher education, we suggest to develop a new culture of networking involving actors from various disciplines, sectors and levels (from the municipality to the Ministries through a participatory modelling process, fostering synergies and cooperation. This framework could stimulate long-term dialogue process, based on the combination of case studies implementation and capacity building. It aims for implementing both institutional OH dynamics (multi-stakeholders and cross-sectoral and research approaches promoting systems thinking and involving social sciences to follow-up and strengthen collective action.

  3. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management - A Sourcebook Volume 3 : Doing Participatory Research and Development. Couverture du livre Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management : A.

  4. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management - A Sourcebook Volume 1 : Understanding Participatory Research and Development. Couverture du livre Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture And Natural Resource Management : A.

  5. Participatory methods in pediatric participatory research : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijes, Hanneke A; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    Meaningful child participation in medical research is seen as important. In order to facilitate further development of participatory research, we performed a systematic literature study to describe and assess the available knowledge on participatory methods in pediatric research. A search was

  6. Will Biomedical Enhancements Undermine Solidarity, Responsibility, Equality and Autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Ori

    2009-01-01

    Prominent thinkers such as Jurgen Habermas and Michael Sandel are warning that biomedical enhancements will undermine fundamental political values. Yet, whether biomedical enhancements will undermine such values depends on how biomedical enhancements will function, how they will be administered and to whom. Since only few enhancements are obtainable, it is difficult to tell whether their predictions are sound. Nevertheless, such warnings are extremely valuable. As a society we must, at the very least, be aware of developments that could have harmful consequences. Indeed, if important values would be jeopardized, we should take appropriate measures to protect them. This paper focuses on four central values: solidarity, personal responsibility, equality and autonomy. It delineates the conditions under which biomedical enhancements would undermine these values. It also details the circumstances under which these values would be unaffected by enhancements as well as those under which they would be promoted. Specifying these conditions is valuable; it would enable society to prepare appropriate ethical guidelines and policy responses in advance. PMID:20002073

  7. A framework to promote collective action within the One Health community of practice: Using participatory modelling to enable interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral and multi-level integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binot, Aurelie; Duboz, Raphaël; Promburom, Panomsak; Phimpraphai, Waraphon; Cappelle, Julien; Lajaunie, Claire; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Figuié, Muriel; Roger, François Louis

    2015-12-01

    As Southeast Asia (SEA) is characterized by high human and domestic animal densities, growing intensification of trade, drastic land use changes and biodiversity erosion, this region appears to be a hotspot to study complex dynamics of zoonoses emergence and health issues at the Animal-Human-Environment interface. Zoonotic diseases and environmental health issues can have devastating socioeconomic and wellbeing impacts. Assessing and managing the related risks implies to take into account ecological and social dynamics at play, in link with epidemiological patterns. The implementation of a One Health ( OH ) approach in this context calls for improved integration among disciplines and improved cross-sectoral collaboration, involving stakeholders at different levels. For sure, such integration is not achieved spontaneously, implies methodological guidelines and has transaction costs. We explore pathways for implementing such collaboration in SEA context, highlighting the main challenges to be faced by researchers and other target groups involved in OH actions. On this basis, we propose a conceptual framework of OH integration. Throughout 3 components (field-based data management, professional training workshops and higher education), we suggest to develop a new culture of networking involving actors from various disciplines, sectors and levels (from the municipality to the Ministries) through a participatory modelling process, fostering synergies and cooperation. This framework could stimulate long-term dialogue process, based on the combination of case studies implementation and capacity building. It aims for implementing both institutional OH dynamics (multi-stakeholders and cross-sectoral) and research approaches promoting systems thinking and involving social sciences to follow-up and strengthen collective action.

  8. Community Writing, Participatory Research, and an Anthropological Sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Janise

    2008-01-01

    Participatory research is a radical praxis through which marginalized people acquire research capabilities that they use to transform their own lives. In this article, I examine how parent writers incorporated facets of community writing into their research practice as they developed their practices and identities as researchers. I also consider…

  9. Participatory visualization with Wordle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them.

  10. Will the introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing for Down's syndrome undermine informed choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silcock, Caroline; Liao, Lih-Mei; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether the introduction of non-invasive pre-natal testing for Down's syndrome (DS) has the potential to undermine informed choice. Three hundred and ninety-three health professionals; 523 pregnant women. A cross-sectional questionnaire study across nine maternity units and three conferences in the UK designed to assess opinions regarding test delivery and how information should be communicated to women when offered Down's syndrome screening (DSS) or diagnosis using invasive (IDT) or non-invasive testing (NIPT). Both pregnant women and health professionals in the NIPT and DSS groups were less likely than the IDT group to consider that testing should take place at a return visit or that obtaining written consent was necessary, and more likely to think testing should be carried out routinely. Compared to health professionals, pregnant women expressed a stronger preference for testing to occur on the same day as pre-test counselling (P = 0.000) and for invasive testing to be offered routinely (P = 0.000). They were also more likely to indicate written consent as necessary for DSS (P = 0.000) and NIPT (P test types. These differences suggest that informed choice may be undermined with the introduction of NIPT for DS into clinical practice. To maintain high standards of care, effective professional training programmes and practice guidelines are needed which prioritize informed consent and take into account the views and needs of service users. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A self-regulatory perspective of work-to-home undermining spillover/crossover: Examining the roles of sleep and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Taylor, Shannon G; Burton, James P; Bailey, Sarah F

    2017-05-01

    Research demonstrating that employees who are undermined at work engage in similar behavior at home suggests this connection reflects displaced aggression. In contrast, the present study draws on self-regulation theory to examine the work-home undermining spillover/crossover process. We propose that poor sleep quality transmits the influence of workplace undermining to home undermining per self-regulatory impairment, and exercise moderates this indirect effect per self-regulatory improvement. Using matched data from 118 employees and a member of their household to test our model, results demonstrated that undermining experienced from supervisors increased subjective (i.e., self-reported) but not objective (i.e., actigraph-recorded) sleep difficulties, which, in turn, increased the frequency with which individuals engaged in undermining at home (as reported by cohabitants). Additionally, indirect effects occurred for employees with low but not high levels of physical exercise (as measured by self-reports, step counts, and energy expenditure). Our findings suggest sleep and exercise may serve as valuable intervention points to prevent the spread of harmful behavior across contexts. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Networked Participatory Scholarship: Emergent Techno-Cultural Pressures toward Open and Digital Scholarship in Online Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relationship between scholarly practice and participatory technologies and explore how such technologies invite and reflect the emergence of a new form of scholarship that we call "Networked Participatory Scholarship": scholars' participation in online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and…

  13. Dirty Truth: Personal Narrative, Victimhood and Participatory Theatre Work with People Seeking Asylum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Alison

    2008-01-01

    An emphasis on personal narratives characterises a great deal of participatory theatre practice with refugee groups. It is important to understand how these narratives are conditioned by bureaucratic performance if practitioners are to avoid re-enactments of victimhood in participatory projects. Bureaucratic performance concerns the legal and…

  14. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition.

  15. Making sense of critical participatory action research. Reflections on The Action Research Planner: Doing Critical Participatory Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mackay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After immersing myself in The Research Planner: Doing Critical Participatory Action Research, I believe I have a better understanding of participatory action research and its relationship to the work of Habermas. I feel it has enabled me to align my values and beliefs with Habermas and action research’s philosophical underpinnings within the critical theory paradigm. For me this book has clarified how communicative spaces, the theory of communicative action and public spheres are related to participatory methodologies. At the start of the book, Kemmis and co-authors (2013, pp 2-3 define the purpose of critical participatory action research as ‘to change social practices, including research itself, to make them more rational and reasonable, more productive and sustainable and more just and inclusive’. ‘Rational’ in this context conveys a sense of being more reasonable, comprehensible, coherent and sensible. Carr and Kemmis (1986 critique the positivist and interpretivist paradigms and argue that for critical participatory action research to bring about social change, it needs to reject the premise of objectivity whereby the researcher is viewed as a ‘distant observer’. They further advocate that self-reflection is essential, for the individual and the collective, to ensure the critical aspect and validity of the research. Overall, they say participatory forms of research methodology create the conditions for practitioners to be activity involved and have a voice in all aspects of the research process (Kemmis et al., 2013.

  16. Participatory and persuasive telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duckki; Helal, Sumi; Anton, Steve; De Deugd, Scott; Smith, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in telehealth systems are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. However, these systems are limited in that they only rely on sensors and medical devices to obtain vital signs. New research and development are urgently needed to offer more effective and meaningful interactions between patients, medical professionals and other individuals around the patients. Social networking with Web 2.0 technologies and methods can meet these demands, and help to develop a more complete view of the patient. Also many people, including the elderly, may be resistant to change, which can reduce the efficacy of telehealth systems. Persuasive technology and mechanisms are urgently needed to counter this resistance and promote healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we propose the participatory and persuasive telehealth system as a solution for these two limitations. By integrating connected health solutions with social networking and adding persuasive influence, we increase the chances for effective interventions and behavior alterations. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Financial Motivation Undermines Maintenance in an Intensive Diet and Activity Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlen C. Moller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial incentives are widely used in health behavior interventions. However, self-determination theory posits that emphasizing financial incentives can have negative consequences if experienced as controlling. Feeling controlled into performing a behavior tends to reduce enjoyment and undermine maintenance after financial contingencies are removed (the undermining effect. We assessed participants’ context-specific financial motivation to participate in the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing four different strategies for improving four health risk behaviors: low fruit and vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary screen time. The primary outcome was overall healthy lifestyle change; weight loss was a secondary outcome. Financial incentives were contingent upon meeting behavior goals for 3 weeks and became contingent upon merely providing data during the 4.5-month maintenance period. Financial motivation for participation was assessed at baseline using a 7-item scale (=.97. Across conditions, a main effect of financial motivation predicted a steeper rate of weight regained during the maintenance period, (165=2.15, =.04. Furthermore, financial motivation and gender interacted significantly in predicting maintenance of healthy diet and activity changes, (160=2.42, =.016, such that financial motivation had a more deleterious influence among men. Implications for practice and future research on incentivized lifestyle and weight interventions are discussed.

  18. Committee Opinion No. 683: Behavior That Undermines a Culture of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A key element of an organizational safety culture is maintaining an environment of professionalism that encourages communication and promotes high-quality care. Behavior that undermines a culture of safety, including disruptive or intimidating behavior, has a negative effect on the quality and safety of patient care. Intimidating behavior and disruptive behavior are unprofessional and should not be tolerated. Confronting disruptive individuals is difficult. Co-workers often are reluctant to report disruptive behavior because of fear of retaliation and the stigma associated with "blowing the whistle" on a colleague. Additionally, negative behavior of revenue-generating physicians may be overlooked because of concern about the perceived consequences of confronting them. The Joint Commission requires that hospitals establish a code of conduct that "defines acceptable behavior and behavior that undermines a culture of safety." Clear standards of behavior that acknowledge the consequences of disruptive and intimidating behavior must be established and communicated. Institutions and practices should develop a multifaceted approach to address disruptive behavior. Confidential reporting systems and assistance programs for physicians who exhibit disruptive behavior should be established. A concerted effort should be made within each organization to educate staff (ie, medical, nursing, and ancillary staff) about the potential negative effects of disruptive and inappropriate behavior. A clearly delineated hospital-wide policy and procedure relating to disruptive behavior should be developed and enforced by hospital administration. To preserve professional standing, physicians should understand how to respond to and mitigate the effect of complaints or reports.

  19. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference Vol.I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Participatory Design in an Era of Participation : Introduction to volume 1 Participatory Design is a diverse collection of principles and practices aimed at making technologies, tools, environments, businesses and social institutions more responsive to human needs. A central tenet of Participatory...... Design (PD) is the direct involvement of people in the co-design of things and technologies they use and live with. The theme for Participatory Design Conference 2016 is ‘Participatory Design in an Era of Participation’. Over 25 years after the first PDC in 1990, participation and co-creation have become...... essential features of design and research into technology. Living in an era of participation prompts critical questions around the goals and practices of involving people in diverse aspects of developing, redesigning and using IT. The distribution and promise of information technologies cut across emerging...

  20. PDC 2016. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference - Volume I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Participatory Design in an Era of Participation : Introduction to volume 1 Participatory Design is a diverse collection of principles and practices aimed at making technologies, tools, environments, businesses and social institutions more responsive to human needs. A central tenet of Participatory...... Design (PD) is the direct involvement of people in the co-design of things and technologies they use and live with. The theme for Participatory Design Conference 2016 is ‘Participatory Design in an Era of Participation’. Over 25 years after the first PDC in 1990, participation and co-creation have become...... essential features of design and research into technology. Living in an era of participation prompts critical questions around the goals and practices of involving people in diverse aspects of developing, redesigning and using IT. The distribution and promise of information technologies cut across emerging...

  1. Risk factors for the undermined coal bed mining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arad, V. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Arad, S. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The Romanian mining industry has been in a serious decline and is undergoing ample restructuring. Analyses of reliability and risk are most important during the early stages of a project in guiding the decision as to whether or not to proceed and in helping to establish design criteria. A technical accident occurred in 2008 at the Petrila coal mine involving an explosion during the exploitation of a coal seam. Over time a series of technical accidents, such as explosions and ignitions of methane gas, roof blowing phenomena or self-ignition of coal and hazard combustions have occurred. This paper presented an analysis of factors that led to this accident as well an analysis of factors related to the mining method. Specifically, the paper discussed the geomechanical characteristics of rocks and coal; the geodynamic phenomenon from working face 431; the spontaneous combustion phenomenon; gas accumulation; and the pressure and the height of the undermined coal bed. It was concluded that for the specific conditions encountered in Petrila colliery, the undermined bed height should be between 5 and 7 metres, depending on the geomechanic characteristics of coal and surrounding rocks. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. Participatory art in public space

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo-Martín, Bibiana

    2016-01-01

    At the hand of three artistic projects —Suzanne Lacy’s Between the Door and the Street (2013), Lee Mingwei’s The Moving Garden (2009/2015) and Rirkrit Tiravanija’s The Land Foundation— this paper reflects on the methodological precepts underlying theoretical and conceptual foundations of participatory art at the public space. Taken as case studies about participatory art, each propositions allow to explore relational art / relational aesthetics concepts proposed by the French curator artifice...

  3. Participatory Design at a Radio Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; Simonsen, Jesper; Bødker, Keld

    1998-01-01

    We address design of computer support for work and its coordination at the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. We propose design solutions based upon participatory design techniques and ethnographically inspired analysis within a full scale design project. The project exemplifies an ambitious, yet...... realistic, design practice, that provides a sound basis for organisational decision making and for technical and organizational development and implementation. We focus on cooperative aspects within and among the editorial units, and between editorial units and the editorial board. We discuss technical...... and organisational aspects of the design, seen in light of recent CSCW concepts, including coordination and computational coordination mechanisms, technologies of accountability, and workflow from within and without....

  4. Dialogical, Enquiry and Participatory Approaches to Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurford, Donna; Rowley, Chris

    2018-01-01

    offer some examples of how they might be put into practice in the primary curriculum. Dialogical enquiry and participatory approaches apply across educational stages and have much in common with the concept of ‘sustained, shared thinking’ identified in the Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early...... to what is to be learnt, what is in the adult’s mind, and both contribute to and are involved in the learning process, although the project also found that such exchanges do not occur frequently and that freely chosen play activities often provided the best opportunities for adults to extend children......’s thinking (Cooper 2004 pp. 1–2)....

  5. Women's mental health during pregnancy: A participatory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Wendy L M; Crozier, Kenda E; Penhale, Bridget L M

    2017-08-01

    British public health and academic policy and guidance promotes service user involvement in health care and research, however collaborative research remains underrepresented in literature relating to pregnant women's mental health. The aim of this participatory research was to explore mothers' and professionals' perspectives on the factors that influence pregnant women's mental health. This qualitative research was undertaken in England with the involvement of three community members who had firsthand experience of mental health problems during pregnancy. All members of the team were involved in study design, recruitment, data generation and different stages of thematic analysis. Data were transcribed for individual and group discussions with 17 women who self-identified as experiencing mental health problems during pregnancy and 15 professionals who work with this group. Means of establishing trustworthiness included triangulation, researcher reflexivity, peer debriefing and comprehensive data analysis. Significant areas of commonality were identified between mothers' and professionals' perspectives on factors that undermine women's mental health during pregnancy and what is needed to support women's mental health. Analysis of data is provided with particular reference to contexts of relational, systemic and ecological conditions in women's lives. Women's mental health is predominantly undermined or supported by relational, experiential and material factors. The local context of socio-economic deprivation is a significant influence on women's mental health and service requirements. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  7. Changing Minds : A Guide to Facilitated Participatory Planning ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 oct. 2011 ... Couverture du livre Changing Minds : A Guide to Facilitated Participatory Planning. Author(s):. Cole P. Dodge ... IDRC's support of BetterEvaluation, an international collaboration to improve evaluation practice and theory, has resulted in an online guide for an often overlooked group of people who greatly.

  8. Digital Game Building: Learning in a Participatory Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Background: The emergence of a participatory culture, brought about mainly by the use of Web2.0 technology, is challenging us to reconsider aspects of teaching and learning. Adapting the learning-as-digital-game-building approach, this paper explores how new educational practices can help students build skills for the 21st century. Purpose: This…

  9. Using Participatory Testing to Build Capacity for Climate Change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... In participatory research led by the Institut de l'environnement et de recherches agricoles, farmers learned new techniques and practices that enabled them ... This brief resulted from two projects from the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa program: the research project Rural Urban Cooperation on Water ...

  10. Free Play or Tight Spaces? Mapping Participatory Literacies in Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…

  11. Participatory Continuing Design: "Living with" Videoconferencing in Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanestad, Margunn; Driveklepp, Anne Merete; Sørli, Hilde; Hertzum, Morten

    2017-01-01

    While much research emphasizes design-before-use, we here study design-in-use. The notion of participatory continuing design is introduced to draw attention to the ongoing work of incorporating information and communication technology into work processes in healthcare institutions. Through an empirical case study of how telemedicine, in the form of videoconferencing, was taken up in a rehabilitation hospital in Norway, the nature of such ongoing experimentation, learning, and redesign is described. When contrasted with traditional design-before-use practices, participatory continuing design differs in terms of its timing, object, process, outcome, and participants. We offer recommendations for how such processes can be supported in healthcare organizations.

  12. Generative and Participatory Parametric Frameworks for Multi-Player Design Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.; Ku, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Generative design processes have been the focus of current architectural research and practice largely due to the exploration of the phenomenon of emergence within self-organisation, generative grammars and evolutionary techniques. These techniques have been informing participatory urban design

  13. How social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jan; Rauhut, Heiko; Schweitzer, Frank; Helbing, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Social groups can be remarkably smart and knowledgeable when their averaged judgements are compared with the judgements of individuals. Already Galton [Galton F (1907) Nature 75:7] found evidence that the median estimate of a group can be more accurate than estimates of experts. This wisdom of crowd effect was recently supported by examples from stock markets, political elections, and quiz shows [Surowiecki J (2004) The Wisdom of Crowds]. In contrast, we demonstrate by experimental evidence (N = 144) that even mild social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect in simple estimation tasks. In the experiment, subjects could reconsider their response to factual questions after having received average or full information of the responses of other subjects. We compare subjects’ convergence of estimates and improvements in accuracy over five consecutive estimation periods with a control condition, in which no information about others’ responses was provided. Although groups are initially “wise,” knowledge about estimates of others narrows the diversity of opinions to such an extent that it undermines the wisdom of crowd effect in three different ways. The “social influence effect” diminishes the diversity of the crowd without improvements of its collective error. The “range reduction effect” moves the position of the truth to peripheral regions of the range of estimates so that the crowd becomes less reliable in providing expertise for external observers. The “confidence effect” boosts individuals’ confidence after convergence of their estimates despite lack of improved accuracy. Examples of the revealed mechanism range from misled elites to the recent global financial crisis. PMID:21576485

  14. Prácticas Participativas y Capital Social. Una perspectiva desde el Plan Maestro de Intervención Urbana de la ZOCM (Participatory Practices and Social Capital. A View from the Urban Intervention Master Plan for ZOCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Alcaraz Zubeldia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Desde la Comisión de Brundtland la sustentabilidad surge como un concepto en el cual lo social cobra gran importancia para promover el desarrollo sostenible en las naciones, asumiendo que la pobreza y la degradación medioambiental son aspectos relacionados que constituyen la pérdida de oportunidades y recursos, haciendo un llamado para el cambio de la política pública de cada gobierno , y es a partir de entonces cuando a través de la llamada “democratización de la vida pública”, los diferentes actores sociales trabajan de manera conjunta con cada gobierno, a fin de mejorar su ámbito socioeconómico. Los cuales han reclamado su participación directa en asuntos concernientes a su ámbito socioeconómico, sin embargo, hasta el momento no se ha evaluado el enorme potencial que el capital humano, relacional y estructural pude ofrecer para fortalecer las prácticas participativas como un nuevo escenario de lo colectivo y eje articulador de una nueva esfera política. Abstract Since the Brundtland Commission, sustainability has emerged as a concept in which the social becomes very important to promote sustainable development in nations, assuming that poverty and environmental degradation are related aspects in the loss of opportunities and resources and calling for a change in public policy of each government. Is thereafter when through the ‘democratization of public life’, the different social actors work together with each government to improve their socio-economic level. these social actors have claimed direct involvement in matters concerning their socioeconomic level, however, so far has not been assessed the enormous potential that the human, relational and structural capital could provide to strengthen participatory practices as a new collective scenery and driving force of a new political sphere.

  15. Increasing the general level of academic capacity in general practice: introducing mandatory research training for general practitioner trainees through a participatory research process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Hansen, Lars Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP......BACKGROUND: To obtain good quality evidence-based clinical work there needs to be a culture of critical appraisal, and strong bridges between the clinical and the academic worlds in general practice. AIM: The aim was to educate the general practitioner (GP) trainees to obtain critical appraisal...... skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics...

  16. Non-Participatory Intervention in a Traditional Participatory Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Thomas; Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate employee attitudes to non-participatory (topdown) changes in an organizational environment that has hitherto been participatory.Until now, research has traditionally investigated the effects of increased organizational influence on employee attitudes...... and behaviour. This study takes the opposite approach by looking at a decrease in influence. The study was undertaken in a production company with 480 employees. The work was organized in production lines and semi-autonomous working groups. Data was compiled via interviews with selected employees from three...... kinds of production areas: Areas that had implemented 1) all of the  planned changes; 2) some of the changes; or 3) only a few of the changes. The results show that the employees’ reactions to the non-participatory change process addressed the decrease of influence and the consequences thereof; i...

  17. Evaluating Clinical Ethics Support: A Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metselaar, Suzanne; Widdershoven, Guy; Porz, Rouven; Molewijk, Bert

    2017-05-01

    The current process towards formalization within evaluation research, in particular the use of pre-set standards and the focus on predefined outcomes, implies a shift of ownership from the people who are actually involved in real clinical ethics support services (CESS) in a specific context to external stakeholders who increasingly gain a say in what 'good CESS' should look like. The question is whether this does justice to the insights and needs of those who are directly involved in actual CESS practices, be it as receivers or providers. We maintain that those actually involved in concrete CESS practices should also be involved in its evaluation, not only as respondents, but also in setting the agenda of the evaluation process and in articulating the criteria by which CESS is evaluated. Therefore, we propose a participatory approach to CESS evaluation. It focuses on (1) the concrete contexts in which CESS takes place, (2) reflective and dialogical learning processes, and (3) how to be democratic and inclusive. In particular, this approach to CESS evaluation is akin to realist evaluation, dialogical evaluation, and responsive evaluation. An example of a participatory approach to evaluating CESS is presented and some critical issues concerning this approach are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Participatory evaluation methodology for community plans and action. Three experiences of participatory evaluation in Catalunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Planas Lladó

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory evaluation (PE is frequently used to assess community plans and actions. But how is a PE process designed and carried out? Which methodological elements differentiate PE from other assessment practices? And what kind of tools and instruments are used? This article attempts to answer these questions, though a review of the most recent literature and guidebooks on the EP methodology. Some methodological reflections on the EP process conducted in three community plans are given and described. In this paper we analyze the most relevant methodological aspects observed during entry into the community (1, context analysis (2, the formation of the steering group (3, the application of participatory techniques and dynamics to evaluate community actions, their multiplication (4, and the evaluation and closure of the three processes of EP (5. Results allow identifying relevant methodological contributions to theimplementation of future processes of Participatory Evaluation in community settings, as the key stakeholders to the process of entry into the community, some elements to consider in order to encourage participation, and the role of the professional evaluators team.

  19. Socio-Psychological Factors Affecting Participatory Planning Processes At Interactional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan KULÖZÜ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is widely accepted that communities need to collaborate when making decisions on behalf of the individual, society and the environment. Hence, planners engaged in participatory initiatives need to understand how best to design and carry out a participatory planning process. In order to answer this question, all factors affecting participatory processes need to be determined, since only then can steps be taken to design and execute the best participatory process for each stakeholder in every unique context. By focusing particularly on the factors affecting participatory processes at interactional level, this study aims to determine the socio-psychological dimensions of participatory planning processes, the aim being to bring to light some hitherto unexplained factors involved and thus help to improve these processes. Based on previous discussions in participation literature, the ultimate aim of this study is to provide subsequent researchers and those involved in participatory planning practices with a framework on the socio-psychological dimensions, namely communication, power, attribution, relationships and persuasion, of participatory processes at interactional level.

  20. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Volume 1 focuses on typologies and concepts, approaches, participatory technology development, and participatory natural resource management. Volume 2 examines capacity building, networking and partnerships, and scaling up and institutionalization. Volume 3 looks at technology development, strengthening local ...

  1. Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Neef

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (recentralisation of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.

  2. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between diverse – material, digital and networked – spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do the conventional distinctions between research and design. The papers presented in this focus section explore...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  3. The Courage to Critique Policies and Practices from within: Youth Participatory Action Research as Critical Policy Analysis. A Response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Anjale

    2011-01-01

    This response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School" by Jason G. Irizarry demonstrates how youth participatory action research (YPAR) as an instrument of subverting oppressive school policies and structures is a form of critical policy analysis (CPA). As an evolving method, CPA acknowledges the absent voices in…

  4. [Application of participatory teaching mode in oral health education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Xiang-ke; Zhao, Yu-hong; Wan, Li; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Yu-jiang; Ou, Xiao-yan

    2013-06-01

    To apply participatory teaching mode in oral health education, and to assess its role in cultivating comprehensive stomatological professionals suitable for the development of modern medicine. Sixty undergraduate students from grade 2005 in Stomatological College of Nanchang University were selected. Among those students, oral health education course was carried out by traditional teaching mode, while 120 undergraduate students from grades 2006 to 2007 received participatory teaching approach, which paid attention to practice in oral health education practice course. After the course, a survey and evaluation of teaching effectiveness was conducted. Questionnaire survey showed that participatory teaching mode could significantly improve the students' capabilities and provide much more help to their study. Application of participatory teaching mode in oral health education course for undergraduates is feasible. It can improve students' comprehensive ability and cultivate their cultural literacy and scientific literacy. It also meets the training goal of stomatological professionals and the development trend of education reform. Supported by Higher School Teaching Reform Research Subject of Jiangxi Province(JXJG-10-1-42).

  5. How to make participatory technology assessment in agriculture more 'participatory'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    the cultivation of new GM plants in Denmark. Furthermore, through this illustration, the term Participatory Technology Assessment (PTA) is redefined, thereby suggesting two additional aspects to assessing new technologies – following and evaluating policy making – to be considered in the conduct of PTA....

  6. The impact of participatory and non-participatory evaluations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in terms of evaluation, a participatory methodology better enabled the internalisation of those objectives, through activities such as focus group discussions. Keywords: Africa, behaviour, community empowerment, HIV/AIDS interventions, monitoring and evaluation. African Journal of AIDS Research 2005, 4(2): 103–113 ...

  7. "From Worse to Better": How Kenyan Student-Teachers Can Use Participatory Action Research in Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on Kenyan student-teachers' professional learning and development in health education in a participatory action research project conducted in one Kenyan teacher training college. The aim was to explore the potential of participatory action research to instigate change in student-teachers' health education practices in a…

  8. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette J; Smith, Anthony C; Caffery, Liam J; Danbjorg, Dorthe B

    2017-10-01

    Healthcare systems require a paradigm shift in the way healthcare services are delivered to counteract demographic changes in patient populations, expanding technological developments and the increasing complexity of healthcare. Participatory design (PD) is a methodology that promotes the participation of users in the design process of potential telehealth applications. A PD project can be divided into four phases including: the identification and analysis of participant needs; the generation of ideas and development of prototypes; testing and further development of prototypes; and evaluation. PD is an iterative process where each phase is planned by reflecting on the results from the previous phase with respect to the participants' contribution. Key activities of a PD project include: fieldwork; literature reviewing; and development and testing. All activities must be applied with a participatory mindset that will ensure genuine participation throughout the project. Challenges associated with the use of PD include: the time required to properly engage with participants; language and culture barriers amongst participants; the selection of participants to ensure good representation of the user group; and empowerment. PD is an important process, which is complemented by other evaluation strategies that assess organisational requirements, clinical safety, and clinical and cost effectiveness. PD is a methodology which encourages genuine involvement, where participants have an opportunity to identify practical problems and to design and test technology. The process engages participants in storytelling, future planning and design. PD is a multifaceted assessment tool that helps explore more accurately clinical requirements and patient perspectives in telehealth.

  9. Participatory Practices and Management Councils in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Thereza Rosa Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the debate on the rise and the establishment of management councils of public policies, especially policy of urban reform, as potentials of action that enable the extension of citizenship. In order to address the meaning of collective action in institutional spaces of deliberation of Master Plan of the city, it is considered that the choice of planning policy is determined by the peculiarity of existing decision-making in society. Thus it seeks to understand the restructuring of the Master Plan Council (CONPLAD in Pelotas and the discussion of the III Master Plan Project linked to interactive social movement, whose its social dimension moves modifications in the relationship between State and society.

  10. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bonnie E.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates…

  11. Rekindling Values in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant...

  12. Inclusive Ownership of Participatory Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druin, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This discussion explores the journal's special issue from the construct of ownership and how it relates to participatory design. I examine the articles of researchers from Europe and the United States which offer data-centered perspectives and data-driven suggestions. These works suggest how to best involve different stakeholders and I examine how…

  13. Participatory Evaluation in Development Cooperation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Shared : Participatory Evaluation in Development Cooperation ... du développement, évaluation, études environnementales, travail social, développement communautaire, développement rural, santé publique internationale, sans oublier les autres disciplines reliées au développement durable et équitable.

  14. Troubling futures: can participatory design research provide a generative anthropology for the 21st century?

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Ann

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues there is value in considering participatory design as a form of generative anthropology at a time when we recognise that we need not only to understand cultures but to change them towards sustainable living. Holding up the democratically-oriented practices of some participatory design research to definitions of anthropology allows the essay to explore the role of intervention in social process. And, challenging definitional boundaries, the essay examines design as a particip...

  15. International-local remuneration differences across six countries: do they undermine poverty reduction work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Stuart C; McWha, Ishbel; Maclachlan, Malcolm; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    Despite the rhetoric of a single global economy, professionals in poorer countries continue to be remunerated differently depending on whether they are compensated at a local vs. international rate. Project ADDUP (Are Development Discrepancies Undermining Performance?) surveyed 1290 expatriate and local professionals (response rate = 47%) from aid, education, government, and business sectors in (1) Island Nations (Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands), (2) landlocked economies (Malaŵi, Uganda), and (3) emerging economies (India, China). Difference in pay was estimated using purchasing power parity, from the World Bank's World Development Indicators 2007. Psychological measures included self-reported pay and benefits (remuneration), self-attributed ability, remuneration comparison, sense of justice in remuneration, remuneration-related motivation, thoughts of turnover and thoughts about international mobility. We included control measures of candour, culture shock, cultural values (horizontal/vertical individualism/collectivism), personality (from the "big five"), job satisfaction and work engagement. Controlling for these and country (small effects) and organization effects (medium), (a) pay ratios between international and local workers exceeded what were perceived to be acceptable pay thresholds among respondents remunerated locally; who also reported a combination of a sense of relative (b) injustice and demotivation; which (c) together with job satisfaction/work engagement predicted turnover and international mobility. These findings question the wisdom of dual salary systems in general, expose and challenge a major contradiction between contemporary development policy and practice, and have a range of practical, organizational, and theoretical implications for poverty reduction work.

  16. Scandinavian Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process...

  17. Indigenous Storytelling and Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Storytelling, in its various forms, has often been described as a practice with great emancipatory potential. In turn, Indigenous knowledge shows great promise in guiding a participatory action research (PAR) methodology. Yet these two approaches are rarely discussed in relation to one another, nor, has much been written in terms of how these two approaches may work synergistically toward a decolonizing research approach. In this article, I report on a community-driven knowledge translation activity, the Peoples’ International Health Tribunal, as an exemplar of how narrative and PAR approaches, guided by local Indigenous knowledge, have great potential to build methodologically and ethically robust research processes. Implications for building globally relevant research alliances and scholarship are further discussed, particularly in relation to working with Indigenous communities. PMID:28462305

  18. Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to d...... practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. ......Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways...... to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope...

  19. Participatory citizenship: critical perspectives on client-centred occupational therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Hetty; Pollard, Nicholas; Kantartzis, Sarah; Viana-Moldes, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Background/aims: This article aims to discuss client-centred practice, the current dominant approach within occupational\\ud therapy, in relation to participatory citizenship. Occupational therapists work within structures and policies that set boundaries on their engagement with clients, while working with complex, multidimensional social realities. Methods: The authors present a critical discussion shaped by their research, including a survey, discussions at workshops at international confer...

  20. Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    , relating, cognitive social capital and the justification of knowledge are described as different but interdependent dimensions of transforming knowledge across boundaries in participatory innovation. A multi-level concept of social dynamics of participatory innovation is proposed, and a model......A conceptual framework for a coherent understanding of knowledge as a socially constructed resource in flux over boundaries when innovating with others is constructed. Starting with an overview of different perspectives on innovation, showing a development towards a more iterative social process...... perspective on innovation. Then, a similar development in the field of knowledge and knowing is presented, where the perspective changes from a divisional systemthinking towards a more relational view of complementing combinations of knowledge and knowing, recognizing the challenge of boundaries. Further...

  1. Participatory Infrastructuring of Community Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaccioli, Andrea; Poderi, Giacomo; Bettega, Mela

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to renewable energies the decentralized energy system model is becoming more relevant in the production and distribution of energy. The scenario is important in order to achieve a successful energy transition. This paper presents a reflection on the ongoing experience of infrastructuring...... the sustainability and the effectiveness of an alternative, ii) to present an experimentation with renewable energy as CPR as an alternative model to the actual vision of the energy system. Preliminary results reported in this paper suggest that a Participatory Design process can be valuable for communities in order...... a sociotechnical system in which local communities can manage renewable energies as a Common Pool Resources. We explore how to create a space for citizens' participation in a continuous process of design for energy management. Objectives of the paper are: i) to clarify how Participatory Design could support...

  2. Participatory Design & Health Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Health Information Technology (HIT) continues to increase in importance as a component of healthcare provision, but designing HIT is complex. The creation of cooperative learning processes for future HIT users is not a simple task. The importance of engaging end users such as health professionals......, in collaboration with a wide range of people, a broad repertoire of methods and techniques to apply PD within multiple domains has been established. This book, Participatory Design & Health Information Technology, presents the contributions of researchers from 5 countries, who share their experience and insights......, patients and relatives in the design process is widely acknowledged, and Participatory Design (PD) is the primary discipline for directly involving people in the technological design process. Exploring the application of PD in HIT is crucial to all those involved in engaging end users in HIT design and...

  3. Software, architecture, and participatory design

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, Stephen; O'Coill, Carl; Boldyreff, Cornelia; Doughty, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Much work in software architecture has been inspired by work in physical architecture, in particular Alexander's work on 'design patterns'. By contrast, Alexander's work is little-used in town planning and architecture. In this paper, we examine some of the reasons that this is so, describe some parallels and differences between the fields of physical and software architecture, and identify areas in which future collaboration may be fruitful. The notion of 'participatory design' is important ...

  4. Introduction to (participatory) design games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an introduction to (participatory) design games in three rounds. Firstly it argues that designing design games is a particular and very productive genre for formatting participation and design dialogues during ongoing design projects. Secondly it presents some of the main contr...... contributions to the development of design games in a historical perspective, and thirdly it introduces three recent PhD dissertations that all but in very different ways have investigated design games in more detail....

  5. When does familiarity promote versus undermine interpersonal attraction? A proposed integrative model from erstwhile adversaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frost, J.H.; Finkel, E.J.; Norton, M.I.; Ariely, D.; Caprariello, P.A.; Eastwick, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear that the limitations of our

  6. Decision-Making for Systemic Water Risks: Insights From a Participatory Risk Assessment Process in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwoll, Paul R.; Grafton, R. Quentin; Daniell, Katherine A.; Chu, Hoang Long; Ringler, Claudia; Lien, Le Thi Ha; Khoi, Dang Kim; Do, Thang Nam; Tuan, Nguyen Do Anh

    2018-03-01

    Systemic threats to food-energy-environment-water systems require national policy responses. Yet complete control of these complex systems is impossible and attempts to mitigate systemic risks can generate unexpected feedback effects. Perverse outcomes from national policy can emerge from the diverse responses of decision-makers across different levels and scales of resource governance. Participatory risk assessment processes can help planners to understand subnational dynamics and ensure that policies do not undermine the resilience of social-ecological systems and infrastructure networks. Researchers can play an important role in participatory processes as both technical specialists and brokers of stakeholder knowledge on the feedbacks generated by systemic risks and policy decisions. Here, we evaluate the use of causal modeling and participatory risk assessment to develop national policy on systemic water risks. We present an application of the Risks and Options Assessment for Decision-Making (ROAD) process to a district of Vietnam where national agricultural water reforms are being piloted. The methods and results of this project provide general insights about how to support resilient decision-making, including the transfer of knowledge across administrative levels, identification of feedback effects, and the effective implementation of risk assessment processes.

  7. Landscape and Urban Governance: Participatory Planning of the Public Realm in Saida, Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jala Makhzoumi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The political shift in Lebanon since the 1990s towards market-led development has encouraged the incremental appropriation of public spaces and state lands, and their conversion into gated, monitored enclaves that serve a privileged few. The process disregards the role of the urban public realm and undermines its potential as an inclusive space and enabling platform for urban governance. This article advocates a participatory approach to urban development, one that engages local stakeholders, institutions, and the public at large as active partners working towards sustainable urban futures. We draw on a case study in Saida, Lebanon, to illustrate participatory planning methods and demonstrate the role of landscape architects in enabling community-led development that is place responsive and sensitive to local narratives of heritage and identity. The project’s participatory methodology and landscape architecture’s expansive framing, the paper argues, democratizes the planning process and contributes to urban governance that empowers local authorities and local stakeholders in the face of privatization and market-led development.

  8. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bvudzai P Magadzire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  9. The participatory public library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose From collection to connection has been a buzzword in the library world for more than a decade. This catchy phrase indicates that users are seen not only as borrowers, but as active participants. The aim of this paper is to investigate and analyse three questions in relation to user...... participation in public libraries in a Nordic perspective. How can participation in public libraries be characterised? Why should libraries deal with user participation? What kinds of different user participation can be identified in public libraries? Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a selection...... of theoretical approaches and practical examples to obtain a varied understanding of user participation in public libraries. Research fields outside library and information science have developed a wide range of theoretical approaches on user participation. Examples from cultural policy, museum studies...

  10. Bridging worlds: participatory thinking in Jungian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robin S

    2017-04-01

    Introducing the 'participatory' paradigm associated with the work of transpersonalists Richard Tarnas and Jorge Ferrer, the author outlines an approach to Jung's archetypal thinking that might offer a more adequate basis in which to ground a non-reductive approach to practice. In order to demonstrate the relevance of this outlook at the present time, the author begins by examining recent debates concerning the nature of 'truth' in the clinical setting. Reflecting on the difficulties analysts face in attempting to maintain professional authority without falling into an implicit authoritarianism, it is argued that any approach to therapy seeking to orient itself towards 'the unconscious' must posit the challenges of pluralism as a central concern for practice. With reference to the relationship between analytical psychology and the psychoanalytic mainstream, attention is drawn to the theoretical problems raised by the relational commitment to constructivist epistemologies, and a consequent tendency towards biological reductionism. Turning to the Jungian literature, similar tensions are observed at play in the present state of analytical psychology. Drawing attention to the process-oriented qualities of Jung's work, it is suggested that the speculative nature of Jung's psychology offers a more adequate basis for contemporary practice than might be assumed. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. Embedded, Participatory Research: Creating a Grounded Theory with Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Crawford Barniskis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solutions for other librarians while furthering a theoretical research agenda.Methods – This example of embedded, participatory techniques used grounded theory methods based on the experiences of teens who participated in art programs at a public library. Fourteen teens participated in interviews, and six of them assisted in coding,analyzing, and abstracting the data, and validating the resulting theory.Results – Employing the teenagers within the research team resulted in a teen-validated theory. The embedded techniques of the practitioner-researcher resulted in a theory that can be applied to practice.Conclusions – This research framework develops the body of literature based on real world contexts and supports hands-on practitioners. It also provides evidence-based theory for funding agencies and assessment. In addition, practitioner-based research that incorporates teens as research partners activates teens’ voices. It gives them a venue to speak for themselves with support from an interested and often advocacy-minded adult.

  12. Midwifery participatory curriculum development: Transformation through active partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Mary; Walters, Caroline; Chipperfield, Janine; Gamble, Jenny

    2017-07-01

    Evolving knowledge and professional practice combined with advances in pedagogy and learning technology create challenges for accredited professional programs. Internationally a sparsity of literature exists around curriculum development for professional programs responsive to regulatory and societal drivers. This paper evaluates a participatory curriculum development framework, adapted from the community development sector, to determine its applicability to promote engagement and ownership during the development of a Bachelor of Midwifery curriculum at an Australian University. The structures, processes and resulting curriculum development framework are described. A representative sample of key curriculum development team members were interviewed in relation to their participation. Qualitative analysis of transcribed interviews occurred through inductive, essentialist thematic analysis. Two main themes emerged: (1) 'it is a transformative journey' and (2) focused 'partnership in action'. Results confirmed the participatory curriculum development process provides symbiotic benefits to participants leading to individual and organisational growth and the perception of a shared curriculum. A final operational model using a participatory curriculum development process to guide the development of accredited health programs emerged. The model provides an appropriate structure to create meaningful collaboration with multiple stakeholders to produce a curriculum that is contemporary, underpinned by evidence and reflective of 'real world' practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment and REDD+: Learning from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusaga Mukama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research initiatives and practical experiences have demonstrated that forest-related data collected by local communities can play an essential role in the development of national REDD+ programs and its' measurement, reporting, verification (MRV systems. In Tanzania, the national REDD+ Strategy aims to reward local communities participating in forest management under Participatory Forest Management (PFM. Accessing carbon finances requires among other things, accurate measurements of carbon stock changes through conventional forest inventories, something which is rarely done in PFM forests due to its high cost and limited resources. The main objective of this paper is to discuss experiences of Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment (PFCA in Tanzania. The study revealed that villagers who participated in PFCA were able to perform most steps for carbon assessment in the field. A key challenge in future is how to finance PFCA and ensure the technical capacity at local level.

  14. Youth-Led Participatory Action Research: Developmental and Equity Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Youth-led participatory action research (YPAR) is an approach to scientific inquiry and social change grounded in principles of equity that engages young people in identifying problems relevant to their own lives, conducting research to understand the problems, and advocating for changes based on research evidence. This chapter provides an introduction to YPAR followed by consideration of the (a) developmental relevance of YPAR for marginalized youth, (b) implications of YPAR for developmental science research on inequities experienced by youth, and (c) potential opportunities and impact of YPAR for improving key developmental settings such as schools and youth-serving organizations. Resources for conducting YPAR projects are discussed, as well as the need for potential integration of YPAR and other participatory approaches to engaging youth and their expertise-at a significant enough scale to have a meaningful impact on policies and practices that affect youth development. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Film production, social media marketing and participatory culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    tendency within film and TV industry, in which behind the scene clips and comments are used in advantage to promote the product, as well as using social media as the main marketing channel (Caldwell, 2008; Gray, 2010; Johnson, 2012). Social media marketing is in itself representing a new field within...... and electronic media, and it demonstrates that the film company are fashion-conscious when it comes to new media and marketing tools. The history of ‘participatory culture’ might be seen in the light of digital online media, in which the boarders – following Habermas concepts - between lifeworld, public sphere...... is challenging the very concept of ‘participatory cultural citizenship’ in itself. References: Caldwell, John Thornton (2008): Production culture - Critical Practice in Film and Television, Duke University Press: London, Durham. Couldry, N., Livingstone, S. & Markham, T. (2007): Media consumption and public...

  16. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice.

  17. How Data Use for Accountability Undermines Equitable Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Melissa; Bradford, Chris; Kirchgasler, Kathryn L.; Barocas, Sadie Fox

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: When school leaders advance strategic plans focused on improving educational equity through data-driven decision making, how do policies-as-practiced unfold in the daily work of science teachers? The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach: This ethnographic study examines how data-centric accountability and…

  18. Praxis, Ethics and Power: Developing Praxeology as a Participatory Paradigm for Early Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Chris; Bertram, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The discipline and practice of participatory, practice-led research has grown rapidly in recent years and it is now widely accepted as making an important and serious contribution to the knowledge base of early childhood. Despite this progress recently we have come to understand that our worldview has needed to shift again in response to the…

  19. Practice changing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Buch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on a concrete practice-based study we discuss how such studies can be an important integrated part of critical participatory action research that spur change from inside a professional practice. We also discuss our roles as researchers (and union activists). We see and explore the potential...... study about the practices of a study administration unit in a university college in Denmark. The study includes ten weeks of participation observation study and five qualitative interviews, both in the central part and in three local study administrations. Managerial initiated organizational change...... in initiating changes within a practice tradition. To make local changes in the practices is to change the world. The majority of practice-based studies are analyzing different kinds of practices, but only few studies have engaged in doing action research in a practice tradition. Our paper explores how practice...

  20. Participatory development planning in Botswana: Exploring the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory development planning in Botswana: Exploring the utilisation of spaces for participation. ... Town and Regional Planning ... What is perceived as a highly centralised planning system dominated by bureaucrats has often been cited as the greatest impediment to the country's participatory governance. Despite

  1. Unpacking the impacts of 'participatory' forestry policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutune, Jane Mutheu; Lund, Jens Friis

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the livelihoods of member and non-members of Community Forestry Associations under Kenya's participatory forest management (PFM) programme. We use propensity score matching of households based on recall based data from before implementation of PFM from 286 households and comparison....... Further, we conclude that impact evaluations must examine both outcomes and participatory forestry to provide meaningful policy evidence....

  2. Short Communication: Participatory disease surveillance as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under-reporting of animal disease outbreak is a common feature in most developing countries with poor disease reporting system including Nigeria, where majority of animals are held by rural livestock farmers. Participatory Animal Disease Surveillance (PDS) a participatory epidemiology/epizootiology method which ...

  3. Participatory development planning in Botswana: Exploring the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the significance of public participation in planning is the ... to participatory planning, Botswana's planning system remains non-participatory. What is perceived as a ..... Administration. Despite the above, the. Tribal Administration remains important to the development planning efforts in Botswana. This could be attributed.

  4. Values-Led Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities...... in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding....

  5. Discussion paper on participation and participatory methods in gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aner, K

    2016-12-01

    The concept of "participation" and the use of "participatory methods" in human, healthcare, nursing, and gerontological research, as well as the corresponding fields of practice, represent an expanding field of interest. However, the objectives and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The Critical Gerontology Working Group of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics presents a statement on this phenomenon, and proposes a catalogue of criteria for reflection upon and assessment of participation by older people in research and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.

  6. Participatory Design of Large-Scale Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss how to engage in large-scale information systems development by applying a participatory design (PD) approach that acknowledges the unique situated work practices conducted by the domain experts of modern organizations. We reconstruct the iterative prototyping approach...... into a PD process model that (1) emphasizes PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporates improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extends initial...... and discuss three challenges to address when dealing with large-scale systems development....

  7. Participatory Design in the Developing World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Claassen, Hester; Finnan, Craig

    In the field of participatory design originating in Scandinavia, where approaches are developed for actively engaging local stakeholders in change processes, a major part of the research has been confined to Western contexts. The need to study participatory design in broader settings outside...... as there are numerous challenges for enabling participation, e.g. power distance, cultural barriers, low educational levels and geographical distances. However, participatory design offers substantial opportunities for developing countries, regarding empowerment in local communities and democratisation of change...... processes. Arguably, the appropriation of participatory design approaches and methods to developing world settings is an important priority in research cooperation between Nordic and Southern African universities. This work presents issues and opportunities for introducing participatory design in a South...

  8. Participatory workplace wellness programs: reward, penalty, and regulatory conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: Workplace wellness programs that provide incentives for completing a health risk assessment are a form of participatory programs. There are legal and ethical concerns when employers assess penalties for not completing a health risk assessment, raising questions about the voluntariness of such a program. The Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services' 2013 regulations for participatory programs and employers' current practices conflict with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's prevailing interpretation of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. In keeping with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Congress revised the law related to workplace wellness programs. In June 2013, the Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services passed the final regulations, updating their 2006 regulatory framework. Participatory programs that reward the completion of a health risk assessment are now the most common type of wellness program in the United States. However, legal and ethical concerns emerge when employers utilize incentives that raise questions about the voluntariness of such programs. At issue is that under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, employers cannot require health-related inquiries and exams. To analyze the current interpretation of the ADA, I conducted research on both LexisNexis and federal agency websites. The resulting article evaluates the differences in the language of Congress's enabling legislation and the federal departments' regulations and how they may conflict with the ADA. It also reviews the federal government's authority to address both the legal conflict and ethical concerns related to nonvoluntary participatory programs. Employers' practices and the federal departments' regulations conflict with the current interpretation of the ADA by permitting employers to penalize employees who do not complete a health risk assessment. The departments' regulations may be

  9. Judging children's participatory parity from social justice and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge ...

  10. Criticism and Self-criticism: participatory evaluation in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Ferreira Machado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches some possibilities implementation of participatory evaluation,which is seen as an important dimension of the accomplished pedagogical work inrural schools organized according to politician-pedagogical principles of the movementof landless rural workers. Among the authors who base this study are Freitas (1995,Perrenoud (1986 and Pistrak (2002. The research of participant nature, whose maininstrument was the comment had with central objective to analyze where measuredcritical and the self-criticism as a proposition of participatory evaluation, reflected in thedaily life of rural schools. The results of the research show the value of systematicevaluation in the context of these schools. It was possible to see that a transformativeand emancipatory education can not do without the critical and participatory evaluation,which includes students and educators as subjects of the process of teaching andlearning. Although it is a practice complex and sometimes conflicting, participatoryevalution is essential tool for collective reflection and systematization of educationalactivities and actions triggered in school, so as to strengthen the educational project ofthe rural social movements

  11. Tackling perinatal loss, a participatory action research approach: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Hueso-Montoro, César; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Toledano-Losa, Ana Cristina; Carnicer-Fuentes, Concepción; Ortegón-Gallego, José Alejo; Frandsen, Anna J

    2012-11-01

      The aim of this study was to promote changes to improve the care provided to parents who have experienced a perinatal loss through participatory action research.   The birth of a child is a joyful event for most families, however, unfortunately some pregnancies end in loss. Perinatal loss creates a heavy emotional impact not only on parents but also on health professionals, where in most cases there is an evident lack of skills, strategies and resources to cope with these kinds of situations.   Participatory action research is the methodology proposed to achieve the purpose of this study.   Participatory action research consists of five stages: outreach and awareness, induction, interaction, implementation and systematization. The working group will include professionals from the Mother and Child Unit for patients at a tertiary level public hospital in Spain. The duration of the study will be 3 years since the approval of the protocol in January 2011. The qualitative techniques used will include group dynamics such as the SWOT analysis the nominal group technique, focus groups and brainstorming, among others that will be recorded and transcribed, generating reports throughout the evolution of the group sessions and about the consensus reached. Content analysis will be conducted on the field diaries kept by the participants and researchers. This project has been funded by the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Health.   Participatory action research is a methodological strategy that allows changes in clinical practice to conduct a comprehensive transformative action in the care process for perinatal loss. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Simulation Suggests that medical group mergers won't undermine the potential utility of health information exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Robert S; Schneider, Eric C; Volk, Lynn A; Szolovits, Peter; Salzberg, Claudia A; Simon, Steven R; Bates, David W

    2012-03-01

    Federal and state agencies are investing substantial resources in the creation of community health information exchanges, which are consortia that enable independent health care organizations to exchange clinical data. However, under pressure to form accountable care organizations, medical groups may merge and support private health information exchanges. Such activity could reduce the potential utility of community exchanges-that is, the exchanges' capacity to share patient data across hospitals and physician practices that are independent. Simulations of care transitions based on data from ten Massachusetts communities suggest that there would have to be many such mergers to undermine the potential utility of health information exchanges. At the same time, because hospitals and the largest medical groups account for only 10-20 percent of care transitions in a community, information exchanges will still need to recruit a large proportion of the medical groups in a given community for the exchanges to maintain their usefulness in fostering information exchange across independent providers.

  13. [Closure of cystic cavity-type bedsore by subcutaneous undermining dissection with continuous negative pressure drainage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Guo, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Ke-Hua; Zhao, Dong-Hong; Han, Tong; Lang, Yu-Hong; Peng, Li-Jun

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of subcutaneous undermining dissection with continuous negative pressure drainage for the closure of cystic cavity-type bedsore. 12 patients with cystic cavity-type bedsore underwent surgical debridement and the wounds were closed after subcutaneous undermining dissection. The negative pressure drainage was put in the deep space. The healing process was observed. Completed healing was achieved in all the 12 cases. The skin wounds healed after 17-20 days and the deep spaces closed after 36-43 days. 12 cases were followed up for 1 year with no occurrence. It is an easy and effective method to treat cystic cavity -type bedsore by subcutaneous undermining dissection with continuous negative pressure drainage.

  14. Modeling the principles of community-based participatory research in a community health assessment conducted by a health foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Jaynes; Gail Bray, Patricia; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Reisz, Ilana; Peranteau, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss strategies used and lessons learned by a health foundation during development of a community health assessment model incorporating community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches. The assessment model comprises three models incorporating increasing amounts of CPBR principles. Model A combines local-area analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information (key informants, focus groups), and asset mapping. Model B, a community-based participatory model, emphasizes participatory rural appraisal approaches and quantitative assessment using rapid epidemiological assessment. Model C, a modified version of Model B, is financially more sustainable for our needs than Model B. The authors (a) describe origins of these models and illustrate practical applications and (b) explore the lessons learned in their transition from a traditional, nonparticipatory, quantitative approach to participatory approaches to community-health assessment. It is hoped that this article will contribute to the growing body of knowledge of practical aspects of incorporating CBPR approaches into community health assessments.

  15. Participatory management in today's health care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    As the health care revolution progresses, so must the management styles of today's leaders. The authors must ask ourselves if we are managing tomorrow's work force or the work force of the past. Participatory management may better meet the needs of today's work force. This paper identifies the reasons participatory management is a more effective management style, the methods used to implement a participatory management program, its benefits (such as higher productivity and more efficient, effective implementation and acceptance of change), and the difficulties experienced

  16. How the K(d) Approach Undermines Groundwater Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Craig M.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1999-07-19

    Environmental scientists have long appreciated that the distribution coefficient (the ''K{sub d}'' or ''constant K{sub d}'') approach predicts the partitioning of heavy metals between sediment and groundwater inaccurately; nonetheless, transport models applied to problems of environmental protection and groundwater remediation almost invariably employ this technique. To examine the consequences of this practice, we consider transport in one dimension of Pb and other heavy metals through an aquifer containing hydrous ferric oxide, onto which heavy metals sorb strongly. We compare the predictions of models calculated using the K{sub d} approach to those given by surface complexation theory, which is more realistic physically and chemically. The two modeling techniques give qualitatively differing results that lead to divergent cleanup strategies. The results for surface complexation theory show that water flushing is ineffective at displacing significant amounts of Pb from the sorbing surface. The effluent from such treatment contains a ''tail'' of small but significant levels of contamination that persists indefinitely. Subsurface zones of Pb contamination, furthermore, are largely immobile in flowing groundwater. These results stand in sharp contrast to the predictions of models constructed using the k{sub d} approach, yet are consistent with experience in the laboratory and field.

  17. Prioritizing young people's emotional health support needs via participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, S E; Milnes, L; Welsby, H; Pryjmachuk, S

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT?: Young people's mental health is a concern to people around the world. Good emotional health promotes mental health and protects against mental illness, but we need to know more about how to help young people look after their emotional health. We are learning that research is better if the public are involved in it, including children and young people. Therefore, we need to listen carefully to what young people have to say. In this paper, we describe some research that involved young people from start to finish. We were asking what kind of emotional health support would be useful to them. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We developed a useful way to involve young people in research so their voice can be heard. Young people like to use the Internet to find emotional health support and information, but need to know which web sites they can trust. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Our method of bringing young people together to tell us their views was successful. It is important to explore ways to help young people judge the quality of emotional health web sites. Introduction Youth mental health is a global concern. Emotional health promotes mental health and protects against mental illness. Youth value self-care for emotional health, but we need better understanding of how to help them look after their emotional health. Participatory research is relevant, since meaningful engagement with youth via participatory research enhances the validity and relevance of research findings and supports young people's rights to involvement in decisions that concern them. Aim We aimed to develop a participatory approach for involving youth in research about their emotional health support preferences. Method Our team included a young expert-by-experience. We developed a qualitative, participatory research design. Eleven youth (16-18 years) participated in focus groups, followed immediately by a nominal group exercise in which they

  18. Women as Mapmakers: Gender and Empowerment in Participatory Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Christie, Maria Elisa; Luebbering, C.

    2011-01-01

    Participatory mapping, one of the most widely used participatory research techniques, has been cited as a viable means for women to express their spaces and resources. But to what extent has gender, and women in particular, been incorporated into participatory mapping research? This paper explores gender in the participatory mapping literature and contemplates women’s empowerment through participatory research experiences working with women and men farmers in the developing world. In the lite...

  19. The Genesis of Participatory Democracy in Brazil: a Scientific (ReConstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Sa Vilas Boas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of participatory democracy has often been explained by the renewal of collective action in Europe and Latin America. This review essay questions the 'movement-based' genesis of Brazilian participatory democracy by analyzing the idea of the state upon which it rests. It argues that the focus on social movements falls short of explaining the spread of participatory experiments, and that it rests on a simplified understanding of the dynamics of the Brazilian State prior to the 1980s. The argument is developed along three axes. First, the essay analyses how the 'classics' of Brazilian political sociology framed the early studies on participatory democracy. Second, it shows that even if the unifying notion of the state has been challenged, progress has focussed on the study of the democratic period. Third, it presents evidence that participation, as a practical category, was an integral part of the military regime's discourse and practice. Finally, the essay defines lines of investigation to reconsider the origins of participatory democracy in Brazil.

  20. Participatory Inovation Conference 2011 Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Industry and public agencies increasingly adopt user-driven innovation and open innovation, as they realise that innovation cannot come solely from within an organisation. Innovation happens in the ‘breaking of the waves’ between people outside and people inside – because they have different stakes...... and perspectives. In academia, new breakthrough contributions to understanding innovation – and supporting it – will also emerge in the borderlands between disciplines that traditionally do not collaborate: between languages and design, and between management and anthropology for instance. The new discipline...... of Participatory Innovation gathers theories and methods across such academic fields that describe how people outside an organisation can contribute to its innovation. The many papers in this volume have in common that they identify ways for industry and the public sector to expand innovation through...

  1. Participatory Inovation Conference 2011 Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob

    Industry and public agencies increasingly adopt user-driven innovation and open innovation, as they realise that innovation cannot come solely from within an organisation. Innovation happens in the ‘breaking of the waves’ between people outside and people inside – because they have different stakes...... and perspectives. In academia, new breakthrough contributions to understanding innovation – and supporting it – will also emerge in the borderlands between disciplines that traditionally do not collaborate: between languages and design, and between management and anthropology for instance. The new discipline...... of Participatory Innovation gathers theories and methods across such academic fields that describe how people outside an organisation can contribute to its innovation. The many papers in this volume have in common that they identify ways for industry and the public sector to expand innovation through...

  2. Participatory financing for green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laville, Dorine; Phantharangsi, Maryvonne; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Demeulenaere, Laurence; Lequeux, Typhaine; Cuny, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    As for the French Ministry of the Environment, participatory financing can be an innovating and mobilising tool to finance projects related to the energy and ecological transition, and as such a financing is promoted by the law on energy transition for a green growth, this publication presents this type of financing. It evokes its legal framework, its different forms (loan to companies, loan to individuals, gift, capital investment), its safe legal framework (definition of different types of status). It outlines how it can be a lever for energy and ecological transition even if green projects are difficult to quantify. It evokes the future introduction of a label, and the introduction of legal and regulatory measures to develop the renewable energy sector

  3. Reducing image interpretation errors – Do communication strategies undermine this?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, B.; Hardy, M.; Lewis, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Errors in the interpretation of diagnostic images in the emergency department are a persistent problem internationally. To address this issue, a number of risk reduction strategies have been suggested but only radiographer abnormality detection schemes (RADS) have been widely implemented in the UK. This study considers the variation in RADS operation and communication in light of technological advances and changes in service operation. Methods: A postal survey of all NHS hospitals operating either an Emergency Department or Minor Injury Unit and a diagnostic imaging (radiology) department (n = 510) was undertaken between July and August 2011. The questionnaire was designed to elicit information on emergency service provision and details of RADS. Results: 325 questionnaires were returned (n = 325/510; 63.7%). The majority of sites (n = 288/325; 88.6%) operated a RADS with the majority (n = 227/288; 78.8%) employing a visual ‘flagging’ system as the only method of communication although symbols used were inconsistent and contradictory across sites. 61 sites communicated radiographer findings through a written proforma (paper or electronic) but this was run in conjunction with a flagging system at 50 sites. The majority of sites did not have guidance on the scope or operation of the ‘flagging’ or written communication system in use. Conclusions: RADS is an established clinical intervention to reduce errors in diagnostic image interpretation within the emergency setting. The lack of standardisation in communication processes and practices alongside the rapid adoption of technology has increased the potential for error and miscommunication

  4. Participatory advocacy: a counter to media imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M

    1996-01-01

    Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge.

  5. Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    , Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader...... sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts.......This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example...

  6. The relationship between participatory management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between participatory management and empowerment with organizational commitment in physical education teachers. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Between participative management and empowerment among physical education teachers there is a city of Bandar Abbas.

  7. Learning from participatory design projects across industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Souza da Conceição, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    the relevant work systems, the intervention by ergonomists may be better planned and better ensure a real impact on the overall design project. This is of importance because many PDPs have an intermittent and temporary character. The notion of interaction between different work systems also allows for theories......Summative Statement: A preliminary framework for participatory design projects (PDP) was developed based on a retrospective analysis of five PDPs across different industries. The framework may serve as a guidance for planning and conducting PDPs. Problem statement: A growing number of experiences...... with participatory design or participatory ergonomics projects have been gained within the field of macro-ergonomics. It is suggested that the Participatory Ergonomics Framework (PEF) validated by Haines et al. (2002) needs to be updated based on these experiences and hence more focussed on design activities...

  8. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel; C Smith, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare systems require a paradigm shift in the way healthcare services are delivered to counteract demographic changes in patient populations, expanding technological developments and the increasing complexity of healthcare. Participatory design (PD) is a methodology that promotes the partici...

  9. Special issue: three models of community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Janet; McDonald, Jasmine A

    2013-04-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative process between community-based organizations and academic investigators. It has the potential to make research more responsive to existing needs and to enhance a community's ability to address important health issues. But CBPR is often unfamiliar territory to academic investigators and community organizations alike. We interviewed CBPR investigators at Penn and community leaders to ascertain best practices in CBPR and to compare academic and community perspectives. A number of models of community-academic partnerships emerged, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The perspectives of the investigators sometimes matched those of the community leaders, but diverged in important ways.

  10. Participatory methods for initiating manufacturing employees' involvement in product innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Jensen, Christian Schou; Broberg, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Employee-driven innovation has the potential to improve product innovation by involving employees as innovative resources. However, it can be a challenge to turn the potential into a reality of collaboration practices across organizational structures and culture. Through an interactive research...... and through a series of facilitated workshops we have investigated how these methods can initiate employee involvement. We see that participatory methods can improve understanding and relation between R&D and manufacturing departments, and thereby support a creative collaboration and emergence of employee...

  11. Oxygenation and microcirculation during skin stretching in undermined and nonundermined skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, Paris; Noorlander, Maril L.; van der Kleij, Ad J.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to assess the skin microcirculation of undermined and nonundermined wound edges closed with a skin-stretching device. In eight piglets, 9 X 9-cm wounds were created on both flanks by excision of the skin and the subcutaneous layer down to the muscular fascia,

  12. How Patronage Politics Undermines Parental Participation and Accountability: Community-Managed Schools in Honduras and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how patronage politics affects a popular international education model: community-managed schools (CMS). Focusing on Honduras's CMS initiative, PROHECO (Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria), I demonstrate how patronage can undermine CMS accountability. Whereas supporters argue that CMS increases accountability, partisan…

  13. Do Economic Problems at Home Undermine Worker Safety Abroad? : A Panel Study, 1980-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, S.; Prakash, A.

    Do economic downturns in the Global North undermine worker safety in the Global South? Literature suggests that bilateral trade linkages lead to the diffusion of “good” labor standards from importing countries of the Global North to exporting countries of the Global South. The crucial mechanism is

  14. Creative Art Therapy in a Community's Participatory Research and Social Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitan, Lynn; Litell, Mary; Torres, Anabel

    2011-01-01

    When people come together in community to practice critical inquiry, they develop a capacity to see, reflect, and become subjects of their own development. This article describes arts-based participatory action research in partnership with a nongovernmental organization in Central America. Creative art therapy was culturally adapted and practiced…

  15. Participatory Educational Design: How to Improve Mutual Learning and the Quality and Usability of the Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Fred J. J. M.; Könings, Karen D.; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Many educational change proposals, designed to improve student learning, fail to be implemented in classrooms, which is a threat to the impact of educational policy on educational practice. This has led to a call for participatory educational design in which different stakeholders are involved in the generation and consideration of alternative…

  16. Recovering Lost Histories of Educational Design: A Case Study in Contemporary Participatory Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Catherine; Könings, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Past practices shape and limit the design imagination of teachers, pupils, parents, governors, and others concerned with designing modern schools. Bringing histories of education to the table in the participatory design process of new school buildings and curricula is necessary. Schools having an extraordinary past have the potential to draw from…

  17. Beyond Resistance: Exploring Health Managers' Propensity for Participatory Evaluation in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois; Farand, Lambert

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the…

  18. Upon opening the black box of participatory design and finding it filled with ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I bring together Participatory Design's (PD) tradition of critical reflection on one's own practices, and Science and Technology Studies' focus on specific activities ('opening the black box'), in order to explore the ethics of PD. Three different forms of ethics—ethics-of-theother,

  19. Change at Big School and Little School: Institutionalization and Contestation in Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Kastanis, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) assumes a dialectic model of change where the tension between institutionalization and contestation practices leads to change in schools. This view openly contradicts the three dominating views of institutionalization in the educational change literature. Over the past 11 years, research has been conducted to…

  20. Youth Participatory Action Research and Educational Transformation: The Potential of Intertextuality as a Methodological Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Melanie Bertrand explores the potential of using the concept of intertextuality--which captures the way snippets of written or spoken text from one source become incorporated into other sources--in the study and practice of youth participatory action research (YPAR). Though this collective and youth-centered form of research…

  1. Hard Labour and Punitive Welfare: The Unemployed Body at Work in Participatory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the performance of labour in participatory arts projects and considers the implications of such activity on perceptions of the unemployed in the UK. Utilising a combination of biopolitical and necropolitical understandings of governance and drawing on two examples of theatre practice, Tangled Feet's "One Million"…

  2. A room for design: Through participatory design young adults with schizophrenia become strong collaborators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terp, Malene; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz; Jørgensen, Rikke; Mainz, Jan; Bjørnes, Charlotte D

    2016-12-01

    Smartphone technology is being increasingly viewed as key to engaging young adults with schizophrenia in their own mental health care. In an attempt to use smartphones as an engagement tool, we conducted a participatory design process, where young adults with schizophrenia (n = 4), healthcare providers (n = 7), software designers (n = 3), graphic designer (n = 1), graphic recorder (n = 1), and team leader (n = 1) co-designed a smartphone application for use in early phase schizophrenia care. This paper reports the co-design process. Based on a variety of written data-sources, the paper describes if, and how, participatory design can help construct a physical and relational environment that enables young adults with schizophrenia to become active participants in the design of a more participatory mental health practice. Guided by Etienne Wenger's construct of Community of Practice, three major categories of characteristics and construction of a physical and relational environment supporting and inspiring participation and engagement were identified: (i) a pre-narrative about a community of practice, (ii) the room for design is a community of practice and (iii) the community of practice as a practice of special qualities. It is concluded that participatory design can support and inspire participation and engagement in the development of mental health care with young adults with schizophrenia, given that the environment in which participatory design unfolds is transparent, flexible, secure and informal. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. A Participatory Design Approach to Develop an Interactive Sound Environment Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Geir K; Dahl, Yngve

    2016-10-01

    Our purpose is to provide insight into the added value of applying a participatory design approach in the design of an interactive sound environment simulator to facilitate communication and understanding between patients and audiologists in consultation situations. We have applied a qualitative approach, presenting results and discussion in the form of a story, following 3 consecutive steps: problem investigation, design, and evaluation. We provide an overview of lessons learned, emphasizing how patients and audiologists took roles and responsibilities in the design process and the effects of this involvement. Our results suggest that participatory design is a viable and practical approach to address multifaceted problems directly affecting patients and practitioners.

  4. Impact in Participatory Health Research: What Can We Learn from Research on Participatory Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springett, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Participatory Health Research is a collective term adopted globally for participatory action research in a health context. As an approach to research, it challenges current ways used within the health sciences to measure research impact as research, learning and action are integrated throughout the research process and dependent on context and…

  5. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Rehabilitation centers in change: participatory methods for managing redesign and renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Marjaana; Nenonen, Suvi; Rasila, Heidi; Lehtelä, Jouni; Ruohomäki, Virpi; Reijula, Kari

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a set of participatory methods that we have either developed or modified for developing future work and service environments to better suit renewable rehabilitation processes. We discuss the methods in a larger framework of change process model and participatory design. Rehabilitation organizations are currently in transition; customer groups, financing, services, and the processes of rehabilitation centers are changing. The pressure for change challenges the centers to develop both their processes and facilities. There is a need for methods that support change management. Four participatory methods were developed: future workshop, change survey, multi-method assessment tool, and participatory design generator cards. They were tested and evaluated in three rehabilitation centers at the different phases of their change process. The developed methods were considered useful in creating a mutual understanding of the change goals between different stakeholders, providing a good picture of the work community's attitudes toward the change, forming an integrated overview of the built and perceived environment, inspiring new solutions, and supporting the management in steering the change process. The change process model described in this article serves as a practical framework that combined the viewpoints of organizational and facility development. However, participatory design continues to face challenges concerning communication between different stakeholders, and further development of the methods and processes is still needed. Intervention studies could provide data on the success factors that enhance the transformations in the rehabilitation sector. Design process, methodology, organizational transformation, planning, renovation.

  7. The art of recovery: outcomes from participatory arts activities for people using mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore; Wright, Nicola; Slade, Mike

    2018-02-15

    There is a growing evidence base for the use of participatory arts for the purposes of health promotion. In recent years, recovery approaches in mental healthcare have become commonplace in English speaking countries amongst others. There are few studies that bring together these two fields of practice. The two aims of this study were (a) to investigate the validity of the CHIME framework for characterising the experience of Participatory Arts and (b) to use the CHIME framework to investigate the relationship between participatory arts and mental health recovery. The study employed a two-phase methodology: a rapid review of relevant literature followed by secondary analysis of qualitative data collected from 38 people who use mental health service who took part in participatory arts activities designed to improve mental health. Each of the recovery processes identified by CHIME are present in the qualitative research literature as well as in the data of the secondary analysis. Participatory arts activities produce outcomes which support recovery, specifically including enhancing connectedness and improving hope. They can be recommended to people living with mental health problems.

  8. All Work and No Play? Facilitating Serious Games and Gamified Applications in Participatory Urban Planning and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ampatzidou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As games and gamified applications gain prominence in the academic debate on participatory practices, it is worth examining whether the application of such tools in the daily planning practice could be beneficial. This study identifies a research–practice gap in the current state of participatory urban planning practices in three European cities. Planners and policymakers acknowledge the benefits of employing such tools to illustrate complex urban issues, evoke social learning, and make participation more accessible. However, a series of impediments relating to planners’ inexperience with participatory methods, resource constraints, and sceptical adult audiences, limits the broader application of games and gamified applications within participatory urban planning practices. Games and gamified applications could become more widely employed within participatory planning processes when process facilitators become better educated and better able to judge the situations in which such tools could be implemented as part of the planning process, and if such applications are simple and useful, and if their development process is based on co-creation with the participating publics.

  9. Troubling Futures: Can Participatory Design Research provide a Constitutive Anthropology for the 21st Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Light

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues there is value in considering participatory design as a form of anthropology at a time when we recognise that we need not only to understand cultures but to change them towards sustainable living. Holding up the democratically-oriented practices of some participatory design research to definitions of anthropology allows the essay to explore the role of intervention in social process. And, challenging definitional boundaries, it examines design as a participatory tool for cultural change, creating and interrogating futures (and the idea of futures. In analysing how designing moves towards change in the world, the paper brings together design research and anthropological concepts to help us better understand and operationalise our interventions and pursue them in a fair and sustainable manner.

  10. Undermining Anarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, Thomas; Husted, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on concepts rooted in cybernetics and anarchist political theory, this article argues that the shift in Occupy Wall Street from being a physical protest camp in late 2011 to an online movement in 2012 coincided with a shift in social media activity. Analysis of Facebook activity suggests...

  11. Undermining 'data'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    2013-01-01

    or the veracity of, but not the existence of. This article critically examines the concept of ‘data’ within larger questions of research method and frameworks for scientific inquiry. The current dominance of the term ‘data’ and ‘big data’ in discussions of scientific inquiry as well as everyday advertising...

  12. Effectiveness of participatory training on improving occupational health in small and medium enterprises in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuandong; Zhu, Meifeng; Yu, Tak Sun Ignatius; He, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    Participatory training on occupational health is widely used in the world. Evaluations of local experiences are necessary to its successful performance. The project evaluated the effectiveness of participatory training on occupational health improvement in small and medium enterprises of China, and explored local practice experiences. Participatory training was provided to 525 welding workers from 25 small and medium enterprises in ship building and machinery manufacturing industries. This training consisted of interactive learning, worksite assessment and group discussion on laws/regulations, safety of machine operation, prevention of slips and trips, fire/explosion prevention, ergonomics, and recognition and prevention of other workplace hazards. Workers completed knowledge, attitude, and practice and worksite assessment questionnaires before and 3 months after intervention. Knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were significantly increased through the training. An inventory of workplace safety modifications was proposed by participants and many were fixed by workers and employers. Health management and personal protective equipment provision/use were most often improved, but improvements in engineering control and health-related accommodations remained unsatisfactory. Workers could recognize and fix workplace hazards after the participatory training. More efficient measures in China are to be explored to improve implementing solutions, especially on preventive engineering and human ergonomics.

  13. Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre

  14. Contentious Politics and Participatory Democracy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wampler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2014v13n28p199 Contentious politics helps individuals and groups with limited political voice to place their ideas and interests on the political agenda. Contentious politics were long thought to occur when politically marginalized group had no other means to advance their political agenda. The June 2013 social mobilization in Brazil caught most political observers by surprise, especially given the creation of a large, wide-spread participatory architecture (national conferences, councils, participatory budgeting. The innovative institutions emerging in Brazil created a policy environment in which millions of citizens have regular access to state policymaking bodies. How does the institutionalization of a broader network of participatory institutions make it easier for citizens to engage in contentious politics? In what ways does this institutionalization make it more difficult for some citizens to engage in contentious politics? In what ways has the vast network of participatory institutions been largely irrelevant to how citizens use contentious politics? This article explore how the institutionalization of an extensive participatory democracy system in Brazil alters the incentive structures that encourage citizens to engage in contentious collective action.

  15. Different levels of undermining in face lift - Experience of 141 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panettiere Pietro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The most revolutionary concept in rhytidectomy is the role of Sub Muscular Aponeurotic System (SMAS, even if many alternative approaches have been proposed. The main aim of face lift is to bring back the time, preventing the "lifted-face" appearance. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The authors present their personal experience with different levels of undermining, i.e. subperiosteal forehead lift, subcutaneous midface lift with SMAS plication and platysmal suspension, and discuss the anatomical and biomechanical elements of rhytidectomy. RESULTS: Optimal aesthetic results were achieved by repositioning the neck, face and forehead tissues in a global and harmonious fashion, without distorting face characteristics and disguising surgery trails as much as possible. CONCLUSIONS: Different levels of undermining can give good and stable aesthetic results minimizing the risks and preventing face distortion.

  16. Reading "Moby-Dick" in a Participatory Culture: Organizing Assessment for Engagement in a New Media Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Daniel T.; McWilliams, Jenna; Honeyford, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional literacy instruction is perhaps still necessary but is certainly no longer sufficient to prepare learners for participation in the range of literacy practices that characterize an increasingly participatory culture. This article identifies discrepancies between traditional instructional practices that emphasize individual mastery of…

  17. Participatory GIS for Soil Conservation in Phewa Watershed of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, K. P.

    2012-07-01

    Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.

  18. Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne; Nyvang, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory...... for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions...... approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues...

  19. Grasping social dynamics of participatory innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens

    2011-01-01

    and stakeholders themselves to understand their relations and what it means to participate. We argue that we can grasp these social dynamics of participatory innovation through play. From a management perspective we study how playing games helps us to understand these dynamics, while from an interaction design......-opetition where individual and group goals are conflicting. Drawing on observations and video data of the game being played by the participants of the conference, we study how different group compositions deal with novelty. From here we explain how the process of play can help to grasp the social dynamics......The key element in participatory innovation is to understand innovation as a social problem solving process between different stakeholders. The social dynamics amongst stakeholders are fundamental to the participatory process and outcome, and it’s therefore beneficial for facilitators...

  20. A comparative evaluation of four restorative materials to support undermined occlusal enamel of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the support to undermined occlusal enamel provided by posterior restorative composite (FiltekTM P60, 3M Dental products USA, polyacid modified resin composite (F2000 compomer, 3M Dental products, USA., radiopaque silver alloy-glass ionomer cement (Miracle Mix. GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan and Glass Ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP. To test each material, 20 human permanent mandibular third molars were selected. The lingual cusps were removed and the dentin supporting the facial cusps was cut away, leaving a shell of enamel. Each group of prepared teeth was restored using the materials according to the manufacturer′s instructions. All the specimens were thermocycled (250 cycles, 6°C- 60°C, dwell time 30 seconds and then mounted on an acrylic base. Specimens were loaded evenly across the cusp tips at a crosshead speed of 5 mm /minute in Hounsfield universal testing machine until fracture occurred. Data obtained was analyzed using analysis of variance and Studentized- Newman- Keul′s range test. No significant differences were detected in the support provided by P-60, F 2000, Miracle Mix or Fuji IX GP groups. The support provided to undermined occlusal enamel by these materials was intermediate between no support and that provided by sound dentin. Without further development in dental material technology and evidence of its efficacy, restorative materials should not be relied upon to support undermined occlusal enamel to a level comparable to that provided by sound dentin.

  1. Undermining belief in false memories leads to less efficient problem-solving behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqin; Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Nahouli, Zacharia

    2017-08-01

    Memories of events for which the belief in the occurrence of those events is undermined, but recollection is retained, are called nonbelieved memories (NBMs). The present experiments examined the effects of NBMs on subsequent problem-solving behaviour. In Experiment 1, we challenged participants' beliefs in their memories and examined whether NBMs affected subsequent solution rates on insight-based problems. True and false memories were elicited using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Then participants' belief in true and false memories was challenged by telling them the item had not been presented. We found that when the challenge led to undermining belief in false memories, fewer problems were solved than when belief was not challenged. In Experiment 2, a similar procedure was used except that some participants solved the problems one week rather than immediately after the feedback. Again, our results showed that undermining belief in false memories resulted in lower problem solution rates. These findings suggest that for false memories, belief is an important agent in whether memories serve as effective primes for immediate and delayed problem-solving.

  2. Participatory Disease Surveillance in the Detection of Trans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the detection of trans-boundary animal diseases using participatory disease surveillance in Borno State. Participatory epidemiology is an emerging field that is based on the use of participatory techniques for harvesting qualitative epidemiological intelligence contained within community observations, ...

  3. Participatory Design in an Era of Participation, Special Issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This special issue on participatory design in an era of participation presents emerging topics and discussions from the thirteenth Participatory Design conference (PDC), held at Aarhus University in August 2016. The PDC 2016 marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Participatory Design conferen...

  4. Participatory governance for energy policy-making: A case study of the UK nuclear consultation in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngar-yin Mah, Daphne; Hills, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The policy challenges associated with climate impacts, nuclear risks and an emergence of public preferences for fuel mixes have prompted many contemporary societies to adopt participatory approaches for managing energy matters. The extent to which and just how participatory approaches can work has however remained under-researched. This paper develops a normative framework for participatory governance to examine, analyse, and understand nuclear policy making processes and outcomes, with a particular reference to a case study of the UK nuclear consultation exercise in 2007. By comparing the actual consultation practice in the UK and our normative content–process–outcome framework, we found that the government approach paid insufficient attention to trust and some other normative values underpinning participatory governance, contributing to undesirable outcomes relating to policy legitimacy and public distrust. Our findings suggest that the UK government needs to pay more attention to the interaction that can occur between different rationales for participation and the processes and consequences of participatory exercises. - Highlights: • A three dimensional content–process–outcome evaluative model is developed. • We examine the limitations of the 2007 consultation. • Public distrust and three trust destroying process were found to be critical. • Complex interactions between different rationales affected participatory processes

  5. Roles of Participatory Action-oriented Programs in Promoting Safety and Health at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting the current international trends toward proactive risk assessment and control at work with practical procedures, participatory action-oriented approaches are gaining importance in various sectors. The roles of these approaches in promoting the safety and health at work are discussed based on their recent experiences in preventing work-related risks and improving the quality of work life, particularly in small-scale workplaces. The emphasis placed on the primary prevention at the initiative of workers and managers is commonly notable. Participatory steps, built on local good practices, can lead to many workplace improvements when the focus is on locally feasible low-cost options in multiple aspects. The design and use of locally adjusted action toolkits play a key role in facilitating these improvements in each local situation. The effectiveness of participatory approaches relying on these toolkits is demonstrated by their spread to many sectors and by various intervention studies. In the local context, networks of trainers are essential in sustaining the improvement activities. With the adequate support of networks of trainers trained in the use of these toolkits, participatory approaches will continue to be the key factor for proactive risk management in various work settings. PMID:23019528

  6. The German federal election of 2009: The challenge of participatory cultures in political campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Jungherr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, political actors have to act in online communication environments. There they meet overlapping networked publics with different levels of participatory cultures and varying expectations of participation in the (remaking and co-production of political content. This challenges political actors used to a top-down approach to communication. Meanwhile, online users are increasingly politically involved as legislatures all over the world become more active in regulating communication environments online. These new political actors often share participatory practices and have high levels of new media skills. Now they are challenged to adapt these bottom-up participatory cultures to the traditional political environment. This paper examines these adaption processes by examining three examples from the campaign for the German federal election of 2009. These examples include the attempt of Germany's conservative party (CDU to encourage their supporters to adapt participatory practices, the German Social Democrats' (SPD top-down production and distribution of online content that mimicked the look and feel of user-generated content, and the bottom-up emergence of political flash mobs.

  7. Roles of Participatory Action-oriented Programs in Promoting Safety and Health at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogi Kazutaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting the current international trends toward proactive risk assessment and control at work with practical procedures, participatory action-oriented approaches are gaining importance in various sectors. The roles of these approaches in promoting the safety and health at work are discussed based on their recent experiences in preventing work-related risks and improving the quality of work life, particularly in small-scale workplaces. The emphasis placed on the primary prevention at the initiative of workers and managers is commonly notable. Participatory steps, built on local good practices, can lead to many workplace improvements when the focus is on locally feasible low-cost options in multiple aspects. The design and use of locally adjusted action toolkits play a key role in facilitating these improvements in each local situation. The effectiveness of participatory approaches relying on these toolkits is demonstrated by their spread to many sectors and by various intervention studies. In the local context, networks of trainers are essential in sustaining the improvement activities. With the adequate support of networks of trainers trained in the use of these toolkits, participatory approaches will continue to be the key factor for proactive risk management in various work settings.

  8. Organization of school work in focus: the limits of antidemocratic inheritance and potential of participatory processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vieira Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically, democratic and participatory processes in the Brazilian society, and specifically in school, have been permeated by intermittences, weaknesses and resistances caused by multiple determinations. The text focuses on aspects concerningthe organization of education work through two lines of analysis: the first angle refers to the social constructs of structural and organic nature linked to relations of power andanti-democratic practices of the society in general. The second angle reference to a kindof ethnographic research, conducted within a public school in the Minas Gerais state. We seek to grasp the challenges on building practices and strategies in support of the participatory processes of the school community in the pedagogic project design and in the operation of the school board. We propose, with these analyses, to contribute withreflections on the status of teachers, as a subject, in the school organization throughconnections with work activities related to their everyday practice.

  9. Education, outreach, and inclusive engagement: Towards integrated indicators of successful program outcomes in participatory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Benjamin K; Besley, John C

    2014-01-01

    The use and utility of science in society is often influenced by the structure, legitimacy, and efficacy of the scientific research process. Public participation in scientific research (PPSR) is a growing field of practice aimed at enhancing both public knowledge and understanding of science (education outreach) and the efficacy and responsiveness of scientific research, practice, and policy (participatory engagement). However, PPSR objectives focused on "education outreach" and "participatory engagement" have each emerged from diverse theoretical traditions that maintain distinct indicators of success used for program development and evaluation. Although areas of intersection and overlap among these two traditions exist in theory and practice, a set of comprehensive standards has yet to coalesce that supports the key principles of both traditions in an assimilated fashion. To fill this void, a comprehensive indicators framework is proposed with the goal of promoting a more integrative and synergistic PPSR program development and assessment process.

  10. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  11. Participatory ergonomics applied in installation work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.M. de; Vink, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates a step-by-step participatory approach to better work, applied in reducing the musculoskeletal workload in installation work. To arrive at a reduction in workload, a steering group led the project through the following steps: Introduction: defining the goal and informing all 7000

  12. Promoting Participatory Action Research on Climate Change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Participatory Action Research on Climate Change Adaptation in Africa through Structured Learning. Climate models have shown that even if global greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced, the negative impacts of global warming will continue for a long time to come. This has led to calls for adaptation ...

  13. Participatory variety selection to enhance cowpea variety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This resulted in selection of thirteen cowpea lines that were further evaluated with one local check in 2009B season following a randomised complete block design. In this participatory approach, farmers used different criteria to assess cowpea linesat the vegetative and maturity crop growth stages. Major selection criteria ...

  14. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research and development can no longer be the exclusive domain of scientists. To find sustainable solutions to development problems, a wider range of actors must be involved. It is crucial, for example, that local stakeholders provide input to the process. Participatory research and development (PR&D) offers such an ...

  15. Teaching ethical-participatory social design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia; Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    2018-01-01

    stakeholders, we argue for an adaptive framework of analytical-pedagogical inquiry that can be continuously co-designed. In particular, ethical design requires a broad and emergent definition of participation. Ethical design is participatory-democratic co-design, which acknowledges and bridges across...

  16. Participatory dramaturgy in theatre for development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organizations especially after the change to a democratic system of government in 1993 ... dramaturgy” that, through their individual experiences, participants of the devising ..... their lives. This affirms that the devising process in TfD is an important stage which allows for participatory dramaturgy that is key to transformation.

  17. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Spanish. Research and development can no longer be the exclusive domain of scientists. To find sustainable solutions to development problems, a wider range of actors must be involved. It is crucial, for example, that local stakeholders provide input to the process. Participatory research and development (PR&D) offers ...

  18. Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: Empowering ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... A new publication, Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: a methods reader, was launched at the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Cape Town, South Africa in October 2014. The reader was published by the Regional Network for Equity in Health in East and Southern ...

  19. Evaluating Housing Problems through Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lokoja, a medium sized community in the Middle Belt of Nigeria experienced a massive influx of population in the last twelve years. This study examined housing problems that resulted thereafter. Through a participatory appraisal using group discussion and brainstorming, transect walk and matrix ranking, a sampled ...

  20. Challenges of Implementing Participatory Urban Planning In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the challenges of implementing participatory urban planning in. Tanzania. The study was carried out in the city of Dar es Salaam, particularly in the. Kibamba and Chamazi wards from Kinondoni and Temeke municipal councils, respectively. The study employed a descriptive case study using both ...

  1. Participatory Design in an Urban Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John

    The general theme is democratic urban innovation and participatory design processes. The project aims at examining and assessing the possibi-lities for increa-sing public participation and citizenship in the urban development. Furthermore, the project aims at strengthening the understanding...

  2. Using Participatory Design to Improve Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova-Houston, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author, a doctoral candidate from the School of Information at the University of Texas-Austin, describes the experience gathered from her attempt to redesign her existing Web sites in order to supply online resources for Slavic and Byzantine studies. The use of participatory design, which involves the users in creating the…

  3. Seeds That Give: Participatory Plant Breeding

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    in_focus. Seeds that give. PARTICIPATORY PLANT BREEDING. in_focus. IDRC's In_Focus Collection tackles current and pressing issues in sustainable international development. Each publication distills IDRC's research experience with an eye to drawing out important lessons, observations, and recommendations for ...

  4. Participatory Exploration of Digitalizing Cultural Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Koch Kapuire, Gereon

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a joint investigation of a Herero wedding ceremony as a sample of cultural content to be digitalized. We have through participatory exploration scrutinized embodied media bias and representation with Herero elders in Namibia. One finding is that this method has enabled...... the elders to be active agents in the digital portrayal and construction of their culture....

  5. Using Participatory Action Research to Address Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Elizabeth W.; Nance, Cara N.; Torres, Amanda L.; Torres, Selina M.

    2014-01-01

    Many urban high schools serving low-income families have below-average attendance rates, which can indicate that fewer students are prepared to matriculate into college and career opportunities. Through the use of participatory action research (PAR), we--a group of four educators at Wilson High School--have changed school policies and procedures…

  6. Civic political culture, participatory governance and political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study x-rayed the significance of civic political culture on participatory governance and its potentialities on political development. It adopted theoretical postulations in analyzing the subject matter. The analytical model showed a diagrammatic presentation of the relationship among participant culture features, elements ...

  7. People, Land and Water: Participatory Development Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    He holds a doctorate in educational technology and has authored three other books on development communication: Participatory Development Communication: A West African Agenda ( IDRC /Southbound 1996), L'appui au développement communautaire : Une expérience de communication en Afrique rurale de l'Ouest ...

  8. Constructing participatory journalism as a scholarly object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; van Hoof, A.M.J.; Meijer, I.C.; Sanders, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the emergence of ʺparticipatory journalismʺ as a scholarly object in the field of journalism studies. By conducting a genealogical analysis of 119 articles on participatory journalism, published between 1995 and September 2011, we analyze the development of scholarly

  9. SEEDS THAT GIVE: Participatory Plant Breeding

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    each other, and pay close attention to what the farmers told you? Revolutionary perhaps, but it's a revolution that has produced positive results. 1. Case study. Seeds. PARTICIPATORY PLANT BREEDING that give. ICARDA: S. Ceccarelli. Working together, researchers, farmers, breeders, and social scientists are increasing ...

  10. Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: Empowering ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A new publication, Participatory Action Research in Health Systems: a methods reader, was launched at the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research ... is to deepen our own understanding, our own learning about this, so that we can improve the quality of what we're doing,” says co-author Rene Loewenson.

  11. Participatory research approaches for enhancing innovations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Programme (SSFMP) of the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) and its partners to illustrate the variety of participatory ... national and international research institutions, extension agents and community-based organizations as partners. These ..... the advantage of bringing in a lot of local experiences,.

  12. Does participatory forest management change household attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of participatory forest management (PFM) on household attitudes towards conservation and management of Arabuko–Sokoke Forest. The results obtained show that the impact of the forest on households was positive and higher in households in PFM zones than in those in non-PFM zones.

  13. Using Participatory Photo Novels to Teach Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kallol

    2012-01-01

    Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…

  14. Civic Political Culture, Participatory Governance and Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info as its potential contribution to political development in Nigeria-as it will be applicable to other developing countries of the world. This study provided theoretical postulations in analysing the notion of participatory governance, and linking the research problem (civic political ...

  15. From the Manifest to the Implicit. Effects of Leftist Ideologies in Participatory Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș DASCĂLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory architecture appeared in the late 60s as a criticism of modernist architecture and urban planning. It was a criticism that did not come from inside the profession (as most other currents and paradigm shifts did but from the outside, from other disciplines, such as philosophy, art, and sociology. Based on the writings of Michel Foucault, the neo-Marxian Henri Lefebvre and Guy Debord, it challenged the dominant role of the architect as an expert planner and sole individual capable of designing built space. It was a criticism of the power the architect had regarding space, and how the individual user was dominated in this relation. Participation in architecture started therefore as a profoundly ideological practice and, even today, it is still seen as a radical leftist approach to architecture and urban planning. In contrast to the 60s and 70s when participatory architecture was manifestly Neo-Marxian, nowadays these processes are not always so clearly marked ideologically. This article tries to find the different effects of manifest and implicit ideologies in participatory architecture today. Our premise is the fact that participation is first and foremost a collaborative practice between individuals – agents. Like any other form of cooperation, participation must be based on trust but the main motor of cooperation is recognizing the needs and interests of the individuals who are rarely linked to abstract ideals. Manifest ideology, as a set of coherent and comprehensive abstract ideas about political and social action, will create relationships between like-minded individuals, while increasing the social distance from others. Considering that most individuals do not adhere to a specific ideology, manifest ideology in participatory architecture will therefore be an obstacle in creating trust relations. But ideology was and will always be a part of this type of architectural process. So the question is: how can architects or other

  16. Promoting Policy Development through Community Participatory Approaches to Health Promotion: The Philadelphia Ujima Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-James, Candace; Sawyer, Lidyvez; Núñez, Ana; Campoli, Bernadette; Robertson, Diana; DeVilliers, Amanda; Congleton, Sharon; Hayes, Stephen; Alexander, Stephanie

    2017-10-17

    The Philadelphia Ujima Coalition for a Healthier Community (Philadelphia Ujima) promotes health improvement of girls, women, and their families using a gender framework and community-based participatory research approach to addressing gender-based disparities. Institutional policies developed through community-based participatory research approaches are integral to sustaining gender-integrated health-promotion programs and necessary for reducing gender health inequities. This paper describes the results of a policy analysis of the Philadelphia Ujima coalition partner sites and highlights two case studies. The policy analysis used a document review and key informant interview transcripts to explore 1) processes that community, faith, and academic organizations engaged in a community participatory process used to develop policies or institutional changes, 2) types of policy changes developed, and 3) initial outcomes and impact of the policy changes on the target population. Fifteen policies were developed as a result of the funding from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. Policy changes included 1) healthy food options guidance, 2) leadership training on sexual and relationship violence, and 3) curricula and programming inclusion and expansion of a sex and gender focus in high school and medical school. Organizational practice changes and policies can be activated through individual-level interventions using a community participatory approach. This approach empowers communities to play an integral role in creating health-promoting policies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Participatory Filmmaking Pedagogies in Schools: Tensions Between Critical Representation and Perpetuating Gendered and Heterosexist Discourses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Rogers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although participatory media practices are often adopted to address social issues with youth in school and community contexts, there is a lack of critical analysis of the visual and discursive representations that organize student-produced participatory films. To respond to this concern, I employ critical discourse analysis to examine a series of films that were created for a New Brunswick school-based participatory filmmaking program that I coordinate, called What’s up Doc? Since the project’s inception in 2009, students have produced over 60 films that have raised institutional critiques, troubled inequitable discourses, and addressed social justice issues. Drawing attention to discourses that framed students’ films, I show how the work may perpetuate, rather than fully resist, marginalizing discourses, narratives, and visual representations. In particular, I show how the films may reproduce and authorize sexist discourses, demeaning narratives, and heteronormative assumptions. Youth may have undertaken filmmaking to generate social commentary and resist inequity, but critical engagement with the What’s up Doc? program demonstrates how discursive power operates on, in, and through participatory media texts.

  18. Participatory design in Parkinson's research with focus on the symptomatic domains to be measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, J Artur; Larsen, Frank; Isaacs, Tom; Matthews, Helen; Duffen, Joy; Riggare, Sara; Capitanio, Fulvio; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Domingos, Josefa; Maetzler, Walter; Graessner, Holm

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the objective assessment of health related outcomes using technology providing quality measurements to be applied not only in daily clinical practice, but also in scientific research. Differences in the understandings of the condition and the terminology used between people with Parkinson's (PwPs), clinicians and technical developers may influence the progress of a participatory design process. This paper reports on a participatory design process to achieve a consensus among PwPs, clinicians and technologists over the selection of a set of symptomatic domains to be continuously assessed, in order to provide results relevant to both PwPs and clinicians. The methods used were a Web based user survey, end-user focus groups, ranking by combined methods, a Delphi process performed among clinicians and scientists, and prioritization of the results in a concertation workshop for PwPs, clinicians and technologists. The following symptomatic domains were commonly agreed by PwPs and clinicians to be of central importance in a system of continuous assessment: hypokinesia/bradykinesia, tremor, sway, gait, sleep and cognition. This list satisfied both the needs of the PwPs and the concerns of the clinicians regarding the means of advancing new strategies in assessment and interventions in PD. A participatory design strategy allowed the definition of a consensual list of symptomatic domains. Both the strategy and the achieved results may be of relevance for similar interdisciplinary approaches in the field of PD using a participatory design involving patients, clinicians and technologists.

  19. Implementation of a participatory management model: analysis from a political perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Andrea; G Cummings, Greta; Gabriel, Carmen Silvia; Martinez Évora, Yolanda Dora; Gomes Maziero, Vanessa; Coleman-Miller, Glenda

    2015-10-01

    To analyse experiences of managers and nursing staff in the implementation of participatory management, specifically processes of decision-making, communication and power in a Canadian hospital. Implementing a Participatory Management Model involves change because it is focused on the needs of patients and encourages decentralisation of power and shared decisions. The study design is qualitative using observational sessions and content analysis for data analysis. We used Bolman and Deal's four-frame theoretical framework to interpret our findings. Participatory management led to advances in care, because it allowed for more dialogue and shared decision making. However, the biggest challenge has been that all major changes are still being decided centrally by the provincial executive board. Managers and directors are facing difficulties related to this change process, such as the resistance to change by some employees and limited input to decision-making affecting their areas of responsibility; however, they and their teams are working to utilise the values and principles underlying participatory management in their daily work practices. Innovative management models encourage accountability, increased motivation and satisfaction of nursing staff, and improve the quality of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Participatory Policy Making by Dairy Producers to Reduce Anti-Microbial use on Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, L; Hayton, A; Main, D C J; Booth, A; King, A; Barrett, D C; Buller, H J; Reyher, K K

    2017-09-01

    Pressures for more responsible use of anti-microbial (AM) medicines in food animals are likely to increase from policymakers and the food industry, including retailers. To address this challenge, participatory approaches to welfare interventions and disease prevention may also be necessary alongside more conventional regulatory measures. This article describes the process of enabling groups of dairy producers to use a participatory policy making approach to develop an AM stewardship policy. The policy includes measures agreed to by all producers for more responsible use of AMs, whilst maintaining or improving dairy herd health and welfare. This process provided a unique opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between producers, veterinarians, industry and researchers. Its participatory nature encouraged comprehensive learning for all involved. This integration of science with producers' knowledge and experience led to credible and practical recommendations designed to deliver real and lasting change in AM use. The multidisciplinary nature of this research marks a significant contribution to embedding social science skills and approaches into the veterinary sphere. As an initial step in creating better understanding of how participatory approaches with farmers can be applied in a UK context and more widely, this work serves as a pilot for promoting more responsible use of veterinary medicines in other livestock species. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Positive Psychological Capital Concept: A Critical Analysis in the Context of Participatory Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bożek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was a critical analysis of the concept of positive psychological  capital (PsyCap and an indication of ts applicability in organizations that implemented participatory management. Methodology: The study was based on the review and comparative analysis of literature. The theoretical foundations of the concept and its practical translation into organization reality, as well as the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of PsyCap on employee attitudes, behavior and performance, was presented. The limitations of this concept in the context of participatory management were also indicated. Findings: Conducted debate supported the conclusion that the development of employee self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience can contribute to strengthening participatory attitudes among workers, and thus enhancing the efficiency of the entire organization. However under several conditions, employee positive psychological states were treated not as organizational resources but as an integral part of themselves. Employees felt responsible for their personal development and development of their own PsyCap was optional. Originality: The study dealt with the relatively new issue of a psychological capital management in organizations that could provide an alternative to the classical human capital management. Its implementation in organizations with participatory management has not yet been discussed in the management literature.

  2. Paradigm shifts: using a participatory leadership process to redesign health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeby, Erin; Holschneider, Christine H; Singhal, Rita

    2014-12-01

    Physicians have increasingly given up private practices to become members of, and key stakeholders in, large healthcare systems. These systems are currently transforming to meet the Triple Aim: guaranteeing the equitable provision of high-quality, evidence-based care at a reasonable cost. Participatory leadership is an organizational change theory that engages key stakeholders as architects in the transformation process. This review highlights the utility of this leadership strategy in designing care for women's health. Our blueprint describing participatory leadership theory in women's health systems change is discussed in three case studies, highlighting what we call the six Ps of participatory leadership: participants, principles, purpose, process, and power. The 'sixth P', product, can then be substantially influential in changing the paradigm of care. Obstetrics and gynecology is increasingly practiced in large health systems responsible for the health of populations. Innovations in clinical practice impact care at the level of the individual. In order for advances in clinical practice to reach broad populations of women, they must be integrated into a delivery system. Physician engagement in leadership during this time of system transformation is of critical importance.

  3. The design game in Participatory Design and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törpel, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed...... carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (gaming) method as well as the ways of using the selected method. These degrees of freedom should be used...... in a way that will be labeled as »interested«, rather than in a way labeled as »taking for granted«. It is not possible to guarantee an interested and beneficial approach; yet the paper argues on the grounds that reflective gaming practice can be supportive in this direction....

  4. The compassionate sexist? How benevolent sexism promotes and undermines gender equality in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Ferris, D Lance

    2016-11-01

    Although sexist attitudes are generally thought to undermine support for employment equity (EE) policies supporting women, we argue that the effects of benevolent sexism are more complex. Across 4 studies, we extend the ambivalent sexism literature by examining both the positive and the negative effects benevolent sexism has for the support of gender-based EE policies. On the positive side, we show that individuals who endorse benevolent sexist attitudes on trait measures of sexism (Study 1) and individuals primed with benevolent sexist attitudes (Study 2) are more likely to support an EE policy, and that this effect is mediated by feelings of compassion. On the negative side, we find that this support extends only to EE policies that promote the hiring of women in feminine, and not in masculine, positions (Study 3 and 4). Thus, while benevolent sexism may appear to promote gender equality, it subtly undermines it by contributing to occupational gender segregation and leading to inaction in promoting women in positions in which they are underrepresented (i.e., masculine positions). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Undermining the rules in home care services for the elderly in Norway: flexibility and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollscheid, Sabine; Eriksen, John; Hallvik, Jørgen

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the provision of home care services (home nursing and domiciliary help) for the elderly in Norwegian municipalities with purchaser-provider split model. The study draws on the assumption that flexibility in adjusting services to the care receivers' needs, and cooperation between provider and purchasers are indicators of good quality of care. Data were collected through semi-structured telephone interviews with 22 team leaders of provider units in nine municipalities. Data were collected in 2008-2009. The study has been approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. We identified four different ways of organising home care services under a purchaser-provider split model: Provider empowerment, New Public Management, Vague instructions and undermining the rules. High flexibility in providing care and cooperation with the purchaser unit were identified by the team leaders as characteristics for good care. Our findings suggest that the care providers use individual strategies that allow flexibility and cooperation rather than rigidly abiding to the regulations the purchaser-provider split models implies. Ironically, in provider units where the 'rules were undermined', the informants (team leaders of provider units) seemed to be most satisfied with the quality of home care that they delivered. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Stereotype threat engenders neural attentional bias toward negative feedback to undermine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Leitner, Jordan B

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, a situational pressure individuals experience when they fear confirming a negative group stereotype, engenders a cascade of physiological stress responses, negative appraisals, and performance monitoring processes that tax working memory resources necessary for optimal performance. Less is known, however, about how stereotype threat biases attentional processing in response to performance feedback, and how such attentional biases may undermine performance. Women received feedback on math problems in stereotype threatening compared to stereotype-neutral contexts while continuous EEG activity was recorded. Findings revealed that stereotype threatened women elicited larger midline P100 ERPs, increased phase locking between anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (two regions integral for attentional processes), and increased power in left fusiform gyrus in response to negative feedback compared to positive feedback and women in stereotype-neutral contexts. Increased power in left fusiform gyrus in response to negative feedback predicted underperformance on the math task among stereotype threatened women only. Women in stereotype-neutral contexts exhibited the opposite trend. Findings suggest that in stereotype threatening contexts, neural networks integral for attention and working memory are biased toward negative, stereotype confirming feedback at very early speeds of information processing. This bias, in turn, plays a role in undermining performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Participatory health councils and good governance: healthy democracy in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Jillian Clare; Martinez, Martha Gabriela

    2015-02-19

    The Brazilian Government created Participatory Health Councils (PHCs) to allow citizen participation in the public health policy process. PHCs are advisory bodies that operate at all levels of government and that bring together different societal groups to monitor Brazil's health system. Today they are present in 98% of Brazilian cities, demonstrating their popularity and thus their potential to help ensure that health policies are in line with citizen preferences. Despite their expansive reach, their real impact on health policies and health outcomes for citizens is uncertain. We thus ask the following question: Do PHCs offer meaningful opportunities for open participation and influence in the public health policy process? Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews with health council members were conducted. Data from these interviews were analyzed using a qualitative interpretive content analysis approach. A quantitative analysis of PHC data from the Sistema de Acompanhamento dos Conselhos de Saude (SIACS) database was also conducted to corroborate findings from the interviews. We learned that PHCs fall short in many of the categories of good governance. Government manipulation of the agenda and leadership of the PHCs, delays in the implementation of PHC decision making, a lack of training of council members on relevant technical issues, the largely narrow interests of council members, the lack of transparency and monitoring guidelines, a lack of government support, and a lack of inclusiveness are a few examples that highlight why PHCs are not as effective as they could be. Although PHCs are intended to be inclusive and participatory, in practice they seem to have little impact on the health policymaking process in Brazil. PHCs will only be able to fulfil their mandate when we see good governance largely present. This will require a rethinking of their governance structures, processes, membership, and oversight. If change is resisted, the PHCs will remain largely

  8. Generating Knowledge in Popular Education: From Participatory Research to the Systematization of Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Carrillo, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    "The article presents a revision of how popular education has integrated into its practices and reflections on participatory research. After a presentation of popular education as an educational movement and pedagogical current, the article develops a historical reconstruction of the relationship between these two, while offering a critique of the legacy and challenges of this kind of double education: research with an emancipatory perspective. The article ends focusing on t...

  9. WORLD BANK PROJECT APPRAISAL AND AN EMERGENT DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE: THE ITERATIVE/PARTICIPATORY APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Zewde, Almaz

    1993-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the strategic assumptions and practices in World Bank project appraisal programs. Semistructured interviews of senior World Bank field officers in Addis Ababa and Nirobi and extensive review of World Bank appraisal directives and related documents provided the data for the study. The purpose was to see the correspondence between Bank project appraisal methods, assumptions, and criteria and the iterative/participatory development model. The findings suggest that...

  10. Implementation of a Complex Intervention to Support Leadership Development in Nursing Homes: A Multimethod Participatory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dewar, J.D.; Barrie, K.; Sharp, C.; Meyer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Leadership is key to quality improvement in nursing homes. This article reports on the initial analysis of the transformational My Home Life Leadership Support program for nursing home managers being implemented in Scotland. It analyses learning from a multimethod participatory descriptive study. Contribution analysis theory informed the evaluation. Evidence-Based Practice, Relationship-Centered Care, Appreciative Inquiry, and Caring Conversations informed the intervention to develop transfor...

  11. Positive Psychological Capital Concept: A Critical Analysis in the Context of Participatory Management

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Bożek

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was a critical analysis of the concept of positive psychological  capital (PsyCap) and an indication of ts applicability in organizations that implemented participatory management. Methodology: The study was based on the review and comparative analysis of literature. The theoretical foundations of the concept and its practical translation into organization reality, as well as the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of PsyCap on employee attitudes, be...

  12. Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian; Hansen, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory...... Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well......-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame...

  13. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    together with the patients. Participatory design is a research design and methodology that encourages the participation of users in the design process of technological solutions. Therefore, it has a potential for designing technologies that actually reflect the needs of the users, why it is relevant within...... telemedicine. The aim of this presentation is to explain the process and theoretical framework of a PD project; give an example of a project including the applied methods, and to determine its application to telemedicine with focus on the rationale for genuine participation. Theory: Participation implies....... Methods: Key activities of a Participatory Design project comprise methods such as fieldwork; literature reviewing; development and testing, and user activities as workshops. Methods that support telling, making, enacting. For instance telling activities as drivers for participation, where practitioners...

  14. Utilizing Participatory Action Research to Foster Effective Family/School Collaboration at an Urban PreK-8 Catholic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David; Schumacher, Ruth; McMahon, Kara C.; Flores, Sofia; Moy, Gregory E.; Swidzinski, Joanna; Tompkins, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study focused on promoting culturally responsive collaboration practices at an urban preK-8 Catholic school. Using participatory action research (PAR) as its framework, a team of school stakeholders and university faculty and students from the psychology department partnered to create a participant-driven data collection and…

  15. Lessons from the Labor Organizing Community and Health Project: Meeting the Challenges of Student Engagement in Community Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Juliann Emmons; Khan, Tabassum; Reese, Ellen; Dobias, Becca Spence; Struna, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) provides opportunities for scholars and students to respond directly to community needs; students also practice critical thinking, problem-solving, and conflict-resolution skills necessary for professional life and engaged citizenship. The challenges of involving undergraduate students in CBPR include…

  16. Evaluation of a Lay Health Adviser Training for a Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Vanessa M.; Christopher, Suzanne; Streitz, Jana L.; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2005-01-01

    Community-based participatory research directly involves community members and community-based service providers as partners in the research process. It is especially important in Native American communities, where egregious research practices have led some communities and individuals to be wary of researchers. Messengers for Health uses a lay…

  17. Early stroke discharge team: A participatory evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Moule, P.; Young, P.; Margaret Glogowska; Jayne Weare

    2011-01-01

    Aims: International evaluation of Early Stroke Discharge (ESD) has concentrated on measuring the impact of service provision. This research aimed to address the question, ‘How did the ESD team members and external stakeholders experience the service implementation process?’ \\ud Methodology: Between October 2009 and February 2010, six team members and four external stakeholders were interviewed as part of a participatory evaluation. Interviews were used to explore the experiences of the proces...

  18. Participatory simulation in hospital work system design

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole; Havn, Erling C.

    2016-01-01

    When ergonomic considerations are integrated into the design of work systems, both overall system performance and employee well-being improve. A central part of integrating ergonomics in work system design is to benefit from emplo y-ees’ knowledge of existing work systems. Participatory simulation (PS) is a method to access employee knowledge; namely employees are involved in the simulation and design of their own future work systems through the exploration of models representing work system ...

  19. Migration in Participatory Poverty Assessments: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Azcona, Ginette

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the treatment of migration in Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs), conducted in 14 different countries. The analysis suggests that for the very poor, migration is most often rural to rural and rural to urban and not across borders. The drivers of migration are context specific, but are generally related to the pursuit of greater livelihood opportunities, greater access to education and health services, and at times necessitated by crises resulting from c...

  20. Large-Scale Participation: A Case Study of a Participatory Approach to Developing a New Public Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design...... approaches are applied to large-scale, IT-oriented projects. At the same time, it highlights the issues public knowledge institutions face, when interactive technologies challenge their fundamental roles and practices; by extension, this case offers examples of how these challenges may be explored...

  1. La Investigacion Participativa en America Latina: Retablo de Papel, 10 (Participatory Research in Latin America: Series, 10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejarano, Gilberto M., Comp.

    The following papers (titles are translated into English) were presented at a conference on participatory research: "Participatory Research, Popular Knowledge, and Power"; "Participatory Research and Adult Literacy"; "Developments and Perspectives on Participatory Research"; "Popular Education and Participatory…

  2. Costa Rica's 'White legend': how racial narratives undermine its health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Meagher, Karen

    2011-08-01

    A dominant cultural narrative within Costa Rica describes Costa Ricans not only as different from their Central American neighbours, but it also exalts them as better: specifically, as more white, peaceful, egalitarian and democratic. This notion of Costa Rican exceptionalism played a key role in the creation of their health care system, which is based on the four core principles of equity, universality, solidarity and obligation. While the political justification and design of the current health care system does, in part, realize this ideal, we argue that the narrative of Costa Rican exceptionalism prevents the full actualization of these principles by marginalizing and excluding disadvantaged groups, especially indigenous and black citizens and the substantial Nicaraguan minority. We offer three suggestions to mitigate the self-undermining effects of the dominant national narrative: 1) encouragement and development of counternarratives; 2) support of an emerging field of Costa Rican bioethics; and 3) decoupling health and national successes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Engineering Barriers to Infection by Undermining Pathogen Effector Function or by Gaining Effector Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim; Mclellan, Hazel; Aguilar, Geziel Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews potential disease control strategies by employing the current understanding of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) and their receptors, as well as effectors and their targets. It discusses how effectoromics, i.e. surveying which, and to what level, effectors......-LRR transcript regulation that involves small RNAs is currently emerging and could potentially be explored in the search for more durable and/or broad-spectrum pathogen resistance. The chapter suggests ways that can be used to undermine effector function and be exploited to engineer resistant plants...... in the future. It further illustrates how a mechanistic understanding of a pathogen's stealth strategies may allow new approaches to engineer resistance....

  4. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Arlen C.; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit–vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  5. Do Reputation Systems Undermine Trust? Divergent Effects of Enforcement Type on Generalized Trust and Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Research shows that enforcing cooperation using contracts or tangible sanctions can backfire, undermining people's intrinsic motivation to cooperate: when the enforcement is removed, people are less trusting or trustworthy than when there is no enforcement to begin with. The author examines whether reputation systems have similar consequences for generalized trust and trustworthiness. Using a web-based experiment simulating online market transactions (studies 1 and 2), he shows that reputation systems can reinforce generalized trust and trustworthiness, unlike contractual enforcement or relational enforcement based on repeated interactions. In a survey experiment (study 3), he finds that recalling their eBay feedback scores made participants more trusting and trustworthy. These results are predicated on the diffuse nature of reputational enforcement to reinforce perceptions of trust and trustworthiness. These results have implications for understanding how different forms of governance affect generalized trust and trustworthiness.

  6. Stereotype threat strengthens automatic recall and undermines controlled processes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Morisset, Pauline; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    The threat of being judged stereotypically (stereotype threat) may impair memory performance in older adults, thereby producing inflated age differences in memory tasks. However, the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat in older adults or other stigmatized groups remain poorly understood. Here, we offer evidence that stereotype threat consumes working memory resources in older adults. More important, using a process-dissociation procedure, we found, for the first time, that stereotype threat undermines the controlled use of memory and simultaneously intensifies automatic response tendencies. These findings indicate that competing models of stereotype threat are actually compatible and offer further reasons for researchers and practitioners to pay special attention to age-related stereotypes during standardized neuropsychological testing.

  7. Learning outcomes from participatory modelling: A case study in the Tamar catchment, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others

  8. Integrating Participatory Design and Health Literacy to Improve Research and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Health communication is an essential health promotion strategy to convert scientific findings into actionable, empowering information for the public. Health communication interventions have shown positive outcomes, but many efforts have been disappointing. A key weakness is that expert-designed health communication is often overly generic and not adequately aligned with the abilities, preferences and life situations of specific audiences. The emergence of the field of health literacy is providing powerful theoretical guidance and practice strategies. Health literacy, in concert with other determinants of health, has greatly advanced understanding of factors that facilitate or hinder health promotion at individual, organizational and community settings. However, health literacy models are incomplete and interventions have shown only modest success to date. A challenge is to move beyond the current focus on individual comprehension and address deeper factors of motivation, self-efficacy and empowerment, as well as socio-environmental influences, and their impact to improve health outcomes and reduce health disparities. Integrating participatory design theory and methods drawn from social sciences and design sciences can significantly improve health literacy models and interventions. Likewise, researchers and practitioners using participatory design can greatly benefit from incorporating health literacy principles into their efforts. Such interventions at multiple levels are showing positive health outcomes and reduction of health disparities, but this approach is complex and not yet widespread. This chapter focuses on research findings about health literacy and participatory design to improve health promotion, and practical guidance and case examples for researchers, practitioners and policymakers.

  9. Effectiveness of Community Participation in Earthquake Preparedness: A Community-Based Participatory Intervention Study of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Saberi Namin, Maryam; Ardalan, Ali; Majdzadeh, Behdad; Seydali, Elham

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based participatory intervention on earthquake preparedness in Tehran. This community-engaged research was conducted during 2011 to 2013. An intervention and a control neighborhood were chosen through systematic cluster sampling. In the intervention group 305 households and in the control group 314 households were sampled for pre- and post-assessment surveys. A participatory intervention was designed on the basis of consultation with the community advisory board and was implemented by trained volunteers. Changes in outcome variables in the intervention and control groups were detected in terms of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Pearson chi-square tests and covariance regression were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The results showed that the frequency of earthquake experience in the intervention and control groups was 69.2% and 79.0%, respectively. Moreover, the mean difference scores in knowledge, attitude, and practice in the intervention and control groups before and after the intervention were significant (Ppreparedness at a community level. To ensure sustainability, the participatory approach should be integrated into public health disaster planning.

  10. Community–University Partnerships: Using Participatory Action Learning and Action Research (PALAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kearney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article positions participatory action learning and action research (PALAR as a preferred methodology for community-university partnerships to achieve a holistic outcome that benefits the common interest. Evidence for this claim is illustrated through case studies of two community engagement programs, one in South Africa and the other in Australia. The South African study explains how relationships, reflection and recognition (the three R’s of PALAR are important elements that promote a truly participatory approach to knowledge creation and practical improvement in social circumstances. The Australian study then highlights what can be achieved. It does this by showing the potential for PALAR participants to learn how to design and implement a community engagement program, and how to cascade their own learning into their community to improve educational opportunities. Both studies demonstrate PALAR’s potential to disrupt traditional understandings of the research process, particularly in terms of researcher–participant relationships. At the same time, both studies identify the challenges arising from the theoretical and practical implications of PALAR as an approach to community development. This article is therefore significant for universities and funding organisations engaging in community-based research and development through partnerships, specifically in contexts of disadvantage. Keywords: Participatory action learning and action research, PALAR, community development, community engagement, community partnerships, disadvantaged communities, higher education.

  11. Balancing scientific and community interests in community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2010-07-01

    Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between scientific and community interests in several different stages of community-based participatory research, including research design, data interpretation, and publication, and makes some suggestions for practice and policy. To manage potential conflicts between scientific and community interests, investigators and community partners should enter into written agreements at the beginning of the study. In some cases, it may be necessary for a third party, such as a review committee from a supporting institution, the community, or a funding agency, to help investigators and community partners resolve disagreements. It may also be useful, in some situations, to publish a dissenting opinion when investigators and community partners cannot agree on how to interpret findings resulting from a study. These strategies may help address some of the challenges of implementing community-based participatory research.

  12. A Participatory Action Research Method in a Rural Community of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubi Arellano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, community interventions have promoted community development with strategies involving capacity building, advocacy, social change, and empowerment. Although community interventions intend to ameliorate social and economic inequalities, there is still a need to evaluate the outcomes of Participatory Action Research (PAR. PAR approaches have demonstrated to be a helpful tool for addressing and identifying community issues and strengths, while leading community members into action. The PAR approach described in this case study of Ciudad Renace (Townv Reborn—the Concerns Report Method (CRM—provided a process for the community to come together and identify main issues, organize, and take actions. The findings suggest multiple activities and outcomes in areas like environmental contamination, social services, and education. Participatory methodologies like the Concerns report Method provided opportunities for community members to become engaged in pursing issues and addressing their own needs. The implications for community psychology research and practice are discussed.

  13. USE AND CONSEQUENCES OF PARTICIPATORY GIS IN A MEXICAN MUNICIPALITY: APPLYING A MULTILEVEL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlei Pozzebon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the use and the consequences of Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS in a Mexican local community. A multilevel framework was applied, mainly influenced by two theoretical lenses – structurationist view and social shaping of technology – structured in three dimensions – context, process and content – according to contextualist logic. The results of our study have brought two main contributions. The first is the refinement of the theoretical framework in order to better investigate the implementation and use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT artifacts by local communities for social and environmental purposes.The second contribution is the extension of existing IS (Information Systems literature on participatory practices through identification of important conditions for helping the mobilization of ICT as a tool for empowering local communities.

  14. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  15. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND REFORMING SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: A Participatory Design Approach to Design Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Hasanin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a participatory design approach as an alternative model for design education. This is to show how implementing collaborative design affects the design process in comparison to the conventional design studio teaching methods and techniques. It also presents a literature review focused on the importance of integrating cultural diversity and social context within the design studio environment implementing the co-design A review of traditional design studio teaching, cultural diversity, and social behavior issues, their effect on design decisions, and their implications on design outcomes is undertaken. The paper investigates two questions: 1. Does current design education achieve the skills, learning, and training necessary for the students to become successful professionals in design practice? 2. How can integrating the participatory design approach within the design studio affect the design output and understanding cultural differences?

  16. Designing an eHealth Breastfeeding Resource With Indigenous Families Using a Participatory Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass-Dick, Jennifer; Brolly, Michele; Huizinga, Joanne; Newport, Amber; Xie, Fangli; George, Stephanie; Sterken, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    The traditional practice of breastfeeding has been negatively affected by the historical trauma experienced by the Canadian Indigenous community. Culturally relevant information and support should be created to enable the communities to reclaim this traditionally revered infant feeding method. The objective of this participatory design study was to work in partnership with Indigenous communities to create an eHealth breastfeeding resource for Indigenous families. In partnership with Indigenous mothers and care providers in Ontario, Canada, an eHealth breastfeeding resource was designed based on their recommendations. Once the new resource was created, it was evaluated by additional Indigenous mothers. The participants indicated the resource was culturally relevant and that they liked the content and design. Using a participatory design when creating services and programs in partnership with Indigenous communities ensures the creation of resources that meet their needs, are culturally relevant, and align with cultural beliefs.

  17. Participatory Hermeneutic Ethnography: A Methodological Framework for Health Ethics Research With Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montreuil, Marjorie; Carnevale, Franco A

    2018-03-01

    When conducting ethics research with children in health care settings, studying children's experiences is essential, but so is the context in which these experiences happen and their meaning. Using Charles Taylor's hermeneutic philosophy, we developed a methodological framework for health ethics research with children that bridges key aspects of ethnography, participatory research, and hermeneutics. This qualitative framework has the potential to offer rich data and discussions related to children as well as family members and health care workers' moral experiences in specific health care settings, while examining the institutional norms, structures, and practices and how they interrelate with experiences. Through a participatory hermeneutic ethnographic study, important ethical issues can be highlighted and examined in light of social/local imaginaries and horizons of significance, to address some of the ethical concerns that can be present in a specific health care setting.

  18. 'Speak out' - issues in participatory materials development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannie Bock

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the development of a beginner English course called 'Speak Out' for adults in Adult Basic Education and Training classes in the early 1990s. The course uses an innovative roleplay methodology which builds on the experiences and language knowledge of the adult learners. It was conceptualised and developed within a participatory approach to adult learning and materials development. The article explores the tension between the ideals of the participatory approach and the constraints exerted by contextual and other factors. The article begins with an introduction of the context within which the materials were conceptualised, then offers a brief overview of the participatory approach, and then considers the following aspects of the 'Speak Out' course: the language learning methodology, issues of teacher competence and development, and lastly, the materials development process itself. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n beginnerskursus vir Engels, getitel 'Speak Out'. Dit is ontwerp vir volwassenes in klasse binne 'n Volwasse Basiese Onderrig en Opleiding-program in die vroee 1990s. Die kursus maak gebruik van innoverende rolspel as 'n metode wat spesifiek aansluit by die ervarings en taalkennis van volwasse leerders. Dit is gekonseptualiseer en ontwikkel as deel van 'n deelnemende benadering tot die opleiding van volwassenes en die ontwikkeling van hulpmiddels. Die artikel ondersoek die spanning tussen die ideale van 'n deelnemende benadering en die beperkinge wat opgele word deur kontekstuele en ander faktore. Die inleiding van die artikel gee 'n uiteensetting van die konteks waarbinne die hulpmiddels gekonseptualiseer is. Dan volg 'n kort oorsig oor die deelnemende benadering, en die volgende aspekte van die 'Speak Out'-kursus word oorweeg: die metodologie van taalaanleer, kwessies rondom onderwysers se vaardighede en ontwikkeling, en laastens, die proses van hulpmiddel-ontwikkeling self.

  19. Participatory Bioethics Research and its Social Impact: The Case of Coercion Reduction in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A; Voskes, Yolande; Widdershoven, Guy

    2017-02-01

    In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage. There is an emphasis on realizing social change through the conduct (not merely the results) of the research, and it is believed that the engagement of stakeholders in the research process will promote their intrinsic motivation to change their practice. Another distinctive feature of participatory bioethics research is that its central normative commitment is to reflection and dialogue, not to a particular substantive ethical approach. In reflection and dialogue there is an emphasis on inclusion and the co-production of knowledge. Furthermore, empirical and normative research are combined, and there is a deliberate attempt to give voice to otherwise marginalized positions. This provides a model of social impact which is relevant not only for bioethics research, but also for other areas of health care research. We will show the merits of a participatory approach to bioethics research with a case example. It concerns the reduction of coercion and in particular seclusion in Dutch mental healthcare. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Validating a framework for participatory ergonomics (the PEF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, H.; Wilson, J.R.; Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.

    2002-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics is reported in an increasing number of case studies, but there is little evidence of emerging supportive theory and relatively little generic advice or guidance. The paper describes an effort to provide clarity and organization to the field of participatory ergonomics. A

  1. Focus Section on Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as wa...

  2. Learning from Change: Issues and Experiences in Participatory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning from Change: Issues and Experiences in Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation. Book cover Learning from Change: Issues and Experiences in Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation. Directeur(s) : Marisol Estrella, Jutta Blauert, Dindo Campilan, John Gaventa, Julian Gonsalves, Irene Guijt, Deb Johnson, and ...

  3. Changing Minds : A Guide to Facilitated Participatory Planning ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Changing Minds : A Guide to Facilitated Participatory Planning. Couverture du livre Changing Minds : A Guide to Facilitated Participatory Planning. Auteur(s) : Cole P. Dodge et Gavin Bennett. Maison(s) d'édition : Academic Foundation, Fountain Publishers, CRDI. 1 octobre 2011. ISBN : 9788171888603. 192 pages. e-ISBN ...

  4. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  5. Design and implementation of participatory hygiene and sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study is a continuation of a research carried out in Luweero district in Uganda1. It investigated whether PHAST was a suitable tool for reducing transmission of soil transmitted helminths. PHAST means Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation; a participatory approach that uses visual tools to ...

  6. Understanding conflict’s dynamics in participatory natural resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idrissou, L.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Leeuwis, C.; Paassen, van A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigated conflicts in participatory protected areas management in Benin to better understand their dynamics. This review paper is based on four articles written from three case-studies of conflicts that emerged and evolved in participatory protected areas management in Benin and a

  7. Learning from Game Design : Understanding Participatory processes through Game Mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzidou, Christina; Gugerell, Katharina; Diephuis, Jeremiah

    With the increasing interest of local governments in civic participation, it becomes important to explore the available methods for orchestrating participatory processes and evaluate how different tools address some of the common issues associated with participatory processes. Game design is an

  8. From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From beans to breams: how participatory workshops can contribute to marine conservation planning. ... a valuable new tool for marine conservation planning. Keywords: marine conservation planning; participatory mapping and scoring methods; Sparidae; workshops. African Journal of Marine Science 2008, 30(3): 475–487 ...

  9. Living in two worlds: Role taking of participatory journalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, M.; van Hoof, A.M.J.; Sanders, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines ‘participatory journalism’ from the perspective of participants. Through case studies in two different contexts set up by Dutch professional news organizations, the conceptualization and expectations that participants have of their own and journalists’ roles in participatory

  10. Participatory ergonomics and new work: reducing neck complaints in assembling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migueza, S.A.; Hallbeck, M.S.; Vink, P.

    2012-01-01

    A participatory ergonomics approach is used to create a new work environment, which is aimed at reducing neck complaints in a cell phone assembly. The participatory ergonomics program included an initiative, problem identification, a selection of solutions, an implementation and evaluation.

  11. Using participatory video to explore teachers' lived experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we describe how we attempted to make teacher voices audible via an intervention based on participatory visual methodology. ... The process of producing the participatory video offered the teachers the opportunity to learn more about themselves and their educational contexts, and to position themselves as ...

  12. A configurable architecture for e-participatory budgeting support

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Alfaro; Javier Gomez; Jose M. Lavin; Juan J. Molero

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgets are emerging as a paradigm for participation. However, there are many variants of such experiences suggesting a look of general methodology. Moreover there is a little use of ICT in this application context. We present a configurable architecture for e-participatory budget formation support.

  13. A configurable architecture for e-participatory budgeting support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Alfaro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Participatory budgets are emerging as a paradigm for participation. However, there are many variants of such experiences suggesting a look of general methodology. Moreover there is a little use of ICT in this application context. We present a configurable architecture for e-participatory budget formation support.

  14. Voices for Change: Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Voices for Change: Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in China. Book cover Voices for Change: Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in China. Directeur(s) : Ronnie Vernooy, Sun Qiu, and Xu Jianchu. Maison(s) d'édition : YSTP, IDRC. 1 janvier 2003. ISBN : 0889369941. 150 pages. e-ISBN : 1552501280.

  15. Learning from Change: Issues and Experiences in Participatory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning from Change provides an overview of the common themes and experiences in participatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation across different institutions and sectors. It is a compilation of selected case studies and discussions between practitioners, academics, donors, and policymakers in participatory ...

  16. Guidelines for conducting rapid participatory appraisals of community health needs in developing countries: experience from Tulikup, Bali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, E; James, R W; Earnest, J

    2006-01-01

    The use of rapid participatory appraisal (RPA) methodology to assess community health needs in developing countries is widely supported. Despite this, there are few recently published practical guidelines or recommendations advising researchers on how best to plan, implement and communicate such an activity. Having recently conducted a successful RPA of community health and social needs in the traditional rural village of Tulikup, Bali, the authors discuss lessons to be learned and suggest practical guidelines for others wishing to conduct similar community focused RPAs.

  17. Implementation of participatory forest management in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løber, T.; Skensved, E.M.; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of powers before and after the implementation of participatory forest management (PFM) in Kenya. The paper is a case study of the Karima forest in the Central Highlands of Kenya. The study relies primarily on 34 semi-structured interviews with key actors...... of the forest communities and weak downward accountability relations. Finally, it illustrates a planning process, which has weaknesses in participation and inclusiveness. Consequently, the paper suggests three areas for PFM policy reform in Kenya: (i) the role (powers) and function of CFAs; (ii) benefit sharing...

  18. Collective form generation through visual participatory representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant; Punekar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use...... of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive...

  19. Grasping social dynamics of participatory innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens

    2011-01-01

    -opetition where individual and group goals are conflicting. Drawing on observations and video data of the game being played by the participants of the conference, we study how different group compositions deal with novelty. From here we explain how the process of play can help to grasp the social dynamics...... perspective we study how a game that addresses these dynamics can be designed. We describe a case of a game, designed for the Participatory Innovation Conference of 2011 in Sønderborg, Denmark. The game was particularly designed around the themes of conflict and interdependence, captured by the dilemma of co...

  20. La investigación-acción-participativa: Una forma de investigar en la práctica enfermera Investigação-ação-participativa: Uma forma de pesquisar na prática enfermeira The Participatory-Action-Research: A way to research in the nursing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abad Corpa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del paradigma cualitativo de la investigación, la Investigación- Acción-Participativa (IAP integra el conocimiento y la acción; no hay que esperar a que tras producir el conocimiento se produzca la traslación de este a la práctica. Es un método que se utiliza desde hace varias décadas en disciplinas como la educación o la sociología, sin embargo es emergente en el ámbito de la salud. Existen una gran variedad de definiciones, clasificaciones y modelos de IAP y con este artículo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigación, su historia, su filosofía y su utilización, dados su potencial y novedad en el ámbito de las ciencias de la salud.Dentro do paradigma qualitativo da investigação, a Investigação-Ação-Participativa (IAP integra o conhecimento e a ação; não há que esperar a que depois de produzir o conhecimento se produza a translação deste à prática. É um método que se utiliza desde faz várias décadas em disciplinas como a educação ou a sociologia, no entanto é emergente no âmbito da saúde. Existem uma grande variedade de definições, classificações e modelos de IAP e com este artigo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigação, sua história, sua filosofia e sua utilização, dados seu potencial e novidade no âmbito das ciências da saúde.Within the qualitative research paradigm, the Participatory-Action- Research (PAR integrates knowledge and action. It is not necessary to wait for knowledge to be produced to transfer it into practice. It is a method used for decades in disciplines such as education and sociology; however it is emerging in the health field. There are a variety of definitions, classifications and PAR models; this article aims to shed light upon this method of research, its history, philosophy and its use, given its potential and innovation in the field of health sciences.

  1. How Participation Creates Citizens: Participatory Governance as Performative Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, E.; Bommel, van S.; Aarts, M.N.C.

    2010-01-01

    Participation is a prominent feature of many decision-making and planning processes. Among its proclaimed benefits is its potential to strengthen public support and involvement. However, participation is also known for having unintended consequences which lead to failures in meeting its objectives.

  2. 76 FR 45653 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Actions of Certain Persons to Undermine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... undermine Lebanese sovereignty and contribute to political and economic instability in that country and the region and constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of... institutions and certain other persons, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C...

  3. Participatory citizenship: Critical perspectives on client-centred occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Hetty; Pollard, Nick; Kantartzis, Sarah; Viana-Moldes, Inés

    2015-07-01

    This article aims to discuss client-centred practice, the current dominant approach within occupational therapy, in relation to participatory citizenship. Occupational therapists work within structures and policies that set boundaries on their engagement with clients, while working with complex, multidimensional social realities. The authors present a critical discussion shaped by their research, including a survey, discussions at workshops at international conferences, and critical engagement with the literature on occupational therapy, occupation, and citizenship. A focus on citizenship suggests reframing professional development based on the participation in public life of people as citizens of their society. While occupational therapists often refer to clients in the context of communities, groups, families, and wider society, the term client-centred practice typically represents a particular view of the individual and may sometimes be too limited in application for a more systemic and societal approach. The authors question the individual focus which has, until recently, been typical of client-centred occupational therapy. Placing citizenship at the core of intervention is a transformative process that assumes all people are citizens and conceives of health as a collective issue, influencing the way we educate, do research, and practise.

  4. Participatory Design Methods for Collaboration and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Wood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Website redesigns can be contentious and fraught in any type of organization, and libraries are no exception. Coming to consensus on priorities and design decisions is nearly impossible, as different groups compete to ensure their subject or specialty area is represented. To keep projects on track and on time, libraries may give a few staff members the authority to make all of the decisions, while keeping user research limited to a small number of usability tests. While these tactics are sometimes necessary, at best they can leave many feeling left out of the process, and at worst, can result in major oversights in the final design. Participatory design methods can bring users and stakeholders into the design process and ultimately lead to a better design and less friction in the project. The authors share their experience and lessons learned using participatory design techniques in a website redesign project at a large, multi-location academic library, and how these techniques facilitated communication, shaped design decisions, and kept a complex, difficult project on track.

  5. Envisioning Democracy: Participatory Filmmaking with Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Jacqueline

    2018-04-16

    This paper explores the democratic potential for participatory filmmaking with homeless youth, as well as the constraints and dilemmas associated with this visual method. Theorizing democracy through the work of Hannah Arendt and Pierre Bourdieu, the paper approaches democracy not as an end, but rather as a process that seeks to lessen social injustice. Bourdieu's work helps us appreciate, however, that this process is constrained by structures of inequality that shape access to the political dispositions that enable such engagement. Consistent with other research on low-income and marginalized young people, this study found that homeless youth engage with democracy through forms of community participation and mutual support, and are disinclined to orient toward liberal democratic structures such as voting and political parties, which they see as harmful or problematic. With a focus on one particular dilemma faced by the research team-namely, the question of how to make sense of and represent the issue of legalizing marijuana, which had been signaled by the youth participants as of primary political importance to them-the paper uses Arendt and Bourdieu to discuss how participatory filmmaking can help to expand the space of appearances available to homeless youth in Canadian society, and create a space at a shared table of understanding with middle class power brokers. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  6. Participatory modeling and structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.

    2016-01-01

    Structured decision making (SDM) provides a framework for making sound decisions even when faced with uncertainty, and is a transparent, defensible, and replicable method used to understand complex problems. A hallmark of SDM is the explicit incorporation of values and science, which often includes participation from multiple stakeholders, helping to garner trust and ultimately result in a decision that is more likely to be implemented. The core steps in the SDM process are used to structure thinking about natural resources management choices, and include: (1) properly defining the problem and the decision context, (2) determining the objectives that help describe the aspirations of the decision maker, (3) devising management actions or alternatives that can achieve those objectives, (4) evaluating the outcomes or consequences of each alternative on each of the objectives, (5) evaluating trade-offs, and (6) implementing the decision. Participatory modeling for SDM includes engaging stakeholders in some or all of the steps of the SDM process listed above. In addition, participatory modeling often is crucial for creating qualitative and quantitative models of how the system works, providing data for these models, and eliciting expert opinion when data are unavailable. In these ways, SDM provides a framework for decision making in natural resources management that includes participation from stakeholder groups throughout the process, including the modeling phase.

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma Surgery: Simple Undermining Approach in Two Patients with Different Tumour Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common human malignancy, accounting for the majority of all non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC. In the past several decades the worldwide incidence of BCC has constantly been increasing. Even though it is a slow growing tumour that, left untreated, rarely metastasizes, it has a distinctive invasive growth pattern, posing a considerable risk for local invasion and destruction of underlying tissues, such as muscle, cartilage, bone or vital structures. Advanced BCCs include such locally invasive or metastatic tumours. Complete surgical excision is the standard therapy for most uncomplicated BCC cases with good prognosis and cure rates. Treatment of advanced forms of BCCs poses significant therapeutic challenges, most often requiring complicated surgery, radiotherapy, and/or targeted therapies directed towards the sonic hedgehog signalling pathway (SHH. We present two cases of large BCCs located on the scalp and posterior thorax, which underwent surgical excision with clear margins, followed by reconstruction of the defect after extensive undermining of the skin.

  8. Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopipero, Peggy Ann; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter‐writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Conclusions Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies. PMID:16885582

  9. African Trypanosomes Undermine Humoral Responses and Vaccine Development: Link with Inflammatory Responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Stijlemans

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease of great medical and socioeconomical importance. It is caused by strictly extracellular protozoan parasites capable of infecting all vertebrate classes including human, livestock, and game animals. To survive within their mammalian host, trypanosomes have evolved efficient immune escape mechanisms and manipulate the entire host immune response, including the humoral response. This report provides an overview of how trypanosomes initially trigger and subsequently undermine the development of an effective host antibody response. Indeed, results available to date obtained in both natural and experimental infection models show that trypanosomes impair homeostatic B-cell lymphopoiesis, B-cell maturation and survival and B-cell memory development. Data on B-cell dysfunctioning in correlation with parasite virulence and trypanosome-mediated inflammation will be discussed, as well as the impact of trypanosomosis on heterologous vaccine efficacy and diagnosis. Therefore, new strategies aiming at enhancing vaccination efficacy could benefit from a combination of (i early parasite diagnosis, (ii anti-trypanosome (drugs treatment, and (iii anti-inflammatory treatment that collectively might allow B-cell recovery and improve vaccination.

  10. Cultivating the Under-Mined: Cross-Case Analysis as Knowledge Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Khan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a plethora of case studies in the social sciences, it is the authors' opinion that case studies remain relatively under-mined sources of expertise. Cross-case analysis is a research method that can mobilize knowledge from individual case studies. The authors propose that mobilization of case knowledge occurs when researchers accumulate case knowledge, compare and contrast cases, and in doing so, produce new knowledge. In this article, the authors present theories of how people can learn from sets of cases. Second, existing techniques for cross-case analysis are discussed. Third, considerations that enable researchers to engage in cross-case analysis are suggested. Finally, the authors introduce a novel online database: the Foresee (4C database. The purpose of the database is to mobilize case knowledge by helping researchers perform cross-case analysis and by creating an online research community that facilitates dialogue and the mobilization of case knowledge. The design of the 4C database is informed by theories of how people learn from case studies and cross-case analysis techniques. We present evidence from case study research that use of the 4C database helps to mobilize previously dormant case study knowledge to foster greater expertise. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801348

  11. Benevolent Sexism and Support of Romantic Partner's Goals: Undermining Women's Competence While Fulfilling Men's Intimacy Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-09-01

    The current research demonstrates how benevolent sexism functions to undermine women's competence while facilitating men's access to heterosexual intimacy by prompting different support behaviors by men and women. Objective coders rated the support provision exhibited during heterosexual couples' (N = 100) video-recorded discussions of each other's personal goals. Men who endorsed benevolent sexism provided more dependency-oriented support, including directly providing plans and solutions and neglecting the recipient's own abilities, which led to their female partners feeling less competent and less positively regarded. In contrast, women who endorsed benevolent sexism provided greater relationship-oriented support, characterized by affection and emphasizing the positive relationship outcomes associated with their partner's goals, which led their male partners to perceive greater regard and intimacy in their relationship. This study is the first to investigate how benevolent sexism prompts naturalistic support behaviors that can impede women's capacity for independent success while supporting the fulfillment of men's intimacy needs. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. Language fouls in teaching ecology: why traditional metaphors undermine conservation literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Adrienne; Norvell, Russell; Darling, Ann

    2010-06-01

    We believe that the language commonly used in teaching actually hinders the creation of conservation literacy. We examined four frequently used ecology and environmental studies textbooks and considered the ways in which commonly used language can obscure or enhance an understanding of ecology and conservation. Specifically, we used the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (a.k.a. linguistic relativity) and framing theory to examine the approaches reflected in three elements of the texts: introductions and treatment of two key ecological concepts (matter cycling and energy). Language used in the texts contained implicit metaphors that portrayed nature as a resource; resisted ecological realities, such as the finite nature of matter and the loss of energy with each transformation; and fundamentally served to separate humans from nature. Although the basis of conservation literacy is understanding of the complexity of ecological systems, culturally based communication as exemplified in these texts does not encourage students or educators to recognize the feedback loops that clarify human membership in the ecosystem. Consequently, the language used to teach ecology perpetuates the idea that humans exist outside of its laws. With this paper, we hope to initiate a dialogue about how to retool the language used in teaching and communicating about ecology such that it resonates with, rather than undermines, conservation.

  13. Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopipero, Peggy; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-08-01

    To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter-writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies.

  14. Being trusted: How team generational age diversity promotes and undermines trust in cross‐boundary relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary We examine how demographic context influences the trust that boundary spanners experience in their dyadic relationships with clients. Because of the salience of age as a demographic characteristic as well as the increasing prevalence of age diversity and intergenerational conflict in the workplace, we focus on team age diversity as a demographic social context that affects trust between boundary spanners and their clients. Using social categorization theory and theories of social capital, we develop and test our contextual argument that a boundary spanner's experience of being trusted is influenced by the social categorization processes that occur in dyadic interactions with a specific client and, simultaneously, by similar social categorization processes that influence the degree to which the client team as a whole serves as a cooperative resource for demographically similar versus dissimilar boundary spanner–client dyads. Using a sample of 168 senior boundary spanners from the consulting industry, we find that generational diversity among client team members from a client organization undermines the perception of being trusted within homogeneous boundary spanner–client dyads while it enhances the perception of being trusted within heterogeneous dyads. The perception of being trusted is an important aspect of cross‐boundary relationships because it influences coordination and the costs associated with coordination. © 2015 The Author Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:27721558

  15. Being trusted: How team generational age diversity promotes and undermines trust in cross-boundary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michele

    2016-04-01

    We examine how demographic context influences the trust that boundary spanners experience in their dyadic relationships with clients. Because of the salience of age as a demographic characteristic as well as the increasing prevalence of age diversity and intergenerational conflict in the workplace, we focus on team age diversity as a demographic social context that affects trust between boundary spanners and their clients. Using social categorization theory and theories of social capital, we develop and test our contextual argument that a boundary spanner's experience of being trusted is influenced by the social categorization processes that occur in dyadic interactions with a specific client and, simultaneously, by similar social categorization processes that influence the degree to which the client team as a whole serves as a cooperative resource for demographically similar versus dissimilar boundary spanner-client dyads. Using a sample of 168 senior boundary spanners from the consulting industry, we find that generational diversity among client team members from a client organization undermines the perception of being trusted within homogeneous boundary spanner-client dyads while it enhances the perception of being trusted within heterogeneous dyads. The perception of being trusted is an important aspect of cross-boundary relationships because it influences coordination and the costs associated with coordination. © 2015 The Author Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identifying social factors that undermine support for nature-based coastal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Lauren I; Humphries, Austin T

    2018-04-15

    Human use and degradation of coastal ecosystems is at an all-time high. Thus, a current challenge for environmental management and research is moving beyond ecological definitions of success and integrating socioeconomic factors. Projects and studies with this aim, however, have focused primarily on monetary valuations of ecosystem functions, overlooking the behaviors and psycho-social motivations of environmental management. Using a nature-based salt marsh restoration project on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, we assess the role of human attitudes and preferences in evaluating social success for ecosystem management. We use structural equation modeling to compare the strengths of social variables in predicting restoration project support, and find public understanding to be a more important predictor than personal values. Our results show that even among stakeholders with strong pro-environmental values, a weak understanding of the management initiative can undermine support. We also find that project support does not necessarily translate to the prioritization of similar management strategies. Instead, when individuals consider overall management priorities, differences arise between particular resource user-groups. This suggests that strong public support for individual initiatives can misconstrue complexities in stakeholder preferences that emerge in more comprehensive management considerations. Future investigations of the psycho-social components of management solutions should address the potentially tiered nature of human preferences, as well as whether public perceptions of management effectiveness act as an additional context-dependency of social viability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalek, Vivienne

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

  18. A participatory systems approach to design for safer integrated medicine management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Canham, Aneurin; Altuna-Palacios, Ander; Ward, James R; Bhamra, Ran; Rogers, Stephen; Dutt, Amalin; Shah, Priyal

    2018-01-01

    It is recognised that whole systems approaches are required in the design and development of complex health care services. Application of a systems approach benefits from the involvement of key stakeholders. However, participation in the context of community based health care is particularly challenging due to busy and geographically distributed stakeholders. This study used action research to investigate what processes and methods were needed to successfully employ a participatory systems approach. Three participatory workshops planned and facilitated by method experts were held with 30 representative stakeholders. Various methods were used with them and evaluated through an audit of workshop outputs and a qualitative questionnaire. Findings on the method application and participation are presented and methodological challenges are discussed with reference to further research. Practitioner Summary: This study provides practical insights on how to apply a participatory systems approach to complex health care service design. Various template-based methods for systems thinking and risk-based thinking were efficiently and effectively applied with stakeholders.

  19. Moving Beyond "Health Education": Participatory Filmmaking for Cross-Cultural Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemits, Birut; Maypilama, Lawurrpa; Wild, Kayli; Mitchell, Alice; Rumbold, Alice

    2015-01-01

    In the process of developing short films with women in Australian Aboriginal (Yolŋu) communities in northeast Arnhem Land, questions arose about how the content and the process of production were defined and adjusted to suit both parties. This research examines how filmmakers take roles as health educators and how Yolŋu women as the "actors" define and direct the film. It explores ways that the filmmakers tried to ensure that Yolŋu identity was maintained in a biomedical agenda through the use of storytelling in language. An important dialogue develops regarding ownership and negotiation of health information and knowledge, addressing this intersection in a way that truly characterizes the spirit of community-based participatory research. Although the filmmaking processes were initially analyzed in the context of feminist and educational empowerment theories, we conclude that Latour's (2005) theory of actor networks leads to a more coherent way to explore participatory filmmaking as a health education tool. The analysis in this work provides a framework to integrate health communication, Indigenous women's issues, and filmmaking practices. In contrasting participatory filmmaking with health promotion and ethnographic film, the importance of negotiating the agenda is revealed.

  20. Beyond Dry Feet? Experiences from a Participatory Water-Management Planning Case in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiel Lamers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Participation of stakeholders in planning processes is increasingly seen as an essential element in adaptive and integrated water management and sometimes a policy requirement from higher-level governance bodies. Despite an extensive literature on the advantages and disadvantages of public participation and criteria for effective participation, not much is known about how water managers should proceed in a given context. Water-management agencies have to face the challenge of effectively involving stakeholders in developing their water-management plans and must design and implement a balanced process approach among the available time, finances, organization, and facilitation without compromising their authority. This article presents a participatory planning process designed and implemented at Water Board "Hoogheemraadschap De Stichtse Rijnlanden" (HDSR in the center of The Netherlands. For a period of 2 yrs, these three groups were involved in various ways, participating in different types of meetings and workshops, using a range of participatory tools and techniques. The process and results of the three groups were monitored and evaluated using a tailored evaluation strategy. This paper analyzes the way the design and implementation of the process is perceived by both the conveners and participants and suggests practical lessons for water managers. Based on our case, it is argued that a careful process design, a thorough and continuous stakeholder analysis, building reflective workshops within and after the process, and ensuring experienced and qualified process leaders can greatly enhance the adaptive capacity and successful outcome of the participatory planning process.

  1. Planning support tools and their effects in participatory urban adaptation workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Sadie; van de Ven, Frans H M; Blind, Michiel W; Slinger, Jill H

    2018-02-01

    In the face of a changing climate, many cities are engaged in adaptation planning and are using participatory workshops to involve stakeholders in these initiatives. Different tools are being used to structure the process and content of participatory planning workshops, but it is unclear what effect the tools have on the workshops and their results. We evaluated three different tools (Group Model Building, the Adaptation Support Tool, and the Stress Test Guideline) and a tool-free approach in repeated simulated workshops, to observe and compare (1) the way workshops played out, and (2) the direct outcomes that were achieved. Tools appear to influence both aspects. Specifically, we measured differences in the learning effects in groups, in the development of shared understanding within groups, in the types of plans that are developed by groups, and in the nature of participation during the workshops. Further research is needed to translate these results into practice, but this is a first step in advancing knowledge about the influence of tools in participatory planning activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Participatory action research opens doors: Mentoring Indigenous researchers to improve midwifery in urban Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Sophie D; Maidment, Sarah-Jade; Heinemann, Kayla M; Roe, Yvette L; Kildea, Sue V

    2017-11-08

    There is increasing demand for capacity building among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) maternal and infant health workforce to improve health outcomes for mothers and babies; yet few studies describe the steps taken to mentor novice Indigenous researchers to contribute to creating a quality evidence-base in this space. The Indigenous Birthing in an Urban Setting study is a partnership project aimed at improving maternity services for Indigenous families in South East Queensland. To describe our experience setting up a Participatory Action Research team to mentor two young Indigenous women as research assistants on the Indigenous Birthing in an Urban Setting study. Case study reflecting on the first six months. Participatory Action Research was a very effective method to actively mentor and engage all team members in reflective, collaborative research practice, resulting in positive changes for the maternity care service. The research assistants describe learning to conduct interviews and infant assessments, as well as gaining confidence to build rapport with families in the study. Reflecting on the stories shared by the women participating in the study has opened up a whole new world and interest in studying midwifery and child health after learning the difficulties and strengths of families during pregnancy and beyond. We encourage others to use Participatory Action Research to enable capacity building in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander midwifery workforce and in health research more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Medical Surveillance, Continuous Health Promotion and a Participatory Intervention in a Small Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Magnavita

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers’ wellbeing using a holistic approach during medical surveillance enables us to promptly identify problems in work organisation and the company climate. Problems of this kind can be adequately managed by using a participatory approach. The aim of this paper is twofold: to signal this way of proceeding with medical surveillance, and to describe an organisational development intervention. Participatory groups were used to improve occupational life in a small company. After intervention we observed a reduction in levels of perceived occupational stress measured with the Effort/Reward Imbalance questionnaire, and an improvement in psychological wellbeing assessed by means of the Goldberg Anxiety/Depression scale. Although the limited size of the sample and the lack of a control group call for a cautious evaluation of this study, the participatory strategy proved to be a useful tool due to its cost-effectiveness.

  4. The usefulness of Decision Support Systems in participatory forest planning: a comparison between Finland and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. De Meo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Participation of stakeholders is considered an essential element in producing, at different spatial and temporal scales, forest plans accepted by local community and fulfilling the requirements of Sustainable Forest Management. Increasingly, computer-based decision support systems (DSS and tools are being introduced to assist stakeholders and decision-makers in coping with the complexities inherent in participatory forest planning. The study aimed to investigate how useful the users and researchers see DSS tools and which opportunities they perceive DSS might carry for enhancing participatory forest planning in their field of activity.Area of study: 15 Italian and Finnish researchers and practitioners were interviewed.Material and Methods:  Face-to-face structured interviews were used to collect opinions and experiences. Quantitative and qualitative information were analyzed to investigate differences between Italian and Finnish respondents as well as between researchers and practitionersMain results: Results showed that in Italy there has been more focus on forest-level and medium-term problems and the intelligence phase, while in Finland there has been more attention to region-level and long-term problems and equally intelligence, design, and choice phases of decision-making. Deviations probably reflect different planning contexts and culture, variability in experiences and expertise in DSS and in availability of suitable DSS.Research highlights: The study suggests to pay attention to evaluating the success criteria of participatory planning when preparing for the use of DSS and related tools in practical forest planning processes. Experience sharing is a key to reaching more successful use of DSS.Keywords: computer-based decision support; participatory processes; spatial scale; success criteria; temporal scale; users' perception.

  5. Improving the quality of radiological examinations: effectiveness of an internal participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamede, Francisco Manuel Batista; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva; Saturno-Hernández, Pedro Jesus

    2017-06-01

    To assess the quality of radiological examinations (REs) and to evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory continuous improvement approach to ensure best practices in a Portuguese hospital imaging department. At baseline, we found 232 (10.2%) non-compliances, mostly related to the criteria image centering and framing in chest radiography (CXR), proper use of radiological protection equipment in other conventional RE (CR) and X-ray beam collimation (CXR/CR). A baseline and three consecutive evaluations of the RE quality were conducted. Each assessment was followed by participatory focused interventions for improvement. For each evaluation, we selected a random sample (n = 60) of cases for four types of examination (total n = 240 for each assessment, and 960 for the whole project). Both the building of quality criteria and the design of interventions for improvement were participatory, involving the radiology technicians. Estimates of criteria compliance were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance of absolute and relative improvements was tested using one-tail z-tests. After the intervention, non-compliances decreased to 48 (2.1%). Compliance estimates improved in 25 of 38 criteria assessed, with statistical significance for 5 criteria in CXR and 3 in CR and digestive examination. The internal participatory approach enabled the identification of existing quality problems and, by focusing on the more frequent quality defects, was effective in improving the quality of RE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Revisiting the issue of elite capture in participatory initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Saito-Jensen, Moeko

    2013-01-01

    Based on case studies of two communities implementing participatory forestry in Tanzania and India, we revisit the issue of elite capture of participatory initiatives. Our cases illustrate how initial elite capture of the participatory initiatives is circumvented over time through various forms...... of resistance orchestrated by initially disadvantaged groups. Based on the cases we argue that studies of elite capture should be based on in-depth and longitudinal empirical investigations that carefully characterize forms and outcomes of elite capture and consider both the changing dynamics of social settings...

  7. Mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund

    2015-01-01

    that in such an assessment of power it is needed also to drawn in the social context because different social contexts will be more or less vulnerable to different mechanisms of power. The paper takes the stand the rural settings are especially vulnerable to dis-engagement of local citizens, sub-ordination of the rural......This paper explores the specific mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning projects. It follows up on suggestions in planning literature about directing focus at the relational level in the assessment of power, rather than on who has power and who doesn't. The paper argues...... by the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis...

  8. The Quality of Conversations in Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry

    2010-01-01

    meaning in - often conflictual - conversations. We argue that the meeting of participants with different stakes is crucial precisely because crossing intentions can create new insight and movement of thought and action. We use improvised theatre to investigate what happens in industrial (and other......In co-design there seems to be a widespread understanding that innovation is a planned, goal-oriented activity that can be propelled forward through well-facilitated events in which company employees collaborate with external parties (users in particular) and the conversations aim at consensus......) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and the barriers that prevent them. By analysing improvised scenes and the way the audience reacts, we characterize the quality of conversations that seems to allow new meaning to emerge and thus stimulates innovation. We suggest that we need to develop new...

  9. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  10. Land degradation causes and sustainable land management practices in southern Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2014-05-01

    Jordan is one of the world's most water-deficit countries with only about 4% of the total land area considered arable. As a consequence agricultural production is greatly constrained by limited natural resources. Therefore, a major challenge for the country is to promote the sustainable use of natural resources for agricultural purposes. This challenge is being made harder by the ongoing processes of degradation due to increased population pressure, which undermine any social and economic development gains. In the southern plains of Jordan, sustainability of farming practices has worsened in the past three decades, exacerbating pressure on land and increasing land degradation processes. Non-sustainable land use practices include improper ploughing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, random urbanization, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. The root cause is the high population growth which exerts excessive pressure on the natural resources to meet increased food and income demand. The poorest farmers who are increasingly growing cereals on marginal areas. Wheat and barley are now grown with little to no rotation, with no nutrient replenishment, and at places avoiding even fallow. Small landholding sizes and topographic features of the area tend to oblige longitudinal mechanized tillage operations along the slopes. Overall, the constraints facing the deprived land users such as, poor access to technology, capital and organization are the factors that lead into unsustainable practices. The main bottlenecks and barriers that hinder mainstreaming of sustainable land management in Jordan can be grouped into three main categories: (i) Knowledge, (ii) Institutional and Governance, and (iii) Economic and Financial. In this case study, the key challenge was to create a knowledge base among local stakeholders - including planners, extension officers, NGO/community leaders, teachers

  11. Risk undermined in the bilateral pharmaceutical regulatory system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Po; Wang, Chun-Li

    2018-04-01

    The concept of Pharmacovigilance Planning and Risk Minimization Planning (PVP/RMP), initiated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), addressed an important conceptual change from monitoring the safety of individual medicine to proactively conducting risk prevention for the minimization of medication error. However, the implementation of PVP/RMP is a challenge in societies like Taiwan where irrational medication and co-medication is prevalent. It is even more difficult in Taiwan where two regulatory bodies are governing pharmaceutical affairs, namely Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) in charge of Western Medicine (WM) and the Department of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy (DCMP) in charge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). There are thus dual-tract drug approval panels, two GMP controls and two independent adverse drug event reporting systems. This rendered irrational co-medication of WM and TCM undetectable and the standard tools for monitoring pharmacovigilance inapplicable. The bilateral regulatory system is conceptually unscientific in accordance with PVP/RMP and unethical from humanity point of view. The first part of this review delivers (1) social aspects of polypharmacy in Taiwan; (2) regulatory aspects of pharmaceutical administration; (3) risks undermined in the bilateral regulatory system and (4) pharmacoepidemiology in relation to the risk of polypharmacy. As evidence-based medicine (EBM) forms the fundamental risk-benefit assessment on medication, the second part of this review delivers (1) the scientific aspects of the beauty and the odds of biological system that governs host-xenobiotics interaction; (2) conceptual evolution from product management (pharmacovigilance) to risk management (PVP/RMP); (3) non-biased due process is essential for risk-benefit assessment on medicinal products and (4) the opinion of the authors on system building for safe medication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Depth-dependent effects of culling—do mesophotic lionfish populations undermine current management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Rachel; Hendrix, Alicia; Hitchner, Drew; Gress, Erika; Madej, Konrad; Parry, Rachel L.; Régnier-McKellar, Catriona; Jones, Owen P.; Arteaga, María; Izaguirre, Andrea P.; Rogers, Alex D.; Exton, Dan A.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread widely across the western Atlantic and are recognized as a major threat to native marine biodiversity. Although lionfish inhabit both shallow reefs and mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; reefs from 30 to 150 m depth), the primary management response implemented by many countries has been diver-led culling limited to reefs less than 30 m. However, many reef fish undergo ontogenetic migrations, with the largest and therefore most fecund individuals found at greatest depths. Here, we study lionfish density, body size, maturity and dietary patterns across the depth gradient from the surface down to 85 m on heavily culled reefs around Utila, Honduras. We found lionfish at increased densities, body size and weight on MCEs compared with shallow reefs, with MCEs also containing the greatest proportion of actively spawning females, while shallow reefs contained the greatest proportion of immature lionfish. We then compared lionfish behaviour in response to divers on shallow culled and mesophotic unculled Utilan reefs, and on shallow unculled reefs in Tela Bay, on the Honduran mainland. We found that mesophotic lionfish exhibited high alert distances, consistent with individuals previously exposed to culling despite being below the depth limits of removal. In addition, when examining stomach content, we found that fish were the major component of lionfish diets across the depth gradient. Importantly, our results suggest that despite adjacent shallow culling, MCEs retain substantial lionfish populations that may be disproportionately contributing towards continued lionfish recruitment onto the shallow reefs of Utila, potentially undermining current culling-based management. PMID:28573007

  13. Errors in ADAS-cog administration and scoring may undermine clinical trials results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, K; De Santi, S; Schneider, L S

    2011-06-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) is the most widely used cognitive outcome measure in AD trials. Although errors in administration and scoring have been suggested as factors masking accurate estimates and potential effects of treatments, there have been few formal examinations of errors with the ADAS-cog. We provided ADAS-cog administration training using standard methods to raters who were designated as experienced, potential raters by sponsors or contract research organizations for two clinical trials. Training included 1 hour sessions on test administration, scoring, question periods, and required that raters individually view and score a model ADAS-cog administration. Raters scores were compared to the criterion scores established for the model administration. A total of 108 errors were made by 80.6% of the 72 raters; 37.5% made 1 error, 25.0% made 2 errors and 18.0% made 3 or more. Errors were made in all ADAS-cog subsections. The most common were in word finding difficulty (67% of the raters), word recognition (22%), and orientation (22%). For the raters who made 1, 2, or ≥ 3 errors the ADAS-cog score was 17.5 (95% CI, 17.3 - 17.8), 17.8 (17.0 - 18.5), and 18.8 (17.6 - 20.0), respectively, and compared to the criterion score, 18.3. ADAS-cog means differed significantly and the variances were more than twice as large between those who made errors on word finding and those who did not, 17.6 (SD=1.4) vs. 18.8 (SD=0.9), respectively (χ(2) = 37.2, P ADAS-cog scores and clinical trials outcomes. These errors may undermine detection of medication effects by contributing both to a biased point estimate and increased variance of the outcome.

  14. Community-based participatory action research: transforming multidisciplinary practice in primary health care Investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad: transformación de la práctica multidisciplinaria en atención primaria de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Hills

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Health care systems throughout the world are in the process of restructuring and reforming their health service delivery systems, reorienting themselves to a primary health care (PHC model that uses multidisciplinary practice (MDP teams to provide a range of coordinated, integrated services. This study explores the challenges of putting the MDP approach into practice in one community in a city in Canada. METHODS: The data we analyzed were derived from a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR project, conducted in 2004, that was used to enhance collaborative MDP in a PHC center serving a residential and small-business community of 11 000 within a medium-sized city of approximately 300 000 people in Canada. CBPAR is a planned, systematic approach to issues relevant to the community of interest, requires community involvement, has a problem-solving focus, is directed at societal change, and makes a lasting contribution to the community. We drew from one aspect of this complex, multiyear project aimed at transforming the rhetoric advocating PHC reform into actual sustainable practices. The community studied was diverse with respect to age, socioeconomics, and lifestyle. Its interdisciplinary team serves approximately 3 000 patients annually, 30% of whom are 65 years or older. This PHC center's multidisciplinary, integrated approach to care makes it a member of a very distinct minority within the larger primary care system in Canada. RESULTS: Analysis of practice in PHC revealed entrenched and unconscious ideas of the limitations and boundaries of practice. In the rhetoric of PHC, MDP was lauded by many. In practice, however, collaborative, multidisciplinary team approaches to care were difficult to achieve. CONCLUSIONS: The successful implementation of an MDP approach to PHC requires moving away from physician-driven care. This can only be achieved once there is a change in the underlying structures, values, power relations

  15. Participatory plant breeding and organic agriculture: A synergistic model for organic variety development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.

  16. Community Health Workers Support Community-based Participatory Research Ethics:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502

  17. Participatory design of a social enterprise for rehabilitees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsti-Laakso, Suvi; Koskela, Virpi; Martikainen, Suvi-Jonna; Melkas, Helinä; Mellanen, Laura

    2016-09-27

    Social enterprises are often seen as a source of new and innovative solutions to persistent societal problems and a means for better inclusion of employees and customers. Because social enterprises combine business logic and social goals, they have vast potential to renew business and social life; therefore, it is vital to understand how their creation can be initiated and supported. This study provides an overview of the participatory design process for a new social enterprise as it appears in practice. The methods used in this case study guided the participants - mental health and substance abuse rehabilitees - in the co-creation and refinement of a business idea. The methods used enabled participants to acknowledge their own strengths or preferences for their potential future work, which was a unique means of establishing a new social enterprise. Social empowerment of the participants/future employees of the social enterprise formed the important, intangible capital in this case. By definition, the core of social enterprises is the customer- and employee-driven nature. This study clarifies how a social enterprise functions as a laboratory of social innovation at the local and community levels.

  18. Introduction to Participatory Environmental Planning (PEP) for sustainable urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchhart, I.

    2000-01-01

    This training handbook is a result of the Environment and Urban Development Training Project. This project introduced participatory environmental planning for sustainable development of small and intermediate towns in Kenya. The human living environment was taken as the entry point.

  19. Participatory Development and Non-Governmental Organisations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory Development and Non-Governmental Organisations in Sudan: Expectations and Realities. ... links between government institutions local community organisations, private sectors and international organisations. Moreover, the article ... Information about NGOs is based on a field research conducted 2007.

  20. Participatory analysis, monitoring and evaluation for fishing communities: a manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maine, R. A; Cam, B; Davis-Case, D

    1996-01-01

    While there are many manuals available on participatory rapid appraisal approaches to monitoring and evaluation, there were none easily used by field officers attempting to aid and encourage fishing...

  1. Expectation changes and team characteristics in a participatory design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, Conne Mara; De Jong, Annelise; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A human factors specialist researched the expectations of a culturally and professionally diverse team throughout a year long participatory design process of a large processing facility. For a deeper understanding of high-level team expectations and characteristics, the specialist collected data and information through in-situ ethnography and traditional case study methods, personal interviews, and a questionnaire that included a likert scale rating for expectation levels. Results found that expectation levels rated extremely satisfied for individual team members and the overall team itself before and during the participatory process. In contrast, expectations for upper management from the team were satisfied before the participatory process, but changed to uncertain, to unsatisfied, to extremely unsatisfied during the process. Additionally, the participatory design team exhibited high-level team characteristics to include honesty, competence, commitment, communication, creativity, and clear expectations.

  2. Cooperation, curiosity and creativity as virtues in participatory design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how virtue ethics can help to better understand design processes. Three virtues are discussed that people need in order to become participatory design virtuosos: cooperation, curiosity and creativity.

  3. Participatory catchment management: an opportunity for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Versfeld, DB

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has hundreds of thousands of hectares of heavily populated and badly degraded landscapes. Past attempts at land management have been either through avoidance or the top-down imposition of ''betterment'' schemes. Participatory methods...

  4. Participatory development of weed management technologies in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissoh, P.V.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: permanent land use, weeds, indigenous knowledge, integrated crop and soil management, participatory learning, co-researchWeeds constitute a major constraint to agricultural production in the Republic of Benin. Agricultural intensification and the evolution towards permanent cropping

  5. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebenhuener, Bernd; Barth, Volker

    2005-01-01

    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

  6. Study on the relationship between participatory management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that there were correlation among participatory management and its components (decision-making, communication, collaborative, participative leadership, corporate structure and corporate control) and social capital among administrators and teachers in secondary schools in District 3 of Karaj.

  7. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  8. Tramps, trade union travellers, and wandering workers: how geographic mobility undermined organized labour in Gilded Age America

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Kimberly S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis will argue that high levels of internal migration in Gilded Age America undermined the stability and growth of trade unions and labour-based parties. Most of the traditional ‘American Exceptionalist’ arguments which asserted a lack of class consciousness will be challenged. Significant weight will be given to the racial, ethnic, and gender divisions within the American working class as a source of relative organizational weakness. As archival sources reveal, however, despite thei...

  9. From Archives to Participatory Recordkeeping: Transforming recordkeeping design for interoperability

    OpenAIRE

    GREGORY ROLAN

    2017-01-01

    Structural problems in recordkeeping and archives has led to the disenfranchisement of many from their records. This thesis presents a transformative design for recordkeeping systems that facilitates rights in records and recordkeeping - known as participatory recordkeeping. The design comprises an articulation of requirements for participatory recordkeeping along with new functional and conceptual models. A proof-of-concept system demonstrates how participants can exercise agency in their re...

  10. How participatory action research changed our view of the challenges of shared decision-making training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Timmermann, Connie; Wolderslund, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to demonstrate how the use of participatory action research (PAR) helped us identify ways to respond to communication challenges associated with shared decision-making (SDM) training. METHODS: Patients, relatives, researchers, and health professionals were involved...... communication skills addressing a broader understanding of SDM were identified. A communication programme aimed to enhance skills in a mindful and responsive clinical dialogue on the expectations, values, and hopes of patients and their relatives was drafted. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Before integrating new...... communication concepts such as SDM in communication training, research methods such as PAR can be used to improve understanding and identify the needs and priorities of both patients and health professionals....

  11. Adapting participatory design to design information system with rural Ethiopian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    and methods are contextualized to a given settings. To this end, we discuss the implication of considering local (rural community) culture of participation practices, and propose a procedure to be followed in the early phases of information system development process. Finally we argue that, such adaption......Most of the Information and Communication Technology for Development initiatives introduced to communities in developing countries fails to deliver its promises due to the lack of intended beneficiary involvement. Participatory Design assumes to be effective as long as its nature of participations...

  12. Discovering Voice: A Participatory Action Research Study with Nurses in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Fournier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors present findings from a qualitative research study carried out with Ugandan nurses from September 2003 until June 2004. They highlight the process and philosophical basis of participatory action research (PAR by reflecting on the challenges, opportunities, outcomes, and ethical issues encountered during the conduct of the research. In this study PAR fostered a climate in which nurses could engage in collective reflection on their practice, make sense of their experiences, and thereby change their understanding of their work.

  13. Towards a culturally independent participatory design method: Fusing game elements into the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Nakatani, Momoko; Ohno, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    Historically, Participatory Design (PD) was introduced and applied in the Scandinavian and American context as a practical design method for collective creativity and stakeholder involvement. In this paper, by fusing game elements into PD, we suggest a first step towards a culturally independent PD...... and the created Persona characteristics, probably due to cultural differences. Of more interestingly, despite these process differences, the game elements of our PD variant were found to promote the key values of PD in culturally diverse settings by stimulating idea creation and participation. Our experiments...... imply that the introduction of game elements allows PD to be effectively utilized in culturally diverse settings....

  14. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  15. What undermines healthy habits with regard to physical activity and food? Voices of adolescents in a disadvantaged community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linus; Larsson, Christel; Berg, Christina; Korp, Peter; Lindgren, Eva-Carin

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to illuminate factors that undermine the healthy habits of adolescents from a multicultural community with low socioeconomic status (S.E.S.) in Sweden with regard to physical activity (P.A.) and food, as stated in their own voices. Adolescents (n = 53, 12-13 y/o) were recruited from one school situated in a multicultural community characterized by low S.E.S. Embracing an interpretive approach, 10 focus-group interviews were conducted to produce data for the study. The focus-group interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in two major themes: (1) the availability of temptations is large, and support from the surroundings is limited; and (2) norms and demands set the agenda. The adolescents' voices illuminate a profound awareness and the magnitude of tempting screen-based activities as undermining their P.A. and healthy food habits. Moreover, several gender boundaries were highlighted as undermining girls' P.A. and healthy food habits. The adolescents' stories illuminated that it is difficult for them, within their environment, to establish healthy habits with regard to P.A. and food. To facilitate the adolescents' healthy habits, we suggest that support from family, friends, the school, and society at large is essential.

  16. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  17. Optimized Reputable Sensing Participants Extraction for Participatory Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By collecting data via sensors embedded personal smart devices, sensing participants play a key role in participatory sensor networks. Using information provided by reputable sensing participants ensures the reliability of participatory sensing data. Setting a threshold for the reputation, and those whose reputations are bigger than this value are regarded as reputable. The bigger the threshold value is, the more reliable the extracted reputable sensing participant is. However, if the threshold value is too big, only very limited participatory sensing data can be involved. This may cause unexpected bias in information collection. Existing works did not consider the relationship between the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants and the ratio of usable participatory sensing data. In this work, we propose a criterion for optimized reputable sensing participant extraction in participatory sensor networks. This is achieved based on the mathematical analysis on the ratio of available participatory sensing data and the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants. Our suggested threshold value for reputable sensing participant extraction is only related to the power of sensing participant’s reputation distribution. It is easy to be applied in real applications. Simulation results tested on real application data further verified the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  18. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: creating a global corporate network to undermine public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-17

    concerns to coordinate their activities. The global network of national and regional manufacturing associations created and nurtured by INFOTAB remains active, particularly in relation to the recently negotiated global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Policymakers should be aware that although these associations claim to represent only national or regional interests, they are allied to and coordinated with a confederation of transnational tobacco companies seeking to protect profits by undermining public health.

  19. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    threatened by the globalization of public health, sidestep competitive concerns to coordinate their activities. The global network of national and regional manufacturing associations created and nurtured by INFOTAB remains active, particularly in relation to the recently negotiated global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Policymakers should be aware that although these associations claim to represent only national or regional interests, they are allied to and coordinated with a confederation of transnational tobacco companies seeking to protect profits by undermining public health.

  20. Can participatory ergonomics become 'the way we do things in this firm' - the Scandinavian approach to participatory ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    1997-01-01

    Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way...... changes are made in firms have only had limited attention. In the Scandinavian countries legislation has, through mandatory joint working environment committees, tried to establish an organizational unit promoting direct participation. Several studies have showed that the intentions of the legislators...

  1. A Participatory Systemic Approach To Rural Community Development In Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan M. Ha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Various failures of the traditional approach in community development in developing countries have led to the development of a more appropriate and holistic approach to address complex development issues. Systems approaches and cutting-edge tools have recently been embraced to deal with such complexities under contexts of interwoven relationships amongst social economic political cultural and environmental factors. This paper provides reflections on practical value of the Evolutionary Learning Laboratory ELLab through a case study on improving the quality of life for women farmers in northern Vietnam where gender-bias labour hardship and poor living-standard are evident. The first five steps of the participatory systems-based ELLab were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. Our study finds that the context-based results reshaped the original project goal. The approach and framework helped to identify and engage right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools to develop a big picture systems model of the current situation defining levers for systemic interventions. The ELLab helps to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitates true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders triggering transformative learning. Contributions to action research and an innovative mechanism for sharing reflections and lessons at both local and global levels via the online Think2ImpactTM are discussed.

  2. Participatory planning. Social construction of urban space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Johana Hernandez-Araque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanismo participativo. Construcción social del espacio urbanoResumenUn común denominador de los problemas de las ciudades es la concepción de grandes proyectos urbanos que son ideados bajo políticas con intereses propios, que responden a un entorno físico que necesita transformarse, pero que casi siempre no reconoce las verdaderas necesidades del ciudadano. El propósito de este artículo es revisar las alternativas que desde hace unas décadas se han venido explorando como estrategia para ejecutar transformaciones urbanas que sean ágiles y que democraticen la participación del ciudadano, permitiendo ciudades incluyentes resultado de una construcción colectiva, que sean accesibles y que tengan una visión de sostenibilidad. Este trabajo aborda, a través de una revisión bibliográfica, tres etapas: en la primera, se revisa la normativa que hace referencia a la participación ciudadana en procesos de transformación urbana en Colombia; posteriormente, se indaga sobre el urbanismo participativo como nueva alternativa para la transformación de la ciudad y, al final, se hace un acercamiento al concepto de crowdsourcing como filosofía y herramienta para el urbanismo participativo. El documento permitirá conocer esta nueva forma de gestión urbana, la cual materializa de forma ágil e inmediata soluciones importantes para el ciudadano que requiere ser vinculado en la construcción del espacio urbano en el que se desenvuelve a diario.Palabras clave: ciudad planificada, crowdsourcing, derecho urbano, diseño urbano, gestión urbana, participación ciudadana. Participatory planning. Social construction of urban spaceAbstractA common denominator of the problems of cities is the conception of large urban projects that are designed under self-interested policies. These respond to a physical environment that needs to be transformed, but almost always fails to recognize the real needs of citizens. The purpose of this article is to review the

  3. The use of participatory action research to design a patient-centered community health worker care transitions intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangovi, Shreya; Grande, David; Carter, Tamala; Barg, Frances K; Rogers, Marisa; Glanz, Karen; Shannon, Richard; Long, Judith A

    2014-07-01

    Policymakers, patients and clinicians are increasingly eager to foster patient involvement in health care innovation. Our objective was to use participatory action research with high-risk hospitalized patients to design a post-hospital transition intervention. We conducted qualitative interviews with sixty-five low-income, recently hospitalized patients exploring their perceptions of barriers to post-hospital recovery and ideas for improvement. We then used a modified grounded theory approach to design an intervention that would address each barrier using patients׳ suggestions. Five key themes were translated into design elements. First, patients wished to establish a relationship with healthcare personnel to whom they could relate. The intervention was provided by an empathic community health worker (CHW) who established rapport during hospitalization. Second, patients suggested tailoring support to their needs and goals. CHWs and patients designed individualized action plans for achieving their goals for recovery. Third, patient goals were misaligned with those of the inpatient team. CHW facilitated patient-provider discharge communication to align goals. Fourth, patients lacked post-discharge support for predominantly psychosocial or financial issues that undermined recovery. CHWs provided support tailored to patient needs. Finally, patients faced numerous barriers in obtaining post-hospital primary care. CHWs helped patients to obtain timely care with a suitable provider. Low-income hospitalized patients voiced needs and suggestions that were directly translated into the design of a scalable patient-centered CHW intervention. The approach of using participatory action research to tightly mapping patient input into intervention design is rapid and systematic strategy for operationalizing patient involvement in innovation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Gap Between Theory and Practice of Stakeholder Participation: The Case of Management of The Korle Lagoon, Ghana - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah, David Oscar Yawson & Alkan Olsson Johanna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation of stakeholders at the local level is evolving as a mechanism to address complex environmental problems, not least water pollution. Participation has been used as a tool for the economic and social empowerment of settlements within the catchment of the Korle lagoon in Ghana, particularly residents of the Old Fadama community that live in proximity to the lagoon. Using direct observations and survey of stakeholder groups, the paper examines the structure and process of participation of stakeholders in Korle lagoon resource use and water policy formulation and implementation with regard to Korle Lagoon Ecological Restoration Project (KLERP. The results show that exclusion of stakeholders generates conflict and antagonism which hinders the implementation of water resource policy. Alliances of stakeholders in the participatory process have served as pressure points compelling government to negotiate with civil society on behalf of the community. In theory, participation holds promise to address conflict, however in practice, a number of factors that feed into conflict characterise the process of participation in this case, such as ineffective information flow in the community, agency-structure dynamics, historical antecedents among the ethnic groups and low-levels of communication. These gaps jointly undermine the full participation of the Old Fadama community in lagoon management.

  5. Engines of alternative objectivity: Re-articulating the nature and value of participatory mental health organisations with the Hearing Voices Movement and Stepping Out Theatre Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Claire; Brigstocke, Julian; Noorani, Tehseen

    2018-05-01

    Through two case studies, the Hearing Voices Movement and Stepping Out Theatre Company, we demonstrate how successful participatory organisations can be seen as 'engines of alternative objectivity' rather than as the subjective other to objective, biomedical science. With the term 'alternative objectivity', we point to collectivisations of experience that are different to biomedical science but are nonetheless forms of objectivity. Taking inspiration from feminist theory, science studies and sociology of culture, we argue that participatory mental health organisations generate their own forms of objectivity through novel modes of collectivising experience. The Hearing Voices Movement cultivates an 'activist science' that generates an alternative objective knowledge through a commitment to experimentation, controlling, testing, recording and sharing experience. Stepping Out distinguishes itself from drama therapy by cultivating an alternative objective culture through its embrace of high production values, material culture, aesthetic standards. A crucial aspect of participatory practice is overcoming alienation, enabling people to get outside of themselves, encounter material worlds and join forces with others.

  6. Service user integration into social work education: lessons learned from nordic participatory action projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Service users have lacked substantial influence, access, and participation in social work education in Norway and Sweden. In this article the author presents comparative analyses of two participatory projects that have developed and implemented practices that integrate service users into academic social work education and empower service users. The Norwegian HUSK project and the Social Work as Mobilization and Entrepreneurship course, also known as the "Mobilization course," at Lund University in Sweden demonstrate collaboration between research, social work education, and service users. The conclusions focus on the importance of the empowering processes by including recognition and dialogue, co-learning in practice, and the use of neutral venues to ensure effective user participation. The inclusion of service users in social work education can improve both practice and education.

  7. Awareness and Learning in Participatory Noise Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai (Muki); Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  8. Awareness and learning in participatory noise sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Becker

    Full Text Available The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples and subjective (opinions, feelings data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments.

  9. Conducting participatory photography with children with disabilities: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Isabel; Cunningham, Barbara Jane; Campbell, Wenonah

    2018-03-28

    This review summarized studies that used participatory photography with children with disabilities, including those with communication impairments, and described modifications made to the methodology to facilitate their participation in qualitative research. In the fall of 2016, we searched Psycinfo (OVID), ERIC, CINAHL and Web of Science to identify studies that used participatory photography with children with disabilities. The search was repeated in January 2018 to retrieve any new publications. The first author extracted data that described the characteristics of each study and the modifications used. Of the 258 articles identified, 19 met inclusion criteria. Participants ranged from 4-21 years old and had a variety of disabilities. Study topics included education, leisure activities and adulthood. Researchers modified participatory photography to enhance accessibility by: modifying cameras; providing individual training; teaching consent through role play; allowing children to direct adults to take photographs; including additional forms of media; using diaries and questionnaires; providing individual interviews with simplified questions; using multiple forms of communication; and modifying how photographs are shared. Participatory photography can be an effective method for studying the lived experiences of children with disabilities, particularly those with communication impairments. Methodological modifications can enhance the accessibility of this approach for this population. Implications for Rehabilitation Participatory photography may be an effective qualitative research method for learning about the perspectives and experiences of children with disabilities on a wide array of topics. There are many specific modifications that researchers can use to support the inclusion of children with disabilities in participatory photography research. The findings of studies that use participatory photography methodology may provide rehabilitation professionals

  10. Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Jacqueline; Petts, Judith [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Research and Training; Pollard, Simon; Twigger-Ross, Clare [National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in

  11. Participatory Risk Assessment for Environmental Decision-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, Jacqueline; Petts, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in practice, decision

  12. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  13. Examining situated design practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kija Lin; Simonsen, Jesper; Karasti, Teija Helena

    2018-01-01

    We scrutinise the concrete practices of participants' engagement in participatory design through an empirical case in which nurses from different hospital wards began as reluctant users, but gradually engaged in processes approaching genuine participation. We expand a newly proposed....... The case includes the designer's process of becoming a genuine participant during the project. By offering a new take on the concept of genuine participation using a dimension characterised by a genuine, focused presence, we offer our lessons learnt from applying the framework...

  14. Transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit: a participatory action research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Margaret; Gardner, Anne; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Kildea, Sue

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. In 2012, an Australian regional neonatal intensive care unit transitioned from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Research has reported single- and small-room neonatal intensive care unit design may negatively impact on the distances nurses walk, reducing the time they spend providing direct neonatal care. Studies have also reported nurses feel isolated and need additional support and education in such neonatal intensive care units. Staff highlighted their concerns regarding the impact of the new design on workflow and clinical practice. A participatory action research approach. A participatory action group titled the Change and Networking Group collaborated with staff over a four-year period (2009-2013) to facilitate the transition. The Change and Networking Group used a collaborative, cyclical process of planning, gathering data, taking action and reviewing the results to plan the next action. Data sources included meeting and workshop minutes, newsletters, feedback boards, subgroup reports and a staff satisfaction survey. The study findings include a description of (1) how the participatory action research cycles were used by the Change and Networking Group: providing examples of projects and strategies undertaken; and (2) evaluations of participatory action research methodology and Group by neonatal intensive care unit staff and Change and Networking members. This study has described the benefits of using participatory action research to facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Participatory action research methodology enabled the inclusion of staff to find solutions to design and clinical practice questions. Future research is required to assess the long-term effect of neonatal intensive care unit design on staff workload, maintaining and supporting a skilled workforce as well as

  15. Power-sharing Partnerships: Teachers' Experiences of Participatory Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ronél; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Mbongwe, Bathsheba B

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences of teachers as coresearchers in a long-term partnership with university researchers, who participated in an asset-based intervention project known as Supportive Teachers, Assets and Resilience (STAR). In an attempt to inform participatory research methodology, the study investigated how coresearchers (teachers) experienced power relations. We utilized Gaventa's power cube as a theoretical framework and participatory research as our methodologic paradigm. Ten teachers of a primary school in the Eastern Cape and five teachers of a secondary school in a remote area in the Mpumalanga Province in South Africa participated (n=15). We employed multiple data generation techniques, namely Participatory Reflection and Action (PRA) activities, observation, focus group discussions, and semistructured interviews, using thematic analysis and categorical aggregation for data analysis. We identified three themes, related to the (1) nature of power in participatory partnerships, (2) coreasearchers' meaning making of power and partnerships, and their (3) role in taking agency. Based on these findings, we developed a framework of power sharing partnerships to extend Gaventa's power cube theory. This framework, and its five interrelated elements (leadership as power, identifying vision and mission, synergy, interdependent role of partners, and determination), provide insight into the way coresearchers shared their experiences of participatory research methodology. We theorise power-sharing partnerships as a complimentary platform hosting partners' shared strengths, skills, and experience, creating synergy in collaborative projects.

  16. In pursuit of rigour and accountability in participatory design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenberger, Christopher; Good, Judith; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-02-01

    The field of Participatory Design (PD) has greatly diversified and we see a broad spectrum of approaches and methodologies emerging. However, to foster its role in designing future interactive technologies, a discussion about accountability and rigour across this spectrum is needed. Rejecting the traditional, positivistic framework, we take inspiration from related fields such as Design Research and Action Research to develop interpretations of these concepts that are rooted in PD׳s own belief system. We argue that unlike in other fields, accountability and rigour are nuanced concepts that are delivered through debate, critique and reflection. A key prerequisite for having such debates is the availability of a language that allows designers, researchers and practitioners to construct solid arguments about the appropriateness of their stances, choices and judgements. To this end, we propose a "tool-to-think-with" that provides such a language by guiding designers, researchers and practitioners through a process of systematic reflection and critical analysis. The tool proposes four lenses to critically reflect on the nature of a PD effort: epistemology , values , stakeholders and outcomes . In a subsequent step, the coherence between the revealed features is analysed and shows whether they pull the project in the same direction or work against each other. Regardless of the flavour of PD, we argue that this coherence of features indicates the level of internal rigour of PD work and that the process of reflection and analysis provides the language to argue for it. We envision our tool to be useful at all stages of PD work: in the planning phase, as part of a reflective practice during the work, and as a means to construct knowledge and advance the field after the fact. We ground our theoretical discussions in a specific PD experience, the ECHOES project, to motivate the tool and to illustrate its workings.

  17. In pursuit of rigour and accountability in participatory design☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenberger, Christopher; Good, Judith; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    The field of Participatory Design (PD) has greatly diversified and we see a broad spectrum of approaches and methodologies emerging. However, to foster its role in designing future interactive technologies, a discussion about accountability and rigour across this spectrum is needed. Rejecting the traditional, positivistic framework, we take inspiration from related fields such as Design Research and Action Research to develop interpretations of these concepts that are rooted in PD׳s own belief system. We argue that unlike in other fields, accountability and rigour are nuanced concepts that are delivered through debate, critique and reflection. A key prerequisite for having such debates is the availability of a language that allows designers, researchers and practitioners to construct solid arguments about the appropriateness of their stances, choices and judgements. To this end, we propose a “tool-to-think-with” that provides such a language by guiding designers, researchers and practitioners through a process of systematic reflection and critical analysis. The tool proposes four lenses to critically reflect on the nature of a PD effort: epistemology, values, stakeholders and outcomes. In a subsequent step, the coherence between the revealed features is analysed and shows whether they pull the project in the same direction or work against each other. Regardless of the flavour of PD, we argue that this coherence of features indicates the level of internal rigour of PD work and that the process of reflection and analysis provides the language to argue for it. We envision our tool to be useful at all stages of PD work: in the planning phase, as part of a reflective practice during the work, and as a means to construct knowledge and advance the field after the fact. We ground our theoretical discussions in a specific PD experience, the ECHOES project, to motivate the tool and to illustrate its workings. PMID:26109833

  18. IDENTIFYING CONCERNS OF POSTGRADUATES IN COMMUNITY MEDICINE USING A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD- VISUALISATION IN PARTICIPATORY PROGRAMMES (VIPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Babu Koganti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Postgraduation in Community Medicine finds few takers and those who do take it up as a career option have many concerns regarding the course. To understand the issues involved, a qualitative method called VIPP was used, which is a people centered approach to identify issues from the perspectives of those involved. This study is set to identify the problems faced by postgraduate students in Community Medicine regarding their course of study. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted during a regional postgraduate CME of the NTR University of Health Sciences, Andhra Pradesh. Postgraduates and junior faculty from 5 medical colleges in the region were involved in the exercise after taking their informed consent. Visualisation in Participatory Programmes (VIPP, a qualitative method was used as a means of obtaining information followed by a discussion with visual display of all the mentioned items. RESULTS The themes that emerged are problems faced due to the student’s felt inadequacies, faculty shortcomings, issues regarding the department/college management and lacunae in the course structure and implementation. CONCLUSION In VIPP, sensitive issues are visually displayed for all to see and contemplate. Many of the student’s issues were actually brought on by poor curriculum planning and implementation. This was also undermining students’ self-esteem and causing anxiety about future career prospects.

  19. The usefulness of Decision Support Systems in participatory forest planning: a comparison between Finland and Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meo, I. de; Ferretti, F.; Hujala, T.; Kangas, A.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: Participation of stake holders is considered an essential element in producing, at different spatial and temporal scales, forest plans accepted by local community and fulfilling the requirements of Sustainable Forest Management. Increasingly, computer-based decision support systems (DSS) and tools are being introduced to assist stake holders and decision-makers in coping with the complexities inherent in participatory forest planning. The study aimed to investigate how useful the users and researchers see DSS tools and which opportunities they perceive DSS might carry for enhancing participatory forest planning in their field of activity. Area of study: 15 Italian and Finnish researchers and practitioners were interviewed. Material and methods: Face-to-face structured interviews were used to collect opinions and experiences. Quantitative and qualitative information were analyzed to investigate differences between Italian and Finnish respondents as well as between researchers and practitioners Main results: Results showed that in Italy there has been more focus on forest-level and medium-term problems and the intelligence phase, while in Finland there has been more attention to region-level and long-term problems and equally intelligence, design, and choice phases of decision-making. Deviations probably reflect different planning contexts and culture, variability in experiences and expertise in DSS and in availability of suitable DSS. Research highlights: The study suggests to pay attention to evaluating the success criteria of participatory planning when preparing for the use of DSS and related tools in practical forest planning processes. Experience sharing is a key to reaching more successful use of DSS. (Author)

  20. Participatory research, people with intellectual disabilities and ethical approval: making reasonable adjustments to enable participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northway, Ruth; Howarth, Joyce; Evans, Lynne

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how making reasonable adjustments to the process of securing ethical approval for research can facilitate the meaningful involvement of people with intellectual disabilities as members of a research team. This is achieved through critical reflection upon the approach taken within one participatory research study whose objective was to explore how people with intellectual disabilities understand abuse. Internationally participatory research studies (in which active involvement of community members in all stages of the research process is sought) are becoming increasingly common in the context of health care and, more specifically, within research involving people with intellectual disabilities. However, whilst it is acknowledged that participatory research gives rise to specific ethical challenges, how (or if) involvement in securing ethical approval is facilitated, is not discussed in most research reports. The significance of this paper is that it seeks to address this gap by exploring how meaningful participation can be promoted by making reasonable adjustments. Within the study, the research team worked in collaboration with the ethics committee to identify potential barriers that could prevent the participation of members of the research team who had intellectual disabilities. Reasonable adjustments (such as redesigning forms) were made to the processes involved in securing ethical approval. This study demonstrated that it is possible to ensure that ethical standards are upheld and the requirements of ethics committees met whilst also facilitating the meaningful involvement of people with intellectual disabilities. The reasonable adjustments approach explored within this paper can be translated into the context of clinical practice: making changes to the way that services are delivered can promote greater involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in their own health care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Participatory Design of Websites with Web Design Workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Bersani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available At the University of Rochester's River Campus Libraries we have included users in technology development with great success. "Participatory design" entails collaboration among designers, developers, and users from the earliest stages of conception through to implementation of websites and other technology. Using participatory methods, a project to redesign the library website began with workshops to identify user needs and preferences. The results of these workshops led to the identification of key tasks for the main page. They also generated a hierarchy of tasks for sub-pages and rich information about how students and faculty members use current websites in their work. In our article, we explain our reasons for running participatory design workshops, describe our methods, review participants and recruitment, and summarize key findings. We also include information about our local implementation and general conclusions about the value of design workshops for website design and development.

  2. Spanish adaptation of the Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Magallares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to adapt the Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS and validate the results for use among the Spanish population. Using snowball sampling methodology, 501 individuals from all areas of Spain were selected to participate in the study. The Participatory Behaviors Scale (PBS and questionnaires that measure a sense of community, belief in a just world and Machiavellianism were used to analyze the criterion validity of the adapted scale. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the items on the questionnaire fit a second-order model with four factors, which corresponded to the four dimensions proposed by the original authors, namely, disengagement, civil participation, formal political participation and activism. Additionally, it has been found that the scale is related to a sense of community, belief in a just world and Machiavellianism. In light of these results, we concluded that the questionnaire is methodologically valid and can be used by the scientific community to measure participatory behavior.

  3. Public Project Portfolio Optimization under a Participatory Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new democracy paradigm is emerging through participatory budgeting exercises, which can be defined as a public space in which the government and the society agree on how to adapt the priorities of the citizenship to the public policy agenda. Although these priorities have been identified and they are likely to be reflected in a ranking of public policy actions, there is still a challenge of solving a portfolio problem of public projects that should implement the agreed agenda. This work proposes two procedures for optimizing the portfolio of public actions with the information stemming from the citizen participatory exercise. The selection of the method depends on the information about preferences collected from the participatory group. When the information is sufficient, the method behaves as an instrument of legitimate democracy. The proposal performs very well in solving two real-size examples.

  4. Democratising intersectionality? participatory structures and equality policies in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Alonso Alvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly work on intersectionality has shown some concern on whether this policy strategy is implemented in a participatory manner. The case of Portugal has been of particular interest since the country features a long tradition of involving civil society in the making of equality policies. This article revisits the Portuguese case in order to analyse recent developments. First, the participatory and coordinated approach adopted so far to deal with inequalities is described. Second, the analysis focuses on gender-based violence policies to help capturing new advancements. These policies have been recently enlarged to tackle the situation of women at the intersections and civil society actors have been actively involved in the policy-making process. In particular, the case of policies to combat female genital mutilation illustrates how participatory structures contribute to bring an intersectional perspective. The analysis of the Portuguese case allows thus reflecting on the potential benefits of democratising intersectionality as well as its limits.

  5. The Role of Participatory Design in Mobile Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Almed

    2018-03-01

    Mobile devices are used by people worldwide. It becomes a common equipment to complete a day-to-day activity. Inside the devices, there are numerous mobile applications that have been built for various needs. Some of these are quite successful while the other are not. The development of successful mobile application faces several challenges. In this research, we want to explore the use of participatory design method in mobile application development. Particularly, the aim of the study is to answer the question whether participatory design method has a place in the realm of mobile application development. We established two sessions of workshop to accommodate the participant to take part in the development process of mobile application. The result shows that participatory design method can determine how the user will deal with the limitations of mobile devices. It helps user to create a particular form of interaction that meets mobile devices characteristics.

  6. Participatory action research in corrections: The HITEC 2 program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, Martin; Dussetschleger, Jeffrey; Dugan, Alicia; Farr, Dana; Namazi, Sara; El Ghaziri, Mazen; Henning, Robert

    2016-03-01

    HITEC 2 (Health Improvement through Employee Control 2) is the follow-up to HITEC, a participatory action research (PAR) program that integrates health and work conditions interventions designed by the workforce. HITEC 2 compares intervention programs between two correctional sites, one using a pure workforce level design team and the other using a more structured and time delineated labor-management kaizen effectiveness team. HITEC 2 utilizes a seven step participatory Intervention Design and Analysis Scorecard (IDEAS) for planning interventions. Consistent with PAR, process and intervention efficacy measures are developed and administered through workforce representation. Participation levels, robustness of participatory structures and sophistication of interventions have increased at each measured interval. Health comparisons between 2008 and 2013 showed increased hypertension, static weight maintenance, and increased 'readiness to change'. The PAR approaches are robust and sustained. Their long-term effectiveness in this population is not yet clear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Making Games after School: Participatory Game Design in Non-Formal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin; Brandt, Jami; Hopkins, Rhonda; Wilhelm, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Participatory design principles were used with primarily African-American and Latino children in the Washington, DC area in the development of sports-themed digital game prototypes in an after-school program. The three stages in participatory design are the discovery stage, the evaluative stage, and prototyping. Within the participatory design…

  8. Integrating Participatory Action Research and GIS Education: Negotiating Methodologies, Politics and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…

  9. Trying on and trying out: participatory action research as a tool for literacy and identity work in middle grades classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sluys, Katie

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the role of collaborative, ethnographic, participatory action research (PAR) with eighth grade students as a set of possible literacy practices for involving students with issues connected to their lives, resources, language(s), and communities. Findings are based on a year of fieldwork conducted as part of shared inquiry into one public school community's experiences with gentrification and meeting the complex needs of diverse learners. Findings bring to life the ways in which PAR facilitates the redefining of reading, writing, and research; the reconsideration of languages; the rethinking of literacy practices; and the repositioning of participants within and beyond given research endeavors.

  10. Kant and the practical man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2017-01-01

    The Appendix to Kant’s Toward perpetual peace is commonly viewed as an explication of the systematic relations between political practice and normative political theory. This paper provides an alternative interpretation to Kant’s main aim in the Apendix which is to provide an argument against...... that Kant’s argument against the practical man is based on a proto-phenomenological analysis of moral experience. The practical man’s attempt to describe political practice in purely non-normative terms is, Kant believes, necessarily self-undermining because it denies one of the most basic aspects of human...

  11. Medical apps for smartphones: lack of evidence undermines quality and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, Arthur Willem Gerard; Visser, Benjamin Jelle; Marshall, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of healthcare professionals are using smartphones and their associated applications (apps) in daily clinical care. While these medical apps hold great potential for improving clinical practice, little is known about the possible dangers associated with their use. Breaches of

  12. From Play to School: Are Core Values of ECEC in Iceland Being Undermined by "Schoolification"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Bryndis

    2014-01-01

    Iceland has a strong tradition of universal public early childhood education and care (ECEC) services for children. The traditional pedagogy is founded on play-based learning with the holistic view of the development of the child is central to practice. With increased interest in education following the 2008 financial crisis, there are signs that…

  13. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-01-01

    K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the ...

  14. Disentangling participation power and decision-making in participatory design

    CERN Document Server

    Bratteteig, Tone

    2014-01-01

    Providing a critical view on user participation in design, disentangling decision making and power in design, this book uses fieldwork material from two large participatory design projects: one experimental in the field of urban planning, the other a product development project within health care. Addressing power issues in participatory design is critical to providing a realistic view of the possibilities and limitations of participation. Design is decision-making: during a design process a huge number of decisions?taken before the designers end up with a design result - an artefact or system

  15. Actionable Ethnography in Participatory Innovation: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens; Buur, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate...... how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory...

  16. Developing local scenarios to nitrogen management using participatory planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Kristoffer; Wiborg, Irene; Andersen, Peter Stubkjær

    2017-01-01

    and to increase productivity where this is possible. In this project, a participatory planning approach was tested in six local catchments in Denmark. In each catchment two workshops were held with broad representation of local stakeholders from local councils, municipal authorities, farmer councils and local...... to be taken into account when involving a community in participatory planning regarding nitrogen management. As part of a more targeted Danish regulation, a system of catchment officers is currently being established to aide in formulating mitigation strategies that are adapted to local needs and local...

  17. Accreditation and participatory design in the healthcare sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the role of participatory design approaches in the light of the accreditation regime currently imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes specifying...... parts of the accreditation process and fit well with clinical evidence-based thinking. We describe and compare effects-driven IT development with accreditation, in terms of the Danish Quality Model which is used throughout the Danish healthcare sector, and we discuss the prospects and challenges...

  18. The implied producer investigating an emergent typology in participatory culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Whereas many good things can be said about the ability of digital media to facilitate the public access to cultural material, there has been no significant development in the theoretical understanding of ubiquitous digital media's potential for participatory culture -- and what human typologies...... emerges from this reconfiguration? The small Swedish Biennale, Electrohype run an impressively straight line of investigations into the participatory spaces of art -- thereby also facilitating the dissemination of the, at that time, almost unnoticed field of media art. It appears, from the Electrohype...

  19. Design with the feet: walking methods and participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille; Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of walking methods and their relation to participatory design (PD). The paper includes a study of walking methods found in the literature and an empirical study of transect walks in a PD project. From this analysis, we identify central attributes of, and challenges...... to, PD walks. Walking with people in the context of design is a natural activity for the participatory designer, who acknowledges the importance of immersion and relationships in design. However, the various intentions of walking approaches indicate an underacknowledged awareness of walking methods...

  20. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference Vol.I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ), design anthropology, design psychology, design Industry and the arts. The conference has helped to broaden participatory approaches in design around a variety of arenas including information and communication technologies, work, healthcare, learning, new media and digital culture, community settings...... that are valued for their differences;contributions address the possibilities of social transformation of practical strategies to support commoning practices; of the value of respecting different types of expertise within stakeholder types; and of participation that engages explicitly, inclusively and creatively...... committee members, the workshop organisers, the local organizing committee, the student volunteers, and all of you who in one way or the other contributed to making this conference possible. Lastly thanks to all you who participate in the conference!...

  1. Research as intervention? Exploring the health and well-being of children and youth facing global adversity through participatory visual methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Miranda; Denov, Myriam; Khan, Fatima; Linds, Warren; Akesson, Bree

    2016-01-01

    Global health research typically relies on the translation of knowledge (from health professionals to the community) and the dissemination of knowledge (from research results to the wider public). However, Greenhalgh and Wieringa [2011. Is it time to drop the 'knowledge translation' metaphor? A critical literature review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 104(12), 501-509. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.2011.110285 ] suggest 'that while "translation" is a widely used metaphor in medicine, it constrains how we conceptualize and study the link between knowledge and practice' (p. 501). Often the knowledge garnered from such research projects comes from health professionals rather than reflecting the lived experiences of people and communities. Likewise, there has been a gap in 'translating' and 'disseminating' the results of participatory action research projects to policymakers and medical practitioners. This paper will look at how using participatory visual methodologies in global health research with children and youth facing global adversity incorporates the multiple functions of their lived realities so that research becomes a means of intervention. Drawing from a literature review of participatory visual methods as media, content and processes of global health research, this paper raises practical, theoretical, and ethical questions that arise from research as intervention. The paper concludes by exploring what lessons emerge when participatory visual methodologies are integrated into global health research with children and youth facing global adversity.

  2. People, Land and Water: Participatory Development Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... In natural resource management research, best practice implies the participation of community members, research or development teams, and other ... in applying PDC to natural resource management practices and research, discusses the challenges and the difficulties linked to such an approach, and ...

  3. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by “putting issues on the table”. While there were confronting and ethically

  4. Initiating a participatory action research process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariri, Oghenebrume; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Twine, Rhian; Ngobeni, Sizzy; van der Merwe, Maria; Spies, Barry; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Wagner, Ryan G; Byass, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa. Three village-based discussion groups were convened and consulted about conditions to examine, one of which was under-5 mortality. A series of discussions followed in which routine HDSS data were presented and participants' subjective perspectives were elicited and systematized into collective forms of knowledge using ranking, diagramming and participatory photography. The process concluded with a priority setting exercise. Visual and narrative data were thematically analyzed to complement the participants' analysis. A range of social and structural root causes of under-5 mortality were identified: poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, unsafe environments and shortages of clean water. Despite these constraints, single mothers were often viewed as negligent. A series of mid-level contributory factors in clinics were also identified: overcrowding, poor staffing, delays in treatment and shortages of medications. In a similar sense, pronounced blame and negativity were directed toward clinic nurses in spite of the systems constraints identified. Actions to address these issues were prioritized as: expanding clinics, improving accountability and responsiveness of health workers, improving employment, providing clean water, and expanding community engagement for health promotion. We initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those

  5. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Hermeston, Wendy; Passey, Megan; Fallon, Tony; Muyambi, Kuda

    2012-06-10

    While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Local research groups comprising 13-19 partnership staff, policy officers and community members were established at each of two sites to guide the research and to reflect and act on the findings. Network and work practice surveys were conducted with 42 staff, and the results were fed back to the research groups. At the end of the project, 19 informants at the two sites were interviewed, and the researchers conducted critical reflection. The effectiveness and acceptability of the participatory social network method were determined quantitatively and qualitatively. Participants in both local research groups considered that the network survey had accurately described the links between workers related to the exchange of clinical and cultural information, team care relationships, involvement in service management and planning and involvement in policy development. This revealed the function of the teams and the roles of workers in each partnership. Aboriginal workers had a high number of direct links in the exchange of cultural information, illustrating their role as the cultural resource, whereas they had fewer direct links with other network members on clinical information exchange and team care. The problem of their current and future roles was discussed inside and outside the local research groups. According to the interview informants the participatory network analysis had opened the way for problem-solving by "putting issues on the table". While there were confronting and ethically challenging aspects, these informants considered that with flexibility

  6. Know thyself: misperceptions of actual performance undermine achievement motivation, future performance, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Zou, Zhimin

    2010-09-01

    Contrary to the popular assumption that self-enhancement improves task motivation and future performance, the authors propose that both inflated and deflated self-assessments of performance are linked to an increased likelihood of practicing self-handicapping and having relatively poor performance in future tasks. Consistent with this proposal, we found that irrespective of the level of actual performance, compared with accurate self-assessment, both inflated and deflated self-assessments of task performance are associated with a greater tendency to (a) practice self-handicapping (Study 1: prefer to work under distraction; Study 2: withhold preparatory effort), (b) perform relatively poorly in a subsequent task (Study 3), (c) have relatively low academic achievement (Study 4), and (d) report a relatively low level of subjective well-being (Study 5). The authors discuss these results in terms of their educational implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Enhancing collaborative rule-making on global sustainability concerns through Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new opportunit......This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new...... opportunities for PD by pointing to social science oriented processes that may be strengthened by the theory and practice of PD. With a theoretical foundation in legal philosophy on legitimacy and steps towards a deliberative democratic evolution of norms of conduct for global concerns, the paper is concerned...... with opportunities to involve a global citizenry in the evolution of norms of conduct that may affect the lives and futures of individuals. The paper describes research potential for PD towards enhancing information technology assisted inclusion of views, needs and concerns of individuals in transnational rule...

  8. Participatory and action research as a transformative praxis: responding to humanitarian crises from the margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M Brinton

    2013-11-01

    This article reports on a small set of community-based participatory projects designed collaboratively by and for survivors directly affected by armed conflict in Guatemala and some of their family members in the North (i.e., in New Orleans, Louisiana, and New England). Local protagonists deeply scarred by war and gross violations of human rights drew on indigenous beliefs and practices, creativity, visual performance arts, and participatory and action research strategies to develop and perform collaborative community-based actions. These initiatives constitute a people's psychosocial praxis. Through their individual and collective narratives and actions, Mayan and African American women and Latinas perform a psychology from the "two-thirds world," one that draws on postcolonial theory and methodology to retheorize trauma and resilience. These voices, creative representations, and actions of women from the Global South transform earlier, partial efforts to decenter EuroAmerican epistemologies underlying dominant models of trauma that reduce complex collective phenomena to individual pathology, refer to continuous trauma as past, are ahistorical, and universalize culturally particular realities.

  9. The concept of participatory local sustainability projects in seven Chinese villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschalek, Ilse

    2008-04-01

    SUCCESS was a scientific, multi-disciplinary case study of seven selected villages in China, coordinated by the Viennese research institute Oikodrom in which I have been a team member for 6 years. We assembled an international team of researchers to work together with local team leaders with the aim of involving village dwellers in a sustainability negotiation process. The project had a strong bottom-up approach, combined with top-down elements. Using participatory research methods, village teams discussed and developed ideas for concrete sustainability-oriented projects in their villages. By the end of the 3-year study of SUCCESS, equipped with the seeds of a multiple-scenario building process and the appropriate funding, each of the seven case study villages had generated ideas for local sustainability-oriented projects and put them into practice. The outcome of this participatory process is manifold. One major impact of the implementation of local projects was their visibility which was crucial for the village dwellers' confidence and their motivation to become engaged in a decision making process. The experience of their successful participation in a decision making process empowered them for self-organisation processes or a civil society process. The small projects offered interesting theoretical insights into how local contexts impact upon village dweller's decision on appropriate sustainability interventions. How they are as well in line with characteristics of different types of villages that were carried out within the study will be shown in this article.

  10. The application of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in developing MSD interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, D C; Vitalis, A; Bentley, T A

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics projects are traditionally applied within one organisation. In this study, a participative approach was applied across the New Zealand meat processing industry, involving multiple organisations and geographical regions. The purpose was to develop interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk. This paper considers the value of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in achieving this. The main rationale for a participative approach included the need for industry credibility, and to generate MSD interventions that address industry level MSD risk factors. An industry key stakeholder group became the primary vehicle for formal participation. The study resulted in an intervention plan that included the wider work system and industry practices. These interventions were championed across the industry by the key stakeholder group and have extended beyond the life of the study. While this approach helped to meet the study aim, the existence of an industry-supported key stakeholder group and a mandate for the initiative are important prerequisites for success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. The Techniques of Participatory Design for Inclusive Public Space Provision in Kampung Kota of Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H Kusumaningdyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of participatory design is essential for the future development knowledge of architecture to inform the improvement of architectural education and practice in Asia. Therefore to provide of inclusive public spaces for the community, this research article presents a field study of the usage of community participation design method in design and planning to provide inclusive public spaces within the kampung (settlements in Surakarta, Indonesia. Surakarta has a problem to provide inclusive public space for its dense organic-informal kampung’s for the vulnerable populations such as children. Multi dimensional complexities of the kampung’s often challenge the notion of public space provision. Community participation approach arises as one of the preferred alternative methods to solve the problems with its basic community-based foundation. This research chose Sangkrah and Gandekan sub-districts as research locations both of the areas represent kampung’s characteristics and inhabited by many children population. Steps toward the goal of the study are; (1 field observation of the implementation of a community participation design through participatory place making project, and (2 examining typology assessment perspective, and (3 clarify participation techniques. This research used: (1 descriptive analysis for the project implementation, and (2 qualitative analysis for examining community’s perspectives. Through this multi-perspective analysis, this research presents the an alternative framework for implementing techniques community participation methods in design and planning to provide inclusive public spaces especially for children in Indonesia and other developing countries.

  12. Building community-based participatory research partnerships with a Somali refugee community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Crista E; Ali, Sagal A; Shipp, Michèle P-L

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. has become home to growing numbers of immigrants and refugees from countries where the traditional practice of female genital cutting (FGC) is prevalent. These women under-utilize reproductive health care, and challenge healthcare providers in providing culturally appropriate care. This study examined Somali immigrant women's experiences with the U.S. healthcare system, exploring how attitudes, perceptions, and cultural values, such as FGC, influence their use of reproductive health care. A mixed-method community-based participatory research (CBPR) collaboration with a Somali refugee community was conducted from 2005 to 2008 incorporating surveys, semi-structured focus groups, and individual interviews. Providers caring for this community were also interviewed to gain their perspectives and experiences. The process of establishing a partnership with a Somali community is described wherein the challenges, successes, and lessons learned in the process of conducting CBPR are examined. Challenges obtaining informed consent, language barriers, and reliance on FGC self-report were surmounted through mobilization of community social networks, trust-building, and the use of a video-elicitation device. The community partnership collaborated around shared goals of voicing unique healthcare concerns of the community to inform the development of interventional programs to improve culturally-competent care. Community-based participatory research using mixed-methods is critical to facilitating trust-building and engaging community members as active participants in every phase of the research process, enabling the rigorous and ethical conduct of research with refugee communities.

  13. At the cross-roads of participatory research and biomarker discovery in autism: the need for empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Afiqah; Elsabbagh, Mayada

    2015-12-15

    Identifying biomarkers for autism can improve outcomes for those affected by autism. Engaging the diverse stakeholders in the research process using community-based participatory research (CBPR) can accelerate biomarker discovery into clinical applications. However, there are limited examples of stakeholder involvement in autism research, possibly due to conceptual and practical concerns. We evaluate the applicability of CBPR principles to biomarker discovery in autism and critically review empirical studies adopting these principles. Using a scoping review methodology, we identified and evaluated seven studies using CBPR principles in biomarker discovery. The limited number of studies in biomarker discovery adopting CBPR principles coupled with their methodological limitations suggests that such applications are feasible but challenging. These studies illustrate three CBPR themes: community assessment, setting global priorities, and collaboration in research design. We propose that further research using participatory principles would be useful in accelerating the pace of discovery and the development of clinically meaningful biomarkers. For this goal to be successful we advocate for increased attention to previously identified conceptual and methodological challenges to participatory approaches in health research, including improving scientific rigor and developing long-term partnerships among stakeholders.

  14. Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative: an academic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura Hall; Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Yadrick, Kathy; Avis-Williams, Amanda; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Bogle, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been used to develop sustainable nutrition intervention strategies. Focus groups were conducted with 22 faculty and staff members from the academic partners on the project to document their perceptions of community-based participatory processes in a federally funded, multi-academic-community partnership spanning a decade. Focus groups were conducted to glean insights or lessons from the experiences of academic personnel. Focus groups were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Two researchers analyzed each transcript independently and reached consensus on the consistent themes. Participants candidly shared their experiences of working with community members to devise research plans, implement programs, and evaluate outcomes. The majority of faculty and staff members were attracted to this project by an excitement for conducting a more egalitarian and potentially more successful type of research. Yet each academic partner voiced that there was an underlying disconnect between community practices and research procedures during the project. Additional barriers to collaboration and action, located in communities and academic institutions, were described. Academic partners stressed the importance of open and ongoing communication, collective decision-making strategies, and techniques that support power sharing between all parties involved in the project. Findings from this research can inform academic-community partnerships and hopefully improve the community-based participatory research process implemented by academic institutions and communities.

  15. Motivation as an Elixir to Participatory Pedagogy for Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    his students so that they can effectively learn. The concept of participatory pedagogy, the relativity of motivation to students' performance, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and its effects in classroom instruction, some motivational theories and their relationship to learning, teachers' role in motivating students to learn and the.

  16. Participatory approach in production of information, education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory approach in production of information, education and communication materials for enhancement of community ownership and sustainability of ... aimed at reducing this scourge in some communities of Cross River State Nigeria, is the intensification of community mobilization and sensitisation using Information, ...

  17. Participatory curriculum development for training of extensionists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper represents the findings of participatory curriculum development process that was followed which included the assessment of training needs of irrigation extensionists and the identification of shortcomings in the occupational profile of irrigation extensionists. These results will be used to develop a conceptual ...

  18. Participatory action research in the training of primary health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to understand and be part of a process of change in the training of primary health care nurses in Venda. Methods:Because participatory action research (PAR), which is an emancipatory-critical paradigm, to a great extent shares the same worldview as adult education and sustainable ...

  19. Elections and the Politics of Participatory Democracy in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Election is a process to recruit political leadership, gauge popular preference, and demand responsible and responsive leadership. Participatory democracy refers to the nature of political system that allows for healthy disputations, debate and dissenting views on issues in the public domain. The governance process is a ...

  20. Participatory Photography: Can It Help Adult Learners Develop Agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a participatory photography project conducted with 10 socioeconomically disadvantaged adult learners for six weeks within the framework of production pedagogy. Throughout the project, the participants took photographs about their lives in response to three prompts that I gave: (1) take photographs of people that are important…