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Sample records for undermine doxastic voluntarism

  1. Against a Descriptive Vindication of Doxastic Voluntarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nottelmann, Nikolaj

    2017-01-01

    doxastic ethics, should they demonstrate that our typical practices of deontically evaluating doxastic states crucially rely on voluntarist assumptions. I also argue that some of the key arguments thought positively to support voluntarism as a psychological thesis may be put to better effect in the context......In this paper, I examine whether doxastic voluntarism should be taken seriously within normative doxastic ethics. First, I show that currently the psychological evidence does not positively support doxastic voluntarism, even if I accept recent conclusions by Matthias Steup that the relevant...

  2. Voluntarism and transparent deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic voluntar......It is widely assumed that doxastic deliberation is transparent to the factual question of the truth of the proposition being considered for belief, and that this sets doxastic deliberation apart from practical deliberation. This feature is frequently invoked in arguments against doxastic...

  3. Student voluntarism in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S A; Clark, C; Walfish, S

    1979-01-01

    The university student volunteer as a social change agent is in a period of transition. There is no returning to the idealism and activism of the 1960s if this and future generations of students continue to see self-preservation and individual advancement as their only viable option here in America. In view of the changing nature of today's students, the conventional definitions of volunteers, such as Shultz's (1972) altruist, average, and pseudo-volunteer, must be reconsidered. Does the acceptance of minimal pay or demand for academic credit preclude one's being a true altruist? Further, is altruism a necessary or sufficient condition of voluntarism? While we must attempt to answer these questions, the purpose here was to suggest viable first steps in reviving and enhancing student voluntarism. Some of the most salient points are: (1) Student volunteers provide critically needed services to the community, (2) Students are increasingly demanding tangible personal and educational gains for services through voluntarism, (3) Faculty support is vital to student voluntarism and they should be encouraged to actively design their classes to integrate classroom theory and practice through volunteering, and (4) The community agencies served should be active participants in the faculty, student, agency triad, and not merely passive recipients of services. The future of student voluntarism must be viewed in the larger context of changes occurring in the society-at-large, such as cynicism, mistrust of authority figures and leaders, and a move away from altruism and toward symbiosis and/or individualism. There is widespread disillusionment with "band-aid" approaches to solving enormous social problems, i.e., trying to help the few while some of society's most fundamental structures guarantee the perpetuation of poverty, crime, and general anomie. The rekindling of the ideology of cooperative altruism will take ingenuity and tireless effort. Meanwhile, if community psychology

  4. ABOUT THE OF DISCIPLINARY CONTENT OF DOXASTIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Gaf-Deac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article stated, in substance, that by accepting the hypothesis of continuing transformation of content and configuration "small worlds", along with developments in technology and behavioral sciences, necessarily supported the finding that mutations endo-exogenous influences organizational entity as a whole his notable consequences on management. Doxastic management is a new epistemological covered by copyright scientifically in 2013 (Ioan Gaf-Deac, Fundamentals of Doxastic Management, FMP, Bucharest, 2013, 508 pp., ISBN 978-606-93321-5-3. It appears that is not yet discerned neighborhood structure between the model, physical reality and metaphysical reality. It also considers that the segment infinite / finite (physical reality model possible site management, doxastic operating, new emphases on the horizon iterative expected idealization /aspirate. Quasi-complete objectification management decisions can be obtained by iterations and iteration as long as no detectable only certainty in the construction of finite elements, quasi-infinitesimal. Such a view is advanced through the management ranks to the original formula, for the first time, relying on conceptual refinement that pervades the environment, economic and social-productive, generally classified as systemic, for the beginning of the XXI century. Etymological explanatory are described aspects of doxastic and believe that management is global doxastic depositary of conceptual management. Describe the elements that define managerial complexity in terms of using new information technologies, shaping the early conceptual management and doxastic formulas disciplinary explanatory content doxastic management reflected in the conceptual doxometric premises management.

  5. Does Doxastic Responsibility Entail the Ability to Believe Otherwise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2013-01-01

    Whether responsibility for actions and omissions requires the ability to do otherwise is an important issue in contemporary philosophy. However, a closely related but distinct issue, namely whether doxastic responsibility requires the ability to believe otherwise, has been largely neglected. This

  6. CONSEQUENCES OF META-LINGUISTICS PARTICIPATION ON THE OPERATIONALIZATION OF DYNAMIC MANAGEMENT DOXASTIC LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I. Gaf-Deac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts from the thesis that proves non-invasive behavioral explaining differences, but the existence of operational priorities of the company / entity / enterprise lead to invasiveness. There are no known ways / methods / programming doxastic methods as long as management intervention can be treated as a hub that dominates hypertext / productive economic common rules the world. The phenomenon of identity management is far from meeting the full harmonization attitudinal decision-making process. Doxastic management is a new epistemological covered by copyright scientifically in 2013 (Ioan Gaf-Deac, Fundamentals of Doxastic Management, Ed. FMP, Bucharest, 2013, 508 pp., Sole author, ISBN 978-606-93321-5 -3. The paper described aspects of doxastic procedural behavior, situations tangible managerial decision in doxastic field. They are played and the comparison between deterministic doxastic systems analysis and managerial phenomena is considered to operationalize participation of doxastic meta-linguistic logic of dynamic management. Doxastic management simplicity and demarcation or limitation of positive action by doxastic management round alignments research.

  7. Undermining Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper engages the ongoing soft balancing debate by suggesting a new analytical framework for states’ countervailing strategies—a negative balancing model—to explain why states do not form alliances and conduct arms races to balance against power or threats as they previously did. Negative...... balancing refers to a state's strategies or diplomatic efforts aiming to undermine a rival's power. By contrast, positive balancing means to strengthen a state's own power in world politics. I argue that a state's balancing strategies are shaped by the level of threat perception regarding its rival...... in which the relatively low-threat propensity of the system renders positive balancing strategies incompatible with state interests after the Cold War. Instead, states have employed various negative balancing strategies to undermine each other's power, especially when dealing with us primacy. China...

  8. Voluntarism, health and place: bringing an emerging field into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Power, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Featuring a review of health geography contributions to the recent 'voluntary turn' in the health and social sciences, this paper introduces a theme section comprising five other papers that explore the links among voluntarism, health and place. The introductory paper elucidates the emergence of health voluntarism as a field of study within geography and highlights the crucial difference 'place' makes to understanding voluntary activity in the context of health, care and wellbeing. Questions are raised about theoretical, methodological and policy contributions and potential avenues for fulfilling a more inclusive 'health geographies of voluntarism' are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The double voluntarism in EU social dialogue and employment policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Leiber

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyse the development of new modes of governance in EU employment and social policy over the past two decades. In this field, a number of innovations can be observed. First, with the Maastricht Treaty, the right to draw up legislation was given to European social partners. Second, with the European Employment Strategy and the Open Method of Coordination, new instruments of coordinating national policies were introduced to EU policy-making. Recently, the latter instrument was incorporated into the social dialogue. Hence, we contend that a double voluntarism takes places that not only delegates responsibility for social policy to the social partners but also relies on soft rather than on hard law.

  10. Voluntarism as a Mediator of the Experience of Growing Old in Evolving Rural Spaces and Changing Rural Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alun E.; Skinner, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines voluntarism as a response to the challenges faced by people growing old in rural communities that are themselves being transformed in fundamental ways, both socially and demographically. Informed by evolving theorisations within the rural aging and geographies of voluntarism literatures, we outline the key processes in space…

  11. The doxastic shear pin: delusions as errors of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, S K; Corlett, P R

    2016-01-01

    We reconsider delusions in terms of a "doxastic shear pin", a mechanism that errs so as to prevent the destruction of the machine (brain) and permit continued function (in an attenuated capacity). Delusions may disable flexible (but energetically expensive) inference. With each recall, delusions may be reinforced further and rendered resistant to contradiction. We aim to respond to deficit accounts of delusions - that delusions are only a problem without any benefit - by considering delusion formation and maintenance in terms of predictive coding. We posit that brains conform to a simple computational principle: to minimize prediction error (the mismatch between prior top-down expectation and current bottom-up input) across hierarchies of brain regions and psychological representation. Recent data suggest that delusions may form in the absence of constraining top-down expectations. Then, once formed, they become new priors that motivate other beliefs, perceptions, and actions by providing strong (sometimes overriding) top-down expectation. We argue that delusions form when the shear-pin breaks, permitting continued engagement with an overwhelming world, and ongoing function in the face of paralyzing difficulty. This crucial role should not be ignored when we treat delusions: we need to consider how a person will function in the world without them..

  12. Coping with breast cancer survivorship in Chinese women: the role of fatalism or fatalistic voluntarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huilin; Sit, Janet W H; Twinn, Sheila F; Cheng, Karis K F; Thorne, Sally

    2013-01-01

    The existing knowledge on fatalism in the field of cancer has arisen largely from the cancer prevention and screening literature. Little is known about the role of fatalism in cancer survivorship, particularly within Chinese population. This study aimed to explore the role of fatalism in coping with breast cancer survivorship in Chinese women. In-depth interviews were conducted on 29 participants selected from those who attended a local cancer self-help organization in China. Interview transcripts were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Although they actively engaged in emotional regulation and self-care management to cope with survivorship, participants believed in fatalism and accepted their inability to change the final outcome of cancer. Such contradictory behavioral and cognitive aspects of coping reported by participants highlighted the role of a complex belief system involving Ming in positively influencing the interpretation of fatalism and the actual coping efforts taken. Findings suggest that fatalism related to coping in the Chinese context combined 2 elements: fatalistic belief in and acceptance of the way things are as well as the exertion of personal efforts over the situation. As such, it seems more effectively depicted in terms of the emerging concept "fatalistic voluntarism." When planning intervention for Chinese population, incorporating fatalistic voluntarism as a cognitive belief system in the process of adaptation to survivorship may be more culturally relevant for facilitating their coping behaviors.

  13. Emerging from the tragedies in Bangladesh: a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Björn Skorpen

    2015-02-01

    Under the regime of private company or multi-stakeholder voluntary codes of conduct and industry social auditing, workers have absorbed low wages and unsafe and abusive conditions; labor leaders and union members have become the targets of both government and factory harassment and violence; and trade union power has waned. Nowhere have these private systems of codes and audits so clearly failed to protect workers as in Bangladesh's apparel industry. However, international labor groups and Bangladeshi unions have succeeded in mounting a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy, persuading more than 180 companies to make a binding and enforceable commitment to workers' safety in an agreement with 12 unions. The extent to which this Bangladesh Accord will be able to influence the entrenched global regime of voluntary codes and weak trade unions remains an open question. But if the Accord can make progress in Bangladesh, it can help to inspire similar efforts in other countries and in other industries. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  14. Epistemic and doxastic logic with restrictions Lógicas epistémica y doxástica con restricciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sierra A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Are presented as extensions of classical propositional calculus hierarchies of deductive systems LDR–n and LER–n with n > 1. LER–n is the epistemic logic with restrictions, LDR–n is the doxastic logic with restrictions. The systems LER–1 and LDR–1 are the classical propositional calculus. System LER–(n + 1 can be seen as the result of applying the rule: if X is theorem of LER–n then +X is theorem of LER–(n + 1. Systems also restricts the validity of the axioms +(X → Y → (+X → +Y and +X → X, in terms of depth (complexity with respect to the operator + of X and Y , and also includes restricted versions of the axioms of positive and negative introspection. LER system results from the union of LER–n systems, and can be seen as the S5 modal logic system with different types of restrictions. Changing +X → X by +X →∼+∼X are built LDR–n and the LDR systems. LDR can be seen as the KD45 modal logic system with different types of restrictions. The systems are characterized with a embedded worlds semantics, with which the ‘omniscience logical problem’ is limited.Se presentan como extensiones del cálculo proposicional clásico las jerarquías de sistemas deductivos LER–n y LDR–n, con n ≥ 1. LER–n es la Lógica epistémica con restricciones de profundidad–n, LDR–n es la Lógica doxástica con restricciones de profundidad–n. Los sistemas LER–1 y LDR–1 son el cálculo proposicional clásico. El sistema LER–(n + 1 puede ser visto como el resultado de aplicar la regla: de X se infiere +X, una vez a los teoremas del sistema LER–n, además, se restringe la validez de los axiomas +(X → Y → (+X → +Y y +X → X en términos de la profundidad (complejidad respecto al operador + de X y de Y , y también se incluyen versiones generalizadas y con restricciones de los axiomas de introspección positiva y negativa. El sistema LER resulta de la reunión de los sistemas de la jerarquía, y puede ser visto

  15. Empowering the Youth Through Voluntarism: University of the Philippines Graduates as Volunteer Teachers (1998-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martial Santillan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1994, the University of the Philippines established Ugnayan ng Pahinungod as the premier state university’s volunteer service program to promote engaged citizenship among its constituents and to integrate voluntarism into the university’s academic functions of teaching, research and extension. Launched in 1997, the Gurong Pahinungod (Volunteer Teacher Program became the centerpiece initiative of this program. It was designed to deploy volunteers for one academic year, as subject-matter teachers in basic education courses such as English, history, mathematics and science in underserved areas identified by the Department of Education. The program was viewed by Pahinungod’s advocates as the university’s intervention in dealing with the problems besetting the public education sector such as shortage of teachers and low quality of instruction. This article examines the modes of intervention employed by volunteer teachers as bearers of change in communities, from 1998 to 2003. It also attempts to analyze the discourses of empowerment contained in the mass of documents produced throughout the first five years of existence of the program. The discourses of empowerment and identity as practiced and constructed by the volunteer teachers showed two key levels of empowerment in their experiences and thoughts. The first level is the self-fulfillment of volunteers in sharing their time, skills and knowledge as teachers cum community workers. The other level of empowerment is the volunteers’ realization that they were really the ones being empowered because they learned more from the community and grew to be better individuals out of the experience.

  16. Against Doxastic Compatibilism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    William Alston has argued that the so-called deontological conception of epistemic justification, on which epistemic justification is to be spelled out in terms of blame, responsibility, and obligations, is untenable. The basic idea of the argument is that this conception is untenable because we

  17. Epistemic and Doxastic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Holm

    on mathematics and computer science. Planning is the mental capacity that allow us to predict the outcome of our actions, thereby enabling us to exhibit goal-directed behaviour. We often make use of planning when facing new situations, where we cannot rely on entrenched habits, and the capacity to plan...... is therefore closely related to the reflective system of humans. Logic is the study of reasoning. From certain fixed principles logic enables us to make sound and rational inferences, and as such the discpline is virtually impossible to get around when working with AI. The basis of automated planning, the term...... and dynamics, that is, systems that allow us to formally reason about these aspects. By letting these elements be used in a planning context, we obtain a system that extends the degree to which goaldirected behaviour can, at present, be captured by automated planning. In this thesis we concretely apply dynamic...

  18. On the alleged memory-undermining effects of daydreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Cleere, Colleen; Merckelbach, Harald; Peters, Maarten; Jelicic, Marko; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2016-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined the memory-undermining effects of daydreaming for (un)related stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, we tested whether daydreaming fosters forgetting of semantically interrelated material and hence, catalyzes false memory production. In Experiment 3, we examined the memory effects of different daydreaming instructions. In Experiment 1, daydreaming did not undermine correct recall of semantically interrelated words, nor did it affect false memories. In Experiment 2, we again failed to find that daydreaming exerted memory-undermining effects a. In Experiment 3, no memory effects were obtained using different daydreaming instructions. Together, our studies fail to show appreciable memory-undermining effects of daydreaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A discursive formation that undermined integration at a historically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thinking; the dominant discursive frame of teachers was one of student deficit. These regularities point to a discursive formation (Foucault, 1977) that undermine integration and would reproduce previous racialised inequalities. Finally, an explanation of the discursive formation is touched on followed by recommendations.

  20. Monitoring and analysis of surface changes from undermining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kajzar, Vlastimil; Doležalová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2013), s. 1-10 ISSN 1802-5420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : undermining * surface changes * surveying methods Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining http://gse.vsb.cz/2013/LIX-2013-4-1-10.pdf

  1. Failing the vulnerable: Three new consent norms that will undermine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... shows, using a range of case studies, how important HIV-related research will be halted or undermined if the current provisions ... of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa; and African Centre for Migration and Society, .... contemporary issues that must be responded to.

  2. Welfare Architecture and voluntarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Ibsen, Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    The role of the Third Sector within European society is an extremely topical subject, as both governments and the EU continue to consider the role these organizations can play in providing essential public services. This book presents contemporary research into this emerging area, exploring...... the contribution of this important sector to European society as well as the key challenges that the sector and its components organizations face in making this contribution. This volume brings together for the first time a range of challenging perspectives upon the role and import of the Third Sector for European...... society from a variety of disciplines - including economics, sociology, political science, management and public policy. Areas covered include the Third Sector civil society and democracy, relationships with government, its impact on social and public policy, the growth of social enterprise and of hybrid...

  3. Welfare Architecture and Voluntarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas P.; Ibsen, Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    The role of the Third Sector within European society is an extremely topical subject, as both governments and the EU continue to consider the role these organizations can play in providing essential public services. This book presents contemporary research into this emerging area, exploring the c...

  4. Will Biomedical Enhancements Undermine Solidarity, Responsibility, Equality and Autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Ori

    2009-01-01

    Prominent thinkers such as Jurgen Habermas and Michael Sandel are warning that biomedical enhancements will undermine fundamental political values. Yet, whether biomedical enhancements will undermine such values depends on how biomedical enhancements will function, how they will be administered and to whom. Since only few enhancements are obtainable, it is difficult to tell whether their predictions are sound. Nevertheless, such warnings are extremely valuable. As a society we must, at the very least, be aware of developments that could have harmful consequences. Indeed, if important values would be jeopardized, we should take appropriate measures to protect them. This paper focuses on four central values: solidarity, personal responsibility, equality and autonomy. It delineates the conditions under which biomedical enhancements would undermine these values. It also details the circumstances under which these values would be unaffected by enhancements as well as those under which they would be promoted. Specifying these conditions is valuable; it would enable society to prepare appropriate ethical guidelines and policy responses in advance. PMID:20002073

  5. Workplace wellness programs: how regulatory flexibility might undermine success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act revised the law related to workplace wellness programs, which have become part of the nation's broader health strategy. Health-contingent programs are required to be reasonably designed. However, the regulatory requirements are lax and might undermine program efficacy in terms of both health gains and financial return. I propose a method for the government to support a best-practices approach by considering an accreditation or certification process. Additionally I discuss the need for program evaluation and the potential for employers to be subject to litigation if programs are not carefully implemented.

  6. Risk factors for the undermined coal bed mining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arad, V. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Arad, S. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The Romanian mining industry has been in a serious decline and is undergoing ample restructuring. Analyses of reliability and risk are most important during the early stages of a project in guiding the decision as to whether or not to proceed and in helping to establish design criteria. A technical accident occurred in 2008 at the Petrila coal mine involving an explosion during the exploitation of a coal seam. Over time a series of technical accidents, such as explosions and ignitions of methane gas, roof blowing phenomena or self-ignition of coal and hazard combustions have occurred. This paper presented an analysis of factors that led to this accident as well an analysis of factors related to the mining method. Specifically, the paper discussed the geomechanical characteristics of rocks and coal; the geodynamic phenomenon from working face 431; the spontaneous combustion phenomenon; gas accumulation; and the pressure and the height of the undermined coal bed. It was concluded that for the specific conditions encountered in Petrila colliery, the undermined bed height should be between 5 and 7 metres, depending on the geomechanic characteristics of coal and surrounding rocks. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. How social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jan; Rauhut, Heiko; Schweitzer, Frank; Helbing, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Social groups can be remarkably smart and knowledgeable when their averaged judgements are compared with the judgements of individuals. Already Galton [Galton F (1907) Nature 75:7] found evidence that the median estimate of a group can be more accurate than estimates of experts. This wisdom of crowd effect was recently supported by examples from stock markets, political elections, and quiz shows [Surowiecki J (2004) The Wisdom of Crowds]. In contrast, we demonstrate by experimental evidence (N = 144) that even mild social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect in simple estimation tasks. In the experiment, subjects could reconsider their response to factual questions after having received average or full information of the responses of other subjects. We compare subjects’ convergence of estimates and improvements in accuracy over five consecutive estimation periods with a control condition, in which no information about others’ responses was provided. Although groups are initially “wise,” knowledge about estimates of others narrows the diversity of opinions to such an extent that it undermines the wisdom of crowd effect in three different ways. The “social influence effect” diminishes the diversity of the crowd without improvements of its collective error. The “range reduction effect” moves the position of the truth to peripheral regions of the range of estimates so that the crowd becomes less reliable in providing expertise for external observers. The “confidence effect” boosts individuals’ confidence after convergence of their estimates despite lack of improved accuracy. Examples of the revealed mechanism range from misled elites to the recent global financial crisis. PMID:21576485

  8. When does familiarity promote versus undermine interpersonal attraction? A proposed integrative model from erstwhile adversaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frost, J.H.; Finkel, E.J.; Norton, M.I.; Ariely, D.; Caprariello, P.A.; Eastwick, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear that the limitations of our

  9. Neural basis of the undermining effect of monetary reward on intrinsic motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Matsumoto, Madoka; Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the widespread belief that people are positively motivated by reward incentives, some studies have shown that performance-based extrinsic reward can actually undermine a person's intrinsic motivation to engage in a task. This “undermining effect” has timely practical implications, given the burgeoning of performance-based incentive systems in contemporary society. It also presents a theoretical challenge for economic and reinforcement learning theories, which tend to assume that monetary incentives monotonically increase motivation. Despite the practical and theoretical importance of this provocative phenomenon, however, little is known about its neural basis. Herein we induced the behavioral undermining effect using a newly developed task, and we tracked its neural correlates using functional MRI. Our results show that performance-based monetary reward indeed undermines intrinsic motivation, as assessed by the number of voluntary engagements in the task. We found that activity in the anterior striatum and the prefrontal areas decreased along with this behavioral undermining effect. These findings suggest that the corticobasal ganglia valuation system underlies the undermining effect through the integration of extrinsic reward value and intrinsic task value. PMID:21078974

  10. Belief-Policies Cannot Ground Doxastic Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2013-01-01

    William Alston has provided a by now well-known objection to the deontological conception of epistemic justification by arguing that since we lack control over our beliefs, we are not responsible for them. It is widely acknowledged that if Alston's argument is convincing, then it seems that the very

  11. [Closure of cystic cavity-type bedsore by subcutaneous undermining dissection with continuous negative pressure drainage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Guo, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Ke-Hua; Zhao, Dong-Hong; Han, Tong; Lang, Yu-Hong; Peng, Li-Jun

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of subcutaneous undermining dissection with continuous negative pressure drainage for the closure of cystic cavity-type bedsore. 12 patients with cystic cavity-type bedsore underwent surgical debridement and the wounds were closed after subcutaneous undermining dissection. The negative pressure drainage was put in the deep space. The healing process was observed. Completed healing was achieved in all the 12 cases. The skin wounds healed after 17-20 days and the deep spaces closed after 36-43 days. 12 cases were followed up for 1 year with no occurrence. It is an easy and effective method to treat cystic cavity -type bedsore by subcutaneous undermining dissection with continuous negative pressure drainage.

  12. Do Treatment Manuals Undermine Youth-Therapist Alliance in Community Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, David A.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Some critics of treatment manuals have argued that their use may undermine the quality of the client-therapist alliance. This notion was tested in the context of youth psychotherapy delivered by therapists in community clinics. Method: Seventy-six clinically referred youths (57% female, age 8-15 years, 34% Caucasian) were randomly…

  13. Oxygenation and microcirculation during skin stretching in undermined and nonundermined skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, Paris; Noorlander, Maril L.; van der Kleij, Ad J.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to assess the skin microcirculation of undermined and nonundermined wound edges closed with a skin-stretching device. In eight piglets, 9 X 9-cm wounds were created on both flanks by excision of the skin and the subcutaneous layer down to the muscular fascia,

  14. How Patronage Politics Undermines Parental Participation and Accountability: Community-Managed Schools in Honduras and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how patronage politics affects a popular international education model: community-managed schools (CMS). Focusing on Honduras's CMS initiative, PROHECO (Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria), I demonstrate how patronage can undermine CMS accountability. Whereas supporters argue that CMS increases accountability, partisan…

  15. Do Economic Problems at Home Undermine Worker Safety Abroad? : A Panel Study, 1980-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, S.; Prakash, A.

    Do economic downturns in the Global North undermine worker safety in the Global South? Literature suggests that bilateral trade linkages lead to the diffusion of “good” labor standards from importing countries of the Global North to exporting countries of the Global South. The crucial mechanism is

  16. Undermining Anarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, Thomas; Husted, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on concepts rooted in cybernetics and anarchist political theory, this article argues that the shift in Occupy Wall Street from being a physical protest camp in late 2011 to an online movement in 2012 coincided with a shift in social media activity. Analysis of Facebook activity suggests...

  17. Undermining 'data'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    2013-01-01

    or the veracity of, but not the existence of. This article critically examines the concept of ‘data’ within larger questions of research method and frameworks for scientific inquiry. The current dominance of the term ‘data’ and ‘big data’ in discussions of scientific inquiry as well as everyday advertising...

  18. Different levels of undermining in face lift - Experience of 141 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panettiere Pietro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The most revolutionary concept in rhytidectomy is the role of Sub Muscular Aponeurotic System (SMAS, even if many alternative approaches have been proposed. The main aim of face lift is to bring back the time, preventing the "lifted-face" appearance. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The authors present their personal experience with different levels of undermining, i.e. subperiosteal forehead lift, subcutaneous midface lift with SMAS plication and platysmal suspension, and discuss the anatomical and biomechanical elements of rhytidectomy. RESULTS: Optimal aesthetic results were achieved by repositioning the neck, face and forehead tissues in a global and harmonious fashion, without distorting face characteristics and disguising surgery trails as much as possible. CONCLUSIONS: Different levels of undermining can give good and stable aesthetic results minimizing the risks and preventing face distortion.

  19. A comparative evaluation of four restorative materials to support undermined occlusal enamel of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the support to undermined occlusal enamel provided by posterior restorative composite (FiltekTM P60, 3M Dental products USA, polyacid modified resin composite (F2000 compomer, 3M Dental products, USA., radiopaque silver alloy-glass ionomer cement (Miracle Mix. GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan and Glass Ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP. To test each material, 20 human permanent mandibular third molars were selected. The lingual cusps were removed and the dentin supporting the facial cusps was cut away, leaving a shell of enamel. Each group of prepared teeth was restored using the materials according to the manufacturer′s instructions. All the specimens were thermocycled (250 cycles, 6°C- 60°C, dwell time 30 seconds and then mounted on an acrylic base. Specimens were loaded evenly across the cusp tips at a crosshead speed of 5 mm /minute in Hounsfield universal testing machine until fracture occurred. Data obtained was analyzed using analysis of variance and Studentized- Newman- Keul′s range test. No significant differences were detected in the support provided by P-60, F 2000, Miracle Mix or Fuji IX GP groups. The support provided to undermined occlusal enamel by these materials was intermediate between no support and that provided by sound dentin. Without further development in dental material technology and evidence of its efficacy, restorative materials should not be relied upon to support undermined occlusal enamel to a level comparable to that provided by sound dentin.

  20. Undermining belief in false memories leads to less efficient problem-solving behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqin; Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Nahouli, Zacharia

    2017-08-01

    Memories of events for which the belief in the occurrence of those events is undermined, but recollection is retained, are called nonbelieved memories (NBMs). The present experiments examined the effects of NBMs on subsequent problem-solving behaviour. In Experiment 1, we challenged participants' beliefs in their memories and examined whether NBMs affected subsequent solution rates on insight-based problems. True and false memories were elicited using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Then participants' belief in true and false memories was challenged by telling them the item had not been presented. We found that when the challenge led to undermining belief in false memories, fewer problems were solved than when belief was not challenged. In Experiment 2, a similar procedure was used except that some participants solved the problems one week rather than immediately after the feedback. Again, our results showed that undermining belief in false memories resulted in lower problem solution rates. These findings suggest that for false memories, belief is an important agent in whether memories serve as effective primes for immediate and delayed problem-solving.

  1. Providing Extrinsic Reward for Test Performance Undermines Long-Term Memory Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Aslan, Alp; Emmerdinger, Kathrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Based on numerous studies showing that testing studied material can improve long-term retention more than restudying the same material, it is often suggested that the number of tests in education should be increased to enhance knowledge acquisition. However, testing in real-life educational settings often entails a high degree of extrinsic motivation of learners due to the common practice of placing important consequences on the outcome of a test. Such an effect on the motivation of learners may undermine the beneficial effects of testing on long-term memory because it has been shown that extrinsic motivation can reduce the quality of learning. To examine this issue, participants learned foreign language vocabulary words, followed by an immediate test in which one-third of the words were tested and one-third restudied. To manipulate extrinsic motivation during immediate testing, participants received either monetary reward contingent on test performance or no reward. After 1 week, memory for all words was tested. In the immediate test, reward reduced correct recall and increased commission errors, indicating that reward reduced the number of items that can benefit from successful retrieval. The results in the delayed test revealed that reward additionally reduced the gain received from successful retrieval because memory for initially successfully retrieved words was lower in the reward condition. However, testing was still more effective than restudying under reward conditions because reward undermined long-term memory for concurrently restudied material as well. These findings indicate that providing performance-contingent reward in a test can undermine long-term knowledge acquisition.

  2. The compassionate sexist? How benevolent sexism promotes and undermines gender equality in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Ferris, D Lance

    2016-11-01

    Although sexist attitudes are generally thought to undermine support for employment equity (EE) policies supporting women, we argue that the effects of benevolent sexism are more complex. Across 4 studies, we extend the ambivalent sexism literature by examining both the positive and the negative effects benevolent sexism has for the support of gender-based EE policies. On the positive side, we show that individuals who endorse benevolent sexist attitudes on trait measures of sexism (Study 1) and individuals primed with benevolent sexist attitudes (Study 2) are more likely to support an EE policy, and that this effect is mediated by feelings of compassion. On the negative side, we find that this support extends only to EE policies that promote the hiring of women in feminine, and not in masculine, positions (Study 3 and 4). Thus, while benevolent sexism may appear to promote gender equality, it subtly undermines it by contributing to occupational gender segregation and leading to inaction in promoting women in positions in which they are underrepresented (i.e., masculine positions). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Will the introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing for Down's syndrome undermine informed choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silcock, Caroline; Liao, Lih-Mei; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether the introduction of non-invasive pre-natal testing for Down's syndrome (DS) has the potential to undermine informed choice. Three hundred and ninety-three health professionals; 523 pregnant women. A cross-sectional questionnaire study across nine maternity units and three conferences in the UK designed to assess opinions regarding test delivery and how information should be communicated to women when offered Down's syndrome screening (DSS) or diagnosis using invasive (IDT) or non-invasive testing (NIPT). Both pregnant women and health professionals in the NIPT and DSS groups were less likely than the IDT group to consider that testing should take place at a return visit or that obtaining written consent was necessary, and more likely to think testing should be carried out routinely. Compared to health professionals, pregnant women expressed a stronger preference for testing to occur on the same day as pre-test counselling (P = 0.000) and for invasive testing to be offered routinely (P = 0.000). They were also more likely to indicate written consent as necessary for DSS (P = 0.000) and NIPT (P test types. These differences suggest that informed choice may be undermined with the introduction of NIPT for DS into clinical practice. To maintain high standards of care, effective professional training programmes and practice guidelines are needed which prioritize informed consent and take into account the views and needs of service users. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Undermining the rules in home care services for the elderly in Norway: flexibility and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollscheid, Sabine; Eriksen, John; Hallvik, Jørgen

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the provision of home care services (home nursing and domiciliary help) for the elderly in Norwegian municipalities with purchaser-provider split model. The study draws on the assumption that flexibility in adjusting services to the care receivers' needs, and cooperation between provider and purchasers are indicators of good quality of care. Data were collected through semi-structured telephone interviews with 22 team leaders of provider units in nine municipalities. Data were collected in 2008-2009. The study has been approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. We identified four different ways of organising home care services under a purchaser-provider split model: Provider empowerment, New Public Management, Vague instructions and undermining the rules. High flexibility in providing care and cooperation with the purchaser unit were identified by the team leaders as characteristics for good care. Our findings suggest that the care providers use individual strategies that allow flexibility and cooperation rather than rigidly abiding to the regulations the purchaser-provider split models implies. Ironically, in provider units where the 'rules were undermined', the informants (team leaders of provider units) seemed to be most satisfied with the quality of home care that they delivered. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Financial Motivation Undermines Maintenance in an Intensive Diet and Activity Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlen C. Moller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial incentives are widely used in health behavior interventions. However, self-determination theory posits that emphasizing financial incentives can have negative consequences if experienced as controlling. Feeling controlled into performing a behavior tends to reduce enjoyment and undermine maintenance after financial contingencies are removed (the undermining effect. We assessed participants’ context-specific financial motivation to participate in the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing four different strategies for improving four health risk behaviors: low fruit and vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary screen time. The primary outcome was overall healthy lifestyle change; weight loss was a secondary outcome. Financial incentives were contingent upon meeting behavior goals for 3 weeks and became contingent upon merely providing data during the 4.5-month maintenance period. Financial motivation for participation was assessed at baseline using a 7-item scale (=.97. Across conditions, a main effect of financial motivation predicted a steeper rate of weight regained during the maintenance period, (165=2.15, =.04. Furthermore, financial motivation and gender interacted significantly in predicting maintenance of healthy diet and activity changes, (160=2.42, =.016, such that financial motivation had a more deleterious influence among men. Implications for practice and future research on incentivized lifestyle and weight interventions are discussed.

  6. Seven Dirty Words: Hot-Button Language That Undermines Interprofessional Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Peter S

    2017-08-01

    An increasingly common goal of health professions education is preparing learners to collaborate with the full range of members on a health care team. While curriculum developers have identified many logistical and conceptual barriers to interprofessional education, one overlooked factor threatens to undermine interprofessional education and practice: language. Language reveals the mental metaphors governing thoughts and actions. The words that faculty members and health care providers use send messages that can-consciously or not-undermine explicit lessons about valuing each member of the care team. Too often, word choices make visible hierarchies in health care that may contradict overt messages about collaboration.In this Perspective, the author draws on his experience as an outsider coming to academic medicine, noticing that certain words triggered negative responses in colleagues from different professions. He reflects on some of the most charged (or hot-button) words commonly heard in health care and educational settings and suggests possible alternatives that have similar denotations but that also have more collaborative connotations. By exploring seven of these dirty words, the author intends to raise awareness about the unintended effects of word choices. Changing exclusionary language may help promote the adoption of new metaphors for professional relationships that will more easily facilitate interprofessional collaboration and reinforce the formal messages about collaborative practice aimed at learners.

  7. Stereotype threat engenders neural attentional bias toward negative feedback to undermine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Leitner, Jordan B

    2014-10-01

    Stereotype threat, a situational pressure individuals experience when they fear confirming a negative group stereotype, engenders a cascade of physiological stress responses, negative appraisals, and performance monitoring processes that tax working memory resources necessary for optimal performance. Less is known, however, about how stereotype threat biases attentional processing in response to performance feedback, and how such attentional biases may undermine performance. Women received feedback on math problems in stereotype threatening compared to stereotype-neutral contexts while continuous EEG activity was recorded. Findings revealed that stereotype threatened women elicited larger midline P100 ERPs, increased phase locking between anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (two regions integral for attentional processes), and increased power in left fusiform gyrus in response to negative feedback compared to positive feedback and women in stereotype-neutral contexts. Increased power in left fusiform gyrus in response to negative feedback predicted underperformance on the math task among stereotype threatened women only. Women in stereotype-neutral contexts exhibited the opposite trend. Findings suggest that in stereotype threatening contexts, neural networks integral for attention and working memory are biased toward negative, stereotype confirming feedback at very early speeds of information processing. This bias, in turn, plays a role in undermining performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Committee Opinion No. 683: Behavior That Undermines a Culture of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A key element of an organizational safety culture is maintaining an environment of professionalism that encourages communication and promotes high-quality care. Behavior that undermines a culture of safety, including disruptive or intimidating behavior, has a negative effect on the quality and safety of patient care. Intimidating behavior and disruptive behavior are unprofessional and should not be tolerated. Confronting disruptive individuals is difficult. Co-workers often are reluctant to report disruptive behavior because of fear of retaliation and the stigma associated with "blowing the whistle" on a colleague. Additionally, negative behavior of revenue-generating physicians may be overlooked because of concern about the perceived consequences of confronting them. The Joint Commission requires that hospitals establish a code of conduct that "defines acceptable behavior and behavior that undermines a culture of safety." Clear standards of behavior that acknowledge the consequences of disruptive and intimidating behavior must be established and communicated. Institutions and practices should develop a multifaceted approach to address disruptive behavior. Confidential reporting systems and assistance programs for physicians who exhibit disruptive behavior should be established. A concerted effort should be made within each organization to educate staff (ie, medical, nursing, and ancillary staff) about the potential negative effects of disruptive and inappropriate behavior. A clearly delineated hospital-wide policy and procedure relating to disruptive behavior should be developed and enforced by hospital administration. To preserve professional standing, physicians should understand how to respond to and mitigate the effect of complaints or reports.

  9. Costa Rica's 'White legend': how racial narratives undermine its health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Meagher, Karen

    2011-08-01

    A dominant cultural narrative within Costa Rica describes Costa Ricans not only as different from their Central American neighbours, but it also exalts them as better: specifically, as more white, peaceful, egalitarian and democratic. This notion of Costa Rican exceptionalism played a key role in the creation of their health care system, which is based on the four core principles of equity, universality, solidarity and obligation. While the political justification and design of the current health care system does, in part, realize this ideal, we argue that the narrative of Costa Rican exceptionalism prevents the full actualization of these principles by marginalizing and excluding disadvantaged groups, especially indigenous and black citizens and the substantial Nicaraguan minority. We offer three suggestions to mitigate the self-undermining effects of the dominant national narrative: 1) encouragement and development of counternarratives; 2) support of an emerging field of Costa Rican bioethics; and 3) decoupling health and national successes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Engineering Barriers to Infection by Undermining Pathogen Effector Function or by Gaining Effector Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim; Mclellan, Hazel; Aguilar, Geziel Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews potential disease control strategies by employing the current understanding of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) and their receptors, as well as effectors and their targets. It discusses how effectoromics, i.e. surveying which, and to what level, effectors......-LRR transcript regulation that involves small RNAs is currently emerging and could potentially be explored in the search for more durable and/or broad-spectrum pathogen resistance. The chapter suggests ways that can be used to undermine effector function and be exploited to engineer resistant plants...... in the future. It further illustrates how a mechanistic understanding of a pathogen's stealth strategies may allow new approaches to engineer resistance....

  11. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Arlen C.; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit–vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  12. Do Reputation Systems Undermine Trust? Divergent Effects of Enforcement Type on Generalized Trust and Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Research shows that enforcing cooperation using contracts or tangible sanctions can backfire, undermining people's intrinsic motivation to cooperate: when the enforcement is removed, people are less trusting or trustworthy than when there is no enforcement to begin with. The author examines whether reputation systems have similar consequences for generalized trust and trustworthiness. Using a web-based experiment simulating online market transactions (studies 1 and 2), he shows that reputation systems can reinforce generalized trust and trustworthiness, unlike contractual enforcement or relational enforcement based on repeated interactions. In a survey experiment (study 3), he finds that recalling their eBay feedback scores made participants more trusting and trustworthy. These results are predicated on the diffuse nature of reputational enforcement to reinforce perceptions of trust and trustworthiness. These results have implications for understanding how different forms of governance affect generalized trust and trustworthiness.

  13. Stereotype threat strengthens automatic recall and undermines controlled processes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Morisset, Pauline; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    The threat of being judged stereotypically (stereotype threat) may impair memory performance in older adults, thereby producing inflated age differences in memory tasks. However, the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat in older adults or other stigmatized groups remain poorly understood. Here, we offer evidence that stereotype threat consumes working memory resources in older adults. More important, using a process-dissociation procedure, we found, for the first time, that stereotype threat undermines the controlled use of memory and simultaneously intensifies automatic response tendencies. These findings indicate that competing models of stereotype threat are actually compatible and offer further reasons for researchers and practitioners to pay special attention to age-related stereotypes during standardized neuropsychological testing.

  14. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bvudzai P Magadzire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  15. 76 FR 45653 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Actions of Certain Persons to Undermine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... undermine Lebanese sovereignty and contribute to political and economic instability in that country and the region and constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of... institutions and certain other persons, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C...

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma Surgery: Simple Undermining Approach in Two Patients with Different Tumour Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common human malignancy, accounting for the majority of all non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC. In the past several decades the worldwide incidence of BCC has constantly been increasing. Even though it is a slow growing tumour that, left untreated, rarely metastasizes, it has a distinctive invasive growth pattern, posing a considerable risk for local invasion and destruction of underlying tissues, such as muscle, cartilage, bone or vital structures. Advanced BCCs include such locally invasive or metastatic tumours. Complete surgical excision is the standard therapy for most uncomplicated BCC cases with good prognosis and cure rates. Treatment of advanced forms of BCCs poses significant therapeutic challenges, most often requiring complicated surgery, radiotherapy, and/or targeted therapies directed towards the sonic hedgehog signalling pathway (SHH. We present two cases of large BCCs located on the scalp and posterior thorax, which underwent surgical excision with clear margins, followed by reconstruction of the defect after extensive undermining of the skin.

  17. International-local remuneration differences across six countries: do they undermine poverty reduction work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Stuart C; McWha, Ishbel; Maclachlan, Malcolm; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    Despite the rhetoric of a single global economy, professionals in poorer countries continue to be remunerated differently depending on whether they are compensated at a local vs. international rate. Project ADDUP (Are Development Discrepancies Undermining Performance?) surveyed 1290 expatriate and local professionals (response rate = 47%) from aid, education, government, and business sectors in (1) Island Nations (Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands), (2) landlocked economies (Malaŵi, Uganda), and (3) emerging economies (India, China). Difference in pay was estimated using purchasing power parity, from the World Bank's World Development Indicators 2007. Psychological measures included self-reported pay and benefits (remuneration), self-attributed ability, remuneration comparison, sense of justice in remuneration, remuneration-related motivation, thoughts of turnover and thoughts about international mobility. We included control measures of candour, culture shock, cultural values (horizontal/vertical individualism/collectivism), personality (from the "big five"), job satisfaction and work engagement. Controlling for these and country (small effects) and organization effects (medium), (a) pay ratios between international and local workers exceeded what were perceived to be acceptable pay thresholds among respondents remunerated locally; who also reported a combination of a sense of relative (b) injustice and demotivation; which (c) together with job satisfaction/work engagement predicted turnover and international mobility. These findings question the wisdom of dual salary systems in general, expose and challenge a major contradiction between contemporary development policy and practice, and have a range of practical, organizational, and theoretical implications for poverty reduction work.

  18. Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopipero, Peggy Ann; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter‐writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Conclusions Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies. PMID:16885582

  19. African Trypanosomes Undermine Humoral Responses and Vaccine Development: Link with Inflammatory Responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Stijlemans

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease of great medical and socioeconomical importance. It is caused by strictly extracellular protozoan parasites capable of infecting all vertebrate classes including human, livestock, and game animals. To survive within their mammalian host, trypanosomes have evolved efficient immune escape mechanisms and manipulate the entire host immune response, including the humoral response. This report provides an overview of how trypanosomes initially trigger and subsequently undermine the development of an effective host antibody response. Indeed, results available to date obtained in both natural and experimental infection models show that trypanosomes impair homeostatic B-cell lymphopoiesis, B-cell maturation and survival and B-cell memory development. Data on B-cell dysfunctioning in correlation with parasite virulence and trypanosome-mediated inflammation will be discussed, as well as the impact of trypanosomosis on heterologous vaccine efficacy and diagnosis. Therefore, new strategies aiming at enhancing vaccination efficacy could benefit from a combination of (i early parasite diagnosis, (ii anti-trypanosome (drugs treatment, and (iii anti-inflammatory treatment that collectively might allow B-cell recovery and improve vaccination.

  20. Cultivating the Under-Mined: Cross-Case Analysis as Knowledge Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Khan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a plethora of case studies in the social sciences, it is the authors' opinion that case studies remain relatively under-mined sources of expertise. Cross-case analysis is a research method that can mobilize knowledge from individual case studies. The authors propose that mobilization of case knowledge occurs when researchers accumulate case knowledge, compare and contrast cases, and in doing so, produce new knowledge. In this article, the authors present theories of how people can learn from sets of cases. Second, existing techniques for cross-case analysis are discussed. Third, considerations that enable researchers to engage in cross-case analysis are suggested. Finally, the authors introduce a novel online database: the Foresee (4C database. The purpose of the database is to mobilize case knowledge by helping researchers perform cross-case analysis and by creating an online research community that facilitates dialogue and the mobilization of case knowledge. The design of the 4C database is informed by theories of how people learn from case studies and cross-case analysis techniques. We present evidence from case study research that use of the 4C database helps to mobilize previously dormant case study knowledge to foster greater expertise. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801348

  1. Benevolent Sexism and Support of Romantic Partner's Goals: Undermining Women's Competence While Fulfilling Men's Intimacy Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-09-01

    The current research demonstrates how benevolent sexism functions to undermine women's competence while facilitating men's access to heterosexual intimacy by prompting different support behaviors by men and women. Objective coders rated the support provision exhibited during heterosexual couples' (N = 100) video-recorded discussions of each other's personal goals. Men who endorsed benevolent sexism provided more dependency-oriented support, including directly providing plans and solutions and neglecting the recipient's own abilities, which led to their female partners feeling less competent and less positively regarded. In contrast, women who endorsed benevolent sexism provided greater relationship-oriented support, characterized by affection and emphasizing the positive relationship outcomes associated with their partner's goals, which led their male partners to perceive greater regard and intimacy in their relationship. This study is the first to investigate how benevolent sexism prompts naturalistic support behaviors that can impede women's capacity for independent success while supporting the fulfillment of men's intimacy needs. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Language fouls in teaching ecology: why traditional metaphors undermine conservation literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Adrienne; Norvell, Russell; Darling, Ann

    2010-06-01

    We believe that the language commonly used in teaching actually hinders the creation of conservation literacy. We examined four frequently used ecology and environmental studies textbooks and considered the ways in which commonly used language can obscure or enhance an understanding of ecology and conservation. Specifically, we used the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (a.k.a. linguistic relativity) and framing theory to examine the approaches reflected in three elements of the texts: introductions and treatment of two key ecological concepts (matter cycling and energy). Language used in the texts contained implicit metaphors that portrayed nature as a resource; resisted ecological realities, such as the finite nature of matter and the loss of energy with each transformation; and fundamentally served to separate humans from nature. Although the basis of conservation literacy is understanding of the complexity of ecological systems, culturally based communication as exemplified in these texts does not encourage students or educators to recognize the feedback loops that clarify human membership in the ecosystem. Consequently, the language used to teach ecology perpetuates the idea that humans exist outside of its laws. With this paper, we hope to initiate a dialogue about how to retool the language used in teaching and communicating about ecology such that it resonates with, rather than undermines, conservation.

  3. Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopipero, Peggy; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-08-01

    To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter-writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies.

  4. Being trusted: How team generational age diversity promotes and undermines trust in cross‐boundary relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary We examine how demographic context influences the trust that boundary spanners experience in their dyadic relationships with clients. Because of the salience of age as a demographic characteristic as well as the increasing prevalence of age diversity and intergenerational conflict in the workplace, we focus on team age diversity as a demographic social context that affects trust between boundary spanners and their clients. Using social categorization theory and theories of social capital, we develop and test our contextual argument that a boundary spanner's experience of being trusted is influenced by the social categorization processes that occur in dyadic interactions with a specific client and, simultaneously, by similar social categorization processes that influence the degree to which the client team as a whole serves as a cooperative resource for demographically similar versus dissimilar boundary spanner–client dyads. Using a sample of 168 senior boundary spanners from the consulting industry, we find that generational diversity among client team members from a client organization undermines the perception of being trusted within homogeneous boundary spanner–client dyads while it enhances the perception of being trusted within heterogeneous dyads. The perception of being trusted is an important aspect of cross‐boundary relationships because it influences coordination and the costs associated with coordination. © 2015 The Author Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:27721558

  5. Being trusted: How team generational age diversity promotes and undermines trust in cross-boundary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michele

    2016-04-01

    We examine how demographic context influences the trust that boundary spanners experience in their dyadic relationships with clients. Because of the salience of age as a demographic characteristic as well as the increasing prevalence of age diversity and intergenerational conflict in the workplace, we focus on team age diversity as a demographic social context that affects trust between boundary spanners and their clients. Using social categorization theory and theories of social capital, we develop and test our contextual argument that a boundary spanner's experience of being trusted is influenced by the social categorization processes that occur in dyadic interactions with a specific client and, simultaneously, by similar social categorization processes that influence the degree to which the client team as a whole serves as a cooperative resource for demographically similar versus dissimilar boundary spanner-client dyads. Using a sample of 168 senior boundary spanners from the consulting industry, we find that generational diversity among client team members from a client organization undermines the perception of being trusted within homogeneous boundary spanner-client dyads while it enhances the perception of being trusted within heterogeneous dyads. The perception of being trusted is an important aspect of cross-boundary relationships because it influences coordination and the costs associated with coordination. © 2015 The Author Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identifying social factors that undermine support for nature-based coastal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Lauren I; Humphries, Austin T

    2018-04-15

    Human use and degradation of coastal ecosystems is at an all-time high. Thus, a current challenge for environmental management and research is moving beyond ecological definitions of success and integrating socioeconomic factors. Projects and studies with this aim, however, have focused primarily on monetary valuations of ecosystem functions, overlooking the behaviors and psycho-social motivations of environmental management. Using a nature-based salt marsh restoration project on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, we assess the role of human attitudes and preferences in evaluating social success for ecosystem management. We use structural equation modeling to compare the strengths of social variables in predicting restoration project support, and find public understanding to be a more important predictor than personal values. Our results show that even among stakeholders with strong pro-environmental values, a weak understanding of the management initiative can undermine support. We also find that project support does not necessarily translate to the prioritization of similar management strategies. Instead, when individuals consider overall management priorities, differences arise between particular resource user-groups. This suggests that strong public support for individual initiatives can misconstrue complexities in stakeholder preferences that emerge in more comprehensive management considerations. Future investigations of the psycho-social components of management solutions should address the potentially tiered nature of human preferences, as well as whether public perceptions of management effectiveness act as an additional context-dependency of social viability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Voluntarism and realism in medieval ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, J

    1989-01-01

    In contrast to other articles in this series on the history of moral philosophy the present essay is not devoted to expounding the views of a single author, or to examining a particular moral theory. Instead it discusses an important dispute between two medieval accounts of the relation between theological and moral propositions. In addition to its historical interest this debate is important both because it connects earlier and later ethical thought--being influenced by Greek moral theories and influencing subsequent European philosophy--and because it concerns issues that remain important to philosophers and to those who claim that their ethical beliefs are dictated by religious convictions. PMID:2926786

  8. Risk undermined in the bilateral pharmaceutical regulatory system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Po; Wang, Chun-Li

    2018-04-01

    The concept of Pharmacovigilance Planning and Risk Minimization Planning (PVP/RMP), initiated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), addressed an important conceptual change from monitoring the safety of individual medicine to proactively conducting risk prevention for the minimization of medication error. However, the implementation of PVP/RMP is a challenge in societies like Taiwan where irrational medication and co-medication is prevalent. It is even more difficult in Taiwan where two regulatory bodies are governing pharmaceutical affairs, namely Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) in charge of Western Medicine (WM) and the Department of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy (DCMP) in charge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). There are thus dual-tract drug approval panels, two GMP controls and two independent adverse drug event reporting systems. This rendered irrational co-medication of WM and TCM undetectable and the standard tools for monitoring pharmacovigilance inapplicable. The bilateral regulatory system is conceptually unscientific in accordance with PVP/RMP and unethical from humanity point of view. The first part of this review delivers (1) social aspects of polypharmacy in Taiwan; (2) regulatory aspects of pharmaceutical administration; (3) risks undermined in the bilateral regulatory system and (4) pharmacoepidemiology in relation to the risk of polypharmacy. As evidence-based medicine (EBM) forms the fundamental risk-benefit assessment on medication, the second part of this review delivers (1) the scientific aspects of the beauty and the odds of biological system that governs host-xenobiotics interaction; (2) conceptual evolution from product management (pharmacovigilance) to risk management (PVP/RMP); (3) non-biased due process is essential for risk-benefit assessment on medicinal products and (4) the opinion of the authors on system building for safe medication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Depth-dependent effects of culling—do mesophotic lionfish populations undermine current management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Rachel; Hendrix, Alicia; Hitchner, Drew; Gress, Erika; Madej, Konrad; Parry, Rachel L.; Régnier-McKellar, Catriona; Jones, Owen P.; Arteaga, María; Izaguirre, Andrea P.; Rogers, Alex D.; Exton, Dan A.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread widely across the western Atlantic and are recognized as a major threat to native marine biodiversity. Although lionfish inhabit both shallow reefs and mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; reefs from 30 to 150 m depth), the primary management response implemented by many countries has been diver-led culling limited to reefs less than 30 m. However, many reef fish undergo ontogenetic migrations, with the largest and therefore most fecund individuals found at greatest depths. Here, we study lionfish density, body size, maturity and dietary patterns across the depth gradient from the surface down to 85 m on heavily culled reefs around Utila, Honduras. We found lionfish at increased densities, body size and weight on MCEs compared with shallow reefs, with MCEs also containing the greatest proportion of actively spawning females, while shallow reefs contained the greatest proportion of immature lionfish. We then compared lionfish behaviour in response to divers on shallow culled and mesophotic unculled Utilan reefs, and on shallow unculled reefs in Tela Bay, on the Honduran mainland. We found that mesophotic lionfish exhibited high alert distances, consistent with individuals previously exposed to culling despite being below the depth limits of removal. In addition, when examining stomach content, we found that fish were the major component of lionfish diets across the depth gradient. Importantly, our results suggest that despite adjacent shallow culling, MCEs retain substantial lionfish populations that may be disproportionately contributing towards continued lionfish recruitment onto the shallow reefs of Utila, potentially undermining current culling-based management. PMID:28573007

  10. Errors in ADAS-cog administration and scoring may undermine clinical trials results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, K; De Santi, S; Schneider, L S

    2011-06-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) is the most widely used cognitive outcome measure in AD trials. Although errors in administration and scoring have been suggested as factors masking accurate estimates and potential effects of treatments, there have been few formal examinations of errors with the ADAS-cog. We provided ADAS-cog administration training using standard methods to raters who were designated as experienced, potential raters by sponsors or contract research organizations for two clinical trials. Training included 1 hour sessions on test administration, scoring, question periods, and required that raters individually view and score a model ADAS-cog administration. Raters scores were compared to the criterion scores established for the model administration. A total of 108 errors were made by 80.6% of the 72 raters; 37.5% made 1 error, 25.0% made 2 errors and 18.0% made 3 or more. Errors were made in all ADAS-cog subsections. The most common were in word finding difficulty (67% of the raters), word recognition (22%), and orientation (22%). For the raters who made 1, 2, or ≥ 3 errors the ADAS-cog score was 17.5 (95% CI, 17.3 - 17.8), 17.8 (17.0 - 18.5), and 18.8 (17.6 - 20.0), respectively, and compared to the criterion score, 18.3. ADAS-cog means differed significantly and the variances were more than twice as large between those who made errors on word finding and those who did not, 17.6 (SD=1.4) vs. 18.8 (SD=0.9), respectively (χ(2) = 37.2, P ADAS-cog scores and clinical trials outcomes. These errors may undermine detection of medication effects by contributing both to a biased point estimate and increased variance of the outcome.

  11. Tramps, trade union travellers, and wandering workers: how geographic mobility undermined organized labour in Gilded Age America

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Kimberly S.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis will argue that high levels of internal migration in Gilded Age America undermined the stability and growth of trade unions and labour-based parties. Most of the traditional ‘American Exceptionalist’ arguments which asserted a lack of class consciousness will be challenged. Significant weight will be given to the racial, ethnic, and gender divisions within the American working class as a source of relative organizational weakness. As archival sources reveal, however, despite thei...

  12. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  13. What undermines healthy habits with regard to physical activity and food? Voices of adolescents in a disadvantaged community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linus; Larsson, Christel; Berg, Christina; Korp, Peter; Lindgren, Eva-Carin

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to illuminate factors that undermine the healthy habits of adolescents from a multicultural community with low socioeconomic status (S.E.S.) in Sweden with regard to physical activity (P.A.) and food, as stated in their own voices. Adolescents (n = 53, 12-13 y/o) were recruited from one school situated in a multicultural community characterized by low S.E.S. Embracing an interpretive approach, 10 focus-group interviews were conducted to produce data for the study. The focus-group interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in two major themes: (1) the availability of temptations is large, and support from the surroundings is limited; and (2) norms and demands set the agenda. The adolescents' voices illuminate a profound awareness and the magnitude of tempting screen-based activities as undermining their P.A. and healthy food habits. Moreover, several gender boundaries were highlighted as undermining girls' P.A. and healthy food habits. The adolescents' stories illuminated that it is difficult for them, within their environment, to establish healthy habits with regard to P.A. and food. To facilitate the adolescents' healthy habits, we suggest that support from family, friends, the school, and society at large is essential.

  14. Shared intention and the doxastic single end condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2016-01-01

    end condition captures a feature at the very heart of the phenomenon of intentional joint action. For instance, just as several simple actions are only unified into a complex intentional singular activity if the agent believes or assumes that there is a single end that each action is directed to, so...... this condition only if participants must intend to contribute to the end under the same conception. While such a requirement successfully rules out some counterexamples, it also makes the accounts unable to appropriately accommodate and explain clear cases of intentional joint action that they ought to be able...

  15. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: creating a global corporate network to undermine public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Intinarelli, Gina; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-01-17

    concerns to coordinate their activities. The global network of national and regional manufacturing associations created and nurtured by INFOTAB remains active, particularly in relation to the recently negotiated global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Policymakers should be aware that although these associations claim to represent only national or regional interests, they are allied to and coordinated with a confederation of transnational tobacco companies seeking to protect profits by undermining public health.

  16. Tobacco industry issues management organizations: Creating a global corporate network to undermine public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Ruth E

    2008-01-01

    threatened by the globalization of public health, sidestep competitive concerns to coordinate their activities. The global network of national and regional manufacturing associations created and nurtured by INFOTAB remains active, particularly in relation to the recently negotiated global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Policymakers should be aware that although these associations claim to represent only national or regional interests, they are allied to and coordinated with a confederation of transnational tobacco companies seeking to protect profits by undermining public health.

  17. A self-regulatory perspective of work-to-home undermining spillover/crossover: Examining the roles of sleep and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Taylor, Shannon G; Burton, James P; Bailey, Sarah F

    2017-05-01

    Research demonstrating that employees who are undermined at work engage in similar behavior at home suggests this connection reflects displaced aggression. In contrast, the present study draws on self-regulation theory to examine the work-home undermining spillover/crossover process. We propose that poor sleep quality transmits the influence of workplace undermining to home undermining per self-regulatory impairment, and exercise moderates this indirect effect per self-regulatory improvement. Using matched data from 118 employees and a member of their household to test our model, results demonstrated that undermining experienced from supervisors increased subjective (i.e., self-reported) but not objective (i.e., actigraph-recorded) sleep difficulties, which, in turn, increased the frequency with which individuals engaged in undermining at home (as reported by cohabitants). Additionally, indirect effects occurred for employees with low but not high levels of physical exercise (as measured by self-reports, step counts, and energy expenditure). Our findings suggest sleep and exercise may serve as valuable intervention points to prevent the spread of harmful behavior across contexts. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Simulation Suggests that medical group mergers won't undermine the potential utility of health information exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Robert S; Schneider, Eric C; Volk, Lynn A; Szolovits, Peter; Salzberg, Claudia A; Simon, Steven R; Bates, David W

    2012-03-01

    Federal and state agencies are investing substantial resources in the creation of community health information exchanges, which are consortia that enable independent health care organizations to exchange clinical data. However, under pressure to form accountable care organizations, medical groups may merge and support private health information exchanges. Such activity could reduce the potential utility of community exchanges-that is, the exchanges' capacity to share patient data across hospitals and physician practices that are independent. Simulations of care transitions based on data from ten Massachusetts communities suggest that there would have to be many such mergers to undermine the potential utility of health information exchanges. At the same time, because hospitals and the largest medical groups account for only 10-20 percent of care transitions in a community, information exchanges will still need to recruit a large proportion of the medical groups in a given community for the exchanges to maintain their usefulness in fostering information exchange across independent providers.

  19. High temperature and temperature variation undermine future disease susceptibility in a population of the invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamminger, Tobias; Steier, Thomas; Tragust, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Environmental temperature and temperature variation can have strong effects on the outcome of host-parasite interactions. Whilst such effects have been reported for different host systems, long-term consequences of pre-infection temperatures on host susceptibility and immunity remain understudied. Here, we show that experiencing both a biologically relevant increase in temperature and temperature variation undermines future disease susceptibility of the invasive garden ant Lasius neglectus when challenged with a pathogen under a constant temperature regime. In light of the economic and ecological importance of many social insects, our results emphasise the necessity to take the hosts' temperature history into account when studying host-parasite interactions under both natural and laboratory conditions, especially in the face of global change.

  20. On the psychological barriers to the workplace: when and why metastereotyping undermines employability beliefs of women and ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuamalam, Chuma Kevin; Zagefka, Hanna

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the effect of how one might expect one's group to be viewed by a dominant outgroup (i.e., metastereotypes) on employability beliefs of members of disadvantaged groups. Based on the extensive literature on stereotype threat, we hypothesized that activating negative metastereotypes would undermine employability beliefs of members of disadvantaged groups, because such beliefs are likely to threaten their state self-esteem. In particular, we expected that an effect of negative metastereotyping on employability beliefs would be explained by momentary self-doubts and be particularly evident among members whose dispositional self-esteem is high rather than low to begin with. Taken jointly, results from a correlational study (n = 80) and an experimental study (n = 56) supported these hypotheses, and discussion focuses on their implications for mobility into the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Parallel pocket incision: Less invasive surgical intervention for the treatment of intractable pressure ulcer with wound edge undermining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Hayashi, Akitatsu; Koshima, Isao

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of deep pressure ulcer with a wide wound edge undermining (pocket) is challenging, especially when conservative treatments are ineffective. As most patients with a pressure ulcer suffer from systemic comorbidities, invasive surgery cannot be performed on all patients, and less invasive treatment is required. Less invasive surgical intervention to a deep pressure ulcer, parallel pocket incision (PPI), was performed on 10 patients with intractable pressure ulcers with a pocket formation. In PPI procedures, two parallel skin incisions were made to open up the deepest fold of the pocket and to preserve the skin overlying the pocket lesion; through the created incisions, the necrotic tissues around the deepest fold of the undermining could be easily removed, which facilitated spontaneous wound healing. Postoperative results and complications were evaluated. All PPI procedures were safely performed under local infiltration anesthesia without major postoperative complication; minor bleeding was seen intraoperatively in three patients, which could be easily controlled with electric cautery coagulation. Nine of 10 ulcers were cured after PPI, and one could not be followed up due to the patient's death non-related to the pressure ulcer. For the nine cured patients, the average time for cure was 14.9 weeks, and no recurrence was observed at postoperative 6 months. PPI is a simple, technically easy, and less invasive surgical intervention to an intractable pressure ulcer with a pocket, which can be safely performed under local infiltration anesthesia even on a patient with severe systemic comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Abdominoplasty with suction undermining and plication of the superficial fascia without drains: a report of 113 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodby, Katherine A; Stepniak, Jennifer; Eisenhut, Natalie; Lentz, Carl W

    2011-10-01

    Postoperative abdominoplasty seromas are a problem. Although drains are still commonly used during the initial postoperative period, this article has demonstrated that the combination of an extended incision, suction undermining, and progressive tension sutures can produce superior results without the need for suction drains. A retrospective review of 113 consecutive abdominoplasty patients operated on between April of 2004 and May of 2010 was carried out and complications were reviewed. There were 109 women and four men, with ages spanning 23 to 76 years (average, 50 years). Complications of the surgery included hematoma (2.7 percent), with one requiring drain placement (0.9 percent) and two treated with needle aspiration (1.8 percent); seroma (8.8 percent), with four requiring closed suction drainage (3.5 percent) and six minimally treated with needle aspiration (5.3 percent); infection (2.7 percent), with one requiring intravenous antibiotics (0.9 percent) and two with minimal local erythema (1.8 percent); and minimal marginal skin necrosis with spontaneous healing (3.5 percent). The technique of abdominoplasty with the addition of an extended incision, liposuction undermining of the deep fatty tissue between the superficial and abdominal muscle fascia, and the use of progressive tension sutures results in a better abdominal wall and waist contour. This decreases the need for dissection of the abdominal panniculus above the umbilicus except for a small tunnel to allow for the suturing of the rectus abdominis muscles. This allows for preservation of the arterial and lymphatic vessels, improving blood flow to the superior flap and decreasing seroma formation to the point where operative drains are not required. Therapeutic, IV.

  3. 'Just a GP': a mixed method study of undermining of general practice as a career choice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Hugh; Banner, Kimberley; Collingwood, Helen; Merritt, Kymberlee

    2017-11-03

    Failure to recruit sufficient applicants to general practice (GP) training has been a problem both nationally and internationally for many years and undermining of GP is one possible contributing factor. The aim of our study was to ascertain what comments, both negative and positive, are being made in UK clinical settings to GP trainees about GP and to further explore these comments and their influence on career choice. We conducted a mixed methods study. We surveyed all foundation doctors and GP trainees within one region of Health Education England regarding any comments they experienced relating to a career in GP. We also conducted six focus groups with early GP trainees to discuss any comments that they experienced and whether these comments had any influence on their or others career choice. Positive comments reported by trainees centred around the concept that choosing GP is a positive, family-focused choice which facilities a good work-life balance. Workload was the most common negative comment, alongside the notion of being 'just a GP'; the belief that GP is boring, a waste of training and a second-class career choice. The reasons for and origin of the comments are multifactorial in nature. Thematic analysis of the focus groups identified key factors such as previous exposure to and experience of GP, family members who were GPs, GP role models, demographics of the clinician and referral behaviour. Trainees perceived that negative comments may be discouraging others from choosing GP as a career. Our study demonstrates that negative comments towards GP as a career do exist within clinical settings and are having a potential impact on poor recruitment rates to GP training. We have identified areas in which further negative comments could be prevented by changing perceptions of GP as a career. Additional time spent in GP as undergraduates and postgraduates, and positive GP role models, could particularly benefit recruitment. We recommend that undermining of GP

  4. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Walch, Stephan G.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits) over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia. PMID:28663784

  5. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia - an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Walch, Stephan G; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits) over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia.

  6. Can the use of urgent care clinics improve access to care without undermining continuity in primary care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Sally; Krouse, Helene J

    2016-06-01

    There is a niche for urgent care clinics as an alternate source of health care in the United States. This systematic review examines whether the use of urgent care clinics can improve access to care or if these facilities undermine continuity of primary care. Databases used were Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). Articles from 2004 to 2014 were searched using keywords-access, barriers, continuity of care, nurse practitioner (NP), urgent care, retail clinic, emergency, and primary care. Urgent care clinics can improve access to care, but may also negatively impact continuity of care, preventative services, and ongoing management of chronic conditions. Barriers to primary care and benefits of urgent care are inversely related. Insufficient knowledge regarding navigation of the healthcare system, perceived urgency of medical need, and deflection of care contribute to use of urgent care over primary care. NPs are frontline healthcare providers essential to developing and maintaining successful communication and collaboration among providers across healthcare settings. In both primary care and urgent care facilities, NPs can ensure continuity of care, decreased healthcare costs, and optimized health outcomes for patients. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. Men and talk about legal abortion in South Africa: equality, support and rights discourses undermining reproductive 'choice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Catriona Ida; Hansjee, Jateen

    2013-01-01

    Discursive constructions of abortion are embedded in the social and gendered power relations of a particular socio-historical space. As part of research on public discourses concerning abortion in South Africa where there has been a radical liberalisation of abortion legislation, we collected data from male group discussions about a vignette concerning abortion, and newspaper articles written by men about abortion. Our analysis revealed how discourses of equality, support and rights may be used by men to subtly undermine women's reproductive right to 'choose' an abortion. Within an Equal Partnership discourse, abortion, paired with the assumption of foetal personhood, was equated with violating an equal heterosexual partnership and a man's patriarchal duty to protect a child. A New Man discourse, which positions men as supportive of women, was paired with the assumption of men as rational and women as irrational in decision-making, to allow for the possibility of men dissuading women from terminating a pregnancy. A Rights discourse was invoked to suggest that abortion violates men's paternal rights.

  8. Undermining plastic surgery as a possible option for treating basal cell carcinoma of the forehead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernev, Georgi; Pidakev, Ivan; Lozev, Ilia; Lotti, Torello; Cardoso, Jose Carlos; Patterson, James W

    2017-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cutaneous cancer. Although most cases can be cured with simple surgical procedures and are associated with a good prognosis, a minority of BCCs may pose significant therapeutic challenges. This occurs mostly in cases of so-called advanced BCC, which a loosely defined term that encompasses locally advanced lesions and tumors with metastatic spread. Treatment of these cases is often complex and sometimes may need combinations of therapeutic modalities, including surgery, radiotherapy and/or targeted therapy directed towards sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathways, such as vismodegib. We herein present the case of a 74-year-old man presenting with a large basal cell of the forehead evolving for more than 7 years. The patient underwent excision of the lesion with clear surgical margins. Reconstruction of the defect was performed after extensive undermining of the skin allowing subsequent direct closure with a simple suture, which resulted in an acceptable cosmetic outcome. We discuss the potential advantages, disadvantages, and applicability of this relatively simple surgical maneuver in the reconstruction of defects resulting from excision of considerably large cutaneous tumors.

  9. High trait shame undermines the protective effects of prevalence knowledge on state shame following HPV/CIN diagnosis in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Logue, Christen T.; Studts, Jamie L.

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the related, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are common yet poorly understood physical conditions. The diagnosis of HPV often elicits shame and guilt, which in turn may undermine psychological and physical health. The current study compared shame and guilt responses to diagnosis among two groups: women diagnosed with HPV/CIN and women diagnosed with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV/IM). Eighty women recently diagnosed with HPV/CIN or EBV/IM completed measures of shame- and guilt-proneness, shame and guilt following diagnosis, and disease knowledge including prevalence estimates (HPV and EBV, respectively). HPV/CIN (vs. EBV/IM) predicted more diagnosis-related shame and guilt. Estimates of high prevalence interacted with diagnosis and shame-proneness to predict diagnosis-related shame. Simple slope analyses indicated that in women with HPV/CIN reporting low-to-average shame-proneness, high prevalence estimates reduced diagnosis-related shame; however, women high in shame-proneness experienced high diagnosis-related shame regardless of more accurate prevalence estimates. Women high in shame-proneness appear to be particularly vulnerable to HPV-related shame even when they are aware that it is very common. PMID:28417294

  10. The Undermining Effect of Facial Attractiveness on Brain Responses to Fairness in Ultimatum Game: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo eMa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the time course of the neural processing of facial attractiveness and its influence on fairness consideration during social interactions, event-related potentials (ERP were recorded from 21 male subjects performing a two-person Ultimatum Game (UG. During this bargaining game, the male subjects played responders who decided whether to accept offers from female proposers, whose facial images (grouped as attractive and unattractive were presented prior to the offer presentation. The behavioral data demonstrated that the acceptance ratio increased with the fairness level of the offers and, more importantly, the subjects were more likely to accept unfair offers when presented with the attractive-face condition compared with the unattractive-face condition. The reaction times (RTs for five offers (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6 and 5:5 in the unattractive-face condition were not significantly different. In contrast, the subjects reacted slower to the attractive proposers’ unfair offers and quicker to fair offers. The ERP analysis of the face presentation demonstrated a decreased early negativity (N2 and enhanced late positive potentials (LPPs elicited by the attractive faces compared with the unattractive faces. In addition, the feedback-related negativity (FRN in response to an offer presentation was not significantly different for the unfair (1:9 and 2:8 and fair (4:6 and 5:5 offers in the attractive-face condition. However, the unfair offers generated larger FRNs compared with the fair offers in the unattractive-face condition (consistent with prior studies. A similar effect was identified for P300. The present study demonstrated an undermining effect of proposer facial attractiveness on responder consideration of offer fairness during the UG.

  11. Deformation analysis of the repeated positional surveys in the undermined localities using web applications and WMS map services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Talich

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The XML web application for on-line calculations of deformation analysis from the repeated positional surveys using Internet service and data is described. Parameters of deformation field (strain tensors, total dilatations are determined in a grid network covering the zone of interest. Displacement vectors from repeated measurements at given points of a geodetic network represent the imput data of calculation. The calculation is based on application of the theory of continuum mechanics and its fundamental prerequisite is homogeneity of the researched territory.The application currently utilizes the Web Map Services - WMS for the graphic presentation of calculated results as GIS. This service for example enables on-line thematic map composition as defined by the user in the window of Internet explorer based on data given by servers of WMS service. Thus the user does not need to own any geographic data to create his/her GIS.Furthermore there are also given application examples of the repeated geodetic surveys used in the field at localities in the forefront of ČSA giant quarry at Komořany and in the undermined territory in Ostrava region. The examples show the independence of calculated values of tensors from rotation and translation of the coordinate systems in practise. This fact gives the evidence that the deformation analysis is more objective dynamic indicator in the researched area and not only the calculus and representation of point displacement vectors. After registration this application is at all interested persons disposal to on-line calculations via the Internet.

  12. ROS-mediated PARP activity undermines mitochondrial function after permeability transition pore opening during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriewer, Jacqueline M; Peek, Clara Bien; Bass, Joseph; Schumacker, Paul T

    2013-04-18

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) studies have implicated oxidant stress, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as contributing factors in myocardial cell death. However, the interdependence of these factors in the intact, blood-perfused heart is not known. We therefore wanted to determine whether oxidant stress, mPTP opening, and PARP activity contribute to the same death pathway after myocardial I/R. A murine left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion (30 minutes) and release (1 to 4 hours) model was employed. Experimental groups included controls and antioxidant-treated, mPTP-inhibited, or PARP-inhibited hearts. Antioxidant treatment prevented oxidative damage, mPTP opening, ATP depletion, and PARP activity, placing oxidant stress as the proximal death trigger. Genetic deletion of cyclophilin D (CypD(-/-)) prevented loss of total NAD(+) and PARP activity, and mPTP-mediated loss of mitochondrial function. Control hearts showed progressive mitochondrial depolarization and loss of ATP from 1.5 to 4 hours of reperfusion, but not outer mitochondrial membrane rupture. Neither genetic deletion of PARP-1 nor its pharmacological inhibition prevented the initial mPTP-mediated depolarization or loss of ATP, but PARP ablation did allow mitochondrial recovery by 4 hours of reperfusion. These results indicate that oxidant stress, the mPTP, and PARP activity contribute to a single death pathway after I/R in the heart. PARP activation undermines cell survival by preventing mitochondrial recovery after mPTP opening early in reperfusion. This suggests that PARP-mediated prolongation of mitochondrial depolarization contributes significantly to cell death via an energetic crisis rather than by mitochondrial outer membrane rupture.

  13. Unseen disadvantage: how American universities' focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Fryberg, Stephanie A; Markus, Hazel Rose; Johnson, Camille S; Covarrubias, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    American universities increasingly admit first-generation college students whose parents do not have 4-year degrees. Once admitted, these students tend to struggle academically, compared with continuing-generation students--students who have at least 1 parent with a 4-year degree. We propose a cultural mismatch theory that identifies 1 important source of this social class achievement gap. Four studies test the hypothesis that first-generation students underperform because interdependent norms from their mostly working-class backgrounds constitute a mismatch with middle-class independent norms prevalent in universities. First, assessing university cultural norms, surveys of university administrators revealed that American universities focus primarily on norms of independence. Second, identifying the hypothesized cultural mismatch, a longitudinal survey revealed that universities' focus on independence does not match first-generation students' relatively interdependent motives for attending college and that this cultural mismatch is associated with lower grades. Finally, 2 experiments at both private and public universities created a match or mismatch for first-generation students and examined the performance consequences. Together these studies revealed that representing the university culture in terms of independence (i.e., paving one's own paths) rendered academic tasks difficult and, thereby, undermined first-generation students' performance. Conversely, representing the university culture in terms of interdependence (i.e., being part of a community) reduced this sense of difficulty and eliminated the performance gap without adverse consequences for continuing-generation students. These studies address the urgent need to recognize cultural obstacles that contribute to the social class achievement gap and to develop interventions to address them. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Can media images of obese people undermine health messages? An experimental study of visual representation and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, Dorota; Gillison, Fiona B; Dean, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Images depicting morbidly obese models [i.e. body mass index (BMI) >40] often accompany media articles about the health risks of being overweight (i.e. BMI 25-30). Little is known about the effect of this mismatch on people's understanding of risk, and perceptions of message relevance. In total, 563 participants (291 overweight/obese and 272 healthy weight) were randomly allocated to read a health message about the risk of heart disease posed by being overweight, presented alongside (i) a photo of an overweight model, (ii) a morbidly obese model or (iii) no photo. Between-group differences in the primary outcomes of message relevance, and the body size perceived to be 'at risk', were assessed, and the potential moderating effects of motivation, weight concern and existing risk knowledge explored. Overweight and obese participants in the exaggerated (morbidly obese) image condition interpreted health risks to relate to a larger body size than those who saw no image (F(2, 290) = 4.06, P = 0.02). There was no experimental effect on perceived personal relevance (F(2, 290) = 0.25, P = 0.38). No significant moderation effects were detected, and there was no effect of study condition in healthy weight participants for either outcome. The findings suggest that the use of morbidly obese models in messages regarding the health risks of being overweight may undermine the impact of these messages among those who they most aim to reach; the reader may perceive a reduced risk of being 'only' overweight, and that a higher weight is needed for the negative effects of excess weight to occur. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. What if Reading is Easy but Unimportant? How Students’ Patterns of Affirming and Undermining Motivation for Reading Information Texts Predict Different Reading Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Emily Q.; Wigfield, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Many affirming and undermining motivational constructs affect students as they read information texts, but few researchers have explored how these motivations are patterned within students. In this study we used cluster analysis to classify middle school students (n = 1,134) based on their patterns of self-efficacy, perceived difficulty, value, and devalue for reading school information texts. We then compared how the patterns predicted students’ language arts grades, science information text comprehension, and dedication to reading school information texts. We found and validated a four-cluster solution. One cluster included a pattern of high affirming and low undermining motivations, and another included low affirming and high undermining motivations. Students with these patterns earned the highest and lowest scores, respectively, on all outcomes. A third pattern showed high self-efficacy/low difficulty with low value/high devalue, and a fourth showed moderate levels of all four motivational constructs. Students with the high efficacy and devalue pattern showed high information text comprehension but relatively low dedication. Students with the moderate pattern showed high dedication but low initial information text comprehension. Students with these two patterns earned similar grades. We discuss the implications of our findings for motivation theories and for school instruction that involves information text reading. PMID:28496289

  16. The globalization of insecurity: how the international economic order undermines human and national security on a world scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La seguridad nacional y humana ha sido fundamentalmente subestimada por políticas promovidas por instituciones claves de la globalización. La adopción de una conceptualización estato-céntrica de la seguridad demuestra cómo la globalización debilita y fragmenta el Estado, mientras militariza a los actores estatales y subestatales, contribuyendo sistemáticamente  a la emergencia de conflictos inter e intra-estatales. Un paradigma centrado en lo humano, que se focalise en el impacto de la globalización sobre los individuos y comunidades, muestra que este proceso esá vinculado con la generación de violencia estructural a lo largo de fronteras nacionales. Ambos niveles de procesos -el nacional y el humano- son mutualmente interdependientes e impactan el uno en el otro de forma recíproca. De aquí que la economía capitalista mundial ha creado un fenómeno que puede ser claramente descrito como la globalización de la inseguridad, generando en primera instancia conflicto y consecuentemente desestabilizando  naciones y comunidades, y en segundo lugar empobrecimiento, enfermedad y marginación. ________________ABSTRACT:National and human security has been fundamentally undermined by policies promoted by the key institutions of globalization. Adopting a state-centred conceptualization of security demonstrates how globalization at once weakens and fragments the state, while militarizing both the state and sub-state actors, contributing systematically to the emergence of intra- and inter-state conflicts. A human-centred framework, however, focusing on the impact of globalization on individuals and communities, shows that this process is further linked to the generation of structural violence across national boundaries. Both these national -and human- level processes are mutually interdependent and impact on one another reciprocally. Hence, the world capitalist economy has created a phenomenon that can be accurately described as the

  17. Undermining Patriarchal Ideology in African Literature: A Study of Ngozi Chuma-Udeh’s Echoes of a New Dawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujowundu Cornel O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a patriarchal society, women are faced with all sorts of dehumanisation ranging from deprivation, negligence, maltreatment, marginalisation, oppression, subjugation, exploitation, humiliation and even isolation, all of which emanate from aspects of the people’s culture. As a result, women now cry out for such aspects of the culture that undermine their wellbeing and emancipation to be eradicated. They, therefore, struggle for equality and emancipation in the male dominated society, especially the African society under study here. In this direction, literature becomes a tool for them to create awareness that the modern African woman through educational attainments is not just fighting for rights and privileges but also for something that must let the society understand that the women demand equal opportunities as human beings. Literature has, therefore, become a tool used to reflect the harsh realities of human lives, especially by the female writers like Ngozi Chuma-Udeh and some others concerning the socio-political, economic and religious realities of the womenfolk. Since literature has been found a veritable source of inspiration for national consciousness, it has become part of human life and existence, offering light, giving meaning and interpretation to man and his society as he struggles and aspires for a desired and cherished future. In the African society, for instance, women are seen not heard. They live under the shadows of men form their maiden homes to their matrimonial homes hence, they are regarded as second class citizens. They are usually neglected as their opinions are never sought before decisions are taken even in matters that directly affect them. In marriage, proposals are made to their fathers, or other male members of the family in the event of the father’s death. In fact, in the African society, which is under study here, women are seen as mere tools of necessity-housewives, child bearers, gratifiers of men

  18. The Central Intelligence Agency’s Armed Remotely Piloted Vehicle-Supported Counter-Insurgency Campaign In Pakistan – A Mission Undermined By Unintended Consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bennett

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper views America's 'drones-first' counter-insurgency effort in Pakistan through the lens of Merton's theory of the unintended consequences of purposive action. It also references Beck’s Risk Society thesis, America’s Revolution in Military Affairs doctrine, Toft’s theory of isomorphic learning, Langer’s theory of mindfulness, Highly Reliable Organisations theory and the social construction of technology (SCOT argument. With reference to Merton’s theory, the CIA-directed armed Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV campaign has manifest functions, latent functions and latent dysfunctions. Measured against numbers of suspected insurgents killed, the campaign can be judged a success. Measured against the level of collateral damage or the state of US-Pakistan relations, the campaign can be judged a failure. Values determine the choice of metrics. Because RPV operations eliminate risk to American service personnel, and because this is popular with both US citizens and politicians, collateral damage (the killing of civilians is not considered a policy-changing dysfunction. However, the latent dysfunctions of America's drones-first policy may be so great as to undermine that policy's intended manifest function – to make a net contribution to the War on Terror. In Vietnam the latent dysfunctions of Westmoreland’s attritional war undermined America’s policy of containment. Vietnam holds a lesson for the Obama administration.

  19. Existentialist Voluntarism as a Source of Normativity | Cohen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I defend a neo-Kantian view wherein we are capable of being completely autonomous and impartial and argue that this ability can ground normativity. As this view includes an existentialist conception of the self, I defend radical choice, a primary component of that conception, against arguments many take to be definitive.

  20. Internal city marketing: Positive activation of inhabitants through supported voluntarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ograjenšek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban settlements which were planned and established during the socialist period either in their entirety or partially (in form of fast-growing districts can be found all over Central and Eastern Europe. In most of them authorities have been fighting numerous economic and social problems, many either caused by, or stemming from, lack of social cohesion. One visible sign of such problems are neglected public spaces, often doomed to be in a poor condition due to lack of co-ordinated action. In this paper we demonstrate the importance of social capital and public administration’s courage and creativity when applying the tools of internal city marketing for what we call ‘supported voluntarism’ aimed at positive transformation of public spaces in a post-socialist residential neighbourhood using the Slovenian post-socialist city of Velenje as a showcase.

  1. Sustainability Reporting in Fishing Industry Management - Regulation versus Voluntarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Wild

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of major corporations and industry organizations now overtly advocate thegeneral concept of corporate social and environmental responsibility, commonly emphasising the‘business case’ for such behaviour on the basis that it is ‘good for business’. Many now report totheir stakeholders on a voluntaristic basis a range of information regarding their impacts on thesocial and physical environment in which they operate.Intrinsic to the business case model is the argument that an optimal balance between the needs ofeconomic growth and the sustainable management of natural resources can best be attainedthrough the conventional mechanisms of corporate governance and voluntary corporate activity,rather than by imposition of governmental regulation. This view implies, however, that wherethe exigencies of environmental sustainability conflict with those of economic imperatives, thelatter must take precedence.A view oppositional to that of the business case instead promotes an intensified interventionistapproach towards natural resource management, advocating increased governmental regulationand control, including the mandating, standardization and independent verification of corporatesustainability reporting. This view gives precedence to public good concepts of natural resourcemanagement, prioritising intra- and inter-generational equity and human rights theories as tonatural resource distribution, and challenges traditional economic approaches to the relationalintersects of business, politics and environment science.This paper considers the relative claims for efficacy in achieving desirable corporateenvironmental behaviours of the business case and voluntary self-regulation model, vis-à-visthose for extended mandatory governmental control, utilizing the exemplar of voluntarysustainability reporting in the New Zealand fishing industry.

  2. Voluntarism in early psychology: the case of Hermann von Helmholtz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, Liesbet

    2014-05-01

    The failure to recognize the programmatic similarity between (post-)Kantian German philosophy and early psychology has impoverished psychology's historical self-understanding to a great extent. This article aims to contribute to recent efforts to overcome the gaps in the historiography of contemporary psychology, which are the result of an empiricist bias. To this end, we present an analysis of the way in which Hermann von Helmholtz's theory of perception resonates with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Ego-doctrine. It will be argued that this indebtedness is particularly clear when focusing on the foundation of the differential awareness of subject and object in perception. In doing so, the widespread reception of Helmholtz's work as proto-positivist or strictly empiricist is challenged, in favor of the claim that important elements of his theorizing can only be understood properly against the background of Fichte's Ego-doctrine. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Work, Education, and Voluntarism in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Jeremy Rifkin argues that machines are mainly responsible for growing unemployment and should be countered by having people do volunteer work. Providing educational services is among the types of work he suggests volunteers should undertake. Education should also prepare people for volunteer work in this proposed "third sector" of employment. (SLD)

  4. Coordination vs. voluntarism and enforcement in sustaining international environmental cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott

    2016-12-20

    The fates of "transboundary" environmental systems depend on how nation states interact with one another. In the absence of a hegemon willing and able to coerce other states into avoiding a "tragedy of the commons," shared environments will be safeguarded if international cooperation succeeds and degraded or even destroyed if it fails. Treaties and related institutions of international law give form to these efforts to cooperate. Often, they implore states to act in their collective (as opposed to their national) interests. Sometimes, they impel cooperating states to punish free riders. A few agreements coordinate states' behavior. Here, I present simple game-theoretic models showing whether and how treaties and related institutions can change incentives, aligning states' self-interests with their collective interests. I show that, as a general matter, states struggle to cooperate voluntarily and enforce agreements to cooperate but that they find it relatively easy to coordinate actions. In some cases, the need for coordination is manifest. In other cases, it requires strategic thinking. Coordination may fall short of supporting an ideal outcome, but it nearly always works better than the alternatives.

  5. Traditional wrestling in Niger: between state voluntarism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional wrestling occupies pride of place in Niger, compared to other sports and cultural activities. Interest in traditional wrestling is widespread among Nigériens from all walks of life: young men, adults, senior citizens, young women, mature women, adult men, handicapped persons, prisoners, peasant farmers, civil ...

  6. Coordination vs. voluntarism and enforcement in sustaining international environmental cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The fates of “transboundary” environmental systems depend on how nation states interact with one another. In the absence of a hegemon willing and able to coerce other states into avoiding a “tragedy of the commons,” shared environments will be safeguarded if international cooperation succeeds and degraded or even destroyed if it fails. Treaties and related institutions of international law give form to these efforts to cooperate. Often, they implore states to act in their collective (as opposed to their national) interests. Sometimes, they impel cooperating states to punish free riders. A few agreements coordinate states’ behavior. Here, I present simple game-theoretic models showing whether and how treaties and related institutions can change incentives, aligning states’ self-interests with their collective interests. I show that, as a general matter, states struggle to cooperate voluntarily and enforce agreements to cooperate but that they find it relatively easy to coordinate actions. In some cases, the need for coordination is manifest. In other cases, it requires strategic thinking. Coordination may fall short of supporting an ideal outcome, but it nearly always works better than the alternatives. PMID:27821746

  7. “We have the right not to be ‘rescued’...”*: When Anti-Trafficking Programmes Undermine the Health and Well-Being of Sex Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the impact of raid, rescue, and rehabilitation schemes on HIV programmes. It uses a case study of Veshya Anyay Mukti Parishad (VAMP, a sex workers collective in Sangli, India, to explore the impact of anti-trafficking efforts on HIV prevention programmes. The paper begins with an overview of the anti-trafficking movement emerging out of the United States. This U.S. based anti- trafficking movement works in partnership with domestic Indian anti- trafficking organisations to raid brothels to “rescue and rehabilitate” sex workers. Contrary to the purported goal of assisting women, the anti-trafficking projects that employ a raid, rescue, and rehabilitate model often undermine HIV projects at the local level, in turn causing harm to women and girls. We examine the experience of one peer educator in Sangli to demonstrate and highlight some of the negative consequences of these anti-trafficking efforts on HIV prevention programmes.

  8. MAMs are attractive targets for bacterial repurposing of the host cell: MAM-functions might be key for undermining an infected cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoll, Pedro; Rolando, Monica; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Pathogenic bacteria frequently target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in order to exploit host functions. ER-mitochondria inter-organelle communication is topologically sub-compartmentalized at mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). MAMs are specific membranous microdomains with unique regulatory functions such as lipid synthesis and trafficking, calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial morphology, inflammasome activation, autophagosome formation, and apoptosis. These important cellular processes are all modulated by pathogens to subvert host functions and promote infection, thus it is tempting to assume that pathogenic bacteria target MAMs to subvert these different pathways in their hosts. First lines of evidence that support this hypothesis come from Legionella pneumophila. This intracellular bacterium secretes an effector that exhibits sphingosine-1 phosphate lyase activity (LpSpl) that seems to target MAMs to modulate the autophagy response to infection. Here we thus propose the concept that MAMs could be targeted by pathogenic bacteria to undermine key host cellular processes. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Undermining patient and public engagement and limiting its impact: the consequences of the Health and Social Care Act 2012 on collective patient and public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritter, Jonathan Q; Koivusalo, Meri

    2013-06-01

    Patient and public involvement has been at the heart of UK health policy for more than two decades. This commitment to putting patients at the heart of the British National Health Service (NHS) has become a central principle helping to ensure equity, patient safety and effectiveness in the health system. The recent Health and Social Care Act 2012 is the most significant reform of the NHS since its foundation in 1948. More radically, this legislation undermines the principle of patient and public involvement, public accountability and returns the power for prioritisation of health services to an unaccountable medical elite. This legislation marks a sea-change in the approach to patient and public involvement in the UK and signals a shift in the commitment of the UK government to patient-centred care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. How the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 Has Undermined US Refugee Protection Obligations and Wasted Government Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Acer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seeking asylum is a human right, enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (“Refugee Convention” and its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (“1967 Protocol” prohibit the United States from returning refugees to persecution, and the 1980 Refugee Act set up a formal process for applying for asylum in the United States. However, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA created a barrage of new barriers to asylum. These impediments have blocked many refugees from accessing asylum in the United States and inserted additional layers of technicalities, screening, and processing, undermining the effectiveness of the US asylum system. The barriers imposed by IIRIRA are significant. They include a filing deadline on asylum applications, which prevents genuine refugees from receiving asylum if they cannot prove they have filed the application within one year of arriving in the United States. IIRIRA also established summary deportation procedures, including “expedited removal” and “reinstatement of removal,” which block asylum seekers from even applying for asylum or accessing an immigration court removal hearing, unless they first pass through a screening process. Finally, IIRIRA imposed “mandatory detention” on certain immigrants, including asylum seekers who are placed in expedited removal proceedings upon their arrival at a US port of entry. Each of these provisions imposed new processes and procedures that have contributed to an increasingly ineffective immigration system. The current backlog in the immigration courts has reached a record high, surpassing half a million cases, while the backlog of affirmative asylum cases before the Asylum Division of US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS has increased by a factor of six [check] in just three years. Backlogs, which lead to long delays in adjudication

  11. Do Nutrient-Based Front-of-Pack Labelling Schemes Support or Undermine Food-Based Dietary Guideline Recommendations? Lessons from the Australian Health Star Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Mark A; Dickie, Sarah; Woods, Julie L

    2018-01-05

    Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) promote healthy dietary patterns. Nutrient-based Front-of-Pack Labelling (NBFOPL) schemes rate the 'healthiness' of individual foods. This study aimed to investigate whether the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system aligns with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). The Mintel Global New Products Database was searched for every new food product displaying a HSR entering the Australian marketplace from 27 June 2014 (HSR system endorsement) until 30 June 2017. Foods were categorised as either a five food group (FFG) food or 'discretionary' food in accordance with ADG recommendations. Ten percent (1269/12,108) of new food products displayed a HSR, of which 57% were FFG foods. The median number of 'health' stars displayed on discretionary foods (2.5; range: 0.5-5) was significantly lower ( p < 0.05) than FFG foods (4.0; range: 0.5-5), although a high frequency of anomalies and overlap in the number of stars across the two food categories was observed, with 56.7% of discretionary foods displaying ≥2.5 stars. The HSR system is undermining the ADG recommendations through facilitating the marketing of discretionary foods. Adjusting the HSR's algorithm might correct certain technical flaws. However, supporting the ADGs requires reform of the HSR's design to demarcate the food source (FFG versus discretionary food) of a nutrient.

  12. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neufeld

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia.

  13. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neufeld

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm to underage drinkers, hazards due to toxic ingredients such as methanol, but most importantly alcohol harms due to potentially increased drinking volumes due to low prices and high availability on the internet. The internet sale also undermines existing alcohol policies such as restrictions of sale locations, sale times and minimum pricing. The need to enforce measures against counterfeiting of spirits, but specifically their internet trade should be implemented as key elements of alcohol policies to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, which is currently about 33 % of total consumption in Russia.

  14. Hospital revenue cycle management and payer mix: do Medicare and Medicaid undermine hospitals' ability to generate and collect patient care revenue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Simone; Wheeler, John R C

    2010-01-01

    The continuing efforts of government payers to contain hospital costs have raised concerns among hospital managers that serving publicly insured patients may undermine their ability to manage the revenue cycle successfully. This study uses financial information from two sources-Medicare cost reports for all US hospitals for 2002 to 2007 and audited financial statements for all bond-issuing, not-for-profit hospitals for 2000 to 2006 to examine the relationship between hospitals' shares of Medicare and Medicaid patients and the amount of patient care revenue they generate as well as the speed with which they collect their revenue. Hospital-level fixed effects regression analysis finds that hospitals with higher Medicare and Medicaid payer mix collect somewhat higher average patient care revenues than hospitals with more privately insured and self-pay patients. Hospitals with more Medicare patients also collect on this revenue faster; serving more Medicaid patients is not associated with the speed of patient revenue collection. For hospital managers, these findings may represent good news. They suggest that, despite increases in the number of publicly insured patients served, managers have frequently been able to generate adequate amounts of patient revenue and collect it in a timely fashion.

  15. Doxastic doubt, fiducial doubt, and Christian faith. A response to Gunter Zimmermann

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, Rik

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I respond to Gunter Zimmermann's article on doubt and faith in God that was published in this journal last year, by offering some criticisms of his views and elaborating on certain issues that Zimmermann leaves nearly or entirely untouched. First, I argue that Zimmermann's analysis of

  16. Political rhetoric undermining government stability

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Uue Aja partei esimehe Solvita Aboltina sõnul töötab praegune valitsus oma ametiaja lõpuni. Läti Rahvaerakonna esimees Andris Skele kohtus peaminister Valdis Dombrovskisega. Läti Põhiseaduskohtu otsusest pensionide alandamise kohta

  17. When Payment Undermines the Pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasch, Alixandra; Berman, Jonathan Z; Small, Deborah A

    2016-10-01

    Studies on crowding out document that incentives sometimes backfire-decreasing motivation in prosocial tasks. In the present research, we demonstrated an additional channel through which incentives can be harmful. Incentivized advocates for a cause are perceived as less sincere than nonincentivized advocates and are ultimately less effective in persuading other people to donate. Further, the negative effects of incentives hold only when the incentives imply a selfish motive; advocates who are offered a matching incentive (i.e., who are told that the donations they successfully solicit will be matched), which is not incompatible with altruism, perform just as well as those who are not incentivized. Thus, incentives may affect prosocial outcomes in ways not previously investigated: by crowding out individuals' sincerity of expression and thus their ability to gain support for a cause.

  18. Do the Media Undermine Democracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, William A.

    This paper considers political reasoning within a democracy and how mass media may affect that process, as well as how the perspective and method of critical thinking may be brought to bear on the subject of media and politics. Specifically, the paper (1) discusses some ways in which the mass media may affect political reasoning; (2) offers a…

  19. WA zircon undermines major theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of a tiny zircon crystal found in Western Australia suggests the Earth had oceans and continents just 50 million years after a giant impact was supposed to have melted the planet and formed the Moon. The 200-micron crystal comes from ancient rocks in the remote Jack Hills area. Radiometric dating puts its age at 4.404 billion years, more than 100 million years older than the next-oldest known fragment of the Earth. More surprisingly, the ratio of oxygen isotopes indicates the material that formed the zircon had reacted with liquid water - suggesting the Earth had oceans much earlier than anyone had expected. The conventional model is that the top 1000 kilometres of the Earth was molten rock at the time, says John Valley, a geologist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. The Earth formed 4.55 billion years ago, but the impact of a Mars-sized body about 4.45 billion years ago was thought to have melted the planet again and splashed material into space which formed the Moon. The discovery presents 'real problems' for the lunar impact theory, according to Allan Treiman of the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston. On impact. 'an incredible amount of heat gets dumped into the Earth - all the heat of the impact, plus the heat of the object's core' he said. Cooling would take a long time. With only 50 million years between the supposed impact and the time the zircon formed, 'you're running out of time to create the Moon and have the Earth cool down enough to have oceans,' Treiman said. Although a magma ocean might lose heat quickly, cooling would slow once a solid crust covered the liquid. The ancient zircon suggests the Earth's surface was solid rock 4.4 billion years ago, and had even developed continents. Zircons normally form in granites or andesites and these rocks result from the melting of crustal rock and subsequent eruption on continents. The isotope concentration of 180 in the zircon indicates the rocks that melted had previously reacted with liquid water. This implies that surface temperatures were not above 100 deg C at the time. The original rock in which the zircon formed eroded away billions of years ago, but the hard grain survived and was incorporated in a sedimentary rock in the ancient heart of Australia

  20. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor-1α downregulates the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition early marker proteins without undermining cell survival in hypoxic lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarata, Patrick R; Neelam, Sudha; Brooks, Morgan M

    2015-01-01

    that nuclear β-catenin, but not HIF-2α, regulates the expression of fibronectin and α-SMA in atmospheric oxygen. In marked contrast, data from the hypoxic condition clearly establish that nuclear β-catenin plays little apparent role in the expression of EMT marker proteins. Instead, the loss of HIF-1α (but not HIF-2α) decreases the expression of the EMT marker proteins without sacrificing the levels of the prosurvival protein VEGF. These findings support the development of a potentially relevant therapeutic strategy to undermine the progression of normal cells to the mesenchymal phenotype in the naturally hypoxic lens without subverting cell viability.

  1. Deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap donor-site closure with cannula-assisted, limited undermining, and progressive high-tension sutures versus standard abdominoplasty: complications, sensitivity, and cosmetic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Giuseppe; Tomaselli, Federica; Monda, Anna; Barone-Adesi, Liliana; Salgarello, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    In deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction, abdominal donor-site cosmetic and sensibility outcomes and the closure technique have drawn little attention in the literature, with many surgeons still following the principles of standard abdominoplasty. In this article, the authors report their experience with the cannula-assisted, limited undermining, and progressive high-tension suture ("CALP") technique of DIEP donor-site closure compared with standard abdominoplasty. Between December of 2008 and January of 2013, 137 consecutive women underwent DIEP flap breast reconstruction. Of these, 82 patients (between December of 2008 and November of 2011) underwent DIEP flap donor-site closure by means of standard abdominoplasty (control group) and 55 patients (from December of 2011 to January of 2013) by means of cannula-assisted, limited undermining, and progressive high-tension suture (study group). The abdominal drainage daily output, donor-site complications, abdominal skin sensitivity at 1-year follow-up, cosmetic outcomes, and patient satisfaction were recorded and analyzed statistically. Daily drainage output was significantly lower in the study group. Donor-site complications were significantly higher in the control group (37.8 percent versus 9 percent). Seroma and wound healing problems were experienced in the control group. Abdominal skin sensibility was better preserved in the study group. Overall, abdominal wall aesthetic outcomes were similar in both groups, except for scar quality (better in the study group). According to the authors' experience, cannula-assisted, limited undermining, and progressive high-tension suture should be always preferred to standard abdominoplasty for DIEP donor-site closure to reduce the complication rate to improve abdominal skin sensitivity and scar quality. Therapeutic, II.

  2. Lake Orta: the undermining of an ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla BONACINA

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available From 1927 to 1986 Lake Orta (North-western Italy received loadings coming from a rayon factory, rich in copper and ammonium sulphate. Immediately after the onset of pollution, the food web was destroyed: first phytoplankton, then zooplankton, and finally fish and ultraplankton disappeared from the lake. Twenty years later a rise in nitrate nitrogen and copper ions was recorded and in the early sixties ammonium nitrogen started to accumulate and pH to fall. In the meanwhile, a poorly structured biological community appeared, mainly composed of Cyclops abyssorum (copepod, Hexarthra fennica (rotifer and Coccomyxa minor (green alga. Fish and benthonic animals were still absent. In 1986 the ammonium loading was substantially reduced (copper had been partially recovered since 1956, so that the in-lake ammonium concentration began to decrease. Some phyto- and zooplankton as well as benthic species were recorded in this period. Nevertheless, as pH was still very acid and alkaline reserve absent: a proposal to lime the lake was accepted and funded by regional authorities. Liming was performed in May 1989-June 1990 and resulted in a real improvement of the environment.

  3. Policy Inroads Undermining Women in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine; Young, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, policy trends have differentially and negatively affected women educators, defied, denied or repressed feminist values and missed opportunities for using feminist insights to reframe policy issues. This article provides a critical feminist analysis of educational and social policies with negative implications for women in…

  4. Does scientism undermine other forms of knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndubuisi C. Ani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Science has continually bridged the gaps in knowledge about reality by exerting its prowess in explanation, discovery and invention. Astonished by the successes of science coupled with the demonstrability and (purported objectivity of scientific knowledge, scholars are lured to nurse the impression that science is the answer to all questions that need to be asked about reality. This has led to an intellectual fanaticism called scientism where science is seen as the only bona fide way of attaining any true knowledge whatsoever. Consequently, other fields of knowledge suffer grievously from being abandoned, belittled or modified to operate using the scientific method of inquiry. Against this backdrop, this paper argues that science is not the only way of knowing reality. Other fields of knowledge and their traditional methods of inquiry are vital in the understanding of reality that abandoning or constructing them in the scientific light is tantamount to having a parochial view of reality. Through its arguments, the research advances pluralistic, inclusive and complementary approaches.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This research challenges the claims and influence of scientism, which holds that science has the answer to every question about reality. The paper contends that other epistemological methods of philosophical, religious, mythical and artistic forms are essential epistemological methods. Hence, the research advances a pluralistic and complementary approach in epistemology.

  5. Does infant cognition research undermine sociological theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    argues that Bergesen's reading of Emile Durkheim is incorrect, and his review of the infant research in fact invalidates his argument. Reviewing the assumptions of sociology in the light of the findings of infant research, it is argued that the real challenge is to formulate a research strategy...

  6. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  7. Welfare state and voluntarism. Or why 'changing the welfare mix' means different things in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas; Ibsen, Bjarne

    This paper aims at describing some of the structural preconditions for voluntary organized provision of welfare in Denmark. We do so by summarizing available information about three interdependent dimensions which too often are treated separately; (1) the individual level of volunteering, (2...... general and popular ‘civil society talk’ leaves too little room for taking into consideration the specific ‘division of labour’ between state, market and voluntary sector that characterize different welfare systems; a fact that, as we shall demonstrate, is highly consequential for not only the capacity...

  8. Corporate responsibility, beyond voluntarism : regulatory options to reinforce the licence to operate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsbouts, J.

    2011-01-01

    Inaugural Lecture Delivered in an informal and abbreviated form at the acceptance of the appointment of Extraordinary Professor Corporate Social Responsibility at the Faculty of Law, Maastricht University

  9. Epistemological Remarks on Libet’s Experiments on Free Will: Between Voluntarism and Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Ghilardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Libet’s experimental setting has been criticized at length ever since its first appearance, under both methodological and empirical aspects. In this paper, the attention will be driven on a neglected underpinning theme which has not yet been investigated, central for the economy of the argument: the time of choices. The pivotal role played by mental chronometry at the beginning of psychology and neurophysiology will be pointed out, and how the lack of a proper definition of time affected the course of the following research on the subject. The Aristotelian definition of time will be considered in order to cast some light upon Libet’s empirical findings.

  10. El cambio al voto voluntarío y sus consecuencias en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Davalos, Emanuel; Maluk Salem, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Basándonos en un supuesto escenario en donde las elecciones en el Ecuador fueran voluntarias se desarrollo la presente Tesis, con el propósito medir de cierta manera la sensibilidad que tiene el votante ecuatoriano para concurrir a las urnas cuando se convoca a elecciones presidenciales en el ecuador, este estudio trata de comprobar que en el supuesto caso que las elecciones presidenciales en el ecuador, cambien su sistema de voto obligatorio a voto voluntario no existiría un ausentismo consi...

  11. The Acquirement of Technical Nursing Skills by New Graduates : The Process of Acquirement of Skills Considering Graduates' Voluntarity

    OpenAIRE

    稲垣, 美紀; 土居, 洋子; 西上, あゆみ; Inagaki, Miki; Doi, Yoko; Nishigami, Ayumi

    2003-01-01

    The first research have performed the technical nursing skills (29 skills) by new graduates (30 students) . The purpose of this study was to continue to clarify the acquirement of technical nursing skills, which new graduates learned in clinical nursing skills seminars add to the previous 29 skills, their attitude toward seminars and practical trainings, how their attitude effected the acquirement of technical nursing skills and the new graduates' demands of the seminar and practical training...

  12. Governing Good, Bad and Ugly Workplaces? Explaining the Paradox of State-Steered Voluntarism in New Labour's Skills Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    The post-compulsory education and training system in the UK has long been defined as an archetypical voluntarist model. Yet, with the election of a New Labour government in 1997, the relationship between the state as supply-side provider of skills and employers as the demanders of skills began to subtly change. An additional rhetoric emerged in…

  13. Reducing image interpretation errors – Do communication strategies undermine this?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, B.; Hardy, M.; Lewis, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Errors in the interpretation of diagnostic images in the emergency department are a persistent problem internationally. To address this issue, a number of risk reduction strategies have been suggested but only radiographer abnormality detection schemes (RADS) have been widely implemented in the UK. This study considers the variation in RADS operation and communication in light of technological advances and changes in service operation. Methods: A postal survey of all NHS hospitals operating either an Emergency Department or Minor Injury Unit and a diagnostic imaging (radiology) department (n = 510) was undertaken between July and August 2011. The questionnaire was designed to elicit information on emergency service provision and details of RADS. Results: 325 questionnaires were returned (n = 325/510; 63.7%). The majority of sites (n = 288/325; 88.6%) operated a RADS with the majority (n = 227/288; 78.8%) employing a visual ‘flagging’ system as the only method of communication although symbols used were inconsistent and contradictory across sites. 61 sites communicated radiographer findings through a written proforma (paper or electronic) but this was run in conjunction with a flagging system at 50 sites. The majority of sites did not have guidance on the scope or operation of the ‘flagging’ or written communication system in use. Conclusions: RADS is an established clinical intervention to reduce errors in diagnostic image interpretation within the emergency setting. The lack of standardisation in communication processes and practices alongside the rapid adoption of technology has increased the potential for error and miscommunication

  14. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice.

  15. Guantanamo Bay -- Undermining the Global War on Terror

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fogarty, Gerard P

    2005-01-01

    Following 9/11, the U.S. Administration invoked extraordinary wartime powers to establish a new forward-leaning system of military justice that it hoped would match a very different type of conflict...

  16. The militarization of anti-poaching: undermining long term goals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A.V.; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Conservation is at a critical juncture because of the increase in poaching which threatens key species. Poaching is a major public concern, as indicated by the rises in rhino and elephant poaching, the United for Wildlife Initiative and the London Declaration, signed by 46 countries in February

  17. Are predatory journals undermining the credibility of science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2017-01-01

    as potential poor scientific standards journals. Citations to 124 potential predatory journals and poor scientific standards journals are looked up in Scopus and the citing authors analysed in regards to geographic location, publications and citations. The results show that the characteristics of the citing...

  18. How Data Use for Accountability Undermines Equitable Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Melissa; Bradford, Chris; Kirchgasler, Kathryn L.; Barocas, Sadie Fox

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: When school leaders advance strategic plans focused on improving educational equity through data-driven decision making, how do policies-as-practiced unfold in the daily work of science teachers? The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach: This ethnographic study examines how data-centric accountability and…

  19. Ocean warming-acidification synergism undermines dissolved organic matter assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shuo Chen

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of synergisms on natural processes is a critical step toward determining the full-extent of anthropogenic stressors. As carbon emissions continue unabated, two major stressors--warming and acidification--threaten marine systems on several scales. Here, we report that a moderate temperature increase (from 30°C to 32°C is sufficient to slow--even hinder--the ability of dissolved organic matter, a major carbon pool, to self-assemble to form marine microgels, which contribute to the particulate organic matter pool. Moreover, acidification lowers the temperature threshold at which we observe our results. These findings carry implications for the marine carbon cycle, as self-assembled marine microgels generate an estimated global seawater budget of ~1016 g C. We used laser scattering spectroscopy to test the influence of temperature and pH on spontaneous marine gel assembly. The results of independent experiments revealed that at a particular point, both pH and temperature block microgel formation (32°C, pH 8.2, and disperse existing gels (35°C. We then tested the hypothesis that temperature and pH have a synergistic influence on marine gel dispersion. We found that the dispersion temperature decreases concurrently with pH: from 32°C at pH 8.2, to 28°C at pH 7.5. If our laboratory observations can be extrapolated to complex marine environments, our results suggest that a warming-acidification synergism can decrease carbon and nutrient fluxes, disturbing marine trophic and trace element cycles, at rates faster than projected.

  20. Obesogenic slurs: How pervasive fat-shaming undermines the battle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to deepen understanding about the biopsychosocial relationship between fat-shaming and vulnerability to weight gain and inability to lose weight among school children and youth. The growing juvenile obesity trend in Africa is associated with multiple risk factors, such as dietary habits, physical ...

  1. Can Invalid Bioactives Undermine Natural Product-Based Drug Discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput biology has contributed a wealth of data on chemicals, including natural products (NPs). Recently, attention was drawn to certain, predominantly synthetic, compounds that are responsible for disproportionate percentages of hits but are false actives. Spurious bioassay interference led to their designation as pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS). NPs lack comparable scrutiny, which this study aims to rectify. Systematic mining of 80+ years of the phytochemistry and biology literature, using the NAPRALERT database, revealed that only 39 compounds represent the NPs most reported by occurrence, activity, and distinct activity. Over 50% are not explained by phenomena known for synthetic libraries, and all had manifold ascribed bioactivities, designating them as invalid metabolic panaceas (IMPs). Cumulative distributions of ∼200,000 NPs uncovered that NP research follows power-law characteristics typical for behavioral phenomena. Projection into occurrence–bioactivity–effort space produces the hyperbolic black hole of NPs, where IMPs populate the high-effort base. PMID:26505758

  2. How the K(d) Approach Undermines Groundwater Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Craig M.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1999-07-19

    Environmental scientists have long appreciated that the distribution coefficient (the ''K{sub d}'' or ''constant K{sub d}'') approach predicts the partitioning of heavy metals between sediment and groundwater inaccurately; nonetheless, transport models applied to problems of environmental protection and groundwater remediation almost invariably employ this technique. To examine the consequences of this practice, we consider transport in one dimension of Pb and other heavy metals through an aquifer containing hydrous ferric oxide, onto which heavy metals sorb strongly. We compare the predictions of models calculated using the K{sub d} approach to those given by surface complexation theory, which is more realistic physically and chemically. The two modeling techniques give qualitatively differing results that lead to divergent cleanup strategies. The results for surface complexation theory show that water flushing is ineffective at displacing significant amounts of Pb from the sorbing surface. The effluent from such treatment contains a ''tail'' of small but significant levels of contamination that persists indefinitely. Subsurface zones of Pb contamination, furthermore, are largely immobile in flowing groundwater. These results stand in sharp contrast to the predictions of models constructed using the k{sub d} approach, yet are consistent with experience in the laboratory and field.

  3. Undermining the Occupation: Women Coalminers in 1940s Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Allen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the case of women coal miners from a remote Kyushu district, this paper attempts to highlight some of the difficulties associated with an occupying power introducing major labour reforms. In this case I look at women’s employment in the mines during the 1930s-40s, and examine how and why women resisted the proscription against women’s mining labour, introduced by the Occupation in 1947, through the years of US control. The resistance to the edict by both small-medium sized coal mining management and women coalminers demonstrates that even when an occupation power appears in total control of a nation, the culture of the occupied is a significant factor that must not be overlooked. It is clear that many companies continued to operate in defiance of Occupation edicts for many years after 1945; the culture of the coalfields – the total Panopticon-like control of small mining towns and villages by mining companies – plays an important part in understanding how this situation came about. The removal of women from the mines did take place, but for reasons that were not within the ambit of the Occupation’s motivations.

  4. Are dual-method messages undermining STI/HIV prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent girls and young women who are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV, are frequently counseled to use a hormonal contraceptive to protect against the former and condoms to protect against the latter, for example, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011. The present paper reviews the literature on multiple risk messages, compliance with this dual-use recommendation, predictors of dual use, and interventions developed to encourage dual use. Data indicate that simultaneous use of these two methods is not common, and that efforts to encourage dual use have not yielded promising results. An alternative is to recommend condom use alone, since condoms protect very well against STI and HIV, and quite well against pregnancy when used consistently and correctly. The availability of emergency contraception is relevant here. Research utilizing a randomized controlled trial is recommended.

  5. Are Dual-Method Messages Undermining STI/HIV Prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann O'Leary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent girls and young women who are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI, including HIV, are frequently counseled to use a hormonal contraceptive to protect against the former and condoms to protect against the latter, for exampe, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011. The present paper reviews the literature on multiple risk messages, compliance with this dual-use recommendation, predictors of dual use, and interventions developed to encourage dual use. Data indicate that simultaneous use of these two methods is not common, and that efforts to encourage dual use have not yielded promising results. An alternative is to recommend condom use alone, since condoms protect very well against STI and HIV, and quite well against pregnancy when used consistently and correctly. The availability of emergency contraception is relevant here. Research utilizing a randomized controlled trial is recommended.

  6. Failing the vulnerable: Three new consent norms that will undermine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... The article concludes with a clarion call for support of advocacy on this issue with the. Minister of ... 5 Empilweni Services and Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital,. Faculty of .... as child drug use or child prostitution would be complicated by.

  7. Analysis of surface movements from undermining in time

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležalová, Hana; Kajzar, Vlastimil; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2012), s. 389-400 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech - Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas /12./. Jugowice, 20.10.2012-22.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : GNSS * mining subsidence * horizontal displacements Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/03_12/14.Dolezalova.pdf

  8. Understanding and Undermining Fake News from the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Adam

    2017-01-01

    It's too soon to know what will define Donald Trump's presidency, but one of the defining characteristics of his campaign was a near-total disregard for facts. According to PolitiFact ("Donald Trump's file," n.d.), about 70% of Trump's statements have been either mostly false, completely false, or outright lies. Candidate Trump wasn't…

  9. Delusions of success. How optimism undermines executives' decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovallo, Dan; Kahneman, Daniel

    2003-07-01

    The evidence is disturbingly clear: Most major business initiatives--mergers and acquisitions, capital investments, market entries--fail to ever pay off. Economists would argue that the low success rate reflects a rational assessment of risk, with the returns from a few successes outweighing the losses of many failures. But two distinguished scholars of decision making, Dan Lovallo of the University of New South Wales and Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman of Princeton University, provide a very different explanation. They show that a combination of cognitive biases (including anchoring and competitor neglect) and organizational pressures lead managers to make overly optimistic forecasts in analyzing proposals for major investments. By exaggerating the likely benefits of a project and ignoring the potential pitfalls, they lead their organizations into initiatives that are doomed to fall well short of expectations. The biases and pressures cannot be escaped, the authors argue, but they can be tempered by applying a very different method of forecasting--one that takes a much more objective "outside view" of an initiative's likely outcome. This outside view, also known as reference-class forecasting, completely ignores the details of the project at hand; instead, it encourages managers to examine the experiences of a class of similar projects, to lay out a rough distribution of outcomes for this reference class, and then to position the current project in that distribution. The outside view is more likely than the inside view to produce accurate forecasts--and much less likely to deliver highly unrealistic ones, the authors say.

  10. Trump's policy may undermine pro-growth intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberson, Michael

    2016-10-01

    In terms of energy policy, the Trump presidential campaign is largely aligned with mainstream Republican positions, evoking independence and deregulation. However, Trump's rhetoric and personality might inject uncertainties into long-term energy policies, increasing the risk inherent in energy related businesses.

  11. Catastrophic Declines in Wilderness Areas Undermine Global Environment Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James E M; Shanahan, Danielle F; Di Marco, Moreno; Allan, James; Laurance, William F; Sanderson, Eric W; Mackey, Brendan; Venter, Oscar

    2016-11-07

    Humans have altered terrestrial ecosystems for millennia [1], yet wilderness areas still remain as vital refugia where natural ecological and evolutionary processes operate with minimal human disturbance [2-4], underpinning key regional- and planetary-scale functions [5, 6]. Despite the myriad values of wilderness areas-as critical strongholds for endangered biodiversity [7], for carbon storage and sequestration [8], for buffering and regulating local climates [9], and for supporting many of the world's most politically and economically marginalized communities [10]-they are almost entirely ignored in multilateral environmental agreements. This is because they are assumed to be relatively free from threatening processes and therefore are not a priority for conservation efforts [11, 12]. Here we challenge this assertion using new comparable maps of global wilderness following methods established in the original "last of the wild" analysis [13] to examine the change in extent since the early 1990s. We demonstrate alarming losses comprising one-tenth (3.3 million km 2 ) of global wilderness areas over the last two decades, particularly in the Amazon (30%) and central Africa (14%). We assess increases in the protection of wilderness over the same time frame and show that these efforts are failing to keep pace with the rate of wilderness loss, which is nearly double the rate of protection. Our findings underscore an immediate need for international policies to recognize the vital values of wilderness and the unprecedented threats they face and to underscore urgent large-scale, multifaceted actions needed to maintain them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Illegitimacy undermines leader creativity only under stable power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, D.J.; Greer, L.L.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Power hierarchies are ubiquitous in human societies and can improve behavioral coordination, efficiency and individual incentives to climb the hierarchical ladder. However, when power differentials lack legitimacy or are unstable, power struggles and conflict may emerge, as low power people may try

  13. Climate of opinion risks undermining war on emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Analysts in the US are becomingly increasingly vocal about how policies that are designed to combat the effects of climate change risk doing the exact opposite, because they are so heavily in favour of 'renewables' that they are putting increasing pressure on the country's biggest source of zero-emissions power - nuclear. What makes this and reports interesting reading is that the so-called 'German experience' - where nuclear power continues to be gradually phased out for political reasons - is proving a sobering thought for the US. Policies that force nuclear out of the mix of resources with which to combat climate change will prove to be short-sighted and the consequences far reaching. (orig.)

  14. Are Debt Repayment Incentives Undermined by Foreign Aid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Schröder, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of inflows of foreign aid on the debt repayment behavior of developing countries. The paper first delineates the overall incentives to committing to timely debt repayment in a war of attrition-type model. A set of panel estimates including 93 developing countries...... shows that foreign aid is strongly negatively associated with repayment incentives. The findings pertain to both total debt service and service on publically guaranteed debt. A set of conditional estimates suggest that the main findings generalize to the majority of developing countries...

  15. Are Debt Repayment Incentives Undermined by Foreign Aid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    This paper investigates the effects of inflows of foreign aid on the debt repayment behaviour of developing countries. The paper first delineates the overall incentives to committing to timely repayment in a war of attrition-type model. A set of panel estimates including 93 developing countries...... shows that foreign aid is strongly negatively associated with repayment incentives. The findings pertain to both total debt service and service on publically guaranteed debt. Only countries that tend to vote predominantly with the US in the UN General Assembly are not significantly discouraged from...... servicing their debt by inflows of foreign aid....

  16. ANÁLISE DESCRITIVA DOS ASPECTOS LINGUÍSTICOS QUE PREJUDICAM A INTERCOMPREENSÃO DOS ALUNOS ESTRANGEIROS DA UNILAB NO GÊNERO COMENTÁRIO / Descriptive analysis of the linguistic aspects that undermine the intercompreension of foreign students of the unilab on text of genre comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ramos Carioca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A maioria dos estudantes oriundos dos países africanos de língua oficial portuguesa (PALOPs e do Timor-Leste tem muita dificuldade no processo da intercompreensão, pois, apesar de ser a língua oficial de seus países, o português não é a sua língua materna. Assim, o problema a ser abordado é “Quais fatores linguísticos prejudicam a intercompreensão dos estudantes africanos e timorenses no âmbito da UNILAB?”, tendo em vista que eles possuem muita dificuldade em se comunicar por causa do modelo de ensino do português adotado em cada país, que geralmente só é falado dentro da sala de aula. Dessa forma, esta proposta objetiva analisar os aspectos linguísticos que prejudicam a intercompreensão dos alunos estrangeiros da UNILAB de modo a possibilitar a análise descritiva, sob o panorama dos aspectos morfossintáticos, semântico-pragmáticos e discursivos da língua portuguesa, numa visão sociolinguística e discursiva, visando a uma discussão da política linguística para o português. A abordagem teórica está fundamentada nas pesquisas de Calvet (2007, Orlandi (2007, Cahen (2010 e Neves (2012, dentre outros, que nos fazem refletir sobre o estatuto da língua portuguesa na comunidade lusófona. Os dados foram coletados a partir da análise linguístico-discursiva dos comentários escritos de vinte e três estudantes guineenses, constituídos a partir do corpus do grupo de pesquisa Interlusofonia. Palavras-chave: intercompreensão; língua portuguesa; política linguística. ABSTRACT Most students from the Portuguese-speaking African countries (PALOP and East Timor have great difficulty in the mutual understanding process because, despite being the official language of their country, the Portuguese is not their mother tongue. Thus, the problem to be addressed is “What linguistic factors undermine the mutual understanding of African and East Timorese students under UNILAB?”, Given that they have great difficulty

  17. St. Thomas Aquinas and John Locke on Natural Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginna M. Pennance-Acevedo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available John Locke’s natural law theory has frequently been conceived as a continuation of the Thomistic tradition and as sound basis for human rights as universally binding. This paper concludes that this is not the case. Unlike Aquinas’ metaphysical realism, Locke’s empiricism and nominalism make it impossible for us to know our human nature, our exclusively human goods, and telos—thereby undermining the sound foundations of the exceptionless moral precepts of natural law. Whereas Aquinas defines the good as that which is perfective and fulfilling of human nature, Locke identifies the good with pleasure, which leads to subjectivism. While both Aquinas and Locke argue that God is the origin and foundation of the binding force of natural law, Locke’s voluntarism is incompatible with the ruling nature of law. Consequently, unlike Aquinas, Locke’s theory lacks the metaphysical foundations for universal human rights.

  18. Political participation of older adults in Scandinavia - the civic voluntarism model revisited? A multi-level analysis of three types of political participatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines political participation among older adults in Österbotten, Finland, and Västerbotten, Sweden. Two specific hypotheses are tested. First, we anticipate that older adults are loyal voters but less avid in engaging in politics between elections. Second, we expect individuallevel resources to explain why older people participate in politics. The article offers two contributions to the literature on political participation of older adults. First, it corroborates earlier findings by showing that older adults indeed have a higher inclination to vote than to engage in political activities between elections, but it also shows that the latter engagement is more diversified than one could expect. Second, although the findings largely support the resource model, they suggest that we need to consider also other factors such as the overall attitude towards older people.

  19. Skilled but Unaware of It: CAT Undermines a Test Taker's Metacognitive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Tuulia M.; Weisskopf, Eva; Gerstenberg, Friederike X. R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated students' metacognitive experiences with regard to feelings of difficulty (FD), feelings of satisfaction (FS), and estimate of effort (EE), employing either computerized adaptive testing (CAT) or computerized fixed item testing (FIT). In an experimental approach, 174 students in grades 10 to 13 were tested either with a CAT or a…

  20. Rural Districts between Urbanization and Land Abandonment: Undermining Long-Term Changes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates changes in the rural landscapes of a Mediterranean country (Greece over a long time period (1970–2015 encompassing economic expansions and recessions. Using a spatial distribution of 5 basic agricultural land-use classes (arable land, garden crop, vineyards, tree crop and fallow land derived from official statistics at 6 years (1970, 1979, 1988, 1997, 2006, 2015, a quantitative analysis based on correlation and multivariate techniques was carried out to identify recent changes in the Greek agricultural landscape at prefectural level during different economic waves. Empirical results evidenced both intuitive and counter-intuitive landscape transformations, including: (i a progressive, spatially-homogeneous reduction of cropland; (ii a (more or less rapid decrease in the surface of high-input crops, including arable land, horticulture and vineyards; (iii a parallel increase in the surface of tree crops, especially olive; (iv a spatially-heterogeneous decrease of fallow land concentrated in metropolitan and tourism districts, especially in the last decade; and, finally, (v increasingly diversified landscapes in rural, accessible areas close to the sea coast. Based on a correlation analysis with background socioeconomic indicators, our findings reflect the multiple impacts of urbanization and land abandonment on the composition and diversity of rural landscapes. Changes in agricultural land-use were moulded by multiple drivers depending on latent transformations in rural systems and inherent conflicts with expanding urban regions. Together with market conditions and the Common Agricultural Policy subsidy regime, social contexts and the economic cycle are important when identifying long-term changes in agricultural landscapes, especially in transitional socio-ecological systems.

  1. Undermining Adolescent Autonomy With Parents and Peers: The Enduring Implications of Psychologically Controlling Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Amanda L; Szwedo, David E; Schad, Megan M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-12-01

    This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens' perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens' perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens' displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens' autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one's autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens.

  2. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rindy C; Klofstad, Casey A; Mayew, William J; Venkatachalam, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities.

  3. Undermining Reasonableness: Expert Testimony in a Case Involving a Battered Woman Who Kills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrance, Cheryl; Matheson, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    Student participants (N = 316) viewed a videotaped simulated case involving a woman who had entered a self-defense plea in the shooting death of her abusive husband. As successful claims of self-defense rest on the portrayal of a defendant who has responded reasonably to his/her situation, the implications of various forms of expert testimony in…

  4. A hidden pitfall in the preparation of agar media undermines microorganism cultivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kosei; Daimon, Serina; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-12-01

    Microbiologists have been using agar growth medium for over 120 years. It revolutionized microbiology in the 1890s when microbiologists were seeking effective methods to isolate microorganisms, which led to the successful cultivation of microorganisms as single clones. But there has been a disparity between total cell counts and cultivable cell counts on plates, often referred to as the "great plate count anomaly," that has long been a phenomenon that still remains unsolved. Here, we report that a common practice microbiologists have employed to prepare agar medium has a hidden pitfall: when phosphate was autoclaved together with agar to prepare solid growth media (PT medium), total colony counts were remarkably lower than those grown on agar plates in which phosphate and agar were separately autoclaved and mixed right before solidification (PS medium). We used a pure culture of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27(T) and three representative sources of environmental samples, soil, sediment, and water, as inocula and compared colony counts between PT and PS agar plates. There were higher numbers of CFU on PS medium than on PT medium using G. aurantiaca or any of the environmental samples. Chemical analysis of PT agar plates suggested that hydrogen peroxide was contributing to growth inhibition. Comparison of 454 pyrosequences of the environmental samples to the isolates revealed that taxa grown on PS medium were more reflective of the original community structure than those grown on PT medium. Moreover, more hitherto-uncultivated microbes grew on PS than on PT medium. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. What helps or undermines adolescents' anticipated capacity to cope with mental illness stigma following psychiatric hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tally

    2015-05-01

    Better understanding of the individual and environmental factors that promote adolescents' use of more or less adaptive coping strategies with mental illness stigma would inform interventions designed to bolster youth resilience. This cross-sectional study draws on data from research on adolescents' well-being after discharge from a first psychiatric hospitalization to explore the relationships between anticipated coping in reaction to a hypothetical social stigma scenario, and various factors conceptualized as 'coping resource' and 'coping vulnerability' factors. Focusing on coping strategies also identified in the companion article, we hypothesize that primary and secondary control engagement coping would relate to more coping resource and less coping vulnerability factors, and the opposite would be true for disengagement, aggression/confrontation and efforts to disconfirm stereotypes. Data were elicited from interviews with 102 adolescents within 7 days of discharge. Hypothesized coping resource factors included social resources, optimistic illness perceptions, better hospital experiences and higher self-esteem. Vulnerability factors included more previous stigma experiences, desire for concealment of treatment, more contingent self-worth, higher symptom levels and higher anticipated stress. Multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to analyze associations between coping strategy endorsement and correlates. Although some coping correlates 'behaved' contrary to expectations, for the most part, our hypotheses were confirmed. As expected, youth anticipating reacting to the stigmatizing situation with greater disengagement, aggression/confrontation or efforts to disconfirm stenotypes rated significantly lower on 'coping resources' such as self-esteem and higher on vulnerability factors such as symptom severity. The opposite was true for youth who anticipated exercising more primary and secondary control engagement coping. This study begins to identify factors that promote more and less adaptive coping strategies among youth at high risk for social stigma. Some factors that can be modified in the shorter term point to useful directions for clinical interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Plant quality and local adaptation undermine relocation in a bog specialist butterfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turlure, C.; Radchuk, V.; Baguette, M.; Meijrink, M.; Burg, van den A.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Duinen, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The butterfly Boloria aquilonaris is a specialist of oligotrophic ecosystems. Population viability analysis predicted the species to be stable in Belgium and to collapse in the Netherlands with reduced host plant quality expected to drive species decline in the latter. We tested this hypothesis by

  7. Influences That Undermine Learners' Perceptions of Autonomy, Competence and Relatedness in an Online Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Online learning has grown considerably in recent years. However attrition rates from online courses indicate that not all learners are successful in such settings, and various factors have been identified as crucial to learner persistence. Research evidence suggests that motivation is one such factor. This study builds on previous studies by using…

  8. Discussing Ethical Issues in the Classroom: Leveraging Pedagogical Moments that May Otherwise Undermine Important Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Douglas J.; Hull, William J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The authors identify, examine, and clarify three kinds of hindrances (dismissive/evasive tactics, logical stoppers, and ad hominem arguments) to teaching about ethical issues in P-12 schools. In discussing these three types of obstacles, they stress that the barriers themselves provide both challenges and opportunities for teachers. Indeed, they…

  9. Histamine type 1-receptor activation by low dose of histamine undermines human glomerular slit diaphragm integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglia, Eleonora; Pini, Alessandro; Moggio, Aldo; Grange, Cristina; Premoselli, Federica; Miglio, Gianluca; Tiligada, Katerina; Fantozzi, Roberto; Chazot, Paul L; Rosa, Arianna Carolina

    2016-12-01

    Histamine has been reported to decrease the ultrafiltration coefficient, which inversely correlates with glomerular permselectivity, however the mechanism(s) underling this effect have never been investigated. This study aimed to assess whether histamine could exert a direct detrimental effect on podocyte permeability and the possible involvement of two key proteins for the glomerular slit diaphragm (SD) integrity, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and P-cadherin. The effect of histamine (100 pM-1000nM) on coloured podocytes junctional integrity was evaluated functionally by a transwell assay of monolayer permeability and morphologically by electron microscopy. Histamine receptor (H 1-4 R) presence was evaluated at both mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (immunofluorescence) levels. The K d and B max values for [ 3 H]mepyramine were determined by saturation binding analysis; IP 1 and cAMP production evoked by histamine were measured by TR-FRET. ZO-1, P-cadherin and vimentin expression was assessed by qRT-PCR and quantitative immunoblotting. Histamine elicited a time- and sigmoidal dose-dependent (maximum effect at 8h, 10nM) increase in podocyte paracellular permeability widening the paracellular spaces. Only H 1 R was predominantly localised to the podocyte membrane. Consistently, histamine elicited a sigmoidal dose-dependent increase in IP 1 , but not in cAMP. Histamine exposure evoked a concentration-dependent reduction in both ZO-1 and P-cadherin and a parallel induction of vimentin mRNA expression with a maximum effect after 6h, and protein expression with a maximum effect after 8h. These effects were prevented by the selective H 1 R antagonist chlorpheniramine. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that histamine, via the H 1 R, modifies SD morphological and functional integrity, in part, by decreasing the expression of ZO-1 and P-cadherin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Why do faultlines matter? A computational model of how strong demographic faultlines undermine team cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Mas, Michael; Mäs, Michael

    Lau and Murnighan (LM) suggested that strong demographic faultlines threaten team cohesion and reduce consensus. However, it remains unclear which assumptions are exactly needed to derive faultline effects. We propose a formal computational model of the effects of faultlines that uses four

  11. The dilution model: how additional goals undermine the perceived instrumentality of a shared path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Fishbach, Ayelet; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2007-03-01

    Six experiments tested a dilution model of self-regulation, whereby increasing the number of goals (e.g., building muscles and losing weight) that a single means (e.g., exercising) can satisfy reduces the perception of its instrumentality with respect to each goal. The authors found that an increase in the number of simultaneous, salient goals that can be satisfied via a single means weakens the associative strength between that means and each individual goal, and as a result, individuals perceive the means as less effective for the attainment of each goal. Consequently, means that are connected to multiple (vs. single) goals are less likely to be chosen and pursued when only one of these goals is activated. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Losing Its Expected Communal Value: How Stereotype Threat Undermines Women's Identity as Research Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessi L.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Deemer, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The worry or concern over confirming negative gender group stereotypes, called stereotype threat, is one explanation for women's worldwide underrepresentation in undergraduate science classes and majors. But how does stereotype threat translate into fewer women motivated for science? In this quantitative study with a sample from the US, we use…

  13. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized.

  14. Less Government is Good Government? Deregulation as an Undermining Principle of Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Engartner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since liberalization became the dominant global narrative the stock response to market shortcomings has been to “slim down” the state and deregulate. In most countries the slogan of “less government is good government” has become a constitutive feature of economic policy since the 1980s. Markets lie at the heart of every successful economy, and despite not necessarily working well on their own, the economic policy of deregulation has been one of the most persistent currents in the global economy. Based as it is on classical liberalism and – at least in its origins and leanings – neoclassical theory, deregulation aims to minimize the influence of the state. But in the context of the current financial and economic meltdown – the worst economic dislocation since the Great Crash of 1929-32 – “downsizing” the state causes growing turmoil. Global networking has made financial markets much more volatile and therefore much more susceptible to crisis.

  15. Undermining Racism and a Whiteness Ideology: White Principals Living a Commitment to Equitable and Excellent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharis, George; Haddix, Marcelle

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on six White urban principals who came to administration with a commitment to create more equitable and excellent schools for students from marginalized communities. These leaders made strides in raising student achievement, creating a climate of belonging for students, staff, and families, and increasing access to learning…

  16. Interventions targeting child undernutrition in developing countries may be undermined by dietary exposure to aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sinead; Gong, Yun Yun; Routledge, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Child undernutrition, a form of malnutrition, is a major public health burden in developing countries. Supplementation interventions targeting the major micronutrient deficiencies have only reduced the burden of child undernutrition to a certain extent, indicating that there are other underlying determinants that need to be addressed. Aflatoxin exposure, which is also highly prevalent in developing countries, may be considered an aggravating factor for child undernutrition. Increasing evidence suggests that aflatoxin exposure can occur in any stage of life, including in utero through a trans-placental pathway and in early childhood (through contaminated weaning food and family food). Early life exposure to aflatoxin is associated with adverse effects on low birth weight, stunting, immune suppression, and the liver function damage. The mechanisms underlying impaired growth and aflatoxin exposure are still unclear but intestinal function damage, reduced immune function, and alteration in the insulin-like growth factor axis caused by the liver damage are the suggested hypotheses. Given the fact that both aflatoxin and child undernutrition are common in sub-Saharan Africa, effective interventions aimed at reducing undernutrition cannot be satisfactorily achieved until the interactive relationship between aflatoxin and child undernutrition is clearly understood, and an aflatoxin mitigation strategy takes effect in those vulnerable mothers and children.

  17. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2), which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

  18. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Lindsey

    Full Text Available The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2, which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

  19. Cuing consumerism: situational materialism undermines personal and social well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Monika A; Wilkie, James E B; Kim, Jung K; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2012-05-01

    Correlational evidence indicates that materialistic individuals experience relatively low levels of well-being. Across four experiments, we found that situational cuing can also trigger materialistic mind-sets, with similarly negative personal and social consequences. Merely viewing desirable consumer goods resulted in increases in materialistic concerns and led to heightened negative affect and reduced social involvement (Experiment 1). Framing a computer task as a "Consumer Reaction Study" led to a stronger automatic bias toward values reflecting self-enhancement, compared with framing the same task as a "Citizen Reaction Study" (Experiment 2). Consumer cues also increased competitiveness (Experiment 3) and selfishness in a water-conservation dilemma (Experiment 4). Thus, the costs of materialism are not localized only in particularly materialistic people, but can also be found in individuals who happen to be exposed to environmental cues that activate consumerism-cues that are commonplace in contemporary society.

  20. Who is good at this game? Linking an activity to a social category undermines children's achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Andrei; Mu, Yan; Erickson, Lucy C

    2012-05-01

    Children's achievement-related theories have a profound impact on their academic success. Children who adopt entity theories believe that their ability to perform a task is dictated by the amount of natural talent they possess for that task--a belief that has well-documented adverse consequences for their achievement (e.g., lowered persistence, impaired performance). It is thus important to understand what leads children to adopt entity theories. In the experiments reported here, we hypothesized that the mere act of linking success at an unfamiliar, challenging activity to a social group gives rise to entity beliefs that are so powerful as to interfere with children's ability to perform the activity. Two experiments showed that, as predicted, the performance of 4- to 7-year-olds (N = 192) was impaired by exposure to information that associated success in the task at hand with membership in a certain social group (e.g., "boys are good at this game"), regardless of whether the children themselves belonged to that group.

  1. Tobacco companies’ efforts to undermine ingredient disclosure: the Massachusetts benchmark study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicer, Clayton; Aguinaga-Bialous, Stella; Glantz, Stanton

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the Massachusetts Benchmark ‘Study’ (MBS) that the tobacco companies presented to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) in 1999 in response to ingredient disclosure regulations in the state. This case study can inform future ingredient disclosure regulations, including implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Methods We analysed documents available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu to identify internal communications regarding the design and execution of the MBS and internal studies on the relationship between tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide and smoke constituents and reviewed publications that further evaluated data published as part of the MBS. Results The companies conducted extensive studies of cigarette design factors and ingredients that significantly impacted the levels of constituents. While this study asserted that by-brand emissions could be estimated reliably from published tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide levels, the tobacco companies were well aware that factors beyond tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide influenced levels of constituents included in the study. This severely limited the potential usefulness of the MBS predictor equations. Conclusions Despite promises to provide data that would allow regulators to predict constituent data for all brands on the market, the final MBS results offered no useful predictive information to inform regulators, the scientific community or consumers. When implementing FCTC Articles 9 and 10, regulatory agencies should demand detailed by-brand information on tobacco product constituents and toxin deliveries to users. PMID:26292701

  2. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? An Exploration of Factors That Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher education attainment. Although the cost inputs to…

  3. Undermining Adolescent Autonomy With Parents and Peers: The Enduring Implications of Psychologically Controlling Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Amanda L.; Szwedo, David E.; Schad, Megan M.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens’ displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens’ autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one’s autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens. PMID:26788023

  4. Does cheating by students undermine the integrity of the nursing profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasper, Alan

    2016-09-08

    Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the worrying media reports that suggest that large numbers of student nurses are cheating their way onto the professional register.

  5. Undermining the state? Informal mining and trajectories of state formation in Eastern Mindanao, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Building on critical perspectives on the state and the informal economy, this article provides an analysis of the "state of the state" on the eastern Mindanao mineral frontier. In the first instance, the author explains that the massive expansion of informal small-scale gold mining, instead of

  6. The Inverse Benefit Law: How Drug Marketing Undermines Patient Safety and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent highly publicized withdrawals of drugs from the market because of safety concerns raise the question of whether these events are random failures or part of a recurring pattern. The inverse benefit law, inspired by Hart's inverse care law, states that the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively the drugs are marketed. The law is manifested through 6 basic marketing strategies: reducing thresholds for diagnosing disease, relying on surrogate endpoints, exaggerating safety claims, exaggerating efficacy claims, creating new diseases, and encouraging unapproved uses. The inverse benefit law highlights the need for comparative effectiveness research and other reforms to improve evidence-based prescribing. PMID:21233426

  7. Enhanced Dentate Neurogenesis after Brain Injury Undermines Long-Term Neurogenic Potential and Promotes Seizure Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Neuberger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal dentate gyrus is a focus of enhanced neurogenesis and excitability after traumatic brain injury. Increased neurogenesis has been proposed to aid repair of the injured network. Our data show that an early increase in neurogenesis after fluid percussion concussive brain injury is transient and is followed by a persistent decrease compared with age-matched controls. Post-injury changes in neurogenesis paralleled changes in neural precursor cell proliferation and resulted in a long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Targeted pharmacology to restore post-injury neurogenesis to control levels reversed the long-term decline in neurogenic capacity. Limiting post-injury neurogenesis reduced early increases in dentate excitability and seizure susceptibility. Our results challenge the assumption that increased neurogenesis after brain injury is beneficial and show that early post-traumatic increases in neurogenesis adversely affect long-term outcomes by exhausting neurogenic potential and enhancing epileptogenesis. Treatments aimed at limiting excessive neurogenesis can potentially restore neuroproliferative capacity and limit epilepsy after brain injury.

  8. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? : An Exploration of Factors that Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Maragakis, A.

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher

  9. Lost at sea: ocean acidification undermines larval fish orientation via altered hearing and marine soundscape modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Tullio; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Connell, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal of larvae and their settlement to suitable habitat is fundamental to the replenishment of marine populations and the communities in which they live. Sound plays an important role in this process because for larvae of various species, it acts as an orientational cue towards suitable settlement habitat. Because marine sounds are largely of biological origin, they not only carry information about the location of potential habitat, but also information about the quality of habitat. While ocean acidification is known to affect a wide range of marine organisms and processes, its effect on marine soundscapes and its reception by navigating oceanic larvae remains unknown. Here, we show that ocean acidification causes a switch in role of present-day soundscapes from attractor to repellent in the auditory preferences in a temperate larval fish. Using natural CO2 vents as analogues of future ocean conditions, we further reveal that ocean acidification can impact marine soundscapes by profoundly diminishing their biological sound production. An altered soundscape poorer in biological cues indirectly penalizes oceanic larvae at settlement stage because both control and CO2-treated fish larvae showed lack of any response to such future soundscapes. These indirect and direct effects of ocean acidification put at risk the complex processes of larval dispersal and settlement. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Islands Unto Themselves: How Merit Pay Schemes May Undermine Positive Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, T. Jameson; Myers, P. S.; Zhang, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Educational reforms have become the new policy mainstay in educational discourse and policy. Without doubt, "fixing" teachers and increasing student test scores have both been a large component of much of the reform rhetoric. Moreover, calls for implementing merit pay schemes have uniquely combined reformer's efforts to "fix"…

  11. Men's violence against women in rural Bangladesh: undermined or exacerbated by microcredit programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, S R; Hashemi, S M; Badal, S H

    1998-05-01

    This ethnographic study examined the sociocultural context of domestic violence in 6 rural villages in Bangladesh, and the prevalence of wife-beating and its association with women's empowerment in income generation programs (IGPs). Data were obtained from interviews conducted during 1990-96. Four villages had IGPs, and 2 villages did not have credit programs. Over 66% of women reported having been beaten at one time or another. In one village 87% reported beatings. 38% reported beatings in the preceding year (a range of 14-60%). Men beat their wives over trivial matters or frustrations over problems for which wives were not responsible. Beatings were attributed to mens' desire to control behavior and reassert their authority when challenged or to exploit their wives for financial gain. Some of the most severe beatings were linked with dowry. Both husbands and wives considered the beatings legitimate. The highest level of violence was in villages that were experiencing the most changes in gender roles and that had the most women contributing to family support. The lowest levels of violence were in villages with the fewest contributing to family support. Interviews, case studies, and observations yielded ambivalent evidence about the influence of credit programs on domestic violence. Credit programs have the potential to increase women's status and to disseminate anti-violence messages among both men and women.

  12. Exposure to violent and sexual media content undermines school performance in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Humans are hard-wired to pay attention to violent and sexual cues. Because humans have limited attention capacity, attention allocated to violent and sexual cues decreases attention that can be allocated to encoding important information in school. This study examined the effects of exposure to violent and sexual media on general school performance and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL scores in Turkish youth. Methods: The relationship between exposure to violent and sexual media on school performance was assessed in a sample of 1545 Turkish adolescents. Then, we compared the TOEFL scores of 143 Turkish boys aged 14 to 18 divided in 71 living in dormitories in which consumption of media was strictly regulated and 72 living at home. Results: A significant negative relationship was found between exposure to violent/sexual media and school success. The effects remained significant even after controlling for the total amount of media exposure. In addition, boys living in the dormitory in which consumption of media was strictly regulated outscored those living at home on the TOEFL post-test immediately after the end of the study, and on a delayed post-test one week later. Conclusions: Because there was no difference between boys living at home and those living in a dormitory on the pre-test, the post-test and delayed post-test differences cannot be attributed to initial differences in English language proficiency. These results suggest that exposure to violent and sexual media impairs adolescent school performance and foreign language memory.

  13. Chronic stress undermines the compensatory sleep efficiency increase in response to sleep restriction in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, Rebecca G; Verhoeven, Dorit; Vijzelaar, Romy L; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of real-life stress on the sleep of adolescents, we performed a repeated-measures study on actigraphic sleep estimates and subjective measures during one regular school week, two stressful examination weeks and a week's holiday. Twenty-four adolescents aged 17.63 ± 0.10 years (mean ± standard error of the mean) wore actigraphs and completed diaries on subjective stress, fatigue, sleep quality, number of examinations and consumption of caffeine and alcohol for 4 weeks during their final year of secondary school. The resulting almost 500 assessments were analysed using mixed-effect models to estimate the effects of mere school attendance and additional examination stress on sleep estimates and subjective ratings. Total sleep time decreased from 7:38 h ± 12 min during holidays to 6:40 h ± 12 min during a regular school week. This 13% decrease elicited a partial compensation, as indicated by a 3% increase in sleep efficiency and a 6% decrease in the duration of nocturnal awakenings. During examination weeks total sleep time decreased to 6:23 h ± 8 min, but it was now accompanied by a decrease in sleep efficiency and subjective sleep quality and an increase in wake bout duration. In conclusion, school examination stress affects the sleep of adolescents. The compensatory mechanism of more consolidated sleep, as elicited by the sleep restriction associated with mere school attendance, collapsed during 2 weeks of sustained examination stress. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Gabriela locality: Starting geodetic observations to detect the surface manifestations from undermining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kajzar, Vlastimil; Doležalová, Hana; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2012), s. 401-407 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech - Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas /12./. Jugowice, 20.10.2012-22.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : GNSS * underground mining * mining subsidence * horizontal displacements Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/03_12/15.Kajzar.pdf

  15. Undermining mobilization? The effect of job flexibility and job instability on the willingness to strike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Giedo; Akkerman, Agnes; Vandaele, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the question of whether, and to what extent job flexibility is detrimental to mobilization with regard to the willingness to take part in industrial action. The authors examine the influence of job flexibility (‘standard’ versus ‘non-standard’ work) and job instability

  16. Misunderstood Statistical Assumptions Undermine Criticism of the National Early Literacy Panel's Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Christopher; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the methodological criticisms of the National Early Literacy Panel (NELP) report presented in this special issue of "Educational Researcher" are not specific to the NELP report but are in fact broad criticisms of much of the quantitative research on early literacy. This rejoinder demonstrates that these criticisms are off target and are…

  17. Galactic punctuated equilibrium: how to undermine Carter's anthropic argument in astrobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirković, Milan M; Vukotić, Branislav; Dragićević, Ivana

    2009-06-01

    A new strategy by which to defeat Carter's "anthropic" argument against extraterrestrial life and intelligence is presented. Our approach is based on relaxing hidden uniformitarian assumptions and considering instead a dynamical succession of evolutionary regimes governed by both global (Galaxy-wide) and local (planet- or planetary system-limited) regulation mechanisms. Notably, our increased understanding of the nature of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and strong coupling between the Solar System and the Galaxy, and the theories of "punctuated equilibria" and "macroevolutionary regimes" are in full accordance with the regulation-mechanism picture. The application of this particular strategy highlights the limits of application of Carter's argument and indicates that, in the real universe, its applicability conditions are not satisfied. We conclude that drawing far-reaching conclusions about the scarcity of extraterrestrial intelligence and the prospects of our efforts to detect it on the basis of this argument is unwarranted.

  18. Medical apps for smartphones: lack of evidence undermines quality and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, Arthur Willem Gerard; Visser, Benjamin Jelle; Marshall, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of healthcare professionals are using smartphones and their associated applications (apps) in daily clinical care. While these medical apps hold great potential for improving clinical practice, little is known about the possible dangers associated with their use. Breaches of

  19. From Play to School: Are Core Values of ECEC in Iceland Being Undermined by "Schoolification"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Bryndis

    2014-01-01

    Iceland has a strong tradition of universal public early childhood education and care (ECEC) services for children. The traditional pedagogy is founded on play-based learning with the holistic view of the development of the child is central to practice. With increased interest in education following the 2008 financial crisis, there are signs that…

  20. Characteristic x-ray emission from undermines plasmas irradiated by ultra-intense lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Christoph [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-05-05

    Between FY09 and FY11 we have conducted more than a dozen three-week experimental campaigns at high-power laser facilities around the world to investigate laser-channeling through x-ray and optical imaging and the conversion from laser-energy to xrays. We have performed simultaneous two-wavelength x-ray imaging (K-alpha and He-alpha) to distinguish the hot-plasma region (hot-spot) from the laser-produced electrons (K-alpha). In addition, we have initiated a new collaboration with SNL and have performed first shots on the 100 TW beamlet chamber to commission a fast x-ray streak camera to be used to investigate the temporal evolution of our K-alpha sources. We also collaborated on campaigns at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) and the LANL Trident laser to employ laser produced x-ray sources for Thomson scattering off dense matter.

  1. Controversy undermines support for state mandates on the human papillomavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Dempsey, Amanda F; Lantz, Paula M; Ubel, Peter A; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2010-11-01

    State actions requiring adolescent girls to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine created controversy following the vaccine's approval in 2006. Some health professionals worried that the controversy might dampen public support for those state policies and for other school immunizations in general. We fielded an experimental Internet survey to determine how controversy affects attitudes about vaccines. We discovered that public support for the HPV vaccine mandates wanes when the public is informed that the policies are controversial. However, the experimental survey also revealed that exposure to this policy controversy did not spill over and reduce public support for immunizations in general.

  2. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  3. Undermining capitalism - state ownership and the dialectic of control in the British coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The first section of this publication considers state ownership and contradictions of bureaucratic management with regard to the National Coal Board (NCB). Wages policy is discussed in terms of national rationalization, in particular the 1966 National Power Loading Agreement (NPLA). The second section outlines the effects of wage policy and structure upon production and also assesses the effects of work rules which determine organization of labour, division of tasks, norms for co-operation between team and shift groups etc. The third section discusses changes in power and labour relations and demonstrates distinctive regional patterns in the politics of productivity under piece-rate and time-based wage structures. Subsequent sections comprise colliery studies in County Durham and Nottinghamshire. The concluding chapter summarizes the arguments put forward in the preceding sections and discusses the relationship between organizational structure and class power.

  4. The inverse benefit law: how drug marketing undermines patient safety and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Light, Donald W

    2011-03-01

    Recent highly publicized withdrawals of drugs from the market because of safety concerns raise the question of whether these events are random failures or part of a recurring pattern. The inverse benefit law, inspired by Hart's inverse care law, states that the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively the drugs are marketed. The law is manifested through 6 basic marketing strategies: reducing thresholds for diagnosing disease, relying on surrogate endpoints, exaggerating safety claims, exaggerating efficacy claims, creating new diseases, and encouraging unapproved uses. The inverse benefit law highlights the need for comparative effectiveness research and other reforms to improve evidence-based prescribing.

  5. Evidence that disrupted orienting to evaluative social feedback undermines error correction in rejection sensitive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Jennifer A; Hoxha, Olta; Lane, Sean P; Jarvis, Shoshana N; Downey, Geraldine

    2017-08-01

    For individuals high in Rejection Sensitivity (RS), a learned orientation to anxiously expect rejection from valued others, negative feedback from social sources may disrupt engagement with learning opportunities, impeding recovery from mistakes. One context in which this disruption may be particularly pronounced is among women high in RS following evaluation by a male in authority. To investigate this prediction, 40 college students (50% female) answered general knowledge questions followed by immediate performance feedback and the correct answer while we recorded event-related potentials. Error correction was measured with a subsequent surprise retest. Performance feedback was either nonsocial (asterisk/tone) or social (male professor's face/voice). Attention and learning were indexed respectively by the anterior frontal P3a (attentional orienting) and a set of negative-going waveforms over left inferior-posterior regions associated with successful encoding. For women, but not men, higher RS scores predicted poorer error correction in the social condition. A path analysis suggested that, for women, high RS disrupted attentional orienting to the social-evaluative performance feedback, which affected subsequent memory for the correct answer by reducing engagement with learning opportunities. These results suggest a mechanism for how social feedback may impede learning among women who are high in RS.

  6. Vocal fry may undermine the success of young women in the labor market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindy C Anderson

    Full Text Available Vocal fry is speech that is low pitched and creaky sounding, and is increasingly common among young American females. Some argue that vocal fry enhances speaker labor market perceptions while others argue that vocal fry is perceived negatively and can damage job prospects. In a large national sample of American adults we find that vocal fry is interpreted negatively. Relative to a normal speaking voice, young adult female voices exhibiting vocal fry are perceived as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive, and less hirable. The negative perceptions of vocal fry are stronger for female voices relative to male voices. These results suggest that young American females should avoid using vocal fry speech in order to maximize labor market opportunities.

  7. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Számadó, Szabolcs; Szalai, Ferenc; Scheuring, István

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty.

  8. Undermining subsistence: Barren-ground caribou in a “tragedy of open access”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlee, Brenda L.; Sandlos, John; Natcher, David C.

    2018-01-01

    Sustaining arctic/subarctic ecosystems and the livelihoods of northern Indigenous peoples is an immense challenge amid increasing resource development. The paper describes a “tragedy of open access” occurring in Canada’s north as governments open up new areas of sensitive barren-ground caribou habitat to mineral resource development. Once numbering in the millions, barren-ground caribou populations (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus/Rangifer tarandus granti) have declined over 70% in northern Canada over the last two decades in a cycle well understood by northern Indigenous peoples and scientists. However, as some herds reach critically low population levels, the impacts of human disturbance have become a major focus of debate in the north and elsewhere. A growing body of science and traditional knowledge research points to the adverse impacts of resource development; however, management efforts have been almost exclusively focused on controlling the subsistence harvest of northern Indigenous peoples. These efforts to control Indigenous harvesting parallel management practices during previous periods of caribou population decline (for example, 1950s) during which time governments also lacked evidence and appeared motivated by other values and interests in northern lands and resources. As mineral resource development advances in northern Canada and elsewhere, addressing this “science-policy gap” problem is critical to the sustainability of both caribou and people. PMID:29503864

  9. Being Together: Factors That Unintentionally Undermine Motivation in Co-Located Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Maggie; St. George, Alison; Dron, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on one aspect of a larger case study that explores the nature of motivation to learn in an online distance environment. The study adopts self-determination theory (SDT) as a theoretical framework and focuses particularly on the underlying concepts of autonomy and competence. These are used to investigate ways in which certain…

  10. How the Spectre of Societal Homogeneity Undermines Equitable Healthcare for Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razum, Oliver; Wenner, Judith; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan

    2017-01-01

    Recourse to a purported ideal of societal homogeneity has become common in the context of the refugee reception crisis – not only in Japan, as Leppold et al report, but also throughout Europe. Calls for societal homogeneity in Europe originate from populist movements as well as from some governments. Often, they go along with reduced social support for refugees and asylum seekers, for example in healthcare provision. The fundamental right to health is then reduced to a citizens’ right, granted fully only to nationals. Germany, in spite of welcoming many refugees in 2015, is a case in point: entitlement and access to healthcare for asylum seekers are restricted during the first 15 months of their stay. We show that arguments brought forward to defend such restrictions do not hold, particularly not those which relate to maintaining societal homogeneity. European societies are not homogeneous, irrespective of migration. But as migration will continue, societies need to invest in what we call "globalization within." Removing entitlement restrictions and access barriers to healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers is one important element thereof. PMID:28812828

  11. The role of competing knowledge structures in undermining learning: Newton's second and third laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, David J.; Wilson, Kate F.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the development of student understanding of Newton's laws using a pre-instruction test (the Force Concept Inventory), followed by a series of post-instruction tests and interviews. While some students' somewhat naive, pre-existing models of Newton's third law are largely eliminated following a semester of teaching, we find that a particular inconsistent model is highly resilient to, and may even be strengthened by, instruction. If test items contain words that cue students to think of Newton's second law, then students are more likely to apply a "net force" approach to solving problems, even if it is inappropriate to do so. Additional instruction, reinforcing physical concepts in multiple settings and from multiple sources, appears to help students develop a more connected and consistent level of understanding. We recommend explicitly encouraging students to check their work for consistency with physical principles, along with the standard checks for dimensionality and order of magnitude, to encourage reflective and rigorous problem solving.

  12. Flow management for hydropower extirpates aquatic insects, undermining river food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Lytle, D.A.; Miller, S.A.; Dibble, Kimberly L.; Kortenhoeven, Eric W.; Metcalfe, Anya; Baxter, Colden V.

    2016-01-01

    Dams impound the majority of rivers and provide important societal benefits, especially daily water releases that enable on-peak hydroelectricity generation. Such “hydropeaking” is common worldwide, but its downstream impacts remain unclear. We evaluated the response of aquatic insects, a cornerstone of river food webs, to hydropeaking using a life history–hydrodynamic model. Our model predicts that aquatic-insect abundance will depend on a basic life-history trait—adult egg-laying behavior—such that open-water layers will be unaffected by hydropeaking, whereas ecologically important and widespread river-edge layers, such as mayflies, will be extirpated. These predictions are supported by a more-than-2500-sample, citizen-science data set of aquatic insects from the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon and by a survey of insect diversity and hydropeaking intensity across dammed rivers of the Western United States. Our study reveals a hydropeaking-related life history bottleneck that precludes viable populations of many aquatic insects from inhabiting regulated rivers.

  13. How the contractualist account of preconception negligence undermines prenatal reproductive autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Glen

    2013-08-01

    Suppose a physician advises a woman to delay her planned pregnancy for a few months in order to significantly reduce the likelihood that her baby will suffer with Spina Bifida. If the woman chooses to ignore this advice and conceives soon after, I believe most people would consider it a matter of common sense that the child thus born is a victim of this woman's negligence, even if it is fortunate enough to not be burdened with Spina Bifida. This common sense judgement appeared to have been done in by the fact that the timing of conception can be identity-influencing, and so the child that is born only exists because of its mother's decision to ignore her physician's advice. However, recently, contemporary contractualist theories have been used to make sense of preconception negligence towards persons whose existence is a result of that same negligence. I will briefly discuss this interesting development and then show how this retrieval of the common sense judgement comes at a great cost to prenatal reproductive autonomy.

  14. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty.

  15. Is HIV/AIDS undermining Botswana's ‘success story'? implications for development strategy:

    OpenAIRE

    Thurlow, James

    2007-01-01

    "Despite its strong growth record, Botswana faces two prominent development challenges: the onslaught of HIV/AIDS and the slowdown in diamond mining. This study estimates the growth and distributional impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and considers its implications for the country's development prospects, using a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model that accounts for the cost of treatment. The results of this analysis indicate that HIV/AIDS reduces GDP growth by 1.6 ...

  16. Water quality of a coastal Louisiana swamp and how dredging is undermining restoration efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert R.; Huang, Haosheng; Day, John W.; Justic, Dubravko; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    The Bayou Boeuf Basin (BBB), a sub-basin of the Barataria Basin estuary in coastal Louisiana, consists of forested and floating wetlands receiving drainage from surrounding agricultural fields and urban watersheds. We characterized surface water quality in the BBB, and determined through hydrologic modeling if a series of levee breaks along major drainage channels would significantly improve water quality by allowing flow into surrounding wetlands. Surface water monitoring found surrounding sugarcane farm fields to be major sources of nutrient and sediment loading. Hydrological modeling indicated that levee breaks would increase N reduction from the current 21.4% to only 29.2%, which is much lower than the anticipated 90-100% removal rate. This was due to several factors, one them being dredging of main drainage channels to such a degree that water levels do not rise much above the surrounding wetland elevation even during severe storms, so only a very small fraction of the stormwater carried in the channel is exposed to wetlands. These unexpected results provide insight into an undoubtedly pervasive problem in human dominated wetland systems; that of decreased flooding during storm events due to channel deepening by dredging activities. Additional water quality management practices should be implemented at the farm field level, prior to water entering major drainage canals.

  17. Computing Whether She Belongs: Stereotypes Undermine Girls' Interest and Sense of Belonging in Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    Computer science has one of the largest gender disparities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. An important reason for this disparity is that girls are less likely than boys to enroll in necessary "pipeline courses," such as introductory computer science. Two experiments investigated whether high-school girls' lower…

  18. Chronic stress undermines the compensatory sleep efficiency increase in response to sleep restriction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astill, R.G.; Verhoeven, D.; Vijzelaar, R.L.; Someren, E.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of real-life stress on the sleep of adolescents, we performed a repeated-measures study on actigraphic sleep estimates and subjective measures during one regular school week, two stressful examination weeks and a week's holiday. Twenty-four adolescents aged 17.63 ± 0.10

  19. Does corruption undermine trust in health care? Results from public opinion polls in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Health and health care provision are one of the most important topics in public policy, and often a highly debated topic in the political arena. The importance of considering trust in the health care sector is highlighted by studies showing that trust is associated, among others, with poor self-related health, and poorer health outcomes. Similarly, corruption has shown to create economic costs and inefficiencies in the health care sector. This is particularly important for a newly democratized country such as Croatia, where a policy responsive government indicates a high level of quality of democracy (Roberts, 2009) and where a legacy of corruption in the health care sector has been carried over from the previous regime. In this study, I assess the relationship between health care corruption and trust in public health care and hypothesize that experience with health care corruption as well as perception of corruption has a negative effect on trust in public care facilities. Data were collected in two surveys, administered in 2007 and 2009 in Croatia. Experience with corruption and salience with corruption has a negative effect on trust in public health care in the 2007 survey, but not in the 2009 survey. While the results are mixed, they point to the importance of further studying this relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neighborhood crime undermines parenting: Violence in the vicinity of households as a predictor of aggressive discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartas, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Child discipline is a central component of parent-child interactions. Evidence suggests corporal discipline impairs children's physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development and compromises their future chances, especially since it is more frequently used against at-risk children. Using geocoded data for 1209 children under the age of five and their mothers, this study analyses the relation between the occurrence of crimes in close proximity to households in four major urban municipalities of Colombia and a particularly violent corporal discipline practice: hitting children with objects. Results indicate that exposure to violent crimes, such as homicides and personal injuries, predicts a higher probability of hitting children with objects, even after controlling for a set of individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics. Sensitivity analyses suggest violent crimes are not related to other discipline methods, and less threatening crimes, such as robbery and drug trafficking, are not associated with hitting children with objects. These findings suggest households' walls are permeable, and outside threats may interfere with families' dynamics and well-being. Future directions and implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Know thyself: misperceptions of actual performance undermine achievement motivation, future performance, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Zou, Zhimin

    2010-09-01

    Contrary to the popular assumption that self-enhancement improves task motivation and future performance, the authors propose that both inflated and deflated self-assessments of performance are linked to an increased likelihood of practicing self-handicapping and having relatively poor performance in future tasks. Consistent with this proposal, we found that irrespective of the level of actual performance, compared with accurate self-assessment, both inflated and deflated self-assessments of task performance are associated with a greater tendency to (a) practice self-handicapping (Study 1: prefer to work under distraction; Study 2: withhold preparatory effort), (b) perform relatively poorly in a subsequent task (Study 3), (c) have relatively low academic achievement (Study 4), and (d) report a relatively low level of subjective well-being (Study 5). The authors discuss these results in terms of their educational implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Nurturing Young Readers: How Digital Media Can Promote Literacy Instead of Undermining It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernsey, Lisa; Levine, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Young children today are gaining access to a dizzying array of apps, games, and videos. With all of this digital media at their fingertips, two urgent questions have emerged in preschools and elementary schools: Could technology interfere with the way children learn to read? Or could it help? While questions continue to arise about the challenges…

  3. Quine's Double Standard: Undermining the Indispensability Argument via the Indeterminacy of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Bueno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Quine has famously put forward the indispensability argument to force belief in the existence of mathematical objects (such as classes due to their indispensability to our best theories of the world (Quine 1960. Quine has also advocated the indeterminacy of reference argument, according to which reference is dramatically indeterminate: given a language, there’s no unique reference relation for that language (see Quine 1969a. In this paper, I argue that these two arguments are in conflict with each other. Whereas the indispensability argument supports realism about mathematics, the indeterminacy of reference argument, when applied to mathematics, provides a powerful strategy in support of mathematical anti-realism. I conclude the paper by indicating why the indeterminacy of reference phenomenon should be preferred over the considerations regarding indispensability. In the end, even the Quinean shouldn’t be a realist (platonist about mathematics.

  4. Wolf in sheep's clothing: Model misspecification undermines tests of the neutral theory for life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, Matthieu; Aubry, Lise M; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the processes behind change in reproductive state along life-history trajectories is a salient research program in evolutionary ecology. Two processes, state dependence and heterogeneity, can drive the dynamics of change among states. Both processes can operate simultaneously, begging the difficult question of how to tease them apart in practice. The Neutral Theory for Life Histories (NTLH) holds that the bulk of variations in life-history trajectories is due to state dependence and is hence neutral: Once previous (breeding) state is taken into account, variations are mostly random. Lifetime reproductive success (LRS), the number of descendants produced over an individual's reproductive life span, has been used to infer support for NTLH in natura. Support stemmed from accurate prediction of the population-level distribution of LRS with parameters estimated from a state dependence model. We show with Monte Carlo simulations that the current reliance of NTLH on LRS prediction in a null hypothesis framework easily leads to selecting a misspecified model, biased estimates and flawed inferences. Support for the NTLH can be spurious because of a systematic positive bias in estimated state dependence when heterogeneity is present in the data but ignored in the analysis. This bias can lead to spurious positive covariance between fitness components when there is in fact an underlying trade-off. Furthermore, neutrality implied by NTLH needs a clarification because of a probable disjunction between its common understanding by evolutionary ecologists and its translation into statistical models of life-history trajectories. Irrespective of what neutrality entails, testing hypotheses about the dynamics of change among states in life histories requires a multimodel framework because state dependence and heterogeneity can easily be mistaken for each other.

  5. Selected science: an industry campaign to undermine an OSHA hexavalent chromium standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurie Peter

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI has been associated with increased lung cancer risk for more than 50 years, the chemical is not currently regulated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA on the basis of its carcinogenicity. The agency was petitioned in 1993 and sued in 1997 and 2002 to lower the workplace Cr(VI exposure limit, resulting in a court order to issue a final standard by February 2006. Faced with the threat of stronger regulation, the chromium industry initiated an effort to challenge the scientific evidence supporting a more protective standard. This effort included the use of "product defense" consultants to conduct post hoc analyses of a publicly-funded study to challenge results viewed unfavorably by the industry. The industry also commissioned a study of the mortality experience of workers at four low-exposure chromium plants, but did not make the results available to OSHA in a timely manner, despite multiple agency requests for precisely these sorts of data. The commissioned study found a statistically significant elevation in lung cancer risk among Cr(VI-exposed workers at levels far below the current standard. This finding changed when the multi-plant cohort was divided into two statistically underpowered components and then published separately. The findings of the first paper published have been used by the chromium industry to attempt to slow OSHA's standard setting process. The second paper was withheld from OSHA until it was accepted for publication in a scientific journal, after the rulemaking record had closed. Studies funded by private sponsors that seek to influence public regulatory proceedings should be subject to the same access and reporting provisions as those applied to publicly funded science. Parties in regulatory proceedings should be required to disclose whether the studies were performed by researchers who had the right to present their findings without the sponsor's consent or influence, and to certify that all relevant data have been submitted to the public record, whether published or not.

  6. The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Resane

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses, from a theological perspective, on both the ecological crisis and the politico-economic dealings in relation to water – especially with regard to the unsound ways in which governments deal with this resource. Texts are read from an anthropogenic perspective, as opposed to an anthropocentric one. Such a reading scenario calls for responses from theology with regard to the human position in creation. Humans are not a grand master plan of creation, but the completion and fulfilment of it, given an enormous sense of responsibility for the earth. The article argues that the human–earth relation should be understood from the point of responsibility based on solidarity, interdependency and stewardship. Theologians are challenged to embrace eco-ethics.

  7. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-06-15

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  8. Uncertainty in the response of terrestrial carbon sink to environmental drivers undermines carbon-climate feedback predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, D N; Michalak, A M; Schwalm, C; Ciais, P; King, A W; Fang, Y; Schaefer, K; Wei, Y; Cook, R B; Fisher, J B; Hayes, D; Huang, M; Ito, A; Jain, A K; Lei, H; Lu, C; Maignan, F; Mao, J; Parazoo, N; Peng, S; Poulter, B; Ricciuto, D; Shi, X; Tian, H; Wang, W; Zeng, N; Zhao, F

    2017-07-06

    Terrestrial ecosystems play a vital role in regulating the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere. Understanding the factors controlling land C uptake is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of changing climate, rising atmospheric CO 2 , and other factors, however, remains unclear despite decades of research. Here, we use an ensemble of land models to show that models disagree on the primary driver of cumulative C uptake for 85% of vegetated land area. Disagreement is largest in model sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO 2 which shows almost twice the variability in cumulative land uptake since 1901 (1 s.d. of 212.8 PgC vs. 138.5 PgC, respectively). We find that variability in CO 2 and temperature sensitivity is attributable, in part, to their compensatory effects on C uptake, whereby comparable estimates of C uptake can arise by invoking different sensitivities to key environmental conditions. Conversely, divergent estimates of C uptake can occur despite being based on the same environmental sensitivities. Together, these findings imply an important limitation to the predictability of C cycling and climate under unprecedented environmental conditions. We suggest that the carbon modeling community prioritize a probabilistic multi-model approach to generate more robust C cycle projections.

  9. Is globalization undermining the welfare state? The evolution of the welfare state in developed capitalist countries during the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John; Astudillo, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze the evolution of macro-indicators of social and economic well-being during the 1990s in the majority of developed capitalist countries, grouped according to their dominant political traditions since the end of World War II. Their analysis shows that, despite the economic globalization of commerce and finance, "politics still matters" in explaining the evolution of the welfare states and labor markets in these countries; the impact of the globalization of financial capital in forcing reductions in the financial resources available for welfare state purposes has been exaggerated.

  10. Simulation Suggests That Medical Group Mergers Won’t Undermine The Potential Utility Of Health Information Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eric C.; Volk, Lynn A.; Szolovits, Peter; Salzberg, Claudia A.; Simon, Steven R.; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial resources are being invested in health information exchanges (HIE), community-based consortia that enable independent health-care organizations to exchange clinical data. However, under pressure to form accountable care organizations, medical groups may merge and support private HIE, reducing the potential utility of community HIEs. Simulations of “care transitions” based on data from 10 Massachusetts communities suggest that mergers would have to be considerable to substantially reduce the potential utility of an HIE. Nonetheless, simulations also suggest that HIEs will need to recruit a large proportion of the medical groups in a community, as hospitals and the largest groups account for only 10 to 20% of care transitions in communities. PMID:22392665

  11. High macroalgal cover and low coral recruitment undermines the potential resilience of the world's southernmost coral reef assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hoey

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic and climate-induced stressors. The ability of reefs to reassemble and regenerate after disturbances (i.e., resilience is largely dependent on the capacity of herbivores to prevent macroalgal expansion, and the replenishment of coral populations through larval recruitment. Currently there is a paucity of this information for higher latitude, subtropical reefs. To assess the potential resilience of the benthic reef assemblages of Lord Howe Island (31°32'S, 159°04'E, the worlds' southernmost coral reef, we quantified the benthic composition, densities of juvenile corals (as a proxy for coral recruitment, and herbivorous fish communities. Despite some variation among habitats and sites, benthic communities were dominated by live scleractinian corals (mean cover 37.4% and fleshy macroalgae (20.9%. Live coral cover was higher than in most other subtropical reefs and directly comparable to lower latitude tropical reefs. Juvenile coral densities (0.8 ind.m(-2, however, were 5-200 times lower than those reported for tropical reefs. Overall, macroalgal cover was negatively related to the cover of live coral and the density of juvenile corals, but displayed no relationship with herbivorous fish biomass. The biomass of herbivorous fishes was relatively low (204 kg.ha(-1, and in marked contrast to tropical reefs was dominated by macroalgal browsing species (84.1% with relatively few grazing species. Despite their extremely low biomass, grazing fishes were positively related to both the density of juvenile corals and the cover of bare substrata, suggesting that they may enhance the recruitment of corals through the provision of suitable settlement sites. Although Lord Howe Islands' reefs are currently coral-dominated, the high macroalgal cover, coupled with limited coral recruitment and low coral growth rates suggest these reefs may be extremely susceptible to future disturbances.

  12. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Aims Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Design Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999–2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. Setting UK. Participants UK smokers. Measurements Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. Findings TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and ‘ultra-low price’ (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Conclusions Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. PMID:23445255

  13. Study of Site Effect at Seismic Station Located in Undermined Area of Karviná Region (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2016), s. 1715-1730 ISSN 1895-7455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-07027P Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Karviná region * site effect * SSR * HVSR * mining induced seismic ity Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2016 http://agp.igf.edu.pl/files/64/5/Lednicka-Kalab.pdf

  14. Challenging the Cancer Molecular Stratification Dogma: Intratumoral Heterogeneity Undermines Consensus Molecular Subtypes and Potential Diagnostic Value in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Philip D; McArt, Darragh G; Bradley, Conor A; O'Reilly, Paul G; Barrett, Helen L; Cummins, Robert; O'Grady, Tony; Arthur, Ken; Loughrey, Maurice B; Allen, Wendy L; McDade, Simon S; Waugh, David J; Hamilton, Peter W; Longley, Daniel B; Kay, Elaine W; Johnston, Patrick G; Lawler, Mark; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra

    2016-08-15

    A number of independent gene expression profiling studies have identified transcriptional subtypes in colorectal cancer with potential diagnostic utility, culminating in publication of a colorectal cancer Consensus Molecular Subtype classification. The worst prognostic subtype has been defined by genes associated with stem-like biology. Recently, it has been shown that the majority of genes associated with this poor prognostic group are stromal derived. We investigated the potential for tumor misclassification into multiple diagnostic subgroups based on tumoral region sampled. We performed multiregion tissue RNA extraction/transcriptomic analysis using colorectal-specific arrays on invasive front, central tumor, and lymph node regions selected from tissue samples from 25 colorectal cancer patients. We identified a consensus 30-gene list, which represents the intratumoral heterogeneity within a cohort of primary colorectal cancer tumors. Using a series of online datasets, we showed that this gene list displays prognostic potential HR = 2.914 (confidence interval 0.9286-9.162) in stage II/III colorectal cancer patients, but in addition, we demonstrated that these genes are stromal derived, challenging the assumption that poor prognosis tumors with stem-like biology have undergone a widespread epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Most importantly, we showed that patients can be simultaneously classified into multiple diagnostically relevant subgroups based purely on the tumoral region analyzed. Gene expression profiles derived from the nonmalignant stromal region can influence assignment of colorectal cancer transcriptional subtypes, questioning the current molecular classification dogma and highlighting the need to consider pathology sampling region and degree of stromal infiltration when employing transcription-based classifiers to underpin clinical decision making in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 22(16); 4095-104. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Morris and Kopetz, p. 3989. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Evidences of adaptive traits to rocky substrates undermine paradigm of habitat preference of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, Fabio; Alagna, Adriana; Fici, Silvio

    2015-03-01

    Posidonia oceanica meadows are acknowledged as one of the most valuable ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea. P. oceanica has been historically described as a species typically growing on mobile substrates whose development requires precursor communities. Here we document for the first time the extensive presence of sticky hairs covering P. oceanica seedling roots. Adhesive root hairs allow the seedlings to firmly anchor to rocky substrates with anchorage strength values up to 5.23 N, regardless of the presence of algal cover and to colonise bare rock without the need for precursor assemblages to facilitate settlement. Adhesive root hairs are a morphological trait common on plants living on rocks in high-energy habitats, such as the riverweed Podostemaceae and the seagrass Phyllospadix scouleri. The presence of adhesive root hairs in P. oceanica juveniles suggests a preference of this species for hard substrates. Such an adaptation leads to hypothesize a new microsite driven bottleneck in P. oceanica seedling survival linked to substrate features. The mechanism described can favour plant establishment on rocky substrates, in contrast with traditional paradigms. This feature may have strongly influenced P. oceanica pattern of colonisation through sexual propagules in both the past and present.

  16. Does legal education have undermining effects on law students? Evaluating changes in motivation, values, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Krieger, Lawrence S

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated changes in subjective well-being (SWB), motivation, and values occurring over the law-student career. In study 1, law students began with levels of SWB higher than a comparison sample of undergraduates, but by the end of the first year their SWB had plummeted. These changes were correlated with the sample-wide decreases in intrinsic motivation over the first year, and were also correlated with increases in appearance values and decreases in community service values. Those with the most intrinsic motivations attained the highest grades, but, ironically, high grades in turn predicted shifts in career preferences towards "lucrative" and higher-stress law careers, and away from "service"-oriented and potentially more satisfying law careers. The declines persisted over the second and third years of law school. In study 2, the basic effects were replicated for a different sample of first-year students at a different law school. Implications for legal education and the legal profession are discussed. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  18. Spatial distribution of U.S. household carbon footprints reveals suburbanization undermines greenhouse gas benefits of urban population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Kammen, Daniel M

    2014-01-21

    Which municipalities and locations within the United States contribute the most to household greenhouse gas emissions, and what is the effect of population density and suburbanization on emissions? Using national household surveys, we developed econometric models of demand for energy, transportation, food, goods, and services that were used to derive average household carbon footprints (HCF) for U.S. zip codes, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas. We find consistently lower HCF in urban core cities (∼ 40 tCO2e) and higher carbon footprints in outlying suburbs (∼ 50 tCO2e), with a range from ∼ 25 to >80 tCO2e in the 50 largest metropolitan areas. Population density exhibits a weak but positive correlation with HCF until a density threshold is met, after which range, mean, and standard deviation of HCF decline. While population density contributes to relatively low HCF in the central cities of large metropolitan areas, the more extensive suburbanization in these regions contributes to an overall net increase in HCF compared to smaller metropolitan areas. Suburbs alone account for ∼ 50% of total U.S. HCF. Differences in the size, composition, and location of household carbon footprints suggest the need for tailoring of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts to different populations.

  19. The pernicious effects of unstable work group membership : How work group changes undermine unique task contributions and newcomer acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ellemers, Naomi

    This research demonstrates that group membership instability tends to raise self-related concerns that make it less likely that people value and accept constructive task contributions offered by newcomers. In Study 1 (N = 88), unstable group membership heightened self-related concerns. Participants

  20. Teaching Integration: How Certain Instructional Moves May Undermine the Potential Conceptual Value of the Riemann Sum and the Riemann Integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven R.; Lim, YaeRi; Chandler, Katie R.

    2017-01-01

    Past research in calculus education has shown that Riemann sum-based conceptions of the definite integral, such as the multiplicatively based summation (MBS) conception, can have important value in interpreting and making sense of certain types of definite integral expressions. However, additional research has shown that students tend to not draw…

  1. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999-2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. UK. UK smokers. Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and 'ultra-low price' (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Unstable identity compatibility: how gender rejection sensitivity undermines the success of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist, Sheana; London, Bonita; Rosenthal, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Although the perceived compatibility between one's gender and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) identities (gender-STEM compatibility) has been linked to women's success in STEM fields, no work to date has examined how the stability of identity over time contributes to subjective and objective STEM success. In the present study, 146 undergraduate female STEM majors rated their gender-STEM compatibility weekly during their freshman spring semester. STEM women higher in gender rejection sensitivity, or gender RS, a social-cognitive measure assessing the tendency to perceive social-identity threat, experienced larger fluctuations in gender-STEM compatibility across their second semester of college. Fluctuations in compatibility predicted impaired outcomes the following school year, including lower STEM engagement and lower academic performance in STEM (but not non-STEM) classes, and significantly mediated the relationship between gender RS and STEM engagement and achievement in the 2nd year of college. The week-to-week changes in gender-STEM compatibility occurred in response to negative academic (but not social) experiences.

  3. Three operational taxonomic units of Eimeria are common in Nigerian chickens and may undermine effective molecular diagnosis of coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatau, Isa D; Lawal, Idris A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P; Nok, Andrew J

    2016-06-04

    Chicken is fast becoming the world's most consumed meat. As a consequence poultry health is more important now than ever before, with pathogens of chickens recognised as serious threats to food security. One such threat are Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which can cause the disease coccidiosis. Eimeria can compromise economic poultry production and chicken welfare, and have serious consequences for poor livestock keepers. Seven Eimeria species that infect chickens are recognised with a global enzootic distribution. More recently three cryptic Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUx, y and z) have been described in populations of Eimeria recovered from chickens in Australia. Two of the three OTUs have also been detected in sub-Saharan Africa, but their occurrence, pathology and the risk they pose is largely unknown. Nigeria has witnessed a dramatic expansion in poultry production and is now the largest poultry producer in Africa. Here, faecal samples collected from nine of 12 commercial chicken farms sampled in Kaduna state, Nigeria, were found to contain eimerian oocysts. After amplification by in vivo propagation all three cryptic OTU genotypes were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including OTUy for the first time outside of Australia. Comparison with a widely used, established Eimeria species-specific PCR assay revealed failure to detect the OTU genotypes. All three of the Eimeria OTU genotypes appear to be common in north-western Nigeria. The failure of a leading species-specific molecular assay to detect these genotypes indicates a risk of false negative Eimeria diagnosis when using molecular tools and suggests that the spatial occurrence of each OTU may be far wider than has been recognised. The risk posed by these novel genotypes is unknown, but it is clear that a better understanding of Eimeria occurrence is required together with the validation of effective diagnostics.

  4. Denying the Link between Islamist Ideology and Jihadist Terrorism: “Political Correctness” and the Undermining of Counterterrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Bale

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the jihadist terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, Western policy-makers, mainstream media organisations, and even academicians have been perversely reluctant to highlight the crucial role played by Islamist ideology in motivating jihadist terrorist attacks. Indeed, the more acts of jihadist terrorism that are perpetrated, acts in which the perpetrators clearly reveal their ideological motivations, the more insistently key Western elites refuse to acknowledge those motivations. This article discusses several of the reasons for this peculiar disjuncture, and focuses in particular on the persistent efforts to whitewash certain features of Islam, demonize its critics, and even engage in apologetics for Islamism at a time when the latter, in both its violent and non-violent forms, poses a significant threat to Western democracies. One especially worrisome source and dimension of this problem is the continuing reliance of Western governments on members of Islamist advocacy organizations for advice. In order to illustrate the degree to which “politically correct” impulses can have both damaging analytical and potentially lethal consequences, three cases of jihadist terrorism are discussed herein – the Boston Marathon bombings, the gruesome assault on a British soldier in Woolwich, and the mass shootings at Fort Hood.

  5. Uncertainty in the response of terrestrial carbon sink to environmental drivers undermines carbon-climate feedback predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Schwalm, C.; Ciais, P.; King, A. W.; Fang, Y.; Schaefer, K.; Wei, Y.; Cook, R. B.; Fisher, J. B.; Hayes, D.; Huang, M.; Ito, A.; Jain, A. K.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Maignan, F.; Mao, J.; Parazoo, N.; Peng, S.; Poulter, B.; Ricciuto, D.; Shi, X.; Tian, H.; Wang, W.; Zeng, N.; Zhao, F.

    2017-07-06

    Terrestrial ecosystems play a vital role in regulating the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere. Understanding the factors controlling land C uptake is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of changing climate, rising atmospheric CO2, and other factors, however, remains unclear despite decades of research. Here, we use an ensemble of land models to show that models disagree on the primary driver of cumulative C uptake for 85% of vegetated land area. Disagreement is largest in model sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO2 which shows almost twice the variability in cumulative land uptake since 1901 (1 s.d. of 212.8 PgC vs. 138.5 PgC, respectively). We find that variability in CO2 and temperature sensitivity is attributable, in part, to their compensatory effects on C uptake, whereby comparable estimates of C uptake can arise by invoking different sensitivities to key environmental conditions. Conversely, divergent estimates of C uptake can occur despite being based on the same environmental sensitivities. Together, these findings imply an important limitation to the predictability of C cycling and climate under unprecedented environmental conditions. We suggest that the carbon modeling community prioritize a probabilistic multi-model approach to generate more robust C cycle projections.

  6. Neglected health literacy undermining fluorosis control efforts: A pilot study among schoolchildren in an endemic village of rural Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Rustagi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ingestion of excess fluoride can cause fluorosis which adversely affects teeth and bones. Fluorosis is a major public health problem in the state of Rajasthan with all its 32 districts having variable fluoride contamination, and many initiatives are currently implemented in this region to mitigate the fluorosis burden. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess fluorosis, its risk factors, and the awareness among school students and teachers in endemic villages of Jodhpur district, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A representative sample of 300 students of age 12–15 years were enrolled for cross-sectional study in selected villages. Data were collected regarding awareness, behavioral and preventive practices about fluorosis and clinical assessment and fluoride estimation in water and urine samples was done. Results: Dental fluorosis through Dean's index was observed in 24.5% of students. The awareness and practices for fluorosis prevention and its risk factors were poor among both students and teachers. Intake of piped water supply was reported by majority of students (95.8%. High fluoride concentration was found in 35 (81.3% out of 43 urine samples. Conclusion: Improvement in drinking water supply in the endemic village of Rajasthan has decreased the burden of fluorosis, but low level of awareness and prevailing dietary and behavioral practices still pose them at risk of high fluoride intake. This signifies the need to address nonconventional sources of fluoride intake (diet and toothpaste and early screening of disease by involving teachers and family physicians in fluoride mitigation efforts.

  7. Weak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Area

    KAUST Repository

    Campbell, Stuart J.

    2012-11-30

    The effectiveness of marine protected areas depends largely on whether people comply with the rules. We quantified temporal changes in benthic composition, reef fish biomass, and fishing effort among marine park zones (including no-take areas) to assess levels of compliance following the 2005 rezoning of the government-controlled Karimunjawa National Park (KNP), Indonesia. Four years after the rezoning awareness of fishing regulations was high amongst local fishers, ranging from 79.5±7.9 (SE) % for spatial restrictions to 97.7±1.2% for bans on the use of poisons. Despite this high awareness and strong compliance with gear restrictions, compliance with spatial restrictions was weak. In the four years following the rezoning reef fish biomass declined across all zones within KNP, with >50% reduction within the no-take Core and Protection Zones. These declines were primarily driven by decreases in the biomass of groups targeted by local fishers; planktivores, herbivores, piscivores, and invertivores. These declines in fish biomass were not driven by changes in habitat quality; coral cover increased in all zones, possibly as a result of a shift in fishing gears from those which can damage reefs (i.e., nets) to those which cause little direct damage (i.e., handlines and spears). Direct observations of fishing activities in 2009 revealed there was limited variation in fishing effort between zones in which fishing was allowed or prohibited. The apparent willingness of the KNP communities to comply with gear restrictions, but not spatial restrictions is difficult to explain and highlights the complexities of the social and economic dynamics that influence the ecological success of marine protected areas. Clearly the increased and high awareness of fishery restrictions following the rezoning is a positive step. The challenge now is to understand and foster the conditions that may facilitate compliance with spatial restrictions within KNP and marine parks worldwide. © 2012 Campbell et al.

  8. High macroalgal cover and low coral recruitment undermines the potential resilience of the world's southernmost coral reef assemblages

    KAUST Repository

    Hoey, Andrew

    2011-10-03

    Coral reefs are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic and climate-induced stressors. The ability of reefs to reassemble and regenerate after disturbances (i.e., resilience) is largely dependent on the capacity of herbivores to prevent macroalgal expansion, and the replenishment of coral populations through larval recruitment. Currently there is a paucity of this information for higher latitude, subtropical reefs. To assess the potential resilience of the benthic reef assemblages of Lord Howe Island (31°32?S, 159°04?E), the worlds\\' southernmost coral reef, we quantified the benthic composition, densities of juvenile corals (as a proxy for coral recruitment), and herbivorous fish communities. Despite some variation among habitats and sites, benthic communities were dominated by live scleractinian corals (mean cover 37.4%) and fleshy macroalgae (20.9%). Live coral cover was higher than in most other subtropical reefs and directly comparable to lower latitude tropical reefs. Juvenile coral densities (0.8 ind.m -2), however, were 5-200 times lower than those reported for tropical reefs. Overall, macroalgal cover was negatively related to the cover of live coral and the density of juvenile corals, but displayed no relationship with herbivorous fish biomass. The biomass of herbivorous fishes was relatively low (204 kg.ha -1), and in marked contrast to tropical reefs was dominated by macroalgal browsing species (84.1%) with relatively few grazing species. Despite their extremely low biomass, grazing fishes were positively related to both the density of juvenile corals and the cover of bare substrata, suggesting that they may enhance the recruitment of corals through the provision of suitable settlement sites. Although Lord Howe Islands\\' reefs are currently coral-dominated, the high macroalgal cover, coupled with limited coral recruitment and low coral growth rates suggest these reefs may be extremely susceptible to future disturbances. © 2011 Hoey et al.

  9. Self-defense or undermining the self? Exploring the possibilities and limitations of a novel anti-rape technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Deborah; Rees, Gethin

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of feminist-inspired law reforms, rape remains highly prevalent. While many continue to fight for broad cultural and institutional changes, some argue that more immediate interventions are required. Self-defense techniques represent a key strategy of resistance to rape, and empirical evidence suggests that women's active resistance may hold a number of positive benefits. In this essay, we compare the aims and objectives of a novel anti-rape technology, known as the Rape-aXe, with traditional self-defense techniques, focusing upon the potential for both to resist individual acts of sexual aggression and, more broadly, end gendered sexual violence.

  10. Large-scale invasion of western Atlantic mesophotic reefs by lionfish potentially undermines culling-based management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andradi-Brown, D.A.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Slattery, M.; Lesser, M.; Bejarano, I.; Appeldoorn, R.; Goodbody-Gringley, G.; Chequer, A.D.; Pitt, J.M.; Eddy, C.; Smith, S.R.; Brokovich, E.; Pinheiro, H.T.; Jessup, M.E.; Shepherd, B.; Rocha, L.A.; Curtis-Quick, J.; Eyal, G.; Noyes, T.J.; Rogers, A.D.; Exton, D.A.

    The detrimental effects of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles) on western Atlantic shallow reefs are well documented, including declines in coral cover and native fish populations, with disproportionate predation on critically endangered reef fish in some locations. Yet despite

  11. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapp...

  12. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  13. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian; Koeln Univ.

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  14. The ebbs and flows of attachment: Within-person variation in attachment undermine secure individuals' relationship wellbeing across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girme, Yuthika U; Agnew, Christopher R; VanderDrift, Laura E; Harvey, S Marie; Rholes, W Steven; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2018-03-01

    Although attachment security is relatively stable over time, individuals do experience significant within-person variation in their attachment security across time. No research to date, however, has assessed the relational consequences of within-person variation (fluctuations) in attachment security toward a specific attachment figure. Study 1 (N = 409) first examined whether attachment security was associated with individuals' expectations that their current intimate relationship would be stable and consistent over time (vs. inconsistent and unstable). Studies 2 and 3 extended this by examining the prevalence and consequences of actual within-person variation (fluctuations) in relationship-specific attachment security toward an intimate partner in 2 multiwave longitudinal studies that assessed individuals (Study 2, N = 324) and couples (Study 3, N = 171 dyads). The results indicate that secure individuals (those low in attachment anxiety or attachment avoidance) expect their current relationship to remain relatively stable and consistent over time (Study 1). However, Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that most individuals do experience fluctuations in their relationship-specific attachment security. Moreover, greater fluctuations predict declines in relationship satisfaction (Studies 2 and 3) and increases in relationship distress (Study 3) over time, but primarily for secure individuals (those low in baseline attachment anxiety or attachment avoidance). This set of findings highlight the importance of examining within-person fluctuations in attachment security, which are associated with declines in trajectories of relationship wellbeing, particularly for secure individuals who anticipate greater stability in their relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. No norm needed: on the aim of belief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Does transparency in doxastic deliberation entail a constitutive norm of correctness governing belief, as Shah and Velleman argue? No, because this presupposes an implausibly strong relation between normative judgements and motivation from such judgements, ignores our interest in truth, and cannot...... explain why we pay different attention to how much justification we have for our beliefs in different contexts. An alternative account of transparency is available: transparency can be explained by the aim one necessarily adopts in deliberating about whether to believe that p. To show this, I reconsider...... the role of the concept of belief in doxastic deliberation, and I defuse 'the teleologian's dilemma'....

  16. Two Logical Faces of Belief Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Trypuz, R.

    2014-01-01

    This piece proposes a style of thinking using modal frame correspondence that puts Segerberg’s dynamic doxastic logic and ‘Dutch’ dynamic-epistemic logic for belief change in one setting. While our technical results are elementary, they do suggest new lines of thought.

  17. Analysis of STAT1 activation by six FGFR3 mutants associated with skeletal dysplasia undermines dominant role of STAT1 in FGFR3 signaling in cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Krejci

    Full Text Available Activating mutations in FGFR3 tyrosine kinase cause several forms of human skeletal dysplasia. Although the mechanisms of FGFR3 action in cartilage are not completely understood, it is believed that the STAT1 transcription factor plays a central role in pathogenic FGFR3 signaling. Here, we analyzed STAT1 activation by the N540K, G380R, R248C, Y373C, K650M and K650E-FGFR3 mutants associated with skeletal dysplasias. In a cell-free kinase assay, only K650M and K650E-FGFR3 caused activatory STAT1(Y701 phosphorylation. Similarly, in RCS chondrocytes, HeLa, and 293T cellular environments, only K650M and K650E-FGFR3 caused strong STAT1 activation. Other FGFR3 mutants caused weak (HeLa or no activation (293T and RCS. This contrasted with ERK MAP kinase activation, which was strongly induced by all six mutants and correlated with the inhibition of proliferation in RCS chondrocytes. Thus the ability to activate STAT1 appears restricted to the K650M and K650E-FGFR3 mutants, which however account for only a small minority of the FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasia cases. Other pathways such as ERK should therefore be considered as central to pathological FGFR3 signaling in cartilage.

  18. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Examining Factors That Encourage or Undermine Group Learning and Collaboration among High-Ability Students. CSE Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; Welner, Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    This study investigated the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high ability students completing science performance assessments. Participants were 99 seventh and eighth graders from 9 classes in 2 schools. The results show that group ability composition does not have…

  19. How the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement could undermine PHARMAC and threaten access to affordable medicines and health equity in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Deborah; Lopert, Ruth; Reid, Papaarangi

    2013-10-01

    New Zealand's Pharmaceutical Management Agency (PHARMAC) has been highly successful in facilitating affordable access to medicines through a combination of aggressive price negotiations, innovative procurement mechanisms, and careful evaluation of value for money. Recently the US government, through the establishment of a series of bilateral and plurilateral "free" trade agreements, has attempted to constrain the pharmaceutical access programs of other countries in order to promote the interests of the pharmaceutical industry. The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) represents the latest example; through the TPPA the US is seeking to eliminate therapeutic reference pricing, introduce appeals processes for pharmaceutical companies to challenge formulary listing and pricing decisions, and introduce onerous disclosure and "transparency" provisions that facilitate industry involvement in decision-making around coverage and pricing of medicines (and medical devices). This paper argues that the US agenda, if successfully prosecuted, would be likely to increase costs and reduce access to affordable medicines for New Zealanders. This would in turn be likely to exacerbate known inequities in access to medicines and thus disproportionately affect disadvantaged population groups, including Māori and Pacific peoples. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex Reversal and Comparative Data Undermine the W Chromosome and Support Z-linked DMRT1 as the Regulator of Gonadal Sex Differentiation in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Claire E; Major, Andrew T; Ayers, Katie L; Brown, Rosie J; Mariette, Mylene; Sackton, Timothy B; Smith, Craig A

    2017-09-01

    The exact genetic mechanism regulating avian gonadal sex differentiation has not been completely resolved. The most likely scenario involves a dosage mechanism, whereby the Z-linked DMRT1 gene triggers testis development. However, the possibility still exists that the female-specific W chromosome may harbor an ovarian determining factor. In this study, we provide evidence that the universal gene regulating gonadal sex differentiation in birds is Z-linked DMRT1 and not a W-linked (ovarian) factor. Three candidate W-linked ovarian determinants are HINTW, female-expressed transcript 1 (FET1), and female-associated factor (FAF). To test the association of these genes with ovarian differentiation in the chicken, we examined their expression following experimentally induced female-to-male sex reversal using the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (FAD). Administration of FAD on day 3 of embryogenesis induced a significant loss of aromatase enzyme activity in female gonads and masculinization. However, expression levels of HINTW, FAF, and FET1 were unaltered after experimental masculinization. Furthermore, comparative analysis showed that FAF and FET1 expression could not be detected in zebra finch gonads. Additionally, an antibody raised against the predicted HINTW protein failed to detect it endogenously. These data do not support a universal role for these genes or for the W sex chromosome in ovarian development in birds. We found that DMRT1 (but not the recently identified Z-linked HEMGN gene) is male upregulated in embryonic zebra finch and emu gonads, as in the chicken. As chicken, zebra finch, and emu exemplify the major evolutionary clades of birds, we propose that Z-linked DMRT1, and not the W sex chromosome, regulates gonadal sex differentiation in birds. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  1. Does US Foreign Aid Undermine Human Rights? The “Thaksinification” of the War on Terror Discourses and the Human Rights Crisis in Thailand, 2001 to 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regilme, S.S.

    2018-01-01

    What is the relationship between Thailand’s human rights crisis during Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s leadership (2001–2006) and the USA-led post-9/11 war on terror? Why did the human rights situation dramatically deteriorate after the Thaksin regime publicly supported the Bush administration’s

  2. Diez mitos que debilitan la política de vivienda en Latinoamerica/Ten Myths Undermining Latin American Housing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Gilbert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La política de vivienda de Latinoamérica no puede considerarse como un gran éxito. Las cifras oficiales muestran que el déficit de vivienda está incrementando en la mayoría de países. Por su puesto, resolver el problema de la vivienda es un asunto difícil, y el rápido crecimiento urbano junto con los altos niveles de pobreza hacen que sea aún más complicado. Sin embargo, hay muchas fallas en la política de vivienda actual, y este artículo identifica diez mitos que han infiltrado el léxico de la política de vivienda. Este artículo es una invitación a los gobiernos de la región para que consideren si alguno de los mitos identificados, o todos, aún persisten dentro de sus propias políticas, y si estos mitos son tan nocivos como se sugiere en este artículo. Housing policy in Latin America cannot be regarded as having been a huge success. Official figures show that the housing deficit is rising in most countries. Of course, solving the housing problem is difficult and complicated further by rapid urban growth and too much poverty. Nonetheless, there are many failings in current housing policy and the current paper identifies ten myths that have infiltrated the housing policy lexicon. This paper is an invitation to the region's governments to consider whether any or all of the identified myths persist within their own policies and whether those myths are as damaging as will be suggested here.

  3. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Neufeld; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Stephan G. Walch; Jürgen Rehm

    2017-01-01

    Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits) over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm t...

  4. The internet trade of counterfeit spirits in Russia – an emerging problem undermining alcohol, public health and youth protection policies? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Neufeld; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Stephan G. Walch; Jürgen Rehm

    2017-01-01

    Counterfeit alcohol belongs to the category of unrecorded alcohol not reflected in official statistics. The internet trade of alcoholic beverages has been prohibited by the Russian Federation since 2007, but various sellers still offer counterfeit spirits (i.e., forged brand spirits) over the internet to Russian consumers, mostly in a non-deceptive fashion at prices up to 15 times lower than in regular sale. The public health issues arising from this unregulated trade include potential harm t...

  5. Infant food marketing strategies undermine effective regulation of breast-milk substitutes: trends in print advertising in Australia, 1950-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie; Blake, Miranda

    2013-08-01

    This study addresses the issue of whether voluntary industry regulation has altered companies' marketing of breast-milk substitutes in Australia since the adoption of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code on the Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes 1981. Print advertisements marketing breast-milk substitutes were systematically sampled from the Australian Women's Weekly (AWW) magazine and the Medical Journal of Australia (MJA) for the 61 years from 1950 to 2010. Breast-milk substitute advertising in both the MJA and the AWW peaked and began declining before the introduction of the WHO Code in 1981. Although there was almost no infant formula advertising in AWW after 1975-79, other breast-milk substitute advertising has been increasing since 1992, in particular for baby food, toddler formula and food and brand promotion. Companies have adopted strategies to minimise the effects of the Code on sales and profit in Australia, including increasing toddler formula and food advertisements, increasing brand promotion to the public, and complying with more limited voluntary regulatory arrangements. Comprehensive regulation is urgently required to address changed marketing practices if it is to protect breastfeeding in Australia. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. If Only my Leader Would just Do Something! Passive Leadership Undermines Employee Well-being Through Role Stressors and Psychological Resource Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Frone, Michael R

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and test a sequential mediational model explaining the negative relationship of passive leadership to employee well-being. Based on role stress theory, we posit that passive leadership will predict higher levels of role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload. Invoking Conservation of Resources theory, we further hypothesize that these role stressors will indirectly and negatively influence two aspects of employee well-being, namely overall mental health and overall work attitude, through psychological work fatigue. Using a probability sample of 2467 US workers, structural equation modelling supported the model by showing that role stressors and psychological work fatigue partially mediated the negative relationship between passive leadership and both aspects of employee well-being. The hypothesized, sequential indirect relationships explained 47.9% of the overall relationship between passive leadership and mental health and 26.6% of the overall relationship between passive leadership and overall work attitude. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Relevance of Big Five Trait Content in Behavior to Subjective Authenticity: Do High Levels of Within-Person Behavioral Variability Undermine or Enable Authenticity Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Wilt, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Individuals vary their behavior from moment to moment a great deal, often acting “out of character” for their traits. This article investigates the consequences for authenticity. We compared two hypotheses—trait consistency: individuals feel most authentic when acting in a way consistent with their traits; and state-content significance: some ways of acting feel more authentic because of their content and consequences, regardless of the actor’s corresponding traits. Three studies using experience-sampling methodology in laboratory and natural settings, with participants aged 18–51, strongly supported the state-content significance hypothesis and did not support the trait-consistency hypothesis. Authenticity was consistently associated with acting highly extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and intellectual, regardless of the actor’s traits. Discussion focuses on possible implications for within-person variability in behavior and for the nature of the self-concept. PMID:20545814

  8. The Chains on All My People Are the Chains on Me: Restrictions to Collective Autonomy Undermine the Personal Autonomy and Psychological Well-Being of Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachanoff, Frank J; Taylor, Donald M; Caouette, Julie; Khullar, Thomas H; Wohl, Michael J A

    2018-01-11

    Four studies assessed the potentially detrimental effects that restrictions to collective autonomy (i.e., a group's freedom to determine and practice its own identity) may have for the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members. In Study 1, using 3 distinct samples (NSample1a = 123, NSample1b = 129, NSample1c = 370), correlational and cross-cultural evidence indicates that perceived restrictions to the collective autonomy of one's group is directly associated with reduced personal autonomy, and indirectly associated with diminished well-being through personal autonomy. In Study 2 (N = 411), a longitudinal assessment of group members over 3 time-points during a 4-month period found that group members who perceived greater collective autonomy restriction also experienced reduced personal autonomy, and in turn, reduced psychological well-being over time. In Study 3 (N = 255), group members described a time during which their ingroup had (or did not have) its collective autonomy unduly restricted by other groups. Participants who were primed to think that their group lacked collective autonomy reported reduced feelings of personal autonomy, and reduced psychological well-being (compared with those primed to think their group had collective autonomy). In Study 4 (N = 389), collective autonomy was manipulated within the context of an intensive laboratory simulation. Collective autonomy-restricted group members experienced less personal autonomy than those who did not have their collective autonomy restricted. Together these findings suggest that restrictions to a group's collective autonomy may have detrimental consequences for the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Evidence-informed person-centred health care (part II): are 'cognitive biases plus' underlying the EBM paradigm responsible for undermining the quality of evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshia, Shashi S; Makhinson, Michael; Young, G Bryan

    2014-12-01

    Recently, some leaders of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement drew attention to the "unintended" negative consequences associated with EBM. The term 'cognitive biases plus' was introduced in part I to encompass cognitive biases, conflicts of interests, fallacies and certain behaviours. 'Cognitive biases plus' in those closely involved in creating and promoting the EBM paradigm are responsible for their (1) inability to anticipate and then recognize flaws in the tenets of EBM; (2) discounting alternative views; and (3) delaying reform. A narrative review style was used, with methods as in part I. Over the past two decades there has been mounting qualitative and quantitative methodological evidence to suggest that the faith placed in (1) the EBM hierarchy with randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews at the summit; (2) the reliability of biostatistical methods to quantitate data; and (3) the primacy of sources of pre-appraised evidence, is seriously misplaced. Consequently, the evidence that informs person-centred care is compromised. Arguments focusing on 'cognitive biases plus' are offered to support our hypothesis. To the best of our knowledge, EBM proponents have not provided an explanation. Reform is urgently needed to minimize continuing risks to patients. If our hypothesis is correct, then in addition to the suggestions made in part I, deficiencies in the paradigm must be corrected. Meaningful solutions are only possible if the biases of scientific inbreeding and groupthink are minimized by collaboration between EBM leaders and those who have been sounding warning bells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Undermining the ACA through the executive branch and federalism: what the Trump administration's approach to health reform means for older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David K; Gusmano, Michael K; Nadash, Pamela; Miller, Edward Alan

    2018-04-12

    The ACA has survived multiple existential threats in the legislative and judicial branches, including dozens of congressional attempts at repeal and two major Supreme Court cases. Even as it seems that the ACA is here to stay, what the law accomplishes is far from settled. The Trump administration is using executive powers to weaken the law, in many cases the same powers that President Obama used to strengthen the effects of the reform. States have responded by seeking flexibility to pursue reforms, such as work requirements, that could not pass Congress and that were not allowed by the Obama administration. There is no indication that the ACA is imploding as President Trump has predicted and seems to desire, though these changes have a real and substantial impact on the lives of many Americans, including the near-elderly in unique ways.

  11. How the Spectre of Societal Homogeneity Undermines Equitable Healthcare for Refugees Comment on "Defining and Acting on Global Health: The Case of Japan and the Refugee Crisis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razum, Oliver; Wenner, Judith; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan

    2016-10-17

    Recourse to a purported ideal of societal homogeneity has become common in the context of the refugee reception crisis - not only in Japan, as Leppold et al report, but also throughout Europe. Calls for societal homogeneity in Europe originate from populist movements as well as from some governments. Often, they go along with reduced social support for refugees and asylum seekers, for example in healthcare provision. The fundamental right to health is then reduced to a citizens' right, granted fully only to nationals. Germany, in spite of welcoming many refugees in 2015, is a case in point: entitlement and access to healthcare for asylum seekers are restricted during the first 15 months of their stay. We show that arguments brought forward to defend such restrictions do not hold, particularly not those which relate to maintaining societal homogeneity. European societies are not homogeneous, irrespective of migration. But as migration will continue, societies need to invest in what we call "globalization within." Removing entitlement restrictions and access barriers to healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers is one important element thereof. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  12. Calculator Use Need Not Undermine Direct-Access Ability: The Roles of Retrieval, Calculation, and Calculator Use in the Acquisition of Arithmetic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Aryn A.; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    Why is subsequent recall sometimes better for self-generated answers than for answers obtained from an external source (e.g., calculator)? In this study, we explore the relative contribution of 2 processes, recall attempts and self-computation, to this "generation effect" (i.e., enhanced answer recall relative to when problems are practiced with a…

  13. Community-directed mass drug administration is undermined by status seeking in friendship networks and inadequate trust in health advice networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1.9 billion individuals require preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Community-directed MDA relies on volunteer community medicine distributors (CMDs) and their achievement of high coverage and compliance. Yet, it is unknown if village social networks influence effective MDA implementation by CMDs. In Mayuge District, Uganda, census-style surveys were conducted for 16,357 individuals from 3,491 households in 17 villages. Praziquantel, albendazole, and ivermecti...

  14. Community-directed mass drug administration is undermined by status seeking in friendship networks and inadequate trust in health advice networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1.9 billion individuals require preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Community-directed MDA relies on volunteer community medicine distributors (CMDs) and their achievement of high coverage and compliance. Yet, it is unknown if village social networks influence

  15. Community-directed mass drug administration is undermined by status seeking in friendship networks and inadequate trust in health advice networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Goylette F; Kontoleon, Andreas A; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Tukahebwa, Edridah M; Dunne, David W

    2017-06-01

    Over 1.9 billion individuals require preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Community-directed MDA relies on volunteer community medicine distributors (CMDs) and their achievement of high coverage and compliance. Yet, it is unknown if village social networks influence effective MDA implementation by CMDs. In Mayuge District, Uganda, census-style surveys were conducted for 16,357 individuals from 3,491 households in 17 villages. Praziquantel, albendazole, and ivermectin were administered for one month in community-directed MDA to treat Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm, and lymphatic filariasis. Self-reported treatment outcomes, socioeconomic characteristics, friendship networks, and health advice networks were collected. We investigated systematically missed coverage and noncompliance. Coverage was defined as an eligible person being offered at least one drug by CMDs; compliance included ingesting at least one of the offered drugs. These outcomes were analyzed as a two-stage process using a Heckman selection model. To further assess if MDA through CMDs was working as intended, we examined the probability of accurate drug administration of 1) praziquantel, 2) both albendazole and ivermectin, and 3) all drugs. This analysis was conducted using bivariate Probit regression. Four indicators from each social network were examined: degree, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and the presence of a direct connection to CMDs. All models accounted for nested household and village standard errors. CMDs were more likely to offer medicines, and to accurately administer the drugs as trained by the national control programme, to individuals with high friendship degree (many connections) and high friendship closeness centrality (households that were only a short number of steps away from all other households in the network). Though high (88.59%), additional compliance was associated with directly trusting CMDs for health advice. Effective treatment provision requires addressing CMD biases towards influential, well-embedded individuals in friendship networks and utilizing health advice networks to increase village trust in CMDs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Community-directed mass drug administration is undermined by status seeking in friendship networks and inadequate trust in health advice networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1.9 billion individuals require preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Community-directed MDA relies on volunteer community medicine distributors (CMDs) and their achievement of high coverage and compliance. Yet, it is unknown if village social networks influence

  17. Does pre-entry licensing undermine the performance of subsequent independent activities? Evidence from the global aerospace industry, 1944-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulotte, L.; Dussauge, P.; Mitchell, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study how firms' use of in-licensing for their initial entry to a business domain can detract from the performance of their subsequent autonomous endeavors in the domain. We argue that in-licensing produces high levels of causal ambiguity about factors that drive the performance achieved with the

  18. Subtle scientific fallacies undermine the validity of neuroendocrinological research : do not draw premature conclusions on the role of female sex hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hengartner, Michael Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Major scientific flaws such as reporting and publication biases are well documented, even though acknowledgment of their importance appears to be lacking in various psychological and medical fields. Subtle and less obvious biases including selective reviews of the literature and empirically unsupported conclusions and recommendations have received even less attention. Using the literature on the association between transition to menopause, hormones and the onset of depression as a guiding exa...

  19. A tale of harm, waste and deception: how big pharma has undermined public faith in trial data disclosure and what we can do about it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne C. Bachelet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue of data stemming from interventional studies in humans conducted by the pharmaceutical industry and how lack of data, or data distortion, can impact on clinical decision making and systematic reviews. The cases of rosiglitazone (Avandia ™, GlaxoSmithKline, rofecoxib (Vioxx ™, Merck, and oseltamivir (Tamiflu ™, Roche, are discussed as examples of harm (morbidity and mortality were higher in the treatment groups, waste (government spending in public health programs was not based on evidence, and deception (non-reporting of adverse events in fase III trials. The consequences of this behavior on scientific production are manifold. Most importantly, evidence that is used to inform clinical decisions is reduced and distorted, which also includes publication bias. The article mentions several solutions that have appeared in international literature, such as registration of clinical trials prior to implementation, the use of guidelines to improve the quality of reports, encouraging the publication of all research results and safeguarding autonomy of academy and investigators. Registration of clinical trials has not been effective in preventing the opacity surrounding phase III intervention trials funded by industry. Editors of biomedical journals, health authorities in charge of approving drugs before marketing, ethics committees that authorize the conduct of trials in their facilities, researchers, academics and patient organizations, are all major stakeholders. The pharmaceutical industry is called upon to respond to these proposals that promote transparency. If they do so, public trust in research conducted by them may be recovered.

  20. Undermining housing affordability for New York’s low-income households : The role of policy reform and rental sector restructuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadi, J.; Ronald, R.

    2016-01-01

    While public programmes, rent controls and subsidy schemes have not resolved New York’s historic and long-standing housing crisis, they have been important in dampening the housing problems of low-income New Yorkers. Along with an encroaching neo-liberal hegemony, however, since the 1990s

  1. Things online social networking can take away: Reminders of social networking sites undermine the desirability of offline socializing and pleasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiang-Shiang; Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2017-04-01

    People are beginning to develop symbiotic relationships with social networking sites (SNSs), which provide users with abundant opportunities for social interaction. We contend that if people perceive SNSs as sources of social connection, the idea of SNSs may reduce the desire to pursue offline social activities and offline pleasures. Experiment 1 demonstrated that priming with SNSs was associated with a weakened desirability of offline social activities and an increased inclination to work alone. Felt relatedness mediated the link between SNS primes and reduced desire to engage in offline social activities. Experiment 2 showed that exposure to SNS primes reduced the desirability of offline socializing and lowered the desire for offline pleasurable experiences as well. Moreover, heavy users were more susceptible to this detrimental effect. We provide the first experimental evidence that the idea of online social networking may modulate users' engagement in offline social activities and offline pleasures. Hence, online social networking may satisfy the need for relatedness but undercut the likelihood of reaping enjoyment from offline social life. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Will the next generation of preferential trade and investment agreements undermine prevention of noncommunicable diseases? A prospective policy analysis of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Labonté, Ronald; Gleeson, Deborah; Stuckler, David; Hattersley, Libby; Schram, Ashley; Kay, Adrian; Friel, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) is one of a new generation of 'deep' preferential trade and investment agreements that will extend many of the provisions seen in previous agreements. This paper presents a prospective policy analysis of the likely text of the TPPA, with reference to nutrition policy space. Specifically, we analyse how the TPPA may constrain governments' policy space to implement the 'policy options for promoting a healthy diet' in the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013-2020. This policy analysis suggests that if certain binding commitments are made under the TPPA, they could constrain the ability of governments to protect nutrition policy from the influence of vested interests, reduce the range of interventions available to actively discourage consumption of less healthy food (and to promote healthy food) and limit governments' capacity to implement these interventions, and reduce resources available for nutrition education initiatives. There is scope to protect policy space by including specific exclusions and/or exceptions during negotiation of trade and investment agreements like the TPPA, and by strengthening global health frameworks for nutrition to enable them to be used as reference during disputes in trade fora. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brudflader og samspil på ældreområdet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Cammilla Bundgård; Lassen, Aske Juul; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    2017-01-01

    changes the relations between municipality, citizens and civil society, and how this challenges and develops the professional and voluntary boundaries, continuity in community initiatives as well as citizen-involvement. One of the focus points of the report is the projectification of care-work. While...... of voluntarism, where the continuity from project to project is ensured through a group highly engaged volunteers....

  4. International Journal of Modern Anthropology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore this journal could represent a model of volunteering or rather of voluntarism. However, the 'Centre National Universitaire de Documentation Scientifique et Technique' in Tunisia, has just begun to plan to encourage international scientific journals developed in Tunisia. Tunisian Association of Anthropology.

  5. Educating American Protestant Religious Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    The voluntarism in Protestant theologies and practices has significantly shaped the education of lay and professional Protestant religious educators in networks of voluntary and academic training programs that through the years have emphasized the interdependence of pedagogical, religious/theological, and social science theories and practices.…

  6. Can We Teach Civic Education and Service-Learning in a World of Privatization, Inequality, and Interdependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Benjamin R.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is an excerpt from a keynote speech delivered by Benjamin Barber at the 2nd Annual Summer Research Institute on the "Future of Community Engagement in Higher Education." The speech focuses on six conditions that will impact community service-learning and voluntarism efforts in the years ahead: the ideology of neo-liberalism and…

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irohibe and Agwu

    the last two decades, principles of altruism and voluntarism remain key defining characteristics. Community-based .... to FAO, (2010) SWOT analysis makes it possible to assess the various strengths, weaknesses, opportunities ... as a whole (Table 1). Table 1: SWOT analysis of extension service providers. Category.

  8. African Security Challenges: Now and Over the Horizon - Voices from the NGO Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    illicit markets, armed violence and conflict. An examination of reports and press releases on aborted illicit transfers in Africa supports this...for their own ongoing care  confronting and reducing stigma  voluntarism  gender equality. Challenges The analytical and practical dilemmas

  9. Voluntarisme (Filsafat Kehendak dalam Filsafat Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnal Munir

    2017-04-01

    and finally many kind of voluntarism schools and their main philosophical thoughts will be described. In the conclusion of this writing, it was formulated that the progress of human civilization, according to voluntaries philosopher, could be carried out because of wishes impetus, whereas the purpose of human mind is to form them as reality.

  10. Undermining the Case for a Trade War between the U.S. and China” - Una critica all’ipotesi di una guerra commerciale tra Stati Uniti e Cina

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa, Imad A.

    2011-01-01

    Arguments are put forward to challenge the case for a trade war between the U.S. and China. The threat of a trade war against China is based on three pillars: (i) the Chinese currency is undervalued, (ii) undervaluation of the yuan is the cause of and cure for the U.S. massive trade deficit, and (iii) Chinese policies are illegal and immoral because they hurt not only the U.S. but also the rest of the world and China itself. It is suggested that no one really knows whether the Chinese currenc...

  11. "Why the British Conception of Sovereignty Was the Main Reason for Brexit – And Why the British ‘Leave-Vote’ May End Up Saving rather than Undermining the EU"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Doomsdays preachers suggested that Brexit and Trump would mean the end of the liberal world order as we know it and thus the end of the EU. The research presented here suggests the opposite. Not only have Europeans turned their back to populism by voting yes to reforms and pro-EU-parties and gove......Doomsdays preachers suggested that Brexit and Trump would mean the end of the liberal world order as we know it and thus the end of the EU. The research presented here suggests the opposite. Not only have Europeans turned their back to populism by voting yes to reforms and pro......-EU-parties and governments in different member states over the past months, but Brexit and Trump also seems to have given a complete new momentum to the European project. This article demonstrates why Brexit cannot be generalized to the rest of the continent but is the result of a complicated and special British conception...

  12. How the Spectre of Societal Homogeneity Undermines Equitable Healthcare for Refugees; Comment on “Defining and Acting on Global Health: The Case of Japan and the Refugee Crisis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Razum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recourse to a purported ideal of societal homogeneity has become common in the context of the refugee reception crisis – not only in Japan, as Leppold et al report, but also throughout Europe. Calls for societal homogeneity in Europe originate from populist movements as well as from some governments. Often, they go along with reduced social support for refugees and asylum seekers, for example in healthcare provision. The fundamental right to health is then reduced to a citizens’ right, granted fully only to nationals. Germany, in spite of welcoming many refugees in 2015, is a case in point: entitlement and access to healthcare for asylum seekers are restricted during the first 15 months of their stay. We show that arguments brought forward to defend such restrictions do not hold, particularly not those which relate to maintaining societal homogeneity. European societies are not homogeneous, irrespective of migration. But as migration will continue, societies need to invest in what we call “globalization within.” Removing entitlement restrictions and access barriers to healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers is one important element thereof.

  13. Epistemic duties and failure to understand one’s evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Stapleford

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper defends the thesis that our epistemic duty is the duty to proportion our beliefs to the evidence we possess. An inclusive view of evidenced possessed is put forward on the grounds that it makes sense of our intuitions about when it is right to say that a person ought to believe some proposition P. A second thesis is that we have no epistemic duty to adopt any particular doxastic attitudes. The apparent tension between the two theses is resolved by applying the concept of duty to belief indirectly.

  14. Epistemic Duties and Failure to Understand one's Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Stapleford

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2012v16n1p147   The paper defends the thesis that our epistemic duty is the duty to proportion our beliefs to the evidence we possess. An inclusive view of evidenced possessed is put forward on the grounds that it makes sense of our intuitions about when it is right to say that a person ought to believe some proposition P. A second thesis is that we have no epistemic duty to adopt any particular doxastic attitudes. The apparent tension between the two theses is resolved by applying the concept of duty to belief indirectly.

  15. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika

    the apparently strong growth in voluntarism. Although there seems to be a large potential for involving volunteers and voluntary organisations, systematic analysis of recent years’ urban regeneration projects in Denmark shows that the sustainability of voluntary contributions is limited. While initial enrolling...... projects and associations be transferred to the context of publicly initiated urban regeneration?’ and ‘Does the urban regeneration offer potentials for developing voluntarism addressing problems in the local area?’. The paper is based on a review of literature on volunteerism, particularly in relation...... to community development, urban policy, etc. In addition to this, the paper presents results from a survey exploring the extent and character of volunteerism in a number of integrated urban regeneration projects. The paper proposes a systematic overview of experiences with voluntary inputs and engagement...

  16. In the eye of the stakeholder: The challenges of governing social forest values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sténs, Anna; Bjärstig, Therese; Nordström, Eva-Maria; Sandström, Camilla; Fries, Clas; Johansson, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    This study examines which kinds of social benefits derived from forests are emphasised by Swedish stakeholders and what governance modes and management tools they accept. Our study shows that there exists a great variety among stakeholders' perceptions of forests' social values, where tourism and recreation is the most common reference. There are also differences in preferred governance modes and management where biomass and bioenergy sectors advocate business as usual (i.e. framework regulations and voluntarism) and other stakeholders demand rigid tools (i.e. coercion and targeting) and improved landscape planning. This divide will have implications for future policy orientations and require deliberative policy processes and improved dialogue among stakeholders and authorities. We suggest that there is a potential for these improvements, since actors from almost all stakeholder groups support local influence on governance and management, acknowledged and maintained either by the authorities, i.e. targeting, or by the stakeholders themselves, i.e. voluntarism.

  17. Forecasting of the energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Urged by earlier continuous failures in forecasting the consumption of energy in the world, essentially characterized by megalomania, the author presents his views on causes of such occurrences. Fundamental cause is considered - logic of a circle - insensitive to social and economic effects on the humanity in general and particularly to the energy consumption. Besides, a lethal influence of voluntarism has been specially studied as well. (author)

  18. Neoliberal drivers in hybrid civil society organizations: Critical readings of civicness and social entrepreneurism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Lundgaard

    2018-01-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) and social entrepreneurship take up a significant position in a welfare system in transformation. Voluntarism and civil society have played an important role in the development of the welfare state and its services in Denmark, as in the rest of Scandinavia...... into hybrid organisations rooted in civic society and social entrepreneur-ism: firstly, the human rights subject versus the entrepreneurial labour market subject and sec-ondly, the commodification and performativity of civil services and human growth....

  19. “Genes Я us” – Of juis nie? Oor determinisme en voluntarisme by die mens met verwysing na homoseksualiteit

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Buitendag

    2004-01-01

    “Genes Я us” – or not? About human determinism and voluntarism, with reference to homosexuality This article has as its departure point the conviction of some that human genome mapping predisposes human beings genetically and as a consequence, the homosexual person becomes a mere victim of circumstances. Biological determinism and social construc-tionism are not mutually exclusive and although a person is orientated within a web of boundary matters, the depiction of a human being as imago ...

  20. Impact of a pedometer-based workplace health program on cardiovascular and diabetes risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Wolfe, Rory; Backholer, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health programme results in an improvement in risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Adults employed within Australia in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntar......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health programme results in an improvement in risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Adults employed within Australia in primarily sedentary occupations...

  1. Regional planning without means - search for regional leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Niels Boje; Fertner, Christian

    level, coordination of municipal planning in 14 counties was replaced by running national public health system in only five regions. Managerial planning became communicative and its implementation dominated by voluntarism. Region of Southern Denmark is a prime example for the emergence of new tools...... of regional leadership. In doing so, we shall consider the need for strengthening the interplay between government and governance as well as developing spatial imaginary tools for communication....

  2. Whither British labour law crisis, what crisis? an historical perspective on the juridification of British industrial relations

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This paper is largely historical in that it reflects on the reasons why the British system of industrial relations was transformed from a system rooted in voluntarism or legal abstentionism to one which became increasingly juridified from the 1960s onwards. Juridification can be understood as a combination of judicial intervention in the arena of industrial conflict and the enactment of substantial legislation in areas previously left to employment contracts between employers and their employ...

  3. “Captain Pantoja and the special services”: a social-organizational analysis of the Peruvian film based on the book by Vargas Llosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Iturriet Dias Canhada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work launches an interdisciplinary dialogue from the Peruvian movie called “Captain Pantoja and The Special Services”. Inspired by a Deleuzian assumption (although not applying its concepts per se and using different theoretical perspectives, the essay highlights and analyses excerpts from the movie. In its concluding remarks, some insights are presented on the voluntarism-determinism dilemma and on “alternative” possibilities for text construction allowed by the philosophy of language.

  4. “Captain Pantoja and the special services”: a social-organizational analysis of the Peruvian film based on the book by Vargas Llosa

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Iturriet Dias Canhada; Samir Adamoglu de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    This work launches an interdisciplinary dialogue from the Peruvian movie called “Captain Pantoja and The Special Services”. Inspired by a Deleuzian assumption (although not applying its concepts per se) and using different theoretical perspectives, the essay highlights and analyses excerpts from the movie. In its concluding remarks, some insights are presented on the voluntarism-determinism dilemma and on “alternative” possibilities for text construction allowed by the philosophy of language....

  5. Belief-bias reasoning in non-clinical delusion-prone individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandakumar, T; Connaughton, E; Coltheart, M; Langdon, R

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that people with delusions have difficulty inhibiting beliefs (i.e., "doxastic inhibition") so as to reason about them as if they might not be true. We used a continuity approach to test this proposal in non-clinical adults scoring high and low in psychometrically assessed delusion-proneness. High delusion-prone individuals were expected to show greater difficulty than low delusion-prone individuals on "conflict" items of a "belief-bias" reasoning task (i.e. when required to reason logically about statements that conflicted with reality), but not on "non-conflict" items. Twenty high delusion-prone and twenty low delusion-prone participants (according to the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory) completed a belief-bias reasoning task and tests of IQ, working memory and general inhibition (Excluded Letter Fluency, Stroop and Hayling Sentence Completion). High delusion-prone individuals showed greater difficulty than low delusion-prone individuals on the Stroop and Excluded Letter Fluency tests of inhibition, but no greater difficulty on the conflict versus non-conflict items of the belief-bias task. They did, however, make significantly more errors overall on the belief-bias task, despite controlling for IQ, working memory and general inhibitory control. The study had a relatively small sample size and used non-clinical participants to test a theory of cognitive processing in individuals with clinically diagnosed delusions. Results failed to support a role for doxastic inhibitory failure in non-clinical delusion-prone individuals. These individuals did, however, show difficulty with conditional reasoning about statements that may or may not conflict with reality, independent of any general cognitive or inhibitory deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The carbon markets: which place for the french agriculture; Les marches du carbone: quelle place pour l'agriculture francaise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    Even its positive role of carbon sequestration in the biomass by photosynthesis, the agriculture sector is responsible of about 20% of the french greenhouse gases emissions. Actions aim to reduce these emissions. This study allows the exploration of technic of reduction to reveal those which combine voluntarism, actors responsibility and economic profitability. It constitutes necessary work to better understand the greenhouse gases stakes in the agriculture and develop inventive projects. It offers also actions to implement by the public authorities to create success conditions of described mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  7. Regulatory and economic instruments in order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050: financial impacts on industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taithe, Alexandre

    2013-06-01

    Industrial groups will be exposed to increasingly stringent regulation measures against GHG emissions. Uncertainties over the form and extent of international cooperation on climate change should not begin to weaken the European voluntarism otherwise than concerning the targets level of ambition. Therefore, the degree of restraint will remain strong. Halving global emissions between 1990 and 2050 will involve a reduction by a factor of 4 of those in developed countries. However, given the difficulty of achieving such a goal in the diffuse sectors (households, agriculture, transport...), the European industry will most likely reduce its GHG emissions by a factor of 5 to 6. (author)

  8. The carbon markets: which place for the french agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    Even its positive role of carbon sequestration in the biomass by photosynthesis, the agriculture sector is responsible of about 20% of the french greenhouse gases emissions. Actions aim to reduce these emissions. This study allows the exploration of technic of reduction to reveal those which combine voluntarism, actors responsibility and economic profitability. It constitutes necessary work to better understand the greenhouse gases stakes in the agriculture and develop inventive projects. It offers also actions to implement by the public authorities to create success conditions of described mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  9. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    the apparently strong growth in voluntarism. Although there seems to be a large potential for involving volunteers and voluntary organisations, systematic analysis of recent years’ urban regeneration projects in Denmark shows that the sustainability of voluntary contributions is limited. While initial enrolling......Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from...

  10. Aktivisme Kelas Menengah Berbasis Media Sosial: Munculnya Relawan dalam Pemilu 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasisto Raharjo Jati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of voluntarism power that occured in 2014 election have indicated new form of middle class in Indonesia. Analyse on middle class always posited as either "leisure class" or "depedent class". However, in 2014 election, its class hass been transformed itselft as powerful actor from extra-parliamentary arena which able to persuade political succesion with Jokowi as pivotal person. Addresing to recent middle class, using of social media undoubtely become main factor to encouraging political awareness from middle class to be partisan voters. This article using cyberactvism perspective to elaborate more deeply toward middle class power in 2014 election.

  11. The recycling of wastes in Japan; Le recyclage des dechets au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgel, O.

    2004-04-01

    The Japan economic growth of the second half of the 20. century and the increase of the internal consumption, led to the continuous increase of the wastes volume. The government took into account this problem only during the years 1990 because of the landfills saturation, and decided large legislative measures. Hopeful the japanese industry voluntarism, results have reach beyond the limits and rate fixed by the law. After a presentation of the wastes recycling policy in Japan, this report described the new techniques applied and the tendencies in the research development. Then the treatment of specific products are presented. (A.L.B.)

  12. Sustainability and shared smart and mutual--green growth (SSaM-GG) in Korean medical waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Jeong, Seung-Ik

    2015-05-01

    Since medical insurance was introduced in the Republic of Korea, there have been several increases concerning medical waste. In order to solve these problems, we have applied life cycle assessment and life cycle cost. But these methods cannot be a perfect decision-making tool because they can only evaluate environmental and economic burdens. Thus, as one of many practical methods the shared smart and mutual - green growth considers economic growth, environmental protection, social justice, science technology and art, and mutual voluntarism when applied to medical waste management in the Republic of Korea. Four systems were considered: incineration, incineration with heat recovery, steam sterilisation, and microwave disinfection. This research study aimed to assess pollutant emissions from treatment, transport, and disposal. Global warming potential, photochemical oxidant creation potential, acidifications potential, and human toxicity are considered to be environmental impacts. Total investment cost, transport cost, operation, and maintenance cost for the medical waste are considered in the economy evaluations though life cycle cost. The social development, science technology and art, and mutual voluntarism are analysed through the Delphi-method conducted by expert groups related to medical waste. The result is that incineration with heat recovery is the best solution. However, when heat recovery is impossible, incineration without heat recovery becomes the next best choice. That is why 95% of medical waste is currently treated by both incineration and incineration with heat recovery within the Republic of Korea. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Financial incentives to improve organ donation: what is the opinion of the Vaud French-speaking population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosisio, Francesca; Santiago, Marie; Benaroyo, Lazare

    2011-12-09

    With the increase of the organ shortage, several authors assume that financial incentives would improve organ donation rates and fill the unbalance between the demand and the organs available for transplant medicine. This line of argument has been criticised with people arguing that an exchange of money for organs would violate the legal and the ethical principle of gratuity, decrease voluntarism and increase the body parts commodification phenomena. Switzerland is often highlighted as having under-average organ donation rates compared to other European countries. In this paper we investigate the opinions of the Vaud French-speaking population concerning direct, indirect and non financial incentives in order to assess their opinions and anticipate the further debate. As part of a broad survey about the organ donation decision-making process, questions about incentives for both living and deceased organ donation were addressed to Vaud inhabitants and physicians. The data collected showed that respondents were opposed to rewarding both living and deceased organ donation. The analysis of positive answers showed that indirect and non financial incentives were the most likely choice to acknowledge the donor's act. People in critical financial situations preferred direct financial incentives. These results showed that altruism and gratuity were key-values in the organ donation and transplantation social perceptions of the respondents. Thus, we assume that introducing financial incentives could tarnish the image of transplant medicine. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to evaluate if their introduction would improve the organ donation rates or decrease voluntarism.

  14. Two Types of Belief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hegarty

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascriptions of belief and other doxastic propositional attitudes are commonly interpreted as quantifying over a set of possible worlds constituting doxastic alternatives for the belief experiencer. Katz (2000, 2003, 2008 has argued that belief predicates and other stative attitude predicates, along with stative predicates generally, lack a Davidsonian event argument and therefore do not report on any eventuality (event or state. Hacquard (2010, in contrast, assumes that all attitude ascriptions describe an event corresponding to the mental state of the attitude experiencer. The present investigation suggests that the strengths of doxastic predicates can be modeled by generalized quantifiers over the doxastic alternative set, permitting us to formulate and test predictions based on standard interactions of these quantifiers with negation when these ascriptions are negated. This provides a middle ground between Katz and Hacquard, whereby some belief ascriptions are interpreted as nothing more than a quantified condition over a doxastic alternative set, while others attribute a Davidsonian belief state to the experiencer. In the latter case, the condition involving quantification over doxastic alternatives is an essential content condition which serves to individuate the eventuality described by the belief report, and to identify it across possible worlds.ReferencesCappelli, G. 2007. “I reckon I know how Leonardo da Vinci must have felt...” Epistemicity, Evidentiality and English Verbs of Cognitive Attitude. Pari: Pari Publishing.Carlson, G. 1998. ‘Thematic roles and the individuation of events’. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 35–51. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Davidson, D. 1980[1967]. ‘The Logical Form of Action Sentences’. In N. Rescher (ed. ‘The Logic of Decision and Action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Reprinted in Davidson, D., Essays on Actions and Events, pp. 105

  15. 76 FR 19753 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the `Īao Stream Flood Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... have resulted in major erosion of the streambed, undermining the banks and the levees. The proposed...; grade control structures; stilling basin areas; groundwater infiltration areas; natural erosion...

  16. Defense Acquisitions: Further Management and Oversight Changes Needed for Efforts to Modernize Cheyenne Mountain Attack Warning Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    The Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center houses numerous complex computer systems for tracking air, missile, and space events that could threaten homeland security or undermine military operations in theater...

  17. Socialization: Some Basic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jeffrey H.; Bredemeier, Brenda J.

    1977-01-01

    Contends that increased coverage of certain sports has led to increased ritualization and professionalism of amateur sports thereby undermining intrinsic participation motivations and satisfactions. (MH)

  18. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about corruption have intensified in recent years as there is a growing realization among international financial donors, including the World Bank, that corruption may undermine development...

  19. Globalization and State Soverignty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Mainul

    2003-01-01

    .... Globalized capital is reorganizing business firms and undermining national politics. Globalization creates vast new markets and gigantic new wealth, as well as widespread suffering, disorder and unrest...

  20. Voluntarist theology and early-modern science: The matter of the divine power, absolute and ordained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Francis

    2018-03-01

    This paper is an intervention in the debate inaugurated by Peter Harrison in 2002 when he called into question the validity of what has come to be called 'the voluntarism and early-modern science thesis'. Though it subsequently drew support from such historians of science as J. E. McGuire, Margaret Osler, and Betty-Joe Teeter Dobbs, the origins of the thesis are usually traced back to articles published in 1934 and 1961 respectively by the philosopher Michael Foster and the historian of ideas Francis Oakley. Central to Harrison's critique of the thesis are claims he made about the meaning of the scholastic distinction between the potentia dei absoluta et ordinata and the role it played in the thinking of early-modern theologians and natural philosophers. This paper calls directly into question the accuracy of Harrison's claims on that very matter.

  1. Regicide and Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of resistance in Michel Foucault’s political thought. The article recovers this otherwise obscured aspect of Foucault’s thought through a systematic analysis of his theoretical regicide and consequent reconceptualization of power, agency and resistance. It is argued...... that Foucault developed a highly original account of resistance, which was, and should continue to be considered, central to his thought and its critical potential. It is shown how Foucault’s concept of resistance overcomes the limitation of voluntarism and determinism, which continue to mare contemporary...... political theory, providing a passage from the critique of contemporary configurations of power to the irrepressible possibility that they may be contested and changed....

  2. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    to the organisation may give volunteers special opportunities to choose, not only where and when, but also how they will perform. But in praxis the volunteer's ability to perform is structured by the institutional settings of the specific voluntary organisation as well as the organisational field of voluntary......What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper...... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...

  3. Supporting structures for education for sustainable development and school-based health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Simovska, Venka

    2016-01-01

    and invitations to ‘run with the ball’, and 3) ad hoc professional development. A main conclusion in the article is that local approaches are largely based on plurality and voluntarism, and formed around enthusiasts. There is a risk that this framework becomes so flexible that it ‘falls apart’ in the balance......The article aims to explore the following question: How is education for sustainable development and health education in schools approached and contextualized at a municipal level, and what contradictions and tensions might local structures imply for sustainable health promoting school development......? Based on interviews with key agents at the municipal level in Denmark and drawing on a knowledge exchange network, the article identifies and discusses the following three themes across education for sustainable development and health education; 1) autonomy, engagement and ownership, 2) open frameworks...

  4. Eliminative materialism and the integrity of science | Pitman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews the argument that EM is self-defeating. Although this argument is unsuccessful, it is argued that EM ought to be considered epistemically self-undermining. EM\\'s truth would undermine the epistemic warrant of the theories (from cognitive neuroscience) typically taken as motivating the eliminativist thesis.

  5. Teachers Unions in Turbulent Times: Maintaining Their Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tamara V.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on niche theory, I describe the resource dimensions that compose teachers unions' niche and explain how aspects of the current political landscape buttress or undermine teachers unions' realization of those resources. I also discuss teachers unions' strategies to oppose any threats that undermine the realization of the resource arrays that…

  6. 77 FR 41243 - Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... reform process, efforts to undermine or obstruct the peace process with ethnic minorities, military trade... effect of undermining or obstructing the political reform process or the peace process with ethnic... removing ``logistical, or technical'' in section 1(b)(ii) and replacing it with ``or technological''; and...

  7. 77 FR 20823 - Jyotin Parikh: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... type of conduct underlying the conviction undermined the process for the regulation of drugs. Mr... conduct that served as a basis for the conviction undermined the process for the regulation of drugs. The... drug product, and to the regulation of drug products under the FD&C Act, and that the type of conduct...

  8. Joining the un global compact in spain : an institutional Aproach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa garayar erro

    2012-07-01

    On the other hand, it can be asserted that the respondent organisations do not perceive major threats from the institutional environment that might undermine the legitimacy gained by joining the GC. Nonetheless, the Spanish organisations participating in the GC highlight the fact that the main institutional factor that might undermine the organization's legitimacy is weak governance and corruption.

  9. United States of America (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    reconciled with the principle that all couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsably the number and spacing of their children and to have the information and means to do so. Voluntarism is an essential element in population programs because family planning touches the most intimate areas of the lives of couples, because longterm change in fertility behavior is achieved only when the choices reflect the free decisions of couples, because user-preferences and the motivation of providers to improve program acceptability are compromised by coercion, and because voluntarism is a basic human right.

  10. Immigration, integration and support for redistribution in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.

    2014-01-01

    Immigration poses individual or collective economic risks that might increase citizen support for government redistribution, but it can also generate fiscal pressure or undermine social solidarity to diminish such support. These offsetting conditions obscure the net effects of immigration for

  11. Economic and Geopolitical Integration between Morocco and Algeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanhaji, Hamid

    2005-01-01

    .... Greater integration will achieve two main goals. First, it will help both economies by boosting trade between the two countries and by preventing "political" barriers from undermining economic exchange...

  12. Do demanding conditions help or hurt self-regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Jostmann, N.B.; Baumann, N.

    2012-01-01

    Although everyday life is often demanding, it remains unclear how demanding conditions impact self-regulation. Some theories suggest that demanding conditions impair self-regulation, by undermining autonomy, interfering with skilled performance and working memory, and depleting energy resources.

  13. Implementing plant clinics in the maelstrom of policy reform in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, F.B.; Kjær, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    . We argue that the political agenda surrounding the decentralization and agricultural extension reforms, initiated in 1997, substantially weakened the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries and undermined institutional stability and the effectiveness of delivery of public extension...

  14. Hydrology: When wells run dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard

    2014-12-01

    A global analysis reveals growing societal dependence on the use of non-renewable freshwater resources that depletes groundwater reserves and undermines human resilience to water scarcity in a warming world.

  15. Increasing the Adaptability of DoD Forces and Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorman, David

    2001-01-01

    The post-Cold War world demands increased adaptability. Since the accelerating pace of technological change reduces DoD ability to forecast threat characteristics, DOD force planning methodology is undermined...

  16. Defeating Saddam Hussein's Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millen, Raymond A

    2003-01-01

    Should war break out between Iraq and the United States, Saddam Hussein will likely adopt a strategy designed to undermine the prestige of the United States and turn the Arab World against the West...

  17. The cloud understanding the security, privacy and trust challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Neil; Cave, Jonathan; Starkey, Tony; Graux, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses how policy-makers might address the challenges and risks in respect of the security, privacy and trust aspects of cloud computing that could undermine the attainment of broader economic and societal objectives across Europe.

  18. Buruli Ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oedema will ulcerate within 4 weeks with the classical, undermined borders. Occasionally, bone is affected causing gross ... has not been proven by randomized trial. Morbidity management, disability prevention and rehabilitation Interventions such as wound ...

  19. The Cognitive Dissonance between Child Rescue and Child Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstract‘Saving orphans’ has become an industry that irrevocably harms children and undermines the development of child welfare systems. We must replace the drive to rescue with the desire to protect.

  20. Whether social schema violations help or hurt creativity depends on need for structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocłowska, M.A.; Baas, M.; Crisp, R.J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although people and events that disconfirm observers’ expectancies can increase their creativity, sometimes such social schema violations increase observers’ rigidity of thought and undermine creative cognition. Here we examined whether individual differences in the extent to which people prefer

  1. Industrial relations, migration, and neoliberal politics : The case of the European construction sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lillie, Nathan; Greer, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Transnational politics and labor markets are undermining national industrial relations systems in Europe. This article examines the construction industry, where the internationalization of the labor market has gone especially far. To test hypotheses about differences between '' national systems,''

  2. Residential damage in an area of underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to estimate the potential for future subsidence-related residential damage, a statistical analysis of past residential damage in the Boulder-Weld, Colorado, coal field was performed. The objectives of this study were to assess the difference in damage severity and frequency between undermined and non-undermined areas, and to determine, where applicable, which mining factors significantly influence the severity and frequency of residential damage. The results of this study suggest that undermined homes have almost three times the risk of having some type of structural damage than do non-undermined homes. The study also indicated that both geologic factors, such as the ratio of sandstone/claystone in the overburden, and mining factors, such as the mining feature (room, pillar, entry, etc.), can significantly affect the severity of overlying residential damage. However, the results of this study are dependent on local conditions and should not be applied elsewhere unless the geologic, mining, and residential conditions are similar

  3. 76 FR 48853 - FFP Project 70, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... (Corps) Mississippi Lock and Dam 19 on the Mississippi River, near Keokuk, Lee County, Iowa and Hancock... foundation against scour and undermining; (7) a 60-foot-wide, 75-foot- long new substation containing a step...

  4. Coase and copyright

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreiken, F.H.; Koepsell, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    The call for more copyright legislation and enforcement is controversial. It requires more state regulation and potentially undermines public values, economic efficiency, and fundamental rights. This seems the way forward because creative industries and governments frame copyright as an ordinary

  5. Essential variables help to focus sustainable development goals monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reyers, B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The imperative to measure progress towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has resulted in a proliferation of targets and indicators fed by an ever-expanding set of observations. This proliferation undermines one principal purpose of the SDGs...

  6. Adaptation to Climate Change in two Rural Communities on the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -arid areas, and are largely dependent on agriculture for their livelihood and food security. Already subject to episodic drought, increased climate variability is expected to exacerbate poverty and undermine socioeconomic gains made in ...

  7. How attitude certainty tempers the effects of faultlines in demographically diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grow, Andre; Flache, Andreas

    Lau and Murnighan's faultline theory suggests that strong demographic faultlines can undermine cohesion in work teams. A strong faultline splits a team into internally homogeneous but mutually dissimilar subgroups based on demographic characteristics. Social influence processes within these

  8. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Proud 2007), could undermine the importance of a precept of modern molecular biology even more celebrated than Anfinsen's dogma: the “central dogma” propounded by Francis Crick (Crick 1958). This principle, whereby sequence information ...

  9. 1Department of Telecommunication Scienc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-12-19

    Dec 19, 2016 ... Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China. 6National Space Research Development Agency, Abuja. Abstract. As climate change could affect energy production, it can also undermine telecommunications development which requires increased energy consumption to drive.

  10. Do points, levels and leaderboards harm intrinsic motivation? An empirical analysis of common gamification elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekler, Elisa D.; Brühlmann, Florian; Opwis, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It is heavily debated within the gamification community whether specific game elements may actually undermine users' intrinsic motivation. This online experiment examined the effects of three commonly employed game design elements - points, leaderboard, levels - on users' performance, intrinsic...

  11. Disentangling the pathways of land use impacts on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazon streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural land use is a primary driver of environmental impacts on streams. However, the causal processes that shape these impacts operate through multiple pathways and at several spatial scales. This complexity undermines the development of more effective management approache...

  12. Concerns raised over new EPA members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The Trump administration has nominated three new members of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) who critics say are undermining laws and “pampering” the industries they are supposed to regulate.

  13. The Dialectic of Nihilism and the State: Implications for an Emancipatory Theory of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    This article analyzes how the state, in promoting modernization, undermines the symbolic underpinnings of traditional cultures. The public schools strengthen the process of nihilism by reproducing in the consciousness of students the concepts and assumptions necessary to modernization. (MT)

  14. Coordination in the midst of chaos: the refugee crisis in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Porter

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the coordination of the aid effort, the role of NATO and, finally, whether the response to the Kosovo crisis hasstrengthened or undermined the principles of universality that govern the global provision of humanitarian assistance.

  15. Goods and Persons, Reasons and Responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Purpose: An exploration of themes that interconnect six studies in environmentally and socially sustainable human development. Findings: As humanity threatens to undermine its habitat, a social economics returns to core concepts and themes that became expunged

  16. Imprisonment--a Matter of Letting People Live or Stay Alive? Some Reasoning from a Swedish Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Svenolov

    1996-01-01

    Overemphasis on punishment undermines successful reintegration of offenders into society. The Swedish prison system emphasizes the journey back to society from the first day in prison, choosing to think of inmates as "citizens in prison." (SK)

  17. INTERNATIONAL TRADE: Significant Challenges Remain in Deterring Trade in Conflict Diamonds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... and international efforts to deter this trade. The United Nations General Assembly defines conflict diamonds as rough diamonds used by rebel movements to finance their military activities, including attempts to undermine or overthrow legitimate governments...

  18. Do You Trust Your Phone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, Aniello; de Prisco, Roberto; de Santis, Alfredo

    Despite the promising start, Electronic Commerce has not taken off mostly because of security issues with the communication infrastructures that are popping up threateningly undermining the perceived trustworthiness in Electronic Commerce.

  19. Liberalism and African Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindima, Harvey

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the effect of liberalism on the African understanding of education, community, and religion. Describes ways in which the European intrusion, that is, colonial governments, schools, and churches, undermined traditional African life and thought. (DM)

  20. Censorship and the reading practices of political prisoners in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990. A Dick. Abstract. Political prisoners undermined censorship in apartheid jails. The jail diaries, authorised biographies, autobiographies, prison memoirs, interviews and prison letters of more than fifty political prisoners and two prison ...

  1. Nigeria: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    .... Nigerian political life has been scarred by conflict along both ethnic and geographic lines and misrule has undermined the authority and legitimacy of the state apparatus, but many Nigerians feel...

  2. Intelligence Gathering in a Counterinsurgency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, D. J

    2006-01-01

    ... over (or at least undermine) the government of a nation. This is a contest of wills uneven resources chosen initiatives covert political and paramilitary operations and sometimes very public measures...

  3. Extremist Religious Ideologies and Military Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, William

    2006-01-01

    .... They are extreme because they conduct or sponsor violent acts and because they seek to undermine the legitimacy of a nation's government while instilling fear in the hearts and minds of the population...

  4. NATO Enlargement: Balancing Economic and Military Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bostick, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The military requirements of NATO Enlargement should be tied to NATO's overall goal of seeking stability in all of Europe such that it does not undermine political and economic success in new member countries...

  5. Monitoring bridge scour using fiber optic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The scouring process excavates and carries away materials from the bed and banks of streams, and from : around the piers and abutments of bridges. Scour undermines bridges and may cause bridge failures due to : structural instability. In the last 30 ...

  6. Review of Jerry Fodor, The Mind Doesn’t Work That Way: the scope and limits of computational psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, John

    2001-01-01

    This review sketches Fodor's critique of evolutionary psychology and the 'massive modularity' thesis; queries his views on abduction in central processes; and suggests that his pessimism about the scope of computational psychology undermines his realism about folk psychology.

  7. Promoting Learning: What Universities Don't Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Universities seek to promote student learning, but assessment and credentials can undermine students' intrinsic motivation to learn. Findings from research on how people learn, mindsets, expert performance and good health are seldom incorporated into the way universities organise learning experiences.

  8. Building a commercial enterprise : FY01-05 financial plan update : investing in the future of passenger rail : long-term capital plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, the nations transportation system is at a crossroads. After : building highway and aviation networks that are the envy of the world, increasing gridlock threatens to undermine the success of those investments and the ...

  9. Mining Ostrava '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Part I of the Proceedings contains 55 contributions, out of which 2 deal with environmental impacts of undermining during coal mining, and of shocks and vibrations during underground coal mining. (Z.S.)

  10. Military Strategy of Bangladesh to Counter Terrorism in Near Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    From the earliest years of Bangladesh‘s existence, a countrywide muscleman culture, political rifts, cadre politics, hooliganism , and extortion have... hooliganism , and muscleman culture mostly sponsored by politically influential people have also contributed to undermine the security situation of

  11. All projects related to tanzania | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: FOOD SECURITY, AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, DATA ANALYSIS, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AGRICULTURAL POLICY ... Climate change extremes such as flooding and seasonal drought are already undermining the economies of countries in the Horn of Africa, with agriculture ...

  12. Infostorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    This detailed guide to navigating the bewildering superabundance of information in today’s globalizing world draws on the latest work in philosophy and the social sciences to explore how information, and its misuse, can both support and undermine democracy.......This detailed guide to navigating the bewildering superabundance of information in today’s globalizing world draws on the latest work in philosophy and the social sciences to explore how information, and its misuse, can both support and undermine democracy....

  13. The Danish Experience with Transferable Fishing Concessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    this the chapter looks upon the objective and the ends which were formulated as the purpose of the Danish privatization and introduction of transferable fishing quotas. The result is a huge profit driven concentration and monopolization process undermining most fishing communities, making fisheries heavily...... dependent upon the struggles on the financial markets, replacing sustainable fishing methods with heavy buttom trawling and undermining the future of young people in the fishing industry....

  14. "It's Just So Hard to Bring It to Mind": The Significance of ‘Wallpaper’ in the Gendering of Television Memory Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Collie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Memory is theorised as constructive and unreliable, while television has been characterised as forgettable and guilty of undermining memory. In a recent series of oral history interviews I asked British women of different generations to tell me their memories of television in the period 1947 to 1989. This article presents some of their memories to demonstrate how, far from undermining memory, television is used a type of memory text for particular life stages.

  15. The inclusive fitness controversy: finding a?way?forward

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This paper attempts to reconcile critics and defenders of inclusive fitness by constructing a synthesis that does justice to the insights of both. I argue that criticisms of the regression-based version of Hamilton's rule, although they undermine its use for predictive purposes, do not undermine its use as an organizing framework for social evolution research. I argue that the assumptions underlying the concept of inclusive fitness, conceived as a causal property of an individual organism, ar...

  16. Hume e as teorias morais vulgares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Oliveira de Azevedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Which are the vulgar moral systems criticized by Hume in the famous Treatise’s is-ought passage? Which are their representatives? Is this essay, I will deal with some differences between Hume and Hutcheson that can illuminate an answer. Hume, contrary to Hutcheson, fought all kinds of divisions of human nature in natural and divine components. The concept of sympathy has an essential function in his approach. There are good evidences that the young Hume adopted in Treatise an open strategic criticism to all influential moral theories of his time: the contractual voluntarism, the rationalistic ethicists, and the religious conceptions under the influence of the dogmatic Scottish evangelism. In this way, Hume has got some distance from Hutcheson, yet his criticism included the approaches influenced by the natural law theories with reference in the divine providence. The is-ought passage signalizes this strategy. Nevertheless, his juvenile impetuosity resulted in a lot of personal misfortunes. It will make Hume to mitigate his philosophical aggressiveness in his maturity, adopting in his posterior writings a more balanced stance.

  17. The Development of a Strategic Prioritisation Method for Green Supply Chain Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy

    2015-01-01

    To maintain a competitive position, companies are increasingly required to integrate their proactive environmental strategies into their business strategies. The shift from reactive and compliance-based to proactive and strategic environmental management has driven companies to consider the strategic factors while identifying the areas in which they should focus their green initiatives. In previous studies little attention was given to providing the managers with a basis from which they could strategically prioritise these green initiatives across their companies' supply chains. Considering this lacuna in the literature, we present a decision-making method for prioritising green supply chain initiatives aligned with the preferred green strategies alternatives for the manufacturing companies. To develop this method, the study considered a position between determinism and the voluntarism orientation of environmental management involving both external pressures and internal competitive drivers and key resources as decision factors. This decision-making method was developed using the analytic network process (ANP) technique. The elements of the decision model were derived from the literature. The causal relationships among the multiple decision variables were validated based on the results of structural equation modelling (SEM) using a dataset collected from a survey of the ISO 14001-certified manufacturers in Malaysia. A portion of the relative weights required for computation in ANP was also calculated using the SEM results. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method.

  18. The Development of a Strategic Prioritisation Method for Green Supply Chain Initiatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Maryam Masoumik

    Full Text Available To maintain a competitive position, companies are increasingly required to integrate their proactive environmental strategies into their business strategies. The shift from reactive and compliance-based to proactive and strategic environmental management has driven companies to consider the strategic factors while identifying the areas in which they should focus their green initiatives. In previous studies little attention was given to providing the managers with a basis from which they could strategically prioritise these green initiatives across their companies' supply chains. Considering this lacuna in the literature, we present a decision-making method for prioritising green supply chain initiatives aligned with the preferred green strategies alternatives for the manufacturing companies. To develop this method, the study considered a position between determinism and the voluntarism orientation of environmental management involving both external pressures and internal competitive drivers and key resources as decision factors. This decision-making method was developed using the analytic network process (ANP technique. The elements of the decision model were derived from the literature. The causal relationships among the multiple decision variables were validated based on the results of structural equation modelling (SEM using a dataset collected from a survey of the ISO 14001-certified manufacturers in Malaysia. A portion of the relative weights required for computation in ANP was also calculated using the SEM results. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method.

  19. Implicações das Teorias Ambientais para a Administração Estratégica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bataglia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the assumptions of environmental theories, proposing a classificatorymetatheoretical framework, based on two analyticaldimensions: the nature of the externalenvironment and the nature of organization-environment relationship. The classification ofenvironmental schools in these dimensions results four generic perspectives: the classical vision,the harmonious vision, the congregating vision andthe constructivist vision. The model presentedaims to transcend problems inherent to the excessive fragmentation, focusing the interrelationamong divergent theoretical perspectives. However,it preserves advantages associated to thetheoretical pluralism. It is concluded that a suitable comprehension of the strategic management isbased on the consideration of the dialectics between nominalism and realism and betweendeterminism and voluntarism. The tension between these opposite models of analysis elucidates,though partially, the theoretical debates and the contradictions of theories about strategy and theexternal environment of organizations. This way, the assumptions of these dimensions determinevisions of the world, consisting of paradigms and the interaction of these approaches means acontest for the future determination of the aspectsof the organizational life

  20. Philanthropic Gift-giving as Vehicle of Pollution and Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present the voluntary and philanthropic sectors are experiencing significant public attention, especially regarding how they can be involved as providers of public welfare services. In the US and Europe the national governments set up councils and think-tanks talking about co-creation and muni......At present the voluntary and philanthropic sectors are experiencing significant public attention, especially regarding how they can be involved as providers of public welfare services. In the US and Europe the national governments set up councils and think-tanks talking about co......-creation and municipalities developing voluntary strategies. While unions develop rules for the cooperation between voluntary and public officials, philanthropic and voluntary organisations discuss how to handle the balance between involvement, corporation and freedom in the relationship with the public sector (e.g. Salamon...... of commercialisation and the logic of business-like organisational forms which might jeopardise the specific characteristics and values of philanthropy, charity and voluntarism (Meyer & Simsa 2014). Central to the debate is on one side the question of how voluntary and philanthropy associations can contribute...

  1. Report on the behalf of the Commission for finances, general economy and budgetary control on the finance bill project for 2017 (nr 4061). Nr 4125, Appendix Nr 14: ecology, sustainable development and mobility, risk prevention, management and steering of policies of ecology, sustainable development and mobility; Appendix Nr 16: ecology, sustainable development and mobility, climate and post-mining, public service of energy, financing supports to communities for rural electrification, energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabault, Valerie; Goua, Marc

    2016-01-01

    A first part discusses the risk prevention program by outlining that financial resources are not consistent whereas the program displays voluntarism here and everywhere: actual advances but problematic assessment, actions affected by a sustained budgetary constraint and decreasing finances. It also comments and criticizes the content of a program related to human resources and support function of the Ministry of the Environment, Energy and Sea (MEEM) and that of Dwelling and Sustainable Housing (MLHD). The second part comments the budget awarded to energy policy in France. It notices and comments that some budgets are mainly financing the post-mining social policy: decrease of miners' guarantees, financing of the ANDRA, support of policies for air quality, financing of financial burden of the energy public service, support of renewable electricity production, support and maintenance of rural electricity networks. It also comments the extra-budgetary financing of the French energy policy: reorganisation, restructuring and re-capitalisation of the sector, a higher energy efficiency as a lever for energy transition, and energy tariffs enabling actors of energy transition to finance their investments

  2. Developing a generic environmental safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been charged with implementing the United Kingdom government's policy for the long-term management of higher activity radioactive waste by planning, building and operating a geological disposal facility (GDF). Within the NDA, we - the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) - are tasked with the development of a GDF. The UK government has also decided that a process of voluntarism and partnership will be followed to identify a suitable site for the GDF. To date there is no volunteer community and the site selection process to find a volunteer host community is under review. RWMD has an ongoing role to provide advice to UK radioactive waste producers on the conditioning and packaging of wastes and to undertake disposability assessments of waste packaging proposals to determine their suitability for eventual disposal in a GDF. We also need to demonstrate our confidence that a GDF would be safe. Therefore RWMD has published a generic Environmental Safety Case (ESC) (NDA, 2010) to demonstrate that we are confident that a GDF could be developed to meet the guidelines set down by the environmental regulators (EA/NIEA, 2009) in a range of geological settings. The ESC includes reference case calculations that are used as a benchmark for disposability assessments. (author)

  3. Primary health care attributes and responses to intimate partner violence in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Mosquera, Paola; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Otero-García, Laura; García-Quinto, Marta; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    This study provides an overview of the perceptions of primary care professionals on how the current primary health care (PHC) attributes in Spain could influence health-related responses to intimate partner violence (IPV). A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 160 health professionals working in 16 PHC centres in Spain. Data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Four categories emerged from the interview analysis: those committed to the PHC approach, but with difficulties implementing it; community work relying on voluntarism; multidisciplinary team work or professionals who work together?; and continuity of care hindered by heavy work load. Participants felt that person-centred care as well as other attributes of the PHC approach facilitated detecting IPV and a better response to the problem. However, they also pointed out that the current management of the health system (workload, weak supervision and little feedback, misdistribution of human and material resources, etc.) does not facilitate the sustainability of such an approach. There is a gap between the theoretical attributes of PHC and the "reality" of how these attributes are managed in everyday work, and how this influences IPV care. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Surviving the crisis: Adaptive wisdom, coping mechanisms and local responses to avian influenza threats in Haining, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Letian; Pan, Tianshu

    2008-04-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in the summer of 2006, this paper examines local responses to the imminent threat of avian flu in Haining County of Zhejiang Province. During our field investigation, we conducted interviews with officials from local medical institutions (including the hospitals, the animal husbandry and veterinary station, and health clinics), to bureaus of public health and agro-economy. We also visited chicken farms, restaurants and farming households. We address the following factors that commonly structured the perceptions and actions of different social actors in the area of study: The changing mode of information-sharing and communication practices in the local communities; the official drive to professionalize the emergency response management system in the county; and the coping mechanisms that helped the villagers and town residents to weather the storm of avian flu. Our field research suggests that collective survival consciousness was translated into a spirit of voluntarism during the crisis. One important practical lesson we have learned from this study is that the adaptive wisdom embedded in local memories demonstrated its operational worth as a resourceful knowledge base for ordinary farmers to deal with food shortage, famine, plague and future pandemics.

  5. Same, same but different. A comparative perspective on participation and acceptance in siting procedures for HLW repositories in France, Sweden and Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Brunnengraeber, Achim [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Environmental Policy Research Centre

    2015-07-01

    This paper compares national approaches in Finland, Sweden, and France. These three EURATOM Member States are in an advanced stage of siting deep geological disposal (DGD) facilities. The procedures in these countries are largely based on voluntarism, but differ in their approach to public consultation as they were based on the so-called staged volunteer process leading to working partnership arrangements between the operator and the hosting communities and veto rights (Sweden), decisions with strong local community support and veto rights for municipalities until the final decision (Finland), and final top-down decision making after consultative processes (debat public) with the affected communities without veto rights (France). This presentation focuses on participation and acceptance issues; it analyses the different modes of governance with diverse conditions regarding transparency, trust, communication, and participation that have been at work. Moving beyond the fact that variance exists with regard to the relevant national institutional, legal, cultural, industrial, and energy frameworks, the authors take evidence from national case studies and look for common patterns.

  6. Help to new students of ICT Systems Engineering Degree at EPSEM-UPC: Mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Gorchs

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 120 800x600 New students at the Manresa School of Engineering (EPSEM, Escola Politècnica Superior d'Enginyeria de Manresa of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC are voluntarity provided with the mentoring service during their initial period at University. Mentoring gives academic, teaching and self-organizational support. It improves academic results and reduces the desertion of the studies. In particular, the mentor is an experimented learner which studies in the last year of his/her Degree. Here we expose such mentoring applied to ICT (Information, Communication and Technology Systems Engineering Degree at EPSEM, studies of new creation which are probably unique in Spain, and we also present a treatment and analysis of the performance and possible actions of continuous improvement. Normal 0 21 false false false CA X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";}

  7. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunglu, V K

    1994-07-01

    Rapid and substantial population growth in India is hampering development. Family welfare programs in the country during the last four years have not met population reduction goals. The decentralization of political and administrative power in relevant programs, however, will help the country attain its goal of replacement fertility. To that end, the 73rd and 74th amendments to the constitution have recently been enacted to help decentralize power to people at the village, intermediate, and district levels. The participation of the people is essential for success. State ministers of health must begin assigning management of the rural health care systems to the Panchayats. Population policy has changed so that family planning is now provided within the broader context of maternal and child health care, emphasizing voluntarism and informed choice among contraceptive methods and popular participation. The speaker laments the decline of male participation in family planning and calls for high priority to be given to developing fertility regulation methods for men as well as identifying factors which prohibit male participation. The country's unbalanced female to male sex ratio and interstate and inter-district variations in social parameters which have a bearing upon population growth rates also merit attention. Investing in human resources is crucial to the success of population programs. Financing has therefore increased for poverty alleviation programs and other social sector programs.

  8. The Development of a Strategic Prioritisation Method for Green Supply Chain Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy

    2015-01-01

    To maintain a competitive position, companies are increasingly required to integrate their proactive environmental strategies into their business strategies. The shift from reactive and compliance-based to proactive and strategic environmental management has driven companies to consider the strategic factors while identifying the areas in which they should focus their green initiatives. In previous studies little attention was given to providing the managers with a basis from which they could strategically prioritise these green initiatives across their companies’ supply chains. Considering this lacuna in the literature, we present a decision-making method for prioritising green supply chain initiatives aligned with the preferred green strategies alternatives for the manufacturing companies. To develop this method, the study considered a position between determinism and the voluntarism orientation of environmental management involving both external pressures and internal competitive drivers and key resources as decision factors. This decision-making method was developed using the analytic network process (ANP) technique. The elements of the decision model were derived from the literature. The causal relationships among the multiple decision variables were validated based on the results of structural equation modelling (SEM) using a dataset collected from a survey of the ISO 14001-certified manufacturers in Malaysia. A portion of the relative weights required for computation in ANP was also calculated using the SEM results. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method. PMID:26618353

  9. From COP21 to COP22: how to win the climate struggle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Carole

    2016-10-01

    In this publication, the author first proposes a discussion on climate policies after the relative success of the COP21 in Paris which opened the way to new commitments for mitigation of climate changes and adaptation to them. She outlines that these policies can be characterized by a declared voluntarism for some of them, but also by a lack of global consistency. She proposes an overview of the diversity of measures aimed at emission reduction, outlines the weight of the uncertainty due to elections in the USA, discusses the issue of climate compatibility of public decisions, and notices the still high tension between economic development and climate protection. In a second part, within the perspective of the COP22, she highlights and discusses the lack of commitment for low carbon solutions. She finally discusses perspectives for a better and more dynamic international cooperation through a mutual control, an attention given to the financing issue, and a common approach to the development of tools for a low-carbon transition

  10. The local agglomeration of nanotechnology innovative activities in Grenoble (France) and Albany (USA): The role of leaders on change and the influence of technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Emilie

    This doctoral dissertation will shed light on the role of individuals in the gradual structuration of nanotechnology emerging field. We suggest that individuals acting as institutional and cognitive-oriented entrepreneurs enable to materialize "potential" networks by connecting various stakeholders and by articulating dispersed bodies of knowledge. We suggest that the resulting model enables to accelerate nanotechnology innovation through the building and the co-location of cognitive platforms that target various application fields. Our thesis aims at understanding the role of individual action in the emergence of new organizational forms associated with innovative activities in nanotechnology-related industries. Our thesis suggests a conceptual framework to address the variations in institutional arrangements induced by nanotechnology. By considering the strength of institutional forces and the role of individual actions and organizational behavior, our contribution seeks to reconcile technological and institutional determinism, and voluntarism. The integration of micro and macro level factors into our analysis enables to shed light on the process underlying the emergence of two centers specialized in nanotechnology. Our contribution indicates that nanotechnology fosters the emergence of a new type of entrepreneurial endeavor which relies on the combination of various bodies of competences. Cognitive-oriented entrepreneurship brings a new dimension to the study of technological change by focusing on the combination of competences in addition to the combination of products and processes.

  11. Metropolises in emerging countries: actors in energy transitions? Lessons from Cape Town (South Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaglin, Sylvy

    2017-01-01

    The role of cities, as places and drivers of the energy transition is increasingly recognized. The research project Termos tested the robustness of this assumption in four cities of emerging countries by asking two questions: to what extent do urban local actors really drive an urban energy transition and of what kind? To what extent are their actions supporting an urban territorialisation of energy systems? The paper first presents the findings of this comparative research, which he then extends with the case study of Cape Town. It analyzes why, despite their energy and environmental voluntarism, the municipality have little room of manoeuvre, while the changes observed seem to strengthen the stranglehold of the 'central sphere' in the energy system. Analyzing this as the expression of a conflict between a strong national electricity sector and an alternative approach to energy issues carried by urban actors, it highlights the resulting tensions and their impact on the municipal actions, both limited by resistance but also 'swallowed up' by actors from the central sphere. The paper finally draws lessons from this example to enrich the general analysis of dynamics observed in other cities of emerging countries

  12. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell [MERIENCE Strategic Thinking, 08734 Olerdola, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  13. Community-Based Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines: Achievements and Challenges of the Purok System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Matthies

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purok system in the Philippines is promoted as a voluntary self-organization at the sub-village level which strengthens community resilience to natural hazards. In 2011, the system received the UN Sasakawa Award and gained prominence among the practitioner community. Based on a qualitative study in the municipality of San Francisco (Cebu province from December 2014 to March 2015, the article elaborates on the achievements and challenges of the purok system. Striking merits encompass efficient and effective information dissemination and evacuation measurements between all levels of political administration that stem from the system’s remarkable enforcement of human and social capital. This is underpinned by a clear determination of roles and responsibility that is subsumed under the concept of accountability. However, the purok system faces internal challenges of maintenance and implies profound conceptual ambiguities regarding the notion of voluntarism and capabilities that favor clientelism. Nevertheless, the purok system clearly distinguishes itself from conventional community-based disaster risk management practices and implies potentials that are highly beneficial for strengthening resilience in disaster prone areas.

  14. Database, Knowledge and Scientific Networks : The visibility in the Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Cereser Pezzella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the protection provided personal data, voluntarely given by people and collected in files without their consent, an affront to their confidentiality, confidentiality and privacy rights, affecting the right of personality, also fail to materialize the right to privacy in the Information Society. The Information Society, backed the rule of knowledge, creation, circulation and encumbrance information, is embodied in the current form of promotion of personal interrelationships, and the targeting of economic, political, legal and social, causing significant changes in daily life. Indeed, in the information society, the person is primarily represented by information, therefore known for data, numbers, shopping routines and spending, in the form of text, images, sounds and recorded data. This new perception of the individual, as an informational being, shall claim the protection of privacy, especially because it is a fundamental right of first magnitude, recognized as personality right, unavailability of characters, intransferable, inalienable and imprescriptible. The research was mainly based literature, using the national and international doctrine pondering the various branches of legal science, beyond the historical perspective - key to better understanding the complexity in the contemporary context.

  15. A Framework for Ethics in Radiological Protection? Considerations from Elsewhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniolo, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The lecturer started by presenting the principles of biomedical ethics of autonomy, justice, non-maleficence and beneficence and the Ethical theories, taking into consideration the Ethics of Conduct (what sort of actions should be performed) by incorporating consequentialism and deontology and the Ethics of Character (what sort of people should we be?) which converges into Aristotelianism. Together with justification, optimization and limitation, another important aspect is the informed consent, in its three constituents of information, voluntarism and decisional capacity. The participation pact, with the ethical counselling, is suggested in view of a real patient empowerment, putting the patient at the heart of services. The presentation introduced the ACCE model process (Analytical validity, Clinical validity, Clinical utility, Ethical, legal and social implication), used for evaluating genetic tests and structured with a standard set of 44 targeted questions which address disorder, testing and clinical scenario, as well as associated ethical, legal and social issues, since an important 'byproduct' of this model is the identification of gaps in knowledge, which may help to define future agendas. As 'Innovation happens elsewhere' is often a reality and in any case a good point of reflection and view, a scheme similar to ACCE is tentatively proposed for RP, in biomedicine, by discussing the aspects of Analytical validity, Clinical validity, Clinical utility and Empowerment of the patient, together with the suggestion to address targeted questions concerning the aspects of importance in RP

  16. La ratio legis en la teología de Suarez y Santo Tomás: Una propuesta de comparación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Contreras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo intenta profundizar en las nociones de ley de dos de los más importantes teólogos escolásticos:Tomás de Aquino y Francisco Suárez. Sabemos que el Eximio pretende dar sentido e inteligencia a las palabras del Aquinatense. Usualmente se ha marcado el voluntarismo y distancia que toma Suárez con respecto a la teologia del Maestro Angélico, motivo por el cual hemos querido bosquejar una posible continuidad entre ambos doctores de la teologia escolástica: todo a partir del análisis del concepto de imperium.This paper tries deeper into the notions of law of two of the most important scholastics: Aquinas and Suarez. We know that Suarez tries give sense and intelligence at the Aquinas' words. Usually we mark the voluntarism and the distance that Suarez takes over the Aquinas' theology; for this we wanted outline a possible continuity between the two doctors of scholastic theology: everything from the analysis of the concept of imperium.

  17. Emerging beliefs frustrate ecological literacy and meaning-making for students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    In their treatise, Mitchell and Mueller extend David Orr's notions of ecological literacy (2005) to include biophilia (Wilson 1984) and ecojustice (Mueller 2009). In his writings, David Orr claims that the US is in an "ecological crisis" and that this stems from a crisis of education. The authors outline Orr's theory of ecological literacy as a lens to understand Earth's ecology in view of long-term survival. In their philosophical analysis of Orr's theory, Mitchell and Mueller argue that we move beyond the "shock doctrine" perspective of environmental crisis. By extending Orr's concept of ecological literacy to include biophilia and ecojustice, and by recognizing the importance of experience-in-learning, the authors envision science education as a means to incorporate values and morals within a sustainable ideology of educational reform. Through this forum, I reflect on the doxastic logic and certain moral and social epistemological concepts that may subsequently impact student understanding of ecojustice, biophilia, and moral education. In addition, I assert the need to examine myriad complexities of assisting learners to become ecologically literate at the conceptual and procedural level (Bybee in Achieving scientific literacy: from purposes to practices, Heinemann Educational Books, Portsmouth, 1997), including what Kegan (In over our heads: the mental demands of modern life, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1994) refers to as "Third Order" and "Fourth Order" thinking: notions of meaning-construction or meaning-organizational capacity to understand good stewardship of the Earth's environment. Learners who are still in the process of developing reflective and metacognitive skills "cannot have internal conversation about what is actual versus what is possible, because no `self' is yet organized that can put these two categories together" (p. 34). Mitchell and Mueller indicate that middle school learners should undergo a transformation in order to reflect

  18. Impact of underground mining to slope deformation genesis at Doubrava Ujala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Marschalko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the evaluation of possible impact of undermining on a slope deformation Doubrava Ujala nearby the cityof Karviná in the north-east of the Czech Republic. Undermining is a phenomenon caused by underground mining of black coalin the active Karviná part of the Ostrava-Karviná District. It is on the boundary of the working districts Karviná – Mines I and Poruba,which are operated by the Karviná Mine. In order to assess the possible impact, isocatabase maps in different time sections were useddocumenting the chronology of the subsidence trough formation and next, ground deformation parameters. The activity of slopemovement was registered by means of zone extensometry on the surface and in the depth by means of precise inclinometry measuring.Apart from the impact of undermining, the effects of climatic conditions were taken into consideration, correlating the movement sizewith precipitation depth in the nearest rainfall gauging stations. As for the mechanism of undermining impact there is an apparentinfluence of additional stress from undermining caused by elongation of the ground surface, which is evidenced by the positionof the slope deformation in the convex part of the subsidence trough slope. All the above mentioned factors influence the stabilityconditions of the slope deformation.

  19. Evolution, Moral Justification, and Moral Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Peters

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Does evolutionary theory have the potential to undermine morality? In his book The Evolution of Morality, Richard Joyce (2006 argues for a positive answer. He contends that an evolutionary account of morality would undermine moral judgements and lend support to moral scepticism. I offer a critique of Joyce’s argument. As it turns out, his case can be read in two different ways. It could be construed as an argument to establish a general scepticism about the justification of moral judgements. Or it could be read as an argument that targets only a particular meta-ethical position, namely moral realism. My claim is that it fails on both interpretations. There is no reason to believe that evolutionary considerations undermine morality.

  20. Influence of Mining Activity on Selected Landslide in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Fuka

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the impact of undermining on the slope deformation Doubrava Vrchovec. For the evaluation of the impact, isocatabase maps, terrain deformation parameters calculated for slope deformation, length measuring by zone extensometry and dilatometric measuring in the cracks of an asphalt road have been used. The length and dilatometric measuring identified the direction of slope deformation movement corresponding to the direction of rock mass movement as the consequence of undermining. With regard to the fact a change in the longitudinal relative deformation values in the direction of the subsidence slope gradient was evaluated (in the direction of the slope deformation movement. During the monitored period, terrain surface compression occurred, which manifests the position of the slope deformation in the concave portion of the subsidence slope. This fact probably induces additional strain from undermining in the slope deformation, which may worsen its stability conditions.

  1. Effect of leader-member exchange on employee envy and work behavior moderated by self-esteem and neuroticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Shu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of leader-member exchange (LMX on envy in the workplace and the subsequent effects of envy on work engagement and socially undermining behavior. In addition, the moderating roles of personality traits, such as self-esteem and neuroticism, are examined in this relationship. Paired questionnaires were personally collected from 245 subordinates and 82 of their immediate supervisors. Empirical analysis of the responses revealed: (a the quality of LMX is negatively related to employee envy in the workplace, (b employee envy mediates the relationship between LMX and work engagement, (c self-esteem boosts the relationship between envy and work engagement, but decreases the relationship between envy and social undermining, and (d neuroticism exacerbates the relationship between envy and social undermining.

  2. Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M

    2007-02-01

    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans.

  3. Community perspectives on the impact of policy change on linking social capital in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lyn; Walker, Rae

    2007-06-01

    Understanding what undermines or builds social capital is important when estimating the impact that changes in social capital have on people's lives. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how the consequences of neo-liberal policy initiatives have impacted on linking social capital in one small and vibrant rural community in Australia. Policy changes affecting all levels of government and various commercial agencies have undermined people's capability for a range of actions which bring personal and community-wide social and economic returns. Rationalisation and regionalisation of services and commercial agencies, including local government amalgamation, and increased workloads have undermined people's capabilities for community engagement. Policy outcomes are at odds with the stated policy agenda of building community capacity.

  4. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Purifying Impure Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    A notorious objection to robust virtue epistemology—the view that an agent knows a proposition if and only if her cognitive success is because of her intellectual virtues—is that it fails to eliminate knowledge-undermining luck. Modest virtue epistemologists agree with robust virtue epistemologists...... instances of impure virtue epistemology. The aim of the paper is to argue, firstly, that such a move lacks adequate motivation; secondly, that the resulting impure accounts equally fail to handle knowledge-undermining luck. On a more positive note, these results bolster a more orthodox virtue...

  6. Co-operative models for HIV/AIDS sheltered housing in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Meltzer, Graham; Mullins, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The prevailing delivery model for public housing in South Africa consists of small single-family dwellings on subdivided stands. These suburbs of individual dwellings undermine extended families, which are the cultral norm in South Africa, particularly in rural areas. They will moreover be inadeq......The prevailing delivery model for public housing in South Africa consists of small single-family dwellings on subdivided stands. These suburbs of individual dwellings undermine extended families, which are the cultral norm in South Africa, particularly in rural areas. They will moreover...

  7. Community-based learning in a challenging context: the development and evaluation of an outreach dental public health programme in Damascus University, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joury, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to describe the development and evaluation of an outreach dental public health (DPH) programme in Damascus University, in terms of developing undergraduates' required knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA), improving the quality aspects of training and assessment (T&A), and achieving the satisfaction of served children and their social network. The outreach DPH programme offered opportunities to undergraduates to carry out outreach health-promotion activities, conduct and communicate the results of applied DPH research, and build partnership with students in other higher education sectors. A cross-sectional evaluation collected mixed qualitative and quantitative data, by a means of a short-essay and a self-completed questionnaire, from 400 third-year dental undergraduates, on KSA gained from outreach activities and quality aspects of T&A. The latter were compared with corresponding figures of other traditional dental programmes (TDP). Satisfaction with the outreach activities were collected from 215 children with special needs and 130 parents and school staff, by questionnaires. The response rates were 74.8%, 100% and 100% for undergraduates, children and parents/school staff, respectively. The derived categories of students' gained KSA included the following: unique clinical skills, social responsibility, voluntarism, communication, team working, personal growth, reflection on career aspirations and self-satisfaction with the contribution to needy groups. Their satisfaction with quality aspects of T&A was significantly higher than TDP (P < 0.001). Children's and parents/school staff's satisfaction was high. The outreach DPH programme in Damascus University is a successful example of developing undergraduates' required KSA, improving the quality aspects of T&A, and achieving the satisfaction of served community. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Improvements in CanMEDS competencies for medical students in an interdisciplinary and voluntary setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildbrad MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mads Dam Vildbrad, Johanne Marie Lyhne International Medical Cooperation Committee, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: To practice medicine, doctors must master leadership, communication, team management, and collaboration, in addition to medical knowledge. The CanMEDS framework describes seven roles of a doctor, but the six nonmedical expert roles are de-emphasized in the academic medical curriculum. Innovative opportunities are needed for medical students to develop as participants in a world of interdisciplinary health care. Methods: We founded a volunteer-based, interdisciplinary, student-run project called SUNDdag (HEALTHday with 60 students from 12 different educational backgrounds. To evaluate the learning outcomes of the project, we conducted a cross-sectional study using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Results: Students joined the project due to it being health-promoting, volunteer-based, and interdisciplinary. The medical students reported a significant increase of skills in all seven roles except for “medical expert”. They reported an increased understanding of the non-health-related students' skills. Conclusion: In their future careers, medical students must collaborate with health care professionals in a team-based approach to patient care and with non-health-related professionals in administrative tasks. Interdisciplinary volunteer-based initiatives like SUNDdag are potential platforms for medical students to improve their CanMEDS competencies. We encourage students to initiate similar projects and we encourage faculties to support volunteer-based, interdisciplinary initiatives due to their favorable cost-benefit ratio. Keywords: medical education, voluntarism, interprofessional education, medical students

  9. Max Weber in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Scaff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In his contribution L. Scaff outlines the reception history of Max Weber’s work from its beginnings down to the present. It highlights the importance of the first translations, including those by prominent American authors and particularly those who had studied in Germany; and then in the post-war years the role of emigrants familiar with Weber’s work. The establishment of Weber texts as compulsory reading in the curricula of American colleges also played a significant role. The striking readiness, even ease, with which Weber was received in America is something Scaff deduces from three “narratives that captured the imagination of the American audience”. The first is the narrative of voluntarism, i.e. “the way in which Weber developed his conception of the sect and its effects on the individual and society”. Next is the narrative of achievement, in the sense of “mastery of the world”, preceded by “mastery of the self”, which “when put into practice entailed the conquest of the New World’s primordial wilderness”. Finally there is the narrative of redemption as “the most potent founding myth of the American experience”: “The quest for salvation that began as a religiously inspired message became transformed into a secularized cultural theme: the search for the possibility of breaking free from constraints in order to create a better life, to renew the self, to gain a second chance by atoning for moral failures, and to find reconciliation with God, humankind, and the world.”

  10. Concepções do profissional farmacêutico sobre a assistência farmacêutica na unidade básica de saúde: dificuldades e elementos para a mudança Conceptions of the pharmaceutical professional about the pharmaceutical assistance in basic health care units: difficulties and elements for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aílson da Luz André de Araújo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi feita avaliação da Assistência Farmacêutica em farmácias de Unidades de Saúde do município de Ribeirão Preto, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Partindo-se do referencial de avaliação tecnológica em saúde e suas interfaces, foram realizadas entrevistas com os profissionais farmacêuticos, procurando-se conhecer as concepções desses atores sobre a assistência farmacêutica. Os resultados obtidos mostram um trabalho baseado na gestão burocrática dos medicamentos com objeto no controle de estoque do medicamento. Alguns elementos emergentes que poderão contribuir para a alteração deste quadro foram detectados: voluntarismo, busca pela valorização profissional, iniciativa de integração com a equipe de saúde, percepção do paciente como objeto de trabalho e formação profissional complementar.In the present study we evaluated the Pharmaceutical Assistance in pharmacies of Basic Health Care Units in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Considering the technological evaluation reference in health and its interfaces, pharmaceutical professionals were interviewed in a way to find out their conceptions about pharmaceutical assistance. The results showed a work based on the bureaucratic management of medicines specially the control of medicine supplies. Some emergent elements were thought to contribute to change this system: voluntarism, professional valorization, integration of the health team, perception of the patient as object of the work and complementary professional formation.

  11. Social inequalities in health from Ottawa to Vancouver: action for fair equality of opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Guichard, Anne; Houéto, David

    2007-01-01

    The authors set out to show that the Ottawa Charter of 1986 has not been sufficiently accepted over the past twenty years, even by those who use it as a strategic tool to guide interventions for reducing social inequalities in health. Although some public health policies do emphasize the reduction of social inequalities in health, only the Ottawa Charter appears to possess the status of an international declaration on the matter. Social inequalities in health are the systematic, avoidable, and unjust differences in health that persist between individuals and sub-groups of a population. Four examples from the field of health promotion serve to show that forgetting to combat social inequalities in health is not exclusive to the domain of public health. However, taking action against social inequalities in health does not equal tackling poverty. Moreover, intervening on the principle of equality of opportunity, on the basis of an ideology of meritocracy, or for the benefit of the population as a whole, without regard to sub-groups, only tends, at best, to reproduce inequalities. Although evidence is insufficient, there are studies that show that reducing social inequalities in health is not an aporia. Three explanations are advanced as to why social inequalities in health have been ignored by health promotion professionals. The Ottawa Charter had the merit of highlighting the struggle against social inequalities in health. Now, moving beyond the declarations, from the strategic framework provided by the Ottawa Charter and in accordance with the Bangkok Charter, it is time to show proof of voluntarism. Several priorities for the future are suggested and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) should be responsible for advocating for them.

  12. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  13. How Swedish communities organised themselves in reviewing a safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, Anna-Lena

    2014-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2009 the Swedish nuclear waste management company, SKB, choose Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as the best place for a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In 2011, as a natural follow-up, SKB presented applications to two Swedish authorities, the Land and Environmental Court and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. The municipality of Oesthammar has together with the municipality of Oskarshamn been an active part in the process since 1994, with different local organisations financed by the Swedish nuclear fund. Three leading themes form the basis for our participation - voluntarism, complete openness of plans and results and participation with the possibility to influence. Site investigations for a repository started in 2002 and were finished when SKB selected Oesthammar municipality in the middle of 2009. To follow and scrutinise both site investigations as well as the applications, the organisation within the municipality has changed over time. As the site selection process got underway, the municipality extended its organisation to three committees (EIA, long-term safety and consultation). The committees have respective objectives: reviewing the health and environmental impact, reviewing the long-term safety and communication about the work that is going on within and around the municipality. These are primarily political committees to which a unit of civil servants is attached. The main goal for the organisation is to build up knowledge skills and prepare both the existing as well as the future municipality council for the decision of whether or not the municipality of Oesthammar will accept a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in our municipality. The absolutely most important issue for the municipality is long term-safety and as the process has progressed the municipality has made several statements to the authorities. (authors)

  14. Feyerabend e a máxima do "Tudo Vale": A necessidade de se adotar múltiplas possibilidades de metodologia na construção de teorias científicas Feyerabend and the Aphorism "anything goes", the need to adopt multiple possibilities of the methodology in the construction of scientific theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Flávio Couto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste ensaio é apresentar uma visão geral da crítica de Paul Feyerabend da metodologia científica e, mais precisamente, sobre a exigência da adoção de uma postura flexível frente à construção e à afirmação de veracidade de hipóteses científicas. A máxima que deve regê-las deve ser "tudo vale". O ensaio aponta as razões históricas que justificam, em certa medida e tomando-se cuidado frente a tal voluntarismo teórico, a adoção dessa abertura a novos pressupostos em ciência. No ensaio, defende-se o pressuposto de que não existem condições que limitem indefinidamente a pesquisa. Afirma-se também que não há uma única teoria capaz de apreender o objeto em seu todo, da mesma forma como o próprio processo de investigação é inesgotável.The objective of this essay is to give an overview of Paul Feyerabend’s review of scientific methodology, and more precisely, the requiriment of the adoption of a more flexible attitude towards the construction and the statement of the veracity of scientific hypotheses. The ruling principle is "anything goes". This essay points to the historical reasons that left, to an extent and taking the due care with such theoretical voluntarism, the adoption of this opening to new presuppositions in science. It is proposed that there are not conditions which limit research indefinitely. There is not a single theory able to capture the object in its entirety in the same way that the investigation process itself is inexhaustible.

  15. Can public health reconcile profits and pandemics? An analysis of attitudes to commercial sector engagement in health policy and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff; Hill, Sarah E; Kandlik Eltanani, Mor; Plotnikova, Evgeniya; Ralston, Rob; Smith, Katherine E

    2017-01-01

    Public health's terms of engagement with unhealthy commodity industries (alcohol, tobacco and ultra-processed food and drinks) have become increasingly contested in policy and research. We sought to identify approaches that could attract consensus support within and across policy domains. Using snowball sampling, we undertook an online survey of 335 health researchers, advocates and policymakers, in 40 countries, assessing responses to stated principles, claims and recommendations for engaging with unhealthy commodity industries in relation to key policy and research initiatives. Most respondents identified a fundamental conflict between industry interests and public health objectives for all three industries, with agreement greatest in relation to tobacco and weakest for food. This pattern was replicated across diverse questions regarding potential forms of engagement, including in rejecting voluntarism and partnership approaches to health policy. While awareness of tobacco industry tactics to influence policy and research was higher than for alcohol and food, most respondents rejected the view that the influence of the latter was less significant for public health. Proposals that health and research organisations should divest their funds attracted less support with respect to food, while restricting publication of industry-funded research in academic journals was the issue that most divided opinion. Respondents reported most difficulty in answering questions about the food industry. The strong consensus around restricting interactions with the tobacco industry supports increased implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's conflict of interest provisions. There is strong support for the extension of such practices to the alcohol industry, challenging current norms. More mixed responses indicate a need for greater clarity in defining the food industry, and for research analyzing links, similarities and differences across different types of

  16. Can public health reconcile profits and pandemics? An analysis of attitudes to commercial sector engagement in health policy and research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Collin

    Full Text Available Public health's terms of engagement with unhealthy commodity industries (alcohol, tobacco and ultra-processed food and drinks have become increasingly contested in policy and research. We sought to identify approaches that could attract consensus support within and across policy domains.Using snowball sampling, we undertook an online survey of 335 health researchers, advocates and policymakers, in 40 countries, assessing responses to stated principles, claims and recommendations for engaging with unhealthy commodity industries in relation to key policy and research initiatives.Most respondents identified a fundamental conflict between industry interests and public health objectives for all three industries, with agreement greatest in relation to tobacco and weakest for food. This pattern was replicated across diverse questions regarding potential forms of engagement, including in rejecting voluntarism and partnership approaches to health policy. While awareness of tobacco industry tactics to influence policy and research was higher than for alcohol and food, most respondents rejected the view that the influence of the latter was less significant for public health. Proposals that health and research organisations should divest their funds attracted less support with respect to food, while restricting publication of industry-funded research in academic journals was the issue that most divided opinion. Respondents reported most difficulty in answering questions about the food industry.The strong consensus around restricting interactions with the tobacco industry supports increased implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's conflict of interest provisions. There is strong support for the extension of such practices to the alcohol industry, challenging current norms. More mixed responses indicate a need for greater clarity in defining the food industry, and for research analyzing links, similarities and differences across

  17. Allegiance in a Time of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    economic opportunities around the globe. This literature review focuses on several aspects of globalization that are particularly relevant to national...Kramer, Heuer & Crawford, 2005). As globalization undermines the political and economic bases of earlier assumptions about nation-states, this trend...Allegiance in a Time of Globalization Katherine L. Herbig Northrop Grumman Technical Services Defense Personnel Security Research Center

  18. Political Assumptions Underlying Pedagogies of National Education: The Case of Student Teachers Teaching 'British Values' in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Edda; Hanley, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Teacher education in England now requires that student teachers follow practices that do not undermine "fundamental British values" where these practices are assessed against a set of ethics and behaviour standards. This paper examines the political assumptions underlying pedagogical interpretations about the education of national…

  19. 25 CFR 700.561 - Sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 700.561 Section 700.561 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.561 Sexual harassment. (a) Sexual harassment is a form of employee misconduct which undermines the integrity of the...

  20. Maternal Depression, Locus of Control, and Emotion Regulatory Strategy as Predictors of Preschoolers' Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Lisa W.; Thompson, Alysha D.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood internalizing problems may occur as early as preschool, tend to be stable over time, and undermine social and academic functioning. Parent emotion regulatory behaviors may contribute to child internalizing problems and may be especially important during the preschool years when parents model emotion coping and regulation for their…

  1. Characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates lacking IS6110 in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M. N. T.; Tiemersma, E. W.; Kremer, K.; de Haas, P.; Lan, N. T. N.; Buu, T. N.; Sola, C.; Cobelens, F. G. J.; van Soolingen, D.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular tests.

  2. Characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates lacking IS6110 in Viet Nam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Kremer, K.; Haas, P. de; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Sola, C.; Cobelens, F.G.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    SETTING: The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular

  3. Cultural Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Multicultural education has at least two faces--an academic one and an ideological one. Encouraging the balkanization of U.S. culture threatens to undermine the academic integrity of the social studies curriculum. Offers suggestions to make sure that schools are offering an academically rigorous multicultural curriculum, not political…

  4. Freedom Reconsidered: Heteronomy, Open Subjectivity, and the "Gift of Teaching"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the entanglement of the modern concepts of freedom, autonomy, and the modern notion of the subject and how a passion for and insistence on freedom has undermined the reconstruction of human subjectivity in Heidegger and Foucault, and how such passion has also limited the educational effort at addressing the problems brought to…

  5. Hybridite linguistique et ecriture de la violence dans Le crepuscule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptible undermining of the French language with Flora Hazoumé can be traced back to René Maran (1921), and especially to Derrida with his deconstructionist theory. The analysis deals with the presence of violence in Le crépuscule de l'homme and to identify by what linguistic alchemy, especially transgression, ...

  6. Taking Teacher Quality Seriously: A Collaborative Approach to Teacher Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Stan

    2012-01-01

    If narrow, test-based evaluation of teachers is unfair, unreliable, and has negative effects on kids, classrooms, and curricula, what's a better approach? By demonizing teachers and unions, and sharply polarizing the education debate, the corporate reform movement has actually undermined serious efforts to improve teacher quality and evaluation.…

  7. Beyond Subjection: Notes on the Later Foucault and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article argues against the doxa that Foucault's analysis of education inevitably undermines self-originating ethical intention on the part of teachers or students. By attending to Foucault's lesser known, later work--in particular, the notion of "biopower" and the deepened level of materiality it entails--the article shows how the earlier…

  8. The Emerging Concept of Responsible Innovation. Three Reasons Why It Is Questionable and Calls for a Radical Transformation of the Concept of Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.; Lemmens, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we challenge the presupposed concept of innovation in the responsible innovation literature. As a first step, we raise several questions with regard to the possibility of ‘responsible’ innovation and point at several difficulties which undermine the supposedly responsible character

  9. Regional Integration and Food Security in East Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image

    The outcome is a depression in world agricultural prices and the undermining of the purchasing power of unprotected farmers, most of who reside in ..... inherited from the colonial period that have become obsolete in the twenty first century. These strategies include the traditional role of producing undifferentiated primary.

  10. Gender: a battlefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the campaign against gender studies and LGBT rights conducted in France and Italy by the Catholic Church together with traditionalist movements and conservative politicians. They accuse that which they call the "gender theory" of corrupting the youth and undermining the traditional family as well as sexual customs and gender identities.

  11. An Entrepreneurial Approach to Educational Leadership: A Comparative Analysis of Educational and Corporate Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Larry

    2013-01-01

    John Maxwell once wrote, "True leadership cannot be awarded, appointed, or assigned. It comes only from influence, and that cannot be mandated. It must be earned. The only thing a title can buy is a little time-either to increase your level of influence with others or to undermine it." There is a plethora of theories and models available…

  12. CREDs, CRUDs, and Catholic scandals:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turpin, Hugh; Andersen, Marc Malmdorf; Lanman, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    , perceived “religious hypocrisy” (forthwith credibility-undermining displays or CRUDs), as a factor in the rejection of religion. However, there is currently little causal evidence on whether behaviors of either kind displayed by religious authorities directly affect pre-existing religious belief...

  13. 'Ardor con ardor se apaga' de José Ricardo Morales y la actualización de la noción de ‘las tres culturas’ como estrategia discursiva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdivia, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study the updated notion of ‘the three cultures’ as a discursive strategy, which allows José Ricardo Morales to undermine the stereotypes of a specific identity construction. Morales use Don Juan’s myth to subvert it and to propose a new reading of this character. Besides,

  14. Data Systems and Reports as Active Participants in Data Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2016-01-01

    Most data-informed decision-making in education is undermined by flawed interpretations. Educator-driven interventions to improve data use are beneficial but not omnipotent, as data misunderstandings persist at schools and school districts commended for ideal data use support. Meanwhile, most data systems and reports display figures without…

  15. First-Generation Female College Students' Financial Literacy: Real and Perceived Barriers to Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Susan J.; Martin, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    First-generation female college students (FGFCS) make up a large portion of the diversity in higher education. Unfortunately "access" to education does not translate to success. Persistence and degree completion for these students is often undermined by seemingly insurmountable obstacles. The purposes of this study were to identify the financial…

  16. Perinatal mental health, parenting and infant outcomes: Studies on the mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, M.; Kohlhoff, J.; Barnett, B.; Kunseler, F.C.; Schuengel, C.; Wernand, J.J.; Flykt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal mental health problems are linked to negative parenting and child outcomes. However, evidence for mechanisms that may explain the undermining influence of psychological problems is less well specified and the influence of possible moderators is relatively unexplored. (Dix & Meunier, 2009).

  17. Student and Teacher Responses to Violence in School: The Divergent Views of Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    School bullying is a worldwide worrisome phenomenon that occurs within a broad context in which pupils and teachers can either reinforce or undermine violent behavior through interaction. Based on a nationally representative sample of students in Israel, this study examined patterns in student perceptions of student and teacher responses to school…

  18. Inclusion as political mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi

    2016-01-01

    Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drive...

  19. PLASTIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    whilst retaining sensory supply to the breast as the pectoral fascia was spared. Skoog's (1963) nipple transposition without skin-gland undermining formed the basis for modern day reduction mammaplasty. Aesthetics was in mind throughout this period as different skin incisions were developed and advanced following ...

  20. Are Graduates Preferred to Those Completing Initial Vocational Education and Training? Case Studies on Company Recruitment Strategies in Germany, England and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippach-Schneider, Ute; Weigel, Tanja; Brown, Alan; Gonon, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The German and Swiss economies value skilled work highly and initial vocational education and training (IVET) has been the predominant traditional pathway into such work. However, concerns about a more "knowledge-based society" and the "academic shift in the labour market" are starting to undermine the status associated with…

  1. Does Advertising Pervert Higher Education? Is There a Case for Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Paul

    2007-01-01

    My argument is that when marketing-particularly advertising-may, under certain circumstances, work against the goals of autonomous, liberal higher education by undermining critical thinking and independent actions. This argument requires that advertising has a primary intent to persuade rather than inform; that by being intrusive, invasive and…

  2. Parental Education Level Positively Affects Self-Esteem of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…

  3. he Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    he Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures. LWH Ackermann ... legislature and the executive, their substantive independence can easily be undermined by fiscal starvation and their ability to function properly impeded by bureaucratic ...

  4. 75 FR 518 - Designation of One Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13438

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... foreign policy of the United States posed by acts of violence threatening the peace and stability of Iraq..., or to pose a significant risk of committing, an act or acts of violence that have the purpose or effect of threatening the peace or stability of Iraq or the Government of Iraq, or undermining efforts to...

  5. In their own words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and Sierra Leone, the end of armed fighting has not brought with it the longed-for peace. Today, an epidemic of gender-based violence continues to undermine efforts to bring stability.

  6. Effectiveness of combinations of raft foundation with aprons as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B A Vijayasree

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... Abstract. Scour around bridge pier is the main reason for the failure of bridges. The local scour around the pier causes exposure of the foundation and may lead to undermining of the structure. Different types of protection measures such as the provision of raft, apron, sheet piles, etc. can be used as scour ...

  7. An unequable race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günzel, Franziska; Holm, Anna B.

    In this paper we review how openness towards technological innovation and opening of the traditional business model in the newspaper industry has led to an undermining of the industry’s dominant business model and to a dismantling of the extended business model configuration. More specifically, w...

  8. 77 FR 71593 - Robert Bosch GmbH; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music & Data Processing Devices, Computers and Components... decision imposes liability on protected petitioning activity and effectively undermines the role of federal..., Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and Components Thereof, Inv. No. 337-TA-745 (Int'l...

  9. Evolution of gossip-based indirect reciprocity on a bipartite network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardini, Francesca; Vilone, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation can be supported by indirect reciprocity via reputation. Thanks to gossip, reputations are built and circulated and humans can identify defectors and ostracize them. However, the evolutionary stability of gossip is allegedly undermined by the fact that it is more error-prone that direct

  10. Appraisal of the Role of Political Violence: The Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    values in democratic governance, and they are part of the insecurity challenges where they are themselves .... authority undermine the existing norms and values of the society. He also puts that violence .... who command respect in public because of material possession, wealth or charisma. It is seen as king makers in most ...

  11. THE IRONY OF APARTHEID: A STUDY IN TECHNIQUE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that in general, in- my stories, my approach is the ironical one, and it represents the writer's unconscious selection of the approach best suited to his material."2. In this paper I ..... cultural values which were alien to her and the world she saw around her: .... element of possession in the relationship undermines any emotional.

  12. Our Husbands Migrate to Other Places and Never Come Back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, male outmigration is reported to be increasing, undermining family relationships and increasing pressure on women who have to spend extra time for productive work in detriment of reproductive jobs and time spent with children. It is concluded from this study that locally gender sensitive analysis of vulnerability to ...

  13. Preventing violence while reducing poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most participants are women. When their economic power increases, their partners may feel threatened or undermined. Bruce argues that providing gender training to participants who are at risk of domestic violence and increasing the number of men benefiting from the program are ways to mitigate this risk. Read David ...

  14. Boardroom Disputes : How to Manage the Good, Weather the Bad, and Prevent the Ugly

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic board seeks to stimulate the flow of ideas, identify key issues, consider alternatives, and make informed decisions. And for that you need deliberation and debate. But these positive processes can sometimes turn into boardroom disagreements that must be dealt with properly and promptly; otherwise, they can devolve into acrimonious disputes that undermine the board’s effectiveness...

  15. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems of retention of staff has seriously undermined the availability of skilled attendants. By 1999, the health sector had lost more than. 30 percent of its employees mainly due to resignations, deaths and retirement. The majority of resignations were those of. Midwives who opted to go overseas in search of better pay and.

  16. The influence of age and educational qualification on stakeholders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy makers, teachers, students and members of the society are normally referred to as major stakeholders in education. The role of stakeholders in facilitating decisions that affect educational policies cannot be undermined. Although technology is considered a veritable platform for enhancing the teaching-learning ...

  17. About “trivial” software patents: The IsNot case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    2007-01-01

    So-called “trivial” software patents undermine the patenting system and are detrimental for innovation. In this paper we use a case-based approach to get a better understanding of this phenomenon. First, we establish a baseline for studying the relation between software development and intellectual

  18. NESG BOOK REVIEW: A Review of Niger Delta Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this thought-provoking review of the 2006 UNDP Niger Delta Human Development Report, the author examines the multidimensional nature of the problems of the Niger Delta and its effect on income, education, life expectancy of the host communities, and environmental sustainability, which has undermined the ...

  19. The Ethnic Primordialist-Constructivist/Instrumentalist Debate, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study claims that the traditionally different understandings of ethnicity by the primordialists and the constructivists/instrumentalists foster the politics of disjunction, the divisionist bent that undermines the common cultivation of the ethos of national integration in Nigeria. The primordialists take the so-called ethnic groups ...

  20. Point of View: Online assessment in medical education– current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    current trends and future directions. Online assessment in medical education offers many ... can more easily monitor learners' progress and achievement of milestones, and automated marking accelerates a .... reliability of online assessment systems. Unreliable systems undermine confidence in the system of assessment.

  1. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (4) November, 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    esteem, strong academic self-concept); (b) background variables (working mother, supportive father, highly educated parents, female role model, work experience as an adolescents, androgynous upbringing); (c) educational variables (higher ... mass media, or the culture in general, undermine girlsř sense of efficacy in.

  2. The crisis of international human rights law in the global market economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution argues that facticity of the human rights impacts of economic globalisation increasingly undermines the normativity of the state-centred conception of international human rights law. The exposure of the international legal order of states to the operations of global business

  3. The Crisis of International Human Rights Law in the Global Market Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augenstein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that the facticity of the human rights impacts of economic globalisation increasingly undermines the normativity of the state-centred conception of international human rights law. The exposure of the international legal order of states to the operations of global business entities

  4. China and Africa: human rights perspective | Osondu-Oti | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the turn of the twenty-first century, China emerged as a major player in Africa's international relations. This emergence has attracted a lot of attention in literature on what it portends for Africa. Studies have pointed that China's involvement in Africa undermines human rights. Of important note was China's support for the ...

  5. Geopolitics. OPEC weakened by international turmoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdershoven, C.

    2008-01-01

    The future of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) has become unclear. The oil cartel is suffering from growing internal strains which may threaten its future. In particular the crash of the dollar is undermining the dominant position of moderate member Saudi Arabia and strengthening the lobby of Iran and Venezuela

  6. Catalog of known immature stages of Camptosomate leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae and Lamprosomatinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of syntheses of knowledge on immature stages of insects impedes accurate understanding of their diversity, biology and evolution. In Chrysomelidae, this information gap undermines basic explanations of this lineage’s radiation. Literature describing and discussing known immature stages of cas...

  7. Demonising the Victim: Seeking the Answer for How a Group as the Violent Victim is Blamed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putra, I. E.; Mashuri, A.; Zaduqisti, E.

    ?2015 Department of Psychology, University of AllahabadThe current study aims to understand victim blaming of Ahmadiyya group by majority Sunni Islam in Indonesia. We included ingroup essentialisation, outgroup essentialisation, identity undermining and belief in conspiracy theory as predictors of

  8. An Analysis of the Angry Youth and Spoofing Phenomena in the Context of Building a Harmonious Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Lu

    2011-01-01

    This article specifically analyzes the negative impact exerted by angry youth and spoofers on the construction of a harmonious society from four aspects: the way these intensify social contradictions, affect the social mentality, undermine mainstream values, and interfere with freedom of speech. It purports that importance must be attached to the…

  9. The Carrier Arms Race in East and South Asia: Responses to a Changing Strategic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Studies CVH Helicopter carrier CVN Nuclear powered aircraft carrier DDG Guided missile destroyer DDH Helicopter destroyer DMZ...Pacific do not share their pessimism. Japan commissioned two Hyuga-class helicopter destroyers ( DDH ) from 2009 to 2011 and launched the first ship...cultural resistance to offensive capabilities has repeatedly undermined efforts to develop ships similar to the new DDH classes. When considered

  10. Tanzania | Page 31 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Together with HIV/AIDS and TB, malaria is one of the major public health challenges undermining development in the poorest countries in the world – WHO RBM Infosheet (What is Malaria?) Read more about IDRC's fight against malaria. Language English. Les paysans qui pratiquent l'agriculture de subsistance en Afrique ...

  11. Social Capital Practices as Adaptive Drivers for Local Adjustment of New Public Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Kristian Gylling; Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2016-01-01

    New public management (NPM) reforms have typically undermined teachers' autonomy, values, and status in society. This article questions whether such reforms automatically have these outcomes or whether and how possibilities for local adjustment of such reforms may prevent negative outcomes. Drawing on empirical case studies from two Danish…

  12. HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma and Discrimination in Workplaces in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Stigma and discrimination against people living with and affected by HIV/AIDS undermines the effectiveness of national efforts to prevent and control the HIV epidemic. In the context of Tanzania, evidence on the incidence of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination from the perspective of the ...

  13. Zaria Universal Oxygenator Holder Phase I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was used to design the holder circular main frame [Figure 3]. Another sheet measuring 2 cm (width) × 0.6 ... A metallic device with a circular main frame which holds the oxygenator within its circumference centrally .... economy but also undermines the development of the health industry in terms of manpower development ...

  14. Towards Resolution of the Confusion among the Concepts "Empathy,""Role-Taking,""Perspective Taking," and "Decentering."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Mark V.

    The variety of terms used to describe the process of self-other differentiation in communication--empathy, role taking, decentering, and perspective taking are but a few--tend to undermine efforts to establish a consistent framework for research in this area. A review of these terms suggests that decentering is the broadest of the concepts,…

  15. Examination of Food Choice Motives: The Influence of an Innovative, Interdisciplinary Learning Community Related to Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Kelly J.

    2014-01-01

    What and how much an individual eats largely defines his/her health. The most used dietary intervention models target individuals' concern for personal health, thereby undermining the interdisciplinary trajectory of the nutrition field. The purpose of this study was to compare the food choice motives of students enrolled in an interdisciplinary…

  16. A Study of the Right of Learners and Teachers to Quality Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every day, everywhere in the world, the right of learners and teachers to quality public education is violated (Dorsi, 2014). The quality of education is undermined by a deficit of appropriately qualified teachers more particularly in the rural areas. It has been observed that there has been moral decadence in contemporary ...

  17. The Niger Delta Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... privately-owned property', their grouse was, that the destruction of their environment, the undermining of their occupa- tions and threats to their continued existence, all emanating from negligent seismic, excavation and drilling activities, are all collateral damages accruing from the seizure and assumption of ...

  18. State-Community Collaboration for Safe Communities - Urban ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With one of the highest homicide rates in the world, and high rates of other forms of violence, South Africa is struggling to reduce crime and violence, particularly in its cities. This high level of violence in urban centres undermines economic growth and opportunities for human development. One promising avenue for ...

  19. Capital Punishment and Offenders with Mental Retardation: Response to the Penry Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnen, Terrence; Blackman, Leonard S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper responds to a court brief of amici curiae asserting that mental retardation reduces culpability in capital offenses. The paper argues that the position makes unwarranted categorical assumptions about mental retardation, fails to consider individualized and situation-specific determinants of culpability, and undermines respect and value…

  20. The Revitalization of the Soviet Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Yuri

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how the grip of the Soviet Union's past--from Stalinist mythology to ideological cliche--is being exposed and undermined whereas a sense of individual efficacy, necessary for the present, has yet to emerge from the portrayals in Soviet films. (PRA)

  1. Early and Forced Child Marriage on Girls' Education, in Migori County, Kenya: Constraints, Prospects and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganira, Lilian K.; Inda, Nancy A.; Odundo, Paul A.; Akondo, Joseph Ochieng; Ngaruiya, Boniface

    2015-01-01

    Early and forced marriage infringes rights of women and girls globally, undermining initiatives to raise involvement in education, reduce maternal mortality, increase employment and enterprise levels. Parental and Communal involvement in Early and Forced Child Marriage negatively influence Girls' Education, which hinders their participation in…

  2. Renegotiating Public-Private Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The renegotiations of public–private partnership (PPP) contracts are commonly considered to be one of the pitfalls of PPPs, as they tend to undermine their (ex ante) efficiency. A renegotiation occurs when specific events change the conditions of a concession, frequently leading to a financial claim

  3. Assessing low quality water use policy framework: Case study from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Wilde Schou, Torben

    2015-01-01

    We bought to understand the factors that have undermined the effective implementation of the low quality water reuse provision in Ghana's Irrigation Policy. Two Strategic Environmental Assessment tools (i.e. compatibility matrix and sustainability test) were used for the policy analyses. The anal...

  4. Narrative authority in J.M. Coetzee's Age of Iron | Duncan | Tydskrif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the complex nature of narrative authority in J.M. Coetzee's Age of Iron, set in an apartheid South Africa at a moment of extreme political crisis. At first glance, it seems as though Mrs. Curren's ability to comment on and judge the events of the Emergency is constantly undermined, as Coetzee appears to ...

  5. Nursing Practice Should Be Informed by the Best Available Evidence, but Should All First-Level Nurses Be Competent at Research Appraisal and Utilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert; Taylor, Shirley

    2002-01-01

    The British model of nurses as finders, appraisers, and users of research in practice is unattainable, given the technical complexity of research and the skills and time required. Clinical governance mechanisms and accountability demands further undermine the approach. An alternative is development of nursing research specialists and…

  6. Social Capital in Situations of Conflict: A Case Study from Côte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    This study attempts to assess how the armed conflict in Côte d'Ivoire has weakened ... What is the impact of the Ivorian conflict on social capital? Does the conflict divide population and undermine deeply social cohesion? What forms of social capital .... (Lederman et al., 2002), education (Coleman, 1988), more labor market.

  7. Identification of factors most important for ammonia emission from fertilized soils for potato production using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guodoong Liu; Yuncong Li; Kati W. Migliaccio; Ying Ouyang; Ashok K. Alva

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from fertilized soils are a costly problem that is undermining agricultural and ecological sustainability worldwide. Ammonia emissions from crop production have been reliably documented in recent years. However, insufficient efforts have been made to determine the factors most influential in facilitating NH3 emissions. The goal of this study was...

  8. Bilingualized dictionaries with special reference to the Chinese EFL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These studies have cast some light on the effectiveness of different dic- tionary types in language learning. However, there is a methodological prob- lem undermining the credibility of test results of this kind, i.e. the unbalanced choice of dictionary titles (Marello 1998, Cowie 1999, Tono 2000, Lew 2004). The low degree of ...

  9. ONGULUMBASHE: WHERE THE BUSHWAR BEGAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    and South West Africa during the Second World War and the story of Robey. Leibbrandt (Chapter 1) is one of numerous examples. The language and style is less than satisfactory, while typing errors and sloppiness undermine the technical quality of the book. The table of contents, for instance, states that the source list.

  10. Transgender People at Four Big Ten Campuses: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Doris Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the language used to discuss transgender people on university campuses. This study asks how, despite seemingly benefitting transgender people, the discourses carried by the documents that discuss trans people may actually undermine the intended goals of policy initiatives. For example, a report on the status of transgender…

  11. Industrial Citizenship, Cosmopolitanism and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen; Lillie, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    There has been an explosion of interest in the idea of European Union citizenship in recent years, as a defining example of postnational cosmopolitan citizenship potentially replacing or layered on top of national citizenships. We argue that this form of EU citizenship undermines industrial citiz...

  12. Poverty of Primary Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Akindele Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Inspite of the fact that primary education forms the foundation on which education at the secondary and tertiary levels rests, the issue of poverty is undermining its roles in Nigeria. In this paper, this issue of poverty of primary education was examined, from the perspectives of its history, scope, indicators, in terms of inadequacy of resource…

  13. Measuring Theory of Mind in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn L.; Barnett, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to interpret others' beliefs, intentions and emotions--undermine the ability of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to interact in socially normative ways. This study provides psychometric data for the Adult-Theory of Mind (A-ToM) measure using video-scenarios based in part on Happé's…

  14. Periodic Inspections of Hilo, Kahului, Laupahoehoe, and Nawiliwili Breakwaters, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    side, 2-ft-wide fissure extending from crest down to waterline...armor stones. ............................................ 166  Figure C20. Undermining of concrete slab adjacent to breakwater and boat launch... fissure at crest 84 94+10 OS, void and bridging 85 95+50 OS, separation of slope; flipped stone 86 95+70 OS, flipped stone at hinge Note: Crest

  15. Stress and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    Children's early social experiences shape their developing neurological and biological systems for good or for ill, writes Ross Thompson, and the kinds of stressful experiences that are endemic to families living in poverty can alter children's neurobiology in ways that undermine their health, their social competence, and their ability…

  16. Hellfire and Academic Dishonesty: An Empirical Evaluation of the Influence of Religious Orientation on Academic Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolicoeur, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    Academic dishonesty has long been considered a critical issue that threatens to undermine the very integrity of the educational process. This issue has taken on increased importance in an era in which higher education that has been characterized by calls for increased institutional accountability. While past studies have shed light on the issue of…

  17. Faculty Attitudes and Perceptions of Academic Dishonesty at a Career College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Academic dishonesty in postsecondary education can often transfer to dishonesty in the workplace. Dishonest behavior by students undermines the integrity of the entire institution, including its faculty. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty perceptions of goal orientation and its impact on student cheating behavior, faculty experiences…

  18. Undocumented Research Participants: Ethics and Protection in a Time of Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahman, Maria K. E.; Mendoza, Bernadette M.; Rodriguez, Katrina L.; Schwartz, Jana L.

    2011-01-01

    President Obama characterized Arizona's recent immigration law as undermining "basic notions of fairness that we cherish as Americans." The authors' extend the national discussion regarding immigration to ethics and research. Therefore, the purpose of this methodological article is to advance areas for ethical consideration when researching…

  19. Creative performance under pressure: an integrative conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutnik, D.; Walter, F.; Nijstad, B.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Creativity is the cornerstone of organizational success in today’s economy. At the same time, employees face considerable work pressure, which might undermine their creativity. This article integrates theoretical perspectives from the stress and creativity literatures to develop a new model that

  20. Taking the Gloves off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srratr, James; Shelton, Stella

    2001-01-01

    One eager reporter plus a media-savvy parent can undermine a school system's image and educational mission. Districts are hampered by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, which prohibits open discussion of an issue concerning a student and his/her parents. Newsworthy incidents illustrate advantages of a waiver policy. (MLH)