WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying study objectives

  1. Object Construction Under Diverse Conditions of Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. McVicker

    1974-01-01

    This study examines object construction and the ages at which children developing under various environmental conditions achieve five of the landmarks in the Uzgiris-Hunt (1974) scale of object permanence. (Author)

  2. Precise object tracking under deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This frame-work focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling , rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results.

  3. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  4. A Study of the Effects of Underlying Assumptions in the Reduction of Multi-Object Photometry of Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M. Ryleigh; Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Zellem, Robert Thomas; AzGOE

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of ground-based photometric observations of planetary transits must treat the effects of the Earth's atmosphere, which exceed the signal of the extrasolar planet. Generally, this is achieved by dividing the signal of the host star and planet from that of nearby field stars to reveal the lightcurve. The lightcurve is then fit to a model of the planet's orbit and physical characteristics, also taking into account the characteristics of the star. The fit to the in and out-of-transit data establish the depth of the lightcurve. The question arises, what is the best way to select and treat reference stars to best characterize and remove the shared atmospheric systematics that plague our transit signal. To explore these questions we examine the effects of several assumptions that underline the calculation of the light curve depth. Our study involves repeated photometric observations of hot Jupiter primary transits in the U and B filters. Data were taken with the University of Arizona's Kuiper 1.55m telescope/Mont4K CCD. Each exoplanet observed offers a unique field with stars of various brightness, spectral types and angular distance from the host star. While these observations are part of a larger study of the Rayleigh scattering signature of hot Jupiter exoplanets, here we study the effects of various choices during reduction, specifically the treatment of reference stars and atmospheric systematics.We calculate the lightcurve for all permutations of reference stars, considering several out-of-transit assumptions (e.g. linear, quadratic or exponential). We assess the sensitivity of the transit depths based on the spread of values. In addition we look for characteristics that minimize the scatter in the reduced lightcurve and analyze the effects of the treatment of individual variables on the resultant lightcurve model. Here we present the results of an in depth statistical analysis that classifies the effect of various parameters and choices involved in

  5. Why do objects appear enlarged under water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Ross

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objects appear enlarged in water by less than the 4/3 angular magnification. They usually appear beyond their optical distance and slightly enlarged in linear size, but not in accordance with size-distance invariance (SDI. We investigated whether misperceptions of angular size could explain the discrepancies. Twenty observers viewed targets of various sizes and distances within transparent tanks 40 cm long containing air or water. They judged distance by hidden reaching, and linear or angular size by adjusting the size of a target in air at a further distance. Matched distance was close to physical distance in air and optical distance in water. All size matches were close to true linear size, and were larger in water than in air. Angular size matches were much too small to explain departures from SDI. Size perception under water is best explained by incomplete adaptation to optical distortion, and by the use of various size cues.

  6. Control of an under activated unstable nonlinear object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Skovgaard, L.; Ravn, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive comparative study of several nonlinear controllers for stabilisation of the under actuated unstable nonlinear object known as the Acrobot in the literature. The object is a two DOF robot arm only actuated at the elbow. The study compares several control...

  7. Mechanisms underlying selecting objects for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eWulff

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the factors which affect the selection of objects for action, focusing on the role of action knowledge and its modulation by distracters. 14 neuropsychological patients and 10 healthy aged-matched controls selected pairs of objects commonly used together among distracters in two contexts: with real objects and with pictures of the same objects presented sequentially on a computer screen. Across both tasks, semantically related distracters led to slower responses and more errors than unrelated distracters and the object actively used for action was selected prior to the object that would be passively held during the action. We identified a sub-group of patients (N=6 whose accuracy was 2SD below the controls performances in the real object task. Interestingly, these impaired patients were more affected by the presence of unrelated distracters during both tasks than intact patients and healthy controls. Note the impaired had lesions to left parietal, right anterior temporal and bilateral pre-motor regions. We conclude that: (1 motor procedures guide object selection for action, (2 semantic knowledge affects action-based selection, (3 impaired action decision is associated with the inability to ignore distracting information and (4 lesions to either the dorsal or ventral visual stream can lead to deficits in making action decisions. Overall, the data indicate that impairments in everyday tasks can be evaluated using a simulated computer task. The implications for rehabilitation are discussed.

  8. Object similarity affects the perceptual strategy underlying invariant visual object recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Federica B; Alemi, Alireza; Ansuini, Alessio; Zoccolan, Davide

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have explored the possible use of rats as models of high-level visual functions. One central question at the root of such an investigation is to understand whether rat object vision relies on the processing of visual shape features or, rather, on lower-order image properties (e.g., overall brightness). In a recent study, we have shown that rats are capable of extracting multiple features of an object that are diagnostic of its identity, at least when those features are, structure-wise, distinct enough to be parsed by the rat visual system. In the present study, we have assessed the impact of object structure on rat perceptual strategy. We trained rats to discriminate between two structurally similar objects, and compared their recognition strategies with those reported in our previous study. We found that, under conditions of lower stimulus discriminability, rat visual discrimination strategy becomes more view-dependent and subject-dependent. Rats were still able to recognize the target objects, in a way that was largely tolerant (i.e., invariant) to object transformation; however, the larger structural and pixel-wise similarity affected the way objects were processed. Compared to the findings of our previous study, the patterns of diagnostic features were: (i) smaller and more scattered; (ii) only partially preserved across object views; and (iii) only partially reproducible across rats. On the other hand, rats were still found to adopt a multi-featural processing strategy and to make use of part of the optimal discriminatory information afforded by the two objects. Our findings suggest that, as in humans, rat invariant recognition can flexibly rely on either view-invariant representations of distinctive object features or view-specific object representations, acquired through learning.

  9. Object similarity affects the perceptual strategy underlying invariant visual object recognition in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bianca Rosselli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have explored the possible use of rats as models of high-level visual functions. One central question at the root of such an investigation is to understand whether rat object vision relies on the processing of visual shape features or, rather, on lower-order image properties (e.g., overall brightness. In a recent study, we have shown that rats are capable of extracting multiple features of an object that are diagnostic of its identity, at least when those features are, structure-wise, distinct enough to be parsed by the rat visual system. In the present study, we have assessed the impact of object structure on rat perceptual strategy. We trained rats to discriminate between two structurally similar objects, and compared their recognition strategies with those reported in our previous study. We found that, under conditions of lower stimulus discriminability, rat visual discrimination strategy becomes more view-dependent and subject-dependent. Rats were still able to recognize the target objects, in a way that was largely tolerant (i.e., invariant to object transformation; however, the larger structural and pixel-wise similarity affected the way objects were processed. Compared to the findings of our previous study, the patterns of diagnostic features were: i smaller and more scattered; ii only partially preserved across object views; and iii only partially reproducible across rats. On the other hand, rats were still found to adopt a multi-featural processing strategy and to make use of part of the optimal discriminatory information afforded by the two objects. Our findings suggest that, as in humans, rat invariant recognition can flexibly rely on either view-invariant representations of distinctive object features or view-specific object representations, acquired through learning.

  10. What and Where in auditory sensory processing: A high-density electrical mapping study of distinct neural processes underlying sound object recognition and sound localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Leavitt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functionally distinct dorsal and ventral auditory pathways for sound localization (where and sound object recognition (what have been described in non-human primates. A handful of studies have explored differential processing within these streams in humans, with highly inconsistent findings. Stimuli employed have included simple tones, noise bursts and speech sounds, with simulated left-right spatial manipulations, and in some cases participants were not required to actively discriminate the stimuli. Our contention is that these paradigms were not well suited to dissociating processing within the two streams. Our aim here was to determine how early in processing we could find evidence for dissociable pathways using better titrated what and where task conditions. The use of more compelling tasks should allow us to amplify differential processing within the dorsal and ventral pathways. We employed high-density electrical mapping using a relatively large and environmentally realistic stimulus set (seven animal calls delivered from seven free-field spatial locations; with stimulus configuration identical across the where and what tasks. Topographic analysis revealed distinct dorsal and ventral auditory processing networks during the where and what tasks with the earliest point of divergence seen during the N1 component of the auditory evoked response, beginning at approximately 100 ms. While this difference occurred during the N1 timeframe, it was not a simple modulation of N1 amplitude as it displayed a wholly different topographic distribution to that of the N1. Global dissimilarity measures using topographic modulation analysis confirmed that this difference between tasks was driven by a shift in the underlying generator configuration. Minimum norm source reconstruction revealed distinct activations that corresponded well with activity within putative dorsal and ventral auditory structures.

  11. Stochastic reservoir operation under drought with fuzzy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, E.; Duckstein, L.

    1993-01-01

    Biojective reservoir operation under drought conditions is investigated using stochastic dynamic programming. As both objectives (irrigation water supply, water quality) can only be defined imprecisely, a fuzzy set approach is used to encode the decision maker (DM)'s preferences. The nature driven components are modeled by means of classical stage-state system analysis. The state is three dimensional (inflow memory, drought irrigation index, reservoir level); the decision vector elements are release and irrigation allocation. Stochasticity stems from the random nature of inflows and irrigation demands. The transition function includes a lag one inflow Markov model and mass balance equations. The human driven component is designed as a confluence of fuzzy objectives and constraints after Bellman and Zadeh. Fuzzy numbers are assessed to represent the DM's objectives by two different techniques, the direct one and indirect pairwise comparison. The real case study of the Neste river system in southwestern France is used to illustrate the approach; the result are compared to a classical sequential decision theoretical model derived earlier from the viewpoints of ease of modeling, computational efforts, plausibility and robustness of results

  12. Object Construction and Imitation under Differing Conditions of Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulos, John; Hunt, J. McV.

    1971-01-01

    Compares the ages at which infants living under different conditions in two orphanges in Athens, Greece achieve levels of object construction and imitation, both verbal and gestural. Home-reared infants of the same age range were also examined using two of the Uzgiris-Hunt Ordinal Scales of Infant Psychological Development. (WY)

  13. Land Spiritual Value: The Underlying Cause for Basotho's Objection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article sees the spiritual value which is attached to the land by Africans as the real cause of the objection. It goes further to explain some objection in terms of an African holistic cosmology which seems to have been overlooked by the project's authorities in their Compensation Plan. Review of Southern African Studies ...

  14. Robust Object Recognition under Partial Occlusions Using NMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soukup

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF methods of a reduced image data representation attracted the attention of computer vision community. These methods are considered as a convenient part-based representation of image data for recognition tasks with occluded objects. A novel modification in NMF recognition tasks is proposed which utilizes the matrix sparseness control introduced by Hoyer. We have analyzed the influence of sparseness on recognition rates (RRs for various dimensions of subspaces generated for two image databases, ORL face database, and USPS handwritten digit database. We have studied the behavior of four types of distances between a projected unknown image object and feature vectors in NMF subspaces generated for training data. One of these metrics also is a novelty we proposed. In the recognition phase, partial occlusions in the test images have been modeled by putting two randomly large, randomly positioned black rectangles into each test image.

  15. Object-Image Correspondence for Algebraic Curves under Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Burdis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel algorithm for deciding whether a given planar curve is an image of a given spatial curve, obtained by a central or a parallel projection with unknown parameters. The motivation comes from the problem of establishing a correspondence between an object and an image, taken by a camera with unknown position and parameters. A straightforward approach to this problem consists of setting up a system of conditions on the projection parameters and then checking whether or not this system has a solution. The computational advantage of the algorithm presented here, in comparison to algorithms based on the straightforward approach, lies in a significant reduction of a number of real parameters that need to be eliminated in order to establish existence or non-existence of a projection that maps a given spatial curve to a given planar curve. Our algorithm is based on projection criteria that reduce the projection problem to a certain modification of the equivalence problem of planar curves under affine and projective transformations. To solve the latter problem we make an algebraic adaptation of signature construction that has been used to solve the equivalence problems for smooth curves. We introduce a notion of a classifying set of rational differential invariants and produce explicit formulas for such invariants for the actions of the projective and the affine groups on the plane.

  16. Municipal Energy Planning under Conditions of Globalization: Imperatives and Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horban Vasylyna B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the importance of energy planning for local authorities in the path of achieving the goals of sustainable development. The quintessence of energy planning in territorial communities of Ukraine and Europe has been outlined from the perspective of analyzing the infrastructure sectors of the municipal economy. The article is based on observing certain international methodologies related to local energy and climate planning. The evolution of Covenant of Mayors initiative is briefly described with a focus on its intensive expanding in terms of energy and climate issues. The experience in the development of municipal sustainable energy and climate action plans in European countries and Ukraine is studied. A survey of empirical data on the consumption of fuel and energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions in territorial communities of Ukraine and European countries is conducted. The European methodological guidelines on the subject under study are highlighted based on the key policy documents. A few practical examples of Ukrainian and European cities are presented in order to illustrate possible actions corresponding to the defined problem. A systematic framework is proposed to describe the various and complex aspects of energy planning in cities with regard to rational implementation of energy efficient measures. The innovative mechanisms, main barriers and opportunities for the effective implementation of energy efficient projects in territorial communities of Ukraine and European countries are revealed. It is substantiated that under the current conditions of globalization, using project-oriented paradigm, municipal energy planning instruments become key motivational factors for development sustainable energy policy.

  17. A Multi-objective Model for Transmission Planning Under Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    trading and regulating in transmission level. In this paper, the aggregator caused uncertainty is analyzed first considering DERs’ correlation. During the transmission planning, a scenario-based multi-objective transmission planning (MOTP) framework is proposed to simultaneously optimize two objectives, i.......e. the cost of power purchase and network expansion, and the revenue of power delivery. A two-phase multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) algorithm is employed to be the solver. The feasibility of the proposed multi-objective planning approach has been verified by the 77-bus system linked with 38-bus distribution...

  18. An instrumented object for studying human grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, R A; Cordelia, F; Davalli, A; Sacchetti, R; Guglielmelli, E; Zollo, L

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes the use of an instrumented object for the study of the human grasping strategies. The proposed object is able to measure the grasping forces by means of three Force Sensitive Resistor (FSR) sensors and triaxial acceleration through an accelerometer. The object orientation angles (roll and pitch) can be estimated from the accelerometer output in quasi-static condition, whereas slippage events can be detected through the Power Spectrum Density (PSD) computation of the acceleration on at least one of the three axes. An experimental session on 7 healthy subjects has been performed; each subject used the instrumented object to perform 8 tripod grasp trials. All the sensory information, i.e. applied forces, object orientation and slippage, have been analyzed in order to evaluate the grasping strategies of the different subjects.

  19. A Multi-objective Model for Transmission Planning Under Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    trading and regulating in transmission level. In this paper, the aggregator caused uncertainty is analyzed first considering DERs’ correlation. During the transmission planning, a scenario-based multi-objective transmission planning (MOTP) framework is proposed to simultaneously optimize two objectives, i......The significant growth of distributed energy resources (DERs) associated with smart grid technologies has prompted excessive uncertainties in the transmission system. The most representative is the novel notation of commercial aggregator who has lighted a bright way for DERs to participate power.......e. the cost of power purchase and network expansion, and the revenue of power delivery. A two-phase multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) algorithm is employed to be the solver. The feasibility of the proposed multi-objective planning approach has been verified by the 77-bus system linked with 38-bus distribution...

  20. Null Objects under Coordination in Yiddish and Scandinavian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2003-01-01

    I will compare a particular phenomenon in Yiddish, namely missing objects in certain coordination structures, with what might seem to be a related phenomenon in Scandinavian. In a certain sense, my result will be negative, in that I shall conclude that the two phenomena are less related than might...

  1. Detection and tracking of moving objects under occlusion and shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ying; Jiang, Jingjue

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a system to detect and track multiple moving objects in the presence of mutual occlusion and shadow. A novel change detection algorithm based on Cauchy distribution is proposed. The ratio of pixel's intensities between two images is used as the feature to model and subtract background. The distribution of the ratio of background pixel's intensities between a current image and a reference image can obeys Cauchy distribution, assumed that some observed temporal intensity variation of each pixel in a background image is caused by white noise. By hypothesis testing whose decision thresholds are related to the false alarm rate, robust change detection can be carried out. We exploit spectral and geometrical properties of shadows to recognize and eliminate them in video sequences. Intensity, hue and saturation in the YCbCr color space is employed to this end. In order to solve ambiguity due to occlusion and recover from intermittent tracking failure, we propose a method to implement tracking of multiple moving objects. The method is based on multi-cue and dynamic templates matching in consecutive frames and motion estimation by Kalman filter. In our system, a fast accurate clustering algorithm based on k-nearest neighbor search is employed and the feature space is constructed by extracting the position, color, shape and velocity information of moving objects. In this paper, occlusions are addressed in two classes, i.e. static occlusion and dynamic occlusion. Depend on the prior knowledge of the background scene and the feedback from objects detection and tracking, the distribution of static occlusion region in the scene can be acquired and updated. The bounding box around a static occlusion region is used as an alarm sign to start the process of static occlusion. Dynamic occlusion event can be detected and processed in terms of the proposed tracking scheme and multi-cue and dynamic templates matching approach. Experiment results demonstrate that the

  2. Image processing strategies based on saliency segmentation for object recognition under simulated prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Su, Xiaofan; Wang, Jing; Kan, Han; Han, Tingting; Zeng, Yajie; Chai, Xinyu

    2018-01-01

    Current retinal prostheses can only generate low-resolution visual percepts constituted of limited phosphenes which are elicited by an electrode array and with uncontrollable color and restricted grayscale. Under this visual perception, prosthetic recipients can just complete some simple visual tasks, but more complex tasks like face identification/object recognition are extremely difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate and apply image processing strategies for optimizing the visual perception of the recipients. This study focuses on recognition of the object of interest employing simulated prosthetic vision. We used a saliency segmentation method based on a biologically plausible graph-based visual saliency model and a grabCut-based self-adaptive-iterative optimization framework to automatically extract foreground objects. Based on this, two image processing strategies, Addition of Separate Pixelization and Background Pixel Shrink, were further utilized to enhance the extracted foreground objects. i) The results showed by verification of psychophysical experiments that under simulated prosthetic vision, both strategies had marked advantages over Direct Pixelization in terms of recognition accuracy and efficiency. ii) We also found that recognition performance under two strategies was tied to the segmentation results and was affected positively by the paired-interrelated objects in the scene. The use of the saliency segmentation method and image processing strategies can automatically extract and enhance foreground objects, and significantly improve object recognition performance towards recipients implanted a high-density implant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Object tracking under nonuniform illumination with adaptive correlation filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Kenia; Díaz-Ramírez, Víctor H.; Kober, Vitaly

    2013-09-01

    A real-time system for illumination-invariant object tracking is proposed. The system is able to estimate at high-rate the position of a moving target in an input scene when is corrupted by the presence of a high cluttering background and nonuniform illumination. The position of the target is estimated with the help of a filter bank of space-variant correlation filters. The filters in the bank, adapt their parameters according to the local statistical parameters of the observed scene in a small region centered at coordinates of a predicted position for the target in each frame. The prediction is carried out by exploiting information of present and past frames, and by using a dynamic motion model of the target in a two-dimensional plane. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed system are presented and discussed in terms of tracking accuracy, computational complexity, and tolerance to nonuniform illumination.

  4. Empirical study on mutual fund objective classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue-jun; Yang, Xiao-lan

    2004-05-01

    Mutual funds are usually classified on the basis of their objectives. If the activities of mutual funds are consistent with their stated objectives, investors may look at the latter as signals of their risks and incomes. This work analyzes mutual fund objective classification in China by statistical methods of distance analysis and discriminant analysis; and examines whether the stated investment objectives of mutual funds adequately represent their attributes to investors. That is, if mutual funds adhere to their stated objectives, attributes must be heterogeneous between investment objective groups and homogeneous within them. Our conclusion is to some degree, the group of optimized exponential funds is heterogeneous to other groups. As a whole, there exist no significant differences between different objective groups; and 50% of mutual funds are not consistent with their objective groups.

  5. The Dynamic Multisensory Engram: Neural Circuitry Underlying Crossmodal Object Recognition in Rats Changes with the Nature of Object Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Derek L; Cloke, Jacob M; Potvin, Alphonse; Garrett, Inara; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-01-27

    . We used crossmodal object recognition tasks in rats to study the neurobiological basis of multisensory object representation. When rats had no prior exposure to the to-be-remembered objects, the spontaneous ability to recognize objects across sensory modalities relied on functional interaction between multiple cortical regions. However, prior multisensory exploration of the task-relevant objects remapped cortical contributions, negating the involvement of one region and significantly expanding the role of another. This finding emphasizes the dynamic nature of cortical representation of objects in relation to past experience. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361273-17$15.00/0.

  6. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  7. Bi-Objective Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Energy Consumption under Stochastic Processing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zeng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Ruidong; Sun, Xueshan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method on the optimization of bi-objective Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP) under stochastic processing times. The robust counterpart model and the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) are used to solve the bi-objective FJSP with consideration of the completion time and the total energy consumption under stochastic processing times. The case study on GM Corporation verifies that the NSGA-II used in this paper is effective and has advantages to solve the proposed model comparing with HPSO and PSO+SA. The idea and method of the paper can be generalized widely in the manufacturing industry, because it can reduce the energy consumption of the energy-intensive manufacturing enterprise with less investment when the new approach is applied in existing systems.

  8. Object oriented distributed programming: studies and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    1992-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the investigation of the object concept in distributed programming. Henceforth, this programming style has become a reality in the computer science world, since it allows to increase of the availability of applications and to decrease their execution time. Nevertheless, designing a distributed application is a hard task: the various abstraction levels that must be considered hinder the software reusability and maintenance, while errors and concurrent accesses are often sources of executions incoherence. The object concept improves the software modularity, and raises the computing abstraction level. Integrating distribution related aspects into the object model brings up the issues of expressing the concurrency and maintaining the coherency. The investigation of these problems in this thesis has been guided by a major concern for the preservation of the intrinsic properties of object-orientation, and the orthogonality of the solutions given. The main contributions of the thesis are: (i) the classification, regarding modularity, of the different design alternatives for object-oriented concurrent languages; (ii) the evaluation of various transactional mechanisms in object-based concurrent languages, and the design of an atomic asynchronous communication protocol named ACS; (iii) the definition of a transaction-based object-oriented concurrent language called KAROS; (iv) the implementation of a modular framework which allows to combine in a same application, various concurrency control and error recovery mechanisms; (v) the identification of a formal property, named general atomicity, which constitutes a correctness criteria for atomic objects specifications. (author) [fr

  9. Experimental and theoretical modelling of sand-water-object interaction under nonlinear progressive waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testik, Firat Yener

    An experimental and theoretical study has been conducted to obtain a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of the sand, water and a solid object interaction as progressive gravity waves impinge on a sloping beach. Aside from obvious scientific interest, this exceedingly complex physical problem is important for naval applications, related to the behavior of disk/cylindrical shaped objects (mines) in the coastal waters. To address this problem, it was divided into a set of simpler basic problems. To begin, nonlinear progressive waves were investigated experimentally in a wave tank for the case of a rigid (impermeable) sloping bottom. Parameterizations for wave characteristics were proposed and compared with the experiments. In parallel, a numerical wave tank model (NWT) was calibrated using experimental data from a single run, and wave field in the wave tank was simulated numerically for the selected experiments. Subsequently, a layer of sand was placed on the slope and bottom topography evolution processes (ripple and sandbar dynamics, bottom topography relaxation under variable wave forcing, etc.) were investigated experimentally. Models for those processes were developed and verified by experimental measurements. Flow over a circular cylinder placed horizontally on a plane wall was also studied. The far-flow field of the cylinder placed in the wave tank was investigated experimentally and numerical results from the NWT simulations were compared with the experimental data. In the mean time, the near-flow velocity/vorticity field around a short cylinder under steady and oscillatory flow was studied in a towing tank. Horseshoe vortex formation and periodic shedding were documented and explained. With the understanding gained through the aforementioned studies, dynamics and burial/scour around the bottom objects in the wave tank were studied. Possible scenarios on the behavior of the disk-shaped objects were identified and explained. Scour around 3D cylindrical

  10. Spatiotemporal dissociation of brain activity underlying subjective awareness, objective performance and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Hill, Zachary; He, Biyu J

    2014-03-19

    Despite intense recent research, the neural correlates of conscious visual perception remain elusive. The most established paradigm for studying brain mechanisms underlying conscious perception is to keep the physical sensory inputs constant and identify brain activities that correlate with the changing content of conscious awareness. However, such a contrast based on conscious content alone would not only reveal brain activities directly contributing to conscious perception, but also include brain activities that precede or follow it. To address this issue, we devised a paradigm whereby we collected, trial-by-trial, measures of objective performance, subjective awareness, and the confidence level of subjective awareness. Using magnetoencephalography recordings in healthy human volunteers, we dissociated brain activities underlying these different cognitive phenomena. Our results provide strong evidence that widely distributed slow cortical potentials (SCPs) correlate with subjective awareness, even after the effects of objective performance and confidence were both removed. The SCP correlate of conscious perception manifests strongly in its waveform, phase, and power. In contrast, objective performance and confidence were both contributed by relatively transient brain activity. These results shed new light on the brain mechanisms of conscious, unconscious, and metacognitive processing.

  11. Electricity supply industry modelling for multiple objectives under demand growth uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, G.; Basson, L.; Howells, M.; Petrie, J.

    2007-01-01

    Appropriate energy-environment-economic (E3) modelling provides key information for policy makers in the electricity supply industry (ESI) faced with navigating a sustainable development path. Key challenges include engaging with stakeholder values and preferences, and exploring trade-offs between competing objectives in the face of underlying uncertainty. As a case study we represent the South African ESI using a partial equilibrium E3 modelling approach, and extend the approach to include multiple objectives under selected future uncertainties. This extension is achieved by assigning cost penalties to non-cost attributes to force the model's least-cost objective function to better satisfy non-cost criteria. This paper incorporates aspects of flexibility to demand growth uncertainty into each future expansion alternative by introducing stochastic programming with recourse into the model. Technology lead times are taken into account by the inclusion of a decision node along the time horizon where aspects of real options theory are considered within the planning process. Hedging in the recourse programming is automatically translated from being purely financial, to include the other attributes that the cost penalties represent. From a retrospective analysis of the cost penalties, the correct market signals, can be derived to meet policy goal, with due regard to demand uncertainty. (author)

  12. Posterior Parietal Cortex Encoding of Dynamic Hand Force Underlying Hand-Object Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari-Toniolo, Simone; Visco-Comandini, Federica; Papazachariadis, Odysseas; Caminiti, Roberto; Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra

    2015-08-05

    Major achievements of primate evolution are skilled hand-object interaction and tool use, both in part dependent on parietal cortex expansion. We recorded spiking activity from macaque inferior parietal cortex during directional manipulation of an isometric tool, which required the application of hand forces to control a cursor's motion on a screen. In areas PFG/PF, the activity of ∼ 70% neurons was modulated by the hand force necessary to implement the desired target motion, reflecting an inverse model, rather than by the intended motion of the visual cursor (forward model). The population vector matched the direction and amplitude of the instantaneous force increments over time. When exposed to a new force condition, that obliged the monkey to change the force output to successfully bring the cursor to the final target, the activity of a consistent subpopulation of neurons changed in an orderly fashion and, at the end of a "Wash-out" session, retained memory of the new learned association, at the service of predictive control of force. Our findings suggest that areas PFG/PF represent a crucial node of the distributed control of hand force, by encoding instantaneous force variations and serving as a memory reservoir of hand dynamics required for object manipulation and tool use. This is coherent with previous studies in humans showing the following: (1) impaired adaptation to a new force field under TMS parietal perturbation; (2) defective control of direction of hand force after parietal lesion; and (3) fMRI activation of parietal cortex during object manipulation requiring control of fine hand forces. Skilled object manipulation and tool use are major achievements of primate evolution, both largely dependent on posterior parietal cortex (PPC) expansion. Neurophysiological and fMRI studies in macaque and humans had documented a crucial role of PPC in encoding the hand kinematics underlying these functions, leaving to premotor and motor areas the role of

  13. NEMD study for supercavitation mechanism with underwater object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Bozhi; Zhang Bingjian; Zhang Hui

    2008-01-01

    An open system model was introduced for Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulation for studying flow phenomenon surrounding different underwater object. Cavitation number σ criterion was proved to be applicable in predicting local cavitation mechanism. An interesting phenomenon was found that low σ areas and actual cavities were spatially separated in molecular scale, and stable supercavitation would require a large enough low σ area to sustain. Effects of cavitator shape and flow velocity were compared with macro scale flow under similar σ, providing a new computational method to study the molecular scale mechanism of this phenomenon

  14. Regional Management of an Aquifer for Mining Under Fuzzy Environmental Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    BogáRdi, IstváN.; BáRdossy, AndráS.; Duckstein, Lucien

    1983-12-01

    A methodology is developed for the dynamic multiobjective management of a multipurpose regional aquifer. In a case study of bauxite mining in Western Hungary, ore deposits are often under the piezometric level of a karstic aquifer, while this same aquifer also provides recharge flows for thermal springs. N + 1 objectives are to be minimized, the first one being total discounted cost of control by dewatering or grouting; the other N objectives consist of the flow of thermal springs at N control points. However, there is no agreement among experts as to a set of numerical values that would constitute a "sound environment"; for this reason a fuzzy set analysis is used, and the N environmental objectives are combined into a single fuzzy membership function. The constraints include ore availability, various capacities, and the state transition function that describes the behavior of both piezometric head and underground flow. The model is linearized and solved as a biobjective dynamic program by using multiobjective compromise programming. A numerical example with N = 2 appears to lead to realistic control policies. Extension of the model to the nonlinear case is discussed.

  15. Intention as an object of interdisciplinary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekizyan Anait Khachaturovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the intent, which is a fundamental element in the process of speech production and, in general, defines the purpose of the statements, as well as response. In most scientific disciplines intention has been investigated in the framework of such concepts as “intention.” It motivates dialogue, it gives meaning and value. The article highlights the main approaches to the concept of “intention”: philosophical, social, psychological. Within the framework of these approaches it is used the features of the functioning of intentions with the main specific characteristics of this concept, namely: 1 intention, 2 determination, 3 intentionality, 4 goal setting, 5 modality, 6 communicative failure, 7 manipulation, 8 rational choice. In philosophy, the term “intention” is seen as an intention, purpose, direction. In psychology, the term becomes a feature of the subjectivity of intentional behavior. It is also noted that the intention of understanding the psychological approach refers us to the concept of “intention”, the article highlighted two types of modality and the disclosure of their identity. In the field of social sciences study the term is inextricably linked with the concept as a rational choice, which in turn contributes to the selection of the strategies and tactics of behavior of the speaker in the communication process. The paper also is identified and analyzed as part of the concept in the speech interaction and types of speech influence.

  16. Multi-objective optimization for hybrid fuel cells power system under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.; Goyal, Amit

    One of the major applications of fuel cells is as onsite stationary electric power plants. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine a fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. Generally, the heat rejected by the fuel cell at a higher temperature is used in a bottoming cycle to generate steam. In this work we are considering a conceptual design of a solid oxide fuel cell-proton exchange membrane (SOFC-PEM) fuel cell hybrid power plant [R. Geisbrecht, Compact Electrochemical Reformer Based on SOFC Technology, AIChE Spring National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 2000] in which the high temperature SOFC fuel cell acts both as electricity producer and fuel reformer for the low temperature PEM fuel cell (PEMFC). The exhaust from the PEM fuel cell goes to a waste hydrogen burner and heat recovery steam generator that produces steam for further utilizations. Optimizing this conceptual design involves consideration of a number of objectives. The process should have low pollutant emissions as well as cost competitive with the existing technology. The solution of a multi-objective optimization problem is not a single solution but a complete non-dominated or Pareto set, which includes the alternatives representing potential compromise solutions among the objectives. This makes a range of choice available to decision makers and provides them with the trade-off information among the multiple objectives effectively. This paper presents the optimal trade-off design solutions or the Pareto set for this hybrid power plant through a multi-objective optimization framework. This hybrid technology is new and the system level models used for fuel cells performance have significant uncertainties in them. In this paper, we characterize these uncertainties and study the effect of these uncertainties

  17. Many-objective robust decision making for water allocation under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Ludwig, Fulco; Huang, He Qing; Werners, Saskia E

    2017-12-31

    Water allocation is facing profound challenges due to climate change uncertainties. To identify adaptive water allocation strategies that are robust to climate change uncertainties, a model framework combining many-objective robust decision making and biophysical modeling is developed for large rivers. The framework was applied to the Pearl River basin (PRB), China where sufficient flow to the delta is required to reduce saltwater intrusion in the dry season. Before identifying and assessing robust water allocation plans for the future, the performance of ten state-of-the-art MOEAs (multi-objective evolutionary algorithms) is evaluated for the water allocation problem in the PRB. The Borg multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (Borg MOEA), which is a self-adaptive optimization algorithm, has the best performance during the historical periods. Therefore it is selected to generate new water allocation plans for the future (2079-2099). This study shows that robust decision making using carefully selected MOEAs can help limit saltwater intrusion in the Pearl River Delta. However, the framework could perform poorly due to larger than expected climate change impacts on water availability. Results also show that subjective design choices from the researchers and/or water managers could potentially affect the ability of the model framework, and cause the most robust water allocation plans to fail under future climate change. Developing robust allocation plans in a river basin suffering from increasing water shortage requires the researchers and water managers to well characterize future climate change of the study regions and vulnerabilities of their tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 3D Imaging of Dielectric Objects Buried under a Rough Surface by Using CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Tetik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D scalar electromagnetic imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface is presented. The problem has been treated as a 3D scalar problem for computational simplicity as a first step to the 3D vector problem. The complexity of the background in which the object is buried is simplified by obtaining Green’s function of its background, which consists of two homogeneous half-spaces, and a rough interface between them, by using Buried Object Approach (BOA. Green’s function of the two-part space with planar interface is obtained to be used in the process. Reconstruction of the location, shape, and constitutive parameters of the objects is achieved by Contrast Source Inversion (CSI method with conjugate gradient. The scattered field data that is used in the inverse problem is obtained via both Method of Moments (MoM and Comsol Multiphysics pressure acoustics model.

  19. The effects of changes in object location on object identity detection: A simultaneous EEG-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Fan, Chenggui; Wang, Min; Fogelson, Noa; Li, Ling

    2017-08-15

    Object identity and location are bound together to form a unique integration that is maintained and processed in visual working memory (VWM). Changes in task-irrelevant object location have been shown to impair the retrieval of memorial representations and the detection of object identity changes. However, the neural correlates of this cognitive process remain largely unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate the underlying brain activation during object color change detection and the modulatory effects of changes in object location and VWM load. To this end we used simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings, which can reveal the neural activity with both high temporal and high spatial resolution. Subjects responded faster and with greater accuracy in the repeated compared to the changed object location condition, when a higher VWM load was utilized. These results support the spatial congruency advantage theory and suggest that it is more pronounced with higher VWM load. Furthermore, the spatial congruency effect was associated with larger posterior N1 activity, greater activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and less suppression of the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG), when object location was repeated compared to when it was changed. The ERP-fMRI integrative analysis demonstrated that the object location discrimination-related N1 component is generated in the right SMG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, M.; Pacino, Dario; Kontovas, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives. A branch and price algorithm as well as a constraint programming model are developed that consider (a) fuel consumption as a function of payload, (b......) fuel price as an explicit input, (c) freight rate as an input, and (d) in-transit cargo inventory costs. The alternative objective functions are minimum total trip duration, minimum total cost and minimum emissions. Computational experience with the algorithm is reported on a variety of scenarios....

  1. DMD multi-object spectroscopy in space: the EUCLID study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, P.; Zamkotsian, F.; Content, R.; Grange, R.; Robberto, M.; Valenziano, L.; Zerbi, F. M.; Sharples, R. M.; Bortoletto, F.; de Caprio, V.; Martin, L.; de Rosa, A.; Franzetti, P.; Diolaiti, E.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Leutenegger, P.; Scodeggio, M.; Vink, R.; Zamorani, G.; Cimatti, A.

    2009-08-01

    The benefits Astronomy could gain by performing multi-slit spectroscopy in a space mission is renown. Digital Micromirror Devices (DMD), developed for consumer applications, represent a potentially powerful solution. They are currently studied in the context of the EUCLID project. EUCLID is a mission dedicated to the study of Dark Energy developed under the ESA Cosmic Vision programme. EUCLID is designed with 3 instruments on-board: a Visual Imager, an Infrared Imager and an Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph (ENIS). ENIS is focused on the study of Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations as the main probe, based on low-resolution spectroscopic observations of a very large number of high-z galaxies, covering a large fraction of the whole sky. To cope with these challenging requirements, a highmultiplexing spectrograph, coupled with a relatively small telescope (1.2m diameter) has been designed. Although the current baseline is to perform slit-less spectroscopy, an important option to increase multiplexing rates is to use DMDs as electronic reconfigurable slit masks. A Texas Instrument 2048x1080 Cinema DMD has been selected, and space validation studies started, as a joint ESA-ENIS Consortium effort. Around DMD, a number of suited optical systems has been developed to project sky sources onto the DMD surface and then, to disperse light onto IR arrays. A detailed study started, both at system and subsystem level, to validate the initial proposal. Here, main results are shown, making clear that the use of DMD devices has great potential in Astronomical Instrumentation.

  2. High Voltage Overhead Power Line Routing under an Objective Observability Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfredo Fernandez-Jimenez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The construction of new high voltage overhead power lines (HVOPLs has become a controversial issue for electricity companies due to social opposition. Citizens are concerned about how these power lines may have an impact on their lives, basically caused by their effects on health and safety. Visual impact is one of the most easily perceived. Although there are several published works that deal with the assessment of the visual impact produced by HVOPLs, no methodology has been proposed to assess this impact from an objective perspective. This work presents an original methodology which helps to identify the optimal routes for a new HVOPL under an objective observability criterion, enabling the selection of those with the lowest visibility in a zone. The application of the proposed methodology achieves a set of routes that links new HVOPL origin and destination points creating a corridor which includes all possible routes with an observability of its towers under a threshold limit. This methodology is illustrated by a real-life use corresponding to the selection of the route with least observability for a new power line in La Rioja (Spain. The results obtained may help to achieve a consensus between key stakeholders since it is focused on the specific issues of the planned HVOPL and its observability from an objective perspective.

  3. Irradiation as a Method of Salvation of Cultural Heritage Objects Under Massive Jeopardy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katusin-Razem, B.; Braun, M.; Jagic, R.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural heritage artefacts made of organic materials are susceptible to deterioration caused by the action of insects, moulds, fungi and bacteria. The problem of biodeterioration becomes especially acute after natural catastrophes and weather inclemencies, or after human activities conducive to an abrupt development of pests. Usually a large number of objects are imperilled at the same time and their sheer number aggravates any organized preservation effort. Irradiation has proven an effective method of preservation under the circumstances, e.g. for the prevention of massive proliferation of fungal infestation of books wetted by flood. War destructions in Croatia 1991 - 1995 seriously jeopardized many cultural objects. Their treatment by 60Co gamma rays in the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruðer Boškoviæ Institute played a significant role in the prevention of massive biodeterioration. In co-operation with the Croatian Conservation Institute, one third of 5000 evacuated objects, mostly polychromic wooden sculptures, were irradiated for desinsection and disinfection, enabling their joint accommodation in depots until restoration. This contribution to the preservation of jeopardized cultural heritage objects has been recognized internationally as a specially significant and successful case of the application of irradiation to cultural heritage. The presentation describes in more detail the preservation and restoration of the altar of the Holy Cross from the church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Snow in Kamensko.(author)

  4. [Recognition of visual objects under forward masking. Effects of cathegorial similarity of test and masking stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, N Iu; Slavutskaia, A V; Kalinin, S A; Kulikov, M A; Mikhaĭlova, E S

    2013-01-01

    In 38 healthy subjects accuracy and response time were examined during recognition of two categories of images--animals andnonliving objects--under forward masking. We revealed new data that masking effects depended of categorical similarity of target and masking stimuli. The recognition accuracy was the lowest and the response time was the most slow, when the target and masking stimuli belongs to the same category, that was combined with high dispersion of response times. The revealed effects were more clear in the task of animal recognition in comparison with the recognition of nonliving objects. We supposed that the revealed effects connected with interference between cortical representations of the target and masking stimuli and discussed our results in context of cortical interference and negative priming.

  5. Image Processing Strategies Based on a Visual Saliency Model for Object Recognition Under Simulated Prosthetic Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Heng; Fu, Weizhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Liming; Lyu, Qing; Han, Tingting; Chai, Xinyu

    2016-01-01

    Retinal prostheses have the potential to restore partial vision. Object recognition in scenes of daily life is one of the essential tasks for implant wearers. Still limited by the low-resolution visual percepts provided by retinal prostheses, it is important to investigate and apply image processing methods to convey more useful visual information to the wearers. We proposed two image processing strategies based on Itti's visual saliency map, region of interest (ROI) extraction, and image segmentation. Itti's saliency model generated a saliency map from the original image, in which salient regions were grouped into ROI by the fuzzy c-means clustering. Then Grabcut generated a proto-object from the ROI labeled image which was recombined with background and enhanced in two ways--8-4 separated pixelization (8-4 SP) and background edge extraction (BEE). Results showed that both 8-4 SP and BEE had significantly higher recognition accuracy in comparison with direct pixelization (DP). Each saliency-based image processing strategy was subject to the performance of image segmentation. Under good and perfect segmentation conditions, BEE and 8-4 SP obtained noticeably higher recognition accuracy than DP, and under bad segmentation condition, only BEE boosted the performance. The application of saliency-based image processing strategies was verified to be beneficial to object recognition in daily scenes under simulated prosthetic vision. They are hoped to help the development of the image processing module for future retinal prostheses, and thus provide more benefit for the patients. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fare Optimality Analysis of Urban Rail Transit under Various Objective Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit fare strategies include fare structures and fare levels. We propose a rail transit line fare decision based on an operating plan that falls under elastic demand. Combined with the train operation plan, considering flat fare and distance-based fare, and based on the benefit analysis of both passenger flow and operating enterprises, we construct the objective functions and build an optimization model in terms of the operators’ interests, the system’s efficiency, system regulation goals, and the system costs. The solving algorithm based on the simulated annealing algorithm is established. Using as an example the Changsha Metro Line 2, we analyzed the optimized results of different models under the two fare structures system. Finally the recommendations of fare strategies are given.

  7. Disturbed functional brain interactions underlying deficient tactile object discrimination in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weder, B; Azari, NP; Knorr, U; Seitz, RJ; Keel, A; Nienhusmeier, M; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL; Ludin, HP

    2000-01-01

    Somatosensory discrimination of cuboid objects was studied in a group of healthy volunteers and patients with Parkinson's disease using regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements obtained with positron emission tomography (PET) and O-15 labeled water [(H2O)-O-15]. A 6-[F-18]-fluoro-L-dopa

  8. Real-Time Attitude Control Algorithm for Fast Tumbling Objects under Torque Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuichi; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    This paper describes a new control algorithm for achieving any arbitrary attitude and angular velocity states of a rigid body, even fast and complicated tumbling rotations, under some practical constraints. This technique is expected to be applied for the attitude motion synchronization to capture a non-cooperative, tumbling object in such missions as removal of debris from orbit, servicing broken-down satellites for repairing or inspection, rescue of manned vehicles, etc. For this objective, we have introduced a novel control algorithm called Free Motion Path Method (FMPM) in the previous paper, which was formulated as an open-loop controller. The next step of this consecutive work is to derive a closed-loop FMPM controller, and as the preliminary step toward the objective, this paper attempts to derive a conservative state variables representation of a rigid body dynamics. 6-Dimensional conservative state variables are introduced in place of general angular velocity-attitude angle representation, and how to convert between both representations are shown in this paper.

  9. Sustainable and Resilient Garment Supply Chain Network Design with Fuzzy Multi-Objectives under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Irshad Mari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners are taking more interest in developing sustainable garment supply chains in recent times. On the other hand, the supply chain manager drops sustainability objectives while coping with unexpected natural and man-made disruption risks. Hence, supply chain managers are now trying to develop sustainable supply chains that are simultaneously resilient enough to cope with disruption risks. Owing to the importance of the considered issue, this study proposed a network optimization model for a sustainable and resilient supply chain network by considering sustainability via embodied carbon footprints and carbon emissions and resilience by considering resilience index. In this paper, initially, a possibilistic fuzzy multi-objective sustainable and resilient supply chain network model is developed for the garment industry considering economic, sustainable, and resilience objectives. Secondly, a possibilistic fuzzy linguistic weight-based interactive solution method is proposed. Finally, a numerical case example is presented to show the applicability of the proposed model and solution methodology.

  10. A hybrid solution approach for a multi-objective closed-loop logistics network under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Tu, Nan; Miao, Lixin

    2015-06-01

    The design of closed-loop logistics (forward and reverse logistics) has attracted growing attention with the stringent pressures of customer expectations, environmental concerns and economic factors. This paper considers a multi-product, multi-period and multi-objective closed-loop logistics network model with regard to facility expansion as a facility location-allocation problem, which more closely approximates real-world conditions. A multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming formulation is linearized by defining new variables and adding new constraints to the model. By considering the aforementioned model under uncertainty, this paper develops a hybrid solution approach by combining an interactive fuzzy goal programming approach and robust counterpart optimization based on three well-known robust counterpart optimization formulations. Finally, this paper compares the results of the three formulations using different test scenarios and parameter-sensitive analysis in terms of the quality of the final solution, CPU time, the level of conservatism, the degree of closeness to the ideal solution, the degree of balance involved in developing a compromise solution, and satisfaction degree.

  11. Multi-objective unit commitment with wind penetration and emission concerns under stochastic and fuzzy uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuming; Zhou, Xianzhong; Watada, Junzo

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the ever increasing renewable penetration in power generation systems, which entails modern unit commitment problems with modelling and computation burdens. This study aims to simulate the impacts of manifold uncertainties on system operation with emission concerns. First, probability theory and fuzzy set theory are applied to jointly represent the uncertainties such as wind generation, load fluctuation and unit outage that interleaved in unit commitment problems. Second, a Value-at-Risk-based multi-objective approach is developed as a bridge of existing stochastic and robust unit commitment optimizations, which not only captures the inherent conflict between operation cost and supply reliability, but also provides easy-to-adjust robustness against worst-case scenarios. Third, a multi-objective algorithm that integrates fuzzy simulation and particle swarm optimization is developed to achieve approximate Pareto-optimal solutions. The research effectiveness is exemplified by two case studies: The comparison between test systems with and without generation uncertainty demonstrates that this study is practicable and can suggest operational insights of generation mix systems. The sensitivity analysis on Value-at-Risk proves that our method can achieve adequate tradeoff between performance optimality and robustness, thus help system operators in making informed decisions. Finally, the model and algorithm comparisons also justify the superiority of this research. - Highlights: • Probability theory and fuzzy set theory are used to describe different uncertainties. • A Value-at-Risk-based multi-objective unit commitment model is proposed. • An improved multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed. • The model achieves adequate trade-off between performance optimality and robustness. • The algorithm can obtain convergent and diversified Pareto fronts.

  12. Website history and the website as an object of study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2009-01-01

    This article puts on the agenda one of the fundamental theoretical questions within the emerging field of website history: how can the object of historical study — the website — be delimited? Its focus is on the 'website' artefact as a medium and a text. After elaborating a definition...... discussion of website history....

  13. Objectives of Financial Statements. Report of the Study Group on the Objectives of Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Certified Public Accountants, New York, NY.

    This report discusses the objectives of financial statements. Emphasis is placed on the function of objectives; users, their goals, and their information needs; the primary enterprise goal and earning power; accountability and financial statements; financial statements--reporting on the goal attainment of business enterprises; financial…

  14. Application of multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm for sustainable strategic supplier selection under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  The incorporation of environmental objective into the conventional supplier selection practices is crucial for corporations seeking to promote green supply chain management (GSCM. Challenges and risks associated with green supplier selection have been broadly recognized by procurement and supplier management professionals. This paper aims to solve a Tetra “S” (SSSS problem based on a fuzzy multi-objective optimization with genetic algorithm in a holistic supply chain environment. In this empirical study, a mathematical model with fuzzy coefficients is considered for sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS problem and a corresponding model is developed to tackle this problem. Design/methodology/approach: Sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS decisions are typically multi-objectives in nature and it is an important part of green production and supply chain management for many firms. The proposed uncertain model is transferred into deterministic model by applying the expected value mesurement (EVM and genetic algorithm with weighted sum approach for solving the multi-objective problem. This research focus on a multi-objective optimization model for minimizing lean cost, maximizing sustainable service and greener product quality level. Finally, a mathematical case of textile sector is presented to exemplify the effectiveness of the proposed model with a sensitivity analysis. Findings: This study makes a certain contribution by introducing the Tetra ‘S’ concept in both the theoretical and practical research related to multi-objective optimization as well as in the study of sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS under uncertain environment. Our results suggest that decision makers tend to select strategic supplier first then enhance the sustainability. Research limitations/implications: Although the fuzzy expected value model (EVM with fuzzy coefficients constructed in present research should be helpful for

  15. Application of multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm for sustainable strategic supplier selection under fuzzy environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, M.; Nazam, M.; Yao, L.; Baig, S.A.; Abrar, M.; Zia-ur-Rehman, M.

    2017-07-01

    The incorporation of environmental objective into the conventional supplier selection practices is crucial for corporations seeking to promote green supply chain management (GSCM). Challenges and risks associated with green supplier selection have been broadly recognized by procurement and supplier management professionals. This paper aims to solve a Tetra “S” (SSSS) problem based on a fuzzy multi-objective optimization with genetic algorithm in a holistic supply chain environment. In this empirical study, a mathematical model with fuzzy coefficients is considered for sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS) problem and a corresponding model is developed to tackle this problem. Design/methodology/approach: Sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS) decisions are typically multi-objectives in nature and it is an important part of green production and supply chain management for many firms. The proposed uncertain model is transferred into deterministic model by applying the expected value mesurement (EVM) and genetic algorithm with weighted sum approach for solving the multi-objective problem. This research focus on a multi-objective optimization model for minimizing lean cost, maximizing sustainable service and greener product quality level. Finally, a mathematical case of textile sector is presented to exemplify the effectiveness of the proposed model with a sensitivity analysis. Findings: This study makes a certain contribution by introducing the Tetra ‘S’ concept in both the theoretical and practical research related to multi-objective optimization as well as in the study of sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS) under uncertain environment. Our results suggest that decision makers tend to select strategic supplier first then enhance the sustainability. Research limitations/implications: Although the fuzzy expected value model (EVM) with fuzzy coefficients constructed in present research should be helpful for solving real world

  16. Application of multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm for sustainable strategic supplier selection under fuzzy environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, M.; Nazam, M.; Yao, L.; Baig, S.A.; Abrar, M.; Zia-ur-Rehman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of environmental objective into the conventional supplier selection practices is crucial for corporations seeking to promote green supply chain management (GSCM). Challenges and risks associated with green supplier selection have been broadly recognized by procurement and supplier management professionals. This paper aims to solve a Tetra “S” (SSSS) problem based on a fuzzy multi-objective optimization with genetic algorithm in a holistic supply chain environment. In this empirical study, a mathematical model with fuzzy coefficients is considered for sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS) problem and a corresponding model is developed to tackle this problem. Design/methodology/approach: Sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS) decisions are typically multi-objectives in nature and it is an important part of green production and supply chain management for many firms. The proposed uncertain model is transferred into deterministic model by applying the expected value mesurement (EVM) and genetic algorithm with weighted sum approach for solving the multi-objective problem. This research focus on a multi-objective optimization model for minimizing lean cost, maximizing sustainable service and greener product quality level. Finally, a mathematical case of textile sector is presented to exemplify the effectiveness of the proposed model with a sensitivity analysis. Findings: This study makes a certain contribution by introducing the Tetra ‘S’ concept in both the theoretical and practical research related to multi-objective optimization as well as in the study of sustainable strategic supplier selection (SSSS) under uncertain environment. Our results suggest that decision makers tend to select strategic supplier first then enhance the sustainability. Research limitations/implications: Although the fuzzy expected value model (EVM) with fuzzy coefficients constructed in present research should be helpful for solving real world

  17. Optimal Use of Agricultural Water and Land Resources through Reconfiguring Crop Planting Structure under Socioeconomic and Ecological Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Tan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many economic, social and ecological problems can be attributed to the scarcity and mismanagement of water and land resources. In this study, a multi-objective fuzzy–robust programming (MOFRP method was developed for supporting the optimal use of land and water resources in agriculture. MOFRP improved existing methods through taking ecological services of crop cultivation into account. It was also capable of reflecting fuzziness in preferences, priorities and parameters that were largely neglected in previous agricultural decision making. This method was applied to address a case in arid northwestern China. Optimal plans of crop cultivation reconfiguration were generated for sustaining local development under economic, ecological and social objectives as well as physical restraints in water and land resources. Compared to the status quo, the optimized plan would increase economic and ecological benefits by 12.2% and 18.8%, respectively. The efficiency of irrigation water could also be enhanced with the economic and ecological benefits per unit water being raised and the water consumption per unit land being reduced. The comparisons of the MOFRP model to four alternatives validated that it was capable of achieving satisfactory benefits and reducing system-violation risks without neglecting valuable uncertain information and ecological services of crops. The proposed method was also applicable to other multi-objective management problems under uncertainty without loss of generality.

  18. Gaming Change: A Many-objective Analysis of Water Supply Portfolios under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Kasprzyk, J.; Characklis, G.; Kirsch, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study explores the uncertainty and tradeoffs associated with up to six conflicting water supply portfolio planning objectives. A ten-year Monte Carlo simulation model is used to evaluate water supply portfolios blending permanent rights, adaptive options contracts, and spot leases for a single city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Historical records of reservoir mass balance, lease pricing, and demand serve as the source data for the Monte Carlo simulation. Portfolio planning decisions include the initial volume and annual increases of permanent rights, thresholds for an adaptive options contract, and anticipatory decision rules for purchasing leases and exercising options. Our work distinguishes three cases: (1) permanent rights as the sole source of supply, (2) permanent rights and adaptive options, and (3) a combination of permanent rights, adaptive options, and leases. The problems have been formulated such that cases 1 and 2 are sub-spaces of the six objective formulation used for case 3. Our solution sets provide the tradeoff surfaces between portfolios' expected values for cost, cost variability, reliability, frequency of purchasing permanent rights increases, frequency of using leases, and dropped (or unused) transfers of water. The tradeoff surfaces for the three cases show that options and leases have a dramatic impact on the marginal costs associated with improving the efficiency and reliability of urban water supplies. Moreover, our many-objective analysis permits the discovery of a broad range of high quality portfolio strategies. We differentiate the value of adaptive options versus leases by testing a representative subset of optimal portfolios' abilities to effectively address regional increases in demand during drought periods. These results provide insights into the tradeoffs inherent to a more flexible, portfolio-style approach to urban water resources management, an approach that should become increasingly attractive in an environment of

  19. Short Daytime Naps Briefly Attenuate Objectively Measured Sleepiness Under Chronic Sleep Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletin, Jared M; Hilditch, Cassie J; Dement, William C; Carskadon, Mary A

    2017-09-01

    Napping is a useful countermeasure to the negative effects of acute sleep loss on alertness. The efficacy of naps to recover from chronic sleep loss is less well understood. Following 2 baseline nights (10 hours' time-in-bed), participants were restricted to 7 nights of 5-hour sleep opportunity. Ten adults participated in the No-Nap condition, and a further 9 were assigned to a Nap condition with a daily 45-minute nap opportunity at 1300 h. Sleepiness was assessed using the multiple sleep latency test and a visual analogue scale at 2-hour intervals. Both objective and subjective indexes of sleepiness were normalized within subject as a difference from those at baseline prior to sleep restriction. Mixed-effects models examined how the daytime nap opportunity altered sleepiness across the day and across the protocol. Short daytime naps attenuated sleepiness due to chronic sleep restriction for up to 6-8 hours after the nap. Benefits of the nap did not extend late into evening. Subjective sleepiness demonstrated a similar short-lived benefit that emerged later in the day when objective sleepiness already returned to pre-nap levels. Neither measure showed a benefit of the nap the following morning after the subsequent restriction night. These data indicate a short daytime nap may attenuate sleepiness in chronic sleep restriction, yet subjective and objective benefits emerge at different time scales. Because neither measure showed a benefit the next day, the current study underscores the need for careful consideration before naps are used as routine countermeasures to chronic sleep loss. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A robust multi-objective global supplier selection model under currency fluctuation and price discount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarindast, Atousa; Seyed Hosseini, Seyed Mohamad; Pishvaee, Mir Saman

    2017-11-01

    Robust supplier selection problem, in a scenario-based approach has been proposed, when the demand and exchange rates are subject to uncertainties. First, a deterministic multi-objective mixed integer linear programming is developed; then, the robust counterpart of the proposed mixed integer linear programming is presented using the recent extension in robust optimization theory. We discuss decision variables, respectively, by a two-stage stochastic planning model, a robust stochastic optimization planning model which integrates worst case scenario in modeling approach and finally by equivalent deterministic planning model. The experimental study is carried out to compare the performances of the three models. Robust model resulted in remarkable cost saving and it illustrated that to cope with such uncertainties, we should consider them in advance in our planning. In our case study different supplier were selected due to this uncertainties and since supplier selection is a strategic decision, it is crucial to consider these uncertainties in planning approach.

  1. Applying of component system development in object methodology, case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To create computarization target software as a component system has been a very strong requirement for the last 20 years of software developing. Finally, the architectural components are self-contained units, presenting not only partial and overall system behavior, but also cooperating with each other on the basis of their interfaces. Among others, components have allowed flexible modification of processes the behavior of which is the foundation of components behavior without changing the life of the component system. On the other hand, the component system makes it possible, at design time, to create numerous new connections between components and thus creating modified system behaviors. This all enables the company management to perform, at design time, required behavioral changes of processes in accordance with the requirements of changing production and market.The development of software which is generally referred to as SDP (Software Development Process contains two directions. The first one, called CBD (Component–Based Development, is dedicated to the development of component–based systems CBS (Component–based System, the second target is the development of software under the influence of SOA (Service–Oriented Architecture. Both directions are equipped with their different development methodologies. The subject of this paper is only the first direction and application of development of component–based systems in its object–oriented methodologies. The requirement of today is to carry out the development of component-based systems in the framework of developed object–oriented methodologies precisely in the way of a dominant style. In some of the known methodologies, however, this development is not completely transparent and is not even recognized as dominant. In some cases, it is corrected by the special meta–integration models of component system development into an object methodology.This paper presents a case study

  2. Non-invasive studies of objects from cultural heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Eberhard H. [Paul Scherrer Institute, WHGA/349, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: eberhard.lehmann@psi.ch; Vontobel, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institute, WHGA/349, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Deschler-Erb, Eckhard [University Zurich (Switzerland); Soares, Marie [Swiss National Museum, CH-8005 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-04-21

    In order to preserve the objects from European cultural heritage in its structure and shape for our future generations, there is a need to perform all investigations on important samples non-destructively or with very limited amounts of material. Among the non-destructive testing (NDT) methods available for this purpose there are those that need large installations such as accelerators and reactors to provide different kinds of radiation (X-ray, protons, neutrons, gamma, etc.). Therefore, a link between the specialists working at such facilities with scientists from museums and archaeological institutes is necessary. This paper describes the status of a European network dedicated to the NDT of museum objects (COST-G8) as an overview. In more detail, the activities in Switzerland will be presented where PSI plays a role for the study with neutrons and X-rays. Most of the investigated samples of Swiss collections are from Celtic or Roman origin. The superposition of both applied methods gives the opportunity to decide about the structure of objects and artefacts from restoration work applied later to the virgin excavation status. The presented examples will give an overview about opportunities of the applied methods and their limitations in some cases. This should be motivating to adapt the demonstrated methods to other similar objects of historical relevance.

  3. Sensitivity-Informed De Novo Programming for Many-Objective Water Portfolio Planning Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Kirsch, B. R.; Characklis, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    Risk-based water supply management presents severe cognitive, computational, and social challenges to planning in a changing world. Decision aiding frameworks must confront the cognitive biases implicit to risk, the severe uncertainties associated with long term planning horizons, and the consequent ambiguities that shape how we define and solve water resources planning and management problems. This paper proposes and demonstrates a new interactive framework for sensitivity informed de novo programming. The theoretical focus of our many-objective de novo programming is to promote learning and evolving problem formulations to enhance risk-based decision making. We have demonstrated our proposed de novo programming framework using a case study for a single city’s water supply in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas. Key decisions in this case study include the purchase of permanent rights to reservoir inflows and anticipatory thresholds for acquiring transfers of water through optioning and spot leases. A 10-year Monte Carlo simulation driven by historical data is used to provide performance metrics for the supply portfolios. The three major components of our methodology include Sobol globoal sensitivity analysis, many-objective evolutionary optimization and interactive tradeoff visualization. The interplay between these components allows us to evaluate alternative design metrics, their decision variable controls and the consequent system vulnerabilities. Our LRGV case study measures water supply portfolios’ efficiency, reliability, and utilization of transfers in the water supply market. The sensitivity analysis is used interactively over interannual, annual, and monthly time scales to indicate how the problem controls change as a function of the timescale of interest. These results have been used then to improve our exploration and understanding of LRGV costs, vulnerabilities, and the water portfolios’ critical reliability constraints. These results

  4. Information Theoretic Studies and Assessment of Space Object Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-24

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0119 INFORMATION THEORETIC STUDIES AND ASSESMENTS OF SPACE-OBJECT IDENTIFICATION Sudhakar Prasad UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO Final...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  5. A Study of Neutron Leakage in Finite Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2015-01-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code capable of simulating High charge (Z) and Energy (HZE) and light ions (including neutrons) under space-like boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light ion propagation was recently developed for simple shielded objects. Monte Carlo (MC) benchmarks were used to verify the 3DHZETRN methodology in slab and spherical geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with MC codes to the degree that various MC codes agree among themselves. One limitation in the verification process is that all of the codes (3DHZETRN and three MC codes) utilize different nuclear models/databases. In the present report, the new algorithm, with well-defined convergence criteria, is used to quantify the neutron leakage from simple geometries to provide means of verifying 3D effects and to provide guidance for further code development.

  6. Employing Machine-Learning Methods to Study Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Vast amounts of data exist in the astronomical data archives, and yet a large number of sources remain unclassified. We developed a multi-wavelength pipeline to classify infrared sources. The pipeline uses supervised machine learning methods to classify objects into the appropriate categories. The program is fed data that is already classified to train it, and is then applied to unknown catalogues. The primary use for such a pipeline is the rapid classification and cataloging of data that would take a much longer time to classify otherwise. While our primary goal is to study young stellar objects (YSOs), the applications extend beyond the scope of this project. We present preliminary results from our analysis and discuss future applications.

  7. VIDEO GAMES ARE AN INTERESTING OBJECT TO THE COGNITION STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleci Maraschin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Video games create a virtual space that can be inhabited in various ways by the players. Despite the controversies in which they are constantly included, electronic games bear witness to the modus operandi in our contemporary cognition permeated by technical objects. By focusing the know-how instead of a declarative experience the games open questions in the field of new literacies and problematize the use of technology in teaching practices. From the development of a locative game at the Botanical Garden of Porto Alegre, this article discussed some, methodological, political and theoretical implications arising from the research with video games in the field of cognitive studies. We discuss, finally, three theoretical / methodological implications the practice with video games forces us to think: research the video game through the process of its operation, questioning cognitive policies that organize our everyday and map the complex web of practices that supports the use of technical objects.

  8. Objective evidence that small-fiber polyneuropathy underlies some illnesses currently labeled as fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Herzog, Zeva Daniela; Downs, Heather; Klein, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common, disabling, syndrome that includes chronic widespread pain plus other diverse symptoms. No specific objective abnormalities have been identified, precluding definitive testing, disease-modifying treatments, and identification of causes. In contrast, small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN), despite causing similar symptoms, is definitionally a disease caused by dysfunction and degeneration of peripheral small-fiber neurons. SFPN has established etiologies, some diagnosable and definitively treatable, e.g., diabetes. To evaluate the hypothesis that some patients labeled with “fibromyalgia” have unrecognized SFPN causing their illness symptoms, we analyzed SFPN-associated symptoms, signs, and pathological and physiological markers in 27 fibromyalgia patients and 30 matched normal controls. Fibromyalgia subjects had to satisfy American College of Rheumatology criteria plus present documented evidence of a physician’s actual fibromyalgia diagnosis. Study instruments comprised the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), distal-leg neurodiagnostic skin biopsies, plus autonomic-function testing (AFT). 41% of skin biopsies from fibromyalgia subjects vs. 3% of biopsies from control subjects were diagnostic for SFPN, and MNSI and UENS scores were higher among fibromyalgia than control subjects (all P ≤ 0.001). Abnormal AFTs were equally prevalent suggesting that fibromyalgia-associated SFPN is primarily somatic. Blood tests from all 13 fibromyalgia subjects with SFPN-diagnostic skin biopsies provided insights into etiologies. All glucose tolerance tests were normal, but eight subjects had dysimmune markers, 2 had hepatitis C serologies, and one family had apparent genetic causality. These findings suggest that some patients with chronic pain labeled as “fibromyalgia” have unrecognized small-fiber polyneuropathy, a distinct disease that can be objectively tested for and sometimes definitively

  9. Actions Objected at Employees in CSR - Report from the Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelągowska-Rudzka Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the essence of the social responsibility of organizations and indicated the areas of actions to which this concept applies in the organizations. Particular attention has been paid to CSR practices objected at employees as key stakeholders of the organization. The purpose of the study was achieved in the form of analysis of CSR practices addressed to employees of the selected organizations in the Pomeranian Voivodeship. It has been confirmed that the study subjects undertake socially responsible actions addressed to their employees. These actions are compliant with the guidelines of ISO 26000 standard in the area of practice in workplace. However, it has been shown that socially responsible objectives are not commonly present in the strategies of these organizations. Personal strategies and the knowledge of the concept of CSR among employees also occur not frequently enough. The presented study is a pilot study. The reached conclusions apply only to the participating organizations. However, it should be noted that the concept of CSR is not yet widely and successfully implemented in organizations within the Pomeranian Voivodeship. It requires further popularizing and intensifying. Also, the practices of CSR addressed to employees should be further improved.

  10. Super-Resolution of Moving Objects in Under-Sampled Image Sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekeren, A.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, such as observation systems, it is important to detect and identify a possible threat as early as possible. Especially the approaching ones are of interest. Such moving threats/objects are often at a very large distance and are observed as very small and unrecognizable objects

  11. A Validity Study of Two Projective Object Representations Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Stephen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two projective measures of object representations, the Concept of the Object on the Rorschach and the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales, were compared with each other and measures of intelligence and pathology with 15 children and 94 adult patients. Results support the construct validity of object representations. (SLD)

  12. An Objective Approach to Select Climate Scenarios when Projecting Species Distribution under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajus, Nicolas; Périé, Catherine; Logan, Travis; Lambert, Marie-Claude; de Blois, Sylvie; Berteaux, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    An impressive number of new climate change scenarios have recently become available to assess the ecological impacts of climate change. Among these impacts, shifts in species range analyzed with species distribution models are the most widely studied. Whereas it is widely recognized that the uncertainty in future climatic conditions must be taken into account in impact studies, many assessments of species range shifts still rely on just a few climate change scenarios, often selected arbitrarily. We describe a method to select objectively a subset of climate change scenarios among a large ensemble of available ones. Our k-means clustering approach reduces the number of climate change scenarios needed to project species distributions, while retaining the coverage of uncertainty in future climate conditions. We first show, for three biologically-relevant climatic variables, that a reduced number of six climate change scenarios generates average climatic conditions very close to those obtained from a set of 27 scenarios available before reduction. A case study on potential gains and losses of habitat by three northeastern American tree species shows that potential future species distributions projected from the selected six climate change scenarios are very similar to those obtained from the full set of 27, although with some spatial discrepancies at the edges of species distributions. In contrast, projections based on just a few climate models vary strongly according to the initial choice of climate models. We give clear guidance on how to reduce the number of climate change scenarios while retaining the central tendencies and coverage of uncertainty in future climatic conditions. This should be particularly useful during future climate change impact studies as more than twice as many climate models were reported in the fifth assessment report of IPCC compared to the previous one. PMID:27015274

  13. An Objective Approach to Select Climate Scenarios when Projecting Species Distribution under Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajus, Nicolas; Périé, Catherine; Logan, Travis; Lambert, Marie-Claude; de Blois, Sylvie; Berteaux, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    An impressive number of new climate change scenarios have recently become available to assess the ecological impacts of climate change. Among these impacts, shifts in species range analyzed with species distribution models are the most widely studied. Whereas it is widely recognized that the uncertainty in future climatic conditions must be taken into account in impact studies, many assessments of species range shifts still rely on just a few climate change scenarios, often selected arbitrarily. We describe a method to select objectively a subset of climate change scenarios among a large ensemble of available ones. Our k-means clustering approach reduces the number of climate change scenarios needed to project species distributions, while retaining the coverage of uncertainty in future climate conditions. We first show, for three biologically-relevant climatic variables, that a reduced number of six climate change scenarios generates average climatic conditions very close to those obtained from a set of 27 scenarios available before reduction. A case study on potential gains and losses of habitat by three northeastern American tree species shows that potential future species distributions projected from the selected six climate change scenarios are very similar to those obtained from the full set of 27, although with some spatial discrepancies at the edges of species distributions. In contrast, projections based on just a few climate models vary strongly according to the initial choice of climate models. We give clear guidance on how to reduce the number of climate change scenarios while retaining the central tendencies and coverage of uncertainty in future climatic conditions. This should be particularly useful during future climate change impact studies as more than twice as many climate models were reported in the fifth assessment report of IPCC compared to the previous one.

  14. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  15. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  16. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects - Concepts and Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    indoor moving objects. Specifically, the paper presents a method for the identification of movement patterns. Leveraging concepts from sequential pattern mining, the method takes into account the specifics of spatial movement and, in particular, the specifics of tracking data that captures indoor...... movement. For example, the paper’s proposal supports spatial aggregation and utilizes the topology of indoor spaces to achieve better performance. The paper reports on empirical studies with real and synthetic data that offer insights into the functional and computational aspects of its proposal....

  17. Multi-Objective Stochastic Optimization Programs for a Non-Life Insurance Company under Solvency Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Kaucic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we introduce a multi-objective scenario-based optimization approach for chance-constrained portfolio selection problems. More specifically, a modified version of the normal constraint method is implemented with a global solver in order to generate a dotted approximation of the Pareto frontier for bi- and tri-objective programming problems. Numerical experiments are carried out on a set of portfolios to be optimized for an EU-based non-life insurance company. Both performance indicators and risk measures are managed as objectives. Results show that this procedure is effective and readily applicable to achieve suitable risk-reward tradeoff analysis.

  18. Romanian ancient gold objects studies using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cojocaru, V.; Bugoi, R.; Herrmann, F.; Grambole, D.

    2002-01-01

    The study of trace-elements in archaeological metallic objects can provide important clues about the metal provenance and the involved manufacturing procedures, leading to important conclusions regarding the commercial, cultural and religious exchanges between the antique populations. Ancient metallic materials are usually inhomogeneous on a scale of 20 microns or less: they contain remains of imperfect smelting, segregated phases in alloys, inclusions. Due to their exceptional chemical stability, gold artifacts remain essentially unchanged during weathering and aging processes. Several fragments of ancient gold objects coming from an Eneolithic treasury and from Pietroasa 'Closca cu Puii de Aur' (The Golden Brood Hen with Its Chickens) hoard, unearthed on Romanian territory and two Romanian native gold nuggets samples were analysed using micro-PIXE technique. The purpose of the study was to clarify the metal provenance, establishing if the hypothesis of local gold holds. To reach this goal, trace elements (Cu, Te, Sn, Pb, Hg, As, Zr, Sb) and PGE (Platinum Group Elements) concentrations were determined. The presence of inclusions (micrometric size areas of composition different from the surroundings) was also checked. We found some Si, Ca, Fe ones on two Eneolithic samples, and Ta and Cr on a sample from Pietroasa hoard. The measurements led to conclusions regarding the alluvial origin of the gold for the Eneolithical samples and gave some indications for the possible gold ore sources of Pietroasa treasury, confirming the heterogeneity of this treasury (the two analysed pieces belonged to different stylistic and compositional groups). (authors)

  19. The Object of Study; or, Are We Being Transnational Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce Traister

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This article polemically engages with recent trends and particular interventions in American transnational studies. It argues that the transnationalization of American literary and cultural studies, a movement sponsored institutionally by the American Studies Association among other scholarly organizations, amounts to another version of exceptionalist Americanist critique. In reading and assessing contributions to transnational studies from the field’s leading practitioners, including Donald Pease, Robyn Wiegman, Janice Radway, Wai Chee Dimock, Paul Giles, and others, this essay argues that many of our critical narratives of American transnationalism end up reaffirming or recycling aspects of the exceptionalist narratives of American identity they would replace. “America” functions as the signifier of repressed critical identity whether criticizing the territorial integrity, the mono-linguistic deployment, or the insular-exclusive vision of American Studies. The essay suggests that Americanist practice can claim the histories, literatures, and political economies of the United States as an object of study without invariably reproducing anti-progressive political narratives about that identity.

  20. The Object of Study; or, Are We Being Transnational Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce Traister

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article polemically engages with recent trends and particular interventions in American transnational studies. It argues that the transnationalization of American literary and cultural studies, a movement sponsored institutionally by the American Studies Association among other scholarly organizations, amounts to another version of exceptionalist Americanist critique. In reading and assessing contributions to transnational studies from the field’s leading practitioners, including Donald Pease, Robyn Wiegman, Janice Radway, Wai Chee Dimock, Paul Giles, and others, this essay argues that many of our critical narratives of American transnationalism end up reaffirming or recycling aspects of the exceptionalist narratives of American identity they would replace. “America” functions as the signifier of repressed critical identity whether criticizing the territorial integrity, the mono-linguistic deployment, or the insular-exclusive vision of American Studies. The essay suggests that Americanist practice can claim the histories, literatures, and political economies of the United States as an object of study without invariably reproducing anti-progressive political narratives about that identity.

  1. DDeveloping and solving a bi-objective joint replenishment problem under storing space constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ommolbanin yousefi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a bi-objective joint replenishment problem has been developed and solved with the assumption of one restricted resource. The proposed model has a storing space constraint and tries to optimize two objective functions simultaneously. They include minimizing annual holding and setup costs and minimizing annual inventory investment. Then, for solving this problem, a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA has been developed. In order to analyze the algorithm efficiency, its performance has been examined in solving 1600 randomly produced problems using parameters extracted from literature. The findings imply that the proposed algorithm is capable of producing a good set of Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, the application of the problem solving approach and the findings of the proposed algorithm have been illustrated for a special problem, which has been randomly produced.

  2. A new multi objective optimization model for designing a green supply chain network under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Saffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have focused on how to minimize the negative effects of industrial activities on environment. Consequently, they work on mathematical models, which minimize the environmental issues as well as optimizing the costs. In the field of supply chain network design, most managers consider economic and environmental issues, simultaneously. This paper introduces a bi-objective supply chain network design, which uses fuzzy programming to obtain the capability of resisting uncertain conditions. The design considers production, recovery, and distribution centers. The advantage of using this model includes the optimal facilities, locating them and assigning the optimal facilities to them. It also chooses the type and the number of technologies, which must be bought. The fuzzy programming converts the multi objective model to an auxiliary crisp model by Jimenez approach and solves it with ε-constraint. For solving large size problems, the Multi Objective Differential Evolutionary algorithm (MODE is applied.

  3. Asymmetric Compression of Representational Space for Object Animacy Categorization under Degraded Viewing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootswagers, Tijl; Ritchie, J Brendan; Wardle, Susan G; Heathcote, Andrew; Carlson, Thomas A

    2017-12-01

    Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization. PLoS Computational Biology, 11, e1004316, 2015; Carlson, T. A., Ritchie, J. B., Kriegeskorte, N., Durvasula, S., & Ma, J. Reaction time for object categorization is predicted by representational distance. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26, 132-142, 2014]. Using MEG decoding, we tested if the same relationship holds when a stimulus manipulation (degradation) increases task difficulty, which we predicted would systematically decrease the distance of activation patterns from the decision boundary and increase RTs. In addition, we tested whether distance to the classifier boundary correlates with drift rates in the linear ballistic accumulator [Brown, S. D., & Heathcote, A. The simplest complete model of choice response time: Linear ballistic accumulation. Cognitive Psychology, 57, 153-178, 2008]. We found that distance to the classifier boundary correlated with RT, accuracy, and drift rates in an animacy categorization task. Split by animacy, the correlations between brain and behavior were sustained longer over the time course for animate than for inanimate stimuli. Interestingly, when examining the distance to the classifier boundary during the peak correlation between brain and behavior, we found that only degraded versions of animate, but not inanimate, objects had systematically shifted toward the classifier decision boundary as predicted. Our results support an asymmetry in the representation of animate and inanimate object categories in the human

  4. Evaluation of progress under the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. Progress towards EU air quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report was to assess to what extent the NEC Directive's environmental and health objectives concerning acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone exposure for the year 2010 have been achieved. The main basis for the assessment is the emission inventory data officially reported by Member States. The analysis was conducted by using the same scientific methods of 2001 (original knowledge) and 2010 (present knowledge) that support European air pollution abatement policies. The original knowledge consisted of modelling concentrations and exposure using the older Lagrangian EMEP model (utilising a 150 x 150 km{sup 2} grid for the computation of grid-average S and N depositions and ground-level ozone concentrations, together with the 1998 European critical load database for assessing the risk of acidification and eutrophication). The assessment performed on the basis of present knowledge used the current Eulerian EMEP model on a 50 x 50 km{sup 2} grid for the computation of ecosystem-specific depositions and ground-level ozone concentrations, in combination with the 2008 European critical loads database. When assessing progress using original knowledge, the NEC Directive's interim environmental acidification objective has been met in almost all grid cells, while the eutrophication objective - provided in a footnote within the NEC Directive and which was formulated on the European Union area as a whole - has been met both for the EU-15 and the EU-27 regions as a whole. If, in contrast, the eutrophication objective had been required to be met in individual grid cells (as for acidification) or in individual Member States, it would be exceeded in many grid cells and in 11 Member States. While acidification has been markedly reduced, eutrophication is now recognised as a major environmental problem in Europe, especially in the context of its potential adverse impacts on biodiversity. An assessment using present knowledge indicates that

  5. Social goal-objective formation, democracy and national interest a theory of political economy under fuzzy rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the development of a theory of social goal-objective formation and its relationship to national interest and social vision under a democratic decision-choice system with imperfect information structure. It provides a framework for the application of fuzzy logic and its mathematics to the analysis in resolving conflicts in individual preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence. The book demonstrates how to use fuzzy logic and its mathematics in the study of economics, social sciences and other complex systems. It also presents the use of collaborative tools of opposites, duality, polarity, continuum in fuzzy paradigm with its logic, laws of thought and mathematics in developing a new approach to the theory of political economy in order to enhance the constructs of social decision-choice theory.

  6. Multi-objective portfolio optimization of mutual funds under downside risk measure using fuzzy theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutual fund is one of the most popular techniques for many people to invest their funds where a professional fund manager invests people's funds based on some special predefined objectives; therefore, performance evaluation of mutual funds is an important problem. This paper proposes a multi-objective portfolio optimization to offer asset allocation. The proposed model clusters mutual funds with two methods based on six characteristics including rate of return, variance, semivariance, turnover rate, Treynor index and Sharpe index. Semivariance is used as a downside risk measure. The proposed model of this paper uses fuzzy variables for return rate and semivariance. A multi-objective fuzzy mean-semivariance portfolio optimization model is implemented and fuzzy programming technique is adopted to solve the resulted problem. The proposed model of this paper has gathered the information of mutual fund traded on Nasdaq from 2007 to 2009 and Pareto optimal solutions are obtained considering different weights for objective functions. The results of asset allocation, rate of return and risk of each cluster are also determined and they are compared with the results of two clustering methods.

  7. Management of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund under socio-ecological economic convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoslavska, Alina; Semenchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the problems of the current state of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund. The author substantiates the way of development process improvement of the sustainable development of the NRF through the development of economics and “green” economic growth management, which integrates a model of sustainable development in the long-term strategy.

  8. Many-objective robust decision making for water allocation under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Dan; Ludwig, Fulco; Huang, He Qing; Werners, Saskia E.

    2017-01-01

    Water allocation is facing profound challenges due to climate change uncertainties. To identify adaptive water allocation strategies that are robust to climate change uncertainties, a model framework combining many-objective robust decision making and biophysical modeling is developed for large

  9. Sinking/floatation of pipelines and other objects in liquefied soil under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    1999-01-01

    the experiments with the structure model, the displacement of the structure (sinking or floatation) was measured simultaneously with the pore-water pressure. The influence of various parameters (such as the initial position of the object, the specific gravity, the soil layer thickness, and the wave height......, and the experiments with the structure model (a pipeline, a sphere, and a cube). In the former experiments, the pore-water pressure was measured across the soil depth. The pore-water pressure built up, as the waves progressed. The soil was liquefied for wave heights larger than a critical value. Regarding......) was investigated. It was found that while the pipe sank in the soil to a depth of 2-3 times the pipe diameter, the sphere sank to even larger depths. The pipe with a relatively small specific gravity, initially buried, floated to the surface of the soil. The drag coefficients for the objects sinking...

  10. Evaluating Robotic Surgical Skills Performance Under Distractive Environment Using Objective and Subjective Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Irene H; LaGrange, Chad A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-02-01

    Distractions are recognized as a significant factor affecting performance in safety critical domains. Although operating rooms are generally full of distractions, the effect of distractions on robot-assisted surgical (RAS) performance is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of distractions on RAS performance using both objective and subjective measures. Fifteen participants performed a knot-tying task using the da Vinci Surgical System and were exposed to 3 distractions: (1) passive distraction entailed listening to noise with a constant heart rate, (2) active distraction included listening to noise and acknowledging a change of random heart rate from 60 to 120 bpm, and (3) interactive distraction consisted of answering math questions. The objective kinematics of the surgical instrument tips were used to evaluate performance. Electromyography (EMG) of the forearm and hand muscles of the participants were collected. The median EMG frequency (EMG(fmed)) and the EMG envelope (EMG(env)) were analyzed. NASA Task Load Index and Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery score were used to evaluate the subjective performance. One-way repeated analysis of variance was applied to examine the effects of distraction on skills performance. Spearman's correlations were conducted to compare objective and subjective measures. Significant distraction effect was found for all objective kinematics measures (P < .05). There were significant distraction effects for EMG measures (EMG(env), P < .004; EMG(fmed), P = .031). Significant distraction effects were also found for subjective measurements. Distraction impairs surgical skills performance and increases muscle work. Understanding how the surgeons cope with distractions is important in developing surgical education. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS. The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Amman (Jordan, Mosel (Iraq, Muscat (Oman, Tunisia (Tunisia and Kenitra (Morocco. Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will

  12. Objective Oriented Problem Solving a Case Study: Mugher Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective Oriented Problem Solving technique is presented in two stages, namely the analysis phase and the planning phase. The first deals with the analysis of participants, problems, objectives and alternatives. In the second phase an explanation on how to form a planning matrix is given by way of discussing ...

  13. An Exploratory Study into the Efficacy of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Farha, Ph.D.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning objects have quickly become a widely accepted approach to instructional technology, particularly in on-line and computer-based learning environments. While there is a substantial body of literature concerning learning objects, very little of it verifies their efficacy. This research investigated the effectiveness of learning objects by comparing learning outcomes using a learning object with outcomes using a traditional textbook-based method of instruction. Participants were 327 undergraduate college students at a traditional public four-year coed institution, a private four-year women’s college, a private four-year engineering institution, and a public two-year community college. Through a series of independent samples t-tests and Analyses of Variance, results revealed mean scores for the learning object group that were nearly three times higher than the mean scores for the textbook-taught group. Gaming experience, age, gender, and learner preference were evaluated for their potential influence on the results; no statistically significant differences were found, implying that the learning object itself was central to the outcomes achieved. The future of learning objects is bright, and more empirical research is called for in the area of learning object effectiveness.

  14. Study of archaeological objects by neutron imaging, xrd and xrf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.; Dinu, A. D.; Stanciulescu, M. G.; Mandescu, D.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological objects were borrowed from Arges County History Museum (ACHM) and investigated at the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR). Metallic objects made in iron, copper alloys and silver discovered in southern part of Romania, mostly Dacian and Roman origin, were investigated. For imaging was used the neutron and gamma imaging facility from tangential channel of the TRIGA ACPR to put in evidence the internal structure of the objects. For elemental and chemical composition, concentration levels in objects were performed investigations by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These investigations offer valuable information in archaeological research about composition, structure of the bulk, presence of alteration, inclusions, typology of the location of material extraction, manufacturing techniques etc. This work is an example of application of neutron imaging and other radiation-based analytical methods for cultural heritage research that had the aim to involve some of the non-destructive investigation methods available at INR. (authors)

  15. Study of stellar objects with strange quark matter crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hothi, N.; Bisht, S.

    2012-01-01

    The absolute stability of strange quark matter is a viable possibility and immensely effects physics at the astrophysical scale. Relativistic heavy-ion reactions offer a stage to produce this exotic state of matter and the enhanced production of strange particles during these reactions can be studied within the framework of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We have tried to investigate the role of strangeness under the compact star phenomenology. Emphasis is laid upon the possibility of existence of a third family of strange quark stars and its study help in revealing a number of unexplored features of the cosmos. Bag model parameters have been used to determine some integral parameters for a sequence of strange stars with crust and strange dwarfs constructed out of strange quark matter crust. A comparative analysis is performed between the strange and neutron stars and the strange and white dwarfs based upon these intrinsic parameters and paramount differences are observed. The intimacy between astrophysics and strange quarks depends strongly upon the strange quark matter hypothesis. It states that for a collection of more than a few hundred u, d and s quarks, the energy per baryon E/A of strange quark matter (SQM) can be well below the energy per baryon of the most stable atomic nuclei

  16. Gender Differences in Memory for Objects and Their Locations: A Study on Automatic versus Controlled Encoding and Retrieval Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goede, Maartje; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Object-location memory is the only spatial task where female subjects have been shown to outperform males. This result is not consistent across all studies, and may be due to the combination of the multi-component structure of object location memory with the conditions under which different studies were done. Possible gender differences in object…

  17. OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS UNDER ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM AT TRADE ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIMAN ADRIAN-COSMIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As Radu said (2009, pag. 91 [6] logical approach developed by accounting, presentation of an exact image of the heritage, the financial situation and financial results, based on a rational thought, a gradual knowledge domain investigated, concepts, tools and processes that allow a better understanding of the essence of economic phenomena and processes. Theoretical framework brings together a number of concepts that are considered fundamental to regulatory or accounting systems applied at the level of the entity to have clearly specified the coordinates of the base and are able to achieve cohesion between the objective of financial statements as true and fair view, financial information and policy characteristics and estimation techniques as a form of expression towards the recognition and presentation of economic reality. The author considers, in the context of the defined system applied within the accounting entities in general, that principles, presents not only a crucial premise, as well as needed necessity in order to show an exact image of the performance and financial position of the entity.

  18. Multi-objective optimization of a functionally graded sandwich panel under mechanical loading in the presence of stress constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashjari, Mohammad; Khoshravan, Mohammad Reza

    2017-12-01

    A method was presented for multi-objective optimization of material distribution of simply supported functionally graded (FG) sandwich panel, and sensitivity analyses of optimal designs were also conducted based on design variables and objective functions. The material composition was assumed to vary only in the thickness direction. Piecewise cubic interpolation of volume fractions was used to calculate volume fractions of constituent material phases at a point; these fractions were defined at a limited number of evenly spaced control points. The effective material properties of the panel were obtained by applying the linear rule of mixtures. The behavior of FG sandwich panel was predicted by Reddy's assumptions of third-order shear deformation theory. Exact solutions for deflections and stresses of simply supported sandwich panel were presented using the Navier-type solution technique. The volume fractions at control points, material, and thickness of the faces which were selected as decision variables were optimized by a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm known as the fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). The mass and deflection of the model were considered the objective functions to be minimized with stress constraints. This model was optimized to verify the capability and efficiency of the proposed model under mechanical loading. The framework proposed for designing FG sandwich panel under pure mechanical conditions was furnished by the results.

  19. Visual Servoing for Object Manipulation: A Case Study in Slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Haiyan; Andersen, Thomas Timm; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2016-01-01

    Automation for slaughterhouse challenges the design of the control system due to the variety of the objects. Realtime sensing provides instantaneous information about each piece of work and thus, is useful for robotic system developed for slaughterhouse. In this work, a pick and place task which....... An online and offline combined path planning algorithm is proposed to generate the desired path for the robot control. An industrial robot arm is applied to execute the path. The system is implemented for a lab-scale experiment, and the results show a high success rate of object manipulation in the pick...

  20. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age – A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Liebherr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out.

  1. Objectivity and Plausibility in the Study of Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, R.

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that though it is impossible to know whether a theoretical claim is epistemically objective or not, it may be accepted as plausible when it is felt to be in some accordance with “the given”— empirical findings, subjective/intersubjective ideas, thoughts and feelings, and the

  2. 31 OBJECTIVE ORIENTED PROBLEM SOLVING A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    objectives can be sustained in the long-tenn to improve conununication ... planning process. It is an open workable system which is as good as a planning team. The implementation of this method is divided into two phases [5,6]. The analysis phase .... industries (Maintenance Management: Swnmer course foc two groups of ...

  3. Mapping of landslides under dense vegetation cover using object - oriented analysis and LiDAR derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Eeckhout, Miet; Kerle, N.; Hervas, Javier; Supper, Robert; Margottini, C.; Canuti, P.; Sassa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and its wide range of derivative products have become a powerful tool in landslide research, particularly for landslide identification and landslide inventory mapping. In contrast to the many studies that use expert-based analysis of LiDAR derivatives to identify

  4. Plating of archaeological metallic objects - studies by differential PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, Z.; Istenic, J.; Knific, T.

    2008-01-01

    The differential PIXE method using an external proton beam up to 3 MeV energy was applied to examine plated layers of tin, silver and gold on bronze, brass, iron and silver objects from Roman and Early Medieval period. The concentration profiles were deduced from the measurements by the method of virtual slicing the target into layers, and minimizing the differences between the measured and calculated X-ray yields. The tinned layers were usually thin (about 1 μm), but the thickness of silver and gold layers was in several cases thicker and exceeded the proton range. The plating techniques were identified as application of the molten metal for tinning, and as fire gilding for the gilded objects

  5. Capillary pressure studies under low gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, V I; Ravera, F; Liggieri, L; Loglio, G; Pandolfini, P; Makievski, A V; Vincent-Bonnieu, S; Krägel, J; Javadi, A; Miller, R

    2010-12-15

    For the understanding of short-time adsorption phenomena and high-frequency relaxations at liquid interfaces particular experimental techniques are needed. The most suitable method for respective studies is the capillary pressure tensiometry. However, under gravity conditions there are rather strong limitations, in particular due to convections and interfacial deformations. This manuscript provides an overview of the state of the art of experimental tools developed for short-time and high-frequency investigations of liquid drops and bubbles under microgravity. Besides the brief description of instruments, the underlying theoretical basis will be presented and limits of the applied methods under ground and microgravity conditions will be discussed. The results on the role of surfactants under highly dynamic conditions will be demonstrated by some selected examples studied in two space shuttle missions on Discovery in 1998 and Columbia in 2003. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sales with Privately Made Deed Over The Object Under Hak Tanggungan Based on The Authorization to Sell in Banking Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Budi Purwaningsih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The extension of credit contain a risk that must be covered by the bank, because the credit is given now and pay later. To minimize the risk of loans, the bank will ask the debtor to provide collateral as a source of repayment of the debt if the debtor default or breach of the contract. According to Article 1131 Civil Code (KUH Perdata, all assets of a debtor, either moving or fixed objects, both existing and new will exist in the future, a guarantee for all debts of the engagement. This means that by itself or in order to pass laws providing collateral by a debtor to any creditor for all debtor's property. Sales with Privately Made Deed over the object in the hak tanggungan banking practices may be more effective and efficient both in terms of time and costs for the settlement of non-performing loans. But in practice, occurs some offense prescribed procedure leading to doubts about the legality aspect of sales with privately made deed over the object under hak tanggungan based on the authorization to sell in banking practice. How To Cite: Purwaningsih, S. (2014. Sales with Privately Made Deed Over The Object Under Hak Tanggungan Based on The Authorization to Sell in Banking Practice. Rechtsidee, 1(2, 191-204. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i2.100

  7. A Mathematical and Numerically Integrable Modeling of 3D Object Grasping under Rolling Contacts between Smooth Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Arimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A computable model of grasping and manipulation of a 3D rigid object with arbitrary smooth surfaces by multiple robot fingers with smooth fingertip surfaces is derived under rolling contact constraints between surfaces. Geometrical conditions of pure rolling contacts are described through the moving-frame coordinates at each rolling contact point under the postulates: (1 two surfaces share a common single contact point without any mutual penetration and a common tangent plane at the contact point and (2 each path length of running of the contact point on the robot fingertip surface and the object surface is equal. It is shown that a set of Euler-Lagrange equations of motion of the fingers-object system can be derived by introducing Lagrange multipliers corresponding to geometric conditions of contacts. A set of 1st-order differential equations governing rotational motions of each fingertip and the object and updating arc-length parameters should be accompanied with the Euler-Lagrange equations. Further more, nonholonomic constraints arising from twisting between the two normal axes to each tangent plane are rewritten into a set of Frenet-Serre equations with a geometrically given normal curvature and a motion-induced geodesic curvature.

  8. New media as an object of sociological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Zhurbenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the author analyzes the New Media as the factor of the emergence of a fundamentally new culture of communication in modern society. To determine the New Media as a term the author analyzed the interpretations that exist in contemporary sociological literature. Moreover, the author suggests her own definition of «New Media». As a result the author gives methodological research of New and traditional («Old» Media and considers the main benefits of the global network in comparison with traditional media. The author found that there are a number of theoretical concepts to describe the type of society that is transformed under the influence of the mass use of modern communication technologies. The benefit of this study is the research of the social nature of the New Media. Moreover, the author has revealed that New Media technologies have affected even on traditional printed and electronic media, and it led to the formation of new types of social interaction. The author analyzes the key characteristics of the New Media, such as interactivity, individualization, multimedia and the lack of intermediaries. The author researched the key principles of modern communication technologies, which have the greatest impact on the nature of social interaction. Consequently, it was found that New Media can play a key role in political communication. The author found that the political structures, parties and leaders are becoming more active «newsmakers» – the creators of the news. At the same time they become their carriers, which contribute to the conversion of New Media in the factor of transformation of political actor role characteristics. So, the author came to the conclusion that today the relationship between New Media and politics arises because the media are dependent on political information and politicians are directly dependent on the media. The author also analyzed the impact of the Internet and New Media on the process

  9. A Practical Study of Control in Objected-Oriented–Functional–Logic Programming with Paisley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar Trancón y Widemann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paisley is an extensible lightweight embedded domain-specific language for nondeterministic pattern matching in Java. Using simple APIs and programming idioms, it brings the power of functional-logic processing of arbitrary data objects to the Java platform, without constraining the underlying object-oriented semantics. Here we present an extension to the Paisley framework that adds pattern-based control flow. It exploits recent additions to the Java language, namely functional interfaces and lambda expressions, for an explicit and transparent continuation-passing style approach to control. We evaluate the practical impact of the novel features on a real-world case study that reengineers a third-party open-source project to use Paisley in place of conventional object-oriented data query idioms. We find the approach viable for incremental refactoring of legacy code, with significant qualitative improvements regarding separation of concerns, clarity and intentionality, thus making for easier code understanding, testing and debugging.

  10. An Object of Discourse for Studies of Pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Paveau, Marie-Anne; Perea, François

    2015-01-01

    Pornography has been the subject of much recent discussion, particularly in France. It has become an everyday theme in media discourse as the numerous articles, special files and columns in the printed and online press demonstrate, as does the multiplication of "sex" features under various names in nearly all the French daily and weekly papers, on numerous radio stations and television channels. Pornography has also become a research subject and is now an integral part of humanities and socia...

  11. Do Short-Term Managerial Objectives Lead to Under- or Over-Investment in Long-Term Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk; Lars A. Stole

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies managerial decisions about investment in long-run projects in the presence of imperfect information (the market knows less about such investments than the firm's managers) and short-term managerial objectives (the managers are concerned about the short-term stock price as well as the long-term stock price). Prior work has suggested that imperfect information and short-term managerial objectives induce managers to underinvest in long-run projects. We show that either underin...

  12. Large-Scale Laboratory Experiments of Initiation of Motion and Burial of Objects under Currents and Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, B. J.; Wu, H.; Wenzel, S. P.; Gates, S. J.; Fytanidis, D. K.; Garcia, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Unexploded ordnances (UXOs) can be found at the bottom of coastal areas as the residue of military wartime activities, training or accidents. These underwater objects are hazards for humans and the coastal environment increasing the need for addressing the knowledge gaps regarding the initiation of motion, fate and transport of UXOs under currents and wave conditions. Extensive experimental analysis was conducted for the initiation of motion of UXOs under various rigid bed roughness conditions (smooth PVC, pitted steel, marbles, gravels and bed of spherical particles) for both unidirectional and oscillatory flows. Particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted under both flow conditions to resolve the flow structure estimate the critical flow conditions for initiation of motion of UXOs. Analysis of the experimental observations shows that the geometrical characteristics of the UXOs, their properties (i.e. volume, mass) and their orientation with respect to the mean flow play an important role on the reorientation and mobility of the examined objects. A novel unified initiation of motion diagram is proposed using an effective/unified hydrodynamic roughness and a new length scale which includes the effect of the projected area and the bed-UXO contact area. Both unidirectional and oscillatory critical flow conditions collapsed into a single dimensionless diagram highlighting the importance and practical applicability of the proposed work. In addition to the rigid bed experiments, the burial dynamics of proud UXOs on a mobile sand bed were also examined. The complex flow-bedform-UXOs interactions were evaluated which highlighted the effect of munition density on burial rate and final burial depth. Burial dynamics and mechanisms for motion were examined for various UXOs types, and results show that, for the case of the low density UXOs under energetic conditions, lateral transport coexists with burial. Prior to burial, UXO re-orientation was also observed

  13. Objective Endoscopic Measurements of Central Airway Stenosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Debora; Ortiz, Rosa Maria; Sánchez, Carles; Rosell, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Endoscopic estimation of the degree of stenosis in central airway obstruction is subjective and highly variable. To determine the benefits of using SENSA (System for Endoscopic Stenosis Assessment), an image-based computational software, for obtaining objective stenosis index (SI) measurements among a group of expert bronchoscopists and general pulmonologists. A total of 7 expert bronchoscopists and 7 general pulmonologists were enrolled to validate SENSA usage. The SI obtained by the physicians and by SENSA were compared with a reference SI to set their precision in SI computation. We used SENSA to efficiently obtain this reference SI in 11 selected cases of benign stenosis. A Web platform with three user-friendly microtasks was designed to gather the data. The users had to visually estimate the SI from videos with and without contours of the normal and the obstructed area provided by SENSA. The users were able to modify the SENSA contours to define the reference SI using morphometric bronchoscopy. Visual SI estimation accuracy was associated with neither bronchoscopic experience (p = 0.71) nor the contours of the normal and the obstructed area provided by the system (p = 0.13). The precision of the SI by SENSA was 97.7% (95% CI: 92.4-103.7), which is significantly better than the precision of the SI by visual estimation (p < 0.001), with an improvement by at least 15%. SENSA provides objective SI measurements with a precision of up to 99.5%, which can be calculated from any bronchoscope using an affordable scalable interface. Providing normal and obstructed contours on bronchoscopic videos does not improve physicians' visual estimation of the SI. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. A multi-objective optimization model for hub network design under uncertainty: An inexact rough-interval fuzzy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakan, F.; Vahdani, B.; Mohammadi, M.

    2015-12-01

    This article proposes a multi-objective mixed-integer model to optimize the location of hubs within a hub network design problem under uncertainty. The considered objectives include minimizing the maximum accumulated travel time, minimizing the total costs including transportation, fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions costs, and finally maximizing the minimum service reliability. In the proposed model, it is assumed that for connecting two nodes, there are several types of arc in which their capacity, transportation mode, travel time, and transportation and construction costs are different. Moreover, in this model, determining the capacity of the hubs is part of the decision-making procedure and balancing requirements are imposed on the network. To solve the model, a hybrid solution approach is utilized based on inexact programming, interval-valued fuzzy programming and rough interval programming. Furthermore, a hybrid multi-objective metaheuristic algorithm, namely multi-objective invasive weed optimization (MOIWO), is developed for the given problem. Finally, various computational experiments are carried out to assess the proposed model and solution approaches.

  15. A multi-objective location-inventory model for 3PL providers with sustainable considerations under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daghigh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, logistics development is considered as an important aspect of any country’s development. Outsourcing logistics activities to third party logistics (3PL providers is a common way to achieve logistics development. On the other hand, globalization and increasing customers’ concern about the environmental impact of activities as well as the appearance of the issue of social responsibility have led companies employ sustainable supply chain management, which considers economic, environmental and social benefits, simultaneously. This paper proposes a multi-objective model to design logistics network for 3PL providers by considering sustainable objectives under uncertainty. Objective functions include minimizing the total cost, minimizing greenhouse gas emission and maximizing social responsibility subject to fair access to products, number of created job opportunities and local community development. It is worth mentioning that in the present paper the perishability of products is also considered. A numerical example is provided to solve and validate model using augmented Epsilon-Constraint method. The results show that three sustainable objectives were in conflict and as the one receives more desirable values, the others fall into more undesirable values. In addition, by increasing maximum perishable time periods and by considering lateral transshipment among facilities of a level one can improve sustainability indices of the problem, which indicates the necessity of such policy in improving network sustainability.

  16. Art, historical and cultural heritage objects studied with different non-destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Added, Nemitala; Campos, Pedro H.O.V.; Curado, Jessica F.; Kajiya, Elizabeth A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Since 2003, the analysis of art, historical and cultural heritage objects has being performed at the Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais of the Instituto de Fisica of the Universidade de Sao Paulo (LAMFI-USP). Initially the studies were restricted to non-destructive methods using ion beams to characterize the chemical elements present in the objects. Recently, new analytical techniques and procedures have been incorporated to the better characterization of the objects and the examinations were expanded to other non-destructive analytical techniques such as portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), digitalized radiography, high resolution photography with visible, UV (ultraviolet) light and reflectography in the infrared region. These non-destructive analytical techniques systematically applied to the objects are helping the better understanding of these objects and allow studying them by examining their main components; their conservation status and also the creative process of the artist, particularly in easel paintings allow making new discoveries. The setup of the external beam in the LAMFI laboratory is configured to allow different simultaneous analysis by PIXE / PIGE (Particle Induced X-ray emission / Particle Induced gamma rays emission), RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) and IBL (Ion Beam Luminescence) and to expand the archaeometric results using ion beams. PIXE and XRF analysis are important to characterize the elements presents in the objects, pigments and others materials. The digitized radiography has provided important information about the internal structure of the objects, the manufacturing process, the internal particles existing and in case of easel paintings it can reveal features of the artist's creative process showing hidden images and the first paintings done by the artist in the background. Some Brazilian paintings studied by IR imaging revealed underlying drawings, which allowed us to discover the process of creation and also some

  17. Art, historical and cultural heritage objects studied with different non-destructive analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Added, Nemitala; Campos, Pedro H.O.V.; Curado, Jessica F.; Kajiya, Elizabeth A.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Since 2003, the analysis of art, historical and cultural heritage objects has being performed at the Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais of the Instituto de Fisica of the Universidade de Sao Paulo (LAMFI-USP). Initially the studies were restricted to non-destructive methods using ion beams to characterize the chemical elements present in the objects. Recently, new analytical techniques and procedures have been incorporated to the better characterization of the objects and the examinations were expanded to other non-destructive analytical techniques such as portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), digitalized radiography, high resolution photography with visible, UV (ultraviolet) light and reflectography in the infrared region. These non-destructive analytical techniques systematically applied to the objects are helping the better understanding of these objects and allow studying them by examining their main components; their conservation status and also the creative process of the artist, particularly in easel paintings allow making new discoveries. The setup of the external beam in the LAMFI laboratory is configured to allow different simultaneous analysis by PIXE / PIGE (Particle Induced X-ray emission / Particle Induced gamma rays emission), RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) and IBL (Ion Beam Luminescence) and to expand the archaeometric results using ion beams. PIXE and XRF analysis are important to characterize the elements presents in the objects, pigments and others materials. The digitized radiography has provided important information about the internal structure of the objects, the manufacturing process, the internal particles existing and in case of easel paintings it can reveal features of the artist's creative process showing hidden images and the first paintings done by the artist in the background. Some Brazilian paintings studied by IR imaging revealed underlying drawings, which allowed us to discover the process of creation and also some

  18. The study of cultural objects by nuclear and conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Tulio A.

    2000-01-01

    A survey is given of the techniques that are used at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina for the characterization and study of cultural and archaeological specimens. A short history of these activities is also given. (author)

  19. Objectives and Model Payload Definition for NEO Human Mission Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Carpenter, J.

    2011-10-01

    ESA has supported studies on NEO threat assessment systems and deflection concepts in the context of the General Studies Programme and in close cooperation with the directorates of Technical and Quality Management and of the Scientific Programme. This work has made it possible to identify a project for Europe to make a significant - yet realistic - contribution to the international efforts in this field: the Don Quijote NEO technology demonstration mission. This paper describes what such a small mission can do to prepare future human exploration and what is the in-situ data that can be obtained through such a project.

  20. Parametric study of radiofrequency helium discharge under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The parameters of radio frequency helium discharge under atmospheric pressure were studied by electrical and optical measurements using high voltage probe, current probe and optical emission spectroscopy. Two discharge modes α and γ were observed within certain limits. During α to γ mode transition, a decrease in ...

  1. Objective Measurements in Assessing a Black Music Course of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick J.

    1990-01-01

    A study of 80 eighth grade students investigated whether incorporation of a African-American music program would have special benefits for African-American students, music-experienced students, or high-musical-ability students. African-American students, taught material consistent with their heritage, performed better than whites. It is concluded…

  2. Objectives and current status of the study Mobi-kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Eastman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. Mobi-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL Barcelona, is underway in 15 countries to assess potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile communications technology (RF and extremely low frequency (ELF) fields) on brain tumour risk. The study aims to recruit over 2,000 cases of brain tumours aged 10 to 24 years and their respective controls (300 cases and 600 controls from Spain). The project builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. Hospital based controls are being selected to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates of population-based controls, validation of questionnaire responses with recross from network operators will allow characterization of possible recall errors. Extensive work has gone into characterising and modelling ELF and RF exposure from different types of mobile and cordless phones, from different communication systems, and from other environmental sources of EMF. The study will address a public health problem of increasing importance in Spain and provide information on potential health risks from mobile telephone use as well as from EMF in general. (Author) 21 refs.

  3. Multi-leveled objects: Color as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana eAlbertazzi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents color as a case study for the analysis of phenomena that pertain to several levels of reality and are typically framed by different sciences and disciplines. Color, in fact, is studied by physics, biology, phenomenology and aesthetics, among others. Our thesis is that color is a different entity for each level of reality, and that for this reason color generates different observables in the epistemologies of the different sciences. By analysing color as a paradigmatic case of an entity naturally spreading over different levels of reality, the paper raises the question as to whether making explicit the usually implicit ontological assumptions embedded within the different observables exploited by the different sciences may eventually clarify some of the difficulties of developing a comprehensive theory of color.

  4. Underlying Event Studies for LHC Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnafoeldi, Gergely Gabor; Levai, Peter; Agocs, Andras G.

    2011-01-01

    Underlying event was originally defined by the CDF collaboration decades ago. Here we improve the original definition to extend our analysis for events with multiple-jets. We introduce a definition for surrounding rings/belts and based on this definition the jet- and surrounding-belt-excluded areas will provide a good underlying event definition. We inverstigate our definition via the multiplicity in the defined geometry. In parallel, mean transverse momenta of these areas also studied in proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 7 TeV LHC energy.

  5. Publishing studies: the search for an elusive academic object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Noël

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the validity of the so-called “publishing studies” as an academic discipline, while trying to situate them within the field of social sciences and to contextualize their success. It argues that a more appropriate frame could be adopted to describe what people studying the transformations of book publishing do – or should do – both at a theoretical and methodological level. The paper begins by providing an overview of the scholarly and academic context in France as far as book publishing is concerned, highlighting its genesis and current development. It goes on to underline the main pitfalls that such a sub-field as publishing studies is faced with, before making suggestions as to the bases for a stimulating analysis of publishing, making a case for an interdisciplinary approach nurtured by social sciences. The paper is based on a long-term field study on independent presses in France, together with a survey of literature on the subject.

  6. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS TO STUDY TOMATO FRUIT QUALITY UNDER STRESS CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    De Stefano, Rosalba

    2013-01-01

    The studies carried out during my Ph.D thesis focused on the identification of genetic mechanisms which regulate tomato fruit quality traits under abiotic (water deficit) and biotic (Botrytis cinerea) stress conditions. Specifically the work was developed through two lines of research with certain objectives: 1) Identification of candidate genes controlling tomato fruit quality in response to water deficit, through microarray tools and the use of an Introgression line (IL9-2-5). 2...

  7. On the Relationship Between Method and the Object of Study When Studying Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Cameron David

    2014-01-01

    consideration of the evolution of superstition as a means to gain perspective on the evolution of the study of religion and definitions of religion and as a cautionary note to both the contextual study of religion and the cognitive-evolutionary (ce) study of religion. I then continue with an overview of our......If a discipline is defined by the object of its study, then the definition of the object of study has a priori paramount importance. Studies of the evolution of the study of religion show that researchers have been unable to escape their own socio-political contexts. I begin with a brief...... conference, “Researching Religion: Methodological Debates in Anthropology and the Study of Religion,” at Aarhus University, and the seven articles published in this special double issue of Numen. Taken together, they reflect and address an international rupture between the contextual and the ce study...

  8. Bite Mark Analysis in Foodstuffs and Inanimate Objects and the Underlying Proofs for Validity and Judicial Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mendoza, Fernando; Martín-de-Las-Heras, Stella; Navarro-Cáceres, Pablo; Fonseca, Gabriel M

    2018-03-01

    Even though one of the first bite mark cases was Doyle v. State in 1954 (a bitten cheese case), the research has focused on bite marks inflicted in human skin. As published Papers, Case Reports, or Technical Notes can constitute precedents which are relied upon in making the legal arguments and a considerable amount of case law exists in this area, we present a systematic review on bite mark analysis in foodstuffs and inanimate objects and their underlying proofs for validity and judicial acceptance according to Daubert rulings. Results showed that there is vulnerability in these procedures, and it is essential to demand for focus scrutiny on the known error rates when such evidence is presented in trials. These kinds of bite marks are well documented; however, there has been little research in this field knowing that the protocols of analysis and comparison are the responsibility of the forensic odontologists. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation in FeMnNi alloys: A "grey alloy" object kinetic Monte Carlo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapetto, M.; Malerba, L.; Becquart, C. S.

    2015-07-01

    This work extends the object kinetic Monte Carlo model for neutron irradiation-induced nanostructure evolution in Fe-C binary alloys developed in [1], introducing the effects of substitutional solutes like Mn and Ni. The objective is to develop a model able to describe the nanostructural evolution of both vacancy and self-interstitial atom (SIA) defect cluster populations in Fe(C)MnNi neutron-irradiated model alloys at the operational temperature of light water reactors (∼300 °C), by simulating specific reference irradiation experiments. To do this, the effects of the substitutional solutes of interest are introduced, under simplifying assumptions, using a "grey alloy" scheme. Mn and Ni solute atoms are not explicitly introduced in the model, which therefore cannot describe their redistribution under irradiation, but their effect is introduced by modifying the parameters that govern the mobility of both SIA and vacancy clusters. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proved to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable defect clusters with increasing solute content. Solute concentration is explicitly taken into account in the model as a variable determining the slowing down of self-interstitial clusters; small vacancy clusters, on the other hand, are assumed to be significantly slowed down by the presence of solutes, while for clusters bigger than 10 vacancies their complete immobility is postulated. The model, which is fully based on physical considerations and only uses a few parameters for calibration, is found to be capable of reproducing the experimental trends in terms of density and size distribution of the irradiation-induced defect populations with dose, as compared to the reference experiment, thereby providing insight into the physical mechanisms that influence the nanostructural evolution undergone by this material during irradiation.

  10. Operationalization of National Objectives of Ethiopia into Educational Objectives. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation. No. 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaye, Abebe Alaro

    This paper reports on past educational objectives of the old political regime in Ethiopia and new educational objectives of revolutionary Ethiopia. It is reported that these new objectives focus on education for production, scientific research, and socialist consciousness, and that all subjects are based on Marxism-Leninism. Curricular objectives…

  11. A deformation model of flexible, HAMR objects for accurate propagation under perturbations and the self-shadowing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channumsin, Sittiporn; Ceriotti, Matteo; Radice, Gianmarco

    2018-02-01

    A new type of space debris in near geosynchronous orbit (GEO) was recently discovered and later identified as exhibiting unique characteristics associated with high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects, such as high rotation rates and high reflection properties. Observations have shown that this debris type is very sensitive to environmental disturbances, particularly solar radiation pressure, due to the fact that its motion depends on the actual effective area, orientation of that effective area, reflection properties and the area-to-mass ratio of the object is not stable over time. Previous investigations have modelled this type of debris as rigid bodies (constant area-to-mass ratios) or discrete deformed body; however, these simplifications will lead to inaccurate long term orbital predictions. This paper proposes a simple yet reliable model of a thin, deformable membrane based on multibody dynamics. The membrane is modelled as a series of flat plates, connected through joints, representing the flexibility of the membrane itself. The mass of the membrane, albeit low, is taken into account through lump masses at the joints. The attitude and orbital motion of this flexible membrane model is then propagated near GEO to predict its orbital evolution under the perturbations of solar radiation pressure, Earth's gravity field (J2), third body gravitational fields (the Sun and Moon) and self-shadowing. These results are then compared to those obtained for two rigid body models (cannonball and flat rigid plate). In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the flexible model by varying initial attitude and deformation angle (different shape) are investigated and compared with the two rigid models (cannonball and flat rigid plate) over a period of 100 days. The numerical results demonstrate that cannonball and rigid flat plate are not appropriate to capture the true dynamical evolution of these objects, at the cost of increased computational time.

  12. Studying leukocyte recruitment under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean A; Jurzinsky, Christophe; Cuvelier, Susan L; Patel, Kamala D

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment from the vasculature occurs under conditions of haemodynamic shear stress. The parallel plate flow chamber apparatus is an in vitro system that is widely used to study leukocyte recruitment under shear conditions. The flow chamber is a versatile tool for examining adhesive interactions, as it can be used to study a variety of adhesive substrates, ranging from monolayers of primary cells to isolated adhesion molecules, and a variety of adhesive particles, ranging from leukocytes in whole blood to antibody-coated latex beads. We describe here methods for studying leukocyte recruitment to cytokine-stimulated, transfected or transduced endothelial cells using both whole blood and isolated leukocyte suspensions. These methods enable multiple parameters to be measured, including the total number of recruited leukocytes, the percentage of leukocytes that are rolling or firmly adherent, and the percentage of leukocytes that have transmigrated. Although these methods are described for interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells, they are broadly applicable to the study of interactions between many combinations of adhesive substrates and adhesive particles.

  13. Among three different executive functions, general executive control ability is a key predictor of decision making under objective risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; Wegmann, Elisa; Gathmann, Bettina; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Executive functioning is supposed to have an important role in decision making under risk. Several studies reported that more advantageous decision-making behavior was accompanied by better performance in tests of executive functioning and that the decision-making process was accompanied by activations in prefrontal and subcortical brain regions associated with executive functioning. However, to what extent different components of executive functions contribute to decision making is still unclear. We tested direct and indirect effects of three executive functions on decision-making performance in a laboratory gambling task, the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Using Brand's model of decisions under risk (2006) we tested seven structural equation models with three latent variables that represent executive functions supposed to be involved in decision making. The latent variables were general control (represented by the general ability to exert attentional and behavioral self-control that is in accordance with task goals despite interfering information), concept formation (represented by categorization, rule detection, and set maintenance), and monitoring (represented by supervision of cognition and behavior). The seven models indicated that only the latent dimension general control had a direct effect on decision making under risk. Concept formation and monitoring only contributed in terms of indirect effects, when mediated by general control. Thus, several components of executive functioning seem to be involved in decision making under risk. However, general control functions seem to have a key role. They may be important for implementing the calculative and cognitively controlled processes involved in advantageous decision making under risk.

  14. Object Persistence Enhances Spatial Navigation: A Case Study in Smartphone Vision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverence, Brandon M; Scholl, Brian J

    2015-07-01

    Violations of spatiotemporal continuity disrupt performance in many tasks involving attention and working memory, but experiments on this topic have been limited to the study of moment-by-moment on-line perception, typically assessed by passive monitoring tasks. We tested whether persisting object representations also serve as underlying units of longer-term memory and active spatial navigation, using a novel paradigm inspired by the visual interfaces common to many smartphones. Participants used key presses to navigate through simple visual environments consisting of grids of icons (depicting real-world objects), only one of which was visible at a time through a static virtual window. Participants found target icons faster when navigation involved persistence cues (via sliding animations) than when persistence was disrupted (e.g., via temporally matched fading animations), with all transitions inspired by smartphone interfaces. Moreover, this difference occurred even after explicit memorization of the relevant information, which demonstrates that object persistence enhances spatial navigation in an automatic and irresistible fashion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Reducing regional drought vulnerabilities and multi-city robustness conflicts using many-objective optimization under deep uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, B. C.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.; Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2017-06-01

    Emerging water scarcity concerns in many urban regions are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify coordinated, scarcity-mitigating strategies that trigger the appropriate actions needed to avoid water shortages and financial instabilities. This research focuses on the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, seeking to engage the water utilities within Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. Prior analysis of this region through the year 2025 has identified significant regional vulnerabilities to volumetric shortfalls and financial losses. Moreover, efforts to maximize the individual robustness of any of the mentioned utilities also have the potential to strongly degrade the robustness of the others. This research advances a multi-stakeholder Many-Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM) framework to better account for deeply uncertain factors when identifying cooperative drought management strategies. Our results show that appropriately designing adaptive risk-of-failure action triggers required stressing them with a comprehensive sample of deeply uncertain factors in the computational search phase of MORDM. Search under the new ensemble of states-of-the-world is shown to fundamentally change perceived performance tradeoffs and substantially improve the robustness of individual utilities as well as the overall region to water scarcity. Search under deep uncertainty enhanced the discovery of how cooperative water transfers, financial risk mitigation tools, and coordinated regional demand management must be employed jointly to improve regional robustness and decrease robustness conflicts between the utilities. Insights from this work have general merit for regions where

  16. The Early Development of Object Knowledge: A Study of Infants' Visual Anticipations During Action Observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Bekkering, H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects

  17. The Early Development of Object Knowledge: A Study of Infants' Visual Anticipations during Action Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects being brought either to a correct or to an…

  18. Diffraction studies of water under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    During the past decade, improvements in experimental techniques and computer simulation methods have led to a more comprehensive understanding of the properties of water. Foremost among these are X-ray and neutron diffraction which provide information directly of the microscopic structure. Water can exist over a wide range of pressure and temperature and many of its properties change in a characteristic way. It is, therefore, worthwhile to see what microscopic changes occur in the liquid as P and T are systematically varied. Recent developments in diffraction studies on water under pressure are reviewed, paying particular attention to pressure cell construction and structural changes and how these compare with results obtained from other methods

  19. Publicly Available Geosynchronous (GEO) Space Object Catalog for Future Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblick, D. C.; Shankar, P.; Xu, S.

    Previously, there have been many commercial proposals and extensive academic studies regarding ground and space based sensors to assist a space surveillance network in obtaining metric observations of satellites and debris near Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). Most use physics based models for geometric constraints, lighting, and tasker/scheduler operations of sensor architectures. Under similar physics modeling assumptions, the space object catalog is often different due to proprietary standards and datasets. Lack of catalog commonality between studies creates barriers and difficulty comparing performance benefits of sensor trades. To solve this problem, we have constructed a future GEO space catalog from publicly available datasets and literature. The annual number of new payloads and rocket bodies is drawn from a Poisson distribution while the growth of the current GEO catalog is bootstrapped from the historical payload, upper stage, and debris data. We adopt a spherically symmetric explosion model and couple it with the NASA standard breakup model to simulate explosions of payloads and rocket bodies as they are the primary drivers of the debris population growth. The cumulative number of fragments follow a power-law distribution. Result from 1,000 random catalog growth simulations indicates that the GEO space object population in the year 2050 will include over 3,600 objects, nearly half of which are debris greater than 10 cm spherical diameter. The number of rocket bodies and dead payloads is projected to nearly double over the next 33 years. For comparison, the current Air Force Space Command catalog snapshot contains fewer than 50 pieces of debris and coarse Radar Cross Section (RCS) estimates which include: small, medium, and large. The current catalog may be sufficient for conjunction studies, but not for analyzing future sensor system performance. The 2050 GEO projected catalog will be available online for commercial/academic research and development.

  20. Bats and Academics: How Do Scientists Perceive Their Object of Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boëte, Christophe; Morand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Bats are associated with conflicting perceptions among humans, ranging from affection to disgust. If these attitudes can be associated with various factors among the general public (e.g. social norms, lack of knowledge), it is also important to understand the attitude of scientists who study bats. Such reflexive information on the researchers community itself could indeed help designing adequate mixed communication tools aimed at protecting bats and their ecosystems, as well as humans living in their vicinity that could be exposed to their pathogens. Thus, we conducted an online survey targeting researchers who spend a part of their research activity studying bats. Our aim was to determine (1) how they perceive their object of study, (2) how they perceive the representation of bats in the media and by the general population, (3) how they protect themselves against pathogen infections during their research practices, and (4) their perceptions of the causes underlying the decline in bat populations worldwide. From the 587 completed responses (response rate of 28%) having a worldwide distribution, the heterogeneity of the scientists' perception of their own object of study was highlighted. In the majority of cases, this depended on the type of research they conducted (i.e. laboratory versus field studies) as well as their research speciality. Our study revealed a high level of personal protection equipment being utilised against pathogens during scientific practices, although the role bats play as reservoirs for a number of emerging pathogens remains poorly known. Our results also disclosed the unanimity among specialists in attributing a direct role for humans in the global decline of bat populations, mainly via environmental change, deforestation, and agriculture intensification. Overall, the present study suggests the need for better communication regarding bats and their biology, their role within the scientific community, as well as in the general public

  1. Bats and Academics: How Do Scientists Perceive Their Object of Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Boëte

    Full Text Available Bats are associated with conflicting perceptions among humans, ranging from affection to disgust. If these attitudes can be associated with various factors among the general public (e.g. social norms, lack of knowledge, it is also important to understand the attitude of scientists who study bats. Such reflexive information on the researchers community itself could indeed help designing adequate mixed communication tools aimed at protecting bats and their ecosystems, as well as humans living in their vicinity that could be exposed to their pathogens. Thus, we conducted an online survey targeting researchers who spend a part of their research activity studying bats. Our aim was to determine (1 how they perceive their object of study, (2 how they perceive the representation of bats in the media and by the general population, (3 how they protect themselves against pathogen infections during their research practices, and (4 their perceptions of the causes underlying the decline in bat populations worldwide. From the 587 completed responses (response rate of 28% having a worldwide distribution, the heterogeneity of the scientists' perception of their own object of study was highlighted. In the majority of cases, this depended on the type of research they conducted (i.e. laboratory versus field studies as well as their research speciality. Our study revealed a high level of personal protection equipment being utilised against pathogens during scientific practices, although the role bats play as reservoirs for a number of emerging pathogens remains poorly known. Our results also disclosed the unanimity among specialists in attributing a direct role for humans in the global decline of bat populations, mainly via environmental change, deforestation, and agriculture intensification. Overall, the present study suggests the need for better communication regarding bats and their biology, their role within the scientific community, as well as in the general

  2. Study of safety relief valve operation under ATWS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutmacher, E.S.; Nesmith, B.J.; Brukiewa, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis project has been performed to determine if recent (since mid-1975) data has been reported which could influence the current approach to predicting PWR relief valve capacity under ATWS conditions. This study was conducted by the Energy Technology Engineering Center for NRC. Results indicate that the current relief valve capacity model tends to predict less capacity than actually obtains; however, no experimental verification at PWR ATWS conditions was found. Other project objectives were to establish the availability of methods for evaluating reaction forces and back pressure effects on relief valve capacity, and to determine if facilities exist which are capable of testing PWR relief valves at ATWS conditions

  3. Parametric Study of the Scattered Electromagnetic Field by Differently-Shaped Buried Objects in Various Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoja, Endri; Hoxha, Julian; Domnori, Elton; Pajewski, Lara; Frezza, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    In this study the electromagnetic field scattered by a buried object is obtained by use of a commercial full-wave frequency-domain solver which implements the Finite Element Method (FEM). The buried object is supposed to have different simple shapes and material composition such as a cylinder or cylindrical shell modelling for example a void in concrete or a poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) pipeline, respectively. Material properties available in literature are correctly modelled by data interpolation. The model is excited by a linearly-polarized plane wave impinging normally on the interface between air and soil/cement half-space. Comparison with simulation data provided by another simulator implementing the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique in the case of a simple buried perfect electric cylinder allows for FEM data validation. We further study the properties and the spatial variation of the scattered fields in different contexts by varying the geometrical and material properties of the model relative to the impinging wave characteristics. The aim is to clearly determine the conditions under which detection is possible. Moreover, by application of signal processing techniques to scattered field data, the position, shape, and object orientation recognition problems are considered. Results from different DSP algorithms are compared with the goal to find the best performing one relative to the context. Performance is evaluated in terms of detection success and resolving ability. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in the field of Civil Engineering offers inspection capabilities in the structure with no destructive intervention. Acknowledgement This abstract is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu.

  4. Ecological validity and infant research: An example from an experimental study on object individuation with familiar objects in 8-month-old infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    of the concept of ecological validity. The second section reports an original empirical study investigating whether familiar objects make a difference when 8-month-old infants attempt to individuate objects. Object individuation refers to the ability to decide the number of distinct objects present in a given...... on the infants' ability to individuate objects in the present design.In the third and final section the results obtained in the experiment are discussed, not only in relation to the existing litterature within the field of research of object individuation, but also by specificly applying the concept...

  5. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

  7. Common and differential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying semantic object memory retrieval probed by features presented in different stimulus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Eroh, Justin; Spence, Jeffrey S; Motes, Michael A; Maguire, Mandy J; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    How the brain combines the neural representations of features that comprise an object in order to activate a coherent object memory is poorly understood, especially when the features are presented in different modalities (visual vs. auditory) and domains (verbal vs. nonverbal). We examined this question using three versions of a modified Semantic Object Retrieval Test, where object memory was probed by a feature presented as a written word, a spoken word, or a picture, followed by a second feature always presented as a visual word. Participants indicated whether each feature pair elicited retrieval of the memory of a particular object. Sixteen subjects completed one of the three versions (N=48 in total) while their EEG were recorded simultaneously. We analyzed EEG data in four separate frequency bands (delta: 1-4Hz, theta: 4-7Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 13-19Hz) using a multivariate data-driven approach. We found that alpha power time-locked to response was modulated by both cross-modality (visual vs. auditory) and cross-domain (verbal vs. nonverbal) probing of semantic object memory. In addition, retrieval trials showed greater changes in all frequency bands compared to non-retrieval trials across all stimulus types in both response-locked and stimulus-locked analyses, suggesting dissociable neural subcomponents involved in binding object features to retrieve a memory. We conclude that these findings support both modality/domain-dependent and modality/domain-independent mechanisms during semantic object memory retrieval. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The involvement of the dorsal stream in processing implied actions between paired objects: A TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan; Humphreys, Glyn W; Mevorach, Carmel; Heinke, Dietmar

    2017-01-27

    Perceiving and selecting the action possibilities (affordances) provided by objects is an important challenge to human vision, and is not limited to single-object scenarios. Xu et al. (2015) identified two effects of implied actions between paired objects on response selection: an inhibitory effect on responses aligned with the passive object in the pair (e.g. a bowl) and an advantage associated with responses aligned with the active objects (e.g. a spoon). The present study investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms behind these effects by examining the involvement of the ventral (vision for perception) and the dorsal (vision for action) visual streams, as defined in Goodale and Milner's (1992) two visual stream theory. Online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) reduced both the inhibitory effect of implied actions on responses aligned with the passive objects and the advantage of those aligned with the active objects, but only when the active objects were contralateral to the stimulation. rTMS to the left lateral occipital areas (LO) did not significantly alter the influence of implied actions. The results reveal that the dorsal visual stream is crucial not only in single-object affordance processing, but also in responding to implied actions between objects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Object-location memory: a lesion-behavior mapping study in stroke patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselen, M. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Frijns, C.J.; Kappelle, L.J.; Neggers, S.F.W.; Postma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Object-location memory is an important form of spatial memory, comprising different subcomponents that each process specific types of information within memory, i.e. remembering objects, remembering positions and binding these features in memory. In the current study we investigated the neural

  10. Object-location memory: A lesion-behavior mapping study in stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselen, M. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Frijns, C.J.M.; Kappelle, L.J.; Neggers, S.F.W.; Postma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Object-location memory is an important form of spatial memory, comprising different subcomponents that each process specific types of information within memory, i.e. remembering objects, remembering positions and binding these features in memory. In the current study we investigated the neural

  11. Multi-objective Optimization for the Robust Performance of Drinking Water Treatment Plants under Climate Change and Climate Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raseman, W. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Rosario-Ortiz, F.; Summers, R. S.; Stewart, J.; Livneh, B.

    2016-12-01

    To promote public health, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), and similar entities around the world enact strict laws to regulate drinking water quality. These laws, such as the Stage 1 and 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts (D/DBP) Rules, come at a cost to water treatment plants (WTPs) which must alter their operations and designs to meet more stringent standards and the regulation of new contaminants of concern. Moreover, external factors such as changing influent water quality due to climate extremes and climate change, may force WTPs to adapt their treatment methods. To grapple with these issues, decision support systems (DSSs) have been developed to aid WTP operation and planning. However, there is a critical need to better address long-term decision making for WTPs. In this poster, we propose a DSS framework for WTPs for long-term planning, which improves upon the current treatment of deep uncertainties within the overall potable water system including the impact of climate on influent water quality and uncertainties in treatment process efficiencies. We present preliminary results exploring how a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) search can be coupled with models of WTP processes to identify high-performing plans for their design and operation. This coupled simulation-optimization technique uses Borg MOEA, an auto-adaptive algorithm, and the Water Treatment Plant Model, a simulation model developed by the US EPA to assist in creating the D/DBP Rules. Additionally, Monte Carlo sampling methods were used to study the impact of uncertainty of influent water quality on WTP decision-making and generate plans for robust WTP performance.

  12. [A study on the diagnostic value of tear film objective scatter index in dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y D; Liang, Q F; Wang, N L; Antoine, Labbè

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To study the sensitivity and specificity of tear film objective scatter index to the diagnosis dry eye disease (DED). Methods: A prospective case-controlled study. Fifty-three patients with DED and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included from July to October 2016. All subjects underwent the examinations sequentially as follows: evaluation of ocular surface disease symptoms using the Ocular Surface Disease Index, optical quality detection, lipid layer thickness, tear film breakup time and SchirmerⅠtest. With Optical Quality Analysis SystemⅡ, the values of modulation transfer function cut off, basic objective scatter index (OSI) and total OSI were measured. To eliminate the influence of other refractive media, the tear film OSI (TF-OSI) was calculated, and the difference in TF-OSI between two groups was analyzed with the independent-samples t test. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to detect the correlation of each parameter in the DED group. With the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC), the specificity and sensitivity of TF-OSI and other parameters were described to differentiate DED from normal eyes. Results: In the dry eye group, the value of modulation transfer function cut off (32.07±11.95) was significantly lower than the normal group (39.38±9.44, t=- 3.096, P= 0.003) , and the mean value and dispersion of TF-OSI (0.50±0.43, 0.52±0.81) were higher than the normal group (0.21±0.16, 0.12±0.01) ( t= 4.300, P= 0.000, t= 3.546, P= 0.001) . The mean value of TF-OSI had a positive correlation with lipid layer thickness ( r= 0.365, P= 0.007) and dispersion of TF-OSI ( r= 0.581, P= 0.000), and a negative correlation with MTF cut off ( r=- 0.368, P= 0.007). To the diagnostic value of DED, the mean value of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.736, a specificity of 0.762, and the AUC was 0.764. The dispersion of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.811 and a specificity of 0.810, and the AUC was 0

  13. Geometrical accuracy of metallic objects produced with additive or subtractive manufacturing: A comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braian, Michael; Jönsson, David; Kevci, Mir; Wennerberg, Ann

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate the accuracy and precision of objects produced by additive manufacturing systems (AM) for use in dentistry and to compare with subtractive manufacturing systems (SM). Ten specimens of two geometrical objects were produced by five different AM machines and one SM machine. Object A mimics an inlay-shaped object, while object B imitates a four-unit bridge model. All the objects were sorted into different measurement dimensions (x, y, z), linear distances, angles and corner radius. None of the additive manufacturing or subtractive manufacturing groups presented a perfect match to the CAD file with regard to all parameters included in the present study. Considering linear measurements, the precision for subtractive manufacturing group was consistent in all axes for object A, presenting results of additive manufacturing groups had consistent precision in the x-axis and y-axis but not in the z-axis. With regard to corner radius measurements, the SM group had the best overall accuracy and precision for both objects A and B when compared to the AM groups. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the conclusion can be made that subtractive manufacturing presented overall precision on all measurements below 0.050mm. The AM machines also presented fairly good precision, additive techniques are now being implemented. Thus all these production techniques need to be tested, compared and validated. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. From Procedural to Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)- Performance in OOP: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Govender

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study of introductory pre- and in-service teachers’ performance in object-oriented programming (OOP) assessments reveals important issues with regard to learning and teaching OOP, using java. The study is set against the backdrop of the country’s transition of its national IT curriculum from a procedural to an object-oriented programming language. The effect of prior programming experience and performances in different types of questions are examined. A combination of quanti...

  15. Values Education as Perceived by Social Studies Teachers in Objective and Practice Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katilmis, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the objectives of values education in Turkey, values education-related activities performed in schools, and preferred approaches to values education according to the opinions of social studies teachers. This qualitative study used a phenomenological pattern. The participants of the study were selected from…

  16. Rethinking Trends in Instructional Objectives: Exploring the Alignment of Objectives with Activities and Assessment in Higher Education--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Akio; Wu, Leon Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    This study explored higher education level syllabi to identify trends in educational objectives. Bloom's Taxonomy and various strategic models were used to classify 714 objectives from 114 sections of courses administered through a Midwest teacher education institution in the United States. 1229 verbs and verb phrases were classified through the…

  17. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF MULTI-OBJECTIVE PLANNING WITH A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mısır

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests management design of the day focuses on protection as well as the sustainable use of forest values. The basic requirement of multi-objective forest management planning is identify and quantify forest values and to determine management objectives. The priorities of management objectives, however, must be decided. Decision support tools such as operation research techniques and GIS, therefore, have effectively been used in management planning process over the last decade. Designing spatial data base including graphical data such as stand map, soil map, road map and attribute data such as stand volume, increment, number of trees and determining forest values are necessary steps for preparing a comprehensive forest management plan. This study aims to; establish conceptual framework of Multi-objective planning and prepare forest values maps necessary for management planning by using multi-objective planning models.

  18. Object-oriented industrial solid waste identification using HJ satellite imagery: a case study of phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhuo; Shen, Wenming; Xiao, Rulin; Xiong, Wencheng; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Baisong

    2012-10-01

    The increasing volume of industrial solid wastes presents a critical problem for the global environment. In the detection and monitoring of these industrial solid wastes, the traditional field methods are generally expensive and time consuming. With the advantages of quick observations taken at a large area, remote sensing provides an effective means for detecting and monitoring the industrial solid wastes in a large scale. In this paper, we employ an object-oriented method for detecting the industrial solid waste from HJ satellite imagery. We select phosphogypsum which is a typical industrial solid waste as our target. Our study area is located in Fuquan in Guizhou province of China. The object oriented method we adopted consists of the following steps: 1) Multiresolution segmentation method is adopted to segment the remote sensing images for obtaining the object-based images. 2) Build the feature knowledge set of the object types. 3) Detect the industrial solid wastes based on the object-oriented decision tree rule set. We analyze the heterogeneity in features of different objects. According to the feature heterogeneity, an object-oriented decision tree rule set is then built for aiding the identification of industrial solid waste. Then, based on this decision tree rule set, the industrial solid waste can be identified automatically from remote sensing images. Finally, the identified results are validated using ground survey data. Experiments and results indicate that the object-oriented method provides an effective method for detecting industrial solid wastes.

  19. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the Release of the 105-C Below-Grade Structures and Underlying Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The C Reactor is associated with the 100-BC-2 Operable Unit. The below-ground structures of the C Reactor are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). These structures include the fuel storage basin, lift station, and other below-grade rooms and tunnels. The goal of the data quality objectives process is to establish the sampling and analysis design strategy to support decontamination and closeout decisions

  20. Presenting a Multi Objective Model for Supplier Selection in Order to Reduce Green House Gas Emission under Uncertion Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Mohamadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been given to Stochastic demand due to uncertainty in the real -world. In the literature, decision-making models and suppliers' selection do not often consider inventory management as part of shopping problems. On the other hand, the environmental sustainability of a supply chain depends on the shopping strategy of the supply chain members. The supplier selection plays an important role in the green chain. In this paper, a multi-objective nonlinear integer programming model for selecting a set of supplier considering Stochastic demand is proposed. while the cost of purchasing include the total cost, holding and stock out costs, rejected units, units have been delivered sooner, and total green house gas emissions are minimized, while the obtained total score from the supplier assessment process is maximized. It is assumed, the purchaser provides the different products from the number predetermined supplier to a with Stochastic demand and the uniform probability distribution function. The product price depends on the order quantity for each product line is intended. Multi-objective models using known methods, such as Lp-metric has become an objective function and then uses genetic algorithms and simulated annealing meta-heuristic is solved.

  1. A robust multi-objective bargaining methodology for inter-basin water resource allocation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri-Gheidari, Omid; Marofi, Safar; Adabi, Farzaneh

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new methodology is proposed to balance environmental and economic issues in water allocation under uncertainty. Two objective functions, including maximizing economic income (EI) and minimizing environmental pollution (EP), were considered as two groups of players to construct a deterministic multi-objective bargaining methodology (DMOBM). In the next step, it is enhanced to a robust multi-objective bargaining methodology (RMOBM), which is capable of incorporating the main uncertainties exist in the problem. A large-scale inter-basin water transfer case study was utilized to investigate the applicability of the developed model. The outputs of the models showed that Nash equilibrium provide a rather narrow range of solutions. According to the results, the required rounds to reach Nash equilibrium raised as the uncertainty level increased. In addition, higher levels of uncertainty lead to higher reduction in water allocating of receiving basin. Sensitivity analysis showed that economic income values are less sensitive to changes of uncertain parameters than the environmental objective function. The developed methodology could provide a framework to incorporate the behavior of different stakeholders. Furthermore, the proposed method can be reliable under the condition of facing water allocation uncertainties.

  2. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming model for sustainable irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Fu, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Ma, Mingwei; Liu, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity causes conflicts among natural resources, society and economy and reinforces the need for optimal allocation of irrigation water resources in a sustainable way. Uncertainties caused by natural conditions and human activities make optimal allocation more complex. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming (IFMONLP) model for irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions is developed to help decision makers mitigate water scarcity. The model is capable of quantitatively solving multiple problems including crop yield increase, blue water saving, and water supply cost reduction to obtain a balanced water allocation scheme using a multi-objective non-linear programming technique. Moreover, it can deal with uncertainty as well as hesitation based on the introduction of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Consideration of the combination of dry and wet conditions for water availability and precipitation makes it possible to gain insights into the various irrigation water allocations, and joint probabilities based on copula functions provide decision makers an average standard for irrigation. A case study on optimally allocating both surface water and groundwater to different growth periods of rice in different subareas in Heping irrigation area, Qing'an County, northeast China shows the potential and applicability of the developed model. Results show that the crop yield increase target especially in tillering and elongation stages is a prevailing concern when more water is available, and trading schemes can mitigate water supply cost and save water with an increased grain output. Results also reveal that the water allocation schemes are sensitive to the variation of water availability and precipitation with uncertain characteristics. The IFMONLP model is applicable for most irrigation areas with limited water supplies to determine irrigation water strategies under a fuzzy environment.

  3. Studying visual attention using the multiple object tracking paradigm: A tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Papenmeier, Frank; Huff, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Human observers are capable of tracking multiple objects among identical distractors based only on their spatiotemporal information. Since the first report of this ability in the seminal work of Pylyshyn and Storm (1988, Spatial Vision, 3, 179-197), multiple object tracking has attracted many researchers. A reason for this is that it is commonly argued that the attentional processes studied with the multiple object paradigm apparently match the attentional processing during real-world tasks such as driving or team sports. We argue that multiple object tracking provides a good mean to study the broader topic of continuous and dynamic visual attention. Indeed, several (partially contradicting) theories of attentive tracking have been proposed within the almost 30 years since its first report, and a large body of research has been conducted to test these theories. With regard to the richness and diversity of this literature, the aim of this tutorial review is to provide researchers who are new in the field of multiple object tracking with an overview over the multiple object tracking paradigm, its basic manipulations, as well as links to other paradigms investigating visual attention and working memory. Further, we aim at reviewing current theories of tracking as well as their empirical evidence. Finally, we review the state of the art in the most prominent research fields of multiple object tracking and how this research has helped to understand visual attention in dynamic settings.

  4. Study of ceramics sintering under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunrath Neto, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study was made on high pressure sintering of ceramics in order to obtain materials with controlled microstructure, which are not accessible by conventional methods. Some aspects with particular interest were: to achieve very low porosity, with fine grains; to produce dispersed metastable and denser phases which can act as toughening agents; the study of new possibilities for toughening enhancement. (author)

  5. A multi-objective set covering problem: A case study of warehouse allocation in truck industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Malekinezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing distribution centers is normally formulated in a form of set covering where is primary objective is to minimize the number of connected facilities. However, there are other issues affecting our decision on selecting suitable distribution centers such as weather conditions, temperature, infrastructure facilities, etc. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective set covering techniques where different objectives are considered in an integrated model. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study of truck-industry and the results are analyzed.

  6. Experimental study and Monte Carlo modeling of object motion in a bubbling fluidized bed

    OpenAIRE

    García Gutiérrez, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor Fluidized beds are employed for a wide variety of applications such as drying, coating of particles, catalytic reactions, or thermal conversion processes. In a number of these applications, objects differing in density and/or size from the dense phase material are found in the bed. These objects can be agglomerates, catalysts or reactants. In this PhD thesis, a fundamental study of the motion of objects is presented, but consideri...

  7. Studies of Ancient Russian Cultural Objects Using the Neutron Tomography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kichanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron radiography and tomography is a non-destructive method that provides detailed information about the internal structure of cultural heritage objects. The differences in the neutron attenuation coefficients of constituent elements of the studied objects, as well as the application of modern mathematical algorithms to carry out three-dimensional imaging data analysis, allow one to obtain unique information about the spatial distribution of different phases, the presence of internal defects, or the degree of structural degradation inside valuable cultural objects. The results of the neutron studies of several archaeological objects related to different epochs of the Russian history are reported in order to demonstrate the opportunities provided by the neutron tomography method. The obtained 3D structural volume data, as well as the results of the corresponding data analysis, are presented.

  8. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants wer...

  9. Theoretical Study of Semiconductor Laser under Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, O.; Hassine, L.; Dherbecourt, P.; Latry, O.; Ketata, M.; Bouchriha, H.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present a description of the chirp induced in a direct modulated DFB laser. Our study is follows two different approaches. The first approach is based on a resolution of the rate equations of laser; the second, on a simulation of a heterodyne system with the Optisystem software. This study enables us to visualize the chirp in the RF field. We also characterize it according to the injection current i(t) parameters, such as the amplitude and the frequency of the modulation. The aim of our study is to choose the appropriate values of these parameters, in order to use the direct modulated DFB laser as an optical tunable source for Coherent Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry technique (C-OFDR). We demonstrate that the optical frequency of these lasers can be controlled via the injection current i(t) and it can be linearly swept (chirped) over some tens of gigahertz.

  10. A study on software-based sensing technology for multiple object control in AR video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Ahn, Jae Young; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    Researches on Augmented Reality (AR) have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker'should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.

  11. Denmark's climate policy objectives and achievements. Report on demonstrable progress in 2005 under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report is about Denmark's demonstrable progress made under the Kyoto Protocol. The report has been prepared according to the guidelines for reporting under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. The report has been prepared on the basis of Denmark's Fourth National Communication on Climate Change under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Fourth National Communication is the first National Communication after the Kyoto Protocol entered into force. Compared to the Third National Communication, the Fourth National Communication is extended with supplementary information in accordance with the additional reporting requirements for parties to the Protocol. Since the information in the Fourth National Communication corresponds to a great extent to the information that must be included in this report, Denmark has chosen to prepare the two reports in parallel. Except information on Greenland and a few updates the present report contains the same information as the progress report published and forwarded to the European Commission in June 2005. The present report will be forwarded to the UN Climate Secretariat together with the Fourth National Communication whereto references for further information are made. (au)

  12. Left posterior BA37 is involved in object recognition: a TMS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Meyer, Bernd-Ulrich; Frith, Uta

    2001-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have proposed a role for left BA37 in phonological retrieval, semantic processing, face processing and object recognition. The present study targeted the posterior aspect of BA37 to see whether a deficit, specific to one of the above types of processing could be induced...... to name pictures when TMS was given over lBA37 compared to vertex or rBA37. rTMS over lBA37 had no significant effect on word reading, nonword reading or colour naming. The picture naming deficit is suggested to result from a disruption to object recognition processes. This study corroborates the finding...... from a recent imaging study, that the most posterior part of left hemispheric BA37 has a necessary role in object recognition....

  13. Multi-physics and multi-objective design of heterogeneous SFR core: development of an optimization method under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Since Phenix shutting down in 2010, CEA does not have Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) in operating condition. According to global energetic challenge and fast reactor abilities, CEA launched a program of industrial demonstrator called ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), a reactor with electric power capacity equal to 600 MW. Objective of the prototype is, in first to be a response to environmental constraints, in second demonstrates the industrial viability of SFR reactor. The goal is to have a safety level at least equal to 3. generation reactors. ASTRID design integrates Fukushima feedback; Waste reprocessing (with minor actinide transmutation) and it linked industry. Installation safety is the priority. In all cases, no radionuclide should be released into environment. To achieve this objective, it is imperative to predict the impact of uncertainty sources on reactor behaviour. In this context, this thesis aims to develop new optimization methods for SFR cores. The goal is to improve the robustness and reliability of reactors in response to existing uncertainties. We will use ASTRID core as reference to estimate interest of new methods and tools developed. The impact of multi-Physics uncertainties in the calculation of the core performance and the use of optimization methods introduce new problems: How to optimize 'complex' cores (i.e. associated with design spaces of high dimensions with more than 20 variable parameters), taking into account the uncertainties? What is uncertainties behaviour for optimization core compare to reference core? Taking into account uncertainties, optimization core are they still competitive? Optimizations improvements are higher than uncertainty margins? The thesis helps to develop and implement methods necessary to take into account uncertainties in the new generation of simulation tools. Statistical methods to ensure consistency of complex multi-Physics simulation results are also

  14. Studies on combined model based on functional objectives of large scale complex engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuting, Wang; Jingchun, Feng; Jiabao, Sun

    2018-03-01

    As various functions were included in large scale complex engineering, and each function would be conducted with completion of one or more projects, combined projects affecting their functions should be located. Based on the types of project portfolio, the relationship of projects and their functional objectives were analyzed. On that premise, portfolio projects-technics based on their functional objectives were introduced, then we studied and raised the principles of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects. In addition, The processes of combined projects were also constructed. With the help of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects, our research findings laid a good foundation for management of large scale complex engineering portfolio management.

  15. A Feasibility Study of the IMRT Optimization with Pseudo-Biologic Objective Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Byong Yong; Cho, Sam Ju; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chang, Hye Sook; Kwon, Soo Il

    2001-01-01

    The pseudo-biologic objective function has been designed for the IMRT optimization. The RTP Tool Box (RTB) was used for this study. The pseudo-biologic function is similar to the biological objective function in mathematical shape, but uses physical parameters. The concepts of the TCI (Target Coverage Index) and the OSI (Organ Score Index) have been introduced for the target and the normal organs, respectively. The pseudo-biologic objective function s has been defined using these TCI and OSI's. The OSI's from the pseudo-biological function showed better results than from the physical functions, while TCI's showed similar tendency. These results revealed the feasibility of the pseudo-biologic function as an IMRT objective function

  16. Play with objects in young males with fragile X syndrome: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Oakes, Ashley; Machalicek, Wendy; Thurman, Angela; Summers, Stephanie; Stewart, Alex; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Using the Developmental Play Assessment, this preliminary study described the categories and levels of play with objects produced by 10 young boys with diagnoses of full mutation fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. Additionally, the study examined concurrent associations between child characteristics and three different summary level variables representing object play skills. Presentation Combinations (i.e., recreating structured configurations of objects) was the highest play level emerging or mastered for all participants. The number of toys touched during the play sample, an index of object interest, was positively related to standardized measures of receptive and expressive language while the number of different actions produced, an index of play diversity, was negatively related to autism symptom severity. Both variables were significantly related to the number of nonverbal communication acts children produced while interacting with their mothers in play. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. Readers will be able to: (1) define a framework for categorizing developmental levels of play; (2) discuss the constructs represented by three different summary level metrics of play with objects; (3) describe the relationship between object-play skills and child characteristics for young males with FXS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Left posterior BA37 is involved in object recognition: a TMS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Meyer, Bernd-Ulrich; Frith, Uta

    2001-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have proposed a role for left BA37 in phonological retrieval, semantic processing, face processing and object recognition. The present study targeted the posterior aspect of BA37 to see whether a deficit, specific to one of the above types of processing could be induced...

  18. In vitro toxicological nanoparticle studies under flow exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambale, Franziska, E-mail: sambale@iftc.uni-hannover.de; Stahl, Frank; Bahnemann, Detlef; Scheper, Thomas [Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hanover, Institute for Technical Chemistry (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The use of nanoparticles is becoming increasingly common in industry and everyday objects. Thus, extensive risk management concerning the potential health risk of nanoparticles is important. Currently, in vitro nanoparticle testing is mainly performed under static culture conditions without any shear stress. However, shear stress is an important biomechanical parameter. Therefore, in this study, a defined physiological flow to different mammalian cell lines such as A549 cells and NIH-3T3 cells has been applied. The effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}-NP), respectively, were investigated under both static and dynamic conditions. Cell viability, cell morphology, and adhesion were proven and compared to the static cell culture. Flow exposure had an impact on the cellular morphology of the cells. NIH-3T3 cells were elongated in the direction of flow and A549 cells exhibited vesicles inside the cells. Zinc oxide nanoparticles reduced the cell viability in the static and in the dynamic culture; however, the dynamic cultures were more sensitive. In the static culture and in the dynamic culture, TiO{sub 2}-NP did not affect cell viability. In conclusion, dynamic culture conditions are important for further in vitro investigations and provide more relevant results than static culture conditions.

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Moveability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHOD: Data collected from 177 persons participating...... in the Danish part of the European Youth Hearth Study (EYHS) was used to examine the effect of the built environment on PA. A MI was developed using objectively measured built environment characteristics, and included residential density, recreational facilities, daily destinations and street connectivity....... CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the built environment is a determinant for PA, especially for females. The found gender differences might suggest the need to develop gender specific environmental indices in future studies. The validity of the measures can be further improved by creating domain specific...

  20. Improving site selection in clinical studies: a standardised, objective, multistep method and first experience results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Chong, Anahí; Joeris, Alexander; Hess, Denise; Blauth, Michael

    2017-07-12

    A considerable number of clinical studies experience delays, which result in increased duration and costs. In multicentre studies, patient recruitment is among the leading causes of delays. Poor site selection can result in low recruitment and bad data quality. Site selection is therefore crucial for study quality and completion, but currently no specific guidelines are available. Selection of sites adequate to participate in a prospective multicentre cohort study was performed through an open call using a newly developed objective multistep approach. The method is based on use of a network, definition of objective criteria and a systematic screening process. Out of 266 interested sites, 24 were shortlisted and finally 12 sites were selected to participate in the study. The steps in the process included an open call through a network, use of selection questionnaires tailored to the study, evaluation of responses using objective criteria and scripted telephone interviews. At each step, the number of candidate sites was quickly reduced leaving only the most promising candidates. Recruitment and quality of data went according to expectations in spite of the contracting problems faced with some sites. The results of our first experience with a standardised and objective method of site selection are encouraging. The site selection method described here can serve as a guideline for other researchers performing multicentre studies. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02297581. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. The Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease Health in Older Women (OPACH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Z. LaCroix

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited evidence exists to inform physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior guidelines for older people, especially women. Rigorous evidence on the amounts, intensities, and movement patterns associated with better health in later life is needed. Methods/Design The Objective PA and Cardiovascular Health (OPACH Study is an ancillary study to the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI Program that examines associations of accelerometer-assessed PA and sedentary behavior with cardiovascular and fall events. Between 2012 and 2014, 7048 women aged 63–99 were provided with an ActiGraph GT3X+ (Pensacola, Florida triaxial accelerometer, a sleep log, and an OPACH PA Questionnaire; 6489 have accelerometer data. Most women were in their 70s (40% or 80s (46%, while approximately 10% were in their 60s and 4% were age 90 years or older. Non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic/Latina women comprise half of the cohort. Follow-up includes 1-year of falls surveillance with monthly calendars and telephone interviews of fallers, and annual follow-up for outcomes with adjudication of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD events through 2020. Over 63,600 months of calendar pages were returned by 5,776 women, who reported 5,980 falls. Telephone interviews were completed for 1,492 women to ascertain the circumstances, injuries and medical care associated with falling. The dataset contains extensive information on phenotypes related to healthy aging, including inflammatory and CVD biomarkers, breast and colon cancer, hip and other fractures, diabetes, and physical disability. Discussion This paper describes the study design, methods, and baseline data for a diverse cohort of postmenopausal women who wore accelerometers under free-living conditions as part of the OPACH Study. By using accelerometers to collect more precise and complete data on PA and sedentary behavior in a large cohort of older women, this study will contribute crucial new evidence about how

  2. Say it with flowers! An fMRI study of object mediated communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Human communicational interaction can be mediated by a host of expressive means from words in a natural language to gestures and material symbols. Given the proper contextual setting even an everyday object can gain a mediating function in a communicational situation. In this study we used event......-related fMRI to study the brain activity caused by everyday material objects when they are perceived as signals. We found that comprehension of material signals activates bilaterally areas of the ventral stream and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal cortex, that is, areas traditionally associated...

  3. Spontaneous object recognition: a promising approach to the comparative study of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eBlaser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous recognition of a novel object is a popular measure of exploratory behavior, perception and recognition memory in rodent models. Because of its relative simplicity and speed of testing, the variety of stimuli that can be used, and its ecological validity across species, it is also an attractive task for comparative research. To date, variants of this test have been used with vertebrate and invertebrate species, but the methods have seldom been sufficiently standardized to allow cross-species comparison. Here, we review the methods necessary for the study of novel object recognition in mammalian and non-mammalian models, as well as the results of these experiments. Critical to the use of this test is an understanding of the organism’s initial response to a novel object, the modulation of exploration by context, and species differences in object perception and exploratory behaviors. We argue that with appropriate consideration of species differences in perception, object affordances, and natural exploratory behaviors, the spontaneous object recognition test can be a valid and versatile tool for translational research with non-mammalian models.

  4. Study on Transient Properties of Levitated Object in Near-Field Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Chun-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    A new approach to the study on the transient properties of the levitated object in near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL) is presented. In this article, the transient response characteristics, including the levitated height of an object with radius of 24 mm and thickness of 5 mm, the radial velocity and pressure difference of gas at the boundary of clearance between the levitated object and radiating surface (squeeze film), is calculated according to several velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. First, the basic equations in fluid areas on Arbitrary Lagrange—Euler (ALE) form are numerically solved by using streamline upwind petrov galerkin (SUPG) finite elements method. Second, the formed algebraic equations and solid control equations are solved by using synchronous alternating method to gain the transient messages of the levitated object and gas in the squeeze film. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, it is found that there is a oscillation time in the transient process and that the response time does not simply increase with the increasing of velocity amplitudes of radiating surface. More investigations in this paper are helpful for the understanding of the transient properties of levitated object in NFAL, which are in favor of enhancing stabilities and responsiveness of levitated object.

  5. A comparison of subjective and objective measures of physical activity from the Newcastle 85+ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Paul; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Trenell, Michael; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about physical activity (PA) in the very old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of subjective and objective measures of PA in adults aged over 85 years. A total of 484 participants aged 87-89 years recruited to the Newcastle 85+ study completed a purpose-designed physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which categorised participants as mildly active, moderately active and very active. Out of them, 337 participants wore a triaxial, raw accelerometer on the right wrist over a 5-7-day period to obtain objective measures of rest/activity, PA intensity and PA type. Data from subjective and objective measurement methods were compared. Self-reported PA was significantly associated with objective measures of the daily sedentary time, low-intensity PA and activity type classified as sedentary, activities of daily living and walking. Objective measures of PA were significantly different when low, moderate and high self-reported PA categories were compared (all P PAQ demonstrated convergent validity with objective measures of PA. Our findings suggest that this PAQ can be used in the very old to rank individuals according to their level of total PA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  6. Reducing regional vulnerabilities and multi-city robustness conflicts using many-objective optimization under deep uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Patrick; Trindade, Bernardo; Jonathan, Herman; Harrison, Zeff; Gregory, Characklis

    2016-04-01

    Emerging water scarcity concerns in southeastern US are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify regionally coordinated, scarcity-mitigating strategies that trigger the appropriate actions needed to avoid water shortages and financial instabilities. This research focuses on the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, seeking to engage the water utilities within Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. Prior analysis of this region through the year 2025 has identified significant regional vulnerabilities to volumetric shortfalls and financial losses. Moreover, efforts to maximize the individual robustness of any of the mentioned utilities also have the potential to strongly degrade the robustness of the others. This research advances a multi-stakeholder Many-Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM) framework to better account for deeply uncertain factors when identifying cooperative management strategies. Results show that the sampling of deeply uncertain factors in the computational search phase of MORDM can aid in the discovery of management actions that substantially improve the robustness of individual utilities as well as the overall region to water scarcity. Cooperative water transfers, financial risk mitigation tools, and coordinated regional demand management must be explored jointly to decrease robustness conflicts between the utilities. The insights from this work have general merit for regions where adjacent municipalities can benefit from cooperative regional water portfolio planning.

  7. The Underlying Mechanism of Preventing Facial Nerve Stimulation by Triphasic Pulse Stimulation in Cochlear Implant Users Assessed With Objective Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Triphasic pulse stimulation prevents from facial nerve stimulation (FNS) because of a different electromyographic input-output function compared with biphasic pulse stimulation. FNS is sometimes observed in cochlear implant users as an unwanted side effect of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The common stimulation applied in current cochlear implant consists of biphasic pulse patterns. Two common clinical remedies to prevent unpleasant FNS caused by activation of certain electrodes are to expand their pulse phase duration or simply deactivate them. Unfortunately, in some patients these methods do not provide sufficient FNS prevention. In these patients triphasic pulse can prevent from FNS. The underlying mechanism is yet unclear. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of muscles innervated by the facial nerve (musculi orbicularis ori and oculi) were applied to quantitatively assess the effects on FNS. Triphasic and biphasic fitting maps were compared in four subjects with severe FNS. Based on the recordings, a model is presented which intends to explain the beneficial effects of triphasic pulse application. Triphasic stimulation provided by fitting of an OPUS 2 speech processor device. For three patients, EMG was successfully recorded depending on stimulation level up to uncomfortable and intolerable FNS stimulation as upper boarder. The obtained EMG recordings demonstrated high individual variability. However, a difference between the input-output function for biphasic and triphasic pulse stimulation was visually observable. Compared with standard biphasic stimulation, triphasic pulses require higher stimulation levels to elicit an equal amount of FNS, as reflected by EMG amplitudes. In addition, we assume a steeper slope of the input-output function for biphasic pulse stimulation compared with triphasic pulse stimulation. Triphasic pulse stimulation prevents from FNS because of a smaller gradient of EMG input-output function compared with biphasic pulse

  8. [Object-oriented remote sensing image classification in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the use of object-oriented classification of remote sensing imagery in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. To obtain temperature and environmental information, an object-oriented classification approach was applied to Landsat 5 TM scenes from the city of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. For 1993-1996, VL incidence rates correlated positively with census tracts covered by dense vegetation, grass/pasture, and bare soil and negatively with areas covered by water and densely populated areas. In 2001-2006, positive correlations were found with dense vegetation, grass/pasture, bare soil, and densely populated areas and negative correlations with occupied urban areas with some vegetation. Land surface temperature correlated negatively with VL incidence in both periods. Object-oriented classification can be useful to characterize landscape features associated with VL in urban areas and to help identify risk areas in order to prioritize interventions.

  9. Mapping objects through a data motor NoSQL case study: framework for web applications development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Calderón-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article emerged as an academic initiative in which it is observed that the areas of knowledge in software develop- ment under the paradigm of Object-oriented programming (OOP is confronted by a model data storage relational raising two scenarios different developers try to mitigate through conversions between types or using intermediate tools such as mapping relational objects that bring certain advantages and disadvantages, and therefore, was raised within the project the possibility of using a storage engine type non-relational or NoSQL.With the design and development of the framework for generating Web applications, the user can define objects to consider including in the application, which will be stored in MongoDB engine, which arranges the data in the form of documents. The dynamic structure of these documents can be used in many projects, including many who traditionally would work on relational databases.Aiming to socialize and evaluate the work done, some instruments were designed to collect information from users with experience in the field of databases and software development. As a result highlights that software developers have clear concepts of object persistence through object-relational mapping (ORM, that learning these techniques software development through implementing own code or using APIs have a high degree of complexity and mostly (60% they are aware that these implementations generate low performance in applications. In addition, the opening of these highlights to choose alternative to organize and store information, different to the relational approach used for several years.

  10. The Study of Object-Oriented Motor Imagery Based on EEG Suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    Full Text Available Motor imagery is a conventional method for brain computer interface and motor learning. To avoid the great individual difference of the motor imagery ability, object-oriented motor imagery was applied, and the effects were studied. Kinesthetic motor imagery and visual observation were administered to 15 healthy volunteers. The EEG during cue-based simple imagery (SI, object-oriented motor imagery (OI, non-object-oriented motor imagery (NI and visual observation (VO was recorded. Study results showed that OI and NI presented significant contralateral suppression in mu rhythm (p 0.05. Compared with NI, OI showed significant difference (p < 0.05 in mu rhythm and weak significant difference (p = 0.0612 in beta rhythm over the contralateral hemisphere. The ability of motor imagery can be reflected by the suppression degree of mu and beta frequencies which are the motor related rhythms. Thus, greater enhancement of activation in mirror neuron system is involved in response to object-oriented motor imagery. The object-oriented motor imagery is favorable for improvement of motor imagery ability.

  11. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    mathematics program. Ir this study he measured mathenatics skills, mathematics application, ard student attitudes. Ne used the Stanford Achievement...34most vague" (5). Means and variances were computed for each Item on the questionnaire, Correlations were then ccinputed between and among the...between subjects’ ratings of objectives with direct objects and objectives containing "x" and "y." This is reflected in tests computed separately for

  12. A Qualitative Study of US Clinical Ethics Services: Objectives and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimans, Leah; Pressgrove, Geah; Rhea, James

    2016-01-01

    The quality of clinical ethics services in health care organizations is increasingly seen as an important aspect of the overall quality of care. But measuring this quality is difficult because there is a lack of clarity and consensus regarding the objectives of clinical ethics and the best outcome domains to measure. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the views of experts about the objectives and outcomes of clinical ethics services in the US. We interviewed 19 experts in clinical ethics, focusing on the appropriate objectives and outcomes of a clinical ethics service (CES). Participants were selected using a purposive snowball sampling strategy. The development of the interview protocol was informed by the clinical ethics literature as well as by research and theories that inform clinical ethics practice. Interviews were conducted by phone, recorded, and transcribed for individual analysis. Analysis proceeded through the development of a codebook of categories using QDA Miner software. Our experts identified 12 objectives and nine outcomes. Some of these identifications were familiar (e.g., mediation and satisfaction) and some were novel (e.g., be of service and transformation). We found that experts are divided in their emphasis on the kinds of objectives that are most important. In terms of outcomes, our experts were concerned with the appropriateness of different proxy and direct measures. This study provides the perspectives of a select group of experts on the objectives and outcomes appropriate for a CES in the United States. The themes identified will be used in future research to inform a Delphi study to refine and obtain expert consensus.

  13. Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study. Roundtable presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona,

  14. Embodying the institution - Object manipulation in developing interaction in study counselling meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer; Mortensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    on how objects in the material surround are used in conjunction with talk, gaze and postural orientation to construct local social order in study guidance counselling meetings at a university. We explore here how co-participants utilize aggregates of interactional components to construct...

  15. Impact of Vagal Nerve Stimulation on Objective Vocal Quality: a Pilot Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. D'haeseleer; M. Krystopava; S. Gadeyne; K. van Lierde; Anke Luyten; L. Bruneel; G. van Maele; N. Piens; K. Vonck; B. Boehme

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) on the vocal quality using the dysphonia severity index (DSI). It was hypothesized that the objective vocal quality and other vocal characteristics are disordered in comparison with an age- and gender-matched

  16. The use of metabolic balance studies in the objective discrimination between intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, August P; Brandt, Christopher F; Askov-Hansen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Background: In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption metabolic rate (BMR), wet......, to objectivize the cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis (oral failure, malabsorption, or both), and to quantify the effects of treatment....

  17. How selective are selective word class deficits? Two case studies of action and object naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, R.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    In this article two case studies of fluent aphasic speakers are presented. Both patients performed significantly worse on an action-naming task than on an object-naming task, whereas comprehension of verbs was spared. The items of the action-naming test were controlled not only for the well-known

  18. How healthcare professionals respond to parents with religious objections to vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; van IJzendoorn, Giovanna; van Ansem, Wilke J C; Elwyn, Glyn; van der Velden, Koos; Hulscher, Marlies E J L

    2012-08-01

    In recent years healthcare professionals have faced increasing concerns about the value of childhood vaccination and many find it difficult to deal with parents who object to vaccination. In general, healthcare professionals are advised to listen respectfully to the objections of parents, provide honest information, and attempt to correct any misperceptions regarding vaccination. Religious objections are one of the possible reasons for refusing vaccination. Although religious objections have a long history, little is known about the way healthcare professionals deal with these specific objections. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the responding of healthcare professionals to parents with religious objections to the vaccination of their children. A qualitative interview study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs) in the Netherlands who had ample experience with religious objections to vaccination. Purposeful sampling was applied in order to include HCPs with different professional and religious backgrounds. Data saturation was reached after 22 interviews, with 7 child health clinic doctors, 5 child health clinic nurses and 10 general practitioners. The interviews were thematically analyzed. Two analysts coded, reviewed, discussed, and refined the coding of the transcripts until consensus was reached. Emerging concepts were assessed using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. Three manners of responding to religious objections to vaccination were identified: providing medical information, discussion of the decision-making process, and adoption of an authoritarian stance. All of the HCPs provided the parents with medical information. In addition, some HCPs discussed the decision-making process. They verified how the decision was made and if possible consequences were realized. Sometimes they also discussed religious considerations. Whether the decision-making process was discussed depended on the willingness of the parents to

  19. How healthcare professionals respond to parents with religious objections to vaccination: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijs Wilhelmina LM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years healthcare professionals have faced increasing concerns about the value of childhood vaccination and many find it difficult to deal with parents who object to vaccination. In general, healthcare professionals are advised to listen respectfully to the objections of parents, provide honest information, and attempt to correct any misperceptions regarding vaccination. Religious objections are one of the possible reasons for refusing vaccination. Although religious objections have a long history, little is known about the way healthcare professionals deal with these specific objections. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the responding of healthcare professionals to parents with religious objections to the vaccination of their children. Methods A qualitative interview study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs in the Netherlands who had ample experience with religious objections to vaccination. Purposeful sampling was applied in order to include HCPs with different professional and religious backgrounds. Data saturation was reached after 22 interviews, with 7 child health clinic doctors, 5 child health clinic nurses and 10 general practitioners. The interviews were thematically analyzed. Two analysts coded, reviewed, discussed, and refined the coding of the transcripts until consensus was reached. Emerging concepts were assessed using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. Results Three manners of responding to religious objections to vaccination were identified: providing medical information, discussion of the decision-making process, and adoption of an authoritarian stance. All of the HCPs provided the parents with medical information. In addition, some HCPs discussed the decision-making process. They verified how the decision was made and if possible consequences were realized. Sometimes they also discussed religious considerations. Whether the decision-making process was

  20. GPR Imaging for Deeply Buried Objects: A Comparative Study Based on FDTD Models and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, roger; Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak; Sadjadpour, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Conventional use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is hampered by variations in background environmental conditions, such as water content in soil, resulting in poor repeatability of results over long periods of time when the radar pulse characteristics are kept the same. Target objects types might include voids, tunnels, unexploded ordinance, etc. The long-term objective of this work is to develop methods that would extend the use of GPR under various environmental and soil conditions provided an optimal set of radar parameters (such as frequency, bandwidth, and sensor configuration) are adaptively employed based on the ground conditions. Towards that objective, developing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) GPR models, verified by experimental results, would allow us to develop analytical and experimental techniques to control radar parameters to obtain consistent GPR images with changing ground conditions. Reported here is an attempt at developing 20 and 3D FDTD models of buried targets verified by two different radar systems capable of operating over different soil conditions. Experimental radar data employed were from a custom designed high-frequency (200 MHz) multi-static sensor platform capable of producing 3-D images, and longer wavelength (25 MHz) COTS radar (Pulse EKKO 100) capable of producing 2-D images. Our results indicate different types of radar can produce consistent images.

  1. Paths taken in the construction of learning objects: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New ways of learning through learning objects is a prerequisite for this new generation in which digital media are part of the life of the student. In order to understand the importance of constructing these digital learning objects we developed the Digital Agents Project. By conducting a case study of the Project, in the State of Ceará, Brazil, we intended to realize the gear of people who work in the construction process in order to characterize their performance. Thus, we used a mixed research methodology, conducting a qualitative analysis with observation grids, as well as quantitatively, through a questionnaire. The research highlights the importance of this sector and the need for teacher training on development of educational resources. The results highlight the need for expansion of links and easy access to technological resources to mobilize teachers use learning objects in their classes, paying attention to the quality criteria.

  2. Objective life circumstances and life satisfaction: results from the course of homelessness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, G N; Burnam, M A; Koegel, P; Sullivan, G; Benjamin, B

    1996-03-01

    Relations between objective life circumstances and life satisfaction were examined using structural equation modeling of two waves of data obtained from homeless and mentally ill homeless participants (N = 298) in the Course of Homelessness Study (COH). Cross-sectional analyses revealed that objective indexes of life quality were primarily associated with domain-specific, rather than general, life satisfaction. Results could not be attributed to the covariation of life satisfaction with other indexes of subjective well-being (i.e., psychological symptoms and perceived self-mastery). In addition, significant direct ("causal") cross-lagged effects were found linking initial objective housing status with subsequent income and subsequent satisfaction with housing. By contrast, neither life satisfaction nor any other index of subjective well-being exerted a direct impact on subsequent life quality as assessed by objective indexes. Finally, we found no support for previous claims that perceived self-mastery mediates the impact of objective life circumstances on subsequent life satisfaction. Findings are discussed with reference to the utility of a hierarchical model of life satisfaction that incorporates domain-specific, as well as global, satisfaction.

  3. THE OBJECTIVE OF ISLAMIC BANK: A CASE STUDY IN SURAKARTA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fatwa Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were for exploring the perception of the Islamic Banking stakeholders relatedwith the objective of Islamic Banking that operated in the dual banking system, Indonesia and for measuringthe gap between the perception and expectation of the stakeholders toward the objective of Islamic bank. Theprimary data was collected by questionnaires. The Respondents were limited only in the Surakarta region.They were customers, lecturers, students, employees, bank managers, regulators, and ulama (Moslem religiousteachers. Factor analysis was conducted for grouping or classifying the variables into the same group whichhad the same characters while Kruskall Wallis test was used for examining the different perception among thestakeholders. At last, paired sample t-test was used to measure the gap between perception and expectationamong the stakeholders. The findings of this study were first, stakeholders concluded that social objective ofIslamic was more important than the commercial one; second, there was a significant different perception on theIslamic Banking objective among the stakeholders; and third, there was a gap between the perception andexpectation of the stakeholders about Islamic Banking objectives.

  4. Multi-wavelength studies of TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Sarah Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of TeV γ-ray emission of BL Lac objects gave new insights in the particle acceleration and the emission processes of the highly relativistic jets. To shed light on the conditions in the high energetic jets of the TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects, I have studied in great detail the spectral energy distribution (SED) of sources with different characteristics. BL Lac objects with exceptional very high energy spectra (soft and hard spectra) and with large differences in the emission peak frequencies, to cover the different classes of BL Lac objects, have been chosen. The basic aim of this thesis was, to study with new, simultaneous multi- avelength (MWL) observations, if the emission processes of these extreme cases of TeV BL Lac objects can be explained by the synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model which is well established for the class of BL Lac objects at lower energies. We proposed MWL observations in the optical, UV and X-ray regime, to be conducted simultaneous to very high energy observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment, to study the emission processes. Simultaneous observations are crucial, since BL Lac objects are variable at all wavebands. I have analysed the MWL observations and conducted detailed variability and spectral studies in each wavelength range. The different kind of absorption at each wavelength as well as the influence of the host galaxy of the AGN has been considered to obtain the intrinsic jet spectrum. I have then applied the commonly used theoretical jet model, the SSC model, to the SED. I conducted a MWL campaign on a BL Lac object with the softest TeV spectrum, PKS 2005-489, during which it was observed in a very bright X-ray state. The good spectral coverage of the emission peaks allowed a detailed study of the SSC model. The extreme BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 exhibits a hard intrinsic TeV spectrum. With my MWL campaign I found a clear cut-off in the optical range and therefore a high minimum Lorentz factor is needed to

  5. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  6. A Study on Re-entry Predictions of Uncontrolled Space Objects for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Lee, Deok-Jin; Kim, Siwoo; Jo, Jung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The key risk analysis technologies for the re-entry of space objects into Earth’s atmosphere are divided into four categories: cataloguing and databases of the re-entry of space objects, lifetime and re-entry trajectory predictions, break-up models after re-entry and multiple debris distribution predictions, and ground impact probability models. In this study, we focused on re- entry prediction, including orbital lifetime assessments, for space situational awareness systems. Re-entry predictions are very difficult and are affected by various sources of uncertainty. In particular, during uncontrolled re-entry, large spacecraft may break into several pieces of debris, and the surviving fragments can be a significant hazard for persons and properties on the ground. In recent years, specific methods and procedures have been developed to provide clear information for predicting and analyzing the re-entry of space objects and for ground-risk assessments. Representative tools include object reentry survival analysis tool (ORSAT) and debris assessment software (DAS) developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), spacecraft atmospheric re-entry and aerothermal break-up (SCARAB) and debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (DRAMA) developed by European Space Agency (ESA), and semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (STELA) developed by Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES). In this study, various surveys of existing re-entry space objects are reviewed, and an efficient re-entry prediction technique is suggested based on STELA, the life-cycle analysis tool for satellites, and DRAMA, a re-entry analysis tool. To verify the proposed method, the re-entry of the Tiangong-1 Space Lab, which is expected to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere shortly, was simulated. Eventually, these results will provide a basis for space situational awareness risk analyses of the re-entry of space objects.

  7. Object and Action Naming: A Study on Persian-Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Nilipour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nouns and verbs are the central conceptual linguistic units of language acquisition in all human languages. While the noun-bias hypothesis claims that nouns have a privilege in children’s lexical development across languages, studies on Mandarin and Korean and other languages have challenged this view. More recent cross-linguistic naming studies on children in German, Turkish, English and Korean demonstrate that all languages, including Korean show a noun advantage however the degree of this discrepancy differs between languages. The aim of this study wasto look at object and action naming in normal Persian children as a measure of conceptual developmentin preschool children and its possible use for screening and therapeutic procedures. Methods: In this analytical study, noun bias and processing dissociation of object and action naming in 64 three to six year old healthy monolingual Persian-speaking children was investigated. A black and white picture naming task, consisting of 36 nouns (natural and man-made, and 36 verbs (transitive and intransitive was designed using DMDX software to measure response accuracy and reaction time of the subjects. Results: The results indicate a significant noun advantage with regard to accuracy and naming latencies. The results also reveal that transitive verbs are named more accurately than intransitive ones in Persianspeaking children. Also,the data indicate that accuracy of object and action namingimprove with age (P=0.000. Discussion: Based on the resultswe recommended that a standardized Persian object and action naming battery be used. Such a tool would have the potential of screening lexical development delay and possible noun-verb performance gap in preschool children.

  8. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  9. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: A study with young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1 and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2 tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/ artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classified them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  10. Multi-Objective Optimization for Energy Performance Improvement of Residential Buildings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangji Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous conflicting criteria exist in building design optimization, such as energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission and indoor thermal performance. Different simulation-based optimization strategies and various optimization algorithms have been developed. A few of them are analyzed and compared in solving building design problems. This paper presents an efficient optimization framework to facilitate optimization designs with the aid of commercial simulation software and MATLAB. The performances of three optimization strategies, including the proposed approach, GenOpt method and artificial neural network (ANN method, are investigated using a case study of a simple building energy model. Results show that the proposed optimization framework has competitive performances compared with the GenOpt method. Further, in another practical case, four popular multi-objective algorithms, e.g., the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO, the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA and multi-objective differential evolution (MODE, are realized using the propose optimization framework and compared with three criteria. Results indicate that MODE achieves close-to-optimal solutions with the best diversity and execution time. An uncompetitive result is achieved by the MOPSO in this case study.

  11. Notes on English used as a lingua franca as an object of study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janus

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how English used as a lingua franca (ELF) can be defined as an object of study. It offers a critical appraisal of a high-profile definition of ELF (the VOICE/Seidlhofer definition), and argues that definitions of this kind, whether purposely or not, in effect invite...... approach to the conceptualization of ELF where ELF is defined in straightforward functional terms as the use of English in a lingua franca language scenario. This definition underscores the complexity and breadth of ELF as an object of study, and highlights that researchers in the field of ELF studies need...... to acknowledge this complexity and adopt structured methods in dealing with it. Using well-known examples from the literature, the article shows that Dell Hymes's SPEAKING heuristic may be employed as one such tool....

  12. A study of earthquake-induced building detection by object oriented classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, Asli; Damla Uca Avci, Zehra; Sunar, Filiz

    2017-04-01

    Among the natural hazards, earthquakes are the most destructive disasters and cause huge loss of lives, heavily infrastructure damages and great financial losses every year all around the world. According to the statistics about the earthquakes, more than a million earthquakes occur which is equal to two earthquakes per minute in the world. Natural disasters have brought more than 780.000 deaths approximately % 60 of all mortality is due to the earthquakes after 2001. A great earthquake took place at 38.75 N 43.36 E in the eastern part of Turkey in Van Province on On October 23th, 2011. 604 people died and about 4000 buildings seriously damaged and collapsed after this earthquake. In recent years, the use of object oriented classification approach based on different object features, such as spectral, textural, shape and spatial information, has gained importance and became widespread for the classification of high-resolution satellite images and orthophotos. The motivation of this study is to detect the collapsed buildings and debris areas after the earthquake by using very high-resolution satellite images and orthophotos with the object oriented classification and also see how well remote sensing technology was carried out in determining the collapsed buildings. In this study, two different land surfaces were selected as homogenous and heterogeneous case study areas. In the first step of application, multi-resolution segmentation was applied and optimum parameters were selected to obtain the objects in each area after testing different color/shape and compactness/smoothness values. In the next step, two different classification approaches, namely "supervised" and "unsupervised" approaches were applied and their classification performances were compared. Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) was performed using e-Cognition software.

  13. Object-Based Greenhouse Horticultural Crop Identification from Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery: A Case Study in Almeria, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Aguilar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse detection and mapping via remote sensing is a complex task, which has already been addressed in numerous studies. In this research, the innovative goal relies on the identification of greenhouse horticultural crops that were growing under plastic coverings on 30 September 2013. To this end, object-based image analysis (OBIA and a decision tree classifier (DT were applied to a set consisting of eight Landsat 8 OLI images collected from May to November 2013. Moreover, a single WorldView-2 satellite image acquired on 30 September 2013, was also used as a data source. In this approach, basic spectral information, textural features and several vegetation indices (VIs derived from Landsat 8 and WorldView-2 multi-temporal satellite data were computed on previously segmented image objects in order to identify four of the most popular autumn crops cultivated under greenhouse in Almería, Spain (i.e., tomato, pepper, cucumber and aubergine. The best classification accuracy (81.3% overall accuracy was achieved by using the full set of Landsat 8 time series. These results were considered good in the case of tomato and pepper crops, being significantly worse for cucumber and aubergine. These results were hardly improved by adding the information of the WorldView-2 image. The most important information for correct classification of different crops under greenhouses was related to the greenhouse management practices and not the spectral properties of the crops themselves.

  14. Conscientious objection and its impact on abortion service provision in South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Jane; Cooper, Diane; Strebel, Anna; Colvin, Christopher J

    2014-02-26

    Despite abortion being legally available in South Africa after a change in legislation in 1996, barriers to accessing safe abortion services continue to exist. These barriers include provider opposition to abortion often on the grounds of religious or moral beliefs including the unregulated practice of conscientious objection. Few studies have explored how providers in South Africa make sense of, or understand, conscientious objection in terms of refusing to provide abortion care services and the consequent impact on abortion access. A qualitative approach was used which included 48 in-depth interviews with a purposively selected population of abortion related health service providers, managers and policy influentials in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. The ways in which conscientious objection was interpreted and practiced, and its impact on abortion service provision was explored. In most public sector facilities there was a general lack of understanding concerning the circumstances in which health care providers were entitled to invoke their right to refuse to provide, or assist in abortion services. Providers seemed to have poor understandings of how conscientious objection was to be implemented, but were also constrained in that there were few guidelines or systems in place to guide them in the process. Exploring the ways in which conscientious objection was interpreted and applied by differing levels of health care workers in relation to abortion provision raised multiple and contradictory issues. From providers' accounts it was often difficult to distinguish what constituted confusion with regards to the specifics of how conscientious objection was to be implemented in terms of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act, and what was refusal of abortion care based on opposition to abortion in general. In order to disentangle what is resistance to abortion provision in general, and what is

  15. DEVELOPING VALUES FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH THE STUDY OF ART OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliza Dulamă

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with some issues related to aesthetics, aesthetic education, art and axiological education. The empirical research has the general assumption that secondary school students and youth have difficulties in selecting values. The objective of the research was three fold: to design, to organize and to carry learning activities from which students shall acquire educational values through the study of art objects. The exploratory research was conducted on a sample of 50 students (25 in experimental group and 25 in control group. The content sample included fairy-tales and short stories (Beauty and the Beast; The money earned by Alexandru Mitru and artistic topics on several well-known art objects (The Endless Column, Table of Silence, The Gate of Kiss, Peleş castle, Voroneţ monastery, and St. Michael’s Cathedral from Cluj-Napoca. The tested hypothesis stated that if secondary school students are involved in learning contexts where they perceive, analyze and explain artistic objects then they develop aesthetic and ethic values. The learning context students were exposed to represents the independent variable and the outputs – the educational values themselves – represent the dependent variable. In order to test for the hypothesis we planned a formative didactic experiment. In order to test the hypothesis the pre-test/post-test design was used.

  16. An Object Model for Integrating Diverse Remote Sensing Satellite Sensors: A Case Study of Union Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuli Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth Observation sensor web environment, the rapid, accurate, and unified discovery of diverse remote sensing satellite sensors, and their association to yield an integrated solution for a comprehensive response to specific emergency tasks pose considerable challenges. In this study, we propose a remote sensing satellite sensor object model, based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Model Language. The proposed model comprises a set of sensor resource objects. Each object consists of identification, state of resource attribute, and resource method. We implement the proposed attribute state description by applying it to different remote sensors. A real application, involving the observation of floods at the Yangtze River in China, is undertaken. Results indicate that the sensor inquirer can accurately discover qualified satellite sensors in an accurate and unified manner. By implementing the proposed union operation among the retrieved sensors, the inquirer can further determine how the selected sensors can collaboratively complete a specific observation requirement. Therefore, the proposed model provides a reliable foundation for sharing and integrating multiple remote sensing satellite sensors and their observations.

  17. From Procedural to Object-Oriented Programming (OOP- Performance in OOP: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Govender

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study of introductory pre- and in-service teachers’ performance in object-oriented programming (OOP assessments reveals important issues with regard to learning and teaching OOP, using java. The study is set against the backdrop of the country’s transition of its national IT curriculum from a procedural to an object-oriented programming language. The effect of prior programming experience and performances in different types of questions are examined. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods is used to analyse the data. The effect of prior programming experience of a procedural kind and the type of assessments given is shown to have a marked influence on the performance in programming assessments and teaching of OOP. Many introductory OOP courses are in effect taught procedurally as courses in the small. Therefore educating teachers how to teach programming is a significant educational challenge. Some implications for teaching are therefore suggested

  18. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt Raymond R; Goldberg Jeanne P; Hughes Sheryl O; Hennessy Erin; Economos Christina D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and ...

  19. Objectivity in subjectivity: do students’ self and peer assessments correlate with examiners’ subjective and objective assessment in clinical skills? A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayah, A'man Talal; Anwer, Lucman A; Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Nurhussen, Akram; Alkabbani, Haifa Mazen; Alzahrani, Alhanouf A; Obad, Adam Subait; Zafar, Muhammad; Afsar, Nasir Ali

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The qualitative subjective assessment has been exercised either by self-reflection (self-assessment (SA)) or by an observer (peer assessment (PA)) and is considered to play an important role in students’ development. The objectivity of PA and SA by students as well as those by faculty examiners has remained debated. This matters most when it comes to a high-stakes examination. We explored the degree of objectivity in PA, SA, as well as the global rating by examiners being Examiners’ Subjective Assessment (ESA) compared with Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Undergraduate medical students at Alfaisal University, Riyadh. Participants All second-year medical students (n=164) of genders, taking a course to learn clinical history taking and general physical examination. Main outcome measures A Likert scale questionnaire was distributed among the participants during selected clinical skills sessions. Each student was evaluated randomly by peers (PA) as well as by himself/herself (SA). Two OSCEs were conducted where students were assessed by an examiner objectively as well as subjectively (ESA) for a global rating of confidence and well-preparedness. OSCE-1 had fewer topics and stations, whereas OSCE-2 was terminal and full scale. Results OSCE-1 (B=0.10) and ESA (B=8.16) predicted OSCE-2 scores. ‘No nervousness’ in PA (r=0.185, p=0.018) and ‘confidence’ in SA (r=0.207, p=0.008) correlated with ‘confidence’ in ESA. In ‘well-preparedness’, SA correlated with ESA (r=0.234, p=0.003). Conclusions OSCE-1 and ESA predicted students’ performance in the OSCE-2, a high-stakes evaluation, indicating practical ‘objectivity’ in ESA, whereas SA and PA had minimal predictive role. Certain components of SA and PA correlated with ESA, suggesting partial objectivity given the limited objectiveness of ESA. Such difference in ‘qualitative’ objectivity probably reflects experience. Thus

  20. Objectivity in subjectivity: do students' self and peer assessments correlate with examiners' subjective and objective assessment in clinical skills? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayah, A'man Talal; Anwer, Lucman A; Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Nurhussen, Akram; Alkabbani, Haifa Mazen; Alzahrani, Alhanouf A; Obad, Adam Subait; Zafar, Muhammad; Afsar, Nasir Ali

    2017-05-09

    The qualitative subjective assessment has been exercised either by self-reflection (self-assessment (SA)) or by an observer (peer assessment (PA)) and is considered to play an important role in students' development. The objectivity of PA and SA by students as well as those by faculty examiners has remained debated. This matters most when it comes to a high-stakes examination. We explored the degree of objectivity in PA, SA, as well as the global rating by examiners being Examiners' Subjective Assessment (ESA) compared with Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE). Prospective cohort study. Undergraduate medical students at Alfaisal University, Riyadh. All second-year medical students (n=164) of genders, taking a course to learn clinical history taking and general physical examination. A Likert scale questionnaire was distributed among the participants during selected clinical skills sessions. Each student was evaluated randomly by peers (PA) as well as by himself/herself (SA). Two OSCEs were conducted where students were assessed by an examiner objectively as well as subjectively (ESA) for a global rating of confidence and well-preparedness. OSCE-1 had fewer topics and stations, whereas OSCE-2 was terminal and full scale. OSCE-1 (B=0.10) and ESA (B=8.16) predicted OSCE-2 scores. 'No nervousness' in PA (r=0.185, p=0.018) and 'confidence' in SA (r=0.207, p=0.008) correlated with 'confidence' in ESA. In 'well-preparedness', SA correlated with ESA (r=0.234, p=0.003). OSCE-1 and ESA predicted students' performance in the OSCE-2, a high-stakes evaluation, indicating practical 'objectivity' in ESA, whereas SA and PA had minimal predictive role. Certain components of SA and PA correlated with ESA, suggesting partial objectivity given the limited objectiveness of ESA. Such difference in 'qualitative' objectivity probably reflects experience. Thus, subjective assessment can be used with some degree of objectivity for continuous assessment. © Article author(s) (or

  1. The capacity of attention and simultaneous perception of objects: a group study of Huntington's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Kathrin; Schneider, Werner X; Redel, Petra; Dose, Matthias; Kerkhoff, Georg; Müller, Hermann J; Bublak, Peter

    2007-11-05

    Using a whole report-paradigm based on [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547; Bundesen, C. (1998). A computational theory of visual attention. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, Biological Sciences, 353, 1271-1281] theory of visual attention (TVA), [Finke, K., Bublak, P., Dose, M., Müller, H. J., & Schneider, W. X. (2006). Parameter-based assessment of spatial and non-spatial attentional deficits in Huntington's disease. Brain, 129, 1137-1151] demonstrated profound reductions in perceptual processing speed and visual working memory (WM) storage capacity in Huntington's disease (HD) patients. A comparably severe impairment of visual processing capacity has previously been reported for two simultanagnosia patients [Duncan, J., Bundesen, C., Olson, A., Humphreys, G., Ward, R., Kyllingsbaek, S., van Raamsdonk, M., Rorden, C., & Chavda, S. (2003). Attentional functions in dorsal and ventral simultanagnosia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 20, 675-702]. To investigate whether such a deficit does also prevail in HD, the simultaneous perception of visual objects was tested in 10 HD patients under free viewing conditions and without time constraints. Objects were presented under four different conditions: (i) single, (ii) multiple adjacent, (iii) multiple embedded, and (iv) multiple overlapping. The dependent measure was the percentage of identification failures. Performance was compared to that of 15 healthy subjects matched for age, education, gender and general mental ability. For HD patients, the percentage of errors in the various testing conditions was examined for correlations with the TVA parameters of visuo-perceptual processing speed and WM storage capacity. These parameters were estimated using verbal whole report of briefly presented letters. TVA permits the two parameters to be estimated mathematically independently and relatively unaffected by any motor deficits present in HD. The

  2. The role of metacognitive skills in solving object-oriented programming problems: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie Havenga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the role of metacognitive skills when solving object-oriented programming problems as part of a case study. The research was constructivist-based within an interpretivist approach to explore how four students constructed their own thinking when solving programming problems. A qualitative methodology was employed. Both concept-driven coding and data-driven coding were applied. Two main issues emerged from the findings. Participating students had fragmented knowledge of the object-oriented approach and shortcomings regarding the implementation thereof, and they experienced problems with metacognitive control during all the steps of program development. Based on the findings the use of metacognitive critical control points (MCCPs is proposed to be used as a mechanism to facilitate students in their programming efforts and to prevent loss of control during program development.

  3. Transmutation studies at CEA in frame of the SPIN program objectives, results and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatores, M.; Prunier, C.; Guerin, Y. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    In order to respond to the public concern about wastes and in particular the long-lived high level ones, a French law issued on December 30, 1991 identified the major objectives of research for the next fifteen years, before a new debate and possibly a decision on final wastes disposal in Parliament. These objectives are: (1) improvement of the wastes conditioning; (2) extraction and transmutation of the long-lived wastes in order to minimize their long term toxicity; (3) research performed in underground laboratories in order to characterize the capacity of geological structures to confine radioactive wastes (two sites have to be selected for these underground laboratories, in concertation with the local population); (4) last, the study of conditioning and prolonged surface storage of wastes.

  4. Study of graphite strength properties under conditions of hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strokov, V.I.; Barabanov, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    Three graphite grades are studied under compression, tension and hydrostaic pressure. It is shown that an increase in the ultimate strength and higher arrangement of strain curves are observed beginning with a certain value of hydrostatic pressure under compression. Several different types of coatings have been tested under compression and none of them gave a reliable protection against of oil in pores and cracks of a specimen as a result of which the strength values in this case are lower that under atmospheric pressure

  5. Corticospinal facilitation during observation of graspable objects: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Franca

    Full Text Available In 1979, Gibson first advanced the idea that the sight of graspable objects automatically activates in the observer the repertoire of actions necessary to interact with them, even in the absence of any intention to act ("affordance effect". The neurophysiological substrate of this effect was later identified in a class of bimodal neurons, the so-called "canonical" neurons, located within monkey premotor cortex. In humans, even if different behavioral studies supported the existence of affordance effect, neurophysiological investigations exploring its neural substrates showed contradictory results. Here, by means of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS, we explored the time-course of the "affordance effect" elicited by the observation of everyday-life graspable objects on motor cortex of resting observers. We recorded motor evoked potentials (MEP from three intrinsic hand muscles (two "synergic" for grasping, OP and FDI and one "neutral", ADM. We found that objects' vision determined an increased excitability at 120 milliseconds after their presentation. Moreover, this modulation was proved to be specific to the cortical representations of synergic muscles. From an evolutionary perspective, this timing perfectly fits with a fast recruitment of the motor system aimed at rapidly and accurately choosing the appropriate motor plans in a competitive environment filled with different opportunities.

  6. Brain-computer interfacing under distraction: an evaluation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Stephanie; Frølich, Laura; Höhne, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Objective. While motor-imagery based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been studied over many years by now, most of these studies have taken place in controlled lab settings. Bringing BCI technology into everyday life is still one of the main challenges in this field of research. Approach...

  7. An anatomically based analysis of objectively measured pediatric snoring: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brietzke, Scott E; Pusz, Max D

    2015-03-01

    To assess pediatric habitual snoring (PS) using home sleep test (HST) technology and attempt to correlate the objective components of PS to specific upper airway anatomy. In addition, the effects of adenotonsillectomy (±turbinoplasty) on objective measures of PS were evaluated. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary medical center. Pediatric patients with a chief complaint of snoring and probable obstructive sleep apnea underwent an HST (SNAP Diagnostics, Wheeling, Illinois) with a detailed acoustical snoring analysis prior to adenotonsillectomy (±turbinoplasty). During surgery, detailed anatomical measurements were performed and correlated to snoring analysis results. After surgery, patients were offered another HST with snoring analysis. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and statistical correlation with attention to the multiple-comparisons paradox. Twenty-two patients (45% male; mean age, 5.4 years [range, 2.4-8.4 years]) completed the preoperative HST and operative measurements. Unlike typical adult snoring, only a minority of PS was from palatal flutter (mean palatal component, 24%; median, 10%). The resistance occurrence percentage (ROP, percentage of breathing events with snoring noise) was associated with body mass index (BMI; Spearman ρ=0.55; P=.017), subjective turbinate size (0.54; P=.032), palatal obstruction (0.63; P=.008), and mean oxygen saturation (-0.729; P=.0003) but not adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Twelve patients (54%) completed a postoperative HST. The ROP was significantly reduced (median, 20.5% vs 6.5%; P=.006, sign rank test) postoperatively. The magnitude of the ROP reduction was proportional to the volume of the removed tonsils (0.74; P=.022). Pediatric snoring has different acoustical characteristics than adult snoring. Objective PS is associated with BMI, turbinate size, and palatal obstruction. Adenotonsillectomy (±turbinoplasty) may significantly reduce objective PS. © American Academy of Otolaryngology

  8. An objective evaluation framework for segmentation techniques of functional positron emission tomography studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J; Eberl, S; Feng, D

    2004-01-01

    Segmentation of multi-dimensional functional positron emission tomography (PET) studies into regions of interest (ROI) exhibiting similar temporal behavior is useful in diagnosis and evaluation of neurological images. Quantitative evaluation plays a crucial role in measuring the segmentation algorithm's performance. Due to the lack of "ground truth" available for evaluating segmentation of clinical images, automated segmentation results are usually compared with manual delineation of structures which is, however, subjective, and is difficult to perform. Alternatively, segmentation of co-registered anatomical images such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as the ground truth to the PET segmentation. However, this is limited to PET studies which have corresponding MRI. In this study, we introduce a framework for the objective and quantitative evaluation of functional PET study segmentation without the need for manual delineation or registration to anatomical images of the patient. The segmentation ...

  9. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  10. Design, objectives, execution and reporting of published open-label extension studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan, Bowers; Pickering, Ruth M; Weatherall, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Open-label extension (OLE) studies following blinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmaceuticals are increasingly being carried out but do not conform to regulatory standards and questions surround the validity of their evidence. OLE studies are usually discussed as a homogenous group, yet substantial differences in study design still meet the definition of an OLE. We describe published papers reporting OLE studies focussing on stated objectives, design, conduct and reporting. A search of Embase and Medline databases for 1996 to July 2008 revealed 268 papers reporting OLE studies that met our eligibility criteria. A random sample of 50 was selected for detailed review. Over 80% of the studies had efficacy stated as an objective. The most common methods of allocation at the start of the OLE were for all RCT participants to switch to one active treatment or for only participants on the new drug to continue, but in three studies all participants were re-randomized at the start of the OLE. Eligibility criteria and other selection factors resulted in on average of 74% of participants in the preceding RCT(s) enrolling in the OLE and only 57% completed it. Published OLE studies do not form a homogenous group with respect to design or retention of participants, and thus the validity of evidence from an OLE should be judged on an individual basis. The term 'open label' suggests bias through lack of blinding, but slippage in relation to the sample randomized in the preceding RCT may be the more important threat to validity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Performance Study of Objective Speech Quality Measurement for Modern Wireless-VoIP Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago H. Falk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless-VoIP communications introduce perceptual degradations that are not present with traditional VoIP communications. This paper investigates the effects of such degradations on the performance of three state-of-the-art standard objective quality measurement algorithms—PESQ, P.563, and an “extended” E-model. The comparative study suggests that measurement performance is significantly affected by acoustic background noise type and level as well as speech codec and packet loss concealment strategy. On our data, PESQ attains superior overall performance and P.563 and E-model attain comparable performance figures.

  12. Can methodological requirements be fulfilled when studying concealed or unethical research objects? The case of astroturfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie BOULAY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific soundness is key in the development of research designs. Methodological choices bear the responsibility to demonstrate its obtainment. However, it is challenging to abide by these standards while dealing with hidden, masked or unethical objects. In this article, we share the various strategies employed to aim at a sound scientific process in spite of astroturfing’s characteristics and of the methodological orientations it dictates. Facing the dilemma between the importance of scientific value and the richness of inductive and exploratory approaches, we question the influence of positivist research standards in communication studies. We fear these requirements may limit their development.

  13. Performance Study of Objective Speech Quality Measurement for Modern Wireless-VoIP Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai-Yip

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless-VoIP communications introduce perceptual degradations that are not present with traditional VoIP communications. This paper investigates the effects of such degradations on the performance of three state-of-the-art standard objective quality measurement algorithms—PESQ, P.563, and an "extended" E-model. The comparative study suggests that measurement performance is significantly affected by acoustic background noise type and level as well as speech codec and packet loss concealment strategy. On our data, PESQ attains superior overall performance and P.563 and E-model attain comparable performance figures.

  14. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under Jongilanga Tribal Council, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Boikanyo Calvin Mophuting, James Mahore, Stefan Winterboer, Namrita Lall ...

  15. Objectively measured work load, health status and sickness absence among Danish ambulance personnel. A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    2013-01-01

    of this presentation is to examine the associations between objectively measured work load taken from the company register, health and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in 1-year follow up period. Methods: Data is taken from the first round of MARS – Men, accidents, risk and safety, a two wave panel study of AP......-reported sickness absence and LTSA even when adjusting for baseline health. 7 % of the participants were sick-listed for at least 4 consecutive weeks in the follow up period. AP’s with mean number of work tasks higher than median had more than two-fold risk of being sick-listed (HR: 2.17 (95% CI: 1.......35-3.51)). Conclusions: This study is one of the first to study the association between objectively measured work load among AP and their association with health, (self-reported) work environment and sickness absence. The results show that increasing work load is associated with adverse health and work environment...

  16. [Culinary as an object of study and intervention in the field of Food and Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Culinary is approached here as an object of food and nutritional studies and interventions aimed at dietary changes. In order to explore the culinary potential, two studies are presented: one qualitative, focusing on dietary intake, with subjects from two socioeconomic sectors submitted to salt restrictions; the other uses cooking as structural axis of an educational method for promoting healthy eating. In both studies one can observe the potential of culinary: in the first, as a medium which allows access to information about food procedures that can improve the quality of information about food intake and food practices and, in the second, as an effective space for interventions aimed at food habit changes by addressing their sensorial, cognitive, symbolic and procedural dimensions.

  17. The Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study: objectives, design, and recruitment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartert, Tina V; Deng, Xinqing; Hartman, Terryl J; Wen, Wanqing; Yang, Gong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jin, Meiling; Bai, Chunxue; Gross, Myron; Roberts, L Jackson; Sheller, James R; Christman, John; Dupont, William; Griffin, Marie; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2008-06-01

    The Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study is the first population-based incidence study designed to assess the associations of dietary antioxidant intake and measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity with development of adult-onset asthma and allergic rhinitis. A total of 65,732 participants in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, an ongoing cohort study in seven districts of Shanghai, People's Republic of China, were recruited to the Shanghai Women's Asthma and Allergy Study from 2003 to 2007. Dietary intake was assessed in the parent study by using a validated and quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline recruitment and at the first biennial follow-up survey. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure baseline oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nutrient levels at the baseline survey. Incident asthma and allergic rhinitis were assessed by using a modification of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire during the biennial in-person survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by either methacholine challenge testing or test of reversibility to beta-agonists. Dietary antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and urinary isoprostanes, a marker of oxidative stress, were measured prior to disease onset. This paper describes the study objectives, design, population demographics, and recruitment results.

  18. Metallic objects belonging to the first emperor of Brazil studied with PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambiel, V.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia; Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). lnstituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: First Emperor of Brazil, D. Pedro I is one of the main personalities in the history of Brazil and was responsible for the formation of the 'Brazilian nation', in September 7. With the death of King D. Joao VI in 1826, was acclaimed King Pedro IV in Portugal, however, held the office for a week and abdicated in favor of her daughter, Maria da Gloria. Due to political problems he also abdicated the Brazilian throne, in 1831, in favor of his son Pedro II. D. Pedro died on September 24 of 1834 at the Palace of Queluz, in Cintra and was buried in the Pantheon of the Royal House of Braganca, in Lisbon, Portugal. However in 1972, during celebrations of the 150{sup th} anniversary of the Independence of Brazil, his remains were moved to the Imperial Chapel in Monument Ipiranga installed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In the year 2012, was initiated a study in the Emperor including the exhumation, the inventory associated with it and several physical-chemical studies. The analyses have been performed with non-destructive techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) in various classes of objects, including bones, tissues and metals and also Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) in the metal objects. This article presents the PIXE results obtained for the set of metallic artifacts such as cufflinks and medals that show a wide variation in chemical composition with alloys formed mainly of copper and zinc and also made of alloys containing silver and gold. It was also verified the presence of lead and calcium, probably due to contamination suffered in the environment in which materials were found, particularly the remains were originally kept in a coffin of lead. The analyses also indicate some degree of deterioration of these objects. (author)

  19. Stochastic multi-objective model for optimal energy exchange optimization of networked microgrids with presence of renewable generation under risk-based strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazijahani, Farhad Samadi; Ravadanegh, Sajad Najafi; Salehi, Javad

    2018-02-01

    The inherent volatility and unpredictable nature of renewable generations and load demand pose considerable challenges for energy exchange optimization of microgrids (MG). To address these challenges, this paper proposes a new risk-based multi-objective energy exchange optimization for networked MGs from economic and reliability standpoints under load consumption and renewable power generation uncertainties. In so doing, three various risk-based strategies are distinguished by using conditional value at risk (CVaR) approach. The proposed model is specified as a two-distinct objective function. The first function minimizes the operation and maintenance costs, cost of power transaction between upstream network and MGs as well as power loss cost, whereas the second function minimizes the energy not supplied (ENS) value. Furthermore, the stochastic scenario-based approach is incorporated into the approach in order to handle the uncertainty. Also, Kantorovich distance scenario reduction method has been implemented to reduce the computational burden. Finally, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII) is applied to minimize the objective functions simultaneously and the best solution is extracted by fuzzy satisfying method with respect to risk-based strategies. To indicate the performance of the proposed model, it is performed on the modified IEEE 33-bus distribution system and the obtained results show that the presented approach can be considered as an efficient tool for optimal energy exchange optimization of MGs. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Venous thromboembolism's risk assessment: rationale, objectives, and methodology--the ARTE study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Ana; De Sousa, Joaquim Abreu; Felicíssimo, Paulo; Ferreira, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent clinical condition with high impact on both morbidity and mortality. Venous thromboembolism risk is particularly high in hospitalized patients as well as in oncologic patients, being a factor of poor prognosis for the oncologic disease. Several clinical studies have shown the need to develop effective hospital strategies using a systematic and individualized assessment of venous thromboembolism risk, and additionally to optimize the institution of prophylaxis treatment and its proper use in the context of in-hospital and outpatient management. The ARTE national study is a non-interventional, multicentre, prospective study which is divided in two phases. In the first phase patients are followed in the hospital; in the second phase patients are followed in ambulatory context for a period of 6 months after discharge. Four thousand patients will be included, equally distributed over medical, surgical, oncologic and orthopaedic patients. Data will be collected from the patient's clinical files and through direct clinical evaluation of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, in the departments of medicine, oncology, surgery, and orthopaedics of the participating centres. The main objectives of the study are to assess the risk profile of venous thromboembolism of the study population using a risk assessment model adapted from the Caprini and Khorana et al models, and the validation of the score for the Portuguese population. Simultaneously, the secondary objectives are as follows: to determine the proportion of patients with venous thromboembolism risk, according to the risk assessment model, that are doing prophylaxis; to determine the duration of prophylaxis during the hospitalization; to determine the proportion of patients doing long-term prophylaxis, at the moment of the discharge; to determine the incidence of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis; stroke; pulmonary thromboembolism; transient ischemic attack

  1. Money, Food, and Daily Life Objects Are Similarly Shared in the Dictator Game. A Study among Poles and Tsimane'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Marczak, Michalina; Huanca, Tomas; Velasco, Esther C; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The dictator game (DG) is one of the most popular methods for measuring sharing behaviors. However, the matter of goods used in the game has rarely been examined and discussed. We conducted a study in which all participants played standard version of DG in one of the three versions - "money," "food," or "daily life objects" sharing. Further, we wanted to expand the generalizability of our findings by investigating whether patterns in sharing various goods are independent of culture and the level of market integration. Thus, the study was conducted among people who function daily under the conditions of low market integration (109 Tsimane' - forager-horticulturists from Bolivian Amazon) and in a society highly integrated with the market-based economy (85 Polish people). We observed that among both Polish and Tsimane' people the participants were equally likely to share money, food and small, daily life objects with an unknown partner, which implies that generosity might not be related with the type of possessed resources. However, regardless of the kind of goods given, Tsimane' people were less eager to share with anonymous others than Polish people. We present several implications of our findings for studies on generosity and altruism.

  2. Asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in community (APAC study in China: objectives, design and baseline characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The population-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC Study was designed to examine prevalence and associations of asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities (APA in a general population. In this report, the objectives, design and baseline data of the APAC study are described. METHODS: The study included 5,440 participants (40.1% women with an age of 40+ years who were randomly selected from the population of the Kailuan Study which included 101,510 employees and retirees of the Kailuan Co. Ltd, a large coal mine industry located in Tangshan, Hebei, China. Exclusion criteria were previous cerebral stroke, transient ischemic attacks and coronary heart disease. In 2010 and 2011, information on potential cardiovascular risk factors was collected and all participants underwent transcranial Doppler sonography, measurement of the ankle brachial index, and bilateral carotid duplex sonography. In a first follow-up examination in 2012/2013, retinal photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were additionally performed. In a planned long-term follow-up, data from clinical examinations and laboratory tests and the occurrence of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events will be collected to build up a predicting model for the risk of ischemic events. RESULTS: At baseline, mean age of the participants was 55.2 ± 11.8 years, and men showed a significantly (P<0.001 higher prevalence of arterial hypertension (55.5% vs. 36.5% and hyperlipidemia (50.7% vs. 46.0% and a higher blood homocysteine concentration (18.68 ± 10.28 µmol/L versus 11.69 ± 6.40 µmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: The APAC is the first study to prospectively evaluate the relationship between intracranial arterial stenosis, retinal nerve fiber layer changes, retinal microvascular signs, and the eventual development of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events.

  3. An external proton beam at VERA to study objects of art by proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroepfl, P.; Forstner, O.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.; Wallner, A.; Wuenschek, B.; Golser, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: PIXE is a very sensitive analytical method to determine the chemical composition of art objects, e.g. drawings, handwritings etc. A particular advantage is the possibility to analyze objects non-destructively under atmospheric pressure. Such an external beam PIXE facility is currently implemented at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). The set-up allows to extract a 3 MeV proton beam of approximately 100 μm in diameter and currents in the range of a few nA's through an ultra-thin (0.1 μm) Silicon Nitride window. The characteristic x-rays emitted from the specimen are recorded with a Si(Li) and a Silicon Drift detector simultaneously to cover the widest possible Z-range of the detected elements. We have just completed an extensive period of studying beam effects on ancient paper to exclude possible damage to art objects, in particular drawings of the Renaissance that are among the most precious and rarest treasuries of graphical collections. They were created with different materials such as inks, chalks and metal points. A large collection of these fine arts objects is situated at the Albertina in Vienna. Together with scientists from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF) in Paris, I. Reiche, A. Duval, H. Guicharnaud, from the CEREGE UMR CNRS 6635 in Aix-en-Provence, S. Merchel, from the Albertina in Vienna, E. Thobois, H. Singer, and from the Akademie der bildenden Kuenste in Vienna, M. Schreiner, we want then to analyze a few selected silverpoint drawings by Albrecht Duerer (1471-1528). (author)

  4. [Hair as a study object in case of poisoning with heavy metal salts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, A Z; Bogomolov, D V; Larev, Z V; Amanmuradov, A Kh

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to analyse the results of morphological studies of hair taken from the children with suspected thallium poisoning. The findings obtained by isoelectrofocusing, spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were compared with the relevant literature data. Original investigations included a comparative microstructural study along the hair length and cross section. We failed to observe formation of black-purple structures in the hair bulb and root region of the shaft usually associated with thallium poisoning. It is concluded that thallium poisoning can not be diagnosed based on the presence of a black pigment, knob-like swellings, and spindle-shaped bulbs since they are normal elements of healthy hair. More sensitive methods for the determination of trace elements and their combination with morphological investigations are needed for the definitive diagnosis of thallium poisoning.

  5. Properties of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS): a Generalizability Theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggraf, Lene; Ulvenes, Pål G; Wampold, Bruce E; Hoffart, Asle; McCullough, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the process instrument Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS) were examined in this study. Generalizability Theory (GT) was used to evaluate variability attached to several possible sources of error. A random sample of 24 psychotherapy sessions was selected from a larger RCT trial including Cluster C patients and rated in different rating conditions (rating all scales versus rating a subgroup of the scales). Two G-study designs were used to compute variance components and generalizability coefficients. The results provided evidence that the ATOS is sensitive to differences among patients and to differences among subscales within patients (i.e., to different constructs within the ATOS). Rating condition contributed much to variability in scores when the ATOS scales were examined separately, but this variability was negligible when all scales were included in the same analysis. There was little variability due to raters, which indicates that adequately trained raters are able to apply the ATOS without contributing to measurement error.

  6. Pilot study on objective measurement of abdominal wall strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael; Goldberg, Ross F; Dinkins, Maryane M; Asbun, Horacio J; Daniel Smith, C; Preissler, Susanne; Bowers, Steven P

    2011-11-01

    Outcomes after ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair are measured by recurrence rate and subjective measures. No objective metrics evaluate functional outcomes after abdominal wall reconstruction. This study aimed to develop testing of abdominal wall strength (AWS) that could be validated as a useful metric. Data were prospectively collected during 9 months from 35 patients. A total of 10 patients were evaluated before and after VIH repair, for a total of 45 encounters. The patients were tested simultaneously or in succession by two of three examiners. Data were collected for three tests: double leg lowering (DLL), trunk raising (TR), and supine reaching (SR). Raw data were compared and tested for validity, and continuous data were transformed to categorical data. Agreement was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for DLL and using kappa for the ordinal measures. Simultaneous testing yielded the following interobserver reliability: DLL (0.96 and 0.87), TR (1.00 and 0.95), and SR (0.76). Reproducibility was assessed by consecutive tests, with correlation as follows: DLL (0.81), TR (0.81), and RCH (0.21). Due to poor interobserver reliability for the SR test compared with the DLL and TR tests, the SR test was excluded from calculation of an overall score. Based on raw data distribution from the DLL and TR tests, the DLL data were categorized into 10º increments, allowing construction of a 10-point score. The median AWS score was 5 (interquartile range [IQR], 4-7), and there was agreement within 1 point for 42 of the 45 encounters (93%). The findings from this study demonstrate that the 10-point AWS score may measure AWS in an accurate and reproducible fashion, with potential for objective description of abdominal wall function of VIH patients. This score may help to identify patients suited for abdominal wall reconstruction while measuring progress after VIH repair. Further longitudinal outcomes studies are needed.

  7. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child

  8. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2010-10-07

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. This work

  9. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  10. Asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in community (APAC) study in China: objectives, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Li, Yang; Xu, Liang; Xu, Jie; Wang, Anxin; Wang, Anxing; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Shouling; Wei, Wen Bin; Zhao, Xingquan; Jonas, Jost B

    2013-01-01

    The population-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC) Study was designed to examine prevalence and associations of asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities (APA) in a general population. In this report, the objectives, design and baseline data of the APAC study are described. The study included 5,440 participants (40.1% women) with an age of 40+ years who were randomly selected from the population of the Kailuan Study which included 101,510 employees and retirees of the Kailuan Co. Ltd, a large coal mine industry located in Tangshan, Hebei, China. Exclusion criteria were previous cerebral stroke, transient ischemic attacks and coronary heart disease. In 2010 and 2011, information on potential cardiovascular risk factors was collected and all participants underwent transcranial Doppler sonography, measurement of the ankle brachial index, and bilateral carotid duplex sonography. In a first follow-up examination in 2012/2013, retinal photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were additionally performed. In a planned long-term follow-up, data from clinical examinations and laboratory tests and the occurrence of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events will be collected to build up a predicting model for the risk of ischemic events. At baseline, mean age of the participants was 55.2 ± 11.8 years, and men showed a significantly (PAPAC is the first study to prospectively evaluate the relationship between intracranial arterial stenosis, retinal nerve fiber layer changes, retinal microvascular signs, and the eventual development of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events.

  11. Comparative analysis study for piping seismic design criteria. Part 1: Methodology and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.; Branch, E.B.; Landers, D.F.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the First of a Kind Engineering effort for the Advanced Light Water Reactor the Advanced Reactor Corporation formed a Piping Technical Core Group to develop a set of improved ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III design rules and approaches for ALWR plant piping and support design. In developing this proposed criteria the Technical Core Group conducted an extensive Comparative Analysis Study of many of the eighteen proposals for new or alternative seismic piping design criteria under consideration by The ASME Code Committee. As part of this comparative study the Technical Core Group also devised a process for determining the relative conservatism of each design criteria studied. In addition a method to relate these relative margins to EPRI/USNRC piping component test margins was developed which allows an assessment of the minimum margin to failure that could be expected from each set of design rules and criteria studied. The study was conducted in two phases and the methodology for each of these phases is presented. Phase 1 was done to develop the relative margins and relate these margins to the actual EPRI/USNRC test data. Phase 2 was done to study the optimized support configurations which could be created using each of the different criteria reviewed. Also, presented in this paper is a discussion of the different criteria selected for study, Analysis Methods/Criteria applied, the piping models for the study, and the specific inputs for the comparative analyses

  12. Dust environment of an airless object: A phase space study with kinetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, E.; Dyadechkin, S.; Fatemi, S.; Holmström, M.; Futaana, Y.; Wurz, P.; Fernandes, V. A.; Álvarez, F.; Heilimo, J.; Jarvinen, R.; Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Barabash, S.; Mäkelä, J.; Porjo, N.; Alho, M.

    2016-01-01

    The study of dust above the lunar surface is important for both science and technology. Dust particles are electrically charged due to impact of the solar radiation and the solar wind plasma and, therefore, they affect the plasma above the lunar surface. Dust is also a health hazard for crewed missions because micron and sub-micron sized dust particles can be toxic and harmful to the human body. Dust also causes malfunctions in mechanical devices and is therefore a risk for spacecraft and instruments on the lunar surface. Properties of dust particles above the lunar surface are not fully known. However, it can be stated that their large surface area to volume ratio due to their irregular shape, broken chemical bonds on the surface of each dust particle, together with the reduced lunar environment cause the dust particles to be chemically very reactive. One critical unknown factor is the electric field and the electric potential near the lunar surface. We have developed a modelling suite, Dusty Plasma Environments: near-surface characterisation and Modelling (DPEM), to study globally and locally dust environments of the Moon and other airless bodies. The DPEM model combines three independent kinetic models: (1) a 3D hybrid model, where ions are modelled as particles and electrons are modelled as a charged neutralising fluid, (2) a 2D electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model where both ions and electrons are treated as particles, and (3) a 3D Monte Carlo (MC) model where dust particles are modelled as test particles. The three models are linked to each other unidirectionally; the hybrid model provides upstream plasma parameters to be used as boundary conditions for the PIC model which generates the surface potential for the MC model. We have used the DPEM model to study properties of dust particles injected from the surface of airless objects such as the Moon, the Martian moon Phobos and the asteroid RQ36. We have performed a (v0, m/q)-phase space study where the

  13. Spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of polystyrene films under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of polystyrene films under air plasma and He-Ne laser treatment ... The parameters such as (1) surface area by contact angle measurements, (2) quality of material before and after treatment by SEM and FTIR spectra and (3) material characterization by UV-vis spectra were studied.

  14. Study of medieval enamelling on gilded objects combining SEM-EDAX and PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamon, J.; Barrio, J.; Arroyo, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), SECYR Laboratory, Departamento de Arqueologia y Prehistoria, Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, P.C.; Climent-Font, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A set of fragments of metallic artefacts from the medieval period excavated from Ciudad Real in Spain has been studied. The objects are gilded copper buckles with a champleve enamelling decoration. The composition of predominantly blue-coloured enamels has been analysed using three non-destructive techniques, SEM-EDAX (scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Analyses show that Co is responsible for the blue colour. The results of the two techniques are compared, as well as the main components which constitute the enamel. Analyses suggest that Cu is responsible for red colour. (orig.)

  15. A feasibility study for application of object-oriented paradigm in software of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Koo, I. S.; Son, C. H.; Kim, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    In software engineering industry object-oriented analysis, design, implementation, and testing are common method, and there are many development methodology, modeling tools are in the market. There is no references of complete application of OOP methodology, obviously not in instrumentation and control for Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP). In this study, the software structure of Information Processing System(IPS), the top of information level of SMART I and C is reviewed and the feasibility and positive expectation for the application of OOP analysis and design. The software structure of plant monitoring system in KSNP is investigated to find out the problems and the fundamental modules are analyzed and designed based on the OOP methodology

  16. Luminosity excesses in low-mass young stellar objects - a statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, K.M.; Strom, S.E.; Kenyon, S.J.; Hartmann, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical study in which the observed total luminosity is compared quantitatively with an estimate of the stellar luminosity for a sample of 59 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Taurus-Auriga complex. In 13 of the analyzed YSOs, luminosity excesses greater than 0.20 are observed together with greater than 0.6 IR excesses, which typically contribute the bulk of the observed excess luminosity and are characterized by spectral energy distributions which are flat or rise toward long wavelengths. The analysis suggests that YSOs showing the largest luminosity excesses typically power optical jets and/or molecular outflows or have strong winds, as evidenced by the presence of O I emission, indicating a possible correlation between accretion and mass-outflow properties. 38 references

  17. Study of archaeological iron objects by PGAA, Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, F. E., E-mail: fwagner@tum.de [Technische Universität München, Physik- Department E15 (Germany); Gebhard, R. [Archäologische Staatssammlung München (Germany); Häusler, W.; Wagner, U. [Technische Universität München, Physik- Department E15 (Germany); Albert, P.; Hess, H. [Archäologische Staatssammlung München (Germany); Révay, Z.; Kudejová, P.; Kleszcz, K. [Technische Universität München, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Archaeological iron objects often corrode rapidly after their excavation, even though they have survived long times of burial in the ground. Chlorine that accumulates during burial is thought to play a major role in this destructive post-excavation corrosion. It is therefore important for the conservation of such objects to determine the chlorine content in a non-destructive manner and, if necessary, to remove the chlorine from the artefacts by appropriate methods. Such methods are leaching in alkaline solutions or heating in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures up to 800 {sup ∘}C. We have studied the efficiency of the heating method using prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) for monitoring the Cl content and Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) and 4.2 K as well as X-ray diffraction to study the mineralogical transformations of the rust layers. The heat treatments were performed a N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} (90/10) mixture at temperatures up to 750 {sup ∘}C. As test specimens sections of iron rods from the Celtic oppidum of Manching (Bavaria) were used. The initial Cl contents of the pieces varied in the range of several hundred ppm, referring to the iron mass. Annealing for 24 h at 350, 550 and 750 {sup ∘}C was found to reduce the Cl contents of the specimens, to about 70, 30 and 15 % of the original values, respectively. The rust consists mainly of goethite with admixtures of magnetite, lepidocrocite and akaganeite, which is thought to be a major carrier of chlorine, probably together with iron chlorides. Much of the goethite is so fine-grained that it does not split magnetically at RT. Annealing converts the rust mainly to maghemite at 350 {sup ∘}C, to magnetite at 550 {sup ∘}C and to wüstite plus magnetite and metallic iron at 750 {sup ∘}C. Pure akaganeite behaves in nearly the same manner.

  18. Bilinguals implicitly name objects in both their languages: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Holzen, Katie; Mani, Nivedita

    2014-01-01

    Upon being presented with a familiar name-known image, monolingual infants and adults implicitly generate the image's label (Meyer et al., 2007; Mani and Plunkett, 2010, 2011; Mani et al., 2012a). Although the cross-linguistic influences on overt bilingual production are well studied (for a summary see Colomé and Miozzo, 2010), evidence that bilinguals implicitly generate the label for familiar objects in both languages remains mixed. For example, bilinguals implicitly generate picture labels in both of their languages, but only when tested in L2 and not L1 (Wu and Thierry, 2011) or when immersed in their L2 (Spivey and Marian, 1999; Marian and Spivey, 2003a,b) but not when immersed in their L1 (Weber and Cutler, 2004). The current study tests whether bilinguals implicitly generate picture labels in both of their languages when tested in their L1 with a cross-modal ERP priming paradigm. The results extend previous findings by showing that not just do bilinguals implicitly generate the labels for visually fixated images in both of their languages when immersed in their L1, but also that these implicitly generated labels in one language can prime recognition of subsequently presented auditory targets across languages (i.e., L2-L1). The current study provides support for cascaded models of lexical access during speech production, as well as a new priming paradigm for the study of bilingual language processing.

  19. Drug use study for acute respiratory infection in children under 10 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Dwiprahasto, Iwan Dwiprahasto

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the commonest illness in children and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. It comprises approximately 50 % of all illness in children under five years. Even though usually viral in origin and of a self-limiting nature, various study indicate that antibiotic prescribing for ARI is inappropriately high.Objective: This study was aimed to assess general practitioners' (GPs) prescribing pattern for acute respira...

  20. Photogrammetric UAV Mapping of Terrain under Dense Coastal Vegetation: An Object-Oriented Classification Ensemble Algorithm for Classification and Terrain Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Meng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetric UAV sees a surge in use for high-resolution mapping, but its use to map terrain under dense vegetation cover remains challenging due to a lack of exposed ground surfaces. This paper presents a novel object-oriented classification ensemble algorithm to leverage height, texture and contextual information of UAV data to improve landscape classification and terrain estimation. Its implementation incorporates multiple heuristics, such as multi-input machine learning-based classification, object-oriented ensemble, and integration of UAV and GPS surveys for terrain correction. Experiments based on a densely vegetated wetland restoration site showed classification improvement from 83.98% to 96.12% in overall accuracy and from 0.7806 to 0.947 in kappa value. Use of standard and existing UAV terrain mapping algorithms and software produced reliable digital terrain model only over exposed bare grounds (mean error = −0.019 m and RMSE = 0.035 m but severely overestimated the terrain by ~80% of mean vegetation height in vegetated areas. The terrain correction method successfully reduced the mean error from 0.302 m to −0.002 m (RMSE from 0.342 m to 0.177 m in low vegetation and from 1.305 m to 0.057 m (RMSE from 1.399 m to 0.550 m in tall vegetation. Overall, this research validated a feasible solution to integrate UAV and RTK GPS for terrain mapping in densely vegetated environments.

  1. Study design, objectives, hypotheses, main findings, health consequences for the population exposed, rationale of future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trnovec, T.; Kocan, A. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Bencko, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Berg, M. van den [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosics (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    In Slovakia, the Chemko Chemical Company, based in Strazske, in the Michalovce district, produced PCBs between 1959 and 1984, in the amount of more than 21,000 tons of commercial mixtures (Delor 103, 104, 105, 106, Delotherm DK and DH, Hydelor 137). PCBs were used for similar industrial purposes as in the west. Improper disposal from the Chemko plant via release of effluent directly into the Laborec River resulted in long-term contamination of sediment. As a result eastern Slovakia, the Michalovce district in particular, is recognized as one of the areas all over the world most heavily polluted with PCBs. Historical studies show that blood and adipose PCB levels were higher in Czechoslovakia than elsewhere in the 1970's and 1980's. Current data indicate that persons who eat locally raised food - pork, beef, poultry, eggs - in this district have elevated serum concentrations of PCBs. Environmental exposure to organochlorines in the Michalovce district indicate association with higher rates of certain cancers, but an inverse association with risk of breast cancer. An increased prevalence of thyroid disorders in the polluted area was also reported. This ''experimental setting in nature'' has attracted international scientific teams and two projects in the area are ongoing: Evaluating Human Health Risk from Low-dose and Long-term PCB Exposure, 5{sup th} FP Project QLK4-2000-00488, 2001- 2004; PCBRISK (http://www.pcbrisk.sk/) and Early Childhood Development and PCB Exposures in Slovakia, NCI/NIH, R01-CA96525 University of California, Davis, USA. This paper is serving as an introduction to papers of a session reporting on various health outcomes associated with PCB exposure. The objectives of the PCBRISK project were targeted at an evaluation of the human health risks of low-dose and long-term exposure to a group of persistent organochlorine pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites, organochlorine

  2. Dose profile study on computerized tomography scanning of skull with simulator object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a comparison among the dose profiles in scanning of computerized tomography of a simulator object of PMMA in its periphery region. To obtain the deposited dose at the PMMA thermoluminescent dosemeters were used positioned at the interior of PMMA simulated object longitudinal to periphery and at the center of cylinder (positions denominated North, South, East, West and Center). Eight scanning were performed of simulator object using the routine protocol for skull in eight different services of radiodiagnostic by TC

  3. Testing the Formation Mechanism of Sub-Stellar Objects in Lupus (A SOLA Team Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Lopez, C.; Takahashi, S.; Santamaria-Miranda

    2017-06-01

    The international SOLA team (Soul of Lupus with ALMA) has identified a set of pre- and proto-stellar candidates in Lupus 1 and 3 of substellar nature using 1.1mm ASTE/AzTEC maps and our optical to submillimeter database. We have observed with ALMA the most promising pre- and proto-brown dwarfs candidates. Our aims are to provide insights on how substellar objects form and evolve, from the equivalent to the pre-stellar cores to the Class II stage in the low mass regime of star formation. Our sample comprises 33 pre-stellar objects, 7 Class 0 and I objects, and 22 Class II objects.

  4. Using peak direct subglottic pressure level as an objective measure during medialization thyroplasty: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohizea, Moahmmed I; Prasad, Vyas M N; Fakhoury, Raja; Bihin, Benoit; Remacle, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Type I medialization thyroplasty (MT) was introduced by Isshiki more than 40 years ago. It is one of the most widely used surgical options to correct glottic insufficiency. Intraoperatively, the surgeon relies solely on perceptual subjective measures to help to achieve an optimal glottic closure by bringing the affected vocal fold closer to the midline in order to close the glottic gap. One of the challenges of MT is the persistence of symptoms due to incorrect choice of implant size. As of now, no standard objective measure is being used to determine the optimal implant size needed to achieve the glottic closure required. Peak direct subglottic pressure (PDSGP) is one of the aerodynamic objective measurements of vocal efficiency that significantly increases in cases of glottic insufficiency. It is easily measured during MT by inserting a catheter through the cricothyroid membrane. A prospective study was carried out on patients undergoing MT using the Montgomery Implant(®). Choice of implant size was carried out based on the standard perceptual subjective assessment by the operating surgeon and was based on degree of glottic closure and voice quality. PDSGP was recorded for each implant size and then we tested the agreement between the chosen implant size and the lowest PDSGP. The agreement between the implant size of choice and the lowest PDSGP recorded was 62.5 % [CI 44-79 %]. PDSGP was easy to measure and resulted in no complications. PDSGP is a useful tool that could assist in the choice of the correct implant size needed during MT. 4.

  5. Ultrasonography as a prognostic and objective parameter in Achilles tendinopathy: A prospective observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkegaard, Mads, E-mail: mbakkegaard@hotmail.com [Department of Rheumatology, Holbæk Hospital, Smedelundsgade 60, 4300 Holbæk (Denmark); Johannsen, Finn E., E-mail: f.e.johannsen@dadlnet.dk [Private Department of Rheumatology, Furesø-reumatologerne, Farum and ISMC, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hospital, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, 2. Tværvej, Indgang 8, 1. sal, 2400 København NV (Denmark); Højgaard, Betina, E-mail: beho@kora.dk [Danish Institute for Local and Regional Government Research, Købmagergade 22, 1150 København K (Denmark); Langberg, Henning, E-mail: henninglangberg@gmail.com [Institute of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Centre for Healthy Ageing, Faculty of Heath Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, bygn. 24, postboks 2099, 1014 København (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: To study prospectively whether structural changes determined by ultrasound scanning (US) can be used as prognostic markers for outcome in patients with symptomatic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and to investigate whether there exists an association between US findings and pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS) and a general assessment score (GA). Methods: 92 consecutive patients with AT symptoms were recruited from two outpatient clinics in rheumatology. The patients underwent a conservative treatment protocol consisting of reduced activities, controlled rehabilitation including eccentric exercises of the calf muscles and if needed supplemented with corticosteroid injections. The patients were examined clinically and by US (tendon thickness, hyper- and hypoechogenicity, calcification, bursitis, calcaneusspure, tenosynovitis, gray scale and color Doppler focusing on increased flow intra- or peritendinous). The clinical and US examination were performed at entry, 1, 2, 3 and at 6 month. Results: 42 women and 50 men were included (mean age of 47 years). They had symptoms for more than 13 months and a symptomatic Achilles tendon mean thickness of 7.4 ± 2.3 mm. Heterogeneity at the initial examination was found to be a prognostic marker for the clinical outcome. Tendon thickness, hypoechogenicity and increased flow at any time point were significantly correlated to pain at function, palpatory pain and morning pain at the same time points. A reduction in tendon thickness was statistically associated with a decrease in palpatory pain. Conclusion: Heterogeneity is a prognostic marker in AT. Tendon thickness, hypoechogenicity and increased Doppler activity can be used as objective outcome parameters for the treatment effect of AT.

  6. Objective Assessment of Activity Limitation in Glaucoma with Smartphone Virtual Reality Goggles: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Kong, Yu Xiang George; McAlinden, Colm; Liu, John; Crowston, Jonathan G; Skalicky, Simon E

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the use of smartphone-based virtual reality to objectively assess activity limitation in glaucoma. Cross-sectional study of 93 patients (54 mild, 22 moderate, 17 severe glaucoma). Sociodemographics, visual parameters, Glaucoma Activity Limitation-9 and Visual Function Questionnaire - Utility Index (VFQ-UI) were collected. Mean age was 67.4 ± 13.2 years; 52.7% were male; 65.6% were driving. A smartphone placed inside virtual reality goggles was used to administer the Virtual Reality Glaucoma Visual Function Test (VR-GVFT) to participants, consisting of three parts: stationary, moving ball, driving. Rasch analysis and classical validity tests were conducted to assess performance of VR-GVFT. Twenty-four of 28 stationary test items showed acceptable fit to the Rasch model (person separation 3.02, targeting 0). Eleven of 12 moving ball test items showed acceptable fit (person separation 3.05, targeting 0). No driving test items showed acceptable fit. Stationary test person scores showed good criterion validity, differentiating between glaucoma severity groups ( P = 0.014); modest convergence validity, with mild to moderate correlation with VFQ-UI, better eye (BE) mean deviation, BE pattern deviation, BE central scotoma, worse eye (WE) visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity (CS) in both eyes ( R = 0.243-0.381); and suboptimal divergent validity. Multivariate analysis showed that lower WE CS ( P = 0.044) and greater age ( P = 0.009) were associated with worse stationary test person scores. Smartphone-based virtual reality may be a portable objective simulation test of activity limitation related to glaucomatous visual loss. The use of simulated virtual environments could help better understand the activity limitations that affect patients with glaucoma.

  7. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  8. Ultrasonography as a prognostic and objective parameter in Achilles tendinopathy: A prospective observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkegaard, Mads; Johannsen, Finn E.; Højgaard, Betina; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study prospectively whether structural changes determined by ultrasound scanning (US) can be used as prognostic markers for outcome in patients with symptomatic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and to investigate whether there exists an association between US findings and pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS) and a general assessment score (GA). Methods: 92 consecutive patients with AT symptoms were recruited from two outpatient clinics in rheumatology. The patients underwent a conservative treatment protocol consisting of reduced activities, controlled rehabilitation including eccentric exercises of the calf muscles and if needed supplemented with corticosteroid injections. The patients were examined clinically and by US (tendon thickness, hyper- and hypoechogenicity, calcification, bursitis, calcaneusspure, tenosynovitis, gray scale and color Doppler focusing on increased flow intra- or peritendinous). The clinical and US examination were performed at entry, 1, 2, 3 and at 6 month. Results: 42 women and 50 men were included (mean age of 47 years). They had symptoms for more than 13 months and a symptomatic Achilles tendon mean thickness of 7.4 ± 2.3 mm. Heterogeneity at the initial examination was found to be a prognostic marker for the clinical outcome. Tendon thickness, hypoechogenicity and increased flow at any time point were significantly correlated to pain at function, palpatory pain and morning pain at the same time points. A reduction in tendon thickness was statistically associated with a decrease in palpatory pain. Conclusion: Heterogeneity is a prognostic marker in AT. Tendon thickness, hypoechogenicity and increased Doppler activity can be used as objective outcome parameters for the treatment effect of AT

  9. The "Profiles" document: a modern revision of the objectives of undergraduate medical studies in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Jucker-Kupper, Patrick; The Profiles Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Commission of the Swiss Medical Schools (SMIFK/CIMS) decided in 2000 to establish a Swiss Catalogue of Learning Objectives (SCLO) for undergraduate medical training, which was adapted from a similar Dutch blueprint. A second version of the SCLO was developed and launched in 2008. The catalogue is a prerequisite for the accreditation of the curricula of the six Swiss medical faculties and defines the contents of the Federal Licensing Examination (FLE). Given the evolution of the field of medicine and of medical education, the SMIFK/CIMS has decided to embark on a total revision of the SCLO. This article presents the proposed structure and content of Profiles, a new document which, in the future, will direct the format of undergraduate studies and of the FLE. Profiles stands for the Principal Relevant Objectives for Integrative Learning and Education in Switzerland. It is currently being developed by a group of experts from the six Swiss faculties as well as representatives of other institutions involved in these developments. The foundations of Profiles are grounded in the evolution of medical practice and of public health and are based on up-to-date teaching concepts, such as EPAs (entrustable professional activities). An introduction will cover the concepts and a tutorial will be displayed. Three main chapters will provide a description of the seven 2015 CanMEDS roles, a list of core EPAs and a series of ≈250 situations embracing the most frequent and current conditions affecting health. As Profiles is still a work in progress, it is hoped that this paper will attract the interest of all individuals involved in the training of medical students.

  10. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto [Departamento de Fisica, CCE, Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL, P.O.Box 6001, CEP 86055-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  11. Mechanical Objects and the Engineering Learner: An Experimental Study of How the Presence of Objects Affects Students' Performance on Engineering Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    2013-01-01

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact…

  12. A multi-objective approach for optimal prioritization of energy efficiency measures in buildings: Model, software and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmellos, M.; Kiprakis, A.; Mavrotas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We provide a model for prioritization of energy efficiency measures in buildings. • We examine the case of a new building and one under renovation. • Objective functions are total primary energy consumption and total investment cost. • We provide a software tool that solves this multi-objective optimization problem. • Primary energy consumption and investment cost are inversely proportional. - Abstract: Buildings are responsible for some 40% of the total final energy consumption in the European Union and about 40% of the world’s primary energy consumption. Hence, the reduction of primary energy consumption is important for the overall energy chain. The scope of the current work is to assess the energy efficiency measures in the residential and small commercial sector and to develop a methodology and a software tool for their optimal prioritization. The criteria used for the prioritization of energy efficiency measures in this article are the primary energy consumption and the initial investment cost. The developed methodology used is generic and could be implemented in the case of a new building or retrofitting an existing building. A multi-objective mixed-integer non-linear problem (MINLP) needs to be solved and the weighted sum method is used. Moreover, the novelty of this work is that a software tool has been developed using ‘Matlab®’ which is generic, very simple and time efficient and can be used by a Decision Maker (DM). Two case studies have been developed, one for a new building and one for retrofitting an existing one, in two cities with different climate characteristics. The building was placed in Edinburgh in the UK and Athens in Greece and the analysis showed that the primary energy consumption and the initial investment cost are inversely proportional

  13. Objectively measured physical activity and longitudinal changes in adolescent body fatness: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, P J; Wijndaele, K; Corder, K; Westgate, K; Ridgway, C L; Sharp, S J; Atkin, A J; Stephen, A M; Bamber, D; Goodyer, I; Brage, S; Ekelund, U

    2016-04-01

    The data regarding prospective associations between physical activity (PA) and adiposity in youth are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between baseline levels of objectively measured PA and changes in adiposity over 2.5 years from mid-to-late adolescence. This was an observational cohort study in 728 school students (43% boys) from Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Fat mass index (FMI, kg m(-2) ) was estimated at baseline (mean ± standard deviation age: 15 ± 0.3 years) and follow-up (17.5 ± 0.3 years) by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. Habitual PA was assessed at baseline by ≥3 d combined heart rate and movement sensing. Average daily PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and the time (min d(-1) ) spent in light, moderate and vigorous intensity PA (LPA, MPA and VPA, respectively) was estimated. Multilevel models were used to investigate associations between baseline PA and change in FMI (ΔFMI). Adjustment for baseline age, sex, follow-up duration, area-level socioeconomic status, season of PA assessment, sedentary time, energy intake and sleep duration was made; baseline FMI was also added in a second model. FMI increased significantly over follow-up (0.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) , P positively predicted ΔFMI in overfat participants (P ≤ 0.030), as did VPA in initially normal fat participants (P ≤ 0.044). There were further positive associations between PAEE and ΔFMI in normal fat participants, and between MPA and ΔFMI in both fat groups, when adjusted for baseline FMI (P ≤ 0.024). Baseline PAEE and its subcomponents were positively associated with small and unlikely clinically relevant increases in ΔFMI. These counter-intuitive findings may be explained by behavioural changes during the course of study follow-up. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  14. Road Impedance Model Study under the Control of Intersection Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlin Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic impedance model is a difficult and critical point in urban traffic assignment and route guidance. The paper takes a signalized intersection as the research object. On the basis of traditional traffic wave theory including the implementation of traffic wave model and the analysis of vehicles’ gathering and dissipating, the road traffic impedance model is researched by determining the basic travel time and waiting delay time. Numerical example results have proved that the proposed model in this paper has received better calculation performance compared to existing model, especially in flat hours. The values of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and mean absolute deviation (MAD are separately reduced by 3.78% and 2.62 s. It shows that the proposed model has feasibility and availability in road traffic impedance under intersection signal.

  15. Conscientious objection, barriers, and abortion in the case of rape: a study among physicians in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristião

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical Objects between Categorisation and Learning: An Exploratory Case Study in French Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedovo, M. A.; Andreucci, C.; Delserieys-Pedregosa, A.; Coiffard, C.; Ginestié, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present exploratory research carried out in order to understand how students (from 12 to 14 years old) relate to technical objects. It uses technical objects that are part of everyday life and mediated reality. A questionnaire was administered to 57 students in French classes. The questionnaire was composed of three parts: 1)…

  17. Selection of Objective Function For Imbalanced Classification: An Industrial Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss the issue of selecting suitable objective function for Genetic Algorithm to solve an imbalanced classification problem. More precisely, first we discuss the need of specialized objective function to solve a real classification problem from our industrial partner...

  18. A Hybrid of Multi-Objective Optimization and System Dynamics Simulation for Straw-to-Electricity Supply Chain Management under the Belt and Road Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyun Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI provides immense opportunities for agro-waste utilization among countries situated along the routes. However, there is a lack of design of motivational mechanisms to put it into managerial practice. This study uses agro-straw as the typical agro-waste to structure a hybrid of multi-objective optimization and system dynamics simulation for optimizing the structure of straw-to-electricity supply chain and designing motivational mechanisms to enhance its sustainability. Since existing studies on the design of motivation mechanisms mainly stressed static motivation, two different dynamic subsidy mechanisms are devised in this study to facilitate the stable collaboration among stakeholders involved in the supply chain. A case study is provided to demonstrate the hybrid method. Discussion about the limitations of the study lays the foundation for further improvement.

  19. The Isfahan comprehensive elderly study: Objectives, research design, methodology, and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Heidari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the objectives, research design, methodology, and primary findings of the Isfahan Comprehensive Elderly Study (ICES. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 603 elderly persons (aged 60 and over were selected by multistage cluster sampling method from Isfahan, Iran, in 2016 comprehensive questionnaires along with a detailed interview were used to collect information on personal, family, socioeconomic, health and social services characteristics, life styles, physical illnesses and chronic diseases, mental, emotional and cognition disorders, quality of life, disabilities, sleep quality, social supports, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, and of participants. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD age of participants was 69.66 ± 6.31 years, consisting of 50.75% females. About 23% of elderly persons were at the risk of malnutrition and 4.5% were current smoker. Severe and mild depression were documented in 9.3% and 30.2% among included study subjects, respectively. About half of the participants had hypertension, and 26.8% suffered from cardiovascular disease. The mean ± SD of total score of Geriatric Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Older People's Quality of Life, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was 8.84 ± 6.79, 14.76 ± 5.92, 133.99 ± 10.55, 142.04 ± 120.53, and 6.17 ± 3.44, respectively. Elderly males had significantly higher life satisfaction and self-efficacy and better cognitive function than females (P < 0.01. Conclusion: The findings of current study provided a comprehensive overview of the current health status and lifestyle of older adults in Isfahan city. The ICES could help policy makers to design appropriate prevention and interventional programs and policies to cover the specific needs of the elderly population.

  20. Nonlinear optical studies in semiconductor-doped glasses under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Nonlinear optical studies in semiconductor-doped glasses (SDGs) are per- formed under femtosecond laser pulse excitation. Z-scan experiments with 800 nm wave- length pulses are used to excite SDG samples in the resonance and non-resonance regimes. Schott colour glass filter OG 515 shows stronger ...

  1. A case Study of Applying Object-Relational Persistence in Astronomy Data Archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S. S.; Hiriart, R.; Barg, I.; Warner, P.; Gasson, D.

    2005-12-01

    The NOAO Science Archive (NSA) team is developing a comprehensive domain model to capture the science data in the archive. Java and an object model derived from the domain model weil address the application layer of the archive system. However, since RDBMS is the best proven technology for data management, the challenge is the paradigm mismatch between the object and the relational models. Transparent object-relational mapping (ORM) persistence is a successful solution to this challenge. In the data modeling and persistence implementation of NSA, we are using Hibernate, a well-accepted ORM tool, to bridge the object model in the business tier and the relational model in the database tier. Thus, the database is isolated from the Java application. The application queries directly on objects using a DBMS-independent object-oriented query API, which frees the application developers from the low level JDBC and SQL so that they can focus on the domain logic. We present the detailed design of the NSA R3 (Release 3) data model and object-relational persistence, including mapping, retrieving and caching. Persistence layer optimization and performance tuning will be analyzed. The system is being built on J2EE, so the integration of Hibernate into the EJB container and the transaction management are also explored.

  2. Neuronal encoding of object and distance information: A model simulation study on naturalistic optic flow processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eHennig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a model of the input circuitry of the FD1 cell, an identified motion-sensitive interneuron in the blowfly’s visual system. The model circuit successfully reproduces the FD1 cell’s most conspicuous property: Its larger responses to objects than to spatially extended patterns. The model circuit also mimics the time-dependent responses of FD1 to dynamically complex naturalistic stimuli, shaped by the blowfly’s saccadic flight and gaze strategy: The FD1 responses are enhanced when, as a consequence of self-motion, a nearby object crosses the receptive field during intersaccadic intervals. Moreover, the model predicts that these object-induced responses are superimposed by pronounced pattern-dependent fluctuations during movements on virtual test flights in a three-dimensional environment with systematic modifications of the environmental patterns. Hence, the FD1 cell is predicted to detect not unambiguously objects defined by the spatial layout of the environment, but to be also sensitive to objects distinguished by textural features. These ambiguous detection abilities suggest an encoding of information about objects - irrespective of the features by which the objects are defined - by a population of cells, with the FD1 cell presumably playing a prominent role in such an ensemble.

  3. Can methylphenidate objectively provide relief in patients with uncontrolled blepharospasm? A pilot study using surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kristina M; Ramey, Nicholas A; Richard, Michael J; Woodward, Donald J; Woodward, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether there is an objective benefit to prescribing Ritalin for patients with uncontrolled blepharospasm exists. Seven subjects with benign essential blepharospasm, who were being treated with botulinum toxin injections and Ritalin LA, were recruited for this pilot study. Patients were asked to participate during the period of time when symptoms were beginning to return. Subjects underwent video and surface electromyography (sEMG) monitoring before and 2 hours after the administration of Ritalin. Mean sEMG potential for each eye was compared before and after the administration of Ritalin. Subjects also rated their disability based on a previously developed and reproducible blepharospasm functional disability scale. Functional Disability Scores were compared, and post-Ritalin treatment benefit was determined. The mean voltage of the sEMG was lower in 13 of 14 eyes after the administration of Ritalin. For the right eye, the voltage decreased by 50% (106.4 ± 13.6 mV to 52.7 ± 7.1 mV, p = 0.015), and for the left eye, by 31% (81.9 ± 9.7 mV to 56.6 ± 6.1 mV, p = 0.031). The Functional Disability Scores were also lower after the administration of Ritalin than before (p = 0.016). A significant decrease in mean voltage after the administration of Ritalin was found in this preselected group of patients. Subjective improvement with decreased disability and increased functional benefit was also found in all subjects. Based on the results of this study, a randomized, controlled study comparing Ritalin versus placebo is needed to determine whether Ritalin should be routinely prescribed for benign essential blepharospasm during the symptomatic window period.

  4. Problems in the Study of the Concepts of Underlying Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzel R. Faizova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concepts of underlying categories. The economic good is one of such categories. In this regard, we considered such characteristics of an economic good as utility, value, and cost. The public goods, which are the goods that can benefit society and have two distinctive features, are an important category as well. In this regard, we characterized the characteristics and features of public goods and identified the main problems in this category. At present, the actual problem faced by the state is the production and evaluation of the effectiveness of public goods. The difficulty is that it is impossible to accurately determine the production volume of goods necessary for the society. Assessment of the effectiveness of the state activities requires the development of special tools. The existing legislatively defined methods have a number of shortcomings and do not allow obtaining an objective picture. Financing of most public goods occurs at the expense of the state, so it is very important to ensure and increase the efficiency of their spending at the moment. Public-private partnership is the most promising tool for better satisfying the needs of the population. The main goal of this work is to identify and discuss the main characteristics of the concepts of underlying categories and explain possible problems, issues faced by the state and the society.

  5. Virtual power plant feasibility study and funding proposal / the virtual power plant objectives, concept, components, context, business plan / objectives, activities and timelines for the VPP feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal for funding a virtual power plant feasibility study. The goals of the virtual power plant are to increase the efficiency of electricity use by creating a market-driven, subsidy-free, financially sustainable mechanism to finance economic Demand Side Management (DSM) by providing a fully liquid market for saved electricity, provide a new revenue opportunity for the Local Distributing Company (LDC) and increase the use of renewable and low environmental impact, high efficiency technologies within the service area

  6. Concepts and collections: A case study using objects from the Brooklyn Museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wray, Tim; Eklund, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a browsing framework for digitised cultural collections. Using a data analysis technique called Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), units of thought can be constructed from a series of objects and their tags. FCA can dynamically generate links in between objects and induce...... a serendipitous browsing experience using a relatively simple data structure. We evaluate the utility and scalability of our approach to a collection of 15,000 objects from the Brooklyn Museum's collections. We describe how we use natural language processing techniques and external lexical resources to synthesise...

  7. The use of metabolic balance studies in the objective discrimination between intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahm, August P; Brandt, Christopher F; Askov-Hansen, Carsten; Mortensen, Per B; Jeppesen, Palle B

    2017-09-01

    Background : In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption absorption Intestinal absorption was measured from April 2003 to March 2015 in 175 consecutive patients with intestinal insufficiency (INS) in 96-h MBSs. They had not received PS 3 mo before referral. Results: To avoid the need for PS, the minimum absorptive requirements were energy absorption of ≥81% of BMR and WW absorption of ≥21 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 , which were equivalent to findings in research settings (differences of 3.6% and 8.7%; P = 0.65 and 0.60, respectively). Oral failure defined as energy intake absorption and WW absorption, respectively. Conclusions: In clinical settings, the borderlines between INS and IF were not significantly different from those in research settings, even in an unselected patient population in which oral failure was also a predominant cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis. MBSs may be recommended to identify the individual patient in the spectrum from INS to IF, to objectivize the cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis (oral failure, malabsorption, or both), and to quantify the effects of treatment. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Object-based encoding in visual working memory: a life span study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shen, Mowei; Tang, Ning; Zhao, Guohua; Gao, Zaifeng

    2013-08-20

    Recent studies on development of visual working memory (VWM) predominantly focus on VWM capacity and spatial-based information filtering in VWM. Here we explored another new aspect of VWM development: object-based encoding (OBE), which refers to the fact that even if one feature dimension is required to be selected into VWM, the other irrelevant dimensions are also extracted. We explored the OBE in children, young adults, and old adults, by probing an "irrelevant-change distracting effect" in which a change of stored irrelevant feature dramatically affects the performance of task-relevant features in a change-detection task. Participants were required to remember two or four simple colored shapes, while color was used as the relevant dimension. We found that changes to irrelevant shapes led to a significant distracting effect across the three age groups in both load conditions; however, children showed a greater degree of OBE than did young and old adults. These results suggest that OBE exists in VWM over the life span (6-67 years), yet continues to develop along with VWM.

  9. Impact of iterative reconstructions on objective and subjective emphysema assessment with computed tomography: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steve P.; Gariani, Joanna; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Botsikas, Diomidis; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Radiology, Department of Imaging and Medical Information Sciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Adler, Dan [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Pneumology, Department of Internal Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Karenovics, Wolfram [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-07-15

    To prospectively evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on pulmonary emphysema assessment as compared to filtered back projection (FBP). One hundred ten unenhanced chest CT examinations were obtained on two different scanners. Image reconstructions from a single acquisition were done with different levels of IR and compared with FBP on the basis of the emphysema index (EI), lung volume and voxel densities. Objective emphysema assessment was performed with 3D software provided by each manufacturer. Subjective assessment of emphysema was performed as a blinded evaluation. Quantitative and subjective values were compared using repeated ANOVA analysis, Bland-Altman analysis and Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Lung volumes are stable on both units, throughout all IR levels (P ≥ 0.057). EI significantly decreases on both units with the use of any level of IR (P < 0.001). The highest levels of IR are responsible for a decrease of 33-36 % of EI. Significant differences in minimal lung density are found between the different algorithms (P < 0.003). Intra- and inter-reader concordance for emphysema characterisation is generally good (W ≥ 0.77 and W ≥ 0.86, respectively). Both commercially available IR algorithms used in this study significantly changed EI but did not alter visual assessment compared to standard FBP reconstruction at identical radiation exposure. (orig.)

  10. A Study of Planetary Nebulae using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A planetary nebula is formed following an intermediate-mass (1-8 solar M) star's evolution off of the main sequence; it undergoes a phase of mass loss whereby the stellar envelope is ejected and the core is converted into a white dwarf. Planetary nebulae often display complex morphologies such as waists or torii, rings, collimated jet-like outflows, and bipolar symmetry, but exactly how these features form is unclear. To study how the distribution of dust in the interstellar medium affects their morphology, we utilize the Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) to obtain well-resolved images of four planetary nebulae--NGC 7027, NGC 6543, M2-9, and the Frosty Leo Nebula--at wavelengths where they radiate most of their energy. We retrieve mid infrared images at wavelengths ranging from 6.3 to 37.1 micron for each of our targets. IDL (Interactive Data Language) is used to perform basic analysis. We select M2-9 to investigate further; analyzing cross sections of the southern lobe reveals a slight limb brightening effect. Modeling the dust distribution within the lobes reveals that the thickness of the lobe walls is higher than anticipated, or rather than surrounding a vacuum surrounds a low density region of tenuous dust. Further analysis of this and other planetary nebulae is needed before drawing more specific conclusions.

  11. Objective fall risk detection in stroke survivors using wearable sensor technology: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Mohler, M Jane; Najafi, Bijan; Coull, Bruce M

    2016-12-01

    Stroke survivors often have persistent neural deficits related to motor function and sensation, which increase their risk of falling, most of which occurs at home or in community settings. The use of wearable technology to monitor fall risk and gait in stroke survivors may prove useful in enhancing recovery and/or preventing injuries. Determine the feasibility of using wearable technology (PAMSys™) to objectively monitor fall risk and gait in home and community settings in stroke survivors. In this feasibility study, we used the PAMSys to identify fall risk indicators (postural transitions: duration in seconds, and number of unsuccessful attempts), and gait (steps, speed, duration) for 48 hours during usual daily activities in stroke survivors (n = 10) compared to age-matched controls (n = 10). A questionnaire assessed device acceptability. Stroke survivors mean age was 70 ± 8 years old, were mainly Caucasian (60%) women (70%), and not significantly different than the age-matched controls (all P-values >0.20). Stroke survivors (100%) reported that the device was comfortable to wear, didn't interfere with everyday activities, and were willing to wear it for another 48 hours. None reported any difficulty with the device while sleeping, removing/putting back on for showering or changing clothes. When compared to controls, stroke survivors had significantly worse fall risk indicators and walked less (P technology may prove useful in monitoring fall risk and gait in stroke survivors, potentially enhancing recovery.

  12. Concepts and collections: A case study using objects from the Brooklyn Museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wray, Tim; Eklund, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a browsing framework for digitised cultural collections. Using a data analysis technique called Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), units of thought can be constructed from a series of objects and their tags. FCA can dynamically generate links in between objects and induce...... a serendipitous browsing experience using a relatively simple data structure. We evaluate the utility and scalability of our approach to a collection of 15,000 objects from the Brooklyn Museum's collections. We describe how we use natural language processing techniques and external lexical resources to synthesise...... key terms from museum documentation. We then combine this term extraction process with FCA to effectively demonstrate links between and within collections of objects. In doing so we present a versatile, generalizable term extraction and browsing framework suitable for digital libraries and archives...

  13. Multi-Objective Sensitivity Analyses for Power Generation Mix: Malaysia Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Mariam Mohd Shokri; Nofri Yenita Dahlan; Hasmaini Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization framework to determine long-term optimal generation mix for Malaysia Power Sector using Dynamic Programming (DP) technique. Several new candidate units with a pre-defined MW capacity were included in the model for generation expansion planning from coal, natural gas, hydro and renewable energy (RE). Four objective cases were considered, 1) economic cost, 2) environmental, 3) reliability and 4) multi-objectives that combining the three cases. Results show th...

  14. Study of ferrous corrosion products on iron archaeological objects by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, Ilanith; Conforto, Egle; Refait, Philippe; Remazeilles, Celine [FRE 3474 CNRS - Universite de La Rochelle, Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Ingenieur pour l' Environnement, La Rochelle cedex 01 (France)

    2013-02-15

    The corrosion of iron-based archaeomaterials in anoxic environments leads mainly to Fe(II) compounds, like the hydroxychloride {beta}-Fe{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl, chukanovite Fe{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} or siderite FeCO{sub 3}. The understanding of the mechanisms then necessarily implies a thorough investigation of the chemical, mechanical and morphological characteristics of the Fe(II)-based layer that develops between the metal surface and the environment. In the peculiar case of Fe(II) compounds, generally very reactive towards O{sub 2}, the main concern is to prevent any transformation by air during the analysis. The EBSD technique is adapted on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) where the samples are analysed under vacuum and consequently sheltered from air. Different options offered by EBSD for phase characterisation and microstructural study were tested for the first time on the rust layers of two archaeological iron nails. Results were confronted to those obtained by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which was used as reference method. Magnetite, Fe(II) hydroxychloride {beta}-Fe{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl and siderite were analysed successfully but improvements have to be brought for the study of other compounds such as iron oxyhydroxides and chukanovite. The choice of experimental parameters in our approach as well as the potentialities and limits of the technique for this kind of application are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Money, Food, and Daily Life Objects Are Similarly Shared in the Dictator Game. A Study among Poles and Tsimane’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Marczak, Michalina; Huanca, Tomas; Velasco, Esther C.; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The dictator game (DG) is one of the most popular methods for measuring sharing behaviors. However, the matter of goods used in the game has rarely been examined and discussed. We conducted a study in which all participants played standard version of DG in one of the three versions – “money,” “food,” or “daily life objects” sharing. Further, we wanted to expand the generalizability of our findings by investigating whether patterns in sharing various goods are independent of culture and the level of market integration. Thus, the study was conducted among people who function daily under the conditions of low market integration (109 Tsimane’ – forager-horticulturists from Bolivian Amazon) and in a society highly integrated with the market-based economy (85 Polish people). We observed that among both Polish and Tsimane’ people the participants were equally likely to share money, food and small, daily life objects with an unknown partner, which implies that generosity might not be related with the type of possessed resources. However, regardless of the kind of goods given, Tsimane’ people were less eager to share with anonymous others than Polish people. We present several implications of our findings for studies on generosity and altruism. PMID:28446888

  16. Actigraphy in human African trypanosomiasis as a tool for objective clinical evaluation and monitoring: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred K Njamnshi

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness leads to a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome with characteristic sleep alterations. Current division into a first, hemolymphatic stage and second, meningoencephalitic stage is primarily based on the detection of white blood cells and/or trypanosomes in the cerebrospinal fluid. The validity of this criterion is, however, debated, and novel laboratory biomarkers are under study. Objective clinical HAT evaluation and monitoring is therefore needed. Polysomnography has effectively documented sleep-wake disturbances during HAT, but could be difficult to apply as routine technology in field work. The non-invasive, cost-effective technique of actigraphy has been widely validated as a tool for the ambulatory evaluation of sleep disturbances. In this pilot study, actigraphy was applied to the clinical assessment of HAT patients.Actigraphy was recorded in patients infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and age- and sex-matched control subjects. Simultaneous nocturnal polysomnography was also performed in the patients. Nine patients, including one child, were analyzed at admission and two of them also during specific treatment. Parameters, analyzed with user-friendly software, included sleep time evaluated from rest-activity signals, rest-activity rhythm waveform and characteristics. The findings showed sleep-wake alterations of various degrees of severity, which in some patients did not parallel white blood cell counts in the cerebrospinal fluid. Actigraphic recording also showed improvement of the analyzed parameters after treatment initiation. Nocturnal polysomnography showed alterations of sleep time closely corresponding to those derived from actigraphy.The data indicate that actigraphy can be an interesting tool for HAT evaluation, providing valuable clinical information through simple technology, well suited also for long-term follow-up. Actigraphy could therefore objectively contribute to

  17. Introducing the HOPE (Hypospadias Objective Penile Evaluation)-score : A validation study of an objective scoring system for evaluating cosmetic appearance in hypospadias patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Fred; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; de Gier, Robert P. E.; Callewaert, Piet R. H.; van der Horst, Eric H. J. R.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Hoebeke, Piet; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Bush, Nicol C.; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.; van den Heijkant, Marleen M. C.; van Capelle, Jan-Willem; Wildhagen, Mark; Timman, Reinier; van Busschbach, Jan J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability and internal validity of the Hypospadias Objective Penile Evaluation (HOPE)-score, a newly developed scoring system assessing the cosmetic outcome in hypospadias. Patients and methods: The HOPE scoring system incorporates all surgically-correctable items:

  18. The Role of Presented Objects in Deriving Color Preference Criteria from Psychophysical Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Wei, Minchen

    2016-12-08

    Of the many “components” of a color rendering measure, one is perhaps the most important: the set of color samples (spectral reflectance functions) that are employed as a standardized means of evaluating and rating a light source. At the same time, a standardized set of color samples can never apply perfectly to a real space or a real set of observed objects, meaning there will always be some level of mismatch between the predicted and observed color shifts. This mismatch is important for lighting specifiers to consider, but even more critical for experiments that seek to evaluate the relationship between color rendering measures and human perception. This article explores how the color distortions of three possible experimental object sets compare to the color distortions predicted using the color evaluation samples of IES TM-30-15 (TM-30). The experimental object sets include those from Royer and colleagues [2016], a set of produce (10 fruits and vegetables), and the X-rite Color Checker Classic. The differences are traced back to properties of the samples sets, such as the coverage of color space, average chroma level, and specific spectral features. The consequence of the differences, that the visual evaluation is based on color distortions that are substantially different from what is predicted, can lead to inaccurate criteria or models of a given perception, such as preference. To minimize the error in using criteria or models when specifying color rendering attributes for a given application, the criteria or models should be developed using a set of experimental objects that matches the typical objects of the application as closely as possible. Alternatively, if typical objects of an application cannot be reasonably determined, an object set that matches the distortions predicted by TM-30 as close as possible is likely to provide the most meaningful results.

  19. Real-time objects development: Study and proposal for a parallel scheduling architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rioux, Laurent

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the programming and the execution control of real-time object oriented applications. Using real-time objects is very interesting for programming real- time applications, because this model can introduce the concurrence with the encapsulation properties, with modularity and reusability by taking into account the real-time constraints of the application. One essential quality of this approach is that it can directly specify the parallelism and the real-time constraints at the model level of the application. An annotation system of C++ has been defined to describe the real-time specifications in the model (or in the source code) of the application. It will supply to the execution support the different information it needs for the control. In this approach of multitasking, the control is distributed and encapsulated inside each real time object. Three complementary levels of control have been defined: the state level (defining the capability of an object to treat an operation), the concurrence level (assuring the coherence between the object attributes) and a scheduling control (allocating the processors resources to the object by taking real-time constraints into account). The proposed control architecture, named OROS, manages the attribute access of each object in an individual way, then it can parallel treatments which do not access at the same data. This architecture makes a dynamic control of an application that can take benefit from the parallelism of the new machines both for the execution parallelism and the control itself. This architecture uses only the simplest primitives of the industrial real-time operating systems which ensures its feasibility and portability. (author) [fr

  20. The role of farmers’ objectives in current farm practices and adaptation preferences: a case study in Flevoland, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandryk, M.; Reidsma, P.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity in farmers’ objectives and responses to external drivers is usually not considered in integrated assessment studies that investigate impacts and adaptation to climate and socio-economic change. Here, we present an approach to assess how farmers’ stated objectives relate to their

  1. Long-term integrated radiophysical studies of the ionosphere, near space, and the propagation of radio waves from space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The radiophysical studies reported consist of direct measurements of certain effects induced in the propagation of radio waves from space objects. From measured effects and from data on the motion and position of space objects, physical parameters of the medium and bodies are determined.

  2. Video Cases in Teacher Education: A review study on intended and achieved learning objectives by video cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Walter; Van der Werff, Anne; Hummel, Hans; Van Geert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This literature review focuses on the use of video cases in the education of preservice teachers as a means of achieving higher order learning objectives that are necessary for gaining situated knowledge. An overview of both intended and achieved learning objectives in relevant studies involving

  3. Predictive value of object relations for therapeutic alliance and outcome in psychotherapy for depression: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, H.L.; Hendriksen, M.; Schoevers, R.A.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of object relations has been shown to be relevant for the process and outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapies. However, little is known about its relevance for the psychotherapeutic treatment of depression. In this study, we explored the predictive value of object relational functioning

  4. Object-oriented regression for building predictive models with high dimensional omics data from translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lue Ping; Bolouri, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Maturing omics technologies enable researchers to generate high dimension omics data (HDOD) routinely in translational clinical studies. In the field of oncology, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) provided funding support to researchers to generate different types of omics data on a common set of biospecimens with accompanying clinical data and has made the data available for the research community to mine. One important application, and the focus of this manuscript, is to build predictive models for prognostic outcomes based on HDOD. To complement prevailing regression-based approaches, we propose to use an object-oriented regression (OOR) methodology to identify exemplars specified by HDOD patterns and to assess their associations with prognostic outcome. Through computing patient's similarities to these exemplars, the OOR-based predictive model produces a risk estimate using a patient's HDOD. The primary advantages of OOR are twofold: reducing the penalty of high dimensionality and retaining the interpretability to clinical practitioners. To illustrate its utility, we apply OOR to gene expression data from non-small cell lung cancer patients in TCGA and build a predictive model for prognostic survivorship among stage I patients, i.e., we stratify these patients by their prognostic survival risks beyond histological classifications. Identification of these high-risk patients helps oncologists to develop effective treatment protocols and post-treatment disease management plans. Using the TCGA data, the total sample is divided into training and validation data sets. After building up a predictive model in the training set, we compute risk scores from the predictive model, and validate associations of risk scores with prognostic outcome in the validation data (P-value=0.015). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A GUIDEBOOK ON TEACHING GEOGRAPHY PRODUCED IN THE TWENTIEHT CENTURY FIRST THIRD: sources and study objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina de Oliveira Mello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to research of historical approach developed in the course of Geography, fostered by Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Ourinhos Campus-State of Sao Paulo, the research project partial results entitled "History of teaching Geography in Brazil” (1837-2013 are presented: methodology guidelines for teachers. In this article we went through to highlight the importance of geography textbooks as sources or study objects, especially those produced in the twentieth century first third. It is been addressed the context of the Brazilian school in the production and circulation of books, as well as the New School design contained therein. As publicizing instrument, stablish and control the educational process, those manuals reveal which methodological knowledge and pedagogical principles were indispensable to geography teaching practice, as proposed by the New School didactic. Decorrente de pesquisa de abordagem histórica desenvolvida no curso de Geografia da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Câmpus de Ourinhos/SP, apresentam-se resultados parciais do projeto de pesquisa intitulado “História do ensino de Geografia no Brasil (1837-2013: orientações metodológicas destinadas aos professores. Neste artigo buscamos destacar a importância dos manuais de ensino de Geografia como fontes ou objetos de estudo, com destaque aos produzidos no primeiro terço do século XX. Abordamos o contexto da escola brasileira no período de produção e circulação dos manuais, assim como a concepção escolanovista neles contida. Enquanto instrumentos para divulgar, instaurar e controlar o processo educativo, os manuais revelam quais saberes metodológicos e princípios pedagógicos foram indispensáveis à prática docente da Geografia, como propunha a didática da Escola Nova.

  6. Mechanisms and neural basis of object and pattern recognition: a study with chess experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalić, Merim; Langner, Robert; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Comparing experts with novices offers unique insights into the functioning of cognition, based on the maximization of individual differences. Here we used this expertise approach to disentangle the mechanisms and neural basis behind two processes that contribute to everyday expertise: object and pattern recognition. We compared chess experts and novices performing chess-related and -unrelated (visual) search tasks. As expected, the superiority of experts was limited to the chess-specific task, as there were no differences in a control task that used the same chess stimuli but did not require chess-specific recognition. The analysis of eye movements showed that experts immediately and exclusively focused on the relevant aspects in the chess task, whereas novices also examined irrelevant aspects. With random chess positions, when pattern knowledge could not be used to guide perception, experts nevertheless maintained an advantage. Experts' superior domain-specific parafoveal vision, a consequence of their knowledge about individual domain-specific symbols, enabled improved object recognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging corroborated this differentiation between object and pattern recognition and showed that chess-specific object recognition was accompanied by bilateral activation of the occipitotemporal junction, whereas chess-specific pattern recognition was related to bilateral activations in the middle part of the collateral sulci. Using the expertise approach together with carefully chosen controls and multiple dependent measures, we identified object and pattern recognition as two essential cognitive processes in expert visual cognition, which may also help to explain the mechanisms of everyday perception.

  7. Tribological approach to study polishing of road surface under traffic

    OpenAIRE

    KANE, Malal; DO, Minh Tan

    2007-01-01

    The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...

  8. Experimental study on behavior of GFRP stiffened panels under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankeri, Pradeep; Ganesh Mahidhar, P. K.; Prakash, S. Suriya; Ramji, M.

    2015-03-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) materials are extensively used in the aerospace and marine industries because of their high strength and stiffness to weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. Stiffened panels are commonly used in aircraft wing and fuselage parts. The present study focuses on the behavior of composite stiffened panels under compressive loading. With the introduction of stiffeners to unstiffened composite plates, the structural stiffness of the panel increases resulting in higher strength and stiffness. Studies in the past have shown that the critical structural failure mode under compressive loading of a stiffened composite panel is by local buckling. The present study attempts to evaluate the mechanical behavior of composite stiffened panels under compression using blade stiffener configuration and in particular on the behavior of the skin- stiffener interface through experimental testing. A novel test fixture is developed for experimental testing of GFRP stiffened panels. A non-contact whole field strain analysis technique called digital image correlation (DIC) is used for capturing the strain and damage mechanisms. Blade stiffeners increased the strength, stiffness and reduced the out-of plane displacement at failure. The failure of both the unstiffened and stiffened panels was through local buckling rather than through material failure. DIC was able to capture the strain localization and buckling failure modes.

  9. Column studies on BTEX biodegradation under microaerophilic and denitrifying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, S.R.; Moolenaar, S.W.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Two column tests were conducted using aquifer material to simulate the nitrate field demonstration project carried out earlier at Traverse City, Michigan. The objectives were to better define the effect nitrate addition had on biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes (BTEX) in the field study, and to determine whether BTEX removal can be enhanced by supplying a limited amount of oxygen as a supplemental electron acceptor. Columns were operated using limited oxygen, limited oxygen plus nitrate, and nitrate alone. In the first column study, benzene was generally recalcitrant compared to the alkylbenzenes (TEX), although some removal did occur. In the second column study, nitrate was deleted from the feed to the column originally receiving nitrate alone and added to the feed of the column originally receiving limited oxygen alone. Although the requirement for nitrate for optimum TEX removal was clearly demonstrated in these columns, there were significant contributions by biotic and abiotic processes other than denitrification which could not be quantified

  10. What kind of metadata do objects have? How should we deal with and use it? : Coding human behaviour and indexing cultural aspects of objects : Study of Associate Prof. Yasunori Yamamoto, Research Center for Cultural Resources, The National Museum of Ethnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Utako

    What kind of metadata do objects have? How should we deal with and use it? : Coding human behaviour and indexing cultural aspects of objects : Study of Associate Prof. Yasunori Yamamoto, Research Center for Cultural Resources, The National Museum of Ethnology

  11. Underlying Event Studies and Forward Physics at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, Manfred; Bartalini, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the underlying event and forward processes are important tests of the standard model and inputs for Monte Carlo tuning. By selecting regions transverse and parallel to the hard parton-parton scatter, different aspects of non-perturbative QCD are enhanced and allow fine tuning of different Monte Carlo models. The underlying event in pp interactions, recorded by the CMS detector, is studied measuring the charged multiplicity density and the charged energy density in a region perpendicular to the plane of the hard 2-to-2 scattering. Two different methodologies are adopted to identify the direction and the energy scale of the hard scattering in Minimum Bias events that rely on the leading charged track and on the leading charged jet. The study allows to discriminate between various QCD Monte Carlo models with different multiple parton interaction schemes. In addition, we present the measurement of the underlying event using the jet area/ median approach. We demonstrate its sensitivity to different underlying event scenarios and tunes on generator level after applying detector specific cuts and thresholds. In the forward direction, the first measurement of forward energy flow in 3 35 GeV and compare to model with different multi-parton interaction schemes. In addition, the absence of energy deposition in the forward region is used to observe diffractive events. We compare our results with predictions from Monte Carlo event generators including a simulation of multi-parton scattering. All four measurements can be used to determine the parameters of multi-parton interaction models in a extended region of phase space. (author)

  12. Developing Values for Secondary School Students through the Study of Art Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Ursu, Alexandru Marius Bodochi

    2011-01-01

    The paper begins with some issues related to aesthetics, aesthetic education, art and axiological education. The empirical research has the general assumption that secondary school students and youth have difficulties in selecting values. The objective of the research was three fold: to design, to organize and to carry learning activities from…

  13. A Case Study of Resources Management Planning with Multiple Objectives and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; David G. Silsbee; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resources management plan (RMP) every four years or less. The plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects for four years, but they are prepared with little quantitative and analytical rigor and without formal decisionmaking tools. We have previously described a multiple objective planning...

  14. Mechanisms and Neural Basis of Object and Pattern Recognition: A Study with Chess Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalic, Merim; Langner, Robert; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Comparing experts with novices offers unique insights into the functioning of cognition, based on the maximization of individual differences. Here we used this expertise approach to disentangle the mechanisms and neural basis behind two processes that contribute to everyday expertise: object and pattern recognition. We compared chess experts and…

  15. A case study of resources management planning with multiple objectives and projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David L.; Silsbee, David G.; Schmoldt, Daniel L.

    1994-09-01

    Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resources management plan (RMP) every four years or less. The plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects for four years, but they are prepared with little quantitative and analytical rigor and without formal decision-making tools. We have previously described a multiple objective planning process for inventory and monitoring programs (Schmoldt and others 1994). To test the applicability of that process for the more general needs of resources management planning, we conducted an exercise on the Olympic National Park (NP) in Washington State, USA. Eight projects were selected as typical of those considered in RMPs and five members of the Olympic NP staff used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to prioritize the eight projects with respect to their implicit management objectives. By altering management priorities for the park, three scenarios were generated. All three contained some similarities in rankings for the eight projects, as well as some differences. Mathematical allocations of money and people differed among these scenarios and differed substantially from what the actual 1990 Olympic NP RMP contains. Combining subjective priority measures with budget dollars and personnel time into an objective function creates a subjective economic metric for comparing different RMP’s. By applying this planning procedure, actual expenditures of budget and personnel in Olympic NP can agree more closely with the staff’s management objectives for the park.

  16. A Case Study on Coloured Petri Nets in Object-oriented Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Joao Paulo; Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we first demonstrate how a coloured Petri nets (CPN) model can be used to capture requirements for a considered example system, an elevator controller. Then, we show how this requirements-level CPN model is transformed into a design-level object-oriented CPN model, which...

  17. Comparative Study of Popular Objective Functions for Damping Power System Oscillations in Multimachine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M. A.; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Salam, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Power oscillation damping controller is designed in linearized model with heuristic optimization techniques. Selection of the objective function is very crucial for damping controller design by optimization algorithms. In this research, comparative analysis has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of popular objective functions used in power system oscillation damping. Two-stage lead-lag damping controller by means of power system stabilizers is optimized using differential search algorithm for different objective functions. Linearized model simulations are performed to compare the dominant mode's performance and then the nonlinear model is continued to evaluate the damping performance over power system oscillations. All the simulations are conducted in two-area four-machine power system to bring a detailed analysis. Investigated results proved that multiobjective D-shaped function is an effective objective function in terms of moving unstable and lightly damped electromechanical modes into stable region. Thus, D-shape function ultimately improves overall system damping and concurrently enhances power system reliability. PMID:24977210

  18. Study on Hydroforming of Magnesium Alloy Tube under Temperature Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinsong; Wang, Shouren; Zhang, Yongliang; Wang, Gaoqi; Guo, Peiquan; Qiao, Yang

    2018-01-01

    First of all, under 100 °C, 150 °C, 200 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively do the test of magnesium alloy AZ31B temperature tensile and the fracture of SEM electron microscopic scanning, studying the plastic forming ability under six different temperature. Secondly, observe and study the real stress-strain curves and fracture topography. Through observation and research can concluded that with the increase of temperature, the yield strength and tensile strength of AZ31B was increased, and the elongation rate and the plastic deformation capacity are increased obviously. Taking into account the actual production, energy consumption, and mold temperature resistance, 250 °Cwas the best molding temperature. Finally, under the temperature condition of 250 °C, the finite element simulation and simulation of magnesium alloy profiled tube were carried out by Dynaform, and the special wall and forming limit diagram of magnesium alloy were obtained. According to the forming wall thickness and forming limit diagram, the molding experiment can be optimized continuously.

  19. Task and spatial frequency modulations of object processing: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Matt; Martinovic, Jasna; Müller, Matthias M

    2013-01-01

    Visual object processing may follow a coarse-to-fine sequence imposed by fast processing of low spatial frequencies (LSF) and slow processing of high spatial frequencies (HSF). Objects can be categorized at varying levels of specificity: the superordinate (e.g. animal), the basic (e.g. dog), or the subordinate (e.g. Border Collie). We tested whether superordinate and more specific categorization depend on different spatial frequency ranges, and whether any such dependencies might be revealed by or influence signals recorded using EEG. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and time-frequency (TF) analysis to examine the time course of object processing while participants performed either a grammatical gender-classification task (which generally forces basic-level categorization) or a living/non-living judgement (superordinate categorization) on everyday, real-life objects. Objects were filtered to contain only HSF or LSF. We found a greater positivity and greater negativity for HSF than for LSF pictures in the P1 and N1 respectively, but no effects of task on either component. A later, fronto-central negativity (N350) was more negative in the gender-classification task than the superordinate categorization task, which may indicate that this component relates to semantic or syntactic processing. We found no significant effects of task or spatial frequency on evoked or total gamma band responses. Our results demonstrate early differences in processing of HSF and LSF content that were not modulated by categorization task, with later responses reflecting such higher-level cognitive factors.

  20. Task and spatial frequency modulations of object processing: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Craddock

    Full Text Available Visual object processing may follow a coarse-to-fine sequence imposed by fast processing of low spatial frequencies (LSF and slow processing of high spatial frequencies (HSF. Objects can be categorized at varying levels of specificity: the superordinate (e.g. animal, the basic (e.g. dog, or the subordinate (e.g. Border Collie. We tested whether superordinate and more specific categorization depend on different spatial frequency ranges, and whether any such dependencies might be revealed by or influence signals recorded using EEG. We used event-related potentials (ERPs and time-frequency (TF analysis to examine the time course of object processing while participants performed either a grammatical gender-classification task (which generally forces basic-level categorization or a living/non-living judgement (superordinate categorization on everyday, real-life objects. Objects were filtered to contain only HSF or LSF. We found a greater positivity and greater negativity for HSF than for LSF pictures in the P1 and N1 respectively, but no effects of task on either component. A later, fronto-central negativity (N350 was more negative in the gender-classification task than the superordinate categorization task, which may indicate that this component relates to semantic or syntactic processing. We found no significant effects of task or spatial frequency on evoked or total gamma band responses. Our results demonstrate early differences in processing of HSF and LSF content that were not modulated by categorization task, with later responses reflecting such higher-level cognitive factors.

  1. An objective assessment of toddlers' physical activity and sedentary levels: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-09-26

    Little evidence exists on the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian toddlers; this study objectively measured such behaviors and compared participants' activity levels to national guidelines. Levels of screen-viewing among toddlers were also explored. Forty toddlers (mean age = 25.7 months) wore Actical accelerometers for seven consecutive days (15 s epoch). Parents/guardians completed a wear-time log and a demographic and screen-viewing questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were used to determine participants' levels of physical activity and sedentary time, to identify whether toddlers were meeting physical activity/sedentary guidelines, and to explore demographic variables. T-tests were used to assess whether toddlers' activity levels differed based on cut-points applied and various demographic and screen-related variables. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between toddlers' sedentary time and screen-viewing levels. Toddlers engaged in 37.27 (SD = 3.79) to 49.40 (SD = 3.29) mins/hr of sedentary time, 9.79 (SD = 2.90) to 18.78 (SD = 3.22) mins/hr of light-intensity physical activity (LPA), 0.82 (SD = 0.72) to 3.95 (SD = 1.93) mins/hr of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and 10.60 (SD =3.29) to 22.73 (SD = 3.97) mins/hr of total physical activity (TPA), based on the Trost et al. and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cut-points respectively; these rates were significantly different (p physical activity guidelines. No statistically significant differences in sedentary time or physical activity (all intensities) based on sex were reported (p sedentary behavior guidelines on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. The implications of this work suggest that a greater understanding of toddlers' activity patterns is needed; additional mechanisms of promoting active behaviors among this group should be explored.

  2. The epidemiologic principles underlying traffic safety study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June H; Mooney, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the epidemiological principles underlying four observational study designs commonly used to assess traffic safety: the case-control, case-crossover, culpability and quasi-induced exposure designs. We focus in particular on the specific challenges for preventing bias using each design. Whereas recruiting controls representative of the source population poses a special challenge in case-control traffic safety studies, case-crossover designs are prone to recall bias, and culpability and quasi-induced exposure studies can be undermined by difficulties assigning crash responsibility. Using causal diagrams and worked examples, we provide a simple way to teach traffic safety designs to epidemiologists and to encourage proper application of epidemiological principles among researchers designing traffic safety studies. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  3. [The contamination under polymerase chain reaction studies: problems and solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Ameliushkina, V A; Rozhkova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine risk factors of false positive and false negative results under polymerase chain reaction-analysis of clinical material. The samples with high viral load can be the source of false positive results. The contamination with nucleic acids can occur at any section of polymerase chain reaction analysis. The study data permitted to establish that the most sensitive stage is isolation and purification of nucleic acids especially under manual mode of operation. The detection of positive signal in most samples of one setting indicates total contamination. The cases when only several samples are polluted are special challenge. The presence of sample with high concentration of viral nucleic acid and several samples with low concentration in one setting means necessity of repeated analysis beginning with stage of isolation of nucleic acid. The analysis of curves of accumulation of products of amplification, their forms and positioning on chart is the obligatory stage of polymerase chain reaction study in real time regimen. These actions permit to exclude the readouts of false negative testing results to departments. The study conclusions are equipotent for polymerase chain reaction testing of any nucleic acid targets.

  4. [Explore objective clinical variables for detecting delirium in ICU patients: a prospective case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojiang; Lyu, Jie; An, Youzhong

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this case-control study is to explore clinical objective variables for diagnosing delirium of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. According to the method of prospective case-control study, critical adult postoperative patients who were transferred to ICU of Peking University People's Hospital from October 2015 to May 2016 and needed mechanical ventilation were included. After evaluating the Richmond agitation sedation scale score (RASS), the patients whose score were -2 or greater were sorted into two groups, delirium and non-delirium, according to the confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Then these patients were observed by domestic multifunctional detector for electroencephalographic (EEG) variables such as brain lateralization, brain introvert, brain activity, brain energy consumption, focus inward, focus outward, cerebral inhibition, fatigue, sleep severity, sedation index, pain index, anxiety index, fidgety index, stress index and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) index which was named of perfusion index. Other variables including indexes of ICU blood gas analysis, which was consisted of variables of blood gas analysis, routine blood test and biochemistry, previous history and prognostic outcome was recorded. Binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Forty-three postoperative patients, who needed intensive care, were included. Eighteen were in delirium group and twenty-five in control group. Excluding the trauma, variables like gender, age, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure, acute physiology and chronic health evaluationII(APACHEII) score, organ failure, dementia and emergency surgery didn't show any statistical significance between two groups. The trauma in delirious patients increased obviously compared with the control group (33.3% vs. 4.0%, P = 0.031). Except for the brain activity [122.47 (88.62, 154.21) vs. 89.40 (86.27, 115.97), P = 0.034], there were no statistical differences in

  5. Feasibility study for objective oriented design of system thermal hydraulic analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Hwang, Moon Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The system safety analysis code, such as RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE etc. have been developed based on Fortran language during the past few decades. Refactoring of conventional codes has been also performed to improve code readability and maintenance. However the programming paradigm in software technology has been changed to use objects oriented programming (OOP), which is based on several techniques, including encapsulation, modularity, polymorphism, and inheritance. In this work, objective oriented program for system safety analysis code has been tried utilizing modernized C language. The analysis, design, implementation and verification steps for OOP system code development are described with some implementation examples. The system code SYSTF based on three-fluid thermal hydraulic solver has been developed by OOP design. The verifications of feasibility are performed with simple fundamental problems and plant models. (author)

  6. [Study on objectively evaluating skin aging according to areas of skin texture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Gaixin; Gan, Ping; He, Ling; Sun, Lu; Li, Qiannan; Jiang, Zheng; He, Xiangqian

    2015-02-01

    Skin aging principles play important roles in skin disease diagnosis, the evaluation of skin cosmetic effect, forensic identification and age identification in sports competition, etc. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate the skin aging objectively and quantitatively by skin texture area. Firstly, the enlarged skin image was acquired. Then, the skin texture image was segmented by using the iterative threshold method, and the skin ridge image was extracted according to the watershed algorithm. Finally, the skin ridge areas of the skin texture were extracted. The experiment data showed that the average areas of skin ridges, of both men and women, had a good correlation with age (the correlation coefficient r of male was 0.938, and the correlation coefficient r of female was 0.922), and skin texture area and age regression curve showed that the skin texture area increased with age. Therefore, it is effective to evaluate skin aging objectively by the new method presented in this paper.

  7. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Michael; Dietz, Marie; Veauthier, Christian; Fietze, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients. Method A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80) and good sleepers (PSQI psychosomatic patients and suggest that even in this patient group, respective sleep complaints are more than just the expression of general somatization or lamenting. PMID:27570468

  8. The object of the unitization agreement under the Brazilian legal system; O objeto do acordo de unitizacao no sistema juridico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Tatiana Zuma [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The concept of unitization was incorporated in the Brazilian law through the article 27 of Law n. 9.478/97 (Petroleum Act). There is unitization when a deposit of oil or natural gas extends by two or more contiguous blocks, whose rights of exploration and production belong to different concessionaires and in which case such concessionaires may conclude an Agreement for Individualization of Production (hereinafter referred to Unitization Agreement). This study intends to examine the object of the unitization agreement and to define the limits of the area on which the concessionaires of the neighbouring areas should exercise the production joint operations. Therefore, it was studied the concepts of Block (Petroleum Act, article 6, XIII), Field (Petroleum Act, article 6, XIV), and Reservoir (Petroleum Act, article 6, X and XI), and the articles 26 and 27 of the Petroleum Act were interpreted systematically. The Comparative Law has also been examined and used as a basis for the conclusions presented in this study. (author)

  9. Application of Two-Stagesmulti-Objective Fuzzy linear Programming Model to develop Optimal Cropping pattern (Case study: Central District of Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Baradaran sirjani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimal allocation of water resources is an essential service in agriculture that must be considered by farmers. One of the most significant factors in optimal allocation of water resources in agriculture is to define optimal farm cropping pattern. In this study, in order to determine optimal cropping pattern and water resources allocation in central district of Mashhad city (Toos village, the two-stages multi-objective fuzzy linear programming was used. The required data was collected through interviews with farmers of the study area and filling in 116 questionnaire using simple random sampling during the years 2012-2013.The results indicated that, optimal values in the two-stage multi-objective fuzzy linear programming model for maximizing gross margin is 239420100 Rials, for utilizing organic fertilizers is 3867.19 Kg, and for minimizing the consumption of irrigation water is 53645.62 square meters, which were modified in the second phase. The objective amount of chemical fertilizer was 817.80 kg., having no change in the second phase. The cropping pattern will be optimized, if the most area under cultivation being allocated to potato, then to barley, wheat, t, onion and sugar beet, while tomato and corn cultivation being removed. Results illustrate that, two-stage multi-objective fuzzy linear programming model in comparison with multi-objective fuzzy linear model yield better results in defining optimal cropping pattern and allocation of irrigation water to the study area.

  10. Alice in Oman: A Study on Object-First Approaches in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Khizar; Al-Shukaili, Naeem Ali; Sultan, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    The success of university-level education depends on the quality of underlying school education and any deficiency therein may be detrimental to a student's career. This may be more glaring with Computer Science education, given its mercurial nature. In the developing countries, the Computer Science school curricula are usually stuffed with…

  11. Longitudinal study of the feasibility of using ecological momentary assessment to study teacher stress: Objective and self-reported measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Teresa M; McIntyre, Scott E; Barr, Christopher D; Woodward, Phillip S; Francis, David J; Durand, Angelia C; Mehta, Paras; Kamarck, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive research on Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) feasibility to study occupational stress, especially its long-term sustainability. EMA application in education contexts has also been sparse. This study investigated the feasibility of using EMA to study teacher stress over 2 years using both objective compliance data and a self-reported feasibility survey. It also examined the influence of individual and school factors on EMA feasibility. Participants were 202 sixth through eighth grade teachers from 22 urban middle schools in the southern United States. EMA was implemented via an iPod-based Teacher Stress Diary (TSD). Teachers recorded demands, stress responses, and resources during 12 days (6 waves) over 2 years. Feasibility was assessed via compliance data generated by the TSD (e.g., entry completion) and an EMA Feasibility Survey of self-reported user-friendliness and EMA interference. The results showed high compliance regarding entry and item completion, and completion time, which was sustained over time. User-friendliness was appraised as very high and EMA interference as low. Initial difficulties regarding timing and length of assessments were addressed via EMA method refinement, resulting in improved feasibility. Teachers' ethnicity, age, marital status, grade/course taught, class size, class load, and daily workload impacted feasibility. The results supported the feasibility of using EMA to study work stress longitudinally and the value of continued feasibility monitoring. They also support EMA use to study teacher stress and inform EMA implementation in schools. Some teacher and school factors need to be taken into consideration when deciding on EMA implementation in education contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Multivoxel Object Representations in Adult Human Visual Cortex Are Flexible: An Associative Learning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoussi, Mehdi; Berry, Isabelle; VanRullen, Rufin; Reddy, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Learning associations between co-occurring events enables us to extract structure from our environment. Medial-temporal lobe structures are critical for associative learning. However, the role of the ventral visual pathway (VVP) in associative learning is not clear. Do multivoxel object representations in the VVP reflect newly formed associations? We show that VVP multivoxel representations become more similar to each other after human participants learn arbitrary new associations between pairs of unrelated objects (faces, houses, cars, chairs). Participants were scanned before and after 15 days of associative learning. To evaluate how object representations changed, a classifier was trained on discriminating two nonassociated categories (e.g., faces/houses) and tested on discriminating their paired associates (e.g., cars/chairs). Because the associations were arbitrary and counterbalanced across participants, there was initially no particular reason for this cross-classification decision to tend toward either alternative. Nonetheless, after learning, cross-classification performance increased in the VVP (but not hippocampus), on average by 3.3%, with some voxels showing increases of up to 10%. For example, a chair multivoxel representation that initially resembled neither face nor house representations was, after learning, classified as more similar to that of faces for participants who associated chairs with faces and to that of houses for participants who associated chairs with houses. Additionally, learning produced long-lasting perceptual consequences. In a behavioral priming experiment performed several months later, the change in cross-classification performance was correlated with the degree of priming. Thus, VVP multivoxel representations are not static but become more similar to each other after associative learning.

  13. Photometric Study of the FU Orionis Object BBW 76 from the Bamberg Observatory Southern Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, A.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Tsvetkov, M. K.

    2006-04-01

    The Bamberg Observatory Southern Sky Survey provided 93 photographic plates with the FU Orionis object BBW 76, clearly detectable in the time interval 1963-1976. We perform aperture photometry of BBW 76 from the 2 x 2 degrees area near target star scanned with the Epson Expression 1640 XL flatbed scanner. For each plate a transformation of plate magnitude to the GSC 2.2 magnitudes in B photographic band was found out for selected reference stars, and used for deriving B magnitudes of BBW 76. The analysis of the photometric behaviour of BBW 76 is presented.

  14. Introducing the HOPE (Hypospadias Objective Penile Evaluation)-score: A validation study of an objective scoring system for evaluating cosmetic appearance in hypospadias patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Fred; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; de Gier, Robert P. E.; Callewaert, Piet R. H.; van der Horst, Eric H. J. R.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Hoebeke, Piet; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Bush, Nicol C.; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.; van den Heijkant, Marleen M. C.; van Capelle, Jan-Willem; Wildhagen, Mark; Timman, Reinier; van Busschbach, Jan J. V.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the reliability and internal validity of the Hypospadias Objective Penile Evaluation (HOPE)-score, a newly developed scoring system assessing the cosmetic outcome in hypospadias. The HOPE scoring system incorporates all surgically-correctable items: position of meatus, shape of meatus,

  15. Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: An event-related fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N.; Goh, Joshua O.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    In this event-related fMRI study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded “living/non-living” classification task with three repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidencing repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle and inferior tem...

  16. Implementation of object-oriented programming in study of electrical race car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, M.; Baier, M.

    2016-08-01

    The paper covers issue of conducting advanced research of electrical race car participating in international competition called Sileverline Corporate Challenge. Process of designing race cars in Silesian Greenpower team is aided by a professional engine test stand built particularly in purpose of this research. Phase of testing and simulation is an important part of the implementation of new technologies. Properly developed solutions and test procedures are able to significantly shorten development time and reduce design costs. Testing process must be controlled by a modular and flexible application, easy to modify and ensuring safety. This paper describes the concept of object-oriented programming in LabVIEW and exemplary architecture of object-oriented control application designed to control engine test stand of the electrical race car. Eventually, the task of application will be to steer the electromagnetic brake and the engine load torque to perform according to data from the actual race track. During the designing process of the car, minimizing energy losses and maximizing powertrain efficiency are the main aspects taken into consideration. One of the crucial issues to accomplish these goals is to maintain optimal performance of the motor by applying effective cooling. The paper covers the research verifying the effectiveness of the cooling system.

  17. Study of an anisotropic polymeric cellular material under compression loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Francisco Caliri Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the influence of micro mechanisms of failure of a cellular material on its phenomenological response. Most of the applications of cellular materials comprise a compression loading. Thus, the study focuses on the influence of the anisotropy in the mechanical behavior of cellular material under cyclic compression loadings. For this study, a Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique (named Correli was applied, as well as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy images were analyzed. The experimental results are discussed in detail for a closed-cell rigid poly (vinyl chloride (PVC foam, showing stress-strain curves in different directions and why the material can be assumed as transversely isotropic. Besides, the present paper shows elastic and plastic Poisson's ratios measured in different planes, explaining why the plastic Poisson's ratios approach to zero. Yield fronts created by the compression loadings in different directions and the influence of spring-back phenomenon on hardening curves are commented, also.

  18. PBL triggers in relation to students' generated learning issues and predetermined faculty objectives: Study in a Malaysian public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslai, Nurul Hidayati; Salam, Abdus

    2016-01-01

    Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students' inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students' generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives. It was a retrospective study conducted in 2014 analyzing all 24 PBL-triggers used at Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, in four semesters during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012. Triggers were used as textual and illustration format equally in each semester. Total 16 PBL-triggers with highest and lowest achieving similarities of learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives were selected equally from each semester and format. The trigger quality and learning issues related to predetermine faculty objectives were analyzed and presented as mean and percent distribution. Mean similarities score of students' generated learning issues were 3.4 over 5 predetermined faculty objectives which was 68%, varied from 58% to 79%. More than 70% similarities were generated from five textual and four illustrated triggers, while PBL, it is the designing considering influential variables that influence higher outcomes. Triggers should have planned clues that lead students to generate issues correlate with faculty objectives. Educational institution should emphasize on training needs of faculty at regular interval to develop and re-in force teachers' skills in trigger design, thereby to promote a sustainable educational and organizational development.

  19. Influence of jet thrust on penetrator penetration when studying the structure of space object blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Fedorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the calculation-and-theory-based research results to examine the possibility for using the jet thrust impulse to increase a penetration depth of high-velocity penetrator modules. Such devices can be used for studies of Earth surface layer composition, and in the nearest future for other Solar system bodies too. Research equipment (sensors and different instruments is housed inside a metal body of the penetrator with a sharpened nose that decreases drag force in soil. It was assumed, that this penetrator is additionally equipped with the pulse jet engine, which is fired at a certain stage of penetrator motion into target.The penetrator is considered as a rigid body of variable mass, which is subjected to drag force and reactive force applied at the moment the engine fires. A drag force was represented with a binomial empirical law, and penetrator nose part was considered to be conical. The jet thrust force was supposed to be constant during its application time. It was in accordance with assumption that mass flow and flow rate of solid propellant combustion products were constant. The amount of propellant in the penetrator was characterized by Tsiolkovsky number Z, which specifies the ratio between the fuel mass and the penetrator structure mass with no fuel.The system of equations to describe the penetrator dynamics was given in dimensionless form using the values aligned with penetration of an equivalent inert penetrator as the time and penetration depth scales. Penetration dynamics of penetrator represented in this form allowed to eliminate the influence of penetrator initial mass and its cross-section diameter on the solution results. The lack of such dependency is convenient for comparing the calculation results since they hold for penetrators of various initial masses and cross-sections.To calculate the penetration a lunar regolith was taken as a soil material. Calculations were carried out for initial velocities of

  20. Experimental study of acoustic radiation force of an ultrasound beam on absorbing and scattering objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Anastasiia V., E-mail: niko200707@mail.ru; Kryzhanovsky, Maxim A.; Tsysar, Sergey A. [Department of Acoustics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kreider, Wayne [Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St. Seattle WA 98105 (United States); Sapozhnikov, Oleg A. [Department of Acoustics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St. Seattle WA 98105 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Acoustic radiation force is a nonlinear acoustic effect caused by the transfer of wave momentum to absorbing or scattering objects. This phenomenon is exploited in modern ultrasound metrology for measurement of the acoustic power radiated by a source and is used for both therapeutic and diagnostic sources in medical applications. To calculate radiation force an acoustic hologram can be used in conjunction with analytical expressions based on the angular spectrum of the measured field. The results of an experimental investigation of radiation forces in two different cases are presented in this paper. In one case, the radiation force of an obliquely incident ultrasound beam on a large absorber (which completely absorbs the beam) is considered. The second case concerns measurement of the radiation force on a spherical target that is small compared to the beam diameter.

  1. Bi-objective Optimization of the Water Distribution Networks (Case Study: Sahand City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikjoofar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To design an urban water network in addition to minimizing the cost, improving the water pressure is very important. Then in this paper a bi-objective optimization model for the new city of Sahand in Northwestern Iran is developed.  Due to its non-linearity and the huge number of variables, the genetic algorithm has been utilized to solve it. Several Pareto solutions have been obtained and then based on the game theory approach (the area monotonic solution, the most efficient point was provided. The solution is simulated by the WaterGems software and the elements of the network are designed. This optimum solution shows a decrease of 13% in total cost in addition to the improved water pressure.

  2. Designing pilot projects as boundary objects a Brazilian case study in the promotion of sustainable design

    CERN Document Server

    Zurlo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a collaborative Design Pilot Project held in Brazil (called MODU.Lares) involving micro and small enterprises and other actors in the furniture sector. The experience was based on an action research method and evaluated by using a tool, in order to assess the value of pilot project as a boundary object capable of fostering innovation and sustainability. The impact of the Design Pilot Project in triggering change in a fragmented local system with a poor environmental and social record, as well as management and innovation issues, were assessed with the help of the same tool, taking into account environmental, technological, economic, sociocultural, and organizational indicators. The collaborative network established was chiefly based on four elements: prototypes, meetings, exhibitions and the Pilot Project (as an overall process). The results indeed demonstrate that a Design Pilot Project can be a valid instrument for establishing a collaborative environment that promotes sustainability an...

  3. Study on objective functions for the slow shot phase in high-pressure die casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Markus; Behr, Marek; Elgeti, Stefanie

    2016-10-01

    High-pressure die casting is an important process in the field of aluminum processing. Especially during the slow shot phase, the process parameters immensely influence the cast part quality. At the current state of the art, the appropriate process parameters are identified based on running-in trials and significant experience. To translate this experience into a mathematical framework is the aim of this work. The idea is to shift the running-in trials to the computer—now in the form of a numerical optimization. In view of the optimization, this paper presents a selection of objective functions. These are assessed with the respect to (1) their suitability as an overall quality measure of the casting process and (2) the extent to which they reflect the goals of the casting process.

  4. Study of the impact of gas temperature and pressure on image quality of lithography objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Xing, Tingwen

    2013-08-01

    The aim of present work is to estimate the impact of gas refractive index shift on the image quality of projection lens caused by the change of environment condition. This work in the paper consists of two parts: a)when temperature rises or reduces, how gas refractive index changes and the wave front error comes up; b)when gas pressure changes. The model objective lens developed for simulation is a US patent lens whose NA patent lens, 5nm, the change caused by gas temperature and pressure can't be neglected. It proves the necessary of compensating or controlling the optical path change resulted from gas refractive index shift during the lithography projection lens work process.

  5. Retention Study of Flavonoids Under Different Chromatographic Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentkowska, Aleksandra; Biesaga, Magdalena; Pyrzynska, Krystyna

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the chromatographic behavior of selected flavonoids from their different subgroups (flavonols, flavanones, flavones and isoflavones) in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Chromatographic measurements were made on two different HILIC columns: cross-linked DIOL (Luna HILIC) and zwitterionic sulfoalkylbetaine (SeQuant ZIC-HILIC). Separation parameters such as the content of acetonitrile and pH of an eluent were studied. On the ZIC column, the retention factors of flavonoids increased with decreasing water content in the mobile phase. The increase in pH of the aqueous component mainly affects the polarity of the analytes. DIOL stationary phase shows more or less apparent dual retention mechanism, HILIC at the acetonitrile (ACN) content ≥75% and reversed phase (RP) with lower content of organic modifier. In the presence of ammonium acetate in the mobile phase, the retention of flavonoids onto the DIOL column increases without change in the selectivity of the separations. The similar effect, but considerably smaller was observed for aglycones on the ZIC column. The retention of studied glycosides (hesperidin, rutin) decreases in the presence of salt in the mobile phase. The significantly higher mass spectrometry sensitivity was observed under HILIC conditions in comparison with the most often used RP LC due to much higher content of ACN in the mobile phase. Finally, under optimal chromatographic conditions, the method was validated and applied for the determination of flavonoids in chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) infusion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Manipulating objects and telling words: A study on concrete and abstract words acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments (E1-E2-E3-E4 investigated whether different acquisition modalities lead to the emergence of differences typically found between concrete and abstract words, as argued by the Words As Tools (WAT proposal. To mimic the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts, participants either manipulated novel objects or observed groups of objects interacting in novel ways (training1. In TEST 1 participants decided whether two elements belonged to the same category. Later they read the category labels (training2; labels could be accompanied by an explanation of their meaning. Then participants observed previously seen exemplars and other elements, and were asked which of them could be named with a given label (TEST2. Across the experiments, it was more difficult to form abstract than concrete categories (TEST 1; even when adding labels, abstract words remained more difficult than concrete words (TEST 2. TEST3 differed across the experiments. In E1 participants performed a feature production task. Crucially, the associations produced with the novel words reflected the pattern evoked by existing concrete and abstract words, as the first evoked more perceptual properties. In E2-E3-E4, TEST3 consisted of a color verification task with manual/verbal (keyboard-microphone responses. Results showed the microphone use to have an advantage over keyboard use for abstract words, especially in the explanation condition. This supports WAT: due to their acquisition modality, concrete words evoke more manual information; abstract words elicit more verbal information. This advantage was not present when linguistic information contrasted with perceptual one. Implications for theories and computational models of language grounding are discussed.

  7. Variability in Proto-planetary Nebulae. I. Light Curve Studies of 12 Carbon-rich Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian; Maupin, Richard E.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.

    2010-02-01

    We have carried out long-term (14 years) V and R photometric monitoring of 12 carbon-rich proto-planetary nebulae. The light and color curves display variability in all of them. The light curves are complex and suggest multiple periods, changing periods, and/or changing amplitudes, which are attributed to pulsation. A dominant period has been determined for each and found to be in the range of ~150 days for the coolest (G8) to 35-40 days for the warmest (F3). A clear, linear inverse relationship has been found in the sample between the pulsation period and the effective temperature and also an inverse relationship between the amplitude of light variation and the effective temperature. These are consistent with the expectation for a pulsating post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star evolving toward higher temperature at constant luminosity. The published spectral energy distributions and mid-infrared images show these objects to have cool (200 K), detached dust shells and published models imply that intensive mass loss ended 400-2000 years ago. The detection of periods as long as 150 days in these requires a revision in the published post-AGB evolution models that couple the pulsation period to the mass loss rate and that assume that intensive mass loss ended when the pulsation period had decreased to 100 days. This revision will have the effect of extending the timescale for the early phases of post-AGB evolution. It appears that real time evolution in the pulsation periods of individual objects may be detectable on the timescale of two or three decades.

  8. A prospective randomized study comparing percutaneous nephrolithotomy under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia with percutaneous nephrolithotomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Sankhwar, S N; Malik, Anita

    2011-01-01

    A prospective randomized study was executed to compare the surgical parameters and stone clearance in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) versus those who underwent PNL under general anesthesia (GA). Between January 2008 to December 2009, 64 patients with renal calculi were randomized into 2 groups and evaluated for the purpose of this study. Group 1 consisted of patients who underwent PNL under CSEA and Group 2 consisted of patients who underwent PNL under GA. The operative time, stone clearance rate, visual pain analog score, mean analgesic dose and mean hospital stay were compared amongst other parameters. The difference between visual pain analog score after the operation and the dose of analgesic requirement was significant on statistical analysis between both groups. PNL under CSEA is as effective and safe as PNL under GA. Patients who undergo PNL under CESA require lesser analgesic dose and have a shorter hospital stay. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. A study of SiC decomposition under laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmann, B.; Hellmann, R.

    2017-06-01

    In this experimental study we investigate the laser induced thermal decomposition of 4H-Sic under ambient conditions using fiber laser. Using a unique two-color pyrometer setup, we measure the temporal evolution of the temperature in the irradiated zone and determine the decomposition rate for various laser power levels. We find that the temporal evolution of the temperature in the irradiated area exhibits an initial heating phase up to about 1300 K, being characterized by an unaffected SiC surface. Upon an expeditious temperature increase, a decomposition phase follows with temperatures above 1700 K, being accompanied by carbonization of the SiC surface. The decomposed volume depends linearly on the duration of the decomposition phase and increases linearly with laser power. The temperature evaluation of the decomposition speed reveals an Arrhenius-type behavior allowing the calculation of the activation energy for the decomposition under ambient conditions to 613 kJ/mol in the temperature range between 2140 and 2420 K.

  10. The double nuclear system is a new object of nuclear physics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Deep inelastic collisions of two complex nuclei result in formation of the specific nuclear complex - a double nuclear system which is a new unit of nuclear microworld. In this paper we consider the conditions under which the double nuclear system is formed, its properties, the statistical regularities of its disintegration, and the nuclear shell structure effect on its evolution. The possibility of using deep inelastic transfer reactions to produce nuclear far from the region of β-stability and nuclei with high angular momentum is discussed. (author)

  11. A comparative study of pain following endodontic treatment under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feizi Ghader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Postoperativee endodontic pain is an outstanding problem for dental patients. Therefore, a successful management of endodontic pain has become as one of the main dental objectives. The aim of the present study was to compare the postoperative endodontic pain in patients under general anesthesia versus local anesthesia.   Materials and Methods: For conducting this clinical trial study, 50 patients having mandibular molars candidate for root canal therapy were selected. Twenty-five patients treated under general anesthesia because of their fear, anxiety or gag reflex. Other 25 patients treated under local anesthesia. All teeth were prepared using engine-driven rotary system in a crown-down technique and filled using lateral condensation technique. Heft- parker visual analog scale was used to measure the degree of pain at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after the treatment. Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and T-tests were used to compare the intensity of postoperative pain between the groups.   Results: The mean intensity of postoperative pain in local and general anesthesia groups at 6, 12 and 24 hours had statistically significant difference (P<0.05.   Conclusion: Postoperative pain in patients who treated under general anesthesia was significantly less than the patients who treated under local anesthesia.

  12. A Case Study: Optimal Stage Gauge NetworkUsing Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, H. J.; Han, D.; Jung, J.; Kim, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the possibility of occurrence of localized strong heavy rainfall due to climate change is increasing and flood damage is also increasing trend in Korea. Therefore we need more precise hydrologic analysis for preparing alternatives or measures for flood reduction by considering climate conditions which we have difficulty in the prediction. To do this, obtaining reliable hydrologic data, for an example, stage data, is very important. However, the existing stage gauge stations are scattered around the country, making it difficult to maintain them in a stable manner, and subsequently hard to acquire the hydrologic data that could be used for reflecting the localized hydrologic characteristics. In order to overcome such restrictions, this paper not only aims to establish a plan to acquire the water stage data in a constant and proper manner by using limited manpower and costs, but also establishes the fundamental technology for acquiring the water level observation data or the stage data. For that, this paper identifies the current status of the stage gauge stations installed in the Chung-Ju dam in Han river, Korea and extract the factors related to the division and characteristics of basins. Then, the obtained factors are used to develop the representative unit hydrograph that shows the characteristics of flow. After that, the data are converted into the probability density function and the stations at individual basins are selected by using the entropy theory. In last step, we establish the optimized stage gauge network by the location of the stage station and grade using the Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm(MOGA) technique that takes into account for the combinations of the number of the stations. It is expected that this paper can help establish an optimal observational network of stage guages as it can be applied usefully not only for protecting against floods in a stable manner, but also for acquiring the hydrologic data in an efficient manner. Keywords

  13. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Linden,1,2 Marie Dietz,1 Christian Veauthier,3 Ingo Fietze3 1Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation, Charité University Medicine Berlin, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rehabilitation Centre Seehof, Teltow, 3Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objective: To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients.Method: A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80 and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19. They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP].Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes, evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often, and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective

  14. Study of the initiation and the propagation of cracks under 3D thermal cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelet, O.

    2005-01-01

    The incident which has occurred on the Civaux power plant has shown the noxiousness of thermal loading and the difficulty to take it into account at design level. The objective of this report is to study the initiation and the propagation of crack under thermal loading. In this aim the CEA has developed a new experiment named FAT3D. The various experiments carried out showed the harmfulness of a thermal loading, which makes it possible to rapidly initiate a network of cracks and to propagate one (or some) cracks through the totally thickness of the component under certain conditions. These experimental results associated with a mechanical analysis put at fault the usual criteria of damage based on the variations of the equivalent strain. In addition, the study of the propagation stage shows the importance of the plasticity which, in the case of a thermal loading, slows down the propagation of the crack. (author)

  15. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  16. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  17. Multi-objective optimisation with stochastic discrete-event simulation in retail banking: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Scholtz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cash management of an autoteller machine (ATM is a multi-objective optimisation problem which aims to maximise the service level provided to customers at minimum cost. This paper focus on improved cash management in a section of the South African retail banking industry, for which a decision support system (DSS was developed. This DSS integrates four Operations Research (OR methods: the vehicle routing problem (VRP, the continuous review policy for inventory management, the knapsack problem and stochastic, discrete-event simulation. The DSS was applied to an ATM network in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, to investigate 90 different scenarios. Results show that the application of a formal vehicle routing method consistently yields higher service levels at lower cost when compared to two other routing approaches, in conjunction with selected ATM reorder levels and a knapsack-based notes dispensing algorithm. It is concluded that the use of vehicle routing methods is especially beneficial when the bank has substantial control over transportation cost.

  18. Conserving energy in smallholder agriculture. A multi-objective programming case-study of northwest India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thankappan, Samarthia; Midmore, Peter; Jenkins, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In semi-arid conditions in Northwest India, smallholder agriculture has made increasing use of subsidised mechanisation and energy inputs to reduce short-term risks. However, detrimental environmental consequences have occurred, not least a rapidly falling water table, and energy-intensive production is threatened by the prospect of increasing scarcity and expense of energy supplies, especially as urban demands are forecast to grow rapidly. This paper describes the energy flows through four subsystems of smallholder agricultural villages: the crop system; non-crop land uses; livestock systems; and households. It employs a multi-objective programming model to demonstrate choices available for maximands either of net solar energy capture or financial surpluses. Applied to three villages selected to represent major settlement types in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, the results demonstrate that both energy conservation and financial performance can be improved. Although these results need qualifying because of the reductionist, linear character of the model used, they do provide important insights into the cultural role of mechanisation and the influence of traditional agricultural practices. They also underline the need for local energy conservation strategies as part of an overall approach to improved self-determination in progress towards rural sustainability. (author)

  19. On the Distance Measurements toward Young Milky Way Objects. I. Study of IC 2944

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krełowski, J.; Strobel, A.; Godunova, V.; Bondar, A.

    2017-12-01

    We compare distances to a very young stellar aggregate, IC 2944, using three methods: direct parallaxes of Gaia, spectrophotometric parallax and our method based on intensities of interstellar CaII lines. The discrepancies between spectrophotometric distances and those, based on CaII K and H lines, were already reported. The interstellar CaII H and K lines allow one to determine both distances and radial velocities of the intervening clouds. Thus, these data allow us to check the aggregate membership. It is also possible to check the spectral classification of considered targets which is necessary for spectrophotometric parallaxes. Using three methods, we determined distances to IC 2944 stars. We demonstrate that CaII based distances agree very well with the kinematic ones but are generally much smaller than the spectrophotometric ones. We conclude that the majority of IC 2944 objects is obscured by clouds producing neutral ("gray") extinction which diminishes their brightness exactly like extended distances. This influences spectrophotometric parallaxes while those, based on the CaII lines, do not depend on extinction and this method seems to be the most reliable one inside the thin disk of our Galaxy. The Gaia trigonometric parallaxes lead to distances similar to those obtained using the CaII method if their errors are reasonably small.

  20. Feasibility study to objectively assess activity and location of Hispanic preschoolers: a short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresia M. O’Connor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both physical and social environmental factors influence young children’s physical activity, yet little is known about where Hispanic children are more likely to be active. We assessed the feasibility of simultaneously measuring, then processing objective measures of location and physical activity among Hispanic preschool children. Preschool-aged Hispanic children (n = 15 simultaneously wore QStarz BT100X global positioning system (GPS data loggers and Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for a 24- to 36-hour period, during which time their parents completed a location and travel diary. Data were aggregated to the minute and processed using the personal activity location measurement system (PALMS. Children successfully wore the GPS data loggers and accelerometers simultaneously, 12 of which yielded data that met quality standards. The average percent correspondence between GPS- and diary-based estimates of types of location was high and Kappa statistics were moderate to excellent, ranging from 0.49-0.99. The between-method (GPS monitor, parent-reported diary correlations of estimated participant-aggregated minutes spent on vehicle-based trips were strong. The simultaneous use of GPS and accelerometers to assess Hispanic preschool children’s location and physical activity is feasible. This methodology has the potential to provide more precise findings to inform environmental interventions and policy changes to promote physical activity among Hispanic preschool children.

  1. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral Soares, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; de Macedo, Liliane Dias e Dias; Tomás, Alessandra Mendonça; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects. Method We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years) and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years) matched by educational level (years of schooling). All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group. Results Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects. Conclusion Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application of automated visuospatial tests to assess learning and memory might increase our ability to discern the limits between normal and pathological aging. PMID:25565785

  2. Wealth, justice and freedom: Objective and subjective measures predicting poor mental health in a study across eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Saskia; Velten, Julia; Neher, Torsten; Margraf, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Macro-level factors (MF) such as wealth, justice and freedom measured with objective country-level indicators (objective MF), for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), have been investigated in relation to health and well-being, but rarely in connection with depression, anxiety and stress subsumed as poor mental health. Also, a combination of different objective MF and of how individuals perceive those MF (subjective MF) has not been taken into consideration. In the present study, we combined subjective and objective measures of wealth, justice and freedom and examined their relationship with poor mental health. Population-based interviews were conducted in France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, U.K. and U.S.A. (n ≈ 1000 per country). GDP, GINI coefficient, Justice Index and Freedom Index were used as objective MF, whereas subjective MF were perceived wealth, justice and freedom measured at the individual level. Poor mental health was assessed as a combination of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. In a random-intercept-model, GINI coefficient and Freedom Index were significant positive country-level, and perceived wealth, justice, and freedom significant negative individual-level predictors of symptoms of poor mental health. Multiple subjective and objective MF should be combined to assess the macrosystem's relationship with poor mental health more precisely. The relationship between MF and poor mental health indicates that the macrosystem should be taken into account as relevant context for mental health problems, too.

  3. A fronto-parietal circuit for tactile object discrimination: an event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Weder, Bruno; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni; Shah, N Jon; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2003-07-01

    Previous studies of somatosensory object discrimination have been focused on the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortices. However, we expected the prefrontal cortex to also become involved in sequential tactile discrimination on the basis of its role in working memory and stimulus discrimination as established in other domains. To investigate the contributions of the different cerebral structures to tactile discrimination of sequentially presented objects, we obtained event-related functional magnetic resonance images from seven healthy volunteers. Our results show that right hand object exploration involved left sensorimotor cortices, bilateral premotor, parietal and temporal cortex, putamen, thalamus, and cerebellum. Tactile exploration of parallelepipeds for subsequent object discrimination activated further areas in the dorsal and ventral portions of the premotor cortex, as well as parietal, midtemporal, and occipital areas of both cerebral hemispheres. Discriminating a parallelepiped from the preceding one involved a bilateral prefrontal-anterior cingulate-superior temporal-posterior parietal circuit. While the prefrontal cortex was active with right hemisphere dominance during discrimination, there was left hemispheric prefrontal activation during the delay period between object presentations. Delay related activity was further seen in the anterior intraparietal area and the fusiform gyrus. The results reveal a prominent role of the human prefrontal cortex for somatosensory object discrimination in correspondence with recent models on stimulus discrimination and working memory.

  4. Standard setting of objective structured practical examination by modified Angoff method: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, M Ganesh; Pallath, Vinod; Ramnarayan, K; Kamath, Asha; Torke, Sharmila; Gonsalves, James

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate curriculum at our institution is divided system-wise into four blocks, each block ending with theory and objective structured practical examination (OSPE). The OSPE in Physiology consists of 12 stations, and a conventional minimum score to qualify is 50%. We aimed to incorporate standard setting using the modified Angoff method in OSPE to differentiate the competent from the non-competent student and to explore the possibility of introducing standard setting in Physiology OSPE at our institution. Experts rated the OSPE using the modified Angoff method to obtain the standard set cut-off in two of the four blocks. We assessed the OSPE marks of 110 first year medical students. Chi-square test was used to compare the number of students who scored less than standard set cut-off and conventional cut-off; correlation coefficient was used to assess the relation between OSPE and theory marks in both blocks. Feedback was obtained from the experts. The standard set was 62% and 67% for blocks II and III, respectively. The use of standard set cut-off resulted in 16.3% (n=18) and 22.7% (n=25) students being declared unsuccessful in blocks II and III, respectively. Comparison between the number, who scored less than standard set and conventional cut-off was statistically significant (p=0.001). The correlation coefficient was 0.65 (p=0.003) and 0.52 (p<0.001) in blocks II and III, respectively. The experts welcomed the idea of standard setting. Standard setting helped in differentiating the competent from the non-competent student, indicating that standard setting enhances the quality of OSPE as an assessment tool.

  5. Cariogenic microbiota of children under chemotherapy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the cariogenic microbiota of children who are under antineoplastic therapy. Methods: Twenty-seven patients undergoing cancer treatment in the Pediatric Unit of Mato Grosso Cancer Hospital were selected. The inclusion criteria of volunteers were being under chemotherapy in the saliva collection period, age between 2 and 18 years, collaborate with the protocol for clinical examination and saliva collection, and responsible have given their written consent. For the realization of lactobacilli and Streptococcus mutans count in the patients′ saliva, respectively, Dentalcult I and II (LaborClin; kits were used. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher′s exact tests were used to assess the association of the variables age group, prevalence of lactobacilli and S. mutans, diagnosis of patients, presence and level of decay of patients defined by decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT/dmft indexes with a significance level of 5%. Results: The group of patients consisted of 27 children, 15 males, and 12 females; 44% were aged between 6 and 10 years; 61% had present or past history of caries (dmft/DMFT >0; 48% had low value for Dentalcult I; 59% presented value grade 0 to Dentalcult II; and 63% were diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of dental caries in the study population but low rates of S. mutans and lactobacilli in the saliva of the children. Lactobacilli rate was significantly associated with caries index scores, and the prevalence of caries was directly associated with the age group of the children.

  6. COLUMN STUDIES ON BTEX BIODEGRADATION UNDER MICROAEROPHILIC AND DENITRIFYING CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two column tests were conducted using aquifer material to simulate the nitrate field demonstration project carried out earlier at Traverse City, Michigan. The objectives were to better define the effect nitrate addition had on biodegradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xyl...

  7. Comparative Study of Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms for a Non-linear Greenhouse Climate Control Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Newsha; Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    Non-trivial real world decision-making processes usually involve multiple parties having potentially conflicting interests over a set of issues. State-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) are well known to solve this class of complex real-world problems. In this paper, we...... compare the performance of state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to solve a non-linear multi-objective multi-issue optimisation problem found in Greenhouse climate control. The chosen algorithms in the study includes NSGAII, eNSGAII, eMOEA, PAES, PESAII and SPEAII. The performance...... of all aforementioned algorithms is assessed and compared using performance indicators to evaluate proximity, diversity and consistency. Our insights to this comparative study enhanced our understanding of MOEAs performance in order to solve a non-linear complex climate control problem. The empirical...

  8. The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) : rationale, objectives and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Smit, J.H.; Zitman, F.G.; Nolen, W.A.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; de Jong, P.J.; Van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; van der Meer, K.; Verhaak, P.; Wensing, M.; de Graaf, R.; Hoogendijk, W.J.; Ormel, J.; Van Dyck, R.

    The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study to: (1) describe the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders, and (2) to integrate biological and psychosocial research paradigms within an epidemiological approach in

  9. The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA): rationale, objectives and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Smit, J.H.; Zitman, F.G.; Nolen, W.A.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Jong, P.J. de; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Meer, K. van der; Verhaak, P.; Wensing, M.; Graaf, R. de; Hoogendijk, W.J.; Ormel, J.; Dyck, R. van

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study to: (1) describe the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders, and (2) to integrate biological and psychosocial research paradigms within an epidemiological approach in

  10. Objectively measured sedentary time among five ethnic groups in Amsterdam : The HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A.; Nicolaou, M.; Snijder, M.B.; Peters, R.J.G.; Stronks, K.; Langøien, L.J.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognised as a health risk. While differences in this behaviour might help explain ethnic differences in disease profiles, studies on sedentary behaviour in ethnic minorities are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the levels and the

  11. Objectively measured sedentary time among five ethnic groups in Amsterdam: The HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, Anne; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Stronks, Karien; Langøien, Lars J.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognised as a health risk. While differences in this behaviour might help explain ethnic differences in disease profiles, studies on sedentary behaviour in ethnic minorities are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the levels and the socio-demographic

  12. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  13. A Case Study in the Mars Landing Site Selection for Science Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haingja Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a crucial matter to select a landing site for landers or rovers in planning the Mars exploration. The landing site must have not only a scientific value as a landing site, but also geographical features to lead a safe landing for Mars probes. In this regard, this study analyzed landing site of Mars probes and rovers in previous studies and discussed the adequacy of the landing site to scientific missions. Moreover, this study also examined domestic studies on the Mars. The frameworks of these studies will guide the selection of exploration sites and a landing site when sending Mars probe to the Mars through our own efforts. Additionally, this paper will be used as the preliminary data for selection of exploration site and a landing site.

  14. A TOOL FOR A DYNAMIC ADAPTATION OF THE OBJECTIVES AT THE LEVELS OF EUROPEAN UNION, NATIONAL AND SECTORAL, UNDER SECTORAL AND ACROSS SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranţa-Liliana NEAGU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Changing of paradigms and realities generated by the dynamism shaping of international relations and the reality, especially determines a necessity of rapid modernization objectives to adapt to new constructs strategies and rules (soft law, common law and customary law, on the other hand. Creating of the conditions to open a chapter of the EU accession, or preparation of the content of acts of delegation or implementation concomitant of provisions of the EU Commission, to achieve the interests of socio-political nations, integrated - must be based on targets set by decisions triangular (COM; PE; CONS3 and through the "six thinking hats"4" – Maltese psychologist Edward de Bono.5 I created a simple tool for adaptation of the EU, national, sectoral, cross-sectoral objectives comparative for adaptation at dynamic reality. I created a simple tool for adaptation of the EU, national, sectoral, cross-sectoral objectives comparative for adaptation at dynamic reality.

  15. Anticipatory processes under academic stress: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Yang, Can; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that preparing for and taking high-stakes exams has a significant influence on the emotional and physiological wellbeing of exam-takers, but few studies have investigated the resulting cognitive changes. The current study examined the effect of examination-induced academic stress on anticipation in information processing. Anticipation was indexed using the contingent negative variation (CNV). Electroencephalograms (EEG) were collected from 42 participants using the classic S1-S2 paradigm. These participants were preparing for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE). EEGs were also collected from 21 age-matched, non-exam comparison participants. The levels of perceived stress and state anxiety were higher and both the initial CNV (iCNV) and the late CNV (lCNV) were more negative in the exam group than in the non-exam group. These results suggest that participants under academic stress experienced greater anticipation of upcoming events. More important, for the non-exam group, state anxiety was positively related to both the iCNV and lCNV amplitude, and this correlation existed when trait anxiety was controlled; however, there was no such relationship in the exam group. These results suggested that the cortical anticipatory activity in the high-stressed exam group reached the maximum ceiling, leaving little room for transient increases in state anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gonadotropins studies in female egyptian subjects under different physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.; Megahed, Y.M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study is concerned with the role of the hypothalamic hypophyseal regulatory hormonal mechanisms in the control of gonadal secretions in a selected normal egyptian female subjects with varying ages under different physiological conditions. The study allowed precise definition of the modulator influence of a number of key factors triggering appropriate alteration in circulating serum levels of FSH and LH determined by IRMA technique in pre-pubertal female children (9-11), post-pubertal adolescents females (13-16). Adult married females (27-33) and post-menopausal (58-63). The levels of FSH and LH were increased markedly with age but children less than 11 years old had only nocturnal increase in levels of FSH (p.O.I) and LH(P< 0.001). post-pubertal aged girls had significant nocturnal elevation only of LH levels (P< 0.001), adult married females did not exhibit significant difference in gonadotropin concentrations. whereas significant elevation in FSH and LH levels (P<0.001) in post-menopausal females were observed

  17. Study of natural diamond detector spectrometric properties under neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseyev, A B; Kaschuck, Y; Krasilnikov, A; Portnov, D; Tugarinov, S

    2002-01-01

    Natural diamond detector (NDD) performance was studied up to a neutron fluence of 10 sup 1 sup 5 neutron/cm sup 2. The variations of the NDD spectrometric response to incident alpha-particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am source after exposure to fast neutron fluences up to 3x10 sup 1 sup 6 n/cm sup 2 were examined. No significant variations up to the level of 10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2 were observed. Degradation of charge collection efficiency at higher fluences is reported. No remarkable increase of the NDD leakage current and count rate change had been observed up to a neutron fluence of 3x10 sup 1 sup 6 n/cm sup 2. The charge collection efficiency variations of neutron irradiated diamond spectrometer were studied ex situ under gamma-rays, beta-radiation and visible light excitation. Charge collection efficiency restoration up to 75% level and the NDD performance stabilization by extrinsic low-intensity visible light (550 nm

  18. Magnetotransport studies of FeSe under hydrostatic pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Tiwari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The discoveries of iron-based superconductors with relatively high transition temperature are under intense experimental and theoretical investigation. Here we present magnetotransport measurements on FeSe superconductor under hydrostatic pressure. We show that in Fe-deficient tetragonal FeSe binary compound, the onset of superconducting transition is almost doubled under 1.98 GPa pressure and the estimated upper critical field of 26.7 Tesla is increased to 47.5 Tesla.

  19. Study of wet incineration of organic matters under ultrasounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey-Gaurez, F.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potentiality of power ultrasound for minimizing the volumes of solid waste and effluents generated by the spent nuclear fuel refining industry. In the first part, the advantages of power ultrasound for the decontamination of ion exchange resins (IER) is demonstrated: 1) sonication allows to remove 100 % of the 137 Cs and more than 20 % of the 60 Co initially present in the contaminated resins, 2) the decontamination is fast, 3) very simple experimental conditions are necessary (water, air or argon as saturating gas and weak electric intensity). The study of different chemical and sono-chemical parameters shows that decontamination seems to be related to the effects induced by cavitation: micro-streaming and solid erosion or disruption. In the second part, the selectivity of power ultrasound for the elimination of nitrogen (nitrate, nitro) aliphatic derivatives diluted in the PUREX process solvent is established. The nitrogen derivatives of butane or dodecane are removed under sonication while the solvent is scarcely damaged. The nitrogen derivatives of butane are quickly eliminated according to a thermal way in the cavitation bubble. A great number of kinetic data have been obtained and the influence of different parameters has been studied. The mechanisms are complex and initiated mainly by the homolytic cleavage of the O-N bond of butyl nitrate or nitrite and the C-N bond of nitrobutane. The elimination of nitrogen derivatives of dodecane is slower than the four-carbon component one. This preliminary kinetic study was difficult as the kinetic order was undetermined and a steady state concentration was reached after a short time of sonication. Unlike the four-carbon derivatives, the decomposition rate was not controlled by the boiling point of the long-chain derivatives. Nevertheless, good carbon balance (dodecane is the major product) has been obtained and led to potential mechanisms. (author) [fr

  20. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Soares F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino de Oliveira,1 Liliane Dias e Dias de Macedo,1 Alessandra Mendonça Tomás,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço-Diniz,2 João Bento-Torres,1,3 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Laboratório de Investigações em Neurodegeneração e Infecção Belém, Pará, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Núcleo Universitário de Oriximiná, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, BrazilObjective: The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects.Method: We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years matched by educational level (years of schooling. All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group.Results: Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects.Conclusion: Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application

  1. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  2. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  3. A Study of the Development of Students' Visualizations of Program State during an Elementary Object-Oriented Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Jorma; Kuittinen, Marja; Tikansalo, Taina

    2008-01-01

    Students' understanding of object-oriented (OO) program execution was studied by asking students to draw a picture of a program state at a specific moment. Students were given minimal instructions on what to include in their drawings in order to see what they considered to be central concepts and relationships in program execution. Three drawing…

  4. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  5. OB3D, a new set of 3D objects available for research: a web-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffat, Stéphane; Chastres, Véronique; Bichot, Alain; Rider, Delphine; Benmussa, Frédéric; Lorenceau, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Studying object recognition is central to fundamental and clinical research on cognitive functions but suffers from the limitations of the available sets that cannot always be modified and adapted to meet the specific goals of each study. We here present a new set of 3D scans of real objects available on-line as ASCII files, OB3D. These files are lists of dots, each defined by a triplet of spatial coordinates and their normal that allow simple and highly versatile transformations and adaptations. We performed a web-based experiment to evaluate the minimal number of dots required for the denomination and categorization of these objects, thus providing a reference threshold. We further analyze several other variables derived from this data set, such as the correlations with object complexity. This new stimulus set, which was found to activate the Lower Occipital Complex (LOC) in another study, may be of interest for studies of cognitive functions in healthy participants and patients with cognitive impairments, including visual perception, language, memory, etc. PMID:25339920

  6. Qualification study of LiF flight crystals for the objective crystal spectrometer on the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Rasmussen, I.; Schnopper, Herbert W.

    1992-01-01

    The Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OXS) on the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA satellite will carry these types of natural crystals LiF(220), Ge(111) and RAP(001). They will be used to study, among others, the H- and the He-like emission from the cosmically important elements Fe, S, Ar and O. More than 300 Li...

  7. Influence of object location in different FOVs on trabecular bone microstructure measurements of human mandible: a cone beam CT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, N.; Parsa, A.; Hassan, B.; van der Stelt, P.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Nambiar, P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different object locations in different fields of view (FOVs) of two cone beam CT (CBCT) systems on trabecular bone microstructure measurements of a human mandible. A block of dry human mandible was scanned at five different locations (centre,

  8. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Søren; Sharp, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    activity and sedentary time. This study uses combined analysis of three European cohorts and one from South America (n = 4,170). Birth weight was measured or parentally reported. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). PA was objectively measured using accelerometry...

  9. A study on relationship between assets’ objectivity, ROA, ROE and ownership ratio with liquidity cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effects of cash conversion cycle (CCC and size of selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE on four variables including return of assets, return of equities, tangible assets and equity multiplier. The study selects a sample of 105 firms listed on TSE and divides them into two groups of big and small sized companies over the period 2008-2012. Using a regression analysis, the study confirmed a meaningful relationship between different variables. In other words, in our survey, CCC and size negatively influence on tangible assets, they positively influence on equity multiplier as well as ROA but the effects of CCC and size on ROE for small and big firms are mixed.

  10. A Twin Study of Objective and Subjective Pubertal Timing and Peer Influence on Risk-Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, Natalie; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K Paige

    2016-03-01

    The current study used a behavioral genetic design to test whether three measures of pubertal timing moderated peer influence on risk-taking in a sample of 248 female adolescent twin pairs ( M age =16.0, SD =1.5) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Peer influence was operationalized as the quasi-causal association between girls' self-reported risk-taking and the risk-taking reported by their friends. Girls with earlier ages at menarche and who perceived themselves as more developed than peers were more susceptible to peer influence on risk-taking. However, age-standardized ratings of body changes did not moderate peer influence. This study highlights distinctions between multiple measures of pubertal timing, using an innovative synthesis of genetically informative data and peer nomination data.

  11. Phenomenology, Pokémon Go, and Other Augmented Reality Games: A Study of a Life Among Digital Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Liberati, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects on the everyday world of actual Augmented Reality games which introduce digital objects in our surroundings from a phenomenological point of view. Augmented Reality is a new technology aiming to merge digital and real objects, and it is becoming pervasively used thanks to the application for mobile devices Pokémon Go by Niantic. We will study this game and other similar applications to shed light on their possible effects on our lives and on our...

  12. Decision making under risk : a study of models and measurement procedures with special reference to the farmer's marketing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidts, A.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: a) to review, discuss and test a number of theories on individual decision making under risk; much attention is specifically given to the definition and empirical testing of the concept of relative risk attitude, b) to investigate in a large scale survey

  13. Decision making under risk. A study of models and measurement procedures with special reference to the farmers' marketing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Smidts (Ale)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe objectives of the study were: a) to review, discuss and test a number of theories on individual decision making under risk; much attention is specifically given to the definition and empirical testing of the concept of relative risk attitude, b) to investigate in a large scale survey

  14. Experimental Study of Multi-Walled Composite Shell Fragments under Thermal Force Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Tairova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled composite shells are a relatively new prospective type of load carrying structures for rocket and space engineering. These CFRP structures are produced by injection and infusion methods and have several advantages in comparison with common structures such as stringer-frame, grid and sandwich structures with a light core. In particular, those have more structural parameters, which enable one to control mechanical properties of the structure, and this is important in designing the load carrying structures of different purpose.Presently, there are few national and foreign publications on experimental investigations of mechanical properties of multi-walled shells. That is why the objective of the paper is to conduct the experimental study of deformation and failure processes of a multi-walled panel both under steady-state heating and under unsteady-state one.The paper presents the results of two tests: (1 the study of deformation and failure modes under compression and complete heating up to a specified temperature and (2 validation of working capability of multi-walled samples under single-side heating and compression simulating a start and flight version of the “ Proton” launch vehicle.Experimental results have shown that average elastic properties of multi-walled samples slightly depend on temperature for the studied range (from room temperature up to 195C while strength properties considerably decrease with increasing temperature, and this is typical for CFRP structures under compression. However, under unsteady-state short-term heating the structure has a strength that exceeds the minimal necessary strength of load carrying structures of the “Proton” launch vehicle (the samples satisfy simulated start conditions of the “Proton” launch vehicle. This is because of a low heat conductivity of the multi-walled core: an unheated sheet holds a low temperature and high load carrying capacity.Obtained results can be used in

  15. living. The Objectives of this study are to: assess the impact of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    The study suggests that the villages which are lagging behind in terms of the standard of living of people should be properly addressed to raise their standard of living by making provision of irrigation facilities and modern techniques in agricultural sector. Keywords : standard of living, per capita income, pucca houses, gobar ...

  16. Laugh and Smile upon the Holy Quran: The Study of Analytical Objectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Domi, Mohammad Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the positive impact of The Holy Quran based on the laugh and smile. This kind of derivatives in which context of praise, expression the feeling of happiness and joyful in the positive senses. Everyone needs to relieve his heart so that happiness and joy on their faces can be seen. Laughter also are some of attribute…

  17. Objective and Subjective Responses to Low Relative Humidity in an Office Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David; Meyer, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of dry indoor air on comfort and health in winter was investigated in a crossover intervention study in two floors of an office building in northern Sweden. The indoor air humidity (normally 10-20% RH) was raised to 23-24% RH, one floor at a time, using steam humidifiers. Questionnaires...

  18. Raman study of radiation-damaged zircon under hydrostatic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasdala, Lutz; Miletich, Ronald; Ruschel, Katja; Váczi, Tamás

    2008-12-01

    Pressure-induced changes of Raman band parameters of four natural, gem-quality zircon samples with different degrees of self-irradiation damage, and synthetic ZrSiO4 without radiation damage, have been studied under hydrostatic compression in a diamond anvil cell up to ~10 GPa. Radiation-damaged zircon shows similar up-shifts of internal SiO4 stretching modes at elevated pressures as non-damaged ZrSiO4. Only minor changes of band-widths were observed in all cases. This makes it possible to estimate the degree of radiation damage from the width of the ν3(SiO4) band of zircon inclusions in situ, almost independent from potential “fossilized pressures” or compressive strain acting on the inclusions. An application is the non-destructive analysis of gemstones such as corundum or spinel: broadened Raman bands are a reliable indicator of self-irradiation damage in zircon inclusions, whose presence allows one to exclude artificial color enhancement by high-temperature treatment of the specimen.

  19. Studying the orientation of bio-objects by nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubtsova, Yu. A.; Kamanin, A. A.; Kamanina, N. V.

    2017-05-01

    We have studied the ability of a liquid-crystal (LC) matrix to visualize and orient DNA molecules. It is established that the relief of the interface between the LC mesophase and conducting contact can be improved without using an additional high-ohmic polymer layer. Spectroscopic and ellipsometric techniques revealed changes in the refractive properties and structure of composites. The obtained results can be used in creating devices for rapid DNA testing with retained form of biostructures.

  20. Non-destructive analysis in a study of the religious art objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vornicu, Nicoleta; Bibire, Cristina [Metropolitan Center of Research TABOR, Metropolitanate of Moldavia and Bukovina, Closca 9, 700066 Iasi (Romania); Geba, Maria, E-mail: cmctaboriasi@yahoo.co [Cultural Heritage Restoration - Conservation Centre ' Moldova' , National Museum Complex, Iasi (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The icon Descending of the Saint Spirit from Bucium Church, dating in the year 1814 and was done in tempera on wood technology. The characterization of cultural heritage materials is essential for the comprehension of their degradation mechanisms. The present study aims at identifying the pigments in the various layers, establishing the possible existence of an organic binder and scientifically evaluating the state of preservation. To this end, were used non-destructive methods, as: microscopic (SEM), XRF and spectroscopic (FTIR).

  1. Non-destructive analysis in a study of the religious art objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornicu, Nicoleta; Bibire, Cristina; Geba, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The icon Descending of the Saint Spirit from Bucium Church, dating in the year 1814 and was done in tempera on wood technology. The characterization of cultural heritage materials is essential for the comprehension of their degradation mechanisms. The present study aims at identifying the pigments in the various layers, establishing the possible existence of an organic binder and scientifically evaluating the state of preservation. To this end, were used non-destructive methods, as: microscopic (SEM), XRF and spectroscopic (FTIR).

  2. Instructional work in textile craft : Studies of interaction, embodiment and the making of objects

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The focus for this thesis is instructions and their role in guiding students’ activities and understandings in the context of textile craft. The empirical material consists of video recordings of courses in textile craft offered as part of teacher education programs. In four empirical studies, instructions directed towards competences in craft are investigated with the ambition to provide praxeological accounts of learning and instruction in domains where bodily dimensions and manual actions ...

  3. International study of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with body mass index and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyck, D Van; Cerin, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I

    2015-01-01

    Background:Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, whereas recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improv...... for country-specific health guidelines.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 22 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.115....... effects of study site and gender.Methods:Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven...... relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts per minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min per day) and higher counts per minute. No associations...

  4. Study of Under-ice Blooms In the Chukchi Ecosystem (SUBICE) (HLY1401, EM122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objectives of SUBICE were to determine the spatial distribution of large under-ice phytoplankton blooms on the Chukchi Shelf and the physical mechanisms...

  5. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object....

  6. Drosophila as a model object in to study Chernobyl NPP after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinenko, T.V.; Kozeretskaya, I.A.; Gorodetski, G.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Water extractions of soil probes, which were selected on areas with different density of radioactive pollutions near Chernobyl exclusion zone ('Apple-tree garden' (Chernobyl); 'Island' (the bank of the pond-cooler of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Torch' (the area of revegetation near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant); 'Red forest' (side of a road) and 'Red forest' (edge of a forest)) were investigated. Dosimetric metering of all studied areas was conducted. γ- and β-activities of soil probes were determined by spectrometry and radiochemistry methods. The contents of trace elements in the soil probes of areas the 'Appletree garden' and 'Island' were determined. Water extractions from soil were prepared according to standard method (ratio - 1 : 2,5). The mutagenicity of water extractions of soil was estimated using the test of frequency of the sex-linked lethal mutations of Drosophila melanogaster. Water extractions were directly adds to a nourishing medium instead of standard component - distilled water. The strain of wild type of Drosophila Canton-S and natural populations of Drosophila from Pyriatin and Chernobyl were used in our study. The natural populations of Chernobyl and Pyriatin were included in study for more fully estimation of influence of factor on genetic processes of Drosophila, because of presence of unspecific adaptations of natural populations from radioactive polluted territories (as was shown before). According to dosimetric analysis data radiation activity of all water extractions of soils did not exceed a natural background. The probes of soil from areas the 'Red forest' and the 'Torch' were marked the higher activity; total activity of them was over 110 Mbk/kg. It is possibly that this fact was the reason of the absence of descendants in all variants of experiments conducted on medium with water extraction the 'Red forest' and in a variant of experiments concerned on study of activity of water

  7. Study on Mechanical Properties of Barite Concrete under Impact Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. F.; Cheng, K.; Wu, D.; Gan, Y. C.; Tao, Q. W.

    2018-03-01

    In order to research the mechanical properties of Barite concrete under impact load, a group of concrete compression tests was carried out under the impact load by using the drop test machine. A high-speed camera was used to record the failure process of the specimen during the impact process. The test results show that:with the increase of drop height, the loading rate, the peak load, the strain under peak load, the strain rate and the dynamic increase factor (DIF) all increase gradually. The ultimate tensile strain is close to each other, and the time of impact force decreases significantly, showing significant strain rate effect.

  8. [Objective assessment of total noise exposure over 24 hours: a cross-sectional study in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, T; Sárközi, E; Praml, G; von Kries, R; Ehrenstein, V; Nowak, D; Radon, K

    2012-11-01

    Noise can affect well-being and performance of individuals and might be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. To date most epidemiological studies considered exposure from a single source of noise. The EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) requires a summative measurement of ambient noise. This study aimed to capture the participants' exposure to environmental noise by means of personal noise dosimetry. Children (n=628, participation=61%, age 8-12 years), adolescents (n=632, participation=58%, age 13-17 years) and adults (n=482, participation=40%, age 18-65 years) were selected randomly from the population registry of 4 Bavarian towns and were invited to participate in a 24-h measurement using noise dosimetry. Noise exposures during day and night were analyzed separately. In addition, predictors of noise exposure were assessed. For daytime noise exposure mean±standard deviation were in children 80.0±5.8 dB(A), in adolescents 76.0±6.2 dB(A), in adults 72.1±6.1 dB(A) (p(ANOVA)noise exposure was statistically significantly higher for participants from smaller towns than for those living in Munich, while nighttime noise exposure was highest for participants from Munich [44.1±7.2 dB(A)]. The summative noise exposure in urban Bavaria is high, in particular among children at daytime. Increased exposure levels in children might be caused by themselves while, e.g., playing. Whether the higher daytime exposure in towns is due to high noise levels commuting between home and work has to be assessed in future studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Economic system as the basic object of study in the general educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Бурла

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the prevailing practice of studying the economies at different levels in schools of Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. The main attention is paid to the development of methods of studying modern conceptual device that describes the nature, composition, structure and parameters of economic systems in educational institutions. In modern textbooks that are currently used in general education institutions there are some basic concepts and indicators, which allow to fully understand the world economy, economy of states and regions. There are such categories as “economic system”, “model of the economy”, “structure of the economy”, “the branch of the economy”, “sphere of economy”, “sector of economy”. The analysis of school textbooks on geography and other subjects indicates the need for detailed assimilation of information concerning systems, their types, composition, structure and functions. The study of economic and social geography should be paid main attention to the economic system. This article presents the author’s version of the “economic system” concept’s interpretation with all its constituent elements, reveals the functions of economic systems, the types of economic products and services produced by them, examines the levels from global to local ones with specific examples. Various types of economic structures are shown: 1 sectoral, reflecting the relationship between industries; 2 interbranch, reflecting the relationship between interindustry complexes; 3 territorial, reflecting the share of individual regions in national indicators or the share of countries in global indicators, as well as the spatial location of production and non-production facilities; 4 tiered, reflecting the relationship between the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy; 5 two-sphere, reflecting the relationship between the production and non-production spheres; 6 organizational and legal, reflecting the

  10. Implementation of minimally invasive and objective humane endpoints in the study of murine Plasmodium infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellavalle, B; Kirchhoff, J; Maretty, L

    2014-01-01

    versus infrared thermometry: cervical dislocation: Pearson R = 0·99, R 2 = 0·98, slope = 1·01, y-intercept = 0·55; ECM: 0·99, 0·98, 1·06, -2·4; and SMA: 0·98, 0·97, 1·14, -5·6. Implementation of the 30 °C endpoint captured all lethal infections. However, some animals with BT below 30 °C were not deemed...... clinically moribund. This study supports repeated measurement infrared thermometry. A humane endpoint of 30 °C was sensitive in capturing terminal animals but might overestimate lethality in this SMA model....

  11. Sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of subjective and objective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

    2009-09-01

    To perform a meta-analysis of subjective (i.e., based on questionnaires) and objective (i.e., using polysomnography or actigraphy) studies comparing sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus controls. We searched for subjective and objective sleep studies (1987-2008) in children with ADHD (diagnosed according to standardized criteria). Studies including subjects pharmacologically treated or with comorbid anxiety/depressive disorders were excluded. Sixteen studies, providing 9 subjective and 15 objective parameters and including a total pooled sample of 722 children with ADHD versus 638 controls, were retained. With regard to subjective items, the meta-analysis indicated that children with ADHD had significantly higher bedtime resistance (z = 6.94, p breathing (z = 2.05, p =.040), and daytime sleepiness (z = 1.96, p =.050) compared with the controls. As for objective parameters, sleep onset latency (on actigraphy), the number of stage shifts/hour sleep, and the apnea-hypopnea index were significantly higher in the children with ADHD compared with the controls (z = 3.44, p =.001; z = 2.43, p =.015; z = 3.47, p =.001, respectively). The children with ADHD also had significantly lower sleep efficiency on polysomnography (z = 2.26, p =.024), true sleep time on actigraphy (z = 2.85, p =.004), and average times to fall asleep for the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (z = 6.37, p children with ADHD are significantly more impaired than the controls in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures. These results lay the groundwork for future evidence-based guidelines on the management of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD.

  12. The Neutron, a Tool and an Object for Fundamental and Nuclear Physics Studies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research institute which operates the currently most powerful source of neutrons in the world, a 58 MW reactor. The neutron beams provided by the reactor feed a broad range of instruments which are dedicated to a wide variety of research activities. The majority of instruments are dedicated to the study of solid-state physics, materials science, chemistry, the biosciences, and earth sciences. However, nuclear and low energy particle physics studies are also vigorously pursued with the aid of neutrons. The talk will mainly concentrate on this latter aspect. We make use of hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons with velocities of between a few kilometers and a few meters per second, corresponding to kinetic energies in the electronvolt-to-nanoelectronvolt range. It will be briefly discussed how thermal neutrons can be used to investigate the structure and behavior of nuclei by generating excited nuclear states. The main part of the talk will be dedicated...

  13. Objectively measured sleep and β-amyloid burden in older adults: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam P Spira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims: Although disturbed sleep is associated with cognitive deficits, the association between sleep disturbance and Alzheimer’s disease pathology is unclear. In this pilot study, we examined the extent to which sleep duration, sleep quality, and sleep-disordered breathing are associated with β-amyloid (Aβ deposition in the brains of living humans. Methods: We studied 13 older adults (8 with normal cognition and 5 with mild cognitive impairment. Participants completed neuropsychological testing, polysomnography, and Aβ imaging with [11C]-Pittsburgh compound B. Results: Among participants with mild cognitive impairment, higher apnea–hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index were associated with greater Aβ deposition, globally and regionally in the precuneus. There were no significant associations between sleep-disordered breathing and Aβ deposition among cognitively normal participants. There were no significant associations between sleep duration or sleep fragmentation and Aβ deposition. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that among older adults with mild cognitive impairment, greater sleep-disordered breathing severity is associated with greater Aβ deposition.

  14. Disturbed Children Under Reduced Auditory Input: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, Joan; Bryant, N. Dale

    1971-01-01

    Investigated were attention and performance on simple tasks as well as classroom attention of seriously disturbed, communication impaired, autistic children under conditions of reduced auditory input (using ear protectors). (Author)

  15. Objective Cognitive Impairment and Progression to Dementia in Women: The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Dragsbæk, K.; Christiansen, C.

    2017-01-01

    cognitive impairment (OCI), who were most likely to progress to dementia and to identify the risk factors associated with progression. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Population-based. Participants: 5,380 elderly women from Denmark. Measurements: The Short Blessed Test and a category fluency test...... with animal naming, was used to assess cognitive function, and to classify them into different groups of OCI. Results: OCI was identified in 852 subjects at baseline. The risk of dementia was elevated for OCI subjects as compared to subjects with normal cognition (HR 1.46[1.19-1.79]). The courses of OCI were...... predictor of conversion to dementia, additionally several modifiable risk factors were associated with progression....

  16. Objectively measured physical activity and cardiac biomarkers: A cross sectional population based study in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tessa J; Sartini, Claudio; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H; Jefferis, Barbara J

    2018-03-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high sensitivity Troponin T (hsTnT) are markers of cardiac injury used in diagnosis of heart failure and myocardial infarction respectively, and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since physical activity is protective against cardiovascular disease and heart failure, we investigated whether higher levels of physical activity, and less sedentary behaviour were associated with lower NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Cross sectional study of 1130 men, age 70-91years, from the British Regional Heart Study, measured in 2010-2012. Fasting blood samples were analysed for NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured using ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers. Relationships between activity and NT-proBNP or hsTnT were non-linear; biomarker levels were lower with higher total activity, steps, moderate/vigorous activity and light activity only at low to moderate levels of activity. For example, for each additional 10min of moderate/vigorous activity, NT-proBNP was lower by 35.7% (95% CI -47.9, -23.6) and hsTnT by 8.4% (95% CI -11.1, -5.6), in men who undertook <25 or 50min of moderate/vigorous activity per day respectively. Biomarker levels increased linearly with increasing sedentary behaviour, but not independently of moderate/vigorous activity. Associations between biomarkers and moderate/vigorous activity (and between hsTnT and light activity) were independent of sedentary behaviour, suggesting activity is driving the relationships. In these older men with concomitantly low levels of physical activity, activity may be more important in protecting against cardiac health deterioration in less active individuals, although reverse causality might be operating. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Objective assessment of occlusal and coronal characteristics of untreated normals: a measurement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currim, Simone; Wadkar, Prabodh V

    2004-05-01

    To determine whether tooth shape and position are constant within tooth types, dental casts of 68 Indians (age range, 10-32 years; mean, 18.72 years) were analyzed. The casts were selected from a larger sample and met the following criteria: Class I molar and canine relationships; overjet and overbite within normal limits; well-related vertical, transverse, and anteroposterior relationships with pleasing profiles and well-aligned arches; and no supernumerary teeth or large restorations. None of the subjects had received orthodontic treatment, and all were in good health and exhibited normal growth. Crown angulation, inclination, offset of maxillary molar, curve of Spee, crown facial prominence, horizontal crown contour, and vertical crown contour were assessed. Means, standard deviations, and standard errors were calculated. The measurements were compared with Andrews's data on 120 nonorthodontic normal occlusion casts. The Student t test was used to determine the significance of differences between the 2 sets of data. It was found that teeth of the same tooth type have similar values of horizontal and vertical crown contours. Values for inclination, angulation, and relative prominence were also similar. Hence, we concluded that tooth shape and position are constant for each tooth type. The data from this study were comparable with Andrews's findings. However, from this study, it would be safe to presume that all teeth except the maxillary second molars require alterations in the bracket base inclination value, and that the maxillary lateral incisor, canine, second premolar, and second molar, and the mandibular canine, require alterations in angulation values.

  18. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian categories...

  19. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... of the enlargement of the cult into individual behaviour....

  20. Influence of personality on objective and subjective social support among patients with major depressive disorder: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskelä, Ulla; Melartin, Tarja; Rytsälä, Heikki; Jylhä, Pekka; Sokero, Petteri; Lestelä-Mielonen, Paula; Isometsä, Erkki

    2009-10-01

    Personality and social support (SS) influence risk for depression and modify its outcome through multiple pathways. The impact of personality dimensions neuroticism and extraversion on SS among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been little studied. In the Vantaa Depression Study, we assessed neuroticism and extraversion with the Eysenck Personality Inventory, objective SS with the Interview Measure of Social Relationships, and subjective SS with the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised at baseline, at 6 and 18 months among 193 major depressive disorder patients diagnosed according to the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS-IV). At all time-points, low neuroticism and high extraversion associated significantly with between-subject differences in levels of objective and subjective SS. Lower neuroticism (beta = 0.213, p = 0.003) and higher extraversion (beta = 0.159, p = 0.038) predicted greater within-subject change of subjective, but not objective SS. Thus, neuroticism and extraversion associated with the size of objective and subjective SS and predicted change of subjective SS. Modification of subjective SS, particularly, may indirectly influence future vulnerability to depression.

  1. Object relations and interpersonal problems in sexually abused female patients: an empirical study with the SCORS and the IIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernhof, Karin; Kaufhold, Johannes; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined how retrospective reports of experiencing traumatic sexual abuse in childhood relates to both the development of self-representations and object representations and the occurrence of interpersonal problems. A total of 30 psychosomatic female patients who reported sexual abuse in childhood were compared with a corresponding number of eating-disordered patients and a nonclinical control group. The object relations technique (ORT; Phillipson, 1955), evaluated using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS; Westen, 1985, 1991b), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Horowitz, Rosenberg, Baer, & Ureno, 1988) were used to measure the groups. The patients reporting sexual abuse achieved significantly lower scores in the cognitive scales of the SCORS; in the affective scales, they differed from the control group but not from the patients with an eating disorder. Concerning interpersonal problems, the patients reporting childhood sexual abuse reported interpersonal conflicts more frequently. The results of the study support the influence of traumatic sexual abuse on the formation of self-representations and object representations and on the occurrence of interpersonal conflicts.

  2. In vivo study of myocardial elastography under graded ischemia conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wei-Ning; Provost, Jean; Konofagou, Elisa E [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Fujikura, Kana [Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Wang Jie, E-mail: ek2191@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-02-21

    The capability of currently available echocardiography-based strain estimation techniques to fully map myocardial abnormality at early stages of myocardial ischemia is yet to be investigated. In this study, myocardial elastography (ME), a radio-frequency (RF)-based strain imaging technique that maps the full 2D transmural angle-independent strain tensor in standard echocardiographic views at both high spatial and temporal resolution is presented. The objectives were to (1) evaluate the performance of ME on mapping the onset, extent and progression of myocardial ischemia at graded coronary constriction levels (from partial to complete coronary flow reduction), and (2) validate the accuracy of the strain estimates against sonomicrometry (SM) measurements. A non-survival canine ischemic model (n = 5) was performed by gradually constricting the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary blood flow from 0% (baseline blood flow) to 100% (zero blood flow) at 20% increments. An open-architecture ultrasound system was used to acquire RF echocardiograms in a standard full short-axis view at the frame rate of 211 fps, at least twice higher than what is typically used in conventional echocardiographic systems, using a previously developed, fully automated composite technique. Myocardial deformation was estimated by ME and validated against sonomicrometry. ME estimates and maps transmural (1) 2D displacements using RF cross-correlation and recorrelation; and (2) 2D polar (radial and circumferential) strains, derived from 2D (i.e. both lateral and axial) displacement components, at high accuracy. Full-view strain images were shown and found to reliably depict decreased myocardial function in the region at risk at increased levels of coronary flow reduction. The ME radial strain was deemed to be a more sensitive, quantitative, regional measure of myocardial ischemia as a result of coronary flow reduction when compared to the conventional wall motion score index and ejection fraction

  3. Associations of objective physical activity with insulin sensitivity and circulating adipokine profile: the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartano, N L; Stevenson, M D; Xanthakis, V; Larson, M G; Andersson, C; Murabito, J M; Vasan, R S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) to insulin sensitivity and adipokines. We assessed PA and SED using Actical accelerometers and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 2109 participants (free of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus) from Framingham Generation 3 and Omni 2 cohorts (mean age 46 years, 54% women). Systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) and circulating adipokines were measured 6 years earlier. Steps per day, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED per wear time (%SED) were predictor variables in multivariable regression analyses, with HOMA-IR, CRP and circulating adipokines as outcome measures. We reported that higher MVPA and more steps per day were associated with lower HOMA-IR, adjusting for %SED (β = -0.036, P = 0.002; β = -0.041, P = 0.005). Steps were inversely associated with CRP, but were directly associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (β = -0.111, P = 0.002; β = 3.293, P = 0.007). %SED was positively associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.033, P insulin resistance and inflammation, whereas SED influences FABPs. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Irresistible force meets immovable object : an Ontario case study on grid expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegh, G.; Annis, K. [McCarthy Tetrault, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed a case study of an Ontario grid expansion. The Green Energy and Green Economy Act was introduced in Ontario in 2009. The federal feed-in tariff (FIT) program has been successful, and has resulted in increased renewable energy capacity throughout the province. The expansion in distribution has resulted in the socialization of distribution expansion costs. A cost sharing mechanism has been established to ensure that the amount of rate protection is equal to investment costs. Costs that are the distributor's responsibility are considered to be eligible investment costs, and Green Energy Act plans are required to account for distribution expansion that is built to connect renewable generation. Details of Hydro One Networks' distribution expansion plans were presented. The methods used by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) to determine which types of generation should be connected were reviewed. The presentation concluded by recommending the development of a generic process for addressing generation and connection cost considerations in order to increase transparency and predictability. Transmission projects and policy changes were also discussed. tabs., figs.

  5. Functional connectivity in tactile object discrimination: a principal component analysis of an event related fMRI-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Susanne; Missimer, John H; Stoeckel, Cornelia; Abela, Eugenio; Shah, Jon; Seitz, Rüdiger J; Weder, Bruno J

    2008-01-01

    Tactile object discrimination is an essential human skill that relies on functional connectivity between the neural substrates of motor, somatosensory and supramodal areas. From a theoretical point of view, such distributed networks elude categorical analysis because subtraction methods are univariate. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the neural networks involved in somatosensory object discrimination using a voxel-based principal component analysis (PCA) of event-related functional magnetic resonance images. Seven healthy, right-handed subjects aged between 22 and 44 years were required to discriminate with their dominant hand the length differences between otherwise identical parallelepipeds in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Of the 34 principal components retained for analysis according to the 'bootstrapped' Kaiser-Guttman criterion, t-tests applied to the subject-condition expression coefficients showed significant mean differences between the object presentation and inter-stimulus phases in PC 1, 3, 26 and 32. Specifically, PC 1 reflected object exploration or manipulation, PC 3 somatosensory and short-term memory processes. PC 26 evinced the perception that certain parallelepipeds could not be distinguished, while PC 32 emerged in those choices when they could be. Among the cerebral regions evident in the PCs are the left posterior parietal lobe and premotor cortex in PC 1, the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the right cuneus in PC 3, the medial frontal and orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally in PC 26, and the right intraparietal sulcus, anterior SPL and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in PC 32. The analysis provides evidence for the concerted action of large-scale cortico-subcortical networks mediating tactile object discrimination. Parallel to activity in nodes processing object-related impulses we found activity in key cerebral regions responsible for subjective assessment and validation.

  6. Visual object processing as a function of stimulus energy, retinal eccentricity and Gestalt configuration: a high-density electrical mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A C; Shpaner, M; Molholm, S; Foxe, J J

    2012-09-27

    To reveal the fundamental processes underlying the different stages of visual object perception, most studies have manipulated relatively complex images, such as photographs, line drawings of natural objects, or perceptual illusions. Here, rather than starting from complex images and working backward to infer simpler processes, we investigated how the visual system parses and integrates information contained in stimuli of the most basic variety. Simple scatterings of a few points of light were manipulated in terms of their numerosity, spatial extent, and organization, and high-density electrophysiological recordings were made from healthy adults engaged in an unrelated task. We reasoned that this approach permitted an uncontaminated view of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the related neural processes. We were guided in our predictions by the "frame-and-fill" model for object perception, whereby fast inputs to the dorsal stream of the visual "where" system first frame the spatial extent of visual objects, which are subsequently "filled-in" by the slower activation of the ventral stream of the visual "what" system. Our findings were consistent with this view, showing a rapidly-onsetting effect of spatial extent in dorsal stream sources, and later-onsetting effects due to dot number and symmetry, which were deemed to be more closely tied to the details of object identity, from ventral stream sources. This collection of observations provides an important baseline from which to understand the spatio-temporal properties of basic visual object perception, and from which to test dysfunction of this system in clinical populations. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies of material properties under irradiation at BNL Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, N.; Kirk, H.; Ludewig, H.; /Brookhaven; Mokhov, N.; Hurh, P.; Misek, J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Effects of proton beams irradiating materials considered for targets in high-power accelerator experiments have been under study using the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) 200 MeV Linac. The primary objectives of the study that includes a wide array of materials and alloys ranging between low and high-Z are to (a) observe changes in physio-mechanical properties which are important in maintaining high-power target functionality, (b) identify possible limits of proton flux or fluence above which certain material seize to maintain integrity, (c) study the role of material operating temperature in inducing or maintaining radiation damage reversal, and (d) correlate radiation damage effects of different species such as energetic protons and neutrons on materials by utilizing reactor and particle accelerator experience data. These objectives are specifically being addressed in the latest material irradiation study linked to the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE). Observations on irradiation effects on materials considered for high-power targets and other beam intercepting elements, such as collimators, from past studies and preliminary observations of the ongoing LBNE study are presented in this paper.

  8. The face of Smith-Magenis syndrome: a subjective and objective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanson, J.; Greenberg, F.; Smith, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report a study of 55 subjects with Smith-Magenis syndrome, aged 9 months to 35 years. Each person has been evaluated with an assessment of "gestalt" and detailed facial measurement, using previously published methodology, with compilation of Z score pattern profiles.
The facial phenotype of SMS is quite distinctive, even in the young child. The overall face shape is broad and square. The brows are heavy, with excessive lateral extension of the eyebrows. The eyes slant upwards and appear close set and deep set. The nose has a depressed root and, in the young child, a scooped bridge. With time, the bridge becomes more ski jump shaped. The height of the nose is markedly reduced while the nasal base is broad and the tip of the nose is full. The shape of the mouth and upper lip are most distinctive. The mouth is wide with full upper and lower lips. The central portion of the upper lip is fleshy and everted with bulky philtral pillars, producing a tented appearance that, in profile, is striking. With age, mandibular growth is greater than average and exceeds that of the maxilla. This leads to increased jaw width and protrusion and marked midface hypoplasia.
Craniofacial pattern analysis supports these subjective impressions. After mid-childhood, mandibular dimensions consistently exceed their maxillary counterparts. Craniofacial widths are greater than corresponding depths and heights. Nasal height is reduced while nasal width is increased. There is mild brachycephaly. The most marked age related changes are increased width of the nose and lower face (mandibular width) with reduction in nasal height and midfacial depth.


Keywords: Smith-Magenis syndrome; facial measurements PMID:10353786

  9. Numerical Study of Buoyancy Convection of Air under Permanent Magnetic Field and Comparison with That under Gravity Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewei Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetothermal free convection of air in a square enclosure under a nonuniform magnetic field provided by a permanent neodymium-iron-boron magnet is numerically studied. The natural convection under the gravity field alone is also studied for comparison. The physical fields of magnetizing force, velocity, and temperature as well as the local distribution characteristic of Nusselt number are all presented in this paper. The results show that the buoyancy convection of air in the square enclosure under magnetic field is quite different from that under the gravity field. The local value of Nusselt number under the magnetic field supplied by a permanent magnet with a residual magnetic flux density of about 4.5 Tesla can reach a high value of about three times larger than the maximum local value of Nusselt number under the gravity field. Relatively uniform distributions of temperature gradient and Nusselt number can be obtained along the cold wall of the enclosure under the magnetic field. A permanent magnet with high magnetic energy product with Br reaching to 3.5 Tesla can play a comparative role on the averaged Nusselt number compared with that under the gravity environment.

  10. Migrating Home Computer Audio Waveforms to Digital Objects: A Case Study on Digital Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Guttenbrunner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rescuing data from inaccessible or damaged storage media for the purpose of preserving the digital data for the long term is one of the dimensions of digital archaeology. With the current pace of technological development, any system can become obsolete in a matter of years and hence the data stored in a specific storage media might not be accessible anymore due to the unavailability of the system to access the media. In order to preserve digital records residing in such storage media, it is necessary to extract the data stored in those media by some means.One early storage medium for home computers in the 1980s was audio tape. The first home computer systems allowed the use of standard cassette players to record and replay data. Audio cassettes are more durable than old home computers when properly stored. Devices playing this medium (i.e. tape recorders can be found in working condition or can be repaired, as they are usually made out of standard components. By re-engineering the format of the waveform and the file formats, the data on such media can then be extracted from a digitised audio stream and migrated to a non-obsolete format.In this paper we present a case study on extracting the data stored on an audio tape by an early home computer system, namely the Philips Videopac+ G7400. The original data formats were re-engineered and an application was written to support the migration of the data stored on tapes without using the original system. This eliminates the necessity of keeping an obsolete system alive for enabling access to the data on the storage media meant for this system. Two different methods to interpret the data and eliminate possible errors in the tape were implemented and evaluated on original tapes, which were recorded 20 years ago. Results show that with some error correction methods, parts of the tapes are still readable even without the original system. It also implies that it is easier to build solutions while original

  11. Coordinated research project (CRP) on studies of advanced reactor technology options for effective incineration of radioactive waste - Scope and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of the CRP is to perform R and D tasks contributing towards the proof of practicality for long-lived waste transmutation. For a sound assessment of the transient and accident behaviour, the neutron kinetics and dynamics have to be qualified, especially as the margins for the safety relevant neutronics parameters are becoming small in a 'dedicated' transmuter. The CRP will integrate benchmarking of transient/accident simulation codes focussing on the phenomena and effects relevant to various critical and sub-critical systems under severe neutron flux changes and rearrangements. The CRP will investigate future needs both for theoretical means (data, codes) and experimental information related to the various transmutation systems. The final goals of the CRP are to (a) deepen the understanding of the dynamics of transmutation systems, e.g., the accelerator driven system, especially systems with deteriorated safety parameters, (b) qualify the available methods and specify their range of validity, and (c) formulate requirements for future theoretical developments. Should transient experiments be available, the CRP might also pursue experimental benchmarking work. In any case, based on the results, the CRP will conclude on the potential need of transient experiments and make appropriate proposals for experimental programs. The CRP will consider various transmuter and actinides incinerator concepts, from traditional to very advanced, both critical and sub-critical. No optimization will be performed, experience and good engineering judgment is used to define the design parameters of the various concepts. The generic dynamic behavior of the different systems will be assessed and inter-comparisons will be performed. The concepts are derived from those proposed by the participants in this RCM. Later additions might be considered. The studies will include static, kinetics and dynamics calculations. Influence of burnup on transient behavior will be

  12. Experimental study of infrared filaments under different initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirell, Daniel Joseph

    field that gives birth to multiphoton and avalanche ionization), (b) conical emission/supercontinuum generation, and (c) emitted THz radiation. The aim of all of this research is to gain a better understanding of filamentation so that we may learn how to control them for the applications of: (a) laser-induced lightning, (b) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, (c) LIDAR, (d) medical imaging and many more. In this dissertation we will focus on an experimental study of filamentation in air produced by 780 nm radiation, pulsewidths of 200 fs, and energies pulse of 9 mJ/pulse. We have used an aerodynamic window + vacuum system to study the difference between focusing filament forming pulses down initially in vacuum conditions to that where it is allowed to focus in atmosphere. Described herein is a new way to use an off-the-shelf, inexpensive and robust 1064 nm mirror to observe the beam profile and its evolution in the filament as well as the filaments spectral properties. In addition, experiments to test for the plasma have been conducted. The results of these experiments indicate filament sizes of 200mum, in contrast to the commonly reported value of 100pm. Filaments of this size exist over a length of approximately a meter which is 8 times longer than the associated Rayleigh range for such a spot size with a clear enhancement in filament persistence with the use of the aerodynamic window. In addition the appearance of newly generated "bluer" frequencies that is present under atmospheric focusing is ail but eliminated through an initial focusing of the beam in vacuum conditions. Plasma densities of 1016 e -/cm3 were measured using plasma interferometry.

  13. An export coefficient based inexact fuzzy bi-level multi-objective programming model for the management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanpeng; Rong, Qiangqiang; Yang, Zhifeng; Yue, Wencong; Tan, Qian

    2018-02-01

    In this research, an export coefficient based inexact fuzzy bi-level multi-objective programming (EC-IFBLMOP) model was developed through integrating export coefficient model (ECM), interval parameter programming (IPP) and fuzzy parameter programming (FPP) within a bi-level multi-objective programming framework. The proposed EC-IFBLMOP model can effectively deal with the multiple uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals and fuzzy membership functions. Also, the complexities in agricultural systems, such as the cooperation and gaming relationship between the decision makers at different levels, can be fully considered in the model. The developed model was then applied to identify the optimal land use patterns and BMP implementing levels for agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution management in a subcatchment in the upper stream watershed of the Miyun Reservoir in north China. The results of the model showed that the desired optimal land use patterns and implementing levels of best management of practices (BMPs) would be obtained. It is the gaming result between the upper- and lower-level decision makers, when the allowable discharge amounts of NPS pollutants were limited. Moreover, results corresponding to different decision scenarios could provide a set of decision alternatives for the upper- and lower-level decision makers to identify the most appropriate management strategy. The model has a good applicability and can be effectively utilized for agricultural NPS pollution management.

  14. Objective outcome evaluation using inertial sensors in subacromial impingement syndrome: a five-year follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Körver, R J P; Senden, R; Heyligers, I C; Grimm, B

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder-related dysfunction is the second most common musculoskeletal disorder and is an increasing burden on health-care systems. Commonly used clinical questionnaires suffer from subjectivity, pain dominance and a ceiling effect. Objective functional measurement has been identified as a relevant issue in clinical rehabilitation. Inertia based motion analysis (IMA) is a new generation of objective outcome assessment tool; it can produce objective movement parameters while being fast, cheap and easy to operate. In this prospective study, an inertial sensor comprising a three-dimensional accelerometer and gyroscope is attached at the humerus to measure shoulder movements during two motion tasks in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome at baseline and at five-year after treatment. One hundred healthy subjects served as healthy reference database and 15 patients were measured pre- and post-treatment. IMA was better able to detect improvement in shoulder movements compared to the clinical questionnaires (Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST); p < 0.05) and was hardly correlated with the clinical questionnaires (Pearson R = 0.39). It may therefore add an objective functional dimension to outcome assessment. The fast assessment (t < 5 min) of a simple motion test makes it suitable for routine clinical follow-up. (paper)

  15. A multicenter study on objective and subjective benefits with a transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Dan Dupont; Boldsen, Soren Kjaergaard; Jensen, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Examination of objective as well as subjective outcomes with a new transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device. The study was designed as a prospective multicenter consecutive case-series study involving tertiary referral centers at two Danish University Hospitals. A total of 23 patients were...... implanted. Three were lost to follow-up. Patients had single-sided deafness, conductive or mixed hearing loss. Intervention: Rehabilitative. Aided and unaided sound field hearing was evaluated objectively using (1) pure warble tone thresholds, (2) pure-tone average (PTA4), (3) speech discrimination score...... (SDS) in quiet, and (4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective benefit was evaluated by three validated questionnaires: (1) the IOI-HA, (2) the SSQ-12, and (3) a questionnaire evaluating both the frequency and the duration of hearing aid usage. The mean aided PTA4...

  16. SkyDOT (Sky Database for Objects in the Time Domain): A Virtual Observatory for Variability Studies at LANL

    OpenAIRE

    Wozniak, P.; Borozdin, K.; Galassi, M.; Priedhorsky, W.; Starr, D.; Vestrand, W. T.; White, R.; Wren, J.

    2002-01-01

    The mining of Virtual Observatories (VOs) is becoming a powerful new method for discovery in astronomy. Here we report on the development of SkyDOT (Sky Database for Objects in the Time domain), a new Virtual Observatory, which is dedicated to the study of sky variability. The site will confederate a number of massive variability surveys and enable exploration of the time domain in astronomy. We discuss the architecture of the database and the functionality of the user interface. An important...

  17. [Study on main pharmacodynamics and underlying mechanisms of 999 Ganmaoling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Hua; He, Rong; Peng, Bo; Ye, Zu-Guang; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Dai, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    To observe synergistic effects of 999 Ganmaoling (GML) and its Chinese/Western materia medica (CMM and WMM) on pharmacodynamic action and to study underlying mechanisms, their anti-inflammatory, antipyretic effects were compared by assaying the increased capillary permeability induced by glacial acetic acid in mice, ear swelling induced by Xylene in mice, non-specific pleurisy induced by carrageenan in rats, and yeast induced fever in rats. Crystal violet (CV) and microbial activity (XTT) assay were used to evaluate the inhibition of GML and its CMM and WMM on KPN biofilm formation, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied for observing KPN biofilm morphology changes. The results showed that compared with control group, GML could reduce exudation amount of Evans-Blue and the degree of Ear swelling significantly, and CMM and WMM have no significant effects. The concentration of TNF-α and IL-1β of rat pleural effusion in GML, CMM and WMM group decreased significantly. The concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 in GML group, TNF-α, IL-8 in WMM group and IL-8 in CMM in rats serum decreased significantly. The body temperature in rats decreased significantly in GML and WMM group after 4-8 h of administration. CMM group showed no significant difference in rat body temperature compare with control. Compared with control group, GML (55-13.75 g•L⁻¹) could inhibit KPN biofilm formation and reduce number of viable cells in the KPN biofilm. CMM (45-22.5 g•L⁻¹) and WMM (10 g•L⁻¹) could also inhibit KPN biofilm formation and reduce number of viable cells (P<0.01). Result of SEM also showed that GML (55 g•L⁻¹) and its CMM (45 g•L⁻¹) and WMM (10 g•L⁻¹) could interfere the bacterial arrangement of KPN biofilm and extracellular matrix. GML and its CMM & WMM could inhibit the formation of KPN biofilm, CMM & WMM in GML showed synergism and complementation in inhibit KPN biofilm. Results showed that GML had obvious anti-inflammatory and

  18. Vibration amplitude rule study for rotor under large time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuan; Zuo Jianli; Duan Changcheng

    2014-01-01

    The rotor is an important part of the rotating machinery; its vibration performance is one of the important factors affecting the service life. This paper presents both theoretical analyses and experimental demonstrations of the vibration rule of the rotor under large time scales. The rule can be used for the service life estimation of the rotor. (authors)

  19. Evaporation studies on Themeda triandra under field conditions: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the semi-arid regions of South Africa, the efficiency of water use by natural grazing plants is important and can be used to evaluate the production potentially of comparative grasses. Hydraulic non-floating lysimeters were designed and tested under field conditions and indicated that with accurate calibration for ...

  20. Durability Study of SOFCs Under Cycling Current Load Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2009-01-01

    In fuel cell applications, the cells must be able to withstand varying operating conditions. Anode supported solid oxide fuel cells were tested under cycling current load in order to determine the durability and possibly identify degradation mechanisms. At 750 °C and a cycling between zero and 0...

  1. Spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of polystyrene films under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of polystyrene films under air plasma and He–Ne laser treatment. S M PAWDE∗ and SANMESH S PARAB. Department of Physics, University Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga,. Mumbai 400 019, India. *Corresponding author. E-mail: smpawde@udct.org. MS received 9 August 2007; revised 24 December 2007; ...

  2. Experimental studies on radiation effects under high pressure oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Eisuke

    1974-01-01

    The effect of oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of tumor cells is well known, but its clinical application for radiotherapy is not yet established. Rabbits with V x 2 carcinoma in the maxilla were irradiated by 60 Co under high pressure oxygen (experimental group), and compared with those treated in air (control group). For the purpose of examining the clinical effects of high pressure oxygen, an experiment was made in vivo. The following items were compared respectively: a) Tumor regression effect b) Tumor clearance rate c) Survival days d) Half size reduction time e) Inhibition of DNA synthesis in the tumor tissue. Results obtained were as follows: a) 56 per cent of animals showed tumor regression in the experimental group, whereas it occured 26 per cent in the control group. b) 53 per cent of animals showed tumor disappearance in the experimental group, while it was observed only in 13 per cent in the control group. c) Only 2 of 30 rabbits irradiated in air survived over 180 days, whereas 11 of 30 rabbits survived meanwhile in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen. d) About 11 days were necessary to reduce the tumor size by half after irradiation in the group under high pressure oxygen, while it took 17 days in the group treated in normal air. e) DNA synthesis was inhibited more prominently in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen in normal air. (author)

  3. Ethnographic study of diarrhoeal diseases among under-five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional design was employed to identify the local cosmology of childhood diarrhoea and its local treatment procedures. A total of 848 under-five children were identified by a quick inventory of randomly selected kebeles. Trained enumerators administered a pre-tested questionnaire in order to identify the ...

  4. Computerized PVC absorbance reader as the device for quick detection of dose distribution on, under and inside the electron irradiated object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.; Stuglik, Z.; Panta, P.; Kaluska, I.; Bryl-Sandelewska, T.; Strzalkowski, J.; Malicki, W.

    1998-01-01

    One of the important factors in development of irradiation technology is the investigation of radiation dose distribution at the front and rear surface, sometimes also inside the irradiated object. Such information is particularly important when standard electron beam with penetration length of a few cm is used for irradiation of non-continuous objects. Use of expensive commercial dosimeter foils to technological investigations results in high cost of development of the technology. Indication of dose by commercially available PVC foils is time dependent. The investigations show anyhow that after proper thermal heating such foil gives reliable information of dose distribution within many hours after irradiation. A prototype of dose reader enabling fast read out of the dose of several PVC foils in a short time, in a form of a long band, is presented using use of the cheap standard PVC foils for measurement of dose distribution. Read out of absorbance of dosimetric foil is accomplished by two beam spectrophotometer. Such solution makes possible compensation of light source instabilities and ensures higher stability of the dose reader. The error of absorbance measurement caused by the instabilities does not exceed 0.004 A. A step motor is employed in driving mechanism for the dose reader dosimetric foil. The number of steps executed by the step motor is the measure of dosimetric foil length, that is measured with the accuracy 0.04%. Speed of dosimetric foil movement can be selected in the range 0.6cm/s-5cm/s. The dose reader is equipped with two light sources: deuterium and halogen lamps covering the light wavelengths in the range 240nm-700nm. To process the signals from the spectrophotometer and to present the measuring results a standard personal computer is employed. The measuring results are presented in the form of a diagram on the screen monitor and are stored on the computer disk

  5. Places where preschoolers are (in)active: an observational study on Latino preschoolers and their parents using objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Baranowski, Tom; Barnett, Anthony; Butte, Nancy; Hughes, Sheryl; Lee, Rebecca E; Mendoza, Jason A; Thompson, Debbe; O'Connor, Teresia Margareta

    2016-02-29

    To combat the disproportionately higher risk of childhood obesity in Latino preschool-aged children, multilevel interventions targeting physical (in) activity are needed. These require the identification of environmental and psychosocial determinants of physical (in) activity for this ethnic group. The objectives were to examine differences in objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior across objectively-determined types of locations in Latino preschool-aged children; and determine whether the differences in physical activity by location were greater in children of parents with higher neighborhood-safety perceptions and physical activity-supportive parenting practices. An observational field study was conducted in Houston (Texas, USA) from August 2011 to April 2012. A purposive sample of Latino children aged 3-5 years and one of their parents (n = 84) were recruited from Census block groups in Houston (Texas) stratified by objectively-assessed high vs. low traffic and crime safety. Seventy-three children provided valid data. Time spent outdoors/indoors tagged with geographic locations was coded into location types based on objective data collected using Global Positioning Systems units that children wore >8 hr/day for a week. Physical activity parenting practices, perceived neighborhood-safety, and demographics were reported by parents. Time spent in sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was measured based on objective data collected using accelerometers (motion sensors) that children wore >8 hr/day for a week. The odds of children engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were 43% higher when outdoors than indoors (95% confidence interval: 1.30, 1.58), and the odds of being sedentary were 14% lower when outdoors compared to indoors (95% confidence intervals: 0.81, 0.91). This difference depended on parental neighborhood-safety perceptions and parenting practices. Children were most active in parks

  6. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Ness, Andrew R.; Mattocks, Calum; Christley, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (ALSPAC, UK) birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years. In addition, approximate frequency per week of walks undertaken with dogs were also reported. Multilevel, multivariable modeling was used to investigate the relationship between dog ownership and dog walking status, and physical activity outcomes. There were a total of 4,373 complete data observations for use in 2,055 children. Reported participation in dog walking tended to increase during adolescence, as did dog ownership. The majority of who own dogs reported walking them either 2–6 times/week (range 39–46%) or never (range 27–37%). A small minority (7–8%) reported walking their dog every day. Most reported never walking any other dog either (94–87%). We found no evidence for an association between dog ownership or reported dog walking, and objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute, P = 0.3, or minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, P = 0.7) during adolescence. This study provides no evidence to support a relationship between adolescent dog ownership and physical activity, and demonstrates the importance of using objective activity measures and considering dog walking rather than just dog ownership. PMID:28560222

  7. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carri Westgarth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC (ALSPAC, UK birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years. In addition, approximate frequency per week of walks undertaken with dogs were also reported. Multilevel, multivariable modeling was used to investigate the relationship between dog ownership and dog walking status, and physical activity outcomes. There were a total of 4,373 complete data observations for use in 2,055 children. Reported participation in dog walking tended to increase during adolescence, as did dog ownership. The majority of who own dogs reported walking them either 2–6 times/week (range 39–46% or never (range 27–37%. A small minority (7–8% reported walking their dog every day. Most reported never walking any other dog either (94–87%. We found no evidence for an association between dog ownership or reported dog walking, and objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute, P = 0.3, or minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, P = 0.7 during adolescence. This study provides no evidence to support a relationship between adolescent dog ownership and physical activity, and demonstrates the importance of using objective activity measures and considering dog walking rather than just dog ownership.

  8. Intercentre variance in patient reported outcomes is lower than objective rheumatoid arthritis activity measures: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasim Ahmed; Spencer, Horace Jack; Nikiphorou, Elena; Naranjo, Antonio; Alten, Rieki; Chirieac, Rodica M; Drosos, Alexandros A; Géher, Pál; Inanc, Nevsun; Kerzberg, Eduardo; Ancuta, Codrina Mihaela; Müller, Rüediger; Ørnbjerg, Lykke; Sokka, Tuulliki

    2017-08-01

    To assess intercentre variability in the ACR core set measures, DAS28 based on three variables (DAS28v3) and Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 in a multinational study. Seven thousand and twenty-three patients were recruited (84 centres; 30 countries) using a standard protocol in the Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mixed-effect analysis of covariance models were used to model the relationship between study centre and different patient-reported and physician-reported RA activity measures. These models were built to adjust for the remaining ACR core set measure (for each ACR core set measure or each composite index), socio-demographics and medical characteristics. ANOVA and analysis of covariance models yielded similar results, and ANOVA tables were used to present variance attributable to recruiting centre. The proportion of variances attributable to recruiting centre was lower for patient reported outcomes (PROs: pain, HAQ, patient global) compared with objective measures (joint counts, ESR, physician global) in all models. In the full model, variance in PROs attributable to recruiting centre ranged from 1.53% for patient global to 3.71% for HAQ compared with objective measures that ranged from 5.92% for physician global to 9.25% for ESR; and was lower for Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (2.6%) compared with DAS28v3 (11.75%). Intercentre variability in PROs is lower than objective measures of RA activity demonstrating that PROs may be more comparable across centres, and the need for standardization of objective measures. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. A fuzzy multi-objective linear programming approach for integrated sheep farming and wildlife in land management decisions: a case study in the Patagonian rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metternicht, Graciela; Blanco, Paula; del Valle, Hector; Laterra, Pedro; Hardtke, Leonardo; Bouza, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    the decision maker towards the respective objective. Fuzzy logic is closer to intuitive thinking used by decision makers, making it a user-friendly approach for them to select alternatives. The proposed approach was applied in a study area of approximately 40,000 hectares in semiarid Patagonian rangelands where extensive, continuous sheep grazing for wool production is the main land use. Multi- and hyper-spectral data were combined with ancillary data within a GIS environment, and used to derive maps of forage production, guanacos density, soil organic carbon and soil erosion. Different scenarios, with different objectives weights were evaluated. Results showed that under scenario 1, where livestock production is predicted to have the highest values, guanaco numbers decrease substantially as well as soil carbon sequestration, and soil erosion exhibit the highest values. On the other hand, when guanaco population is prioritized, livestock production has the lowest value. A compromise alternative resulted from a scenario where variables are assigned same weight; under this condition, high livestock production is predicted, while conservation of guanaco population is sustainable, carbon sequestration is maximized and soil erosion minimized.

  10. Studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cultivation under Oscillatory Mixing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    M?ris Rikmanis; Stoyan Tzonkov; Uldis Viesturs; Andr?js B?rzi??

    2005-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated under non-aerated conditions in a 5 l laboratory bioreactor. Using the experimental data and the regression analysis method, some mathematical correlations for stirrer rotational speed oscillation frequency and the reaction of the yeast were established. It has been found that different growth parameters are influenced variously by stirrer rotational speed and stirrer rotational speed oscillation frequency. Stirring oscillations can be among the methods...

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of Multi-objective Optimization for Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halidi Lyeme

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a sensitivity analysis of a multi-objective optimization model for solid waste management (SWM for Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania is considered. Our objectives were to identify the most sensitive parameters and effect of other input data to the model output. Five scenarios were considered by varying their associated parameter values. The results showed that the decrease of total cost for the SWM system in all scenarios was observed compared to the baseline solution when the single landfill was considered. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the variable cost parameter for the processing facilities is very sensitivity in such a way that if you increase the variable cost then, there is a rapid increase of total cost for the SWM system and the vice versa is true. The relevant suggestions to the decision makers were also discussed.

  12. Control of Intraoperative Shivering Under Spinal Anaesthesia- A Prospective Randomized Comparative Study of Butorphanol with Tramadol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Palan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shivering is very uncomfortable and distressing for the patient, anaesthesiologist and the surgeon, especially when the patient is under regional anaesthesia. Aim and Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of butorphanol and tramadol in the control of shivering under spinal anaesthesia and to compare their side effects. To compare the efficacy, potency, response time, hemodynamic alterations, and adverse effects of intravenously administered tramadol and butorphanol for relief of shivering occurring during spinal anaesthesia. Material and Methods: This randomized prospective study was conducted in 100 patients who developed shivering under spinal anaesthesia during various abdominal, orthopaedic, urological and gynaecological procedures. Patients with fever, acute infections, drug allergy and compromised cardiorespiratory functions were not included in the study. On shivering, patients were randomly allocated in two groups of 50 patients each who received intravenously 1mg of butorphanol or 50 mg of tramadol in a double blinded manner. Control of shivering, time taken for cessation, recurrence, hemodynamic changes, axillary temperatures and side effects were noted and compared for both the groups. Collected data were analysed using Chi square test and Student's unpaired t test. Results: All patients were relieved of shivering after butorphanol, 58% within 1 min, 82% within 3min and 100% within 5 min. Tramadol relieved shivering in 98% of patients, 32% within 1 min, 60% within 3 min, 98% within 5 mins (p<0.05. There was higher incidence of side effects like nausea and vomiting with tramadol (16% and 12% respectively as compared to butorphanol. Conclusion: Both the drugs, tramadol and butorphanol are effective to control shivering after spinal anaesthesia. Butorphanol is better as compared to tramadol in treating shivering under spinal anaesthesia because of its quicker onset of action, higher success rate

  13. Objectivity and realms of explanation in academic journal articles concerning sex/gender: a comparison of Gender studies and the other social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Therese; Madison, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Gender studies (GS) has been challenged on epistemological grounds. Here, we compare samples of peer-reviewed academic journal publications written by GS authors and authors from closely related disciplines in the social sciences. The material consisted of 2805 statements from 36 peer-reviewed journal articles, sampled from the Swedish Gender Studies List, which covers >12,000 publications. Each statement was coded as expressing a lack of any of three aspects of objectivity: Bias, Normativity, or Political activism, or as considering any of four realms of explanation for the behaviours or phenomena under study: Biology/genetics, Individual/group differences, Environment/culture, or Societal institutions. Statements in GS publications did to a greater extent express bias and normativity, but not political activism. They did also to a greater extent consider cultural, environmental, social, and societal realms of explanation, and to a lesser extent biological and individual differences explanations.

  14. Studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cultivation under Oscillatory Mixing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M?ris Rikmanis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultivated under non-aerated conditions in a 5 l laboratory bioreactor. Using the experimental data and the regression analysis method, some mathematical correlations for stirrer rotational speed oscillation frequency and the reaction of the yeast were established. It has been found that different growth parameters are influenced variously by stirrer rotational speed and stirrer rotational speed oscillation frequency. Stirring oscillations can be among the methods for stimulation of biotechnological processes. The obtained results can be used for designing bioreactors and optimizing working conditions.

  15. Study of graphite erosion under lateral radiation from target plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofronov, V.; Arkhipov, N.; Bakhtin, V.; Kurkin, S.; Toporkov, D.; Vasenin, S.; Zhitlukhin, A. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troisk, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Wuerz, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Tokamak disruptive heat load results in a sudden evaporation of plasma irradiated material and produces a target plasma cloud which protects divertor plates from further excessive evaporation. A bulk of incoming energy flux is absorbed in the target plasma and is effectively (up to 95%) dissipated into outcoming radiation. The intense radiation of target plasma causes a high heat load at nearby components and consequently it can produce their surface erosion. The problem of environmental component protection from this secondary irradiation is under investigation now.The experimental results on interaction of target plasma radiation with solid targets and material damage are presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Objective measures of the environment and physical activity--results of the environment and physical activity study in English adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charlie; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Jones, Andy; Grundy, Chris; Wilkinson, Paul; White, Martin; Sheehan, Bart; Wareham, Nick; Thorogood, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity has been positively associated with a range of objectively measured environmental variables. We explored the relationship of walking and other categories of physical activity with objectively measured activity specific environmental variables in a U.K. population. We used a geographical information system (GIS) and gender specific multivariate models to relate 13,927 participants' reported levels of physical activity with a range of measures of the environment. Access to green space and area levels of crime were not associated with walking for recreation. Distance to facilities had either no or only a small effect on the uptake of different activities. Odds ratios of cycling for leisure dropped as local traffic density increased for both genders. Compared with the lowest quartile for traffic density the likelihood of reporting any cycling for leisure was OR 0.42, (95% CI 0.32 to 0.52, P < .001) for women and OR 0.41, (95% CI 0.33 to 0.50, P < .001) for men in the highest quartile. We were unable to reproduce results observed in previous studies. Future research should use large representative population samples from multiple areas to maximize environmental variability and if feasible use both objective and subjective measures of physical activity and the environment.

  17. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  18. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in neuropsychological performance: a general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan; Bixler, Edward O; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Liao, Duanping; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Ramos-Platon, Maria J; Sauder, Katherine A; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2010-04-01

    To examine the joint effect of insomnia and objective short sleep duration on neuropsychological performance. Representative cross-sectional study. Sleep laboratory. 1,741 men and women randomly selected from central Pennsylvania. None. Insomnia (n = 116) was defined by a complaint of insomnia with a duration > or = 1 year and the absence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), while normal sleep (n = 562) was defined as the absence of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and SDB. Both groups were split according to polysomnographic sleep duration into 2 categories: > or = 6 h of sleep ("normal sleep duration") and sleep ("short sleep duration"). We compared the groups' performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that measured processing speed, attention, visual memory, and verbal fluency, while controlling for age, race, gender, education, body mass index, and physical and mental health. No significant differences were detected between insomniacs and controls. However, the insomnia with short sleep duration group compared to the control with normal or short sleep duration groups showed poorer neuropsychological performance in variables such as processing speed, set-switching attention, and number of visual memory errors and omissions. In contrast, the insomnia with normal sleep duration group showed no significant deficits. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in set-switching attentional abilities, a key component of the "executive control of attention." These findings suggest that objective sleep duration may predict the severity of chronic insomnia, including its effect on neurocognitive function.

  19. Brain activity during motor imagery of an action with an object: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakata, Hiroki; Hayashi, Takuji; Sakamoto, Masanori; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Uchida, Yusuke; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the brain regions activated during motor imagery of an action with an object both with and without passively holding the object. Participants performed the following tasks: (1) 'Imagery with Ball' condition: subjects imagined squeezing a foam ball (7cm diameter) while holding the ball, (2) 'Imagery' condition: subjects imagined squeezing a ball without holding the ball, and (3) 'Ball' condition: subjects held the ball without motor imagery. Regions activated by the 'Imagery with Ball' condition were located in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), supplemental motor areas (SMA), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), superior parietal lobule (SPL), insula, cerebellum and basal ganglia. A direct comparison revealed that the right DLPFC and the right IPL showed a higher level of activation during the 'Imagery with Ball' than during the 'Imagery'+'Ball' conditions. Our studies suggested that the right front-parietal networks were involved in the motor imagery of an action with an object. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Do Groundwater Management Plans Work? A statistical evaluation of the effectiveness of groundwater management plans towards achieving water supply and environmental objectives under a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E.; Peterson, T. J.; Costelloe, J. F.; Western, A. W.; Carrara, E.

    2017-12-01

    Regulation of groundwater through the use of management plans is becoming increasingly prevalent as global groundwater levels decline. But plans are seldom systematically and quantitatively assessed for effectiveness. Instead, the state of an aquifer is commonly considered a proxy for plan effectiveness despite a lack of casaulity. Groundwater managers face myraid challenges such as finite resources, conflicting uses and the uncertainty inherent in any groundwater investigation. Groundwater models have been used to provide insights into what may happen to the aquifer under various levels of stress. Generally, these models simulate the impact of predefined stresses for a certain time-span. However, this is not how management occurs in reality. Managers only see a fraction of the aquifer and use this limited knowledgeto make aquifer-wide decisions. Also, management changes over time in response to aquifer state, and groundwater management plans commonly contain trigger levels in monitoring wells that prompt management intervention. In this way there is a feedback between the aquifer state and management that is rarely captured by groundwater management models. To capture this management/aquifer feedback, groundwater management was structured as a systems control problem, and using this framework, a testability assessment rubric developed. The rubric was applied to 15 Australian groundwater management plans and 47% of plans were found to be testable. To numerically quantify the effectiveness of groundwater managment, the impact of extraction restrictions was probabilistically assessed by simulating "the act of management" of a simple unconfined groundwater system using MODFLOW and Flopy. Water managers were privy only to head levels in a varying number of grid cells assigned as monitoring wells, and used that limited information to make allocation decisions at each time step. Extraction rates for each simulated management period were determined based upon the observed

  1. Subjective and Objective Measures of Hypersomnolence Demonstrate Divergent Associations with Depression among Participants in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, David T; Finn, Laurel A; Hagen, Erika W; Mignot, Emmanuel; Peppard, Paul E

    2016-04-15

    To examine associations of depression with habitual sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and objective sleep propensity in a nonclinical population. Data from adults participating in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study were utilized in analyses. There were 1,287 adults (3,324 observations) who were used in the analysis of subjective hypersomnolence measures; 1,155 adults (2,981 observations) were used in the analysis of objective sleep propensity assessed by the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Repeated-measures logistic regression estimated associations between presence of depression (defined as modified Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale ≥ 50 or use of antidepressant medications) and three primary hypersomnolence measures: subjective excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] ≥ 11), self-reported sleep duration ≥ 9 h/d, and objective sleep propensity (MSLT mean sleep latency caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol use, sleep disordered breathing, as well as insomnia and sleep duration when appropriate, estimated odd ratios (95% confidence interval) for depression were: 1.56 (1.31,1.86) for ESS ≥ 11; 2.01 (1.49, 2.72) for habitual sleep time ≥ 9 h; and 0.76 (0.63-0.92) for MSLT mean sleep latency depression, with subjective sleepiness and excessive sleep duration associated with increased odds of depression, but objective sleep propensity as measured by the MSLT associated with decreased odds of depression. Further research is indicated to explain this paradox and the impact of different hypersomnolence measures on the course of mood disorders. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 467. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  2. Is Objectively Measured Sitting Time Associated with Low Back Pain? A Cross-Sectional Investigation in the NOMAD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Christiansen, Caroline Stordal; Hallman, David M.; Korshøj, Mette; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies on the association between sitting time and low back pain (LBP) have found contrasting results. This may be due to the lack of objectively measured sitting time or because socioeconomic confounders were not considered in the analysis. Objectives To investigate the association between objectively measured sitting time (daily total, and occupational and leisure-time periods) and LBP among blue-collar workers. Methods Two-hundred-and-one blue-collar workers wore two accelerometers (GT3X+ Actigraph) for up to four consecutive working days to obtain objective measures of sitting time, estimated via Acti4 software. Workers reported their LBP intensity the past month on a scale from 0 (no pain) to 9 (worst imaginable pain) and were categorized into either low (≤5) or high (>5) LBP intensity groups. In the multivariate-adjusted binary logistic regression analysis, total sitting time, and occupational and leisure-time sitting were both modeled as continuous (hours/day) and categorical variables (i.e. low, moderate and high sitting time). Results The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association between total sitting time (per hour) and high LBP intensity (odds ratio; OR=1.43, 95%CI=1.15-1.77, P=0.01). Similar results were obtained for leisure-time sitting (OR=1.45, 95%CI=1.10-1.91, P=0.01), and a similar but non-significant trend was obtained for occupational sitting time (OR=1.34, 95%CI 0.99-1.82, P=0.06). In the analysis on categorized sitting time, high sitting time was positively associated with high LBP for total (OR=3.31, 95%CI=1.18-9.28, P=0.03), leisure (OR=5.31, 95%CI=1.57-17.90, P=0.01), and occupational (OR=3.26, 95%CI=0.89-11.98, P=0.08) periods, referencing those with low sitting time. Conclusion Sitting time is positively associated with LBP intensity among blue-collar workers. Future studies using a prospective design with objective measures of sitting time are recommended. PMID:25806808

  3. The movement of constitution of the history of Pedagogy Course and its object of study: articulation with teaching conceptions in teachers’ education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryan Cruz Debiasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the teaching conceptions that guide the Teaching Course curricular organization in a Higher Education Institution in the south of Santa Catarina. The discussion is developed in articulation to the object of study of this subject and its centrality to the scientific concepts of the area. The corpus comprises two projects being developed in the course under analysis and the analytical process was carried out based on a unit that has two components: the object of Pedagogy and the targets defined for the teachers‟ education process that, in turn, constituted the course conception as an element of analysis. The results revealed that in both projects, the object of Pedagogy is implicit and that there is a possibility of critical education. However, one of them makes more visible a proposal based on empirical and pragmatic knowledge that values individual experiences, while the other project addresses a type of education considered in the multiplicity of the relations in the current society from a necessary theoretical consistency. Such observation led to the conclusion that it is possible to organize teaching in the Pedagogy Course based on the theoretical background proposed by this paper.

  4. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  5. Subjective and objective parameters in the evaluation of radiofrequency ablation of the inferior turbinate do not correlate: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Gerstenberger, Claus; Rant, Bettina; Nemetz, Ulrike; Brezjak-Kahlert, Christiana; Wolf, Axel; Freudenschuss, Kurt; Wolf, Gerald

    2016-08-01

    Inferior turbinate hypertrophy is a common cause of nasal obstruction. We conducted a prospective study to correlate subjective and objective parameters in assessing the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Our initial study population was made up of 10 patients who presented with nasal obstruction; 1 patient was lost to follow-up, leaving us with 7 women and 2 men, aged 26 to 65 years (mean: 37.9 ± 12.8), and 16 turbinates (7 bilateral, 1 right, and 1 left). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, Nasal Obstruction and Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) questionnaire scores, rhinomanometry results, and CT- and MRI-based volumetry were obtained before RFA and 6 months afterward. For the subjective parameters, the mean pre- and postoperative VAS scores for the 16 turbinates were 6.6 ± 1.6 and 2.8 ± 2.0 (p < 0.001), respectively, and the mean pre- and postoperative NOSE scores in the 9 patients were 15.3 ± 3.1 and 5.8 ± 5.4 (p = 0.003). For the objective parameters, the mean pre- and postoperative rhinomanometry values at 150 Pa were 241.0 ± 141.3 and 265.4 ± 157.3 ml/sec (p = 0.403), and the mean pre- and postoperative volumetry values were 5.3 ± 2.5 and 5.0 ± 2.1 cm(3) (p = 0.551). Note that only the differences in the subjective parameters reached statistical significance. RFA of the inferior turbinates as a treatment for nasal obstruction is safe and easy. However, our study found a discrepancy between the subjective and objective outcomes parameters, as the former showed highly significant improvement and the latter showed only a slight improvement that did not reach statistical significance.

  6. A study on gap heat transfer of LWR fuel rods under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishiro, Toshio

    1984-03-01

    Gap heat transfer between fuel pellet and cladding have a large influence on the LWR fuel behaviors under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of gap heat transfer on RIA fuel behaviors based on the results of the gap-gas parameter tests in NSRR and on their analysis with NSR-77 code. Through this study, transient variations of gap heat transfer, the effects of the gap heat transfer on fuel thermal behaviors and on fuel failure, effects of pellet-cladding sticking by eutectic formation, and the effects of cladding collapse under high external pressure have been clearified. The studies have also been performed on the applicability and its limit of modified Ross and Stoute equation which is extensively utilized to evaluate the gap heat transfer coefficient in the present fuel behavior codes. The method to evaluate the gap conductance to the conditions beyond the applicability limit of the Ross and Stoute equation has also been proposed. (author)

  7. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Participants Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Outcome measures Tackle-related injury severity (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ2 analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. Results The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater ‘time-loss’ injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of ‘overall’ (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’ combined) and ‘time-loss’ tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of ‘overall’ and ‘time-loss’ injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). Conclusions There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies

  8. Distributed and hierarchical object-based image analysis for damage assessment: a case study of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Object-based image analysis (OBIA is an emerging technique for analyzing remote sensing image based on object properties including spectral, geometry, contextual and texture information. To reduce the computational cost of this comprehensive OBIA and make it more feasible in disaster responses, we developed a unique approach – distributed and hierarchical OBIA approach for damage assessment. This study demonstrated a completed classification of YingXiu town, heavily devastated by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake using Quickbrid imagery. Two distinctive areas, mountainous areas and urban, were analyzed separately. This approach does not require substantial processing power and large amounts of available memory because image of a large disaster-affected area was split in smaller pieces. Two or more computers could be used in parallel to process and analyze these sub-images based on different requirements. The approach can be applicable in other cases whereas the established set of rules can be adopted in similar study areas. More experiments will be carried out in future studies to prove its feasibility.

  9. A multicenter study on objective and subjective benefits with a transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device: first Nordic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Dan Dupont; Boldsen, Soren Kjaergaard; Jensen, Anne Marie; Hansen, Soren; Thomassen, Per Cayé

    2017-08-01

    Examination of objective as well as subjective outcomes with a new transcutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid device. The study was designed as a prospective multicenter consecutive case-series study involving tertiary referral centers at two Danish University Hospitals. A total of 23 patients were implanted. Three were lost to follow-up. Patients had single-sided deafness, conductive or mixed hearing loss. Rehabilitative. Aided and unaided sound field hearing was evaluated objectively using (1) pure warble tone thresholds, (2) pure-tone average (PTA4), (3) speech discrimination score (SDS) in quiet, and (4) speech reception threshold 50% at 70 dB SPL noise level (SRT50%). Subjective benefit was evaluated by three validated questionnaires: (1) the IOI-HA, (2) the SSQ-12, and (3) a questionnaire evaluating both the frequency and the duration of hearing aid usage. The mean aided PTA4 was lowered by 14.7 dB. SDS was increased by 37.5% at 50 dB SPL, SRT50% in noise improved 1.4 dB. Aided thresholds improved insignificantly at frequencies above 2 kHz. 52.9% of the patients used their device every day, and 76.5% used the device at least 5 days a week. Mean IOI-HA score was 3.4, corresponding to a good benefit. In SSQ-12, "quality of hearing" scored especially high. Patients with a conductive and/or mixed hearing loss benefitted the most. This device demonstrates a significant subjective hearing benefit 8 month post surgery. In patients with conductive and/or mixed hearing losses, patient satisfaction and frequency of use were high. Objective gain measures showed less promising results especially in patients with single-sided deafness (SSD) compared to other bone conduction devices.

  10. Spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of polystyrene films under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microorganisms such as bacteria and yeast were used. Untreated PS films show very fast rate of growth of bacteria within few hours. The study involves developments of polymer surfaces with bacterial growth and further studies after giving antibacterial treatment such as plasma treatment. Major emphasis has been given to ...

  11. Study motivation under social temptation; effects of trait procrastination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenburg, HC; Groenewoud, J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the view that procrastination can be explained as a result of the joint effect of a general discounting mechanism and a personality trait. To demonstrate the discounting mechanism, the process of study motivation prior to an examination was mentally simulated by

  12. Nonlinear optical studies in semiconductor-doped glasses under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eg is the band gap of the semiconductor and hω is the excitation photon energy. Very limited studies were conducted in resonance excitation region in SDGs with high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses. Z-scan is now recognized as a standard technique [7] to study nonlinear optical properties and is widely used because ...

  13. LibHalfSpace: A C++ object-oriented library to study deformation and stress in elastic half-spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Claudio; Bonafede, Maurizio; Belardinelli, Maria Elina

    2016-11-01

    The study of deformation processes in elastic half-spaces is widely employed for many purposes (e.g. didactic, scientific investigation of real processes, inversion of geodetic data, etc.). We present a coherent programming interface containing a set of tools designed to make easier and faster the study of processes in an elastic half-space. LibHalfSpace is presented in the form of an object-oriented library. A set of well known and frequently used source models (Mogi source, penny shaped horizontal crack, inflating spheroid, Okada rectangular dislocation, etc.) are implemented to describe the potential usage and the versatility of the library. The common interface given to library tools enables us to switch easily among the effects produced by different deformation sources that can be monitored at the free surface. Furthermore, the library also offers an interface which simplifies the creation of new source models exploiting the features of object-oriented programming (OOP). These source models can be built as distributions of rectangular boundary elements. In order to better explain how new models can be deployed some examples are included in the library.

  14. Objective assessment of drowsiness and reaction time during intermittent Ramadan fasting in young men: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S; Nashwan, Samar; Hammad, Omeima; Sharif, Munir M; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R

    2013-08-12

    Ramadan fasting and its attendant lifestyle changes induce changes in the circadian rhythm and in associated physiological and metabolic functions. Previous studies that have assessed psychomotor performance during Ramadan fasting have reported conflicting results. Therefore, we designed this study to objectively assess the effects of intermittent fasting during and outside Ramadan (to control for lifestyle changes) on drowsiness, blink total duration and mean reaction time (MRT) test while controlling for potential confounders. Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 25.3 ± 2.9 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.4 ± 3.2 kg/m2 reported to the sleep laboratory on four occasions for polysomnography (PSG) and drowsiness and psychomotor assessments as follows: 1) adaptation; 2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing the Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting) (BLF); 3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline) (BL); and 4) during the second week of Ramadan while fasting (Ramadan). OPTALERT™ was used to objectively assess daytime drowsiness using the Johns Drowsiness Scale (JDS), and blink total duration and a visual reaction time test were used to assess MRT. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly lower at BLF (17.7 ± 8.1%) and at Ramadan (18.6 ± 10.7%) compared with BL (25.6 ± 4.8%) (p intermittent fasting has no impact on drowsiness and vigilance as measured by the JDS, total blink duration and MRT.

  15. A STUDY OF THE IMAGE QUALITY OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY ADAPTIVE STATISTICAL ITERATIVE RECONSTRUCTED BRAIN IMAGES USING SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, J; Morgan, J; Benson, E; Båth, M; Lewis, M; Reilly, A

    2016-06-01

    The recent reintroduction of iterative reconstruction in computed tomography has facilitated the realisation of major dose saving. The aim of this article was to investigate the possibility of achieving further savings at a site with well-established Adaptive Statistical iterative Reconstruction (ASiR™) (GE Healthcare) brain protocols. An adult patient study was conducted with observers making visual grading assessments using image quality criteria, which were compared with the frequency domain metrics, noise power spectrum and modulation transfer function. Subjective image quality equivalency was found in the 40-70% ASiR™ range, leading to the proposal of ranges for the objective metrics defining acceptable image quality. Based on the findings of both the patient-based and objective studies of the ASiR™/tube-current combinations tested, 60%/305 mA was found to fall within all, but one, of these ranges. Therefore, it is recommended that an ASiR™ level of 60%, with a noise index of 12.20, is a viable alternative to the currently used protocol featuring a 40% ASiR™ level and a noise index of 11.20, potentially representing a 16% dose saving. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Predictive value of object relations for therapeutic alliance and outcome in psychotherapy for depression: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Henricus L; Hendriksen, Mariëlle; Schoevers, Robert A; Peen, Jaap; Abraham, Robert A; Dekker, Jack

    2008-09-01

    The concept of object relations has been shown to be relevant for the process and outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapies. However, little is known about its relevance for the psychotherapeutic treatment of depression. In this study, we explored the predictive value of object relational functioning (ORF) for the therapeutic alliance and outcome of short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy in patients with mild to moderately severe depression. The ORF of 81 patients was rated by using the Developmental Profile. The overall maturity of ORF measured at baseline was higher in patients who showed a better treatment response. In multiple regression analysis, the adaptive level of individuation appeared to be specifically predictive of outcome. Patients with a recurrent depression showed less mature levels of ORF, lower adaptive levels and a higher score on the symbiotic level. No association was found between ORF and therapeutic alliance during treatment. In contrast to the single measure of alliance early in therapy, the growth of the alliance was related to outcome. The study indicated the relevance of ORF for depression and established that it is distinctive from the actual therapeutic alliance.

  17. Grasping trapezoidal objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinholdermann, Urs; Brenner, Eli; Franz, Volker H; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2007-07-01

    When grasping rectangular or circular objects with a precision grip the digits close in on the object in opposite directions. In doing so the digits move perpendicular to the local surface orientation as they approach opposite sides of the object. This perpendicular approach is advantageous for accurately placing the digits. Trapezoidal objects have non-parallel surfaces so that moving the digits in opposite directions would make the digits approach the contact surfaces at an angle that is not 90 degrees . In this study we examined whether this happens, or whether subjects tend to approach trapezoidal objects' surfaces perpendicularly. We used objects of different sizes and with different surface slants. Subjects tended to approach the object's surfaces orthogonally, suggesting that they aim for an optimal precision of digit placement rather than simply closing their hand as it reaches the object.

  18. Visibility-enhanced reconstruction of three-dimensional objects under a heavily scattering medium through combined use of intermediate view reconstruction, multipixel extraction, and histogram equalization methods in the conventional integral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Piao, Yongri; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an effective approach for reconstructing visibility-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) objects under the heavily scattering medium of dense fog in the conventional integral imaging system through the combined use of the intermediate view reconstruction (IVR), multipixel extraction (MPE), and histogram equalization (HE) methods. In the proposed system, the limited number of elemental images (EIs) picked up from the 3D objects under the dense fog is increased by as many as required by using the IVR technique. The increased number of EIs is transformed into the subimages (SIs) in which the resolution of the transformed SIs has been also improved as much as possible with the MPE method. Subsequently, by using the HE algorithm, the histogram of the resolution-enhanced SIs is uniformly redistributed over the entire range of discrete pixel levels of the image in a way that the subimage contrast can be much enhanced. Then, these equalized SIs are converted back into the newly modified EIs, and consequently a visibility-enhanced 3D object image can be reconstructed. Successful experimental results with the test object confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method.

  19. Consanguinity among the risk factors for underweight in children under five: a study from rural Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, S.F.; Hashmi, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem, especially in developing countries. Of the 11 million children under 5 who die each year in the developing countries mainly from preventable causes, the death of about 54% are either directly or indirectly attributable to malnutrition. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and associated factors for underweight in rural Sindh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jhangara Town, located in District Dadu, Sindh. Eight hundred children under 5 years of age were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to elicit required information and anthropometric measurements were made. Results: The overall prevalence for underweight was 54.3% in the study population, which was higher than the prevalence reported by PDHS 1990 - 91. In multivariate analysis, various factors for underweight were consanguinity (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0 - 2.07), low birth weight (parents perspective) (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.08 - 2.16) and lack of breast-feeding (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.19 - 6.17). Conclusion: Effective strategies to discourage consanguineous marriages between first cousins are required. Promoting breast feeding is another factor that should be incorporated while designing control strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malnutrition in children (<5 years). (author)

  20. Experimental study of the permeability of concrete under variable thermal and hydric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the variable thermal and hydric effect, with fissuration effect on the hydraulic behaviour of two concretes. Many experimental tests (saturation and permeability measurements, uniaxial and triaxial compressions tests) were carried out in order to investigate the temperature and saturation influence on the behaviour hydraulic on sound and micro-cracked concrete. Moreover, an experimental device for permeability measurement on macro-cracked concrete was realized, it allows to study the behaviour of macro-cracked of concrete confined and subjected to dry gas flow or very moist air at different temperatures. Multiaxial mechanical tests are coupled to the permeability measurements of sound concrete and micro-cracked by freezing and thawing, which allow to measuring the permeability under deviatoric load-unload with the effect of pre-cracking under stress. We also effectuated a test of relative permeability of concrete as a function of water saturation, subjected to drying and re-saturation, conditioning by the different relative humidity imposed. (author)

  1. Study on dynamic multi-objective approach considering coal and water conflict in large scale coal group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qing; Lu, Li

    2018-01-01

    In the process of coal mining, destruction and pollution of groundwater in has reached an imminent time, and groundwater is not only related to the ecological environment, but also affect the health of human life. Similarly, coal and water conflict is still one of the world's problems in large scale coal mining regions. Based on this, this paper presents a dynamic multi-objective optimization model to deal with the conflict of the coal and water in the coal group with multiple subordinate collieries and arrive at a comprehensive arrangement to achieve environmentally friendly coal mining strategy. Through calculation, this paper draws the output of each subordinate coal mine. And on this basis, we continue to adjust the environmental protection parameters to compare the coal production at different collieries at different stages under different attitude of the government. At last, the paper conclude that, in either case, it is the first arrangement to give priority to the production of low-drainage, high-yield coal mines.

  2. Structural studies of lamellar surfactant systems under shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Recent experimental studies on concentrated surfactant systems are reviewed. Particular attention is focused on the transformation from planar lamellar sheets to multilamellar vesicles. It is discussed whether both of these states are thermodynamic stable, or if the MLV is an artifact of shear...... induced factors. Recent studies includes the dependence on shear, and dependence on salt and cosurfactants, and thereby related lamellar defects. The review include moreover the demonstration that polymeric amphiphiles dramatically enhance the quality of classical surfactants. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science...

  3. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khorrami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.

  4. How well do second-year students learn physical diagnosis? Observational study of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Claus; Volkan, Kevin; Fishman, Mary B; Silvestri, Ronald C; Simon, Steven R; Fletcher, Suzanne W

    2002-01-01

    Background Little is known about using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in physical diagnosis courses. The purpose of this study was to describe student performance on an OSCE in a physical diagnosis course. Methods Cross-sectional study at Harvard Medical School, 1997–1999, for 489 second-year students. Results Average total OSCE score was 57% (range 39–75%). Among clinical skills, students scored highest on patient interaction (72%), followed by examination technique (65%), abnormality identification (62%), history-taking (60%), patient presentation (60%), physical examination knowledge (47%), and differential diagnosis (40%) (p OSCE stations, scores ranged from 70% for arthritis to 29% for calf pain (p < .0001). Teaching sites accounted for larger adjusted differences in station scores, up to 28%, than in skill scores (9%) (p < .0001). Conclusions Students scored higher on interpersonal and technical skills than on interpretive or integrative skills. Station scores identified specific content that needs improved teaching. PMID:11888484

  5. How well do second-year students learn physical diagnosis? Observational study of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Steven R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE in physical diagnosis courses. The purpose of this study was to describe student performance on an OSCE in a physical diagnosis course. Methods Cross-sectional study at Harvard Medical School, 1997–1999, for 489 second-year students. Results Average total OSCE score was 57% (range 39–75%. Among clinical skills, students scored highest on patient interaction (72%, followed by examination technique (65%, abnormality identification (62%, history-taking (60%, patient presentation (60%, physical examination knowledge (47%, and differential diagnosis (40% (p Conclusions Students scored higher on interpersonal and technical skills than on interpretive or integrative skills. Station scores identified specific content that needs improved teaching.

  6. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain

  7. Restructuring companies under crisis. A real case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezi Aviram SHAYB

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning.Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner.             When it comes, a crisis brings intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure.             The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible.             Analyzing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises that threatened their ability to survive in certain moments on their way to success.             With the right planning and by setting a proper organizational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company.             The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value.              In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organization needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.

  8. Trace methane oxidation studied in several Euryarchaeota under diverse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Moran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We used 13C-labeled methane to document the extent of trace methane oxidation by Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Archaeoglobus lithotrophicus, Archaeoglobus profundus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina acetivorans. The results indicate trace methane oxidation during growth varied among different species and among methanogen cultures grown on different substrates. The extent of trace methane oxidation by Mb. thermoautotrophicum (0.05 ± 0.04%, ± 2 standard deviations of the methane produced during growth was less than that by M. barkeri (0.15 ± 0.04%, grown under similar conditions with H2 and CO2. Methanosarcina acetivorans oxidized more methane during growth on trimethylamine (0.36 ± 0.05% than during growth on methanol (0.07 ± 0.03%. This may indicate that, in M. acetivorans, either a methyltransferase related to growth on trimethylamine plays a role in methane oxidation, or that methanol is an intermediate of methane oxidation. Addition of possible electron acceptors (O2, NO3–, SO22–, SO32– or H2 to the headspace did not substantially enhance or diminish methane oxidation in M. acetivorans cultures. Separate growth experiments with FAD and NAD+ showed that inclusion of these electron carriers also did not enhance methane oxidation. Our results suggest trace methane oxidized during methanogenesis cannot be coupled to the reduction of these electron acceptors in pure cultures, and that the mechanism by which methane is oxidized in methanogens is independent of H2 concentration. In contrast to the methanogens, species of the sulfate-reducing genus Archaeoglobus did not significantly oxidize methane during growth (oxidizing 0.003 ± 0.01% of the methane provided to A. fulgidus, 0.002 ± 0.009% to A. lithotrophicus and 0.003 ± 0.02% to A. profundus. Lack of observable methane oxidation in the three Archaeoglobus species examined may indicate that methyl-coenzyme M reductase, which is not present in

  9. FACULTY AND STUDENT PERCEPTIONS ON THE INTRODUCTION OF OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION IN AN UNDERGRADUATE PHYSIOTHERAPY COURSE: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mullai Dhinakaran; Jugesh Chattwal; Dheeraj K.V

    2015-01-01

    Background: The clinical education methods in undergraduate physiotherapy training are well integrated but the methodology of the clinical skill assessment still remains subjective. Due to lack of objective clinical assessment, competency in clinical skills becomes compromised. Aim and Objectives: To introduce Objective Structured Clinical Examination to Physiotherapy faculty, students and determine the perception of Physiotherapy faculty and students about OSCE method of clinical assess...

  10. The Role of Authentic Objects in Museums of the History of Science and Technology: Findings from a Visitor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, Constanze; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    One characteristic of science centers and science museums is that they communicate scientific findings by presenting real scientific objects. In particular, science museums focus on the historical context of scientific discoveries by displaying authentic objects, defined as original objects that once served a science-related, real-world purpose…

  11. Physics of Polymers under Nanoscopic Confinement: a Single Molecule Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshavarz, M.

    2016-01-01

    Physicist Masoumeh Keshavarz studied the thermal motion of a fluorescently labelled, individual “reporter” polymer molecule, surrounded and entangled by a gel of similar but unlabelled polymers. Owing to their extreme length and stiffness, it is possible to follow the shape and the motion of the

  12. Numerical Studies of Homogenization under a Fast Cellular Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Iyer, Gautam

    2012-09-13

    We consider a two dimensional particle diffusing in the presence of a fast cellular flow confined to a finite domain. If the flow amplitude A is held fixed and the number of cells L 2 →∞, then the problem homogenizes; this has been well studied. Also well studied is the limit when L is fixed and A→∞. In this case the solution averages along stream lines. The double limit as both the flow amplitude A→∞and the number of cells L 2 →∞was recently studied [G. Iyer et al., preprint, arXiv:1108.0074]; one observes a sharp transition between the homogenization and averaging regimes occurring at A = L 2. This paper numerically studies a few theoretically unresolved aspects of this problem when both A and L are large that were left open in [G. Iyer et al., preprint, arXiv:1108.0074] using the numerical method devised in [G. A. Pavliotis, A. M. Stewart, and K. C. Zygalakis, J. Comput. Phys., 228 (2009), pp. 1030-1055]. Our treatment of the numerical method uses recent developments in the theory of modified equations for numerical integrators of stochastic differential equations [K. C. Zygalakis, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 33 (2001), pp. 102-130]. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  13. Experimental study on concrete under dynamic tensile loading | Yan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the test results it was found that with increase in strain rate the strength, initial elastic modulus and strain at peak stress of concrete all increase definitely but the fundamental shape of stress-strain response of specimen to higher strain rate is similar to that observed in static test. From the results of the study, two ...

  14. Finite Element Studies on Hollow Steel Columns under Multi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the model in parametric studies and for the formulation of biaxial interaction curves for seismic design. Thus, the significance of FE program as a modern tool for research and design of complex loading conditions and structures is demonstrated. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.1(1) 2004: 33-49 ...

  15. Different Underlying Neurocognitive Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, D.; Finzi, A.; Benassi, M.; Bolzani, R.; Facoetti, A.; Giovagnoli, S.; Ruffino, M.; Vicari, S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of several specific neurocognitive functions in developmental dyslexia (DD). The performances of 60 dyslexic children and 65 age-matched normally reading children were compared on tests of phonological abilities, visual processing, selective and sustained attention, implicit learning, and executive…

  16. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  17. A Study on a Multi-Objective Optimization Method Based on Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of systems including the marine engineering problems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, the performance analysis using commercial code is generally time-consuming. To solve this problem, many engineers perform the optimization process using the response surface method (RSM to predict the system performance, but RSM presents some prediction errors for nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design framework. The framework is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the response surface is generated using the artificial neural network (ANN which is considered as NRSM. The optimization process is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II. Through case study of a derrick structure, we have confirmed the proposed framework applicability. In the future, we will try to apply the constructed framework to multi-objective optimization problems.

  18. Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N; Goh, Joshua O; Park, Denise C

    2013-04-01

    In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded "living/nonliving" classification task with 3 repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidenced repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle, and inferior temporal cortex, and inferior frontal and insula regions. The neural priming effect in young adults was extensive and continued through both the second and third stimulus repetitions, and neural priming in older adults was markedly attenuated and reached floor at the second repetition. In young adults, greater neural priming in multiple brain regions correlated with greater behavioral facilitation and in older adults, only activation reduction in the left inferior frontal correlated with faster behavioral responses. These findings provide evidence for altered neural priming in older adults despite preserved behavioral priming, and suggest the possibility that age-invariant behavioral priming is observed as a result of more sustained neural processing of stimuli in older adults which might be a form of compensatory neural activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of Objective Mathematical Analysis During Fractional Flow Reserve Measurement. Results from the OMA-FFR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciola, Martina I; Morris, Paul D; Gosling, Rebecca; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney; Gunn, Julian P

    2018-02-13

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR), the reference-standard for guiding coronary revascularisation, is most commonly acquired during intravenous adenosine infusion. Results may be sensitive to system- and operator-dependent variability in how pressure data are analysed and interpreted. We developed a computational protocol to process the recorded pressure signals in a consistent manner to objectively quantify FFR. We studied the impact upon lesion (re)classification and compared this with the operator-selected FFR obtained during cardiac catheterisation. The algorithm used a moving average and Fourier transformation to identify the Pd/Pa ratio at its nadir (FFRmin) and during the stable hyperaemic period (FFRstable) in <2s with 100% repeatability, in 163 coronary stenoses (93 patients). The mean operator-selected FFR (FFRCL) was higher than FFRmin and lower than FFRstable (0.779 vs 0.762 vs 0.806, P=<0.01). Compared with FFRmin, FFRstable resulted in 16.5% of all lesions being re-classified, all from significant to non-significant (p<0.01). FFRCL classified lesion significance differently to both FFRstable and FFRmin (11.7% and 6.1% lesions reclassified respectively, p<0.01). Subtle differences in how pressure data are analysed and interpreted by the operator during adenosine infusion result in significant differences in the classification of physiological lesion significance. An algorithmic analysis may be helpful in standardising FFR analysis providing an objective and repeatable result.

  20. Pulsed laser kinetic studies of liquids under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyring, E.M.

    1992-09-22

    A laser flash photolysis kinetic study of 2,2{prime}-bipyridine bidentate chelating ligands with one claw in the first coordination sphere of a molybdenum carbonyl complex has been completed at pressures up to 150 MPa. The reaction mechanism for thermal ring closure is found from activation volumes to change from associative interchange to dissociative interchange as substituents on the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine ligands become bulkier. In a similar study of more rigid, substituted phenanthroline bidentate ligands it was found that substituent bulkiness had little effect on the thermal ring closure mechanism. Stability constants for lithium ion complexes with crown ethers in a room temperature molten salt, fluorescence quantum yields for cresyl violet and several other dyes in solution, and the oxidation of alcohols by OsO{sub 4} have also been investigated.