Sample records for underlying real-world software

  1. Parallel symbolic execution for automated real-world software testing


    Bucur, Stefan; Ureche, Vlad; Zamfir, Cristian; Candea, George


    This paper introduces Cloud9, a platform for automated testing of real-world software. Our main contribution is the scalable parallelization of symbolic execution on clusters of commodity hardware, to help cope with path explosion. Cloud9 provides a systematic interface for writing "symbolic tests" that concisely specify entire families of inputs and behaviors to be tested, thus improving testing productivity. Cloud9 can handle not only single-threaded programs but also multi-threaded and dis...

  2. RealWorld evaluation: working under budget, time, data, and political constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bamberger, Michael; Rugh, Jim; Mabry, Linda


    This book addresses the challenges of conducting program evaluations in real-world contexts where evaluators and their clients face budget and time constraints and where critical data may be missing...

  3. Unix Philosophy and the Real World: Control Software for Humanoid Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Thomas Dantam


    Full Text Available Robot software combines the challenges of general purpose and real-time software, requiring complex logic and bounded resource use. Physical safety, particularly for dynamic systems such as humanoid robots, depends on correct software. General purpose computation has converged on unix-like operating systems -- standardized as POSIX, the Portable Operating System Interface -- for devices from cellular phones to supercomputers. The modular, multi-process design typical of POSIX applications is effective for building complex and reliable software. Absent from POSIX, however, is an interproccess communication mechanism that prioritizes newer data as typically desired for control of physical systems. We address this need in the Ach communication library which provides suitable semantics and performance for real-time robot control. Although initially designed for humanoid robots, Ach has broader applicability to complex mechatronic devices -- humanoid and otherwise -- that require real-time coupling of sensors, control, planning, and actuation. The initial user space implementation of Ach was limited in the ability to receive data from multiple sources. We remove this limitation by implementing Ach as a Linux kernel module, enabling Ach's high-performance and latest-message-favored semantics within conventional POSIX communication pipelines. We discuss how these POSIX interfaces and design principles apply to robot software, and we present a case study using the Ach kernel module for communication on the Baxter robot.

  4. Optimizing the energy efficiency of capacitive deionization reactors working under real-world conditions. (United States)

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Lado, Julio; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A


    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a rapidly emerging desalination technology that promises to deliver clean water while storing energy in the electrical double layer (EDL) near a charged surface in a capacitive format. Whereas most research in this subject area has been devoted to using CDI for removing salts, little attention has been paid to the energy storage aspect of the technology. However, it is energy storage that would allow this technology to compete with other desalination processes if this energy could be stored and reused efficiently. This requires that the operational aspects of CDI be optimized with respect to energy used both during the removal of ions as well as during the regeneration cycle. This translates into the fact that currents applied during deionization (charging the EDL) will be different from those used in regeneration (discharge). This paper provides a mechanistic analysis of CDI in terms of energy consumption and energy efficiencies during the charging and discharging of the system under several scenarios. In a previous study, we proposed an operational buffer mode in which an effective separation of deionization and regeneration steps would allow one to better define the energy balance of this CDI process. This paper reports on using this concept, for optimizing energy efficiency, as well as to improve upon the electro-adsorption of ions and system lifetime. Results obtained indicate that real-world operational modes of running CDI systems promote the development of new and unexpected behavior not previously found, mainly associated with the inhomogeneous distribution of ions across the structure of the electrodes.

  5. Improving multiple sclerosis management and collecting safety information in the real world: the MSDS3D software approach. (United States)

    Haase, Rocco; Wunderlich, Maria; Dillenseger, Anja; Kern, Raimar; Akgün, Katja; Ziemssen, Tjalf


    For safety evaluation, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are not fully able to identify rare adverse events. The richest source of safety data lies in the post-marketing phase. Real-world evidence (RWE) and observational studies are becoming increasingly popular because they reflect usefulness of drugs in real life and have the ability to discover uncommon or rare adverse drug reactions. Areas covered: Adding the documentation of psychological symptoms and other medical disciplines, the necessity for a complex documentation becomes apparent. The collection of high-quality data sets in clinical practice requires the use of special documentation software as the quality of data in RWE studies can be an issue in contrast to the data obtained from RCTs. The MSDS3D software combines documentation of patient data with patient management of patients with multiple sclerosis. Following a continuous development over several treatment-specific modules, we improved and expanded the realization of safety management in MSDS3D with regard to the characteristics of different treatments and populations. Expert opinion: eHealth-enhanced post-authorisation safety study may complete the fundamental quest of RWE for individually improved treatment decisions and balanced therapeutic risk assessment. MSDS3D is carefully designed to contribute to every single objective in this process.

  6. Managing social-ecological systems under uncertainty: implementation in the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Nuno


    networks were centered on very few individuals, suggesting their importance in bridging across conservation arenas but also potentially affecting the resilience of governance structures. Our study gives an improved understanding of the underlying causes of discrepancies between conservation plans and outcomes for this case study, as well as providing a novel framework for the analysis of implementation uncertainties more broadly. A next step would be to use this framework as a basis for collaboratively developed models that integrate research findings with specific management questions. By bringing tools and findings from social psychology, natural resource management, and bioeconomics together into a unified operational framework, researchers may be better able to understand the barriers to successful resource management and engage with stakeholders to overcome them.

  7. Glyphosate and AMPA, "pseudo-persistent" pollutants under real-world agricultural management practices in the Mesopotamic Pampas agroecosystem, Argentina. (United States)

    Primost, Jezabel E; Marino, Damián J G; Aparicio, Virginia C; Costa, José Luis; Carriquiriborde, Pedro


    In the Pampas, public concern has strongly risen because of the intensive use of glyphosate for weed control and fallow associated with biotech crops. The present study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence and concentration of the herbicide and its main metabolite (AMPA) in soil and other environmental compartments of the mentioned agroecosystem, including groundwater, in relation to real-world agricultural management practices in the region. Occurrence was almost ubiquitous in solid matrices (83-100%) with maximum concentrations among the higher reported in the world (soil: 8105 and 38939; sediment: 3294 and 7219; suspended particulate matter (SPM): 584 and 475 μg/kg of glyphosate and AMPA). Lower detection frequency was observed in surface water (27-55%) with maximum concentrations in whole water of 1.80 and 1.90 μg/L of glyphosate and AMPA, indicating that SPM analysis would be more sensitive for detection in the aquatic ecosystem. No detectable concentrations of glyphosate or AMPA were observed in groundwater. Glyphosate soil concentrations were better correlated with the total cumulative dose and total number of applications than the last spraying event dose, and an increment of 1 mg glyphosate/kg soil every 5 spraying events was estimated. Findings allow to infer that, under current practices, application rates are higher than dissipation rates. Hence, glyphosate and AMPA should be considered "pseudo-persistent" pollutants and a revisions of management procedures, monitoring programs, and ecological risk for soil and sediments should be also recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alice in the Real World (United States)

    Parker, Tom


    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  9. Real-world outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte


    analyses during one specific meeting. An important element of the latter is to assess whether the discussion of our results gives rise to respondents’ reflection, resistance, acceptance, rejection, or indifference, and whether this leads to changes in respondents’ views on culture and organizational......When working with discourse-based research in professional settings, one question invariably arises: How do we, as researchers, ensure that our findings are taken up by the professionals with whom analyses are carried out, leading to change in their social practices? The answer is that quite often...... of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners. The discussion will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross-border company and the possible implications of this for organizational collaboration...

  10. Impact of body weight on antidiabetic treatment and predictors of weight control under real-world conditions: a 2-year follow-up of DiaRegis cohort. (United States)

    Hartmann, B; Bramlage, P; Schneider, S; Tschöpe, D; Gitt, A K


    Treatment strategies for obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aim to increase physical activity, reduce body weight, and improve glucose control using weight-beneficial antidiabetic drugs. The objective of this study was to determine whether these strategies are implemented, and to identify factors predictive of glucose control and body weight management in a large, real-world patient population. The prospective DiaRegis cohort study included 3807 patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the treating physician decided to intensify and optimize treatment because of insufficient glucose control. Antidiabetic treatment of overweight and obese patients was compared with that of normal-weight patients over a 2-years follow-up period, and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of body weight loss. Among the 3807 participants, 92.5 % were overweight or obese. Normal-weight participants were more often treated with sulfonylureas or insulin, and overweight and obese patients with metformin or glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues. Predictors of weight loss were body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and any reported physical activity. DiaRegis study shows that under real-world conditions, antidiabetic drug therapy is performed dependent on body weight. This strategy results in adequate glucose control and moderate weight reductions in overweight and obese patients. Weight loss is affected by treatment with weight-beneficial drugs, but also by any reported physical activity. However, only a small subgroup of patients perform physical activity. Initiation and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle remains a significant challenge for physicians, and patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Characteristics of service requests and service processes of fire and rescue service dispatch centers: analysis of real world data and the underlying probability distributions. (United States)

    Krueger, Ute; Schimmelpfeng, Katja


    A sufficient staffing level in fire and rescue dispatch centers is crucial for saving lives. Therefore, it is important to estimate the expected workload properly. For this purpose, we analyzed whether a dispatch center can be considered as a call center. Current call center publications very often model call arrivals as a non-homogeneous Poisson process. This bases on the underlying assumption of the caller's independent decision to call or not to call. In case of an emergency, however, there are often calls from more than one person reporting the same incident and thus, these calls are not independent. Therefore, this paper focuses on the dependency of calls in a fire and rescue dispatch center. We analyzed and evaluated several distributions in this setting. Results are illustrated using real-world data collected from a typical German dispatch center in Cottbus ("Leitstelle Lausitz"). We identified the Pólya distribution as being superior to the Poisson distribution in describing the call arrival rate and the Weibull distribution to be more suitable than the exponential distribution for interarrival times and service times. However, the commonly used distributions offer acceptable approximations. This is important for estimating a sufficient staffing level in practice using, e.g., the Erlang-C model.

  12. Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles under real-world driving test cycles. (United States)

    Trinh, Ha T; Imanishi, Katsuma; Morikawa, Tazuko; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Takenaka, Norimichi


    Reactive nitrogen species emission from the exhausts of gasoline and diesel vehicles, including nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and nitrous acid (HONO), contributes as a significant source of photochemical oxidant precursors in the ambient air. Multiple laboratory and on-road exhaust measurements have been performed to estimate the NO x emission factors from various vehicles and their contribution to atmospheric pollution. Meanwhile, HONO emission from vehicle exhaust has been under-measured despite the fact that HONO can contribute up to 60% of the total hydroxyl budget during daytime and its formation pathway is not fully understood. A profound traffic-induced HONO to NO x ratio of 0.8%, established by Kurtenbach et al. since 2001, has been widely applied in various simulation studies and possibly linked to under-estimation of HONO mixing ratios and OH radical budget in the morning. The HONO/NO x ratios from direct traffic emission have become debatable when it lacks measurements for direct HONO emission from vehicles upon the fast-changing emission reduction technology. Several recent studies have reported updated values for this ratio. This study has reported the measurement of HONO and NO x emission as well as the estimation of exhaust-induced HONO/NO x ratios from gasoline and diesel vehicles using different chassis dynamometer tests under various real-world driving cycles. For the tested gasoline vehicle, which was equipped with three-way catalyst after-treatment device, HONO/NO x ratios ranged from 0 to 0.95 % with very low average HONO concentrations. For the tested diesel vehicle equipped with diesel particulate active reduction device, HONO/NO x ratios varied from 0.16 to 1.00 %. The HONO/NO x ratios in diesel exhaust were inversely proportional to the average speeds of the tested vehicles. Photolysis of HONO is a dominant source of morning OH radicals. Conventional traffic-induced HONO/NO x ratio of 0.8% has possibly linked to underestimation of the total HONO

  13. Climate Twins - a tool to explore future climate impacts by assessing real world conditions: Exploration principles, underlying data, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges (United States)

    Loibl, Wolfgang; Peters-Anders, Jan; Züger, Johann


    To achieve public awareness and thorough understanding about expected climate changes and their future implications, ways have to be found to communicate model outputs to the public in a scientifically sound and easily understandable way. The newly developed Climate Twins tool tries to fulfil these requirements via an intuitively usable web application, which compares spatial patterns of current climate with future climate patterns, derived from regional climate model results. To get a picture of the implications of future climate in an area of interest, users may click on a certain location within an interactive map with underlying future climate information. A second map depicts the matching Climate Twin areas according to current climate conditions. In this way scientific output can be communicated to the public which allows for experiencing climate change through comparison with well-known real world conditions. To identify climatic coincidence seems to be a simple exercise, but the accuracy and applicability of the similarity identification depends very much on the selection of climate indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges. Too many indicators representing various climate characteristics and too narrow uncertainty ranges will judge little or no area as regions with similar climate, while too little indicators and too wide uncertainty ranges will address too large regions as those with similar climate which may not be correct. Similarity cannot be just explored by comparing mean values or by calculating correlation coefficients. As climate change triggers an alteration of various indicators, like maxima, minima, variation magnitude, frequency of extreme events etc., the identification of appropriate similarity conditions is a crucial question to be solved. For Climate Twins identification, it is necessary to find a right balance of indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges, unless the results will be too vague conducting a

  14. Uncertainty in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Uncertainty in the Real World - Fuzzy Sets. Satish Kumar. General Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 37-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  15. Uncertainty in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Uncertainty in the Real World - Fuzzy Sets. Satish Kumar. General Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 37-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. Integrating digital educational content created and stored within disparate software environments: an extensible markup language (XML) solution in real-world use. (United States)

    Frank, M S; Schultz, T; Dreyer, K


    To provide a standardized and scaleable mechanism for exchanging digital radiologic educational content between software systems that use disparate authoring, storage, and presentation technologies. Our institution uses two distinct software systems for creating educational content for radiology. Each system is used to create in-house educational content as well as commercial educational products. One system is an authoring and viewing application that facilitates the input and storage of hierarchical knowledge and associated imagery, and is capable of supporting a variety of entity relationships. This system is primarily used for the production and subsequent viewing of educational CD-ROMS. Another software system is primarily used for radiologic education on the world wide web. This system facilitates input and storage of interactive knowledge and associated imagery, delivering this content over the internet in a Socratic manner simulating in-person interaction with an expert. A subset of knowledge entities common to both systems was derived. An additional subset of knowledge entities that could be bidirectionally mapped via algorithmic transforms was also derived. An extensible markup language (XML) object model and associated lexicon were then created to represent these knowledge entities and their interactive behaviors. Forward-looking attention was exercised in the creation of the object model in order to facilitate straightforward future integration of other sources of educational content. XML generators and interpreters were written for both systems. Deriving the XML object model and lexicon was the most critical and time-consuming aspect of the project. The coding of the XML generators and interpreters required only a few hours for each environment. Subsequently, the transfer of hundreds of educational cases and thematic presentations between the systems can now be accomplished in a matter of minutes. The use of algorithmic transforms results in nearly 100

  17. Analysis of the chemical composition of ultrafine particles from two domestic solid biomass fired room heaters under simulated real-world use (United States)

    Ozgen, Senem; Becagli, Silvia; Bernardoni, Vera; Caserini, Stefano; Caruso, Donatella; Corbella, Lorenza; Dell'Acqua, Manuela; Fermo, Paola; Gonzalez, Raquel; Lonati, Giovanni; Signorini, Stefano; Tardivo, Ruggero; Tosi, Elisa; Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta; Marinovich, Marina


    Two common types of wood (beech and fir) were burned in commercial pellet (11.1 kW) and wood (8.2 kW) stoves following a combustion cycle simulating the behavior of a real-world user. Ultrafine particulate matter (UFP, dp metals, main water soluble ions, anhydrosugars, total carbon, and PAH content. The measurement of the number concentration and size distribution was also performed by a fourth multistage impactor. UFP mass emission factors averaged to 424 mg/kgfuel for all the tested stove and wood type (fir, beech) combinations except for beech log burning in the wood stove (838 mg/kgfuel). Compositional differences were observed for pellets and wood UFP samples, where high TC levels characterize the wood log combustion and potassium salts are dominant in every pellet sample. Crucial aspects determining the UFP composition in the wood stove experiments are critical situations in terms of available oxygen (a lack or an excess of combustion air) and high temperatures. Whereas for the automatically controlled pellets stove local situations (e.g., hindered air-fuel mixing due to heaps of pellets on the burner pot) determine the emission levels and composition. Wood samples contain more potentially carcinogenic PAHs with respect to pellets samples. Some diagnostic ratios related to PAH isomers and anhydrosugars compiled from experimental UFP data in the present study and compared to literature values proposed for the emission source discrimination for atmospheric aerosol, extend the evaluation usually limited to higher particle size fractions also to UFP.

  18. Shopping in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.


    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  19. Learning from Dealing with Real World Problems (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan


    The purpose of this article is to provide an example of using real world issues as tools for science teaching and learning. Using real world issues provides students with experiences in learning in problem-based environments and encourages them to apply their content knowledge to solving current and local problems.

  20. Designing a capacitated multi-configuration logistics network under disturbances and parameter uncertainty: a real-world case of a drug supply chain (United States)

    Shishebori, Davood; Babadi, Abolghasem Yousefi


    This study investigates the reliable multi-configuration capacitated logistics network design problem (RMCLNDP) under system disturbances, which relates to locating facilities, establishing transportation links, and also allocating their limited capacities to the customers conducive to provide their demand on the minimum expected total cost (including locating costs, link constructing costs, and also expected costs in normal and disturbance conditions). In addition, two types of risks are considered; (I) uncertain environment, (II) system disturbances. A two-level mathematical model is proposed for formulating of the mentioned problem. Also, because of the uncertain parameters of the model, an efficacious possibilistic robust optimization approach is utilized. To evaluate the model, a drug supply chain design (SCN) is studied. Finally, an extensive sensitivity analysis was done on the critical parameters. The obtained results show that the efficiency of the proposed approach is suitable and is worthwhile for analyzing the real practical problems.

  1. Studying real-world perceptual expertise. (United States)

    Shen, Jianhong; Mack, Michael L; Palmeri, Thomas J


    Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching) as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature.

  2. Studying Real-World Perceptual Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong eShen


    Full Text Available Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature.

  3. Real world data mining applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abou-Nasr, Mahmoud; Stahlbock, Robert; Weiss, Gary M


    Data mining applications range from commercial to social domains, with novel applications appearing swiftly; for example, within the context of social networks. The expanding application sphere and social reach of advanced data mining raise pertinent issues of privacy and security. Present-day data mining is a progressive multidisciplinary endeavor. This inter- and multidisciplinary approach is well reflected within the field of information systems. The information systems research addresses software and hardware requirements for supporting computationally and data-intensive applications. Furthermore, it encompasses analyzing system and data aspects, and all manual or automated activities. In that respect, research at the interface of information systems and data mining has significant potential to produce actionable knowledge vital for corporate decision-making. The aim of the proposed volume is to provide a balanced treatment of the latest advances and developments in data mining; in particular, exploring s...

  4. Altered Underlying Renal Tubular Function in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Receiving Nucleos(t)ide Analogs in a Real-World Setting: The MENTE Study. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Nóvoa, Sonia; García-Samaniego, Javier; Prieto, Martín; Calleja, José L; Pascasio, Juan M; Delgado Blanco, Manuel; Crespo, Javier; Buti, María; Bonet Vidal, Maria L; Arenas Ruiz Tapiador, Juan; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado; Solá, Ricard; Fraga, Enrique; González Diéguez, Luisa; Núñez, Oscar; Praga, Manuel; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Morillas, Rosa; Diago, Moisés; Castro, Ángeles


    Cases of renal tubular dysfunction have been reported in patients with hepatitis B and in patients with human immunodeficiency virus who are undergoing tenofovir treatment. However, little is known about the impact on tubular function in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) under long-term use of entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). We evaluated markers of renal tubular function and bone turnover in patients with CHB treated with ETV or TDF. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was performed on markers of renal tubular function and bone turnover in hepatitis B virus-monoinfected patients on long-term treatment with Entecavir or Tenofovir (the MENTE study). The analyzed parameters were: retinol-binding protein/creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin/creatinine, excretion of phosphates, uric acid excretion, glomerular filtrate, protein/creatinine, albumin/creatinine, serum creatinine, phosphate, CTX, P1NP, vitamin D, and parathormone. A total of 280 patients (ETV: 89, TDF: 69, control: 122) were included in this study. The TDF group was associated with altered levels of retinol-binding protein (RBP)/creatinine (TDF 25% vs. 7% ETV and control; P<0.001). Protein/creatinine, uric acid excretion, P1NP1, and parathormone were higher in the TDF group. The proportion of patients with serum phosphate <2.5 mg/dL was higher in both the ETV and the TDF groups compared with the control. The multivariate analysis showed that the use of TDF was independently associated with a higher risk of altered excretion of RBP/creatinine (4.4; interquartile range: 1.4 to 14; P=0.013). We found an independent association between TDF use and altered RBP excretion. This finding indicates subclinical tubular damage. Because tubular dysfunction can precede the decline of renal function, close monitoring of RBP levels in patients with CHB on nucleos(t)ide analog treatment must be performed for early detection of TDF-related renal toxicity. In this study, these

  5. Real world NOx emissions of Euro V vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Vonk, W.A.; Verbeek, R.P.; Dekker, H. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)


    In the past decade, vehicle emissions have been reduced substantially as a result of the European emission legislation. Air quality problems are still present, however, in particular in urban areas where local authorities have difficulty meeting European limits regarding air quality (mainly NO2). Therefore, the emission performance of vehicles under urban conditions is of increasing importance for air quality improvement in cities. In this context, TNO was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) to investigate the real-world NOx emissions of Euro V trucks and buses during the past two years. The investigation has shown that, in general, there is a large variety in real-world emissions between different vehicles, in particular under urban conditions. Some vehicles demonstrate the possibility of achieving low emissions under urban conditions, but the results also clearly show that this is not the case for most of the trucks. This outcome is based on two lines of research. Firstly, the real world emissions of eleven trucks and one bus were measured on-road using a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS), under conditions typical of everyday use. Secondly, AdBlue consumption data for a number of Dutch vehicle fleets were analysed. AdBlue is the reagent that is used for NOx emission reduction in SCR systems (catalytic after treatment systems), and the amount of reagent used in daily practice is related to the real-world NOx emissions. Both lines of research support the general outcome.

  6. Sifting data in the real world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, M.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)]. E-mail:


    In the real world, experimental data are rarely, if ever, distributed as a normal (Gaussian) distribution. As an example, a large set of data-such as the cross sections for particle scattering as a function of energy contained in the archives of the Particle Data Group [K. Hagiwara et al., Phys. Rev. D 66 (2002) 010001]-is a compendium of all published data, and hence, unscreened. Inspection of similar data sets quickly shows that, for many reasons, these data sets have many outliers-points well beyond what is expected from a normal distribution-thus ruling out the use of conventional {chi}{sup 2} techniques. This note suggests an adaptive algorithm that allows a phenomenologist to apply to the data sample a sieve whose mesh is coarse enough to let the background fall through, but fine enough to retain the preponderance of the signal, thus sifting the data. A prescription is given for finding a robust estimate of the best-fit model parameters in the presence of a noisy background, together with a robust estimate of the model parameter errors, as well as a determination of the goodness-of-fit of the data to the theoretical hypothesis. Extensive computer simulations are carried out to test the algorithm for both its accuracy and stability under varying background conditions.

  7. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing (United States)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume


    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  8. Symbolic Victimization and Real World Fear. (United States)

    Morgan, Michael


    Examines the relationship between victimization of characters in television drama and susceptibility to the viewers' cultivation of a sense of personal risk in the real world. Found that viewers whose fictional counterparts are more likely to be shown as victims show stronger associations between viewing and perceived vulnerability. (PD)

  9. Managing Uncertainty in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Managing Uncertainty in the Real World. 2. Fuzzy Systems. Satish Kumar. In Part 1 of this article we understood the idea of a fuzzy set. We also reviewed simple operations such as fuzzy set i..~tersection, union, and complementation, and related these to geometry. In Part 2, we extend the idea offuzzy sets to explain how we ...

  10. Managing Uncertainty in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Managing Uncertainty in the Real World - Fuzzy Systems. Satish Kumar. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Satish Kumar1. Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute Dayalbagh, Agra 282005, India.

  11. Cellphones and Real-World Communication (United States)

    Bugeja, Michael


    In this article, the author shares his views on cellphones and real-world communication. He claims that the cellphone has changed society more than the home computer, which it has assimilated. Cellphones sound during worship, wakes, births, graduations, hearings, trials, and accreditation meetings--interrupting life-changing spiritual or secular…

  12. Kinetics in the real world: linking molecules, processes, and systems. (United States)

    Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina; Troe, Jürgen; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Olzmann, Matthias; Friedrichs, Gernot; Hungenberg, Klaus-Dieter


    Unravelling elementary steps, reaction pathways, and kinetic mechanisms is key to understanding the behaviour of many real-world chemical systems that span from the troposphere or even interstellar media to engines and process reactors. Recent work in chemical kinetics provides detailed information on the reactive changes occurring in chemical systems, often on the atomic or molecular scale. The optimisation of practical processes, for instance in combustion, catalysis, battery technology, polymerisation, and nanoparticle production, can profit from a sound knowledge of the underlying fundamental chemical kinetics. Reaction mechanisms can combine information gained from theory and experiments to enable the predictive simulation and optimisation of the crucial process variables and influences on the system's behaviour that may be exploited for both monitoring and control. Chemical kinetics, as one of the pillars of Physical Chemistry, thus contributes importantly to understanding and describing natural environments and technical processes and is becoming increasingly relevant for interactions in and with the real world.

  13. Real-World Evidence, Public Participation, and the FDA. (United States)

    Schwartz, Jason L


    For observers of pharmaceutical regulation and the Food and Drug Administration, these are uncertain times. Events in late 2016 raised concerns that the FDA's evidentiary standards were being weakened, compromising the agency's ability to adequately perform its regulatory and public health responsibilities. Two developments most directly contributed to these fears-the approval of eteplirsen, a treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, against the recommendations of both FDA staff and an advisory committee and the December 2016 signing of the 21st Century Cures Act, which encouraged greater use by the FDA of "real-world" evidence not obtained through randomized controlled trials. The arrival of the Trump administration-with its deregulatory, industry-friendly approach-has only amplified concerns over the future of the FDA. It is too early to know whether the recent developments are truly harbingers of an FDA less likely to prevent unsafe or ineffective products from reaching the market. But elements in the two events-the role of patient narratives in deliberations regarding eteplirsen and the enthusiasm for real-world evidence in the 21st Century Cures Act-raise critical issues for the future of evidence in the FDA's work. The rigorous, inclusive approach under way to consider issues related to real-world evidence provides a model for a similarly needed inquiry regarding public participation in FDA decision-making. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  14. Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Under the International Research Chairs Initiative, top specialists are sharing their advanced skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems in the areas of environment, health, and technology while mentoring a new generation of scholars and practitioners.

  15. Numerical simulation of real-world flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayase, Toshiyuki, E-mail: [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)


    Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc. (topical review)

  16. Providing Geospatial Education and Real World Applications of Data across the Climate Initiative Themes (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Bugbee, K.


    Various organizations such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) have developed a structure for general thematic areas in Earth science research, however the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) is addressing the challenging goal of organizing such datasets around core themes specifically related to climate change impacts. These thematic areas, which currently include coastal flooding, food resilience, ecosystem vulnerability, water, transportation, energy infrastructure, and human health, form the core of a new college course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville developed around real-world applications in the Earth sciences. The goal of this course is to educate students on the data available and scope of GIS applications in Earth science across the CDI climate themes. Real world applications and datasets serve as a pedagogical tool that provide a useful medium for instruction in scientific geospatial analysis and GIS software. With a wide range of potential research areas that fall under the rubric of "Earth science", thematic foci can help to structure a student's understanding of the potential uses of GIS across sub-disciplines, while communicating core data processing concepts. The learning modules and use-case scenarios for this course demonstrate the potential applications of CDI data to undergraduate and graduate Earth science students.

  17. Mobile Urban Drama: interactive storytelling in real world environments (United States)

    Hansen, Frank Allan; Johanne Kortbek, Karen; Grønbæk, Kaj


    This article presents methods and tools for producing location-based Mobile Urban Dramas. In a Mobile Urban Drama, the user becomes the main character in a play that is presented as a multimedia production (through audio, images, animations and videos) on the user's mobile phone and in the physical surroundings. The media files are linked via tags (2D barcodes/RFID) or GPS to the real world set as the stage of the drama. The dramaturgical concept is described, and a narrative architecture is introduced. It supports a rich variety of plot graphs implemented in a software framework that supports producing Mobile Urban Dramas. Dramas produced with the framework may span from pure art pieces to structured learning experiences, for example, biology learning framed in a thriller. Experiences from six dramas produced with the framework by a Danish theatre group are discussed. The results are general findings on the concept, the narrative structure, scenographic effects and tools for technical production.

  18. 5th International Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wen; Ferrari, Federico; Zimmerling, Marco; Mottola, Luca


    This edited book presents the results of the 5th Workshop on Real-world Wireless Sensor Networks (REALWSN). The purpose of this workshop  was to bring together researchers and practitioners working in the area of sensor networks, with focus on real-world experiments or deployments of wireless sensor networks. Included were, nonetheless, emerging forms of sensing such as those that leverage smart phones, Internet of Things, RFIDs, and robots. Indeed, when working with real-world experiments or deployments, many new or unforeseen issues may arise: the network environment may be composed of a variety of different technologies, leading to very heterogeneous network structures; software development for large scale networks poses new types of problems; the performance of prototype networks may differ significantly from the deployed system; whereas actual sensor network deployments may need a complex combination of autonomous and manual configuration. Furthermore, results obtained through simulation are typically n...

  19. Adapting full motion video data for the real world (United States)

    Macior, Robert E.; Bright, Gerald A.; Walter, Sharon M.


    Future Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) tasking and exploitation will be based on a "system of systems" that carries out tasking, collection, integration, interpretation, and exploitation. The vision is of a closedloop tasking-exploitation-tasking ISR information system that learns from its continuous data accumulation over multiple observations, accruing and assessing evidence to determine if further tasking is needed to resolve residual target ambiguities. That closed-loop collection of systems would provide a better ability to direct ISR sensors and fuse multisource data. Such a system, with the enormous amounts of data involved and the requirement for timeliness, will require the use of automated systems that work together efficiently under real-world conditions. This paper reviews issues that are relevant to ISR tasking, coordination, and data formatting. Procedural solutions that were developed and implemented during experimental operations to correlate and fuse full motion video with ground moving target information forming real-time, actionable, coalition intelligence, are presented.

  20. Bringing real-world problems into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.


    Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Physics in the Real World (United States)

    Jardine, Jim


    Listeners to science programmes on Canadian radio were invited to submit questions which were then answered, on air, by the author of this wee book. Its purpose, he says, is `to indicate that there are many questions in the real world to which there are no perfect answers' but most of the answers given `contain the essence, if not the whole truth, of the solution to the problem.' The questions, many of which are old chestnuts, range from the mythical - Why might Rudolph be red-nosed? Are high-flying larks harbingers of a hot summer? - through the mundane - Why does the glass handle of a cup of hot coffee stay cool? Is it easier to pull or push a wheelbarrow? - to the mystifying - How is it possible to walk barefoot on red-hot coals? - Is it true that when you take a shower large electric fields can be set up or chloroform released? As the answers were originally given on radio programmes and intended for `educated laypeople' they contain few references to mathematics and no equations! Nevertheless many of the problems are discussed in detail and most readers will find at least some of them fascinating and informative. Many of the answers will be of interest and value to science teachers. In this short book the questions and answers fill only 60 pages but there is a lengthy contents section at the beginning and, at the end, a glossary of many of the terms used throughout. At £8.99 for the UK edition it is pricy - so `feel the quality' of these sections! Outdoors contains questions such as: How is artificial snow created? Can fish really give an electric shock? Why do skates glide along ice? How can blowing on your hands sometimes cool them and sometimes warm them? Theoretical. Here questions on exponential growth, global warming, magnetic poles and energy consumption are answered. Home & Kitchen. Can clothes be whiter than white? How can you tell if an egg is boiled or not? How can a ketchup bottle explode? Why do leaves in a cup of tea collect in the centre

  2. A Smart Home Development Tool combining Simulation, Emulation and Real-World IoT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    and their embedded smart objects, because laboratory environments are costly and time consuming to create. This paper proposes a simulator with built-in emulator capabilities. It integrates smart home simulation and emulation capabilities into one device. In this way, smart home implementation models exist either...... as pure software or as a mixture, where the software part gradually moves into the physical object processing unit. Thus, early in the development phase simulation runs in software and later as a thin client communicating with the real world objects running their own embedded software. The proposed...

  3. Cancer Models and Real-world Data: Better Together. (United States)

    Kim, Jane J; Tosteson, Anna Na; Zauber, Ann G; Sprague, Brian L; Stout, Natasha K; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Armstrong, Katrina; Pruitt, Sandi L; Rutter, Carolyn M


    Decision-analytic models are increasingly used to inform health policy decisions. These models synthesize available data on disease burden and intervention effectiveness to project estimates of the long-term consequences of care, which are often absent when clinical or policy decisions must be made. While models have been influential in informing US cancer screening guidelines under ideal conditions, incorporating detailed data on real-world screening practice has been limited given the complexity of screening processes and behaviors throughout diverse health delivery systems in the United States. We describe the synergies that exist between decision-analytic models and health care utilization data that are increasingly accessible through research networks that assemble data from the growing number of electronic medical record systems. In particular, we present opportunities to enrich cancer screening models by grounding analyses in real-world data with the goals of projecting the harms and benefits of current screening practices, evaluating the value of existing and new technologies, and identifying the weakest links in the cancer screening process where efforts for improvement may be most productively focused. We highlight the example of the National Cancer Institute-funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR), a collaboration to harmonize and analyze screening process and outcomes data on breast, colorectal, and cervical cancers across seven research centers. The pairing of models with such data can create more robust models to not only better inform policy but also inform health care systems about best approaches to improve the provision of cancer screening in the United States. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Real-world Bluetooth MANET Java Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenstrup, Arne John; Nielsen, Michael; Skytte, Frederik

    We present BEDnet, a Java based middleware for creating and maintaining a Bluetooth based mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). MANETs are key to nomadic computing: Mobile units can set up spontaneous local networks when needed, removing the need for fixed network infrastructure, either as wireless access....... Based on the Java JSR-82 specification, BEDnet is portable to a wide selection of mobile phones, and is publicly available as open source software. Experiments show that e.g. media streaming over Bluetooth is feasible, and that BEDnet is able to set up a scatternet within a couple of minutes...

  5. Problems in the Real World of Mathematics Education. (United States)

    Copes, Larry


    Discusses the meaning of the phrase "mathematics is everywhere." Introduces the book "Reconstructing School Mathematics: Problems with Problems and the Real World", written by Stephen Brown, which emphasizes mathematical modeling and the connection between mathematics and students' lives. (KHR)

  6. Series: Pragmatic trials and real world evidence: Paper 6. Outcome measures in the real world. (United States)

    Welsing, Paco M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Collier, Sue; Eckert, Laurent; van Smeden, Maarten; Ciaglia, Antonio; Nachbaur, Gaelle; Trelle, Sven; Taylor, Aliki J; Egger, Matthias; Goetz, Iris


    Results from pragmatic trials should reflect the comparative treatment effects encountered in patients in real-life clinical practice to guide treatment decisions. Therefore, pragmatic trials should focus on outcomes that are relevant to patients, clinical practice, and treatment choices. This sixth article in the series (see Box) discusses different types of outcomes and their suitability for pragmatic trials, design choices for measuring these outcomes, and their implications and challenges. Measuring outcomes in pragmatic trials should not interfere with real-world clinical practice to ensure generalizability of trial results, and routinely collected outcomes should be prioritized. Typical outcomes include mortality, morbidity, functional status, well-being, and resource use. Surrogate endpoints are typically avoided as primary outcome. It is important to measure outcomes over a relevant time horizon and obtain valid and precise results. As pragmatic trials are often open label, a less subjective outcome can reduce bias. Methods that decrease bias or enhance precision of the results, such as standardization and blinding of outcome assessment, should be considered when a high risk of bias or high variability is expected. The selection of outcomes in pragmatic trials should be relevant for decision making and feasible in terms of executing the trial in the context of interest. Therefore, this should be discussed with all stakeholders as early as feasible to ensure the relevance of study results for decision making in clinical practice and the ability to perform the study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypothesis Testing in the Real World (United States)

    Miller, Jeff


    Critics of null hypothesis significance testing suggest that (a) its basic logic is invalid and (b) it addresses a question that is of no interest. In contrast to (a), I argue that the underlying logic of hypothesis testing is actually extremely straightforward and compelling. To substantiate that, I present examples showing that hypothesis…

  8. Health care enters the real world. (United States)

    Schroeder, N J


    The U.S. health care system is undergoing restructuring as a result of a complex interplay of social, political, and economic forces. Where once the medical profession had a monopoly position in the health care system, its position has been challenged by the Federal Trade Commission under the Sherman Antitrust Act. More and more, the health care field is characterized by entrepreneurialism, a concept that is at odds with the traditional tenets of the medical profession. The restructuring of health care in the U.S. has the potential to allow the entrepreneur to function to the benefit of patients, despite the fact that this is a change resisted by those providing health care services.

  9. Real-world scenarios help improve selection of radiology employees. (United States)

    Kline, C L; Groff, K; Phillips, M


    Choosing the right candidate through the interview process is critical, particularly in light of rapidly changing skills in various technologies. The authors have changed the interviewing process at Jeanes Hospital in Philadelphia in order to examine and evaluate multiple objectives simultaneously. To do this, they created an instrument that elicits impromptu responses to real-world radiology situations. Such responses help assess a potential candidate's training, emotional strength, technical experience and growth potential. They also determine how much additional training the potential candidate will need to be effective in the department. Using the instrument helps sharpen the assessment of candidate traits such as face-to-face communication skills and response time. The impact on hiring is positive. Quality staff, improved patient care and improved patient safety are only some of the results. Many of the questions included on the instrument come from past problem situations and help the interviewers to determine whether a candidate understands underlying issues and the seriousness of situations. The goal is to ensure that patient care and productivity are not hampered by unusual situations. When a concrete difference is detected between a candidate's response and the department's needs, it is possible to assess the cost-effectiveness of training for the discrepancy. For entry-level candidates, the question is whether the person is trainable. Consistently using this interview document forces hiring managers to identify specific abilities, traits and experience desirable in the workplace.

  10. Topological Phases in the Real World (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Ting

    The experimental discovery and subsequent theoretical understanding of the integer quantum Hall effect, the first known topological phase, has started a revolutionary breakthrough in understanding states of matter since its discovery four decades ago. Topological phases are predicted to have many generic signatures resulting from their underlying topological nature, such as quantized Hall transport, robust boundary states, and possible fractional excitations. The intriguing nature of these signatures and their potential applications in quantum computation has intensely fueled the efforts of the physics community to materialize topological phases. Among various topological phases initially predicted on theoretical grounds, chiral topological superconductors and time-reversal symmetric topological insulators (TI) in three dimension (3D) are two promising candidates for experimental realization and application. The family of materials, Bi2X3 (X = Se, Te), has been predicted and shown experimentally to be time-reversal symmetric 3D TIs through the observation of robust Dirac surface states with Rashba-type spin-winding. Due to their robust surface states with spin-windings, these 3D TIs are expected to be promising materials for producing large spin-transfer torques which are advantageous for spintronics application. As for topological superconductors, despite the exotic excitations that have been extensively proposed as qubits for topological quantum computing, materials hosting topological superconductivity are rare to date and the leading candidate in two dimensions (2D), Sr 2RuO4, has a low transition temperature (Tc ). The goal of my phd study is to push forward the current status of realization of topological phases by materializing higher Tc topological superconductors and investigating the stability of Dirac surface states in 3D TIs. In the first part of this thesis, I will discuss our double-pronged objective for topological superconductors: to propose how to

  11. Analyzing Real-World Light Duty Vehicle Efficiency Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Chaney, Larry; Holden, Jacob; Jeffers, Matthew; Wang, Lijuan


    Off-cycle technologies represent an important pathway to achieve real-world fuel savings, through which OEMs can potentially receive credit toward CAFE compliance. DOE national labs such as NREL are well positioned to provide objective input on these technologies using large, national data sets in conjunction with OEM- and technology-specific testing. This project demonstrates an approach that combines vehicle testing (dynamometer and on-road) with powertrain modeling and simulation over large, representative datasets to quantify real-world fuel economy. The approach can be applied to specific off-cycle technologies (engine encapsulation, start/stop, connected vehicle, etc.) in A/B comparisons to support calculation of realistic real-world impacts. Future work will focus on testing-based A/B technology comparisons that demonstrate the significance of this approach.

  12. Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weise, Thomas; Michalewicz, Zbigniew


    Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are population-based, stochastic search algorithms that mimic natural evolution. Due to their ability to find excellent solutions for conventionally hard and dynamic problems within acceptable time, EAs have attracted interest from many researchers and practitioners in recent years. This book “Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications” aims to promote the practitioner’s view on EAs by providing a comprehensive discussion of how EAs can be adapted to the requirements of various applications in the real-world domains. It comprises 14 chapters, including an introductory chapter re-visiting the fundamental question of what an EA is and other chapters addressing a range of real-world problems such as production process planning, inventory system and supply chain network optimisation, task-based jobs assignment, planning for CNC-based work piece construction, mechanical/ship design tasks that involve runtime-intense simulations, data mining for the predictio...

  13. StoryTrek: Experiencing Stories in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin James; Greenspan, Brian


    In this paper we introduce StoryTrek, a locative hypernarrative system developed to generate stories based on a reader’s location and specific movements in the real world. This creates, for readers, an interplay between navigation, narrative, and agency, as well as between the fictional and real...... world experience. In early tests we observed the emergence of a number of recurrent themes in participants’ experiences which are characteristic of the StoryTrek system, but which also help us to understand locative media storytelling affordances more generally. In this paper we present the system...

  14. LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Fairweather, Ian


    LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c

  15. Partnering for Real World Learning, Sustainability, Tourism Education (United States)

    Jennings, Gayle; Cater, Carl I.; Hales, Rob; Kensbock, Sandra; Hornby, Glen


    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study how real world learning was used to engender and enhance sustainability principles and practices with 11 micro-, small- and medium-tourism business enterprises and 101 university tourism students enrolled across three university courses. Design/methodology/approach: Action research processes were…

  16. Virtual context - relating media objects to their real world subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rutledge (Lloyd); A.R. van Ballegooij; A. P. W. Eliëns (Anton)


    textabstractVirtual Reality (VR) is sometimes used to give the user an immersive, three-dimensional sense of a real-world setting. VR is also sometimes used for information visualization, taking advantage of the perceptual characteristics of VR to convey information. This paper presents the Dam

  17. Contextblogger: learning by blogging in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Tim; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob


    De Jong, T., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Contextblogger: learning by blogging in the real world. Proceedings of the ePortfolio Conference. October, 18-20, 2007, Maastricht, The Netherlands. [See also

  18. Applying an Authentic, Dynamic Learning Environment in Real World Business (United States)

    Lainema, Timo; Nurmi, Sami


    This paper describes a dynamic computer-based business learning environment and the results from applying it in a real-world business organization. We argue for using learning tools, which not only provide realistic and complex models of reality, but are also are authentic, facilitate continuous problem solving and meaningful learning, and embed…

  19. Real-world fuel consumption of passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Eijk, A.R.A.


    Since 2008 Travelcard Nederland BV and TNO collaborate to determine the real-world fuel consumption of modern vehicles. The difference between the official type-approval value and the actual fuel consumption has been reported over the years (Ligterink, 2010 and Ligterink, 2013 and Ligterink, 2014).

  20. Making Connections to the "Real World": A Model Building Lesson (United States)

    Horibe, Shusaku; Underwood, Bret


    Classroom activities that include the process of model building, in which students build simplified physical representations of a system, have the potential to help students make meaningful connections between physics and the real world. We describe a lesson designed with this intent for an introductory college classroom that engages students in…

  1. Real-World Science: Achieving Better Returns in Student Learning. (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy P.; Griffin, Richard A.; Denk, James P.; Jones, William


    Baylor College of Medicine, a Houston-area school district, and the Harris County Department of Education implemented a real-world science-instruction model in all district K-4 classrooms. The 7-year Environment as a Context for Learning Science (ECOS) program provokes student interest by centering on locally relevant environmental issues. (9…

  2. Community Action Projects: Applying Biotechnology in the Real World (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong D.; Siegel, Marcelle A.


    Project-based learning and action research are powerful pedagogies in improving science education. We implemented a semester-long course using project-based action research to help students apply biotechnology knowledge learned in the classroom to the real world. Students had several choices to make in the project: working individually or as a…

  3. Understanding the Value of Real-World Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camm, A John; Coleman, Craig I; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard


    importance, there may be challenges in understanding the relevance of the differing study designs, endpoints and populations. Here, we summarize the value of real-world evidence and considerations pertinent to their use in clinical research. Owing to the variety of analyses being conducted using real...

  4. Bringing the Real World into the Biology Curriculum (United States)

    Lewis, Jenny


    This study followed a small but diverse group of biology teachers through the first two years of the pilot for a new Advanced Level Biology course--Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. SNAB aims to modernise A-level Biology using real world contexts and examples as the starting point, promoting conceptual understanding rather than factual recall,…

  5. Real-world lessons from the hospitality expert

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Real-world lessons from the hospitality expert” is a different type of contribution to the Research in Hospitality Management journal than the academic papers found elsewhere in this issue. The author has over 25 years of international experience in the fields of brand strategy, marketing and creative direction at advertising ...

  6. Study of emissions and fuel economy for parallel hybrid versus conventional vehicles on real world and standard driving cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Samari


    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs increasing rapidly in the automobile markets. However, the benefits out of using this kind of vehicles are still concerned a lot of costumers. This work investigated the expected benefits (such as decreasing emissions and increasing fuel economy from using the parallel HEV in comparison to the conventional vehicle model of the real-world and standard driving cycles. The software Autonomie used in this study to simulate the parallel HEV and conventional models on these driving cycles.The results show that the fuel economy (FE can be improved significantly up to 68% on real-world driving cycle, which is represented mostly city activities. However, the FE improvement was limited (10% on the highway driving cycle, and this is expected since the using of brake system was infrequent. Moreover, the emissions from parallel HEV decreased about 40% on the real-world driving cycle, and decreased 11% on the highway driving cycle. Finally, the engine efficiency, improved about 12% on the real-world driving cycle, and about 7% on highway driving cycle. Keywords: Emissions, Hybrid electric vehicles, Fuel economy, Real-world driving cycle

  7. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Sebastian


    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  8. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann


    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  9. The positive impacts of Real-World Data on the challenges facing the evolution of biopharma. (United States)

    Wise, John; Möller, Angeli; Christie, David; Kalra, Dipak; Brodsky, Elia; Georgieva, Evelina; Jones, Greg; Smith, Ian; Greiffenberg, Lars; McCarthy, Marie; Arend, Michael; Luttringer, Olivier; Kloss, Sebastian; Arlington, Steve


    Demand for healthcare services is unprecedented. Society is struggling to afford the cost. Pricing of biopharmaceutical products is under scrutiny, especially by payers and Health Technology Assessment agencies. As we discuss here, rapidly advancing technologies, such as Real-World Data (RWD), are being utilized to increase understanding of disease. RWD, when captured and analyzed, produces the Real-World Evidence (RWE) that underpins the economic case for innovative medicines. Furthermore, RWD can inform the understanding of disease, help identify new therapeutic intervention points, and improve the efficiency of research and development (R&D), especially clinical trials. Pursuing precompetitive collaborations to define shared requirements for the use of RWD would equip service-providers with the specifications needed to implement cloud-based solutions for RWD acquisition, management and analysis. Only this approach would deliver cost-effective solutions to an industry-wide problem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unified underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Zeng, An; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng


    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both cases. The model is validated using relatively big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the unified underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  11. Snap it! snapchat projects for the real world

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardt, Carolyn


    Snap It! Snapchat Projects for the Real World is packed with projects inspired by the features and functions of the popular social media site. Young crafters will create geofilter frames, paint on printed photos, and more! An introduction to Snapchat, vibrant photos, and step-by-step directions bring each physical project and digital activity to life. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Checkerboard Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  12. Real-world innovation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulder, I


    Full Text Available Organizations and Networks Volume 10, “Special Issue on Living Labs”, August 2008 REAL-WORLD INNOVATION IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA Ingrid Mulder1,2, Walter Bohle3, Shela Boshomane4, Chris Morris4, Hugo Tempelman5, & Daan Velthausz1,6 1Telematica Instituut... (Enschede, The Netherlands) 2Rotterdam University (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) 3Liaison Telematica Instituut & Meraka Institute (Pretoria, South Africa) 4Meraka Institute (Pretoria, South Africa) 5Ndlovu Medical Centre (Elandsdoorn, South Africa) 6In...

  13. Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks (United States)

    Tang, John; Leontiadis, Ilias; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito

    Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study containment schemes for mobile phone malware which can spread via short range radio, similar to biological viruses; finally, we study how the temporal network structure of human interactions can be exploited to effectively immunise human populations. Through these applications we demonstrate that temporal metrics provide a more accurate and effective analysis of real-world networks compared to their static counterparts.

  14. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.


    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  15. A Comprehensive Review of Low-Speed Rear Impact Volunteer Studies and a Comparison to Real-World Outcomes. (United States)

    Cormier, Joseph; Gwin, Lisa; Reinhart, Lars; Wood, Rawson; Bain, Charles


    This study combined all prior research involving human volunteers in low-speed rear-end impacts and performed a comparative analysis of real-world crashes using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of neck pain between volunteer and real-world collisions as well as the likelihood of an injury beyond symptoms as a function of impact severity and occupant characteristics in real-world collisions. A total of 51 human volunteer studies were identified that produced a dataset of 1984 volunteer impacts along with a separate dataset of 515,601 weighted occupants in real-world rear impacts. Operating-characteristic curves were created to assess the utility of the volunteer dataset in making predictions regarding the overall population. Change in speed or delta-V was used to model the likelihood of reporting symptoms in both real-world and volunteer exposures and more severe injuries using real-world data. Logistic regression models were created for the volunteer data and survey techniques were used to analyze the weighted sampling scheme with the National Automotive Sampling System database. Symptom reporting rates were not different between males and females and were nearly identical between laboratory and real-world exposures. The minimal risk of injury predicted by real-world exposure is consistent with the statistical power of the large number of volunteer studies without any injury beyond the reporting of neck pain. This study shows that volunteer studies do not under-report symptoms and are sufficient in number to conclude that the risk of injury beyond neck strain under similar conditions is essentially zero. The real-world injury analyses demonstrate that rear impacts do not produce meaningful risks of cervical injury at impacts of similar and greater severity to those of the volunteer research. Future work concerning the mechanism of whiplash-related trauma should focus on impacts of

  16. The patient registry: a high-impact tool for real world evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BarickUttam, MohantyRituraj, GowdaArun


    Full Text Available Background: In this world of seemingly infinite data across domains, one strives to acquire better tools and methodologies to fully exploit available data. This process begins with meticulous planning to gather relevant information and continues until there is an output in the form of credible evidence. The ability to generate real-world evidence would take such a process to new level: the factors that influence these processes under real-world conditions are varied, unpredictable, and unregulated. Results obtained in highly regulated or controlled conditions are universally accepted and sought after for regulatory approvals, but performance indicators in the real world will set the tone for the future. Hence, the demands for very reliant and robust tools and mechanisms for gathering evidence are all the more prominent and necessary. Patient registries fill this gap and stand tall among the various tools that could deliver the desired end results with acceptable accuracy. Over the years, pharmaceutical companies, along with policymakers and other stakeholders, have been actively involved in the development of such registries. Aims: Here we provide an overview of the usefulness of registries for the various stakeholders in healthcare in terms of conduct, approach, and barriers to initiating such studies. Conclusion: One of the impediments for the wider appeal and utility of registries is low awareness among the public and policymakers. Incorporating them as a part of the standard global healthcare system would involve setting up a regulatory framework.

  17. Can people identify original and manipulated photos of real-world scenes? (United States)

    Nightingale, Sophie J; Wade, Kimberley A; Watson, Derrick G


    Advances in digital technology mean that the creation of visually compelling photographic fakes is growing at an incredible speed. The prevalence of manipulated photos in our everyday lives invites an important, yet largely unanswered, question: Can people detect photo forgeries? Previous research using simple computer-generated stimuli suggests people are poor at detecting geometrical inconsistencies within a scene. We do not know, however, whether such limitations also apply to real-world scenes that contain common properties that the human visual system is attuned to processing. In two experiments we asked people to detect and locate manipulations within images of real-world scenes. Subjects demonstrated a limited ability to detect original and manipulated images. Furthermore, across both experiments, even when subjects correctly detected manipulated images, they were often unable to locate the manipulation. People's ability to detect manipulated images was positively correlated with the extent of disruption to the underlying structure of the pixels in the photo. We also explored whether manipulation type and individual differences were associated with people's ability to identify manipulations. Taken together, our findings show, for the first time, that people have poor ability to identify whether a real-world image is original or has been manipulated. The results have implications for professionals working with digital images in legal, media, and other domains.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Super-Resolution Reconstruction Methods on Real-World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. van Vliet


    Full Text Available The performance of a super-resolution (SR reconstruction method on real-world data is not easy to measure, especially as a ground-truth (GT is often not available. In this paper, a quantitative performance measure is used, based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD. The TOD measure, simulating a real-observer task, is capable of determining the performance of a specific SR reconstruction method under varying conditions of the input data. It is shown that the performance of an SR reconstruction method on real-world data can be predicted accurately by measuring its performance on simulated data. This prediction of the performance on real-world data enables the optimization of the complete chain of a vision system; from camera setup and SR reconstruction up to image detection/recognition/identification. Furthermore, different SR reconstruction methods are compared to show that the TOD method is a useful tool to select a specific SR reconstruction method according to the imaging conditions (camera's fill-factor, optical point-spread-function (PSF, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR.

  19. Coping strategies and real-world functioning in bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Nitzburg, George C; Russo, Manuela; Cuesta-Diaz, Armando; Ospina, Luz; Shanahan, Megan; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes; McGrath, Meaghan; Burdick, Katherine E


    Bipolar disorder (BD) patients encounter significant life adversity, which has contributed to bipolar disorder being a leading cause of disability worldwide. Studies suggest BD patients have more maladaptive coping strategies, some of which can impact their illness course. Yet research on which coping strategies most influence disability is lacking. Such research could inform cognitive-behavioral targets to improve functional outcomes. Thus, we sought to identify relations between coping strategies and real-world function in BD. In 92 affectively-stable BD outpatients, we measured coping strategies via the Brief COPE, real-world disability via the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, current symptoms, illness chronicity, and neurocognitive functioning via the MATRICS. Multiple regression analysis served to identify the neurocognitive domains predictive of disability for entry into subsequent analyses. Multiple regressions assessed how adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies influenced disability. Only one neurocognitive domain, verbal learning, significantly predicted disability and was included in subsequent analyses. Maladaptive coping significantly predicted disability while adaptive coping did not. Behavioral disengagement (giving up) and self-blame were the only remaining predictors of disability, after controlling for age, sex, illness chronicity, current symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning. The study was limited by the use of a self-report disability measure and a brief-form coping scale. Results suggest that giving up and self-blame are significant predictors of real-world functioning beyond sub-threshold depressive symptoms. Our results in BD expand upon recent schizophrenia studies suggesting that defeatist beliefs negatively influence functional outcomes across the range of major psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comprehensive cardiac resynchronization therapy optimization in the real world. (United States)

    Steffel, Jan; Rempel, Helene; Breitenstein, Alexander; Schmidt, Susann; Namdar, Mehdi; Krasniqi, Nasmi; Holzmeister, Johannes; Lüscher, Thomas F; Ruschitzka, Frank; Hürlimann, David


    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from chronic heart failure (CHF). Optimal device programming is crucial for maximum patient benefit. The goal of the present study was to assess device settings from CHF patients undergoing CRT optimization in a "real world" setting, and to delineate parameters most frequently requiring adjustment. All patients who underwent CRT device implantation in the Cardiology Clinicat the University Hospital Zurich between January 2011 and September 2012 and in whom follow-up was available were included in this analysis. A total of 170 CHF patients were included in this analysis. True biventricular pacing was present in 44% of all patients, while QRS fusion was detected in 49.9%. The majority of the patients presented with suboptimal atrioventricular (AV) delays requiring adjustment. AV delays were therefore shortened due to the presence of QRS fusion in 53.3% and 38.1% of patients (sAV and pAV, respectively) or prolonged because of truncation of the A wave in the left ventricular inflow pulse wave Doppler measurement (17.5% and 28.4% for sAV and pAV, respectively). In contrast, interventricular delay (VV delay) was rarely changed (11.9%). In our "real world" cohort, a substantial proportion of patients presented to their first post-operative consultation with suboptimal device settings. Our data indicate that the opportunity to optimize device settings is frequently wasted in the "real world", underlining the necessity for expert device follow-up to deliver optimal care to this challenging group of heart failure patients.

  1. TRAX - Real-World Tracking of Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pakalnis, Stardas


    accuracy. This paper presents the TRAX tracking system that supports several techniques capable of tracking the current positions of moving objects with guaranteed accuracies at low update and communication costs in real-world settings. The techniques are readily relevant for practical applications......, but they also have implications for continued research. The tracking techniques offer a realistic setting for existing query processing techniques that assume that it is possible to always know the exact positions of moving objects. The techniques enable studies of trade-offs between querying and update...

  2. A leadless pacemaker in the real-world setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Paul R.; Clementy, Nicolas; Al Samadi, Faisal


    -approval setting. The safety end point was system- or procedure-related major complications at 30 days post implant. We compared the major complication rate with that of the 726 patients from the investigational study. Electrical performance was also characterized. Results The device was successfully implanted...... were low and stable. Conclusion Performance of the Micra transcatheter pacemaker in a real-world setting demonstrates a high rate (99.6%) of implant success and low rate (1.51%) of major complications through 30 days post implant. In particular, the rates of pericardial effusion, device dislodgement...

  3. Data Modeling for Mobile Services in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Speicys, L.


    Research contributions on data modeling, data structures, query processing, and indexing for mobile services may have an impact in the longer term, but each contribution typically offers an isolated solution to one small part of the practical problem of delivering mobile services in the real world....... In contrast, this paper describes holistic concepts and techniques for mobile data modeling that are readily applicable in practice. Focus is on services to be delivered to mobile users, such as route guidance, point-of-interest search, road pricing, parking payment, traffic monitoring, etc. While geo...

  4. Pattern theory the stochastic analysis of real-world signals

    CERN Document Server

    Mumford, David


    Pattern theory is a distinctive approach to the analysis of all forms of real-world signals. At its core is the design of a large variety of probabilistic models whose samples reproduce the look and feel of the real signals, their patterns, and their variability. Bayesian statistical inference then allows you to apply these models in the analysis of new signals. This book treats the mathematical tools, the models themselves, and the computational algorithms for applying statistics to analyze six representative classes of signals of increasing complexity. The book covers patterns in text, sound

  5. Film it! youtube projects for the real world

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardt, Carolyn


    Film It!: YouTube Projects for the Real World is packed with projects inspired by the features and functions of the popular social media site. Young filmmakers or podcasters will learn how to create a storyboard, make a stop-motion video, and more! An introduction to YouTube, vibrant photos, and step-by-step directions bring each physical project and digital activity to life. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Checkerboard Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  6. How to do Research in the Real world: What is to know and Who is to gain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie Anker


    Real world research: The need for different types of knowledge requires two knowledge production processes In real world research, there are dilemmas. One significant dilemma is time. The field of practice needs a type of knowledge that is produced quickly and can be applied immediately...... versus a more far-reaching type of knowledge. The field of practice needs a type of knowledge that is directly and instantly usable. The researcher needs a type of knowledge that can meet the criteria within the world of academia and under the right circumstances can be applied and contribute within...... a specific line of research. This, again, requires time. In the presentation, I will propose new concepts concerning real world research and knowledge production. The presentation will be based on data from a collaborative organizational field study. The aim of the study was establish a coherent practice...

  7. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.


    It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures increase vehicle fuel consumption due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (increased viscosity lubricants), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large set of real world drive cycle data and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under various drive cycles and ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on vehicle energy consumption. These models are applied over a wide array of real-world usage profiles and typical meteorological data to develop estimates of in-use fuel economy. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this integrated testing/modeling approach may be applied to quantify real-world, off-cycle fuel economy benefits of various technologies.

  8. Motif structure and cooperation in real-world complex networks (United States)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Rabiee, Hamid R.; Jalili, Mahdi


    Networks of dynamical nodes serve as generic models for real-world systems in many branches of science ranging from mathematics to physics, technology, sociology and biology. Collective behavior of agents interacting over complex networks is important in many applications. The cooperation between selfish individuals is one of the most interesting collective phenomena. In this paper we address the interplay between the motifs’ cooperation properties and their abundance in a number of real-world networks including yeast protein-protein interaction, human brain, protein structure, email communication, dolphins’ social interaction, Zachary karate club and Net-science coauthorship networks. First, the amount of cooperativity for all possible undirected subgraphs with three to six nodes is calculated. To this end, the evolutionary dynamics of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game is considered and the cooperativity of each subgraph is calculated as the percentage of cooperating agents at the end of the simulation time. Then, the three- to six-node motifs are extracted for each network. The significance of the abundance of a motif, represented by a Z-value, is obtained by comparing them with some properly randomized versions of the original network. We found that there is always a group of motifs showing a significant inverse correlation between their cooperativity amount and Z-value, i.e. the more the Z-value the less the amount of cooperativity. This suggests that networks composed of well-structured units do not have good cooperativity properties.

  9. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake


    Full Text Available Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone, and by combining psychophysiological measures with performance measures. For our study, we gathered data using questionnaires as well as by logging vehicle dynamics, environmental conditions, video data, and users' psychophysiological measurements. For the analysis, we used several novel approaches such as scatter plots to visualize driving tasks of different contexts and to obtain vigilance estimators from electroencephalographic (EEG data in order to obtain important results about the differences between the driving in the two contexts. Our belief is that both experimental procedures and findings of our experiment are very important to the field of serious games concerning how to evaluate the fitness of driving simulators and measure driving performance.

  10. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world. (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A


    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change.

  11. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks (United States)

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido


    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  12. Understanding Use Situated in Real-world Mobile Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    where the activity is happening) by leveraging three keyenablers: (1) the high penetration of smart phones, (2) their easy programmability and (3) the large-scale distribution channels for mobile applications that come with the platforms. My approach suggests a triggered response solicitation, which......  Our understanding of users' everyday practices in their natural contexts is still very limited. Insights are often only available from studies conducted outside of the context itself. I propose a new approach to study use situated in real-world everyday mobile contexts (at the time and place...... prompts the user for responses on feelings, experiences and practices whenever specified context variables are true. The approach is still in an early conceptual phase and will be applied in the area of understanding citizen participation out and about in the city....

  13. Real-World Sorting of RHIC Superconducting Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.; Harrison, M.; Jain, A.; Peggs, S.; Thompson, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Wanderer, P.


    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have bene put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-β interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process

  14. Real-world Data for Clinical Evidence Generation in Oncology. (United States)

    Khozin, Sean; Blumenthal, Gideon M; Pazdur, Richard


    Conventional cancer clinical trials can be slow and costly, often produce results with limited external validity, and are difficult for patients to participate in. Recent technological advances and a dynamic policy landscape in the United States have created a fertile ground for the use of real-world data (RWD) to improve current methods of clinical evidence generation. Sources of RWD include electronic health records, insurance claims, patient registries, and digital health solutions outside of conventional clinical trials. A definition focused on the original intent of data collected at the point of care can distinguish RWD from conventional clinical trial data. When the intent of data collection at the point of care is research, RWD can be generated using experimental designs similar to those employed in conventional clinical trials, but with several advantages that include gains in efficient execution of studies with an appropriate balance between internal and external validity. RWD can support active pharmacovigilance, insights into the natural history of disease, and the development of external control arms. Prospective collection of RWD can enable evidence generation based on pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) that support randomized study designs and expand clinical research to the point of care. PCTs may help address the growing demands for access to experimental therapies while increasing patient participation in cancer clinical trials. Conducting valid real-world studies requires data quality assurance through auditable data abstraction methods and new incentives to drive electronic capture of clinically relevant data at the point of care. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Wars, Revolutions and the First Real World Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es promover la discusión conceptual para una publicación más amplia “Los Ciclos del Imperialismo, Guerra, y Revolución”. Empieza desde una presuposición que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando una transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio non-eurocéntrico. Continua con la discusión histórica de los conceptos relacionados con la guerra, la reforma y la revolución y explica porque, en el contexto de la fase actual de la transición mundial y la Primera Verdadera Guerra Mundial, a pesar de la discusión anterior acerca de las revoluciones y revoluciones mundiales, es razonable sugerir que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial._____________________ABSTRACTThe purpose of this article is to engage in a conceptual discussion for a broader publication on “The Cycles of Imperialism, War and Revolution”. It departs from a presupposition that our common world is experiencing a transition from a broad Eurocentric historical context into a non-Eurocentric broad historical context. It proceeds by a historical discussion on the concepts related to wars, reforms and revolutions and explains why, in the context of the actual phase of global transition and the First Real World War, it is, despite earlier discussions on revolutions and world revolutions, meaningful to suggest that our common world is experiencing a First Real World Revolution.

  16. Neural correlates of real-world route learning. (United States)

    Schinazi, Victor R; Epstein, Russell A


    Classical theories of spatial microgenesis (Siegel and White, 1975) posit that information about landmarks and the paths between them is acquired prior to the establishment of more holistic survey-level representations. To test this idea, we examined the neural and behavioral correlates of landmark and path encoding during a real-world route learning episode. Subjects were taught a novel 3 km route around the University of Pennsylvania campus and then brought to the laboratory where they performed a recognition task that required them to discriminate between on-route and off-route buildings. Each building was preceded by a masked prime, which could either be the building that immediately preceded the target building along the route or immediately succeeded it. Consistent with previous reports using a similar paradigm in a virtual environment (Janzen and Weststeijn, 2007), buildings at navigational decision points (DPs) were more easily recognized than non-DP buildings and recognition was facilitated by in-route vs. against-route primes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected during the recognition task revealed two effects of interest: first, greater response to DP vs. non-DP buildings in a wide network of brain regions previously implicated in spatial processing; second, a significant interaction between building location (DP vs. non-DP) and route direction (in-route vs. against-route) in a retrosplenial/parietal-occipital sulcus region previously labeled the retrosplenial complex (RSC). These results indicate that newly learned real-world routes are coded in terms of paths between decision points and suggest that the RSC may be a critical locus for integrating landmark and path information. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Real world use of an Internet intervention for pediatric encopresis. (United States)

    Ritterband, Lee M; Ardalan, Kaveh; Thorndike, Frances P; Magee, Joshua C; Saylor, Drew K; Cox, Daniel J; Sutphen, James L; Borowitz, Stephen M


    The Internet is a significant source of medical information and is now being shown to be an important conduit for delivering various health-related interventions. This paper aimed to examine the utility and impact of an Internet intervention for childhood encopresis as part of standard medical care in a "real world" setting. Patients diagnosed with encopresis were given a Web-based information prescription to use an Internet intervention for pediatric encopresis. A total of 22 families utilized the intervention between July 2004 and June 2006. A chart review and phone interview were undertaken to collect user characteristics; defecation-related information, including frequency of soiling, bowel movements (BMs) in the toilet, and amount of pain associated with defecation; and information on computer/Internet usage. Three questionnaires were used to examine the utility of, impact of, and adherence to the Internet intervention. Program utilization was obtained from a data tracking system that monitored usage in real time. Overall, parents rated the Internet intervention as enjoyable, understandable, and easy to use. They indicated that the Internet intervention positively affected their children, decreasing overall accidents and increasing child comfort on the toilet at home. Of the 20 children who initially reported fecal accidents, 19 (95%) experienced at least a 50% improvement, with a reduction of accident frequency from one fecal accident per day to one accident per week. Although it is not clear whether this improvement is directly related to the use of the Internet intervention, patient feedback suggests that the program was an important element, further establishing Internet interventions as a viable and desirable addition to standard medical care for pediatric encopresis. To our knowledge, this is the first time a pediatric Internet intervention has been examined as part of a "real world" setting. This is an important step toward establishing Internet

  18. Quality labeled faces in the wild (QLFW): a database for studying face recognition in real-world environments (United States)

    Karam, Lina J.; Zhu, Tong


    The varying quality of face images is an important challenge that limits the effectiveness of face recognition technology when applied in real-world applications. Existing face image databases do not consider the effect of distortions that commonly occur in real-world environments. This database (QLFW) represents an initial attempt to provide a set of labeled face images spanning the wide range of quality, from no perceived impairment to strong perceived impairment for face detection and face recognition applications. Types of impairment include JPEG2000 compression, JPEG compression, additive white noise, Gaussian blur and contrast change. Subjective experiments are conducted to assess the perceived visual quality of faces under different levels and types of distortions and also to assess the human recognition performance under the considered distortions. One goal of this work is to enable automated performance evaluation of face recognition technologies in the presence of different types and levels of visual distortions. This will consequently enable the development of face recognition systems that can operate reliably on real-world visual content in the presence of real-world visual distortions. Another goal is to enable the development and assessment of visual quality metrics for face images and for face detection and recognition applications.


    Guerra-Júnior, Augusto Afonso; Pires de Lemos, Lívia Lovato; Godman, Brian; Bennie, Marion; Osorio-de-Castro, Cláudia Garcia Serpa; Alvares, Juliana; Heaney, Aine; Vassallo, Carlos Alberto; Wettermark, Björn; Benguria-Arrate, Gaizka; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Santos, Vania Cristina Canuto; Petramale, Clarice Alegre; Acurcio, Fransciso de Assis


    Health technology financing is often based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are often the same ones used for licensing. Because they are designed to show the best possible results, typically Phase III studies are conducted under ideal and highly controlled conditions. Consequently, it is not surprising that technologies do not always perform in real life in the same way as controlled conditions. Because financing (and price paid) decisions can be made with overestimated results, health authorities need to ask whether health systems achieve the results they expect when they choose to pay for a technology. The optimal way to answer this question is to assess the performance of financed technologies in real-world settings. Health technology performance assessment (HTpA) refers to the systematic evaluation of the properties, effects, and/or impact of a health intervention or health technology in the real world to provide information for investment/disinvestment decisions and clinical guideline updates. The objective is to describe the development and principal aspects of the Guideline for HTpA commissioned by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Our methods used include extensive literature review, refinement with experts across countries, and public consultation. A comprehensive guideline was developed, which has been adopted by the Brazilian government. We believe the guideline, with its particular focus on disinvestment, along with the creation of a specific program for HTpA, will allow the institutionalization and continuous improvement of the scientific methods to use real-world evidence to optimize available resources not only in Brazil but across countries.

  20. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli. (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A


    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  1. Paper based Flexible and Conformal SERS Substrate for Rapid Trace Detection on Real-world Surfaces (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srikanth; Lee, Chang; Tian, Limei


    One of the important but often overlooked considerations in the design of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for trace detection is the efficiency of sample collection. Conventional designs based on rigid substrates such as silicon, alumina, and glass resist conformal contact with the surface under investigation, making the sample collection inefficient. We demonstrate a novel SERS substrate based on common filter paper adsorbed with gold nanorods, which allows conformal contact with real-world surfaces, thus dramatically enhancing the sample collection efficiency compared to conventional rigid substrates. We demonstrate the detection of trace amounts of analyte (140 pg spread over 4 cm2) by simply swabbing the surface under investigation with the novel SERS substrate. The hierarchical fibrous structure of paper serves as a 3D vasculature for easy uptake and transport of the analytes to the electromagnetic hot spots in the paper. Simple yet highly efficient and cost effective SERS substrate demonstrated here brings SERS based trace detection closer to real-world applications. We acknowledge the financial support from Center for Materials Innovation at Washington University.

  2. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks. (United States)

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N


    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others' popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets' sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity-social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity-valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members' popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior.

  3. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.


    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  4. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão


    The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing of the availa......The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing...... of the available spectrum by nodes in a network, without centralized coordination. While proof-of-concept and statistical validation of such algorithms is typically achieved by using system level simulations, experimental activities are valuable contributions for the investigation of particular aspects...... such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design...

  5. Privacy-preserving record linkage on large real world datasets. (United States)

    Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Boyd, James H; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B


    Record linkage typically involves the use of dedicated linkage units who are supplied with personally identifying information to determine individuals from within and across datasets. The personally identifying information supplied to linkage units is separated from clinical information prior to release by data custodians. While this substantially reduces the risk of disclosure of sensitive information, some residual risks still exist and remain a concern for some custodians. In this paper we trial a method of record linkage which reduces privacy risk still further on large real world administrative data. The method uses encrypted personal identifying information (bloom filters) in a probability-based linkage framework. The privacy preserving linkage method was tested on ten years of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australian (WA) hospital admissions data, comprising in total over 26 million records. No difference in linkage quality was found when the results were compared to traditional probabilistic methods using full unencrypted personal identifiers. This presents as a possible means of reducing privacy risks related to record linkage in population level research studies. It is hoped that through adaptations of this method or similar privacy preserving methods, risks related to information disclosure can be reduced so that the benefits of linked research taking place can be fully realised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age differences in virtual environment and real world path integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E Adamo


    Full Text Available Accurate path integration requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular self-motion cues and age effects associated with alterations in processing information from these systems may contribute to declines in path integration abilities. The present study investigated age-related differences in path integration in conditions that varied as a function of available sources of sensory information. Twenty-two healthy, young (23.8 ± 3.0 yrs. and 16 older (70.1 ± 6.4 yrs. adults participated in distance reproduction and triangle completion tasks performed in a virtual environment and two real world conditions: guided walking and wheelchair propulsion. For walking and wheelchair propulsion conditions, participants wore a blindfold and wore noise-blocking headphones and were guided through the workspace by the experimenter. For the virtual environment (VE condition, participants viewed self-motion information on a computer monitor and used a joystick to navigate through the environment. For triangle completion tasks, older compared to younger individuals showed greater errors in rotation estimations performed in the wheelchair condition; and for rotation and distance estimations in the VE condition. Distance reproduction tasks, in contrast, did not show any age effects. These findings demonstrate that age differences in path integration vary as a function of the available sources of information and by the complexity of outbound pathway.

  7. Fitness networks for real world systems via modified preferential attachment (United States)

    Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng


    Complex networks are virtually ubiquitous, and the Barabási and Albert model (BA model) has became an acknowledged standard for the modelling of these systems. The so-called BA model is a kind of preferential attachment growth model based on the intuitive premise that popularity is attractive. However, preferential attachment alone is insufficient to describe the diversity of complex networks observed in the real world. In this paper we first use the accuracy of a link prediction method, as a metric for network fitness. The link prediction method predicts the occurrence of links consistent with preferential attachment, the performance of this link prediction scheme is then a natural measure of the ;preferential-attachment-likeness; of a given network. We then propose several modification methods and modified BA models to construct networks which more accurately describe the fitness properties of real networks. We find that all features assortativity, degree distribution and rich-club formation can play significant roles for the network construction and eventual structure. Moreover, link sparsity and the size of a network are key factors for network reconstruction. In addition, we find that the structure of the network which is limited by geographic location (nodes are embedded in a Euclidean space and connectivity is correlated with distances) differs from other typical networks. In social networks, we observe that the high school contact network has similar structure as the friends network and so we speculate that the contact behaviours can reflect real friendships.

  8. Load Disaggregation Technologies: Real World and Laboratory Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Butner, Ryan S.; Johnson, Erica M.


    Low cost interval metering and communication technology improvements over the past ten years have enabled the maturity of load disaggregation (or non-intrusive load monitoring) technologies to better estimate and report energy consumption of individual end-use loads. With the appropriate performance characteristics, these technologies have the potential to enable many utility and customer facing applications such as billing transparency, itemized demand and energy consumption, appliance diagnostics, commissioning, energy efficiency savings verification, load shape research, and demand response measurement. However, there has been much skepticism concerning the ability of load disaggregation products to accurately identify and estimate energy consumption of end-uses; which has hindered wide-spread market adoption. A contributing factor is that common test methods and metrics are not available to evaluate performance without having to perform large scale field demonstrations and pilots, which can be costly when developing such products. Without common and cost-effective methods of evaluation, more developed disaggregation technologies will continue to be slow to market and potential users will remain uncertain about their capabilities. This paper reviews recent field studies and laboratory tests of disaggregation technologies. Several factors are identified that are important to consider in test protocols, so that the results reflect real world performance. Potential metrics are examined to highlight their effectiveness in quantifying disaggregation performance. This analysis is then used to suggest performance metrics that are meaningful and of value to potential users and that will enable researchers/developers to identify beneficial ways to improve their technologies.

  9. Multiplicative Attribute Graph Model of Real-World Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myunghwan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Leskovec, Jure [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    Large scale real-world network data, such as social networks, Internet andWeb graphs, is ubiquitous in a variety of scientific domains. The study of such social and information networks commonly finds patterns and explain their emergence through tractable models. In most networks, especially in social networks, nodes also have a rich set of attributes (e.g., age, gender) associatedwith them. However, most of the existing network models focus only on modeling the network structure while ignoring the features of nodes in the network. Here we present a class of network models that we refer to as the Multiplicative Attribute Graphs (MAG), which naturally captures the interactions between the network structure and node attributes. We consider a model where each node has a vector of categorical features associated with it. The probability of an edge between a pair of nodes then depends on the product of individual attributeattribute similarities. The model yields itself to mathematical analysis as well as fit to real data. We derive thresholds for the connectivity, the emergence of the giant connected component, and show that the model gives rise to graphs with a constant diameter. Moreover, we analyze the degree distribution to show that the model can produce networks with either lognormal or power-law degree distribution depending on certain conditions.

  10. Tackling field-portable Raman spectroscopy of real world samples (United States)

    Shand, Neil C.


    A major challenge confronting first responders, customs authorities and other security-related organisations is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Currently, a range of hand portable Raman equipment is commercially available that is low cost and increasingly more sophisticated. These systems are generally based on the 785nm Stokes shifted Raman technique with many using dispersive grating spectrometers. This technique offers a broad range of capabilities including the ability to analyse illicit drugs, explosives, chemical weapons and pre-cursors but still has some fundamental constraints. 'Real world' samples, such as those found at a crime scene, will often not be presented in the most accessible manner. Simple issues such as glass fluorescence can make an otherwise tractable sample impossible to analyse in-situ. A new generation of portable Raman equipment is currently being developed to address these issues. Consideration is given to the use of longer wavelength for fluorescence reduction. Alternative optical designs are being tested to compensate for the signal reduction incurred by moving to longer wavelengths. Furthermore, the use of anti-Stokes spectroscopy is being considered as well as investigating the robustness and portability of traditional Fourier Transform interferometer designs along with future advances in detector technology and ultra small spectrometers.

  11. The real-world effectiveness of vedolizumab on intestinal and articular outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases. (United States)

    Macaluso, Fabio Salvatore; Orlando, Rosalba; Fries, Walter; Scolaro, Mariangela; Magnano, Antonio; Pluchino, Dario; Cappello, Maria; Morreale, Gaetano Cristian; Siringo, Sebastiano; Privitera, Antonino Carlo; Ferracane, Concetta; Belluardo, Nunzio; Alberghina, Nadia; Ventimiglia, Marco; Rizzuto, Giulia; Renna, Sara; Cottone, Mario; Orlando, Ambrogio


    The effectiveness of vedolizumab in real-world practice is under evaluation, while its role in inflammatory bowel disease-associated spondyloarthritis is still unclear. To report real-world data about the effectiveness of vedolizumab on intestinal and articular symptoms after 10 and 22 weeks of treatment. Web-based data from the cohort of the Sicilian Network for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SN-IBD) were extracted to perform a prospective multicentre observational study. 163 patients (84 with Crohn's disease and 79 with ulcerative colitis) were included. At week 10, a steroid-free remission was achieved in 71 patients (43.6%), while at week 22 a steroid-free remission was obtained in 40.8% of patients. A response on articular symptoms was reported after 10 weeks of treatment in 17 out of 43 (39.5%) patients with active spondyloarthritis at baseline, and in 10 out of 22 (45.4%) patients at week 22. The only factor associated with articular response was the coexistence of clinical benefit on intestinal symptoms (at week 10: OR 8.471, p = 0.05; at week 22: OR 5.600, p = 0.08). Vedolizumab showed good effectiveness after 10 and 22 weeks of treatment. A subset of patients reported improvement also on articular symptoms, probably as a consequence of the concomitant control of gut inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generalised Sandpile Dynamics on Artificial and Real-World Directed Networks. (United States)

    Zachariou, Nicky; Expert, Paul; Takayasu, Misako; Christensen, Kim


    The main finding of this paper is a novel avalanche-size exponent τ ≈ 1.87 when the generalised sandpile dynamics evolves on the real-world Japanese inter-firm network. The topology of this network is non-layered and directed, displaying the typical bow tie structure found in real-world directed networks, with cycles and triangles. We show that one can move from a strictly layered regular lattice to a more fluid structure of the inter-firm network in a few simple steps. Relaxing the regular lattice structure by introducing an interlayer distribution for the interactions, forces the scaling exponent of the avalanche-size probability density function τ out of the two-dimensional directed sandpile universality class τ = 4/3, into the mean field universality class τ = 3/2. Numerical investigation shows that these two classes are the only that exist on the directed sandpile, regardless of the underlying topology, as long as it is strictly layered. Randomly adding a small proportion of links connecting non adjacent layers in an otherwise layered network takes the system out of the mean field regime to produce non-trivial avalanche-size probability density function. Although these do not display proper scaling, they closely reproduce the behaviour observed on the Japanese inter-firm network.

  13. Generalised Sandpile Dynamics on Artificial and Real-World Directed Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Zachariou

    Full Text Available The main finding of this paper is a novel avalanche-size exponent τ ≈ 1.87 when the generalised sandpile dynamics evolves on the real-world Japanese inter-firm network. The topology of this network is non-layered and directed, displaying the typical bow tie structure found in real-world directed networks, with cycles and triangles. We show that one can move from a strictly layered regular lattice to a more fluid structure of the inter-firm network in a few simple steps. Relaxing the regular lattice structure by introducing an interlayer distribution for the interactions, forces the scaling exponent of the avalanche-size probability density function τ out of the two-dimensional directed sandpile universality class τ = 4/3, into the mean field universality class τ = 3/2. Numerical investigation shows that these two classes are the only that exist on the directed sandpile, regardless of the underlying topology, as long as it is strictly layered. Randomly adding a small proportion of links connecting non adjacent layers in an otherwise layered network takes the system out of the mean field regime to produce non-trivial avalanche-size probability density function. Although these do not display proper scaling, they closely reproduce the behaviour observed on the Japanese inter-firm network.

  14. Neurocognitive systems related to real-world prospective memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria Kalpouzos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD, TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks.

  15. WIPP Waste Characterization: Implementing Regulatory Requirements in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper Wayman, J.D.; Goldstein, J.D.


    It is imperative to ensure compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. In particular, compliance with the waste characterization requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its implementing regulation found at 40 CFR Parts 262,264 and 265 for hazardous and mixed wastes, as well as those of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, as amended, and their implementing regulations found at 40 CFR Parts 191 and 194 for non-mixed radioactive wastes, are often difficult to ensure at the operational level. For example, where a regulation may limit a waste to a certain concentration, this concentration may be difficult to measure. For example, does the definition of transuranic waste (TRU) as 100 nCi/grain of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste mean that the radioassay of a waste must show a reading of 100 plus the sampling and measurement error for the waste to be a TRU waste? Although the use of acceptable knowledge to characterize waste is authorized by statute, regulation and DOE Orders, its implementation is similarly beset with difficulty. When is a document or documents sufficient to constitute acceptable knowledge? What standard can be used to determine if knowledge is acceptable for waste characterization purposes? The inherent conflict between waste characterization regulatory requirements and their implementation in the real world, and the resolution of this conflict, will be discussed

  16. Developing Humanoid Robots for Real-World Environments (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Kuhlman, Michael; Assad, Chris; Keymeulen, Didier


    Humanoids are steadily improving in appearance and functionality demonstrated in controlled environments. To address the challenges of operation in the real-world, researchers have proposed the use of brain-inspired architectures for robot control, and the use of robot learning techniques that enable the robot to acquire and tune skills and behaviours. In the first part of the paper we introduce new concepts and results in these two areas. First, we present a cerebellum-inspired model that demonstrated efficiency in the sensory-motor control of anthropomorphic arms, and in gait control of dynamic walkers. Then, we present a set of new ideas related to robot learning, emphasizing the importance of developing teaching techniques that support learning. In the second part of the paper we propose the use in robotics of the iterative and incremental development methodologies, in the context of practical task-oriented applications. These methodologies promise to rapidly reach system-level integration, and to early identify system-level weaknesses to focus on. We apply this methodology in a task targeting the automated assembly of a modular structure using HOAP-2. We confirm this approach led to rapid development of a end-to-end capability, and offered guidance on which technologies to focus on for gradual improvement of a complete functional system. It is believed that providing Grand Challenge type milestones in practical task-oriented applications accelerates development. As a meaningful target in short-mid term we propose the 'IKEA Challenge', aimed at the demonstration of autonomous assembly of various pieces of furniture, from the box, following included written/drawn instructions.

  17. Real-world emissions of in-use off-road vehicles in Mexico. (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Huertas, Jose Ignacio; Prato, Daniel; Jazcilevich, Aron; Aguilar, Andrés; Balam, Marco; Misra, Chandan; Molina, Luisa T


    Off-road vehicles used in construction and agricultural activities can contribute substantially to emissions of gaseous pollutants and can be a major source of submicrometer carbonaceous particles in many parts of the world. However, there have been relatively few efforts in quantifying the emission factors (EFs) and for estimating the potential emission reduction benefits using emission control technologies for these vehicles. This study characterized the black carbon (BC) component of particulate matter and NOx, CO, and CO 2 EFs of selected diesel-powered off-road mobile sources in Mexico under real-world operating conditions using on-board portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS). The vehicles sampled included two backhoes, one tractor, a crane, an excavator, two front loaders, two bulldozers, an air compressor, and a power generator used in the construction and agricultural activities. For a selected number of these vehicles the emissions were further characterized with wall-flow diesel particle filters (DPFs) and partial-flow DPFs (p-DPFs) installed. Fuel-based EFs presented less variability than time-based emission rates, particularly for the BC. Average baseline EFs in working conditions for BC, NOx, and CO ranged from 0.04 to 5.7, from 12.6 to 81.8, and from 7.9 to 285.7 g/kg-fuel, respectively, and a high dependency by operation mode and by vehicle type was observed. Measurement-base frequency distributions of EFs by operation mode are proposed as an alternative method for characterizing the variability of off-road vehicles emissions under real-world conditions. Mass-based reductions for black carbon EFs were substantially large (above 99%) when DPFs were installed and the vehicles were idling, and the reductions were moderate (in the 20-60% range) for p-DPFs in working operating conditions. The observed high variability in measured EFs also indicates the need for detailed vehicle operation data for accurately estimating emissions from off

  18. The realism project reconciling nuclear power and radiation policies with the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodore Rockwell


    Let's get real. It is crazy to fear that one's health and life are threatened by entities known to be harmless, whether those entities are goblins under the bed or trivial levels of radiation from non-existent radiological catastrophes. The nuclear community is in that paranoid state, and no advice from public relations experts can cure it. Some people claim that overstating risk is a prudent thing to do, but in practice it may do harm. Let us recall what we have said and done to create this situation. Then let us look at what the real world tells us about those risks. And then we will consider what might be done to return to reason. (author)

  19. Orientation in Virtual Reality Does Not Fully Measure Up to the Real-World. (United States)

    Kimura, Kazushige; Reichert, James F; Olson, Ashley; Pouya, Omid Ranjbar; Wang, Xikui; Moussavi, Zahra; Kelly, Debbie M


    Adult participants learned to reorient to a specific corner inside either a real or virtual rectangular room containing a distinct featural object in each corner. Participants in the virtual-reality (VR) condition experienced an immersive virtual version of the physical room using a head-mounted display (HMD) and customized manual wheelchair to provide self-movement. Following a disorientation procedure, people could reorient by using either the geometry of the room and/or the distinct features in the corners. Test trials in which the different spatial cues were manipulated revealed participants encoded features and geometry in both the real and VR rooms. However, participants in the VR room showed less facility with using geometry. Our results suggest caution must be taken when interpreting the nuances of spatial cue use in virtual environments. Reduced reliability of geometric cues in VR environments may result in greater reliance on feature cues than would normally be expected under similar real-world conditions.

  20. Real-world lessons from the hospitality expert | Bosma | Research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Real-world lessons from the hospitality expert. ... Research in Hospitality Management ... This article by Robert Bosma gives an insight in the world of hospitality in the real world and his vision about what hospitality is, how it works successfully and why people find it so important to be treated in a hospitable way. What do ...

  1. Exploring Non-Traditional Learning Methods in Virtual and Real-World Environments (United States)

    Lukman, Rebeka; Krajnc, Majda


    This paper identifies the commonalities and differences within non-traditional learning methods regarding virtual and real-world environments. The non-traditional learning methods in real-world have been introduced within the following courses: Process Balances, Process Calculation, and Process Synthesis, and within the virtual environment through…

  2. Application Exercises Improve Transfer of Statistical Knowledge in Real-World Situations (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Braasch, Jason L. G.


    The present research investigated whether real-world application exercises promoted students' abilities to spontaneously transfer statistical knowledge and to recognize the use of statistics in real-world contexts. Over the course of a semester of psychological statistics, two classes completed multiple application exercises designed to mimic…

  3. Methods of Software Quality Assurance under a Nuclear Quality Assurance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Kyung Ho; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon


    This paper addresses a substantial implementation of a software quality assurance under a nuclear quality assurance program. The relationship of the responsibility between a top-level nuclear quality assurance program such as ASME/NQA-1 and its lower level software quality assurance is described. Software quality assurance activities and software quality assurance procedures during the software development life cycle are also described

  4. Real world efficiency of retrofit partial-flow diesel particulate filters for trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.; Ligterink, N.; Kadijk, G.


    In 2006 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) introduced an incentive scheme for retrofitting diesel particulate filters on Euro II and Euro III trucks. This scheme involves both partial flow and full flow diesel particulate filters (also called semi-open or open respectively wall-flow or closed filters). In the period 2007 till January 2009 about 15,000 partial flow filters and 8,000 full flow diesel particulate filters were installed. The minimum filtration efficiency requirement for the partial flow diesel particulate filters is 50% during the type approval test. In 2008 an engine dynamometer test programme was conducted to measure the filtration efficiency of retrofit open particulates filters of heavy trucks. This led to somewhat disappointing results with average filtration efficiencies in the range of 5-20% during city and national motorway driving conditions up to 20-40% during long distance motorway driving. This result leads to two main questions: (1) Is this result also representative for medium heavy trucks used for delivery, and (2) do similar efficiencies show up also in tests on entire vehicles, tested under conditions as close as possible to their real world usage profile. To this end, an additional measurement programme was defined, which is reported here. The objective of the study reported here is to determine the real world filtration efficiency of retrofit partial flow particulate filters for a number of trucks under different driving conditions such as city and motorway driving. The emphasis should be on medium heavy trucks typically used for national delivery.

  5. Brain-to-Brain Synchrony Tracks Real-World Dynamic Group Interactions in the Classroom. (United States)

    Dikker, Suzanne; Wan, Lu; Davidesco, Ido; Kaggen, Lisa; Oostrik, Matthias; McClintock, James; Rowland, Jess; Michalareas, Georgios; Van Bavel, Jay J; Ding, Mingzhou; Poeppel, David


    The human brain has evolved for group living [1]. Yet we know so little about how it supports dynamic group interactions that the study of real-world social exchanges has been dubbed the "dark matter of social neuroscience" [2]. Recently, various studies have begun to approach this question by comparing brain responses of multiple individuals during a variety of (semi-naturalistic) tasks [3-15]. These experiments reveal how stimulus properties [13], individual differences [14], and contextual factors [15] may underpin similarities and differences in neural activity across people. However, most studies to date suffer from various limitations: they often lack direct face-to-face interaction between participants, are typically limited to dyads, do not investigate social dynamics across time, and, crucially, they rarely study social behavior under naturalistic circumstances. Here we extend such experimentation drastically, beyond dyads and beyond laboratory walls, to identify neural markers of group engagement during dynamic real-world group interactions. We used portable electroencephalogram (EEG) to simultaneously record brain activity from a class of 12 high school students over the course of a semester (11 classes) during regular classroom activities (Figures 1A-1C; Supplemental Experimental Procedures, section S1). A novel analysis technique to assess group-based neural coherence demonstrates that the extent to which brain activity is synchronized across students predicts both student class engagement and social dynamics. This suggests that brain-to-brain synchrony is a possible neural marker for dynamic social interactions, likely driven by shared attention mechanisms. This study validates a promising new method to investigate the neuroscience of group interactions in ecologically natural settings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards a conceptual framework for identifying student difficulties with solving Real-World Problems in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin


    This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...... solving in Physics is placed within the framework....

  7. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff; Jehlik, Forrest


    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  8. Visualizing Cross-sectional Data in a Real-World Context (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.


    If you could fly around your research results in three dimensions, wouldn't you like to do it? Visualizing research results properly during scientific presentations already does half the job of informing the public on the geographic framework of your research. Many scientists use the Google Earth™ mapping service (V7.1.2.2041) because it's a great interactive mapping tool for assigning geographic coordinates to individual data points, localizing a research area, and draping maps of results over Earth's surface for 3D visualization. However, visualizations of research results in vertical cross-sections are often not shown simultaneously with the maps in Google Earth. A few tutorials and programs to display cross-sectional data in Google Earth do exist, and the workflow is rather simple. By importing a cross-sectional figure into in the open software SketchUp Make [Trimble Navigation Limited, 2016], any spatial model can be exported to a vertical figure in Google Earth. In this presentation a clear workflow/tutorial is presented how to image cross-sections manually in Google Earth. No software skills, nor any programming codes are required. It is very easy to use, offers great possibilities for teaching and allows fast figure manipulation in Google Earth. The full workflow can be found in "Van Noten, K. 2016. Visualizing Cross-Sectional Data in a Real-World Context. EOS, Transactions AGU, 97, 16-19".The video tutorial can be found here: Cross-sectional Research Examples Illustrated in Google Earth

  9. Software Architecture Evolution (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.


    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  10. Real-World Use of Apixaban for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Marco; Romanazzi, Imma; Romiti, Giulio Francesco


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of oral anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has been transformed by the availability of the nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Real-world studies on the use of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants would help elucidate...... their effectiveness and safety in daily clinical practice. Apixaban was the third nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants introduced to clinical practice, and increasing real-world studies have been published. Our aim was to summarize current evidence about real-world studies on apixaban for stroke prevention...... in atrial fibrillation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all observational real-world studies comparing apixaban with other available oral anticoagulant drugs. RESULTS: From the original 9680 results retrieved, 16 studies have been included in the final meta-analysis. Compared...

  11. Food for Thought: Cross-Classification and Category Organization in a Complex Real-World Domain. (United States)

    Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.


    Seven studies involving 256 undergraduates examined how people represent, access, and make inferences about the real-world category domain, foods. Results give a detailed picture of the use of cross-classification in a complex domain. (SLD)

  12. OCA Oracle Database 11g database administration I : a real-world certification guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ries, Steve


    Developed as a practical book, ""Oracle Database 11g Administration I Certification Guide"" will show you all you need to know to effectively excel at being an Oracle DBA, for both examinations and the real world. This book is for anyone who needs the essential skills to become an Oracle DBA, pass the Oracle Database Administration I exam, and use those skills in the real world to manage secure, high performance, and highly available Oracle databases.

  13. Dynamic accuracy of GPS receivers for use in health research: a novel method to assess GPS accuracy in real-world settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott


    was to test the dynamic accuracy of a portable GPS device under real-world environmental conditions, for four modes of transport, and using three data collection intervals. We selected four routes on different bearings, passing through a variation of environmental conditions in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark...... be taken when the environment in which the study takes place could compromise the GPS signal....

  14. Tangible display systems: bringing virtual surfaces into the real world (United States)

    Ferwerda, James A.


    We are developing tangible display systems that enable natural interaction with virtual surfaces. Tangible display systems are based on modern mobile devices that incorporate electronic image displays, graphics hardware, tracking systems, and digital cameras. Custom software allows the orientation of a device and the position of the observer to be tracked in real-time. Using this information, realistic images of surfaces with complex textures and material properties illuminated by environment-mapped lighting, can be rendered to the screen at interactive rates. Tilting or moving in front of the device produces realistic changes in surface lighting and material appearance. In this way, tangible displays allow virtual surfaces to be observed and manipulated as naturally as real ones, with the added benefit that surface geometry and material properties can be modified in real-time. We demonstrate the utility of tangible display systems in four application areas: material appearance research; computer-aided appearance design; enhanced access to digital library and museum collections; and new tools for digital artists.

  15. [Characteristics and drug analysis associated with vertigo disease in real world]. (United States)

    Xie, Qian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Yong-Yan


    To explore the characteristics and influenced factors associated with the onset of vertigo disease, analysis of 3 719 cases of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease from the real world. Analysis the date of patients diagnosed with vertigo disease from the hospital information system of 19 grade-III class-A hospital from 2004 to 2011, include general information, the doctor's advice, other diseases combined, diagnostic information and the relationship with the onset of 24 solar terms, and the treatment drugs. The median age of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease was 59, the number of women (65.91%) was more than men (34.09%), manual workers (85.32%) were the majority career, most patients (81.63%) condition were general by the time they were hospital admission, patients more like admitted to neurologist (70.34%) when they first time to outpatient serves, hospitalization days were in 8-14 days (46.65%), 46.04% of the patients in the hospital total cost is in 5 000 RMB to 10 000 RMB, 73.86% of patients paid by National Health Medical Insurance. Hypertension (20.79%) was the most common underlying health problems, The most common syndromes was deficiency of liver-Yin and kidney-Yin(44. 21%) , followed by hyperactivity of liver-yang, disease of phlegm turbidity in mongolia and deficiency of Qi and blood. There were more deficiency syndrome and less excess syndrome. The highest rate of hospital admission solar terms in 2009 was the insects awaken throttle (5.21%), In 2010, the highest rate solar terms of hospital admission was the rain throttle (6.14%). The most frequently used traditional Chinese medicine was gastrodine injection (20.55%), the most frequently used western medicine for betahistine (10.19%), gastrodine injection was the most traditional Chinese medicine that combination with other western medicine. Hypertension was the most underlying health problems in the patients with vertigo disease in the real world, although the mental factors should

  16. Differences in Energy Consumption in Electric Vehicles: An Exploratory Real-World Study in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezhen Hu


    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs are widely regarded as a promising solution to reduce air pollution in cities and key to a low carbon mobility future. However, their environmental benefits depend on the temporal and spatial context of actual usage (journey energy efficiency and the rolling out of EVs is complicated by issues such as limited range. This paper explores how the energy efficiency of EVs is affected and shaped by driving behavior, personal driving styles, traffic conditions, and infrastructure design in the real world. Tests have been conducted with a Nissan LEAF under a typical driving cycle on the Beijing road network in order to improve understanding of variations in energy efficiency among drivers under different urban traffic conditions. Energy consumption and operation parameters were recorded in both peak and off-peak hours for a total of 13 drivers. The analysis reported in this paper shows that there are clear patterns in energy consumption along a route that are in part related to differences in infrastructure design, traffic conditions, and personal driving styles. The proposed method for analyzing time series data about energy consumption along routes can be used for research with larger fleets of EVs in the future.

  17. Fuel consumption rates of passenger cars in China: Labels versus real-world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Yao Zhiliang; He Kebin; Yu Xin


    Recently, China has implemented many policy measures to control the oil demand of on-road vehicles. In 2010, China started to report the fuel consumption rates of light-duty vehicles tested in laboratory and to require new vehicles to show the rates on window labels. In this study, we examined the differences between the test and real-world fuel consumption of Chinese passenger cars by using the data reported by real-world drivers on the internet voluntarily. The sales-weighted average fuel consumption of new cars in China in 2009 was 7.80 L/100 km in laboratory and 9.02 L/100 km in real-world, representing a difference of 15.5%. For the 153 individual car models examined, the real-world fuel consumption rates were -8 to 60% different from the test values. The simulation results of the International Vehicle Emission model show that the real-world driving cycles in 22 selected Chinese cities could result in -8 to 34% of changes in fuel consumption compared to the laboratory driving cycle. Further government effort on fuel consumption estimates adjustment, local driving cycle development, and real-world data accumulation through communication with the public is needed to improve the accuracy of the labeling policy. - Research highlights: → China requires new cars sold to show the test fuel use levels on window labels. → Real-world fuel consumption rates of cars are 15.5% higher than the label values. → Discrepancy between the test cycle and real conditions is a major cause for the gap. → China should adjust the estimates, collect fuel use data, and develop driving cycles. → More official and academic efforts are needed to improve the labeling policy.

  18. Integrated Data Management for Mobile Services in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hage, C.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    Market research companies predict a huge market for services to be delivered to mobile users. Services in5 clude route guidance, point-of-interest search, metering services such as road pricing and parking payment, traffic monitoring, etc. We believe that no single such service will be the killer...... service, but that suites of integrated services are called for. Such integrated services reuse integrated content obtained from multiple content providers. This paper describes concepts and techniques underlying the data management system deployed by a Danish mobile content integrator. While geo...

  19. Aquifers in coastal reclaimed lands - real world assessments (United States)

    Saha, A.; Bironne, A.; Vonhögen-Peeters, L.; Lee, W. K.; Babovic, V. M.; Vermeulen, P.; van Baaren, E.; Karaoulis, M.; Blanchais, F.; Nguyen, M.; Pauw, P.; Doornenbal, P.


    Climate change and population growth are significant concerns in coastal regions around the world, where more than 30% of the world's population reside. The numbers continue to rise as coastal areas are increasingly urbanized. Urbanization creates land shortages along the coasts, which has spurred coastal reclamation activities as a viable solution. In this study, we focus on these reclamation areas; reclaimed areas in Singapore, and in the Netherlands, and investigate the potential of these reclaimed bodies as artificial aquifers that could attenuate water shortage problems in addition to their original purpose. We compare how the reclamation methods determine the hydrogeological characteristics of these manmade aquifers. We highlight similarities in freshwater lens development in the artificial shallow aquifers under natural recharge under diverse conditions, i.e. tropical and temperate zones, using numerical models. The characteristics and responses of these aquifers with dynamic freshwater-saltwater interface are contrasted against naturally occurring coastal aquifers where equilibrium was disturbed by anthropogenic activities. Finally, we assess the risks associated with subsidence and saltwater intrusion, combining measurements and numerical models, in case these aquifers are planned for Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) or Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategies. Relative performances of some ASR schemes are simulated and compared in the reclaimed lands.

  20. Hardware control system using modular software under RSX-11D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittell, R.S.; Helland, J.A.


    A modular software system used to control extensive hardware is described. The development, operation, and experience with this software are discussed. Included are the methods employed to implement this system while taking advantage of the Real-Time features of RSX-11D. Comparisons are made between this system and an earlier nonmodular system. The controlled hardware includes magnet power supplies, stepping motors, DVM's, and multiplexors, and is interfaced through CAMAC. 4 figures

  1. Integrated Data Management for Mobile Services in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hage, C.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    Market research companies predict a huge market for services to be delivered to mobile users. Services in5 clude route guidance, point-of-interest search, metering services such as road pricing and parking payment, traffic monitoring, etc. We believe that no single such service will be the killer...... service, but that suites of integrated services are called for. Such integrated services reuse integrated content obtained from multiple content providers. This paper describes concepts and techniques underlying the data management system deployed by a Danish mobile content integrator. While geo......-referencing of content is important, it is even more important to relate content to the transportation infrastructure. The data management system thus relies on several sophisticated, integrated representations of the infrastructure, each of which supports its own kind of use. The paper covers data modeling, querying...

  2. Playing Tetris decreases drug and other cravings in real world settings. (United States)

    Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Andrade, Jackie; Whalley, Ben; May, Jon


    Most research on cognitive processes in craving has been carried out in the laboratory and focuses on food craving. This study extends laboratory findings to real world settings and cravings for drugs or activities as well as food. Previous laboratory research has found that playing Tetris reduces craving strength. The present study used an ecological momentary assessment protocol in which 31 undergraduate participants carried iPods for a week and were prompted 7 times each day, by SMS message, to use their iPod to report craving. Participants reported craving target and strength (0-100), whether they indulged their previous craving (yes/no), and whether they were under the influence of alcohol (yes/no). Those randomly assigned to the intervention condition (n=15) then played Tetris for 3min and reported their craving again. Those in the monitoring-only control condition (n=16) provided baseline craving data to test if Tetris reduced the incidence and strength of spontaneous cravings across the week. Playing Tetris decreased craving strength for drugs (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine), food and drink, and activities (sex, exercise, gaming), with a mean reduction of 13.9 percentage points, effect size f(2)=0.11. This effect was consistent across the week. This is the first demonstration that visual cognitive interference can be used in the field to reduce cravings for substances and activities other than eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira


    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  4. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research. (United States)

    Oultram, Stuart


    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.

  5. An algebraic approach to modeling in software engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loegel, C.J.; Ravishankar, C.V.


    Our work couples the formalism of universal algebras with the engineering techniques of mathematical modeling to develop a new approach to the software engineering process. Our purpose in using this combination is twofold. First, abstract data types and their specification using universal algebras can be considered a common point between the practical requirements of software engineering and the formal specification of software systems. Second, mathematical modeling principles provide us with a means for effectively analyzing real-world systems. We first use modeling techniques to analyze a system and then represent the analysis using universal algebras. The rest of the software engineering process exploits properties of universal algebras that preserve the structure of our original model. This paper describes our software engineering process and our experience using it on both research and commercial systems. We need a new approach because current software engineering practices often deliver software that is difficult to develop and maintain. Formal software engineering approaches use universal algebras to describe ''computer science'' objects like abstract data types, but in practice software errors are often caused because ''real-world'' objects are improperly modeled. There is a large semantic gap between the customer's objects and abstract data types. In contrast, mathematical modeling uses engineering techniques to construct valid models for real-world systems, but these models are often implemented in an ad hoc manner. A combination of the best features of both approaches would enable software engineering to formally specify and develop software systems that better model real systems. Software engineering, like mathematical modeling, should concern itself first and foremost with understanding a real system and its behavior under given circumstances, and then with expressing this knowledge in an executable form

  6. Relationship among apathy, cognition, and real-world disability after mild traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Grimes, Kyrsten M


    It is well established that most people recover soon after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), yet protracted neuropsychological impairment is evident in many individuals. We sought to elucidate the relationship between apathy and neuropsychological impairment and disability as it pertains to real-world function in patients who sustained a mTBI reporting and demonstrating protracted neuropsychological impaired (i.e., more than three months post-injury). We employed a battery of neuropsychological and psychological measures, along with a measure of apathy in 104 patients who sustained a mTBI reporting neuropsychological complaints (38 in the not disabled group and 66 in the disabled group). Their ability to return to work was used as proxy for real-world disability. Specific deficits in verbal fluency, memory, and information processing predicted real-world disability but apathy did not, suggesting that psychological factors may play less of a mediating role than specific neuropsychological factors in the relationship between impairment and real world disability. Our research furthers our understanding of the cognitive and psychological differences that exist in patients with mTBI who have real-world disability compared to those who do not.

  7. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: re-defining 'real-world data' within the broader data universe. (United States)

    Fanaroff, Alexander C; Steffel, Jan; Alexander, John H; Lip, Gregory Y H; Califf, Robert M; Lopes, Renato D


    Real-world data (RWD) has been defined as data generated outside of traditional randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Though RWD has received increasing attention from regulatory authorities and professional societies, dividing evidence into that derived from 'real-world' vs. 'non-real-world' sources provides only one element of a much larger framework for evidence evaluation. Evidence should be evaluated on the source of the data, the method of treatment allocation (whether any intervention being evaluated was assigned or simply observed as used in practice) and the context in which the evidence was generated (overall study design). Under this framework, RWD refers only to data source, and a study incorporates RWD when it primarily uses data collected for non-research purposes, such as insurance claims data or the electronic health record, regardless of study design. Separation of study design, data source, and context enables parallel evaluation of two critical elements: (i) whether a study can support claims of causal inference, which can be assured with a high degree of confidence only in studies where patients are assigned treatments by protocol; and (ii) whether the study population and clinical context mirror clinical practice, a strength of observational studies using data from clinical practice or administrative claims. In this review, we describe the strengths and weaknesses of observational and non-observational studies, and studies involving RWD and non-RWD, through the lens of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Observational studies employing RWD are useful for describing how oral anticoagulants are used in clinical practice, but generally cannot be used to make claims regarding comparative treatment effects. Questions regarding treatment effect generally are best answered through an RCT, and additional pragmatic RCTs are needed to compare different antithrombotic agents for the prevention of thrombotic events in AF.

  8. Promotion of Efficient Cooperation by Sharing Environment with an Agent Having a Body in Real World (United States)

    Naito, Hisashi; Takeuchi, Yugo

    Recently, agents have widely surfaced as existences that interact with humans. In face-to-face communication, we can confidently communicate through each other’s bodies. In our future ubiquitous society, realization will increase that the place that receives information and the information content are closely related. In this study in a cooperative task experiment, we clarified how the body’s role in the information processing activity in the real world with agents and the relation between information and environment influence agent evaluation. We found that an agent with a body in the real world is more likely to follow instructions than an agent in the virtual world, suggesting that the body plays an important role in real-world based interaction.

  9. Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.


    Understanding the real-world power demand of modern automobiles is of critical importance to engineers using modeling and simulation to inform the intelligent design of increasingly efficient powertrains. Increased use of global positioning system (GPS) devices has made large scale data collection of vehicle speed (and associated power demand) a reality. While the availability of real-world GPS data has improved the industry's understanding of in-use vehicle power demand, relatively little attention has been paid to the incremental power requirements imposed by road grade. This analysis quantifies the incremental efficiency impacts of real-world road grade by appending high fidelity elevation profiles to GPS speed traces and performing a large simulation study. Employing a large real-world dataset from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Transportation Secure Data Center, vehicle powertrain simulations are performed with and without road grade under five vehicle models. Aggregate results of this study suggest that road grade could be responsible for 1% to 3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles.

  10. Real-world volatile organic compound emission rates from seated adults and children for use in indoor air studies. (United States)

    Stönner, C; Edtbauer, A; Williams, J


    Human beings emit many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both endogenous (internally produced) and exogenous (external source) origin. Here we present real-world emission rates of volatile organic compounds from cinema audiences (50-230 people) as a function of time in multiple screenings of three films. The cinema location and film selection allowed high-frequency measurement of human-emitted VOCs within a room flushed at a known rate so that emissions rates could be calculated for both adults and children. Gas-phase emission rates are analyzed as a function of time of day, variability during the film, and age of viewer. The average emission rates of CO 2 , acetone, and isoprene were lower (by a factor of ~1.2-1.4) for children under twelve compared to adults while for acetaldehyde emission rates were equivalent. Molecules influenced by exogenous sources such as decamethylcyclopentasiloxanes and methanol tended to decrease over the course of day and then rise for late evening screenings. These results represent average emission rates of people under real-world conditions and can be used in indoor air quality assessments and building design. Averaging over a large number of people generates emission rates that are less susceptible to individual behaviors. © 2017 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Multiple sclerosis in the real world: A systematic review of fingolimod as a case study. (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Medin, Jennie; Couto, C Anne-Marie; Mitchell, Catherine R


    The aim of our study was to systematically review the growing body of published literature reporting on one specific multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment, fingolimod, in the real world to assess its effectiveness in patients with MS, evaluate methodologies used to investigate MS in clinical practice, and describe the evidence gaps for MS as exemplified by fingolimod. We conducted a PRISMA-compliant systematic review of the literature (cut-off date: 4 March 2016). Published papers reporting real-world data for fingolimod with regard to clinical outcomes, persistence, adherence, healthcare costs, healthcare resource use, treatment patterns, and patient-reported outcomes that met all the eligibility criteria were included for data extraction and quality assessment. Based on 34 included studies, this analysis found that fingolimod treatment improved outcomes compared to the period before treatment initiation and was more effective than interferons or glatiramer acetate. However, among studies comparing fingolimod with natalizumab, overall trends were inconsistent: some reported natalizumab to be more effective than fingolimod and others reported similar effectiveness for natalizumab and fingolimod. These studies illustrate the challenges of investigating MS in the real world, including the subjectivity in evaluating some clinical outcomes and the heterogeneity of methodologies used and patient populations investigated, which limit comparisons across studies. Gaps in available real-world evidence for MS are also highlighted, including those relating to patient-reported outcomes, combined clinical outcomes (to measure overall treatment effectiveness), and healthcare costs/resource use. The included studies provide good evidence of the real-world effectiveness of fingolimod and highlight the diversity of methodologies used to assess treatment benefit in clinical practice. Future studies could address the evidence gaps found in the literature and the challenges associated

  12. Comparison between Euro NCAP test results and real-world crash data. (United States)

    Kullgren, Anders; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes


    The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to compare Euro NCAP safety ratings of cars with those published by the Folksam real-world injury ratings; and second, to compare injury risk measures between Euro NCAP 2 and 5 Star cars with real-world injury and disability outcomes using police and insurance injury data. Car models were grouped according to the Euro NCAP star rating scores. Folksam risk of injury ratings come from statistical analysis of real-world crashes using police and insurance databases. The paired comparison method using 2-car crashes was used to control for crash speed and the mass differences between cars of different weights were normalized. For all comparisons, 5-star rated Euro NCAP cars were found to have a lower risk of injury compared to 2-star rated cars (5-star cars were 10% ± 2.5% lower risk than 2-star cars). For fatal and serious injuries, the difference was 23 ± 8 percent, and for fatal injuries alone the difference was 68 ± 32 percent. By comparison, the Folksam 5-star rated cars had a relative risk of 0.020 ± 0.0024, whereas 2-star rated car risk was 0.028 ± 0.0016, corresponding to a 27 percent difference in risk between 5- and 2-star cars. Good correlation was found between Euro NCAP test results and real-world injury outcomes. The largest difference in injury risk between 2- and 5-star rated cars in Euro NCAP was found for risk of fatality, confirming that car manufacturers have focused their safety performance on serious crash outcomes. In addition, Euro NCAP crash tests were shown to be highly correlated with serious crash performance, confirming their relevance for evaluating real-world crash performance. Good concordance was found between Euro NCAP and Folksam real-world crash and injury ratings.

  13. Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria


    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmental...... that “enable” year 10/11 students to successfully begin the modelling process, that is, formulate and mathematise a real world problem. The 3-year study will take a design research approach in working intensively with six schools across two educational jurisdictions. It is anticipated that this research...

  14. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles (United States)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Samaras, Zissis


    The reduction of transport-generated CO2 emissions is currently a problem of global interest. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as one promising technological solution for limiting transport-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the number of HEVs in the market remains limited, but this picture will change in the years to come as HEVs are expected to pave the way for cleaner technologies in transport. In this paper, results are presented regarding fuel economy and pollutant emissions measurements of two hybrid electric production vehicles. The measurements were conducted on a Prius II and a Honda Civic IMA using both the European legislated driving cycle (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) and real-world simulation driving cycles (Artemis). In addition to the emissions measurements, other vehicle-operating parameters were studied in an effort to better quantify the maximum CO2 reduction potential. Data from real-world operation of a Prius II vehicle were also used in the evaluation. Results indicate that in most cases both vehicles present improved energy efficiency and pollutant emissions compared to conventional cars. The fuel economy benefit of the two HEVs peaked under urban driving conditions where reductions of 60% and 40% were observed, respectively. Over higher speeds the difference in fuel economy was lower, reaching that of conventional diesel at 95 km h-1. The effect of ambient temperature on fuel consumption was also quantified. It is concluded that urban operation benefits the most of hybrid technology, leading to important fuel savings and urban air quality improvement.

  15. GREENIFY: A Real-World Action Game for Climate Change Education (United States)

    Lee, Joey J.; Ceyhan, Pinar; Jordan-Cooley, William; Sung, Woonhee


    The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience's values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study…

  16. Robust Emission Management Strategy to Meet Real-World Emission Requirements for HD Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Nieuwenhof, R. van den; Kupper, F.; Willems, F.; Kooijman, D.


    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low

  17. Stochastic Real-World Drive Cycle Generation Based on a Two Stage Markov Chain Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balau, A.E.; Kooijman, D.; Vazquez Rodarte, I.; Ligterink, N.


    This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as

  18. Caffeine Enhances Real-World Language Processing: Evidence from a Proofreading Task (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Rapp, David N.; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A.


    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended…

  19. Using Mathematics to Solve Real World Problems: The Role of Enablers (United States)

    Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill; Galbriath, Peter; Niss, Mogens


    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmental that "enable" year 10/11 students to…

  20. Tracking the reading eye: towards a model of real-world reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia


    Eye tracking has helped to understand the process of reading a word or a sentence, and this research has been very fruitful over the past decades. However, everyday real-world reading dramatically differs from this scenario: we read a newspaper on the bus, surf the Internet for movie reviews or

  1. Incorporating a Real World Case Study into a Senior Construction Engineering Course (United States)

    Fini, Eli H.


    This paper investigates the effect of bringing real world case studies on college students' self efficacy, their confidence, and their motivation toward an engineering field. It was found that working with real cases increases student's motivation and maximizes their learning by becoming personally committed to course and program goals. As a…

  2. Single-vehicle collisions in Europe: Analysis using real-world and crash-test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naing, C.L.; Hill, J.; Thomson, R.; Fagerlind, H.; Kelkka, M.; Klootwijk, C.; Dupre, G.; Bisson, O.


    Many European road casualties result from vehicles leaving the road, often impacting roadside obstacles. As part of the European Commission-funded project RISER (Roadside Infrastructure for Safer European Roads), several activities were undertaken to collate the type of real world crash data which

  3. Treatment of allergic rhinitis using mobile technology with real world data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Arnavielhe, S; Bedbrook, A


    BACKGROUND: Large observational implementation studies are needed to triangulate the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs) as they reflect "real world" everyday practice. In a pilot study, we attempted to provide additional and complementary insights on the real life treatment of allergi...

  4. Emissions During and Real-world Frequency of Heavy-duty Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration. (United States)

    Ruehl, Chris; Smith, Jeremy D; Ma, Yilin; Shields, Jennifer Erin; Burnitzki, Mark; Sobieralski, Wayne; Ianni, Robert; Chernich, Donald J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Collins, John Francis; Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David; Hu, Shaohua; Dwyer, Harry


    Recent tightening of particulate matter (PM) emission standards for heavy-duty engines has spurred the widespread adoption of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which need to be regenerated periodically to remove trapped PM. The total impact of DPFs therefore depends not only on their filtering efficiency during normal operation, but also on the emissions during and the frequency of regeneration events. We performed active (parked and driving) and passive regenerations on two heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), and report the chemical composition of emissions during these events, as well as the efficiency with which trapped PM is converted to gas-phase products. We also collected activity data from 85 HDDVs to determine how often regeneration occurs during real-world operation. PM emitted during regeneration ranged from 0.2 to 16.3 g, and the average time and distance between real-world active regenerations was 28.0 h and 599 miles. These results indicate that regeneration of real-world DPFs does not substantially offset the reduction of PM by DPFs during normal operation. The broad ranges of regeneration frequency per truck (3-100 h and 23-4078 miles) underscore the challenges in designing engines and associated aftertreatments that reduce emissions for all real-world duty cycles.

  5. MIMU-Wear: ontology-based sensor selection for real-world wearable activity recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalonga, Claudia; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio; Banos Legran, Oresti


    An enormous effort has been made during the recent years towards the recognition of human activity based on wearable sensors. Despite the wide variety of proposed systems, most existing solutions have in common to solely operate on predefined settings and constrained sensor setups. Real-world

  6. New Teaching Environments Near Real-World-Like Laboratories for Power Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Østergaard, Jacob


    , and operating real-world systems. The tool to be presented here is mainly establishment of teaching facilities at the Technical University of Denmark adjacent to the research facilities and where nearness to the ‘real world’ is essential and implemented by clearly visible research activities and by close...

  7. Hop, Step, Step and Jump : Towards Real-World Complexity @ Delft University of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Slinger, J.H.; Van Daalen, C.; Yucel, G.; Thissen, W.A.H.


    This paper deals with System Dynamics education at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. It focuses more specifically on the quadruple jump approach towards dealing with real-world dynamic complexity. The paper starts with an overview of the System Dynamics courses, situated within the

  8. Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning (United States)

    Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.


    Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…

  9. What Is Real-World Data? A Review of Definitions Based on Literature and Stakeholder Interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makady, Amr; de Boer, Anthonius; Hillege, Hans; Klungel, Olaf; Goettsch, Wim


    Background: Despite increasing recognition of the value of real-world data (RWD), consensus on the definition of RWD is lacking.  Objectives: To review definitions publicly available for RWD to shed light on similarities and differences between them.  Methods: A literature review and stakeholder

  10. Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples (United States)

    Whelan, Rebecca J.; Hannon, Theresa E.; Zare, Richard N.


    The use of ion chromatography (IC) as a means to teach important analytical concepts while giving the students a valuable opportunity to identify and investigate a real-world system of interest to them is described. A single IC apparatus can be tailored for different classes of analyses by the selection of different column-eluent combinations.

  11. GetReal : from efficacy in clinical trials to relative effectiveness in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, Matthias; Moons, Karel G M; Fletcher, Christine

    The GetReal consortium ("incorporating real-life data into drug development") addresses the efficacy-effectiveness gap that opens between the data from well-controlled randomized trials in selected patient groups submitted to regulators and the real-world evidence on effectiveness and safety of

  12. Image-based aircraft pose estimation: a comparison of simulations and real-world data (United States)

    Breuers, Marcel G. J.; de Reus, Nico


    The problem of estimating aircraft pose information from mono-ocular image data is considered using a Fourier descriptor based algorithm. The dependence of pose estimation accuracy on image resolution and aspect angle is investigated through simulations using sets of synthetic aircraft images. Further evaluation shows that god pose estimation accuracy can be obtained in real world image sequences.

  13. Replication protocol analysis: a method for the study of real-world design thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kovacs, L. B.


    ’ is refined into a method called ‘replication protocol analysis’ (RPA), and discussed from a methodological perspective of design research. It is argued that for the study of real-world design thinking this method offers distinct advantages over traditional ‘design protocol analysis’, which seeks to capture...

  14. Real-World Experimentation Comparing Time-Sharing and Batch Processing in Teaching Computer Science, (United States)

    effectiveness of time-sharing and batch processing in teaching computer science . The experimental design was centered on direct, ’real world’ comparison...ALGOL). The experimental sample involved all introductory computer science courses with a total population of 415 cadets. The results generally

  15. Mining and Modeling Real-World Networks: Patterns, Anomalies, and Tools (United States)

    Akoglu, Leman


    Large real-world graph (a.k.a network, relational) data are omnipresent, in online media, businesses, science, and the government. Analysis of these massive graphs is crucial, in order to extract descriptive and predictive knowledge with many commercial, medical, and environmental applications. In addition to its general structure, knowing what…

  16. Vehicle and crew scheduling: Solving large real-world instances with an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W. de Groot (Sebastiaan); D. Huisman (Dennis)


    textabstractIn this paper we discuss several methods to solve large real-world instances of the vehicle and crew scheduling problem. Although there has been an increased attention to integrated approaches for solving such problems in the literature, currently only small or medium-sized instances can

  17. Vehicle and crew scheduling: solving large real-world instances with an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W. de Groot (Sebastiaan); D. Huisman (Dennis)


    textabstractIn this paper we discuss several methods to solve large real-world instances of the vehicle and crew scheduling problem. Although, there has been an increased attention to integrated approaches for solving such problems in the literature, currently only small or medium-sized instances

  18. Replacing a Hospital Information System: an example of a real-world case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkel, Nicolaas; Spil, Antonius A.M.; van de Weg, R.L.W.

    Real-world case studies are important to complement the academic skills and knowledge acquired by computer science students. In this paper we relate our experiences with a course specifically designed to address this issue. The objectives of the course are threefold: to train management and

  19. A real-world Case Study in Information Technology for Undergraduate Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkel, Nicolaas; Spil, Antonius A.M.; van de Weg, R.L.W.


    Real-world case studies are important to complement the academic skills and knowledge acquired by computer science students. In this paper we relate our experiences with a course specifically designed to address this issue. The problem to be addressed is the replacement of a Hospital Information

  20. Waking up from the dream of reason; Rationality in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hezewijk, René


    Review Essay of: Gerd Gigerenzer, Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. 344 pp. ISBN 0–19–513622–5 (hbk). Gerd Gigerenzer, Reckoning with Risk: Learning to Live with Uncertainty. London: Allen Lane/Penguin, 2002. 310 pp. ISBN 0–713–99512–2

  1. Sources of Dissatisfaction: Mobile Interaction with the Real World and Other Mobile Internet Applications


    Salo, Markus


    Current consumer-level mobile Internet applications involve many potential sources of dissatisfaction. Studying these sources is necessary, especially for newer application areas such as mobile interaction with the real world. This study combined previous studies to form a categorization framework of dissatisfaction sources and gathered qualitative data using critical incident technique and overall evaluation questionnaire to describe the sources in detail. This art...

  2. Modelling and Scheduling Autonomous Mobile Robot for a Real-World Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Bøgh, Simon


    The paper deals with a real-world implementation of autonomous industrial mobile robot performing an industrial application at a factory of a pump manufacturer. In the implementation, the multi-criteria optimization problem of scheduling tasks of a mobile robot is also taken into account. The pap...

  3. Evaluation of US rear underride guard regulation for large trucks using real-world crashes. (United States)

    Brumbelow, Matthew L; Blanar, Laura


    Current requirements for rear underride guards on large trucks are set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 223 and 224. The standards have been in place since 1998, but their adequacy has not been evaluated apart from two series of controlled crash tests. The current study used detailed reviews of real-world crashes from the Large Truck Crash Causation Study to assess the ability of guards that comply with certain aspects of the regulation to mitigate passenger vehicle underride. It also evaluated the dangers posed by underride of large trucks that are exempt from guard requirements. For the 115 cases meeting the inclusion criteria, coded data, case narratives, photographs, and measurements were used to examine the interaction between study vehicles. The presence and type of underride guard was determined, and its performance in mitigating underride was categorized. Overall, almost one-half of the passenger vehicles had underride damage classified as severe or catastrophic. These vehicles accounted for 23 of the 28 in which occupants were killed. For the cases involving trailers with underride guards compliant with one or both FMVSS, guard deformation or complete failure was frequent and most commonly due to weak attachments, buckling of the trailer chassis, or bending of the lateral end of the guard under narrow overlap loading. Most of the truck units studied qualified for at least one of the FMVSS exemptions. The two largest groups were trailers with small wheel setbacks and single-unit straight trucks. Dump trucks represented a particularly hazardous category of straight truck. The current study suggests several weaknesses in the rear underride guard regulation. The standard allows too much ground clearance, the quasi-static test conditions allow guard designs that fail in narrow overlap crashes, and certifying guards independent of trailers leads to systems with inadequate attachment and

  4. Real-world emissions from model year 1993, 2000, and 2010 passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M.; Goodwin, R.; Watkins, R. [and others


    Air pollution by cars and light trucks is a major problem in metropolitan areas in the United States and around the world. Much of the discussion of this issue is based on the emissions per vehicle mile as determined under somewhat artificial testing conditions. The pollutants actually emitted vary considerably with the particular vehicle and the way it is driven, but the average emissions per mile are much higher than the test values. This report concerns the sources and levels of excess emissions, and the potential for reducing them. The history of automotive emissions regulation reveals remarkable success in reducing the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from new automobiles - as measured in certification tests. The grams-per-mile (g/mile) standards for these tests are stringent, with 96% reductions mandated in comparison to the estimated pre-control (mid-1960s) levels for CO and HC; and 75% reductions mandated for NO{sub x}. Powerful new technologies have been developed and incorporated into every new vehicle in order to accomplish these reductions. Most noteworthy are the catalytic converter and closed-loop engine controls; the latter includes sensors before and after the engine proper, and computer analysis of the information leading to real-time control of fuel injection, with the principal objective of maintaining just the right chemical balance of fuel and air. The average lifetime real-world g/mile emissions associated with conventional gasoline fueled cars for model years 1993, 2000, and 2010 have been projected. Results are discussed.

  5. Ubiquitous Real-World Sensing and Audiology-Based Health Informatics. (United States)

    Jacobs, Peter G; Kaye, Jeffrey A


    Hearing impairment and hearing rehabilitation strategies have historically been studied within the confines of a sound booth under controlled experimental conditions. The real world is quite different from the clinical setting and it is important to study how a person with hearing impairment interacts with the world both with and without a hearing assist intervention. A person's ability to hear enables them to communicate and to effectively interact with the world. If a person suffers from hearing impairment, we might anticipate that they could become more disengaged from the world, more socially isolated, potentially depressed, and have additional comorbidities such as cognitive and physical impairment. Indeed, prior research has shown that hearing impairment is associated with social isolation, decreased functional ability and mobility, fall risk, diabetes, and cognitive impairment. However, nearly all of the work that has been done in this area of assessing the impact of hearing impairment on a person's social, cognitive, and physical health has been done through clinical tests or self-report studies using questionnaires and surveys that attempt to objectively quantify various aspects of health. Unfortunately, clinical tests, questionnaires, and surveys oftentimes inaccurately assess a person's true social, cognitive, and physical health. Only when a person is observed in their natural living environment can a more accurate assessment of health be obtained. The ability to assess hearing health, social engagement, cognitive, and physical health in natural living environments is becoming possible with the advent of ubiquitous sensing capabilities. Here we discuss some of the work that has been done by our group and others that may be of use to the field of audiology e-health. The purpose of this article is not to present new experimental data, but rather to describe a new method of using advanced in-home sensing techniques to better understand how hearing

  6. Comparison of real-world and certification emission rates for light duty gasoline vehicles. (United States)

    Khan, Tanzila; Frey, H Christopher


    U.S. light duty vehicles are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. Emission compliance is determined by certification testing of selected emissions from representative vehicles on standard driving cycles using chassis dynamometers. Test results are also used in many emission inventories. The dynamometer based emission rates are adjusted to provide the certification levels (CL), which must be lower than the standards for compliance. Although standard driving cycles are based on specific observations of real-world driving, they are not necessarily real-world representative. A systematic comparison of the real-world emission rates of U.S. light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) versus CL, and emission standards has not been previously reported. The purpose of this work is to compare regulatory limits (both CLs and emission standards) and the real-world emissions of LDGVs. The sensitivity of the comparisons to cold start emission was assessed. Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) were used to measure hot stabilized exhaust emissions of 122 LDGVs on a specified 110 mile test route. Cold start emissions were measured with PEMS for a selected vehicle sample of 32 vehicles. Emissions were measured for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). For each vehicle, a Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) modal emission rate model was developed. The VSP modal rates were weighted by the standard driving cycles and real-world driving cycles to estimate the respective cycle average emission rates (CAERs). Measured vehicles were matched with certification test vehicles for comparison. For systematic trends in comparison, vehicles were classified into four groups based on the Tier 1 and Tier 2 emission regulation, and the vehicle type such as passenger car and passenger truck. Depending on the cycle-pollutant and the vehicle groups, hot stabilized CAERs are on average either statistically

  7. DecisionMaker software and extracting fuzzy rules under uncertainty (United States)

    Walker, Kevin B.


    Knowledge acquisition under uncertainty is examined. Theories proposed in deKorvin's paper 'Extracting Fuzzy Rules Under Uncertainty and Measuring Definability Using Rough Sets' are discussed as they relate to rule calculation algorithms. A data structure for holding an arbitrary number of data fields is described. Limitations of Pascal for loops in the generation of combinations are also discussed. Finally, recursive algorithms for generating all possible combination of attributes and for calculating the intersection of an arbitrary number of fuzzy sets are presented.

  8. Designing and Using Projects with Real World Application in a MBA Managerial Accounting Class: The Case of The Balanced Scorecard (United States)

    Houke, Charlotte


    This paper explores the purpose of designing and using projects with real world application in a M.B.A. managerial accounting class. Included is a discussion of how and why the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Project has been used in classes to link theory with practice by providing real world application of the BSC framework. M.B.A. students represent a…

  9. Processing speed and executive functions predict real-world everyday living skills in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia. (United States)

    Puig, O; Penadés, R; Baeza, I; Sánchez-Gistau, V; De la Serna, E; Fonrodona, L; Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Bernardo, M; Castro-Fornieles, J


    Cognition and clinical variables are known to be among the most predictive factors of real-world social functioning and daily living skills in adult-onset schizophrenia. Fewer studies have focused on their impact in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). The aim of this study is to examine the relationships and the predictive value of cognition and clinical variables on real-world daily living skills in a sample of adolescents with EOS. Cognitive, clinical and real-world everyday living skills measures were administered to 45 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized adolescent outpatients with EOS and 45 healthy control subjects matched by age and sex. Multi-variant analyses to compare cognitive and real-world functioning profiles between patients and controls and regression analysis to identify predictors of real-world functioning scores in patients were used. Adolescents with EOS showed a generalized cognitive and real-world daily living skills dysfunction. Several cognitive and clinical variables significantly correlated with real-world daily living skills functioning but only the processing speed and executive functions emerged as independent predictors of everyday living skills scores, explaining 25.1% of the variance. Slowness in processing information and executive dysfunction showed a significant impact on real-world daily living skills in EOS, independently from clinical symptoms and other cognitive variables. Nevertheless, much of the variance in the daily living skills measure remained unaccounted for, suggesting that other factors were involved as well in this young population.

  10. A real world dissemination and implementation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders. (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F; Szafranski, Derek D; Shead, Sarah D


    Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies is challenging in real world clinical settings. Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for affective disorders was developed with dissemination and implementation in clinical settings in mind. The present study investigated a voluntary local dissemination and implementation effort, involving 28 providers participating in a four-hour training on TBT. Providers completed immediate (n=22) and six-month follow-up (n=12) training assessments and were encouraged to collect data on their TBT patients (delivery fidelity was not investigated). Findings demonstrated that providers endorsed learning of and interest in using TBT after the training. At six-months, 50% of providers reported using TBT with their patients and their perceived effectiveness of TBT to be very good to excellent. Submitted patient outcome data evidenced medium to large effect sizes. Together, these findings provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of a real world dissemination and implementation of TBT. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers (United States)

    Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill; Galbriath, Peter; Niss, Mogens


    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmental that "enable" year 10/11 students to successfully begin the modelling process, that is, formulate and mathematise a real world problem. The 3-year study will take a design research approach in working intensively with six schools across two educational jurisdictions. It is anticipated that this research will generate new theoretical and practical insights into the role of "enablers" within the process of mathematisation, leading to the development of principles for the design and implementation for tasks that support students' development as modellers.

  12. [Exploration and demonstration study on drug combination from clinical real world]. (United States)

    Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yong-yan


    Drug combination is extensive in the clinical real world,which is an important part and the inherent requirements of the post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The key issues and technology include multi-domain and multi-disciplinary such as the rationality, efficacy and safety evaluation of combination drug starting from clinical real world, study on component in vivo and mechanism of combination drug, the risk/benefit assessment and cost-benefit evaluation of combination drug and so on. The topic has been studied as clinical demonstration on combination therapy of variety of diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, insomnia, depression, hepatitis, herpes zoster, psoriasis and ectopic pregnancy. Meanwhile, multi-disciplinary dynamic innovation alliance of clinical drug combination has been presented, which can promote the academic development and improving service ability and level of TCM.

  13. Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers (United States)

    Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill; Galbriath, Peter; Niss, Mogens


    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmental that "enable" year 10/11 students to successfully begin the modelling process, that is, formulate and mathematise a real world problem. The 3-year study will take a design research approach in working intensively with six schools across two educational jurisdictions. It is anticipated that this research will generate new theoretical and practical insights into the role of "enablers" within the process of mathematisation, leading to the development of principles for the design and implementation for tasks that support students' development as modellers.

  14. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory.

  15. Feeling the real world: limbic response to music depends on related content. (United States)

    Eldar, Eran; Ganor, Ori; Admon, Roee; Bleich, Avraham; Hendler, Talma


    Emotions are often object related--they are about someone or something in the world. It is yet an open question whether emotions and the associated perceptual contents that they refer to are processed by different parts of the brain or whether the brain regions that mediate emotions are also involved in the processing of the associated content they refer to. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we showed that simply combining music (rich in emotion but poor in information about the concrete world) with neutral films (poor in emotionality but rich in real-world details) yields increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, and lateral prefrontal regions. In contrast, emotional music on its own did not elicit a differential response in these regions. The finding that the amygdala, the heart of the emotional brain, responds increasingly to an emotional stimulus when it is associated with realistic scenes supports a fundamental role for concrete real-world content in emotional processing.

  16. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles


    Plötz, Patrick; Funke, Simon; Jochem, Patrick


    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual ...

  17. Electric vehicle battery model identification and state of charge estimation in real world driving cycles


    Fotouhi, Abbas; Propp, Karsten; Auger, Daniel J.


    This paper describes a study demonstrating a new method of state-of-charge (SoC) estimation for batteries in real-world electric vehicle applications. This method combines realtime model identification with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In the study, investigations were carried down on a small-scale battery pack. An equivalent circuit network model of the pack was developed and validated using pulse-discharge experiments. The pack was then subjected to demands representing...

  18. Does laboratory cue reactivity correlate with real-world craving and smoking responses to cues? (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S; Tindle, Hilary A; Scholl, Sarah M; Ferguson, Stuart G


    Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) assessments are used to assess smokers' responses to cues. Likewise, EMA recording is used to characterize real-world response to cues. Understanding the relationship between CR and EMA responses addresses the ecological validity of CR. In 190 daily smokers not currently quitting, craving and smoking responses to cues were assessed in laboratory CR and by real-world EMA recording. Separate CR sessions involved 5 smoking-relevant cues (smoking, alcohol, negative affect, positive affect, smoking prohibitions), and a neutral cue. Subjects used EMA to monitor smoking situations for 3 weeks, completing parallel situational assessments (presence of others smoking, alcohol consumption, negative affect, positive affect, and smoking prohibitions, plus current craving) in smoking and non-smoking occasions (averaging 70 and 60 occasions each). Analyses correlated CR craving and smoking cue responses with EMA craving and smoking correlations with similar cues. Although some cues did not show main effects on average craving or smoking, a wide range of individual differences in response to cues was apparent in both CR and EMA data, providing the necessary context to assess their relationship. Laboratory CR measures of cue response were not correlated with real-world cue responses assessed by EMA. The average correlation was 0.03; none exceeded 0.32. One of 40 correlations examined was significantly greater than 0. Laboratory CR measures do not correlate with EMA-assessed craving or smoking in response to cues, suggesting that CR measures are not accurate predictors of how smokers react to relevant stimuli in the real world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Randomized controlled trials and real-world observational studies in evaluating cardiovascular safety of inhaled bronchodilator therapy in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardos P


    Full Text Available Peter Kardos,1 Sally Worsley,2 Dave Singh,3 Miguel Román-Rodríguez,4 David E Newby,5 Hana Müllerová2 1Group Practice and Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Unit, Red Cross Maingau Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany; 2GSK, Stockley Park, Middlesex, 3University of Manchester, Medicines Evaluation Unit, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 4Primary Care Respiratory Research Unit, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma IdisPa, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; 5BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, The Queen’s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: Long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA or long-acting β2-agonist (LABA bronchodilators and their combination are recommended for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Although the efficacy of LAMAs and LABAs has been well established through randomized controlled trials (RCTs, questions remain regarding their cardiovascular (CV safety. Furthermore, while the safety of LAMA and LABA monotherapy has been extensively studied, data are lacking for LAMA/LABA combination therapy, and the majority of the studies that have reported on the CV safety of LAMA/LABA combination therapy were not specifically designed to assess this. Evaluation of CV safety for COPD treatments is important because many patients with COPD have underlying CV comorbidities. However, severe CV and other comorbidities are often exclusion criteria for RCTs, contributing to a lack in external validity and generalizability. Real-world observational studies are another important tool to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of COPD therapies in a broader population of patients and can improve upon the external validity limitations of RCTs. We examine what is already known regarding the CV and cerebrovascular safety of LAMA/LABA combination therapy from RCTs and real-world observational studies, and explore the advantages and

  20. Software configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Jessica


    Software Configuration Management discusses the framework from a standards viewpoint, using the original DoD MIL-STD-973 and EIA-649 standards to describe the elements of configuration management within a software engineering perspective. Divided into two parts, the first section is composed of 14 chapters that explain every facet of configuration management related to software engineering. The second section consists of 25 appendices that contain many valuable real world CM templates.

  1. Equivalence of real-world and virtual-reality route learning: a pilot study. (United States)

    Lloyd, Joanne; Persaud, Nathan V; Powell, Theresa E


    There is good evidence for effective transfer of learning from virtual to real-world environments, and this holds true even for complex spatial tasks such as route learning. However, there is little research into the simple equivalence of an individual's performance across real and virtual environments, an important topic which could support the use of virtual reality as an assessment and research tool. This pilot study compared route-learning performance in a desktop virtual town with performance around a real-world route. Participants were "driven" around a route through a virtual town and around a different (but equally complex) route through a real-world suburb, then asked to direct the driver back around each of the routes from memory. They completed strategy checklists after learning each route. Results indicated good equivalence between the real and virtual environments, with comparable error rates and no differences in strategy preferences. This demonstrates that simple desktop virtual environments may be a useful tool for assessment of and research into route learning.

  2. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan


    Full Text Available New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Real-World Evidence (RWE is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1 includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2 defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3 applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. 

  3. Interreality in practice: bridging virtual and real worlds in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders. (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Raspelli, Simona; Algeri, Davide; Pallavicini, Federica; Gorini, Alessandra; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea


    The use of new technologies, particularly virtual reality, is not new in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD): VR is used to facilitate the activation of the traumatic event during exposure therapy. However, during the therapy, VR is a new and distinct realm, separate from the emotions and behaviors experienced by the patient in the real world: the behavior of the patient in VR has no direct effects on the real-life experience; the emotions and problems experienced by the patient in the real world are not directly addressed in the VR exposure. In this article, we suggest that the use of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, may improve the clinical outcome of PTSD. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and real worlds: (a) behavior in the physical world influences the experience in the virtual one; (b) behavior in the virtual world influences the experience in the real one. This is achieved through 3D shared virtual worlds; biosensors and activity sensors (from the real to the virtual world); and personal digital assistants and/or mobile phones (from the virtual world to the real one). We describe different technologies that are involved in the Interreality vision and its clinical rationale. To illustrate the concept of Interreality in practice, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Rosa, a 55-year-old nurse, involved in a major car accident.

  4. Self Efficacy in Depression: Bridging the Gap Between Competence and Real World Functioning. (United States)

    Milanovic, Melissa; Ayukawa, Emma; Usyatynsky, Aleksandra; Holshausen, Katherine; Bowie, Christopher R


    We investigated the discrepancy between competence and real-world performance in major depressive disorder (MDD) for adaptive and interpersonal behaviors, determining whether self-efficacy significantly predicts this discrepancy, after considering depressive symptoms. Forty-two participants (Mage = 37.64, 66.67% female) with MDD were recruited from mental health clinics. Competence, self-efficacy, and real-world functioning were evaluated in adaptive and interpersonal domains; depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory II. Hierarchical regression analysis identified predictors of functional disability and the discrepancy between competence and real-world functioning. Self-efficacy significantly predicted functioning in the adaptive and interpersonal domains over and above depressive symptoms. Interpersonal self-efficacy accounted for significant variance in the discrepancy between interpersonal competence and functioning beyond symptoms. Using a multilevel, multidimensional approach, we provide the first data regarding relationships among competence, functioning, and self-efficacy in MDD. Self-efficacy plays an important role in deployment of functional skills in everyday life for individuals with MDD.

  5. How Symmetric Are Real-World Graphs? A Large-Scale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Ball


    Full Text Available The analysis of symmetry is a main principle in natural sciences, especially physics. For network sciences, for example, in social sciences, computer science and data science, only a few small-scale studies of the symmetry of complex real-world graphs exist. Graph symmetry is a topic rooted in mathematics and is not yet well-received and applied in practice. This article underlines the importance of analyzing symmetry by showing the existence of symmetry in real-world graphs. An analysis of over 1500 graph datasets from the meta-repository is carried out and a normalized version of the “network redundancy” measure is presented. It quantifies graph symmetry in terms of the number of orbits of the symmetry group from zero (no symmetries to one (completely symmetric, and improves the recognition of asymmetric graphs. Over 70% of the analyzed graphs contain symmetries (i.e., graph automorphisms, independent of size and modularity. Therefore, we conclude that real-world graphs are likely to contain symmetries. This contribution is the first larger-scale study of symmetry in graphs and it shows the necessity of handling symmetry in data analysis: The existence of symmetries in graphs is the cause of two problems in graph clustering we are aware of, namely, the existence of multiple equivalent solutions with the same value of the clustering criterion and, secondly, the inability of all standard partition-comparison measures of cluster analysis to identify automorphic partitions as equivalent.

  6. Spatial Thinking and Visualisation of Real-World Concepts using GeoMapApp (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.


    Commonly, geoscience data is presented to students in the lab and classroom in the form of data tables, maps and graphs. Successful data interpretation requires learners to become proficient with spatial thinking skills, allowing them to gain insight and understanding of the underlying real-world 3-D processes and concepts. Yet, educators at both the school and university level often witness students having difficulty in performing that translation. As a result, tools and resources that help to bridge that spatial capability gap can have useful application in the educational realm. A free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory caters to students and teachers alike by providing a variety of data display and manipulation techniques that enhance geospatial awareness. Called GeoMapApp (, the tool provides access to hundreds of built-in authentic geoscience data sets. Examples include earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, lithospheric plate boundary information, geochemical, oceanographic, and environmental data. Barriers to entry are lowered through easy installation, seamless integration of research-grade data sets, intuitive menus, and project-saving continuity. The default base map is a cutting-edge elevation model covering the oceans and land. Dynamic contouring, artificial illumination, 3-D visualisations, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Data sets can also be layered for easier comparison. Students may import their own data sets in Excel, ASCII, shapefile, and gridded format, and they can gain a sense of ownership by being able to tailor their data explorations and save their own projects. GeoMapApp is adaptable to a range of learning environments from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. A new Save Session

  7. Exhaust particle and NOx emission performance of an SCR heavy duty truck operating in real-world conditions (United States)

    Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Pirjola, Liisa; Matilainen, Pekka; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi


    Particle and NOx emissions of an SCR equipped HDD truck were studied in real-world driving conditions using the "Sniffer" mobile laboratory. Real-time CO2 measurement enables emission factor calculation for NOx and particles. In this study, we compared three different emission factor calculation methods and characterised their suitability for real-world chasing experiments. The particle number emission was bimodal and dominated by the nucleation mode particles (diameter below 23 nm) having emission factor up to 1 × 1015 #/kgfuel whereas emission factor for soot (diameter above 23 nm that is consistent with the PMP standard) was typically 1 × 1014 #/kgfuel. The effect of thermodenuder on the exhaust particles indicated that the nucleation particles consisted mainly of volatile compounds, but sometimes there also existed a non-volatile core. The nucleation mode particles are not controlled by current regulations in Europe. However, these particles consistently form under atmospheric dilution in the plume of the truck and constitute a health risk for the human population that is exposed to those. Average NOx emission was 3.55 g/kWh during the test, whereas the Euro IV emission limit over transient testing is 3.5 g NOx/kWh. The on-road emission performance of the vehicle was very close to the expected levels, confirming the successful operation of the SCR system of the tested vehicle. Heavy driving conditions such as uphill driving increased both the NOx and particle number emission factors whereas the emission factor for soot particle number remains rather constant.

  8. Effectiveness of agomelatine on anhedonia in depressed patients: an outpatient, open-label, real-world study. (United States)

    Gargoloff, Pedro Damian; Corral, Ricardo; Herbst, Luis; Marquez, Miguel; Martinotti, Giovanni; Gargoloff, Pedro Rafael


    The aim of this real-world study was to evaluate the effect of agomelatine on anhedonia as primary endpoint in outpatients under treatment of major depressive episodes. The study was an open-label, multicenter, 8-week phase IV trial. Two hundred fifty-seven (257) patients were recruited, and 143 patients were included in the analysis. Agomelatine was administered orally as a 25-mg tablet. The dose could be increased to 50 mg after 2 weeks of treatment. An improvement in the severity of anhedonia (Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale total score) was observed from 8.5 points at baseline to 4.1 at week 8, statistically significant (p < 0.05) from the first week. Significant decreases in scores on the severity of depression (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology 16-item Self-Report [QIDS-SR-16]), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale), and in overall clinical status (CGI) were also found over 8 weeks, independently from the presence of a first or recurrence episode. Response (QIDS-SR-16 score ≥ 50% of baseline) at week 8 was observed in 65.7% of the patients, while 49.6% of the patients achieved remission (QIDS-SR-16 score ≤ 5). Agomelatine was shown to be effective on anhedonia, depression, and anxiety in subjects with major depression. The pragmatic design of the study reflects real-world clinical practice providing interesting insights into routine care management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The effectiveness of lane departure warning systems-A reduction in real-world passenger car injury crashes. (United States)

    Sternlund, Simon; Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes


    The objective of this study was to estimate the safety benefits of in vehicle lane departure warning (LDW) and lane keeping aid (LKA) systems in reducing relevant real-world passenger car injury crashes. The study used an induced exposure method, where LDW/LKA-sensitive and nonsensitive crashes were compared for Volvo passenger cars equipped with and without LDW/LKA systems. These crashes were matched by car make, model, model year, and technical equipment; that is, low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) called City Safety (CS). The data were extracted from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database (STRADA) and consisted of 1,853 driver injury crashes that involved 146 LDW-equipped cars, 11 LKA-equipped cars, and 1,696 cars without LDW/LKA systems. The analysis showed a positive effect of the LDW/LKA systems in reducing lane departure crashes. The LDW/LKA systems were estimated to reduce head-on and single-vehicle injury crashes on Swedish roads with speed limits between 70 and 120 km/h and with dry or wet road surfaces (i.e., not covered by ice or snow) by 53% with a lower limit of 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]). This reduction corresponded to a reduction of 30% with a lower limit of 6% (95% CI) for all head-on and single-vehicle driver injury crashes (including all speed limits and all road surface conditions). LDW/LKA systems were estimated to lower the driver injury risk in crash types that the systems are designed to prevent; that is, head-on and single-vehicle crashes. Though these are important findings, they were based on a small data set. Therefore, further research is desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of LDW/LKA systems under real-world conditions and to differentiate the effectiveness between technical solutions (i.e., LDW and LKA) proposed by different manufacturers.

  10. RealWorld evaluation: working under budget, time, data, and political constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bamberger, Michael; Rugh, Jim; Mabry, Linda


    ... to large-scale, long-term evaluations of complex programs. The text incorporates quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method designs, and this Second Edition reflects important developments in the field since the publication of the First Edition. -- publisher's web site.

  11. Fair Value Measurement under IFRS 13: A Faithful Representation of Real-World Economic Phenomena?


    Palea Vera; Maino Renato


    In this paper, we discuss IFRS 13 with regard to private equity valuation We raise issues on the fair value definition as an exit price and question the reliability of valuation techniques which are categorized into Level 2 fair value hierarchy. Our paper questions whether fair value as defined by IFRS 13 is an appropriate measure for private equities and can contribute to enhancing transparency and comparability in financial statements, which is one of the purposes of the IASB and the Europe...

  12. PCDTBT based solar cells: one year of operation under real-world conditions (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Bovill, Edward; Kingsley, James; Buckley, Alastair R.; Yi, Hunan; Iraqi, Ahmed; Wang, Tao; Lidzey, David G.


    We present measurements of the outdoor stability of PCDTBT:PC71BM based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells for over the course of a year. We find that the devices undergo a burn-in process lasting 450 hours followed by a TS80 lifetime of up to 6200 hours. We conclude that in the most stable devices, the observed TS80 lifetime is limited by thermally-induced stress between the device layers, as well as materials degradation as a result of edge-ingress of water or moisture through the encapsulation.

  13. RealWorld evaluation: working under budget, time, data, and political constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bamberger, Michael; Rugh, Jim; Mabry, Linda


    .... Vignettes and case studies--representing evaluations from a variety of geographic regions and sectors--demonstrate adaptive possibilities for small projects with budgets of a few thousand dollars...

  14. Reevaluation of the post-marketing safety of Shuxuening injection based on real-world and evidence-based evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang C


    Full Text Available Can Wang,1,2 Qing-ping Shi,1,2 Feng Ding,2 Xiao-dong Jiang,1,2 Wei Tang,3 Mei-Ling Yu,1,2 Jian-Hua Zhu2 1Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Huaiyuan County Hospital of TCM in Anhui, Bengbu, People’s Republic of China Aim: To evaluate the factors influencing suspected hypersensitivity and adverse systemic reactions after Shuxuening injection and to provide innovative ideas and methods for the reevaluation of post-marketing safety of Shuxuening.Methods: This study used a prospective, nested case–control study design, combined with a prescription sequence analysis design method. It classified patients who exhibited trigger signals after administration of Shuxuening injection as suspected allergic patients and made comparisons with patients who did not report adverse effects to calculate the correlation between relevant risk factors and suspected allergic reactions. Randomized controlled studies and cohort studies of the adverse drug reaction (ADR of Shuxuening were performed using a computer database. Data retrieval was carried out by the foundation governing the individual database. Meta-analysis was performed by using R3.2.3 software to evaluate the ADRs of Shuxuening.Results: The results of real-world study showed that administration of Shuxuening in combination with potassium aspartate and magnesium, atorvastatin calcium, Shengmai injection, pantoprazole sodium, or high-dose medication was a risk factor for suspected allergic reactions. Meta-analysis showed that the incidence of adverse events was 5.84% (95% CI 0.0499; 0.0674, and serious adverse reaction rate was 4.36% (95% CI 0.0188; 0.0760 when Shuxuening was used in combination with these drugs. The incidence of allergic reaction was also influenced by the vehicle, duration of treatment, single

  15. Real-world effectiveness of osteoporosis therapies for fracture reduction in post-menopausal women. (United States)

    Yusuf, Akeem A; Cummings, Steven R; Watts, Nelson B; Feudjo, Maurille Tepie; Sprafka, J Michael; Zhou, Jincheng; Guo, Haifeng; Balasubramanian, Akhila; Cooper, Cyrus


    Studies examining real-world effectiveness of osteoporosis therapies are beset by limitations due to confounding by indication. By evaluating longitudinal changes in fracture incidence, we demonstrated that osteoporosis therapies are effective in reducing fracture risk in real-world practice settings. Osteoporosis therapies have been shown to reduce incidence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. However, information on the real-world effectiveness of these therapies is limited. We examined fracture risk reduction in older, post-menopausal women treated with osteoporosis therapies. Using Medicare claims, we identified 1,278,296 women age ≥ 65 years treated with zoledronic acid, oral bisphosphonates, denosumab, teriparatide, or raloxifene. Fracture incidence rates before and after treatment initiation were described to understand patients' fracture risk profile, and fracture reduction effectiveness of each therapy was evaluated as a longitudinal change in incidence rates. Fracture incidence rates increased during the period leading up to treatment initiation and were highest in the 3-month period most proximal to treatment initiation. Fracture incidence rates following treatment initiation were significantly lower than before treatment initiation. Compared with the 12-month pre-index period, there were reductions in clinical vertebral fractures for denosumab (45%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 39-51%), zoledronic acid (50%; 95% CI 47-52%), oral bisphosphonates (24%; 95% CI 22-26%), and teriparatide (72%; 95% CI 69-75%) during the subsequent 12 months. Relative to the first 3 months after initiation, clinical vertebral fractures were reduced for denosumab (51%; 95% CI 42-59%), zoledronic acid (25%; 95% CI 17-32%), oral bisphosphonates (23%; 95% CI 20-26%), and teriparatide (64%; 95% CI 58-69%) during the subsequent 12 months. In summary, reductions in fracture incidence over time were observed in cohorts

  16. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick


    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO 2 emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO 2 /km and the annual CO 2 savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  17. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C Snow


    Full Text Available Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects versus their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent. We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects versus color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition.

  18. Real-world use, safety, and survival of ipilimumab in metastatic cutaneous melanoma in The Netherlands. (United States)

    Jochems, Anouk; Leeneman, Brenda; Franken, Margreet G; Schouwenburg, Maartje G; Aarts, Maureen J B; van Akkooi, Alexander C J; van den Berkmortel, Franchette W P J; van den Eertwegh, Alfonsus J M; Groenewegen, Gerard; de Groot, Jan Willem B; Haanen, John B A G; Hospers, Geke A P; Kapiteijn, Ellen; Koornstra, Rutger H; Kruit, Wim H J; Louwman, Marieke W J; Piersma, Djura; van Rijn, Rozemarijn S; Ten Tije, Albert J; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; Wouters, Michel W J M; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A; van der Hoeven, Koos J M


    Phase III trials with ipilimumab showed an improved survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. We evaluated the use and safety of ipilimumab, and the survival of all patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma (N=807) receiving ipilimumab in real-world clinical practice in The Netherlands using data from the Dutch Melanoma Treatment Registry. Patients who were registered between July 2012 and July 2015 were included and analyzed according to their treatment status: treatment-naive (N=344) versus previously-treated (N=463). Overall, 70% of treatment-naive patients and 62% of previously-treated patients received all four planned doses of ipilimumab. Grade 3 and 4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 29% of treatment-naive patients and 21% of previously-treated patients. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Median time to first event was 5.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7-6.5 months] in treatment-naive patients and 4.4 months (95% CI: 4.0-4.7 months) in previously-treated patients. Median overall survival was 14.3 months (95% CI: 11.6-16.7 months) in treatment-naive patients and 8.7 months (95% CI: 7.6-9.6 months) in previously-treated patients. In both patient groups, an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (hazard ratio: 2.25 and 1.70 in treatment-naive and previously-treated patients, respectively) and American Joint Committee on Cancer M1c-stage disease (hazard ratio: 1.81 and 1.83, respectively) were negatively associated with overall survival. These real-world outcomes of ipilimumab slightly differed from outcomes in phase III trials. Although phase III trials are crucial for establishing efficacy, real-world data are of great added value enhancing the generalizability of outcomes of ipilimumab in clinical practice.

  19. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eMazurek


    Full Text Available Many cognitive abilities decline with aging, making it difficult to detect pathological changes against a background of natural changes in cognition. Most of the tests to assess cognitive decline are artificial tasks that have little resemblance to the problems faced by people in everyday life. This means both that people may have little practice doing such tasks (potentially contributing to the decline in performance and that the tasks may not be good predictors of real-world cognitive problems.In this study, we test the performance of young people (18-25 years and older people (60+-year-olds on a novel, more ecologically valid test of episodic memory: the real-world What-Where-When (WWW memory test. We also compare them on a battery of other cognitive tests, including working memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Older people show the expected age-related declines on the test battery. In the WWW memory task, older people were more likely to fail to remember any What-Where-When combination than younger people were, although they did not significantly differ in their overall WWW score due to some older people performing as well as or better than most younger people. WWW memory performance was significantly predicted by other measures of episodic memory, such as the single-trial learning and long-term retention in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning task and Combined Object Location Memory in the Object Relocation task. Self-reported memory complaints also predicted performance on the WWW task.These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies.

  20. Perils of using speed zone data to assess real-world compliance to speed limits. (United States)

    Chevalier, Anna; Clarke, Elizabeth; Chevalier, Aran John; Brown, Julie; Coxon, Kristy; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa


    Real-world driving studies, including those involving speeding alert devices and autonomous vehicles, can gauge an individual vehicle's speeding behavior by comparing measured speed with mapped speed zone data. However, there are complexities with developing and maintaining a database of mapped speed zones over a large geographic area that may lead to inaccuracies within the data set. When this approach is applied to large-scale real-world driving data or speeding alert device data to determine speeding behavior, these inaccuracies may result in invalid identification of speeding. We investigated speeding events based on service provider speed zone data. We compared service provider speed zone data (Speed Alert by Smart Car Technologies Pty Ltd., Ultimo, NSW, Australia) against a second set of speed zone data (Google Maps Application Programming Interface [API] mapped speed zones). We found a systematic error in the zones where speed limits of 50-60 km/h, typical of local roads, were allocated to high-speed motorways, which produced false speed limits in the speed zone database. The result was detection of false-positive high-range speeding. Through comparison of the service provider speed zone data against a second set of speed zone data, we were able to identify and eliminate data most affected by this systematic error, thereby establishing a data set of speeding events with a high level of sensitivity (a true positive rate of 92% or 6,412/6,960). Mapped speed zones can be a source of error in real-world driving when examining vehicle speed. We explored the types of inaccuracies found within speed zone data and recommend that a second set of speed zone data be utilized when investigating speeding behavior or developing mapped speed zone data to minimize inaccuracy in estimates of speeding.

  1. An accelerometry-based methodology for assessment of real-world bilateral upper extremity activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Bailey

    Full Text Available The use of both upper extremities (UE is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry.Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated.The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02, and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01 across tasks.These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments.

  2. Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Lu; Soyeon Park; Eunsoo Seo; Yuanyuan Zhou


    The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difficult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will significantly benefit from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the first (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and fix strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOffice). Our study reveals several interesting findings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not fixed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the fixes were not correct at the first try, indicating the difficulty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

  3. Analyzing Software Piracy in Education. (United States)

    Lesisko, Lee James

    This study analyzes the controversy of software piracy in education. It begins with a real world scenario that presents the setting and context of the problem. The legalities and background of software piracy are explained and true court cases are briefly examined. Discussion then focuses on explaining why individuals and organizations pirate…

  4. Secondary collisions revisited: real-world crash data and relationship to crash test criteria. (United States)

    Gowat, Randall C; Gabauer, Douglas J


    Previous research conducted in the late 1980s suggested that vehicle impacts following an initial barrier collision increase severe occupant injury risk. Now over 25 years old, the data are no longer representative of the currently installed barriers or the present US vehicle fleet. The purpose of this study is to provide a present-day assessment of secondary collisions and to determine if current full-scale barrier crash testing criteria provide an indication of secondary collision risk for real-world barrier crashes. To characterize secondary collisions, 1,363 (596,331 weighted) real-world barrier midsection impacts selected from 13 years (1997-2009) of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) were analyzed. Scene diagram and available scene photographs were used to determine roadside and barrier specific variables unavailable in NASS/CDS. Binary logistic regression models were developed for second event occurrence and resulting driver injury. To investigate current secondary collision crash test criteria, 24 full-scale crash test reports were obtained for common non-proprietary US barriers, and the risk of secondary collisions was determined using recommended evaluation criteria from National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 350. Secondary collisions were found to occur in approximately two thirds of crashes where a barrier is the first object struck. Barrier lateral stiffness, post-impact vehicle trajectory, vehicle type, and pre-impact tracking conditions were found to be statistically significant contributors to secondary event occurrence. The presence of a second event was found to increase the likelihood of a serious driver injury by a factor of 7 compared to cases with no second event present. The NCHRP Report 350 exit angle criterion was found to underestimate the risk of secondary collisions in real-world barrier crashes. Consistent with previous research

  5. Efficient Algorithm for Computing Link-based Similarity in Real World Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Yuanzhe; Cong, Gao; Xu, Jia


    Similarity calculation has many applications, such as information retrieval, and collaborative filtering, among many others. It has been shown that link-based similarity measure, such as SimRank, is very effective in characterizing the object similarities in networks, such as the Web, by exploiting...... algorithm, namely Power-SimRank, with guaranteed error bound to efficiently compute link-based similarity measure. We also prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm. Extensive experiments conducted on real world datasets and synthetic datasets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms Sim...

  6. Programming and Tuning a Quantum Annealing Device to Solve Real World Problems (United States)

    Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Smelyanskiy, Vadim


    Solving real-world applications with quantum algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language to tuning parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on the performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. Although we will focus on applications of interest to NASA's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the methods and concepts presented here apply to a broader family of hard discrete optimization problems, including those that occur in many machine-learning algorithms.

  7. Real World NET, C#, and Silverlight Indispensible Experiences from 15 MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Evjen, Bill; Balassy, Gyorgy; Gleeren, Gill; Giard, David; Golesh, Alex; Grossnicklaus, Kevin; Jenkins, Caleb; Juday, Jeffrey; Lele, Vishwas; Likness, Jeremy; Millett, Scott; Nagel, Christian; Yöndem , Daron; Weyer, Christian


    A team of MVP authors guides you through the .NET 4 Framework Written by a group of experienced MVPs, this unparalleled book delves into the intricate-and often daunting-world of .NET 4. Each author draws from a particular area of expertise to provide invaluable information on using the various .NET 4, C# 4, Silverlight 4, and Visual Studio tools in the real world. The authors break down the vast .NET 4 Framework into easily digestible portions to offer you a strong foundation on what makes .NET such a popular and successful framework for building a wide range of solutions.Breaks down the .NET

  8. Mobile computing deployment and management real world skills for Comptia Mobility+ certification and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz, Robert J


    Mobile computing skills are becoming standard in the IT industry Mobile Computing Deployment and Management: Real World Skills for CompTIA Mobility+ Certification and Beyond is the ultimate reference for mobile computing. Certified Wireless Network Expert Robert J. Bartz guides IT and networking professionals through the fundamental and advanced concepts of mobile computing, providing the information and instruction necessary to get up to speed on current technology and best practices. The book maps to the CompTIA Mobility+ (MB0-001) exam, making it an ideal resource for those s

  9. Android arcade game app a real world project : case study approach

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarzio, Jerome


    Apress, the leading Android books publisher, continues to provide you with very hands-on, practical books for teaching and showing app developers how to build and design apps, including game apps, that can be built and deployed in the various Android app stores out there. Android Arcade Game App:  A Real World Project - Case Study Approach is no different in that it walks you through creating an arcade style Prison Break game app-top to bottom-for an Android smartphone or tablet.  This book teaches you the unique characteristics and challenges of creating an Arcade style game And it provides y

  10. Understanding the GOLD 2011 Strategy as applied to a real-world COPD population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.; Vogelmeier, C.; Small, M.


    Study objectives: The aim of this analysis was to understand the implications of the GOLD 2011 multidimensional system for the assessment and management of COPD, using data from a real-world observational study. Methods: Data were drawn from the Adelphi Respiratory Disease Specific Programme...... burden, increased airflow limitation and exacerbation, and further illustrated the importance of including exacerbation history in the assessment of COPD to identify patients at high risk. As based on data from current clinical practice, this study also highlighted the frequent and potentially...

  11. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cherinka


    Full Text Available Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" environments and provide an assessment of applicability, benefits and challenges for implementation in large organizations.

  12. The Robobo Project: Bringing Educational Robotics Closer to Real-World Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellas, Francisco; Naya, Martin; Varela, Gervasio


    The Robobo Project is a STEM-based project that aims to bring educational robotics, in primary and high school, closer to real-world applications. It is based on the use of a smartphone-based robotic platform called Robobo, a very flexible programming environment, and a set of lessons to integrate...... them. The smartphone provides high-level hardware capabilities in terms of sensors, communications and processing capabilities that allow to create more practical and realistic lessons that exploit human-robot interaction, with a small investment. In this paper, we present the main elements...

  13. Real World SharePoint 2010 Indispensable Experiences from 22 MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, Scot; Bishop, Darrin; Bleeker, Todd; Bogue, Robert; Bosch, Karine; Brotto, Claudio; Buenz, Adam; Connell, Andrew; Drisgill, Randy; Lapointe, Gary; Medero, Jason; Molnar, Agnes; O'Brien, Chris; Klindt, Todd; Poelmans, Joris; Rehmani, Asif; Ross, John; Swan, Nick; Walsh, Mike; Williams, Randy; Young, Shane; Macori, Igor


    Proven real-world best practices from leading Microsoft SharePoint MVPsSharePoint enables Web sites to host shared workspaces and is a leading solution for Enterprise Content Management. The newest version boasts significant changes, impressive enhancements, and new features, requiring developers and administrators of all levels of experience to quickly get up to speed on the latest changes. This book is a must-have anthology of current best practices for SharePoint 2010 from 20 of the top SharePoint MVPs. They offer insider advice on everything from installation, workflow, and Web parts to bu

  14. Maths Engagement and Real-World Problem Solving through Maths Tasks


    Yuste Mieres, Rocío


    The present work is the Final Project titled "Maths engagement and real-world problem solving through Maths tasks. The Language of Graphs." related to the Master’s degree: “Máster Universitario en Lengua Inglesa para el Aula Bilingüe de Educación Secundaria por la Universidad de Oviedo”.The present Final Project tries to find the ways to engage students, in particular, about the subject of Math and the topic “The Language of Graphs”.

  15. Designing design exercises – from theory to creativity and real-world use

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotze, P


    Full Text Available to fit design exercises for any syllabus. The issues of what makes a good or bad design exercise, and guidelines to follow in setting up good design exercises are addressed in another paper [2] and will not be repeated here. 4.1 Background... Exercises – From Theory to Creativity and Real-world Use 47 reduction resulting from decision-making as main forces in design, on the other side. These two ingredients of design benefit from quite different approaches and methods that can...

  16. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian


    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  17. Project Manager Street Smarts A Real World Guide to PMP Skills

    CERN Document Server

    Zaval, Linda Kretz


    The perfect workbook for project managers and PMP exam candidates seeking practical experience New project managers and students pursuing the Project Management Professional certification are looking for practical experience to solidify their skills. The step-by-step tasks presented in this book offer them an opportunity to practice the common tasks project managers face in the real world. The authors, both expert project management trainers and consultants, explore each phase of project management: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control, and closing the project, with in-depth

  18. Electrophysiology-based detection of emergency braking intention in real-world driving. (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Kim, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Il-Hwa; Sonnleitner, Andreas; Schrauf, Michael; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin


    The fact that all human action is preceded by brain processes partially observable through neuroimaging devices such as electroencephalography (EEG) is currently being explored in a number of applications. A recent study by Haufe et al (2011 J. Neural Eng. 8 056001) demonstrates the possibility of performing fast detection of forced emergency brakings during driving based on EEG and electromyography, and discusses the use of such neurotechnology for braking assistance systems. Since the study was conducted in a driving simulator, its significance regarding real-world applicability needs to be assessed. Here, we replicate that experimental paradigm in a real car on a non-public test track. Our results resemble those of the simulator study, both qualitatively (in terms of the neurophysiological phenomena observed and utilized) and quantitatively (in terms of the predictive improvement achievable using electrophysiology in addition to behavioral measures). Moreover, our findings are robust with respect to a temporary secondary auditory task mimicking verbal input from a fellow passenger. Our study serves as a real-world verification of the feasibility of electrophysiology-based detection of emergency braking intention as proposed in Haufe et al (2011 J. Neural Eng. 8 056001).

  19. One in the Dance: Musical Correlates of Group Synchrony in a Real-World Club Environment. (United States)

    Ellamil, Melissa; Berson, Joshua; Wong, Jen; Buckley, Louis; Margulies, Daniel S


    Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music. In an evaluation of different preprocessing and analysis methods, giving more weight to front-back movement provided the most sensitive and reliable measure of group synchrony. During the club music set, group synchrony of torso movement was most strongly associated with pulsations that approximate walking rhythm (100-150 beats per minute). Songs with higher real-world play counts were also correlated with greater group synchrony. Group synchrony thus appears to be constrained by familiarity of the movement (walking action and rhythm) and of the music (song popularity). These findings from a real-world, large-scale social and musical setting can guide the development of methods for capturing and examining collective experiences in the laboratory and for effectively linking them to synchrony across people in daily life.

  20. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars’ Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik


    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo’s statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts. PMID:21050597

  1. Design and Early Experience With a Real-World Surgical Registry. (United States)

    Weber LeBrun, Emily E; Lynch, Lauren D; Peterson, Hanna V; Pena, Savannah Rose; Ruder, Kara; Vasilopoulos, Terrie


    We describe the rationale, design, and methods and 6-year experience with a real-world surgical registry for female pelvic reconstructive and incontinence procedures and postoperative outcomes. The primary goal of creating this registry was to establish the feasibility of prospective data capture for all urogynecologic procedures. Data captured included baseline demographics, surgical procedures, perioperative complications, and subjective and objective findings up to 36 months after surgery. The Pelvic Reconstruction and Incontinence Surgery ± Mesh Registry was developed over 3 years to include 194 unique variables for prospective data capture. The registry was implemented in December 2010, and data from 924 separate case events from a single surgeon were recorded, comprising 100% surgical case capture. Cases included a variety of procedures representing a comprehensive urogynecology practice on 804 unique patients. Patients who were asked to participate in long-term follow-up (n = 299) returned with attendance of 96% at 6 weeks, 64% at 6 months, 51% at 12 months, 39% at 24 months, and 22% at 36 months. The Pelvic Reconstruction and Incontinence Surgery ± Mesh Registry effectively captured all urogynecologic procedures for the purpose of quality improvement. This real-world tool demonstrates that 100% case capture is feasible and provides valuable information for the highly motivated surgeon, although adequate long-term follow-up is limited. Additional research is needed to better understand the role of surgical registries for quality improvement and development of patient-centered strategies to increase long-term follow-up.

  2. Face recognition across makeup and plastic surgery from real-world images (United States)

    Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein


    A study for feature extraction is proposed to handle the problem of facial appearance changes including facial makeup and plastic surgery in face recognition. To extend a face recognition method robust to facial appearance changes, features are individually extracted from facial depth on which facial makeup and plastic surgery have no effect. Then facial depth features are added to facial texture features to perform feature extraction. Accordingly, a three-dimensional (3-D) face is reconstructed from only a single two-dimensional (2-D) frontal image in real-world scenarios. Then the facial depth is extracted from the reconstructed model. Afterward, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is applied to both texture and reconstructed depth images to extract the feature vectors. Finally, the final feature vectors are generated by combining 2-D and 3-D feature vectors, and are then classified by adopting the support vector machine. Promising results have been achieved for makeup-invariant face recognition on two available image databases including YouTube makeup and virtual makeup, and plastic surgery-invariant face recognition on a plastic surgery face database is compared to several state-of-the-art feature extraction methods. Several real-world scenarios are also planned to evaluate the performance of the proposed method on a combination of these three databases with 1102 subjects.

  3. Referent expressions and gaze: reference type influences real-world gaze cue utilization. (United States)

    Macdonald, Ross G; Tatler, Benjamin W


    Gaze cues are used alongside language to communicate. Lab-based studies have shown that people reflexively follow gaze cue stimuli, however it is unclear whether this affect is present in real interactions. Language specificity influences the extent to which we utilize gaze cues in real interactions, but it is unclear whether the type of language used can similarly affect gaze cue utilization. We aimed to (a) investigate whether automatic gaze following effects are present in real-world interactions, and (b) explore how gaze cue utilization varies depending on the form of concurrent language used. Wearing a mobile eye-tracker, participants followed instructions to complete a real-world search task. The instructor varied the determiner used (featural or spatial) and the presence of gaze cues (absent, congruent, or incongruent). Congruent gaze cues were used more when provided alongside featural references. Incongruent gaze cues were initially followed no more than chance. However, unlike participants in the no-gaze condition, participants in the incongruent condition did not benefit from receiving spatial instructions over featural instructions. We suggest that although participants selectively use informative gaze cues and ignore unreliable gaze cues, visual search can nevertheless be disrupted when inherently spatial gaze cues are accompanied by contradictory verbal spatial references. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Education for Real-World Data Science Roles (Part 2: A Translational Approach to Curriculum Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Lyon


    Full Text Available This study reports on the findings from Part 2 of a small-scale analysis of requirements for real-world data science positions and examines three further data science roles: data analyst, data engineer and data journalist. The study examines recent job descriptions and maps their requirements to the current curriculum within the graduate MLIS and Information Science and Technology Masters Programs in the School of Information Sciences (iSchool at the University of Pittsburgh. From this mapping exercise, model ‘course pathways’ and module ‘stepping stones’ have been identified, as well as course topic gaps and opportunities for collaboration with other Schools. Competency in four specific tools or technologies was required by all three roles (Microsoft Excel, R, Python and SQL, as well as collaborative skills (with both teams of colleagues and with clients. The ability to connect the educational curriculum with real-world positions is viewed as further validation of the translational approach being developed as a foundational principle of the current MLIS curriculum review process Â

  5. Harnessing real world data from wearables and self-monitoring devices: feasibility, confounders and ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Barick


    Full Text Available The increasing usage of smart phones has compelled mobile technology to become a universal part of everyday life. From wearable gadgets to sophisticated implantable medical devices, the advent of mobile technology has completely transformed the healthcare delivery scenario. Self-report measures enabled by mobile technology are increasingly becoming a more time and cost efficient method of assessing real world health outcomes. But, amidst all the optimism, there are concerns also on adopting this technology as regulations and ethical considerations on privacy legislations of end users are unclear. In general, the healthcare industry functions on some stringent regulations and compliances to ensure the safety and protection of patient information. A couple of the most common regulations are Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act (HIPPA and Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH. To harness the true potential of mobile technology to empower stakeholders and provide them a common platform which seamlessly integrates healthcare delivery and research, it is imperative that challenges and drawbacks in the sphere are identified and addressed. In this age of information and technology, no stones should be left unturned to ensure that the human race has access to the best healthcare services without an intrusion into his/her confidentiality. This article is an overview of the role of tracking and self-monitoring devices in data collection for real world evidence/observational studies in context to feasibility, confounders and ethical considerations.

  6. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars' Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness. (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik


    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo's statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts.

  7. Evidence of Absolute Decoupling from Real World Policy Mixes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Fedrigo-Fazio


    Full Text Available In resource economics, decoupling from environmental impacts is assumed to be beneficial. However, the success of efforts to increase resource productivity should be placed within the context of the earth’s resources and ecosystems as theoretically finite and contingent on a number of threshold values. Thus far relatively few analyses exist of policies which have successfully implemented strategies for decoupling within these limits. Through ex-post evaluation of a number of real world policy mixes from European Union member states, this paper further develops definitions of the concept of decoupling. Beyond absolute (and relative decoupling, “absolute decoupling within limits” is proposed as an appropriate term for defining resource-productivity at any scale which respects the existing real world limits on resources and ecosystems and as such, contributes to meeting sustainability objectives. Policy mixes presented here cover a range of resources such as fish stocks, fertilizers, aggregates and fossil based materials (plastics. Policy mixes demonstrating absolute decoupling and at least one where absolute decoupling within limits has occurred, provide insights on developing resource efficiency policies in Europe and beyond.

  8. Network resilience to real-world disasters: Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11 (United States)

    Woolley, Olivia; Thiemann, Christian; Grady, Daniel; Brockmann, Dirk


    We investigate the resilience of the the world-wide air transportation network (WAN) to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull. Although both disasters caused wide-spread disruption, the number of airports that were closed and the volume of interrupted traffic were well below the percolation threshold predicted by the classical theory. In order to quantify and visualize network deformation before breakdown, we introduce a framework based on the increase in shortest-path distance and homogenization of shortest-path structure. These real-world disasters are a new type of disruption because the removal of all vertices (airports) is geographically compact. Our framework incorporates the dual perspective of individual airports and geopolitical regions to capture how the impact interacts with the sub-network structure.We find that real-world events have an impact signature which is qualitatively different from that of random or high-centrality attacks. Furthermore, we find that the network is more resilient to the 9/11 disaster, although it removed more airports and traffic than the volcanic ash-cloud. This is due to the network roles of Europe and North America. We discuss how regional roles influence resilience to a region's removal.

  9. Incidence of real-world automotive parent and halogenated PAH in urban atmosphere. (United States)

    Gao, Pan-Pan; Zhao, Yi-Bo; Ni, Hong-Gang


    This study reports results from a tunnel experiment impact of real-world traffic-related particle and gas parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and HPAHs) on urban air. The traffic related emission characteristics and subsequent environmental behavior of these compounds were investigated. To understand the significance of real-world transport emissions to the urban air, traffic-related mass emissions of PAHs and HPAHs were estimated based on measured emission factors. According to our results, PAHs and HPAHs emissions via particulate phase were greater than those via gaseous phase; particles in 2.1-3.3 μm size fraction, have the major contribution to particulate PAHs and HPAHs emissions. Over all, contribution of traffic-related emission of PAHs (only ∼3% of the total PAHs emission in China) is an overstated source of PAHs pollution in China. Actually, exhaust pipe emission contributed much less than the total traffic-related emission of pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Can attentional bias modification inoculate people to withstand exposure to real-world food cues? (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Stewart-Davis, Ebony


    Two experiments investigated whether attentional bias modification can inoculate people to withstand exposure to real-world appetitive food cues, namely television advertisements for chocolate products. Using a modified dot probe task, undergraduate women were trained to direct their attention toward (attend) or away from (avoid) chocolate pictures. Experiment 1 (N = 178) consisted of one training session; Experiment 2 (N = 161) included 5 weekly sessions. Following training, participants viewed television advertisements of chocolate or control products. They then took part in a so-called taste test as a measure of chocolate consumption. Attentional bias for chocolate was measured before training and after viewing the advertisements, and in Experiment 2 also at 24-h and 1-week follow-up. In Experiment 2, but not Experiment 1, participants in the avoid condition showed a significant reduction in attentional bias for chocolate, regardless of whether they had been exposed to advertisements for chocolate or control products. However, this inoculation effect on attentional bias did not generalise to chocolate intake. Future research involving more extensive attentional re-training may be needed to ascertain whether the inoculation effect on attentional bias can extend to consumption, and thus help people withstand exposure to real-world palatable food cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Real world experience with lacosamide monotherapy- a single center 1-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Maloney, Eimer; McGinty, Ronan N; Costello, Daniel J


    Reporting of 'real-world' data on efficacy and tolerability of antiepileptic medications helps to inform physicians on how newer medications perform in the clinical setting, outside of the strict regimens of clinical trials. We report our experience of prescribing lacosamide monotherapy to a diverse range of patients at our epilepsy centre. We performed a single-centre, retrospective review of all patients who had been prescribed lacosamide monotherapy over the last 8 years. Efficacy is pragmatically reported based on reduction of seizure frequency and lacosamide retention rates. We identified 45 patients who were commenced on lacosamide monotherapy. Intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated a 51% (n = 23) 12 month retention rate. Forty percent (n = 18) achieved a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency and 35.5% (n = 16) became seizure free. We report real-world data showing a significant reduction in seizure frequency, a moderate rate of retention and an excellent side effect profile in our cohort of patients prescribed lacosamide monotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mid-level perceptual features distinguish objects of different real-world sizes. (United States)

    Long, Bria; Konkle, Talia; Cohen, Michael A; Alvarez, George A


    Understanding how perceptual and conceptual representations are connected is a fundamental goal of cognitive science. Here, we focus on a broad conceptual distinction that constrains how we interact with objects--real-world size. Although there appear to be clear perceptual correlates for basic-level categories (apples look like other apples, oranges look like other oranges), the perceptual correlates of broader categorical distinctions are largely unexplored, i.e., do small objects look like other small objects? Because there are many kinds of small objects (e.g., cups, keys), there may be no reliable perceptual features that distinguish them from big objects (e.g., cars, tables). Contrary to this intuition, we demonstrated that big and small objects have reliable perceptual differences that can be extracted by early stages of visual processing. In a series of visual search studies, participants found target objects faster when the distractor objects differed in real-world size. These results held when we broadly sampled big and small objects, when we controlled for low-level features and image statistics, and when we reduced objects to texforms--unrecognizable textures that loosely preserve an object's form. However, this effect was absent when we used more basic textures. These results demonstrate that big and small objects have reliably different mid-level perceptual features, and suggest that early perceptual information about broad-category membership may influence downstream object perception, recognition, and categorization processes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. One in the Dance: Musical Correlates of Group Synchrony in a Real-World Club Environment (United States)

    Ellamil, Melissa; Berson, Joshua; Wong, Jen; Buckley, Louis; Margulies, Daniel S.


    Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music. In an evaluation of different preprocessing and analysis methods, giving more weight to front-back movement provided the most sensitive and reliable measure of group synchrony. During the club music set, group synchrony of torso movement was most strongly associated with pulsations that approximate walking rhythm (100–150 beats per minute). Songs with higher real-world play counts were also correlated with greater group synchrony. Group synchrony thus appears to be constrained by familiarity of the movement (walking action and rhythm) and of the music (song popularity). These findings from a real-world, large-scale social and musical setting can guide the development of methods for capturing and examining collective experiences in the laboratory and for effectively linking them to synchrony across people in daily life. PMID:27764167

  14. Psychological interventions used to reduce sports injuries: a systematic review of real-world effectiveness. (United States)

    Gledhill, Adam; Forsdyke, Dale; Murray, Eliot


    To systematically review studies examining the role of psychological interventions in injury prevention. The primary research question was: What is the real-world effectiveness of psychological intervention in preventing sports injuries? Mixed methods systematic review with best evidence synthesis. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Science Direct and PubMed. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-RCTs that included a comparison group, before and after study designs and qualitative methods. Studies were required to outline specific unimodal or multimodal psychological interventions used in relation to injury prevention in the real-world setting. Studies were independently appraised with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Thirteen papers (incorporating 14 studies) met the eligibility criteria, of which 93% (13/14) reported a decrease in injury rates (effect size range=0.2-1.21). There was an overall moderate risk of bias in reporting (52%). There is a dominance of stress management-based interventions in literature due to the prominence of the model of stress and athletic injury within the area. Psychological interventions demonstrate small (0.2) to large (1.21) effects on sports injury rates. The research area demonstrates a cumulative moderate risk in reporting bias (52%). CRD42016035879. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer


    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling. - The comprehensive analysis of real-world stack data provides detailed default parameter values for improving vertical emission distribution in atmospheric modelling

  16. Qualifying codes under software quality assurance: Two examples as guidelines for codes that are existing or under development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, D.


    Software quality assurance is an area of concem for DOE, EPA, and other agencies due to the poor quality of software and its documentation they have received in the past. This report briefly summarizes the software development concepts and terminology increasingly employed by these agencies and provides a workable approach to scientific programming under the new requirements. Following this is a practical description of how to qualify a simulation code, based on a software QA plan that has been reviewed and officially accepted by DOE/OCRWM. Two codes have recently been baselined and qualified, so that they can be officially used for QA Level 1 work under the DOE/OCRWM QA requirements. One of them was baselined and qualified within one week. The first of the codes was the multi-phase multi-component flow code TOUGH version 1, an already existing code, and the other was a geochemistry transport code STATEQ that was under development The way to accomplish qualification for both types of codes is summarized in an easy-to-follow step-by step fashion to illustrate how to baseline and qualify such codes through a relatively painless procedure.

  17. Suitability of Synthetic Driving Profiles from Traffic Micro-Simulation for Real-World Energy Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yunfei; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey


    A shift towards increased levels of driving automation is generally expected to result in improved safety and traffic congestion outcomes. However, little empirical data exists to estimate the impact that automated driving could have on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In the absence of empirical data on differences between drive cycles from present day vehicles (primarily operated by humans) and future vehicles (partially or fully operated by computers) one approach is to model both situations over identical traffic conditions. Such an exercise requires traffic micro-simulation to not only accurately model vehicle operation under high levels of automation, but also (and potentially more challenging) vehicle operation under present day human drivers. This work seeks to quantify the ability of a commercial traffic micro-simulation program to accurately model real-world drive cycles in vehicles operated primarily by humans in terms of driving speed, acceleration, and simulated fuel economy. Synthetic profiles from models of freeway and arterial facilities near Atlanta, Georgia, are compared to empirical data collected from real-world drivers on the same facilities. Empirical and synthetic drive cycles are then simulated in a powertrain efficiency model to enable comparison on the basis of fuel economy. Synthetic profiles from traffic micro-simulation were found to exhibit low levels of transient behavior relative to the empirical data. Even with these differences, the synthetic and empirical data in this study agree well in terms of driving speed and simulated fuel economy. The differences in transient behavior between simulated and empirical data suggest that larger stochastic contributions in traffic micro-simulation (relative to those present in the traffic micro-simulation tool used in this study) are required to fully capture the arbitrary elements of human driving. Interestingly, the lack of stochastic contributions from models of human drivers

  18. Implementing Large Projects in Software Engineering Courses (United States)

    Coppit, David


    In software engineering education, large projects are widely recognized as a useful way of exposing students to the real-world difficulties of team software development. But large projects are difficult to put into practice. First, educators rarely have additional time to manage software projects. Second, classrooms have inherent limitations that…

  19. Real-world costs of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the Nordics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar


    BACKGROUND: There is limited real-world data on the economic burden of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The objective of this study was to estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of patients with ADPKD by severity of the disease: chronic kidney disease (CKD...... to complete a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 266 patients were contacted, 243 (91%) of whom provided consent to participate in the study. Results showed that the economic burden of ADPKD was substantial at all levels of the disease. Lost wages due to reduced productivity were large...... in absolute terms across all disease strata. Mean total annual costs were highest in dialysis patients, driven by maintenance dialysis care, while the use of immunosuppressants was the main cost component for transplant care. Costs were twice as high in patients with CKD stages 4-5 compared to CKD stages 1...

  20. Effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking in real-world rear-end crashes. (United States)

    Fildes, B; Keall, M; Bos, N; Lie, A; Page, Y; Pastor, C; Pennisi, L; Rizzi, M; Thomas, P; Tingvall, C


    This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) technology in current model passenger vehicles, based on real-world crash experience. The validating vehicle safety through meta-analysis (VVSMA) group comprising a collaboration of government, industry consumer organisations and researchers, pooled data from a number of countries using a standard analysis format and the established MUND approach. Induced exposure methods were adopted to control for any extraneous effects. The findings showed a 38 percent overall reduction in rear-end crashes for vehicles fitted with AEB compared to a comparison sample of similar vehicles. There was no statistical evidence of any difference in effect between urban (≤60 km/h) and rural (>60 km/h) speed zones. Areas requiring further research were identified and widespread fitment through the vehicle fleet is recommended. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Experiences from Real-World Deployment of Context-Aware Technologies in a Hospital Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Mogensen, Martin


    and discuss our experiences from an ongoing deployment of a suite of context-aware technologies and applications in a hospital environment, including a context-awareness infrastructure, a location tracking system, and two context-aware applications running on interactive wall displays and mobile phones. Based......Context-aware computing is a central concept in ubiquitous computing and many suggestions for context-aware technologies and applications have been proposed. There is, however, little evidence on how these concepts and technologies play out in a real-world setting. In this paper we describe...... on an analysis of the use of these systems, we observe that many of the ideas behind context-aware computing are valid, and that the context-aware applications are useful for clinicians in their work. By reflecting on the nature of the designed context-aware technologies, we present a model which states...

  2. Learning to train neural networks for real-world control problems (United States)

    Feldkamp, Lee A.; Puskorius, G. V.; Davis, L. I., Jr.; Yuan, F.


    Over the past three years, our group has concentrated on the application of neural network methods to the training of controllers for real-world systems. This presentation describes our approach, surveys what we have found to be important, mentions some contributions to the field, and shows some representative results. Topics discussed include: (1) executing model studies as rehearsal for experimental studies; (2) the importance of correct derivatives; (3) effective training with second-order (DEKF) methods; (4) the efficacy of time-lagged recurrent networks; (5) liberation from the tyranny of the control cycle using asynchronous truncated backpropagation through time; and (6) multistream training for robustness. Results from model studies of automotive idle speed control serve as examples for several of these topics.

  3. Replication protocol analysis: a method for the study of real-world design thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kovacs, L. B.


    ’ is refined into a method called ‘replication protocol analysis’ (RPA), and discussed from a methodological perspective of design research. It is argued that for the study of real-world design thinking this method offers distinct advantages over traditional ‘design protocol analysis’, which seeks to capture......Given the brief of an architectural competition on site planning, and the design awarded the first prize, the first author (trained as an architect but not a participant in the competition) produced a line of reasoning that might have led from brief to design. In the paper, such ‘design replication...... the designer’s authentic line of reasoning. To illustrate how RPA can be used, the site planning case is briefly presented, and part of the replicated line of reasoning analysed. One result of the analysis is a glimpse of a ‘logic of design’; another is an insight which sheds new light on Darke’s classical...

  4. Innovating With Rehabilitation Technology in the Real World: Promises, Potentials, and Perspectives. (United States)

    Chua, Karen Sui Geok; Kuah, Christopher Wee Keong


    In this article, we discuss robotic-assisted therapy as an emerging and significant field of clinical rehabilitation and its value proposition for innovating rehabilitation clinical practice. Attempts to achieve integration among clinicians' practices and bioengineers' machines often generate new challenges and controversies. To date, the literature is indicative of a sizeable number and variety of robotic devices in the field of clinical rehabilitation, some are commercially available; however, large-scale clinical outcomes are less positive than expected. The following main themes related to integrating rehabilitation technology in real-world clinical practice will be discussed: the application of current evidence-based practice and knowledge in relation to treatment in the rehabilitation clinic, perspectives from rehabilitation professionals using robotic-aided therapy with regard to challenges, and strategies for problem solving. Lastly, we present innovation philosophies with regard to sustainability of clinical rehabilitation technologies.

  5. [Evidence-based medicine and real world study in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion]. (United States)

    Cai, Ronglin; Hu, Ling; Wu, Zijian


    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been widely applied in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion, and the real-world study (RWS) has gradually become an important way of clinical research in the world in recent years. It is worthy of our in-depth study and discussion that how to evaluate the advantages and limitations of EBM and RWS as well as their reasonable application in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion. The characteristics and difference between RWS and EBM, and the situation of acupuncture clinical research methods are discussed in this paper. It is proposed that we should understand the advantages of RWS in acupuncture clinical research, fully realize the limitations of EBM and RWS, recognize the complexity and particularity of RWS, and apply EBM and RWS into acupuncture clinical research. Meanwhile acupuncture clinical manipulation standardization should be further promoted, which is benefit to develop clinical study, improve clinical efficacy and promote the popularization of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  6. Geographical/Spatial Orientation Ability Within Real-World and Simulated Large-Scale Environments. (United States)

    Bryant, K J


    Geographical/Spatial orientation ability is studied within real-world and simulated environments. Participants (n=1148), residents of San Francisco or Marin County, were assigned to one of four media presentation conditions, two of which are studied here: Auto Tour (a 25-minute tour of the research site) or Model Film (a color film of the tour route). The Embedded Figures Task, dispositional measures, slide-recognition, map-placement, and map-sketch tasks were administered. Simulation condition, previous exposure, visual-spatial ability, and dispositional measures significantly predicted performance on the general factor (Geographic/Spatial orientation ability). Structural equations models are developed, identifying different aspects of effective performance for Auto Tour and Model Film conditions. Differences in individual performance within presentation condition underscore the need for careful evaluation of the effectiveness o9f simulators as training devices.

  7. Drawing the Ideal World and Real World: A Study of Lesbian, Labour and Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Luiz Caproni Neto


    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the experience of lesbian women in Juiz de Fora on the scope of work, society and the individual, from drawings made by them. Discussed the experience of sexuality and lesbophobia as aspects present in their lives and at work, considering that fall into a heteronormative context. So, we conducted a qualitative study with the preparation of drawings and interviews that allowed the construction of categories: being lesbian, inclusion and social integration, personal and professional development, and real world and the ideal world. These drawings are shown as a rich and interesting technique to provide access to their subjective and symbolic dimensions as to their social and work experiences. Finally, we advocate a reflective and humanistic stance both in society and in organizations about the socially constructed and valued patterns that can marginalize or stigmatize those fleeing them.

  8. A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Greg [Anywhere Software, Albany, CA (United States); Kurt, Murat [International Computer Institute, Ege University (Turkey); Bonneel, Nicolas [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The utilization of real-world materials has been hindered by a lack of standards for sharing and interpreting measured data. This paper presents an XML representation and an Open Source C library to support bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) in data-driven lighting simulation and rendering applications.The library provides for the efficient representation, query, and Monte Carlo sampling of arbitrary BSDFs in amodel-free framework. Currently, we support two BSDF data representations: one using a fixed subdivision of thehemisphere, and one with adaptive density. The fixed type has advantages for certain matrix operations, while theadaptive type can more accurately represent highly peaked data. We discuss advanced methods for data-drivenBSDF rendering for both types, including the proxy of detailed geometry to enhance appearance and accuracy.We also present an advanced interpolation method to reduce measured data into these standard representations.We end with our plan for future extensions and sharing of BSDF data.

  9. Getting Real Results with Ohio State University Extension’s Real Money. Real World. Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Ferrari


    Full Text Available Youth development organizations have a unique opportunity to offer programs that help young people develop financial skills they need to become successful adults. This article describes Ohio State University Extension’s Real Money. Real World. (RMRW and the systematic approach used to evaluate its effectiveness. The RMRW curriculum includes an active, hands-on experience that gives young people the opportunity to make lifestyle and budget choices similar to those they will make as adults. The realistic simulation creates a teachable moment. The outcomes of the statewide evaluation clearly indicate the curriculum accomplishes its goals of raising awareness, changing attitudes, and motivating students to plan for behavior changes concerning financial management, education, and career choices. The article concludes with a discussion of the organizational outcomes of conducting the evaluation.

  10. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information. (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer


    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  11. On the Impact of using Mixed Integer Programming Techniques on Real-world Offshore Wind Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Pisinger, David


    Wind power is a leading technology in the transition to sustainable energy. Being a new and still more competitive field, it is of major interest to investigate new techniques to solve the design challenges involved. In this paper, we consider optimization of the inter-array cable routing...... with a leading energy company, we have been able to report results on a set of real-world instances, based on six existing wind parks, studying the economical impact of considering power losses in the cable routing design phase....... optimization problem considers two objectives: minimizing immediate costs (CAPEX) and minimizing costs due to power losses. This makes it possible to perform various what-if analyses to evaluate the impact of different preferences to CAPEX versus reduction of power losses. Thanks to the close collaboration...

  12. Common nano-materials and their use in real world applications. (United States)

    McIntyre, Robin A


    Today engineered nano-materials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their important properties which have given birth to vast technological and economic growth in a number of industrial sectors. Nano-materials are indeed expected to become the cornerstone of a number of sectors such as microelectronics, materials, textiles, energy, healthcare and cosmetic goods. Nanotechnology applications will give rise to cleaner energy production, lighter and more durable materials, inexpensive clean water production and will benefit medical applications such as smart drugs and diagnostics. However, one has to be mindful of the risks involved concerning potential toxicity and exposure route and the verdict is still out on a number of nano-materials as to the relative dangers to humans and the environment. This brief review hopes to describe some of the main contenders and their real world applications but it should only be considered a snapshot of the industry and its relative potential.

  13. Noise-robust cortical tracking of attended speech in real-world acoustic scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Søren; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens


    Selectively attending to one speaker in a multi-speaker scenario is thought to synchronize low-frequency cortical activity to the attended speech signal. In recent studies, reconstruction of speech from single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) data has been used to decode which talker a listener...... is attending to in a two-talker situation. It is currently unclear how this generalizes to more complex sound environments. Behaviorally, speech perception is robust to the acoustic distortions that listeners typically encounter in everyday life, but it is unknown whether this is mirrored by a noise......-robust neural tracking of attended speech. Here we used advanced acoustic simulations to recreate real-world acoustic scenes in the laboratory. In virtual acoustic realities with varying amounts of reverberation and number of interfering talkers, listeners selectively attended to the speech stream...

  14. Synthetic graph generation for data-intensive HPC benchmarking: Scalability, analysis and real-world application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Sarah S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lothian, Joshua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allows the emulation of a broad spectrum of application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report described the in-depth analysis of the generated synthetic graphs' properties at a variety of scales using different generator implementations and examines their applicability to replicating real world datasets.

  15. Real-World Outcomes and Critical Thinking: Differential Analysis by Academic Major and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Franco


    Full Text Available The Real-World Outcomes is an inventory that measures everyday problematic behaviors that represent decisions where critical thinking is presumably absent; assessing the negative outcomes of poor daily decisions helps to infer the degree of critical thinking that mediates everyday reasoning. In the present paper, we describe the process of translation and cultural adaptation of this inventory to Portuguese. We present evidence of its administration to 259 college students concerning reliability, and differences based on academic major and gender. No statistically significant differences were found, either due to academic major or gender. Results suggest the value of this instrument to assessing daily decision making and life outcomes, and also, to estimate the quality of critical thinking in everyday life.

  16. Real-world evidence: How pragmatic are randomized controlled trials labeled as pragmatic? (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Janiaud, Perrine; Ioannidis, John P A


    Pragmatic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) mimic usual clinical practice and they are critical to inform decision-making by patients, clinicians and policy-makers in real-world settings. Pragmatic RCTs assess effectiveness of available medicines, while explanatory RCTs assess efficacy of investigational medicines. Explanatory and pragmatic are the extremes of a continuum. This debate article seeks to evaluate and provide recommendation on how to characterize pragmatic RCTs in light of the current landscape of RCTs. It is supported by findings from a PubMed search conducted in August 2017, which retrieved 615 RCTs self-labeled in their titles as "pragmatic" or "naturalistic". We focused on 89 of these trials that assessed medicines (drugs or biologics). 36% of these 89 trials were placebo-controlled, performed before licensing of the medicine, or done in a single-center. In our opinion, such RCTs overtly deviate from usual care and pragmatism. It follows, that the use of the term 'pragmatic' to describe them, conveys a misleading message to patients and clinicians. Furthermore, many other trials among the 615 coined as 'pragmatic' and assessing other types of intervention are plausibly not very pragmatic; however, this is impossible for a reader to tell without access to the full protocol and insider knowledge of the trial conduct. The degree of pragmatism should be evaluated by the trial investigators themselves using the PRECIS-2 tool, a tool that comprises 9 domains, each scored from 1 (very explanatory) to 5 (very pragmatic). To allow for a more appropriate characterization of the degree of pragmatism in clinical research, submissions of RCTs to funders, research ethics committees and to peer-reviewed journals should include a PRECIS-2 tool assessment done by the trial investigators. Clarity and accuracy on the extent to which a RCT is pragmatic will help understand how much it is relevant to real-world practice.

  17. The effectiveness of fingolimod in a Portuguese real-world population. (United States)

    Correia, I; Batista, S; Marques, I B; Sousa, M; Ferreira, R; Nunes, C; Macário, M C; Sousa, L


    Fingolimod is an oral treatment for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) with established efficacy in clinical trials. Post-marketing studies are important to assess its effectiveness in real-world populations. To report the effectiveness and safety of fingolimod in a real-world population. A retrospective study of patients with RRMS treated with fingolimod for at least six months. The demographic characteristics, Annualized Relapse Rate (ARR), Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS), previous treatments and Adverse Events (AE) were analysed. 104 patients were included, with a mean treatment duration of 21.06 months. First-line disease modifying therapy failure patients (n=56) had an ARR decrease of 68.53% (1.43 vs. 0.45, p2.0, p<0.001) and 91.07% showed no disability progression. In patients previously treated with natalizumab as a second-line drug mainly switched due to safety concerns (n=41), although the differences were not statistically significant, both the ARR and EDSS increased in 41.46% and 19.51% of patients, respectively. In treatment-naive patients (n=7) the ARR decreased 94.90% (1.57 vs. 0.08, p=0.027) and there was no disability progression. 56.7% of all patients experienced AE not considered serious in any of the cases. In this population, fingolimod was an effective treatment after first-line treatment failure, decreasing both the ARR and EDSS, and may be an effective option after natalizumab. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. WHIPS (Volvo cars' Whiplash Protection System)-the development and real-world performance. (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Isaksson-Hellman, Irene; Lindman, Magdalena


    Present the performance of WHIPS and identify possible next steps of soft tissue neck injury reduction potentials, based on rear-end real-world crash data. Front-seat occupants (above 14 years of age) have been analyzed regarding influencing factors on reported incidences of soft tissue neck injuries. The outcome of 1858 occupants in cars equipped with WHIPS and 663 occupants in Volvo cars of model year 1999 without WHIPS are studied with respect to WHIPS injury-reducing effect for different impact severities and injury durations. The occupants in WHIPS are further studied with respect to seating position and sitting posture, such as turned head and head-to-head restraint distance. Soft tissue neck injury risk reductions are seen for occupants in WHIPS as compared to prior Volvo cars; mean values ranging from 21 to 47% depending on impact severity and symptom duration. Sitting posture (turned head and increased backset) increases soft tissue neck injury risks. Based on the self-reported injury data, a significantly lower risk was found for occupants facing straight forward with the head in close proximity to the head restraint as compared to the risk for occupants with rotated head and a larger backset. Even though the highest risk of soft tissue neck injuries is found in higher impact severity, the large amount of soft tissue neck injuries sustained at low impact severity emphasizes the need of focusing measures for crash avoidance. This study presents the development and real-world performance of WHIPS as well as identifies situations for further focus and challenges for the next generation of soft tissue neck injury protection and prevention, including areas such as occupant posture and crash avoidance.

  19. Fairer machine learning in the real world: Mitigating discrimination without collecting sensitive data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Veale


    Full Text Available Decisions based on algorithmic, machine learning models can be unfair, reproducing biases in historical data used to train them. While computational techniques are emerging to address aspects of these concerns through communities such as discrimination-aware data mining (DADM and fairness, accountability and transparency machine learning (FATML, their practical implementation faces real-world challenges. For legal, institutional or commercial reasons, organisations might not hold the data on sensitive attributes such as gender, ethnicity, sexuality or disability needed to diagnose and mitigate emergent indirect discrimination-by-proxy, such as redlining. Such organisations might also lack the knowledge and capacity to identify and manage fairness issues that are emergent properties of complex sociotechnical systems. This paper presents and discusses three potential approaches to deal with such knowledge and information deficits in the context of fairer machine learning. Trusted third parties could selectively store data necessary for performing discrimination discovery and incorporating fairness constraints into model-building in a privacy-preserving manner. Collaborative online platforms would allow diverse organisations to record, share and access contextual and experiential knowledge to promote fairness in machine learning systems. Finally, unsupervised learning and pedagogically interpretable algorithms might allow fairness hypotheses to be built for further selective testing and exploration. Real-world fairness challenges in machine learning are not abstract, constrained optimisation problems, but are institutionally and contextually grounded. Computational fairness tools are useful, but must be researched and developed in and with the messy contexts that will shape their deployment, rather than just for imagined situations. Not doing so risks real, near-term algorithmic harm.

  20. Is real world evidence influencing practice? A systematic review of CPRD research in NICE guidances. (United States)

    Oyinlola, Jessie O; Campbell, Jennifer; Kousoulis, Antonis A


    There is currently limited evidence regarding the extent Real World Evidence (RWE) has directly impacted the health and social care systems. The aim of this review is to identify national guidelines or guidances published in England from 2000 onwards which have referenced studies using the governmental primary care data provider the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The methodology recommended by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was followed. Four databases were searched and documents of interest were identified through a search algorithm containing keywords relevant to CPRD. A search diary was maintained with the inclusion/exclusion decisions which were performed by two independent reviewers. Twenty-five guidance documents were included in the final review (following screening and assessment for eligibility), referencing 43 different CPRD/GPRD studies, all published since 2007. The documents covered 12 disease areas, with the majority (N =7) relevant to diseases of the Central Nervous system (CNS). The 43 studies provided evidence of disease epidemiology, incidence/prevalence, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacovigilance and health utilisation. A slow uptake of RWE in clinical and therapeutic guidelines (as provided by UK governmental structures) was noticed. However, there seems to be an increasing trend in the use of healthcare system data to inform clinical practice, especially as the real world validity of clinical trials is being questioned. In order to accommodate this increasing demand and meet the paradigm shift expected, organisations need to work together to enable or improve data access, undertake translational and relevant research and establish sources of reliable evidence.

  1. Two-Year Therapeutic Effectiveness of Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in a Real World Setting. (United States)

    Pascual, Francisco Pastor; Fontoba Ferrándiz, Julio; Gil Sanchez, María Carmen; Ponce Lorenzo, Francisco; Botella Estrella, Carlos


    Varenicline is an effective smoking cessation therapy in clinical trials. However, its effectiveness might vary in a real world setting and its long term effectiveness (2-year) has not been reported yet. The objective was ascertaining the effectiveness of varenicline in the treatment of tobacco consumption in Primary Care settings. Observational, multicenter, retrospective study using medical records of smokers followed for 24 months. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity, type of treatment (varenicline with or without group therapy), and smoking characteristics (Fageström and Richmond tests, starting age, number of cigarettes, cessation attempts, and initial CO-oximeter measurements) were evaluated. 773 smokers treated with varenicline (72.4%) or varenicline combined with group therapy (27.6%) were included. Mean age was 43.6 years [51.7% male (n = 400)]. Continuous abstinence rate at 24 months was 44.4%, with no significant gender or age differences. Median cessation time was 398 days (95%CI: 376-421). A clear association was detected between the probability of remaining abstinent at 24 months and participation in group therapy (OR: 1.877, 95%CI: 1.362-2.589), as well as treatment adherence (compliance >80%) (OR: 6.556, 95%CI: 5.870-7.242), but not with co-financing of treatment (observed in 77% of patients). For every day that varenicline was taken, abstinence increased by an average of 6.6 days. This retrospective cohort study suggests that 2-year effectiveness of varenicline might be substantial in a real world setting. The abstinence rate was higher for those who also receive group therapy.

  2. Vehicle characteristics associated with LATCH use and correct use in real-world child restraint installations. (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Jermakian, Jessica S


    The objective of this study was to determine if vehicle features associated with LATCH ease-of-use in laboratory studies with volunteers predict LATCH use and misuse in real-world child restraint installations. Vehicle characteristics were extracted from prior surveys of more than 100 top-selling 2010-13 vehicles. Use and correct use of LATCH was determined from records of more than 14,000 child restraint installations in these vehicles that were inspected by child passenger safety technicians at Safe Kids car seat checkup events during 2010-12. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between vehicle features and use and correct use of lower anchors and top tethers, controlling for other relevant installation features. Lower anchors were more likely to be used and correctly used when the clearance angle around them was greater than 54°, the force required to attach them to the lower anchors was less than 178N, and their depth within the seat bight was less than 4cm. Restraints were more likely to be attached correctly when installed with the lower anchors than with the seat belt. After controlling for lower anchor use and other installation features, the likelihood of tether use and correct use in installations of forward-facing restraints was significantly higher when there was no hardware present that could potentially be confused with the tether anchor or when the tether anchor was located on the rear deck, which is typical in sedans. There is converging evidence from laboratory studies with volunteers and real-world child restraint installations that vehicle features are associated with correct LATCH use. Vehicle designs that improve the ease of installing child restraints with LATCH could improve LATCH use rates and reduce child restraint misuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  3. Designing "Real-World" trials to meet the needs of health policy makers at marketing authorization. (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick


    There is increasing interest in conducting "Real-World" trials that go beyond traditional assessment of efficacy and safety to examine market access and value for money questions before marketing authorization of a new pharmaceutical product or health technology. This commentary uses practical examples to demonstrate how high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention may be gained earlier in the development process. Issues surrounding the design and analysis of "Real-World" trials to demonstrate relative cost-effectiveness early in the life of new technologies are discussed. The modification of traditional phase III trial designs, de novo trial designs, the combination of trial-based and epidemiological data, and the use of simulation model-based approaches to address reimbursement questions are described. Modest changes to a phase III trial protocol and case report form may be undertaken at the design stage to provide valid estimates of health care use and the benefits accrued; however, phase III designs often preclude "real-life" practice. Relatively small de novo trials may be used to address adherence to therapy or patient preference, although simply designed studies with active comparators enrolling large numbers of patients may provide evidence on long-term safety and rare adverse events. Practical examples demonstrate that it is possible to provide high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention earlier in the development process. Payers and decision makers should preferentially adopt treatments with such evidence than treatments for which evidence is lacking or of lower quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a Mandarin-English Bilingual Speech Recognition System for Real World Music Retrieval (United States)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Pan, Jielin; Lin, Yang; Shao, Jian; Yan, Yonghong

    In recent decades, there has been a great deal of research into the problem of bilingual speech recognition-to develop a recognizer that can handle inter- and intra-sentential language switching between two languages. This paper presents our recent work on the development of a grammar-constrained, Mandarin-English bilingual Speech Recognition System (MESRS) for real world music retrieval. Two of the main difficult issues in handling the bilingual speech recognition systems for real world applications are tackled in this paper. One is to balance the performance and the complexity of the bilingual speech recognition system; the other is to effectively deal with the matrix language accents in embedded language**. In order to process the intra-sentential language switching and reduce the amount of data required to robustly estimate statistical models, a compact single set of bilingual acoustic models derived by phone set merging and clustering is developed instead of using two separate monolingual models for each language. In our study, a novel Two-pass phone clustering method based on Confusion Matrix (TCM) is presented and compared with the log-likelihood measure method. Experiments testify that TCM can achieve better performance. Since potential system users' native language is Mandarin which is regarded as a matrix language in our application, their pronunciations of English as the embedded language usually contain Mandarin accents. In order to deal with the matrix language accents in embedded language, different non-native adaptation approaches are investigated. Experiments show that model retraining method outperforms the other common adaptation methods such as Maximum A Posteriori (MAP). With the effective incorporation of approaches on phone clustering and non-native adaptation, the Phrase Error Rate (PER) of MESRS for English utterances was reduced by 24.47% relatively compared to the baseline monolingual English system while the PER on Mandarin utterances was

  5. Implementing Peer Learning in Clinical Education: A Framework to Address Challenges In the "Real World". (United States)

    Tai, Joanna Hong Meng; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K


    Phenomenon: Peer learning has many benefits and can assist students in gaining the educational skills required in future years when they become teachers themselves. Peer learning may be particularly useful in clinical learning environments, where students report feeling marginalized, overwhelmed, and unsupported. Educational interventions often fail in the workplace environment, as they are often conceived in the "ideal" rather than the complex, messy real world. This work sought to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing peer learning activities in a clinical curriculum. Previous peer learning research results and a matrix of empirically derived peer learning activities were presented to local clinical education experts to generate discussion around the realities of implementing such activities. Potential barriers and limitations of and strategies for implementing peer learning in clinical education were the focus of the individual interviews. Thematic analysis of the data identified three key considerations for real-world implementation of peer learning: culture, epistemic authority, and the primacy of patient-centered care. Strategies for peer learning implementation were also developed from themes within the data, focusing on developing a culture of safety in which peer learning could be undertaken, engaging both educators and students, and establishing expectations for the use of peer learning. Insights: This study identified considerations and strategies for the implementation of peer learning activities, which took into account both educator and student roles. Reported challenges were reflective of those identified within the literature. The resultant framework may aid others in anticipating implementation challenges. Further work is required to test the framework's application in other contexts and its effect on learner outcomes.

  6. The interdisciplinary team in type 2 diabetes management: Challenges and best practice solutions from real-world scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret McGill


    Full Text Available The Global Partnership for Effective Diabetes Management has previously recommended the implementation of an interdisciplinary team (IDT approach to type 2 diabetes (T2DM management as one of 10 practical steps for health care professionals to help more people achieve their glycaemic goal. This article discusses some of the key contributors to success and also the challenges faced when applying IDT care, by examining case studies and examples from around the world. The real-world practices discussed show that implementing successful interdisciplinary care in diabetes is possible despite significant barriers such as established hierarchal structures and financial resource constraints. Instituting collaborative, integrated working relationships among multiple disciplines under strong leadership, together with enhanced and active communication and improved patient access to appropriate specialties is essential. Patients have a crucial role in the management of their own disease and including them as part of the treatment team is also critical. IDTs in diabetes care improve patient outcomes in terms of control of glycaemia and cardiometabolic risk factors, and decreased risk of diabetes complications. Ensuring access to an appropriate IDT, in whatever form, is paramount to enable the best care to be delivered.

  7. The diagnostic journey of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis I: A real-world survey of patient and physician experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bruni


    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I is an inherited lysosomal storage disease. Affected individuals have disease ranging from attenuated to severe with significant disease burden, disability, and premature death. Early treatment with enzyme replacement therapy and/or stem cell transplantation can reduce disease progression and improve outcomes. However, diagnosis is often delayed, particularly for patients with attenuated phenotypes. We conducted a survey of 168 patients and 582 physicians to explore health care seeking patterns and familiarity of physicians with MPS I symptoms. Patients with attenuated MPS I typically first presented with stiff joints or hernia/bulging abdomen, and patients with severe disease with noisy/difficult breathing, or hernia/bulging abdomen. There was a mean delay from time of symptom presentation to diagnosis of 2.7 years for patients with attenuated disease, with a mean of 5 physicians consulted before receiving a correct diagnosis. MPS I was most commonly misidentified by physicians as rheumatoid arthritis (48–72%, with a wide variety of suspected diseases, including lupus. CONCLUSION: Patient and physician real-world surveys show that MPS I is under-recognized and diagnosis of MPS I remains delayed, particularly in patients with attenuated disease. Across regions and specialties, physicians require differential diagnosis education in order to improve early detection and early treatment initiation of MPS I.

  8. The interdisciplinary team in type 2 diabetes management: Challenges and best practice solutions from real-world scenarios. (United States)

    McGill, Margaret; Blonde, Lawrence; Chan, Juliana C N; Khunti, Kamlesh; Lavalle, Fernando J; Bailey, Clifford J


    The Global Partnership for Effective Diabetes Management has previously recommended the implementation of an interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management as one of 10 practical steps for health care professionals to help more people achieve their glycaemic goal. This article discusses some of the key contributors to success and also the challenges faced when applying IDT care, by examining case studies and examples from around the world. The real-world practices discussed show that implementing successful interdisciplinary care in diabetes is possible despite significant barriers such as established hierarchal structures and financial resource constraints. Instituting collaborative, integrated working relationships among multiple disciplines under strong leadership, together with enhanced and active communication and improved patient access to appropriate specialties is essential. Patients have a crucial role in the management of their own disease and including them as part of the treatment team is also critical. IDTs in diabetes care improve patient outcomes in terms of control of glycaemia and cardiometabolic risk factors, and decreased risk of diabetes complications. Ensuring access to an appropriate IDT, in whatever form, is paramount to enable the best care to be delivered.

  9. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.


    "real world" substances, however, we have also devised some new laboratory exercises or adapted existing ones. Sources are cited in Table 1 and in the references; in most cases, published exercises have been extended and modified to fit our theme. Some general descriptions of the more novel exercises appear below. We will be pleased to provide details on any of the exercises to interested readers. 6. To further emphasize the quotidian nature of the samples under study, we have encouraged students to bring their own samples to the laboratory by offering a small number of bonus points (up to 5% of the total points awarded in the course). Student participation has been very gratifying, with two-thirds of the students, on average, bringing in designated materials (indicated in Table 1). Although our primary purpose in encouraging "bring your own" is pedagogical, we are not unaware of a favorable effect on the course budget. 7. Fill-in-the-blank report forms are used to guide calculations in the quantitative exercises, helping to assure reliable conversion of measurements into meaningful results that allow comparison of various student samples. In the more qualitative exercises, however, we emphasize use of the laboratory notebook for record-keeping (3). As an incentive for development of good notebook habits, students are allowed to use their laboratory notebooks on lab quizzes, and the notebooks themselves are graded for thoroughness and accuracy at least once each semester. 8. Most laboratory exercises are conducted on an S/U basis. Numerically graded exercises, indicated in Table 1, are performed only after students have gained experience in basic operations by working on S/U exercises. Some Features of the More Novel Exercises 1. In "Identification of Household `Chemicals' ", each student is given a white powder and a list of some twenty such powders that might be found in or around an American household. They perform some simple solubility and reactivity tests and

  10. Clinician user involvement in the real world: Designing an electronic tool to improve interprofessional communication and collaboration in a hospital setting. (United States)

    Tang, Terence; Lim, Morgan E; Mansfield, Elizabeth; McLachlan, Alexander; Quan, Sherman D


    User involvement is vital to the success of health information technology implementation. However, involving clinician users effectively and meaningfully in complex healthcare organizations remains challenging. The objective of this paper is to share our real-world experience of applying a variety of user involvement methods in the design and implementation of a clinical communication and collaboration platform aimed at facilitating care of complex hospitalized patients by an interprofessional team of clinicians. We designed and implemented an electronic clinical communication and collaboration platform in a large community teaching hospital. The design team consisted of both technical and healthcare professionals. Agile software development methodology was used to facilitate rapid iterative design and user input. We involved clinician users at all stages of the development lifecycle using a variety of user-centered, user co-design, and participatory design methods. Thirty-six software releases were delivered over 24 months. User involvement has resulted in improvement in user interface design, identification of software defects, creation of new modules that facilitated workflow, and identification of necessary changes to the scope of the project early on. A variety of user involvement methods were complementary and benefited the design and implementation of a complex health IT solution. Combining these methods with agile software development methodology can turn designs into functioning clinical system to support iterative improvement. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding the Value of Real-World Evidence: Focus on Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation with Rivaroxaban. (United States)

    Camm, A John; Coleman, Craig I; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Peter Brønnum; Tamayo, Capt Sally


    Real-world data are a well-recognized component within the drug lifecycle, and such data are generated from a range of sources and study designs, including claims databases, electronic health records, non-interventional studies (NIS) and registries. While this information can be of vital clinical importance, there may be challenges in understanding the relevance of the differing study designs, endpoints and populations. Here, we summarize the value of real-world evidence and considerations pertinent to their use in clinical research. Owing to the variety of analyses being conducted using real-world data, it is important for researchers and clinicians to have a clear understanding of the nature and origin of those data, and to ensure they are valid, reliable and robust in terms of extrapolating meaningful findings. There are crucial questions to address when evaluating real-world studies, and we introduce a checklist to meet these objectives. In addition to advice for appraising data quality and study designs, several updates will be covered from real-world studies of rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF): the nationwide Danish cohort study, U.S. Department of Defense Military Health System database, retrospective claim database study REAFFIRM and a pooled analysis from the global NIS XArelto on preveNtion of sTroke and non-central nervoUS system systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (XANTUS). Real-world studies consistently show that rivaroxaban is an effective treatment option with acceptable safety when used for stroke prevention in a large number of patients with AF across the globe. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  12. Eye Movement Patterns during Locomotion in Real-World and Simulated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao


    Full Text Available Eye movements in a search-and-count walking task were compared between a simulated (SE and real-world environment (RE. Eye movements were recorded using the mobile WearCam in either RE or the StroMoHab locomotion simulator, a treadmill-based system for gait mobility rehabilitation. For Experiment 1, a RE was prepared with objects (coloured balls and occluding barriers placed along a 38 m long corridor. A video was captured from a walker's viewpoint at 1.3 km/hr. Fifteen subjects per environment reported the total object count after completing a walk while viewing the video in the SE (at 0, 1.3, or 2.5 km/h and RE (at 1.3 km/h. Examining the number of eye transitions (TotET between objects in relation to walking speed in SE, revealed significant increases between 0 and 2.5 km/h (F3, 56 =20.62, p = .02 and 1.3 and 2.5 km/h (F3, 56 =20.62, p = .039, despite no change in video speed; no significant difference was found between 0 and 1.3 km/h. In Experiment 2, 15 subjects viewed a static checkered screen and were instructed to ‘view the screen’ while walking. TotET decreased significantly, between 1.3 km/h and 5.2 km/h (F2, 27 =3.437, p = .014; no significant differences were observed between 2.6 km/h and either 1.3 km/h or 5.2 km/h. In real-world conditions, walking faster increases the difficulty of search tasks, with a likely correlated increase in eye movements. Apparently, the expectation of increased difficulty carries over to SE, even if the visual task is not more difficult. The findings point to physiological and perceptual correlations between locomotion and eye movements.

  13. Incidence, predictors and outcome of drug-eluting stent thrombosis in real-world practice. (United States)

    Blich, Miry; Zeidan-Shwiri, Tawfiq; Petcherski, Sirouch; Osherov, Azriel; Hammerman, Haim


    Traditionally, stent thrombosis (STH) has been regarded as a complication of percutaneous coronary interventions during the first 30 post-procedural days. However, delayed endothelialization associated with the implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) may extend the risk of thrombosis beyond 30 days. Data are limited regarding the risks and the impact of this phenomenon outside clinical trials. To evaluate the incidence, predictors and clinical outcomes of STH and premature discontinuation of thienopyridines after implantation of DES in real-world practice. We prospectively collected data from consecutive unselected patients who underwent at least 1 DES implantation at our center from February 2006 until January 2007. The patients were followed by a phone interview or by collecting data from admission files over the course of 2 years after the implantation. Confirmed and suspected STH was defined as accepted in the medical literature. Three hundred fourteen patients were successfully treated with DES (436 lesions). At 20 ± 6.7 months' follow up (median 22 months), 14 patients (4.4%) had STH (incidence density 2.7 cases/100 patients-years). Five patients had early thrombosis (0-30 days), 5 patients had late STH (31-360 days from the procedure) and 4 patients had very late STH (> 360 days). Five of the 14 patients with STH died (case fatality rate, 36%). In multivariant logistic regression analysis, history of a non-cardiac thrombotic event was a risk factor for STH (p = 0.006, odds ratio [OR] 7.7, confidence interval [CI] 1.8-32.9). Clopidogrel therapy lasting less than 3 months was an independent predictor of late and very late STH (p = 0.001, OR 10.8, CI 2.7-42.9). Independent predictors of early discontinuation of thienopyridines (≤ 3 months) were Arab ethnic origin (p = 0.005, OR 19.2, CI 2.4-142), absence of cardiology follow up (p = 0.05, OR 4.7, CI 1-23.1) and absence of explanation about the clopidogrel importance at the time of hospital discharge (p = 0

  14. Real-world evaluation of compliance and preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai MC


    Full Text Available Ming-Chyi Pai,1,2 Hany Aref,3 Nazem Bassil,4 Nagaendran Kandiah,5 Jae-Hong Lee,6 AV Srinivasan,7 Shelley diTommaso,8 Ozgur Yuksel81Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, 2Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan; 3Department of Neurology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Saint Georges Hospital Medical Center, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 6Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul, South Korea; 7The Tamil Nadu Dr MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; 8Novartis Pharma AG, Postfach, Basel, SwitzerlandPurpose: Rivastigmine transdermal patch has shown higher caregiver satisfaction and greater preference than oral formulation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, there is limited literature available related to caregiver preference or treatment compliance in real-world clinical settings. To date, no such data are available from Asia and the Middle East, which account for a sizeable proportion of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment preference and compliance with oral and transdermal medications in daily clinical practice in an ethnically diverse patient population from Asia and the Middle East with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease.Patients and methods: RECAP (Real-world Evaluation of Compliance And Preference in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease was a 24-week, multicenter, prospective, noninterventional study. Two treatment cohorts were observed during the study: oral (cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine and transdermal (rivastigmine patch. Caregiver preference, physician preference, and patient compliance were evaluated at week 24.Results: A total of 978 of 1

  15. Collaborative process improvement with examples from the software world

    CERN Document Server

    Yeakley, C


    Collaborative Process Improvement specifically addresses software companies that are interested in addressing quality in human terms. Using Collaborative Process Improvement techniques builds effective processes to deliver quality products; it helps readers relate to what quality means to the end-user and provides the essential tools and methods to integrate the face of the customer into the organization's day-to-day processes. It comes complete with real-world examples that are practical and unders andable to professionals in every role of a company.

  16. Bringing the real world into the laboratory: personal smoking and nonsmoking environments. (United States)

    Conklin, Cynthia A; Perkins, Kenneth A; Robin, Nathalie; McClernon, F Joseph; Salkeld, Ronald P


    Pictorial representations of specific environments related to smoking can evoke robust craving to smoke, even in the absence of any proximal cues to smoke (e.g., cigarettes, lighters). To evaluate the salience of smoking environment cues, we developed a novel procedure for bringing smokers' real world smoking and nonsmoking environments into the laboratory to compare them with standard (i.e., not personalized) environments within a cue-reactivity paradigm. Seventy-two smokers used digital cameras to take pictures of the environments in which they do and do not smoke. They then completed a cue-reactivity session during which they viewed and rated pictures of smoking and nonsmoking environments, half personal and half standard, all devoid of proximal smoking cues. As hypothesized, personal environments led to a significantly larger smoking-nonsmoking difference in craving, compared with the standard environments. Personalization also enhanced stimuli vividness, relevance, positive affect, and excitement, as well as heart rate changes from baseline. Implications of these findings for exposure-based research and treatment for addiction, as well as other psychological disorders, are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Why is binocular rivalry uncommon? Discrepant monocular images in the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Henry Arnold


    Full Text Available When different images project to corresponding points in the two eyes they can instigate a phenomenon called binocular rivalry (BR, wherein each image seems to intermittently disappear such that only one of the two images is seen at a time. Cautious readers may have noted an important caveat in the opening sentence – this situation can instigate BR, but usually it doesn’t. Unmatched monocular images are frequently encountered in daily life due to either differential occlusions of the two eyes or because of selective obstructions of just one eye, but this does not tend to induce BR. Here I will explore the reasons for this and discuss implications for BR in general. It will be argued that BR is resolved in favour of the instantaneously stronger neural signal, and that this process is driven by an adaptation that enhances the visibility of distant fixated objects over that of more proximate obstructions of an eye. Accordingly, BR would reflect the dynamics of an inherently visual operation that usually deals with real-world constraints.

  18. A randomized trial of group parent training: reducing child conduct problems in real-world settings. (United States)

    Kjøbli, John; Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje


    Group-based Parent Management Training, the Oregon model (PMTO, 12 sessions) was delivered by the regular staff of municipal child and family services. PMTO is based on social interaction learning theory and promotes positive parenting skills in parents of children with conduct problems. This study examined the effectiveness of the group-based training intervention in real world settings both immediately following and six months after termination of the intervention. One hundred thirty-seven children (3-12 years) and their parents participated in this study. The families were randomly assigned to group-based training or a comparison group. Data were collected from parents and teachers. The caregiver assessments of parenting practices and child conduct problems and caregiver and teacher reported social competence revealed immediate and significant intervention effects. Short- and long-term beneficial effects were reported from parents, although no follow-up effects were evident on teacher reports. These effectiveness findings and the potential for increasing the number of families served to support the further dissemination and implementation of group-based parent training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Subramaniam


    Full Text Available Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal–striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ participants show hypoactivation within these frontal–striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

  20. The Pale Blue Dot: Utilizing Real World Globes in High School and Undergraduate Oceanography Classrooms (United States)

    Rogers, D. B.


    Geoscience classrooms have benefitted greatly from the use of interactive, dry-erasable globes to supplement instruction on topics that require three-dimensional visualization, such as seismic wave propagation and the large-scale movements of tectonic plates. Indeed, research by Bamford (2013) demonstrates that using three-dimensional visualization to illustrate complex processes enhances student comprehension. While some geoscience courses tend to bake-in lessons on visualization, other disciplines of earth science that require three-dimensional visualization, such as oceanography, tend to rely on students' prior spatial abilities. In addition to spatial intelligence, education on the three-dimensional structure of the ocean requires knowledge of the external processes govern the behavior of the ocean, as well as the vertical and lateral distribution of water properties around the globe. Presented here are two oceanographic activities that utilize RealWorldGlobes' dry-erase globes to supplement traditional oceanography lessons on thermohaline and surface ocean circulation. While simultaneously promoting basic plotting techniques, mathematical calculations, and unit conversions, these activities touch on the processes that govern global ocean circulation, the principles of radiocarbon dating, and the various patterns exhibited by surface ocean currents. These activities challenge students to recognize inherent patterns within their data and synthesize explanations for their occurrence. Spatial visualization and critical thinking are integral to any geoscience education, and the combination of these abilities with engaging hands-on activities has the potential to greatly enhance oceanography education in both secondary and postsecondary settings

  1. Comparisons of MOVES Light-duty Gasoline NOx Emission Rates with Real-world Measurements (United States)

    Choi, D.; Sonntag, D.; Warila, J.


    Recent studies have shown differences between air quality model estimates and monitored values for nitrogen oxides. Several studies have suggested that the discrepancy between monitored and modeled values is due to an overestimation of NOx from mobile sources in EPA's emission inventory, particularly for light-duty gasoline vehicles. EPA's MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) is an emission modeling system that estimates emissions for cars, trucks and other mobile sources at the national, county, and project level for criteria pollutants, greenhouse gases, and air toxics. Studies that directly measure vehicle emissions provide useful data for evaluating MOVES when the measurement conditions are properly accounted for in modeling. In this presentation, we show comparisons of MOVES2014 to thousands of real-world NOx emissions measurements from individual light-duty gasoline vehicles. The comparison studies include in-use vehicle emissions tests conducted on chassis dynamometer tests in support of Denver, Colorado's Vehicle Inspection & Maintenance Program and remote sensing data collected using road-side instruments in multiple locations and calendar years in the United States. In addition, we conduct comparisons of MOVES predictions to fleet-wide emissions measured from tunnels. We also present details on the methodology used to conduct the MOVES model runs in comparing to the independent data.

  2. Real-world challenges for hepatitis C virus medications: a critical overview. (United States)

    Shahid, Imran; AlMalki, Waleed Hassan; Hassan, Sajida; Hafeez, Muhammad Hassan


    From 2010, the landscape of hepatitis C therapeutics has been changed rapidly, and today we are standing at a cusp of a pharmacological revolution where highly effective and interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antivirals (DAAs) are already on the market. Such treatment paradigms attain 90-95% sustained virologic response (SVR; undetectable viral load at week 12 or 24 at the end of therapy) rates in treated individuals compared to 50-70% with treatment completion of dual-therapy-pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV). As the major goal now for the hepatologists, clinicians, physicians, and health care workers is likely to eradicate hepatitis C infection in parallel to treatment, the demand is for a one-size-fits-all pill that could be prescribed beyond the limitations of hepatitis C genotype, viral load, previous treatment history, advanced hepatic manifestations (fibrosis, cirrhosis) and antiviral drug resistance. Although the new treatment strategies have shown high cure rates in clinical trials, such treatment paradigms are posing dilemmas too in real-world clinical practice. Therapy cost, treatment access to low and middle-income countries, treatment-emergent adverse events, lack of effective viral screening and disease progression simulation models are potential challenges in this prospect. This review article deeply overviews the challenges encountered while surmounting the burden of hepatitis C around the world.

  3. Effectiveness and security of chronic hepatitis C treatment in coinfected patients in real-world. (United States)

    Uriarte-Pinto, Moisés; Navarro-Aznarez, Herminia; De La Llama-Celis, Natalia; Arazo-Garcés, Piedad; Martínez-Sapiña, Ana María; Abad-Sazatornil, María Reyes


    Background HIV-HCV coinfection produces high morbi-mortality. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have shown high efficacy, although special attention should be paid to the risk of drug interactions. However, due to the lack of representativeness of coinfected patients in clinical trials, it is important to know real-world results. Objective To evaluate DAA treatment effectiveness in coinfected patients. We also analyse safety profile of DAA treatment and drug interactions between HCV and HIV therapy. Setting Descriptive study carried in a tertiary hospital of Spain Method HIV-HCV coinfected patients treated with DAAs between November 2014 and June 2016 were included. Main outcome measure Efficacy was measured in terms of sustained virologic response at week 12 after the end of therapy. Adverse events that led to treatment discontinuation were registered to evaluate the safety profile, and also drug interactions between DAAs and antiretroviral treatment were evaluated. Results Main HCV genotypes were 1a (34.9%) and 4 (24.5%). 51.9% were HCV previously treated, 54.7% had grade 4 liver fibrosis. SVR12 was reported in 90.6%. HCV treatment was well tolerated and there were no discontinuations because of adverse events. 30.2% of HIV treatments had to be modified before DAA treatment was started due to interactions, HIV suppression was not compromised. Conclusion DAA treatment in coinfected patients seems to be highly effective and secure. Evaluation of drug interactions must be a priority in order to maximize effectiveness and avoid toxicity.

  4. Google unveils a glimpse of allergic rhinitis in the real world. (United States)

    Kang, M-G; Song, W-J; Choi, S; Kim, H; Ha, H; Kim, S-H; Cho, S-H; Min, K-U; Yoon, S; Chang, Y-S


    Google Trends (GT) is a Web-based surveillance tool used to explore the searching trends of specific queries on Google. Recent studies have suggested the utility of GT in predicting outbreaks of influenza and other diseases. However, this utility has not been thoroughly evaluated for allergic diseases. Therefore, we investigated the utility of GT for predicting the epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. In the USA, GT for allergic rhinitis showed repetitive seasonality that peaked in late April and early May and then rapidly decreased, and a second small peak occurred in September. These trends are highly correlated with the searching trends for other queries such as 'pollen count', antihistamines such as loratadine and cetirizine (all r > 0.88 and all P Google Trends for allergic rhinitis was similar to the monthly changes in rhinitis symptoms according to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, sales for Claritin(®) and all over-the-counter antihistamines, and the number of monthly page views of ''. In conclusion, GT closely reflects the real-world epidemiology of allergic rhinitis in the USA and could potentially be used as a monitoring tool for allergic rhinitis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Association between volume and momentum of online searches and real-world collective unrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qi

    Full Text Available A fundamental idea from physics is that macroscopic transitions can occur as a result of an escalation in the correlated activity of a many-body system’s constituent particles. Here we apply this idea in an interdisciplinary setting, whereby the particles are individuals, their correlated activity involves online search activity surrounding the topics of social unrest, and the macroscopic phenomenon being measured are real-world protests. Our empirical study covers countries in Latin America during 2011–2014 using datasets assembled from multiple sources by subject matter experts. We find specifically that the volume and momentum of searches on Google Trends surrounding mass protest language, can detect – and may even pre-empt – the macroscopic on-street activity. Not only can this simple open-source solution prove an invaluable aid for monitoring civil order, our study serves to strengthen the increasing literature in the physics community aimed at understanding the collective dynamics of interacting populations of living objects across the life sciences. Keywords: Collective phenomena, Complexity, Social media, Transitions

  6. Series: Pragmatic trials and real world evidence: Paper 5. Usual care and real life comparators. (United States)

    Zuidgeest, Mira G P; Welsing, Paco M J; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W; Ciaglia, Antonio; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Eckert, Laurent; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Egger, Matthias


    Pragmatic trials may deliver real-world evidence on the added value of new medications compared with usual care and inform decision making earlier in development. This fifth paper in a series on pragmatic trials in the Journal discusses usual care as a comparator and the allocation of treatment strategies. The allocation and implementation of treatment strategies should resemble clinical practice as closely as possible. Randomization at the level of the site, as opposed to at the individual level, may be preferred. Data analysis according to the intention-to-treat principle is recommended, and crossover between treatment arms and strong treatment preferences may be accounted for in the study design in specific situations. Although usual care is the comparator of choice, this may differ substantially between centers and countries complicating comparator choice. Using clinical guidelines to define usual care can be helpful in standardizing comparator treatments; however, this may decrease the applicability of the results to real-life settings. Conversely, using multiple usual-care treatment arms will increase the complexity of the study. The specific objectives of the trial and design choices should be discussed with all stakeholders to realize the full potential of the pragmatic trial. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Series: Pragmatic trials and real world evidence: Paper 4. Informed consent. (United States)

    Kalkman, Shona; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W; Zuidgeest, Mira G P; Goetz, Iris; Pfeiffer, Boris M; Grobbee, Diederick E; van Delden, Johannes J M


    The GetReal consortium of the Innovative Medicines Initiative aims to develop strategies to incorporate real-world evidence earlier into the drug life cycle to better inform health care decision makers on the comparative risks and benefits of new drugs. Pragmatic trials are currently explored as a means to generate such evidence in routine care settings. The traditional informed consent model for randomized clinical trials has been argued to pose substantial hurdles to the practicability of pragmatic trials: it would lead to recruitment difficulties, reduced generalizability of the results, and selection bias. The present article analyzes these challenges and discusses four proposed alternative informed consent models: integrated consent, targeted consent, broadcast consent, and a waiver of consent. These alternative consent models each aim at overcoming operational and methodological challenges, while still providing patients all the relevant information they need to make informed decisions. Each consent model, however, relies on different attitudes toward the principle of respect for persons and the related duty to inform patients as well as represents different views on whether the common good demands moral duties from patients. Such normative consequences of modifying consent requirements should be at least acknowledged and ought to be assessed in light of the validity of empirical claims. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Innovations in preventing and managing chronic conditions: what's working in the real world? (United States)

    Cassil, Alwyn


    Wellness and prevention strategies are fast becoming a standard feature of employer-based health benefits in hopes of countering rapidly rising health care costs that drive higher insurance premiums. At the same time, payers and health care providers are experimenting with how to improve care coordination for high-cost patients with multiple chronic conditions, an ongoing challenge in the fragmented U.S. health care system. Promoting health and wellness and improving the care of people with chronic conditions offer promise in helping to improve the value of health care and control costs, according to experts at a Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) conference titled, Innovations in Preventing and Managing Chronic Conditions: What's Working in the Real World? Panelists explored how effective employer-sponsored wellness and prevention initiatives focus on health improvement as a business strategy and foster work and community environments that help people lower risk factors--smoking, diet, lack of exercise--that lead to disease. Panelists also discussed various models--centered on strong primary care-to improve care for people with chronic conditions.

  9. A Comparison of Three Algorithms for Approximating the Distance Distribution in Real-World Graphs (United States)

    Crescenzi, Pierluigi; Grossi, Roberto; Lanzi, Leonardo; Marino, Andrea

    The distance for a pair of vertices in a graph G is the length of the shortest path between them. The distance distribution for G specifies how many vertex pairs are at distance h, for all feasible values h. We study three fast randomized algorithms to approximate the distance distribution in large graphs. The Eppstein-Wang (ew) algorithm exploits sampling through a limited (logarithmic) number of Breadth-First Searches (bfses). The Size-Estimation Framework (sef) by Cohen employs random ranking and least-element lists to provide several estimators. Finally, the Approximate Neighborhood Function (anf) algorithm by Palmer, Gibbons, and Faloutsos makes use of the probabilistic counting technique introduced by Flajolet and Martin, in order to estimate the number of distinct elements in a large multiset. We investigate how good is the approximation of the distance distribution, when the three algorithms are run in similar settings. The analysis of anf derives from the results on the probabilistic counting method, while the one of sef is given by Cohen. For what concerns ew (originally designed for another problem), we extend its simple analysis in order to bound its error with high probability and to show its convergence. We then perform an experimental study on 30 real-world graphs, showing that our implementation of ew combines the accuracy of sef with the performance of anf.

  10. Family Assessment Device: Real-world validity in urban families of children with asthma. (United States)

    Leibach, Gillian G; Everhart, Robin S


    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to further validate the real-world predictability of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among low income, racial and ethnic minority, urban families of children (7-12 years) with asthma. Caregivers completed self-report measures at baseline, as well as daily assessments of family functioning for 2 weeks through EMA delivered via smartphone. Concurrent validity was established with measures of caregiver perceived stress and positive and negative affect at baseline. Better family functioning at baseline was associated with EMA reports of families getting along better and of being better able to balance multiple family needs, including child asthma management. Consistent with previous literature, findings suggest the FAD is an ecologically valid measure for use with urban families of children with asthma. Researchers and clinicians may be confident that assessments of family functioning in research and clinical settings are predictive of what may be happening in the family's everyday life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Acceptable noise level (ANL) and real-world hearing-aid success in Taiwanese listeners. (United States)

    Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Zhang, Xuyang


    The objective of this prospective study was to investigate the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL), which was measured using Taiwanese and the international speech test signal (ISTS), and real-world hearing-aid success for listeners who were representative of the population commonly seen in clinics. Unaided ANLs were measured pre-hearing-aid fitting. Hearing-aid success was assessed three months post-fitting using the international outcome inventory for hearing aids (IOI-HA) and a hearing-aid use questionnaire. Eighty adults with hearing impairment completed the study. Both Taiwanese and ISTS ANLs were significantly associated with hearing-aid success, with higher ANLs suggesting poorer outcomes. However, the ANL's prediction accuracy for the probability of hearing-aid success was either much lower than that suggested by some literature, or was not much different from that of simply predicting all listeners as successful users. The current study suggested the possibility of using ANL to predict hearing-aid success. However, the usefulness of ANL as a clinical tool is unlikely to be as great as indicated by the literature.

  12. The pearls of using real-world evidence to discover social groups (United States)

    Cardillo, Raymond A.; Salerno, John J.


    In previous work, we introduced a new paradigm called Uni-Party Data Community Generation (UDCG) and a new methodology to discover social groups (a.k.a., community models) called Link Discovery based on Correlation Analysis (LDCA). We further advanced this work by experimenting with a corpus of evidence obtained from a Ponzi scheme investigation. That work identified several UDCG algorithms, developed what we called "Importance Measures" to compare the accuracy of the algorithms based on ground truth, and presented a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that criminal investigators could use to discover social groups. However, that work used a rather small random sample of manually edited documents because the evidence contained far too many OCR and other extraction errors. Deferring the evidence extraction errors allowed us to continue experimenting with UDCG algorithms, but only used a small fraction of the available evidence. In attempt to discover techniques that are more practical in the near-term, our most recent work focuses on being able to use an entire corpus of real-world evidence to discover social groups. This paper discusses the complications of extracting evidence, suggests a method of performing name resolution, presents a new UDCG algorithm, and discusses our future direction in this area.

  13. Real World Evidence for Regulatory Decisions: Concomitant Administration of Zoster Vaccine Live and Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine. (United States)

    Bruxvoort, Katia; Sy, Lina S; Luo, Yi; Tseng, Hung Fu


    The US Food and Drug Administration is charged with expanding the use of real world evidence (RWE) for regulatory decisions. As a test case for RWE to support regulatory decisions, we present the scenario of concomitant vaccination with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). The prescribing information states that these vaccines should not be given concurrently, based on a small trial using varicella zoster virus antibody levels as a correlate of ZVL efficacy, even though ZVL protects against herpes zoster via cell-mediated immunity. We conducted an observational cohort study involving >30,000 members of Kaiser Permanente Southern California receiving concomitant ZVL and PPSV23 versus PPSV23 prior to ZVL. Occurrence of herpes zoster was assessed through electronic health records from January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2016. The adjusted hazard ratio comparing incidence rates of herpes zoster in the concomitant vaccination cohort and the prior vaccination cohort was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.16). This RWE study provides direct evidence for a lack of vaccine interference, relying on herpes zoster occurrence rather than an intermediate marker of immunity. RWE is essential for regulators and policy makers in addressing evidentiary gaps regarding safety, effectiveness, compliance, and vaccine interactions for the new recombinant zoster vaccine.

  14. College versus the real world: student perceptions and implications for understanding heavy drinking among college students. (United States)

    Colby, Suzanne M; Colby, John J; Raymond, George A


    College student heavy drinking is a persistent problem despite widespread initiatives. Using focus group methodology, this study examined student perceptions of factors that promote and limit drinking during and after college. The goal was to better understand factors that reduce drinking post-college to develop strategies to moderate college drinking. Twelve groups (N=75) were conducted with undergraduates at a northeastern Catholic college. Most participants drank; the majority exceeded a clinical indicator of problematic drinking. Transcript analysis identified themes that were coded with high reliability. Drinking in college was perceived to enhance socialization, bonding, and disinhibition. College, characterized by a high level of freedom and low level of responsibility, was seen as time-out from the "real world". In that context, heavy drinking was permissible. Students expected their future lifestyle to be burdensome and tedious; nostalgia for the good times associated with heavy drinking was anticipated. They imagined post-college drinking to be a threat to career and family and therefore irresponsible. Implications for intervention development and future research are described.

  15. A Resource for Using Real-World Examples in the Physics Classroom (United States)

    Van Dongen, Janelle; Rieger, Georg


    Physics Teaching for the 21st Century (:// is a free online resource for teachers who are interested in teaching physics concepts in real-world contexts. The materials on this site were developed by a team of physics faculty and graduate and undergraduate students at the Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, based on issues of great current concern—reusable energy, climate change, and medical advancement. Topics on the website also focus on applications of physics in the natural world around us. There are currently about 70 different topics on the website and it is not possible to justly give a sense of the website in total here. Instead we will present one complete example of the resources available on our website and show how it can be used in the classroom or in lecture. The example discussed here is suitable for a first-year university course and focuses on diffraction through a circular aperture and Rayleigh's resolution criterion by looking at the effect of pupil size on the minimum angle of resolution. The original idea came from reading a book on zoological physics,2 and a short example was later found in a first-year physics textbook.3

  16. Implicit coding of location and direction in a familiar, real-world "vista" space. (United States)

    Sulpizio, Valentina; Boccia, Maddalena; Guariglia, Cecilia; Galati, Gaspare


    Keeping oriented in the surrounding space requires an accurate representation of one's spatial position and facing direction. Although previous studies provided evidence of specific spatial codes for position and direction within room-sized and large-scale navigational environments, little is known about the mechanisms by which these spatial quantities are represented in a real small-scale environment. Here, we used two spatial tasks requiring participants to encode their own position and facing direction on a series of pictures taken from a familiar circular square. Crucially, directions and positions were incidentally manipulated, so that when participants were required to encode their current position in the square, the perceived direction across consecutive trials was the same, and vice versa. We found a behavioral advantage (priming effect: reduced reaction times and increased accuracy) for repeated directions and positions, even in the absence of any explicit demand to encode either of them. The advantage was higher for repeated directions, indicating that representation of one's own direction is more automatic than representation of one's own location. Furthermore, priming effects were partially mediated by gender: females (but not males) showed a stronger priming effect for repeated directions than for repeated positions. Finally, although priming effects were not linearly related to the physical distances between consecutive positions and directions, they revealed a rough preservation of real-world distance relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Common EEG features for behavioral estimation in disparate, real-world tasks. (United States)

    Touryan, Jon; Lance, Brent J; Kerick, Scott E; Ries, Anthony J; McDowell, Kaleb


    In this study we explored the potential for capturing the behavioral dynamics observed in real-world tasks from concurrent measures of EEG. In doing so, we sought to develop models of behavior that would enable the identification of common cross-participant and cross-task EEG features. To accomplish this we had participants perform both simulated driving and guard duty tasks while we recorded their EEG. For each participant we developed models to estimate their behavioral performance during both tasks. Sequential forward floating selection was used to identify the montage of independent components for each model. Linear regression was then used on the combined power spectra from these independent components to generate a continuous estimate of behavior. Our results show that oscillatory processes, evidenced in EEG, can be used to successfully capture slow fluctuations in behavior in complex, multi-faceted tasks. The average correlation coefficients between the actual and estimated behavior was 0.548 ± 0.117 and 0.701 ± 0.154 for the driving and guard duty tasks respectively. Interestingly, through a simple clustering approach we were able to identify a number of common components, both neural and eye-movement related, across participants and tasks. We used these component clusters to quantify the relative influence of common versus participant-specific features in the models of behavior. These findings illustrate the potential for estimating complex behavioral dynamics from concurrent measures from EEG using a finite library of universal features. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Contrasting gist-based and template-based guidance during real-world visual search. (United States)

    Bahle, Brett; Matsukura, Michi; Hollingworth, Andrew


    Visual search through real-world scenes is guided both by a representation of target features and by knowledge of the sematic properties of the scene (derived from scene gist recognition). In 3 experiments, we compared the relative roles of these 2 sources of guidance. Participants searched for a target object in the presence of a critical distractor object. The color of the critical distractor either matched or mismatched (a) the color of an item maintained in visual working memory for a secondary task (Experiment 1), or (b) the color of the target, cued by a picture before search commenced (Experiments 2 and 3). Capture of gaze by a matching distractor served as an index of template guidance. There were 4 main findings: (a) The distractor match effect was observed from the first saccade on the scene, (b) it was independent of the availability of scene-level gist-based guidance, (c) it was independent of whether the distractor appeared in a plausible location for the target, and (d) it was preserved even when gist-based guidance was available before scene onset. Moreover, gist-based, semantic guidance of gaze to target-plausible regions of the scene was delayed relative to template-based guidance. These results suggest that feature-based template guidance is not limited to plausible scene regions after an initial, scene-level analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Web Browser History Detection as a Real-World Privacy Threat

    CERN Document Server

    Janc, A


    Web browser history detection using CSS $visited$ styles has long been dismissed as an issue of marginal impact. However, due to recent changes in Web usage patterns, coupled with browser performance improvements, the long-standing issue has now become a significant threat to the privacy of Internet users. In this paper we analyze the impact of CSS-based history detection and demonstrate the feasibility of conducting practical attacks with minimal resources. We analyze Web browser behavior and detectability of content loaded via standard protocols and with various HTTP response codes. We develop an algorithm for efficient examination of large link sets and evaluate its performance in modern browsers. Compared to existing methods our approach is up to 6 times faster, and is able to detect up to 30,000 visited links per second. We present a novel Web application capable of effectively detecting clients’ browsing histories and discuss real-world results obtained from 271,576 Internet users. Our results indicat...

  20. Real-world evidence in pain research: a review of data sources. (United States)

    Bellows, Brandon K; Kuo, Kuan-Ling; Biltaji, Eman; Singhal, Mukul; Jiao, Tianze; Cheng, Yan; McAdam-Marx, Carrie


    Outcomes research studies use clinical and administrative data generated in the course of patient care or from patient surveys to examine the effectiveness of treatments. Health care providers need to understand the limitations and strengths of the real-world data sources used in outcomes studies to meaningfully use the results. This paper describes five types of databases commonly used in the United States for outcomes research studies, discusses their strengths and limitations, and provides examples of each within the context of pain treatment. The databases specifically discussed are generated from (1) electronic medical records, which are created from patient-provider interactions; (2) administrative claims, which are generated from providers' and patients' transactions with payers; (3) integrated health systems, which are generated by systems that provide both clinical care and insurance benefits and typically represent a combination of electronic medical record and claims data; (4) national surveys, which provide patient-reported responses about their health and behaviors; and (5) patient registries, which are developed to track patients with a given disease or exposure over time for specified purposes, such as population management, safety monitoring, or research.

  1. Probabilistic Elastic Part Model: A Pose-Invariant Representation for Real-World Face Verification. (United States)

    Li, Haoxiang; Hua, Gang


    Pose variation remains to be a major challenge for real-world face recognition. We approach this problem through a probabilistic elastic part model. We extract local descriptors (e.g., LBP or SIFT) from densely sampled multi-scale image patches. By augmenting each descriptor with its location, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is trained to capture the spatial-appearance distribution of the face parts of all face images in the training corpus, namely the probabilistic elastic part (PEP) model. Each mixture component of the GMM is confined to be a spherical Gaussian to balance the influence of the appearance and the location terms, which naturally defines a part. Given one or multiple face images of the same subject, the PEP-model builds its PEP representation by sequentially concatenating descriptors identified by each Gaussian component in a maximum likelihood sense. We further propose a joint Bayesian adaptation algorithm to adapt the universally trained GMM to better model the pose variations between the target pair of faces/face tracks, which consistently improves face verification accuracy. Our experiments show that we achieve state-of-the-art face verification accuracy with the proposed representations on the Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW) dataset, the YouTube video face database, and the CMU MultiPIE dataset.

  2. Real-World-Time Simulation of Memory Consolidation in a Large-Scale Cerebellar Model. (United States)

    Gosui, Masato; Yamazaki, Tadashi


    We report development of a large-scale spiking network model of the cerebellum composed of more than 1 million neurons. The model is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs), which are dedicated hardware for parallel computing. Using 4 GPUs simultaneously, we achieve realtime simulation, in which computer simulation of cerebellar activity for 1 s completes within 1 s in the real-world time, with temporal resolution of 1 ms. This allows us to carry out a very long-term computer simulation of cerebellar activity in a practical time with millisecond temporal resolution. Using the model, we carry out computer simulation of long-term gain adaptation of optokinetic response (OKR) eye movements for 5 days aimed to study the neural mechanisms of posttraining memory consolidation. The simulation results are consistent with animal experiments and our theory of posttraining memory consolidation. These results suggest that realtime computing provides a useful means to study a very slow neural process such as memory consolidation in the brain.

  3. Real-World Dosing Patterns of Atomoxetine in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (United States)

    Kabul, Samaneh; Alatorre, Carlos; Montejano, Leslie B; Farr, Amanda M; Clemow, David B


    The aim was to investigate the dosing patterns of atomoxetine monotherapy in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a retrospective analysis. Adult (≥ 18 years) patients with ADHD newly initiated on atomoxetine with ≥ 1 outpatient pharmacy claim for atomoxetine between January 2006 and December 2011 were selected from the Truven Health MarketScan(®) Commercial database. After a 30-day titration period, dosing patterns of atomoxetine monotherapy were analyzed in the 12 months following initiation. In addition, patient demographic and clinical characteristics were compared to identify characteristics associated with suboptimal versus recommended dosing. Of the 12,412 adult patients with ADHD newly initiated on atomoxetine, 4548 (36.6%) were suboptimally dosed, whereas 3323 (26.7%) were treated at recommended dose. Overall, study patients were treated at a mean (standard deviation [SD]) dose of 68.5 (44.9) mg/day. The suboptimal dosing cohort included significantly more females (54% vs. 44%, P ADHD medications (17% vs. 20%, P ADHD receiving atomoxetine therapy in a real-world setting are often dosed suboptimally. Increasing the awareness on optimal dosing strategy among clinicians and patients is warranted to maximize the therapeutic benefits of atomoxetine among adult patients with ADHD. © 2015 Eli Lilly and Company. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Abaev


    Full Text Available The software and hardware development tendency, providing the automated monitoring and control of basic and auxiliary technological processes of gas transportation via system of main gas pipelines has been revealed. The article discusses the stages of creation of the software of system of monitoring corrosion cracking under tension (SCC. The new useful adequate regression models development determining the risk level of LCC is shown. A ranking sections algorithm of main gas pipeline (MG on the propensity to SCC is presented. Adequate developed regression equation determining the LCC risk level has been developed. To count the main gas pipeline lifetime the variable rank of the danger of SCC (RSCC on the basis of methods of fuzzy logic is proposed to use. Implementation of the fuzzy model was carried out using the graphical tools developed in MATLAB using the expansion pack Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. The working algorithm of developed program and the screen forms are presented.

  5. Using Personal Professional Networks for Learning in Social Work: Need for Insight into the Real-World Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Sloep, Peter


    Rajagopal, K., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., & Sloep, P. B. (2010, 28 September-1 October). Using Personal Professional Networks for Learning in Social Work: Need for Insight into the Real-World Context. Poster presentation at 5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2010),

  6. Using Personal Professional Networks for Learning in Social Work: Need for Insight into the Real-World Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Sloep, Peter


    Rajagopal, K., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., & Sloep, P. B. (2010). Using Personal Professional Networks for Learning in Social Work: Need for Insight into the Real-World Context. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. N. Lindstaedt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to

  7. Effects of an Augmented Reality-Based Educational Game on Students' Learning Achievements and Attitudes in Real-World Observations (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Wu, Po-Han; Chen, Chi-Chang; Tu, Nien-Ting


    Augmented reality (AR) has been recognized as a potential technology to help students link what they are observing in the real world to their prior knowledge. One of the most challenging issues of AR-based learning is the provision of effective strategy to help students focus on what they need to observe in the field. In this study, a competitive…

  8. Impact of triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in real-world practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiao; Fan, Jing-Yao; Nie, Shao-Ping; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Abu-Assi, Emad; Henriques, Jose P. Simao; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Saucedo, Jorge; González-Juanatey, José R.; Wilton, Stephen B.; Kikkert, Wouter J.; Nuñez-Gil, Iván; Ariza-Sole, Albert; Song, Xian-Tao; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Liebetrau, Christoph; Kawaji, Tetsuma; Moretti, Claudio; Huczek, Zenon; Fujii, Toshiharu; Correia, Luis Cl; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Kedev, Sasko


    The optimal antithrombotic regimen for patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains debated. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OAC plus clopidogrel with or without aspirin in a real-world

  9. Assessing the real-world cost-effectiveness of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER-2/neu positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hedden, Lindsay


    Among women with surgically removed, high-risk HER-2\\/neu-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab has demonstrated significant improvements in disease-free and overall survival. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the currently recommended 12-month adjuvant protocol of trastuzumab using a Markov modeling approach and real-world cost data.

  10. A Familiar-Size Stroop Effect: Real-World Size Is an Automatic Property of Object Representation (United States)

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude


    When we recognize an object, do we automatically know how big it is in the world? We employed a Stroop-like paradigm, in which two familiar objects were presented at different visual sizes on the screen. Observers were faster to indicate which was bigger or smaller on the screen when the real-world size of the objects was congruent with the visual…

  11. Informing Architecture and Urban Modeling with Real-world Data on 3D Tangible Interfaces and Augmented Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Tore; Salim, Flora; Jaworski, Przemyslaw


    The proliferation of online and digital data in our world yields unprecedented opportunities for connecting physical and digital parametric models with live data input and feedback. Tangible interfaces and augmented displays provide theatrical settings for designers to visualize real-world data...

  12. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2001. Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond. (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.; Alatis, James E., Ed.

    This book contains papers from the 2001 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, "Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond." Papers include: "Introduction" (Deborah Tannen); "A Brief History of the Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics" (James E.…

  13. Virtual Games and Real-World Communities: Environments That Constrain and Enable Physical Activity in Games for Health (United States)

    Stewart, Mary K.; Hagood, Danielle; Ching, Cynthia Carter


    This article examines two communities of youth who play an online game that integrates physical activity into virtual game play. Participating youth from two research sites--an urban middle school and a suburban junior high school--wore FitBits that tracked their physical activity and then integrated their real-world energy into game-world…

  14. Teaching Basic Science Content via Real-World Applications: A College-Level Summer Course in Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology (United States)

    Maza, Paul; Miller, Allison; Carson, Brian; Hermanson, John


    Learning and retaining science content may be increased by applying the basic science material to real-world situations. Discussing cases with students during lectures and having them participate in laboratory exercises where they apply the science content to practical situations increases students' interest and enthusiasm. A summer course in…

  15. The Design of an Instructional Model Based on Connectivism and Constructivism to Create Innovation in Real World Experience (United States)

    Jirasatjanukul, Kanokrat; Jeerungsuwan, Namon


    The objectives of the research were to (1) design an instructional model based on Connectivism and Constructivism to create innovation in real world experience, (2) assess the model designed--the designed instructional model. The research involved 2 stages: (1) the instructional model design and (2) the instructional model rating. The sample…

  16. The Development of a Teaching Strategy for Implementing a Real-World Business Project into Database Courses (United States)

    Seyed-Abbassi, Behrooz; King, Ronnie; Wiseman, Eddie


    Collaborations between business and academia provide valuable opportunities for students to connect classroom learning with practical work experience. To effectively reach a significant number of students, one approach is to meld a real-world business project and classroom assignment into a realistic business scenario that can be addressed by…

  17. Solving Real World Problems with Alternate Reality Gaming: Student Experiences in the Global Village Playground Capstone Course Design (United States)

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie K.


    The Global Village Playground (GVP) was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering complex problem solving, as well as critical and creative thinking. In the GVP, students work on simulated and real-world problems…

  18. How Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Spontaneously Attend to Real-World Scenes: Use of a Change Blindness Paradigm (United States)

    Hochhauser, Michal; Aran, Adi; Grynszpan, Ouriel


    Visual attention of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was assessed using a change blindness paradigm. Twenty-five adolescents with ASD aged 12-18 years and 25 matched typically developing (TD) adolescents viewed 36 pairs of digitized real-world images. Each pair of images was displayed in a "flicker paradigm" whereby a…

  19. Interactive technology assessment in the real world: Dual dynamics in an iTA exercise on genetically modified vines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marris, Claire; Joly, Pierre-Benoit; Rip, Arie


    Participatory Technology Assessment (pTA) initiatives have usually been analyzed as if they existed in a social and political vacuum. This article analyzes the linkages that occur, in both directions, between the microcosm set up by a pTA exercise and the real world outside. This dual-dynamics

  20. On the early detection of threats in the real world based on open-source information on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Rajadell Rojas, O.; Worm, D.T.H.; Versloot, C.A.; Wedemeijer, H.


    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to detect threats in an early stage and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time

  1. 21st-Century Urban Renewal: Mathematical Understanding of Real-World Graphical Data Using Geospatial Technologies (United States)

    DeBay, Dennis J.


    The introduction of real-world, meaningful tasks in mathematics classrooms promises to create opportunities for enhancing students' learning through active engagement with mathematical ideas; however, researchers have given little consideration to the contexts in which urban high-school students live. The case study of three students reported in…

  2. Hierarchical Event Descriptors (HED): Semi-Structured Tagging for Real-World Events in Large-Scale EEG (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Cockfield, Jeremy; Makeig, Scott; Rognon, Thomas; La Valle, Chris; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Robbins, Kay A.


    Real-world brain imaging by EEG requires accurate annotation of complex subject-environment interactions in event-rich tasks and paradigms. This paper describes the evolution of the Hierarchical Event Descriptor (HED) system for systematically describing both laboratory and real-world events. HED version 2, first described here, provides the semantic capability of describing a variety of subject and environmental states. HED descriptions can include stimulus presentation events on screen or in virtual worlds, experimental or spontaneous events occurring in the real world environment, and events experienced via one or multiple sensory modalities. Furthermore, HED 2 can distinguish between the mere presence of an object and its actual (or putative) perception by a subject. Although the HED framework has implicit ontological and linked data representations, the user-interface for HED annotation is more intuitive than traditional ontological annotation. We believe that hiding the formal representations allows for a more user-friendly interface, making consistent, detailed tagging of experimental, and real-world events possible for research users. HED is extensible while retaining the advantages of having an enforced common core vocabulary. We have developed a collection of tools to support HED tag assignment and validation; these are available at A plug-in for EEGLAB (, CTAGGER, is also available to speed the process of tagging existing studies. PMID:27799907

  3. Early, real-world experience with direct oral anticoagulants in the treatment of intermediate-high risk acute pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Santos, Sónia Martins; Cunha, Susana; Baptista, Rui; Monteiro, Sílvia; Monteiro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Francisco; Pêgo, Mariano


    Intermediate-high risk pulmonary embolism (IHR-PE) has a poor prognosis, but is under-represented in trials of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). We aimed to assess whether the administration of DOACs was equivalent to the conventional (CONV) treatment of low-molecular weight heparin bridged with warfarin for treating IHR-PE. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including 59 consecutive patients admitted with IHR-PE and followed for up to three months after discharge. Two groups were created based on the anticoagulant strategy: CONV (n=35) and DOAC (n=24). The efficacy endpoints were death, recurrent PE, estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), right ventricular systolic function (RVSF) at discharge, and length of stay; the safety endpoint was major bleeding. The two groups were similar regarding demographics, PE etiology and markers of clinical severity. There were four in-hospital deaths in the CONV group and none in the DOAC group. No recurrent PE or major bleeding event was recorded in either group. At discharge, neither PASP nor RVSF was different between the groups. Patients in the DOAC group were discharged 1.7 days earlier on average than patients in the CONV group (4.7±2.4 vs. 3.0±1.5 days, p=0.002). The adoption of a DOAC treatment strategy in this real-world cohort of IHR-PE patients was associated with similar efficacy and safety to the CONV approach. The fact that monitoring of anticoagulation effect was unnecessary probably led to the significant reduction in length of stay. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Multicenter Registry of Real-World Patients With Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions Undergoing Orbital Atherectomy: 1-Year Outcomes. (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Shlofmitz, Evan; Goldberg, Alec; Shlofmitz, Richard


    We report the 1-year outcomes of real-world patients with severely calcified coronary arteries who underwent orbital atherectomy. Percutaneous coronary intervention of heavily calcified lesions is technically challenging and associated with worse clinical outcomes. Modification of severely calcified coronary lesions with orbital atherectomy facilitates stent delivery and expansion. Although we previously reported the safety of orbital atherectomy at 30 days in all comers with severely calcified coronary lesions, including patients who were excluded from the ORBIT II trial, longer-term follow-up is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed 458 all-comer patients who underwent orbital atherectomy followed by stenting from October 2013 to December 2015 at three centers. The primary endpoint was the 1-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) rate, defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, target-vessel revascularization, and stroke. One-year data were available for 453/457 patients (98.9%). At 1-year follow-up, the MACCE rate was 12.6%, death rate was 4.0%, myocardial infarction rate was 1.8%, target-vessel revascularization rate was 7.5%, stroke rate was 1.3%, and stent thrombosis rate was 1.3%. Orbital atherectomy is a valuable option for the treatment of severely calcified coronary arteries, including patients with very complex coronary anatomy and severe underlying comorbid conditions. Orbital atherectomy provided acceptable outcomes at 1 year and compared favorably to historical controls. A randomized trial with longer follow-up is needed to determine the optimal treatment strategy for patients with severely calcified coronary lesions.

  5. Real-world visual outcomes in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration receiving aflibercept at fixed intervals as per UK licence. (United States)

    Ozturk, Mehmet; Harris, Martin L; Nguyen, Vuong; Barthelmes, Daniel; Gillies, Mark C; Mehta, Hemal


    To assess the impact of injection frequency on visual outcomes in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with intravitreal aflibercept. The UK licence for treatment of nAMD with aflibercept is based on the VIEW protocol. We tested the hypothesis that patients receiving fewer than the eight recommended injections in the first year would experience worse visual outcomes. Retrospective, single-centre observational study. There were 42 eyes from 42 patients included. Fight Retinal Blindness! software was used to record real-world outcomes of all treatment-naïve eyes receiving aflibercept for at least 1 year. Visual acuity (VA) at 1 year in eyes which received the recommended eight injections versus those receiving seven or fewer injections. There were 21 eyes (50%) that received the recommended eight aflibercept injections in the first year of treatment, whilst 14 eyes received seven injections, five received six injections and two received only five injections, with median VA change +7.0, +5.0, -4.0 and -6.5 LogMAR letters, respectively. Those eyes receiving seven or fewer injections had worse baseline vision. The main reasons for patients being undertreated were insufficient clinic capacity and non-attendance due to illness. Patients in the real-world receiving aflibercept for nAMD at fixed intervals as per UK licence could achieve similar visual improvement at 1 year compared with phase III clinical trials. Undertreated patients had worse visual outcomes. Measures need to be introduced to increase clinic capacity and closely follow non-attenders to improve future outcomes. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. The measurement of visual sampling during real-world activity in Parkinson's disease and healthy controls: a structured literature review. (United States)

    Stuart, Samuel; Alcock, Lisa; Galna, Brook; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn


    Visual sampling techniques are used to investigate the complex role of vision during real-world activities in Parkinson's disease. Earlier research is limited to static simple tasks or measurement of eye movements alone, but more recent investigations involve more real-world activities. The approach to the objective measurement of eye movements varies with respect to instrumentation, testing protocols, and mediating factors that may influence visual sampling. The aim of this review was to examine previous work measuring visual sampling during real-world activities in Parkinson's disease to inform the development of robust protocols. Within this review a real-world activity was considered to be a goal-orientated motor task involving more than one body segment such as reaching or walking. Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, PubMed and the Cochrane library databases were searched. Two independent reviewers and an adjudicator screened articles that described quantitative visual sampling in people with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. Twenty full-text articles were screened and 15 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. A wide range of instruments and outcome measures were reported which were generally used in a task-dependent manner. Instrument reliability and validity was insufficiently reported in all studies. Few studies considered mediators of visual sampling such as visual or cognitive deficits. Future research is required to accurately characterise visual impairments in Parkinson's disease and during real-world activities. Composite use of instruments may be required to achieve reliability and validity of visual sampling outcomes which need to be standardised. Recommendations also include assessment of cognition and basic visual function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Driver trust in five driver assistance technologies following real-world use in four production vehicles. (United States)

    Kidd, David G; Cicchino, Jessica B; Reagan, Ian J; Kerfoot, Laura B


    Information about drivers' experiences with driver assistance technologies in real driving conditions is sparse. This study characterized driver interactions with forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, active lane keeping, side-view assist, and lane departure warning systems following real-world use. Fifty-four Insurance Institute for Highway Safety employees participated and drove a 2016 Toyota Prius, 2016 Honda Civic, 2017 Audi Q7, or 2016 Infiniti QX60 for up to several weeks. Participants reported mileage and warnings from the technologies in an online daily-use survey. Participants reported their level of agreement with five statements regarding trust in an online post-use survey. Responses were averaged to create a composite measure of trust ranging from -2 (strongly disagree) to +2 (strongly agree) for each technology. Mixed-effect regression models were constructed to compare trust among technologies and separately among the study vehicles. Participants' free-response answers about what they liked least about each system were coded and examined. Participants reported driving 33,584 miles during 4 months of data collection. At least one forward collision warning was reported in 26% of the 354 daily reports. The proportion of daily reports indicating a forward collision warning was much larger for the Honda (70%) than for the Audi (18%), Infiniti (15%), and Toyota (10%). Trust was highest for side-view assist (0.98) and lowest for active lane keeping (0.20). Trust in side-view assist was significantly higher than trust in active lane keeping and lane departure warning (0.53). Trust in active lane keeping was significantly lower than trust in adaptive cruise control (0.67) and forward collision warning (0.71). Trust in adaptive cruise control was higher for the Audi (0.72) and Toyota (0.75) compared with the Honda (0.30), and significantly higher for the Infiniti (0.93). Trust in Infiniti's side-view assist (0.58) was significantly lower than

  8. Is Real-World Evidence Used in P&T Monographs and Therapeutic Class Reviews? (United States)

    Hurwitz, Jason T; Brown, Mary; Graff, Jennifer S; Peters, Loretta; Malone, Daniel C


    Payers are faced with making coverage and reimbursement decisions based on the best available evidence. Often these decisions apply to patient populations, provider networks, and care settings not typically studied in clinical trials. Treatment effectiveness evidence is increasingly available from electronic health records, registries, and administrative claims. However, little is known about when and what types of real-world evidence (RWE) studies inform pharmacy and therapeutic (P&T) committee decisions. To evaluate evidence sources cited in P&T committee monographs and therapeutic class reviews and assess the design features and quality of cited RWE studies. A convenience sample of representatives from pharmacy benefit management, health system, and health plan organizations provided recent P&T monographs and therapeutic class reviews (or references from such documents). Two investigators examined and grouped references into major categories (published studies, unpublished studies, and other/unknown) and multiple subcategories (e.g., product label, clinical trials, RWE, systematic reviews). Cited comparative RWE was reviewed to assess design features (e.g., population, data source, comparators) and quality using the Good ReseArch for Comparative Effectiveness (GRACE) Checklist. Investigators evaluated 565 references cited in 27 monographs/therapeutic class reviews from 6 managed care organizations. Therapeutic class reviews mostly cited published clinical trials (35.3%, 155/439), while single-product monographs relied most on manufacturer-supplied information (42.1%, 53/126). Published RWE comprised 4.8% (21/439) of therapeutic class review references, and none (0/126) of the monograph references. Of the 21 RWE studies, 12 were comparative and assessed patient care settings and outcomes typically not included in clinical trials (community ambulatory settings [10], long-term safety [8]). RWE studies most frequently were based on registry data (6), conducted in

  9. Bringing Real World Underwater Science, Engineering and Technology in Tomorrow's Classroom (United States)

    Livingston, C.


    What do Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Ocean Science, Engineering and Technology have in common with science education in today's classroom? They all meet the growing demand for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals in tomorrow's U.S. workforce. Engaging students in real world science experiences will help them develop skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, innovation, and creativity. These skills are crucial to building a strong, competitive workforce in an integrated global economy. Fifth grade students from St. Andrew's School of Math and Science in Charleston, SC, USA science classes were introduced to engineering and robotics by using a combination of two underwater ROVs programs from the Office of Naval Research (SeaPerch) and Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE). Students were grouped in teams as "real scientists" to design and construct a ROV. Students selected their role from a list of engineering positions, and researched how to construct the best ROV. Students created blueprints and models of their ROV design. Scientists/engineers from various local agencies were scheduled to come and share their expertise with the students. On World Ocean Day, a presentation was planned for fifth grade students to work closely with kindergarten through fourth grade students. The purpose of the day was two-fold; it provided students the opportunity to peer teach and the opportunity to present their experiences to a wide audience. All students presented their designs and demonstrated their ROV's movement capabilities in child size pools. They also modeled how submersible pilots communicate with scientists and other researchers while operating their newly designed ROV. As a culminating event, students visited a local marine science high school class with similar ROVs and evaluated their engineering designs in a fresh water pond.

  10. Physical Analytics: An emerging field with real-world applications and impact (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik


    In the past most information on the internet has been originated by humans or computers. However with the emergence of cyber-physical systems, vast amount of data is now being created by sensors from devices, machines etc digitizing the physical world. While cyber-physical systems are subject to active research around the world, the vast amount of actual data generated from the physical world has attracted so far little attention from the engineering and physics community. In this presentation we use examples to highlight the opportunities in this new subject of ``Physical Analytics'' for highly inter-disciplinary research (including physics, engineering and computer science), which aims understanding real-world physical systems by leveraging cyber-physical technologies. More specifically, the convergence of the physical world with the digital domain allows applying physical principles to everyday problems in a much more effective and informed way than what was possible in the past. Very much like traditional applied physics and engineering has made enormous advances and changed our lives by making detailed measurements to understand the physics of an engineered device, we can now apply the same rigor and principles to understand large-scale physical systems. In the talk we first present a set of ``configurable'' enabling technologies for Physical Analytics including ultralow power sensing and communication technologies, physical big data management technologies, numerical modeling for physical systems, machine learning based physical model blending, and physical analytics based automation and control. Then we discuss in detail several concrete applications of Physical Analytics ranging from energy management in buildings and data centers, environmental sensing and controls, precision agriculture to renewable energy forecasting and management.

  11. Crash test ratings and real-world frontal crash outcomes: a CIREN study. (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Burch, Cynthia; Kerns, Timothy; Dischinger, Patricia C; Ho, Shiu


    To establish whether the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) offset crash test ratings are linked to different mortality rates in real world frontal crashes. The study used Crash Injury Research Engineering Network drivers of age older than 15 years who were involved in frontal crashes. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network is a convenience sample of persons injured in crashes with at least one Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 3+ injury or two Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 2+ injuries who were either treated at a Level I trauma center or died. Cases were grouped by IIHS crash test ratings (i.e., good, acceptable, marginal, poor, and not rated). Those rated marginal were excluded because of their small numbers. Mortality rates experienced by these ratings-based groups were compared using the Mantel-Haenszel chi test. Multiple logistic regression models were built to adjust for confounders (i.e., occupant, vehicular, and crash factors). A total of 1,226 cases were distributed within not rated (59%), poor (12%), average (16%), and good (14%) categories. Those rated good and average experienced a lower unadjusted mortality rate. After adjustment by confounders, those in vehicles rated good experienced a lower risk of death (adjusted OR 0.38 [0.16-0.90]) than those in vehicles rated poor. There was no significant effect for "acceptable" rating. Other factors influencing the occurrence of death were age, DeltaV >or=70 km/h, high body mass index, and lack of restraint use. After adjusting for occupant, vehicular, and crash factors, drivers of vehicles rated good by the IIHS experienced a lower risk of death in frontal crashes.

  12. Why do people donate to conservation? Insights from a 'real world' campaign. (United States)

    Veríssimo, Diogo; Campbell, Hamish A; Tollington, Simon; MacMillan, Douglas C; Smith, Robert J


    Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in biodiversity conservation. The majority of these organisations rely on public donations to fund their activities, and therefore fundraising success is a determinant of conservation outcomes. In spite of this integral relationship, the key principals for fundraising success in conservation are still guided by expert opinion and anecdotal evidence, with very few quantitative studies in the literature. Here we assessed the behaviour of monetary donors across twenty-five different species-focused conservation campaigns organised by an NGO conservation and environmental society. The Australian Geographic Society (AGS) carried out fundraising campaigns over a five and half year period using an identical methodology in thirty-four of its country-wide network of outlet shops. AGS owns and operates these shops that sell toys and games related to science and nature. We tested how the following factors influenced monetary donations from members of the public:1) campaign duration, 2) appeal and familiarity of species, 3) species geographic distribution relative to the fundraising location, 4) level of income and education of potential donors, 5) age and gender profile of potential donors. Contrary to past research, we found most of these factors did not significantly influence the amount of donations made to each campaign by members of the public. Larger animals did elicit a significantly higher amount donated per transaction than smaller animals, as did shops located in poorer neighbourhoods. Our study findings contrast with past research that has focused largely on hypothetical donations data collected via surveys, and demonstrates the complexity and case-specific nature of relationships between donor characteristics and spending patterns. The study highlights the value of assessing real-world fundraising campaigns, and illustrates how collaboration between academia and NGOs could be used to better tailor fundraising


    Oehrlein, Elisabeth M; Graff, Jennifer S; Perfetto, Eleanor M; Mullins, C Daniel; Dubois, Robert W; Anyanwu, Chinenye; Onukwugha, Eberechukwu


    Peer-review publication is a critical step to the translation and dissemination of research results into clinical practice guidelines, health technology assessment (HTA) and payment policies, and clinical care. The objective of this study was to examine current views of journal editors regarding: (i) The value of real-world evidence (RWE) and how it compares with other types of studies; (ii) Education and/or resources journal editors provide to their peer reviewers or perceive as needed for authors, reviewers, and editors related to RWE. Journal editors' views on the value of RWE and editorial procedures for RWE manuscripts were obtained through telephone interviews, a survey, and in-person, roundtable discussion. In total, seventy-nine journals were approached, resulting in fifteen telephone interviews, seventeen survey responses and eight roundtable participants. RWE was considered valuable by all interviewed editors (n = 15). Characteristics of high-quality RWE manuscripts included: novelty/relevance, rigorous methodology, and alignment of data to research question. Editors experience challenges finding peer reviewers; however, these challenges persist across all study designs. Journals generally do not provide guidance, assistance, or training for reviewers, including for RWE studies. Health policy/health services research (HSR) editors were more likely than specialty or general medicine editors to participate in this study, potentially indicating that HSR researchers are more comfortable/interested in RWE. Editors report favorable views of RWE studies provided studies examine important questions and are methodologically rigorous. Improving peer-review processes across all study designs, has the potential to improve the evidence base for decision making, including HTA.

  14. What Is Real-World Data? A Review of Definitions Based on Literature and Stakeholder Interviews. (United States)

    Makady, Amr; de Boer, Anthonius; Hillege, Hans; Klungel, Olaf; Goettsch, Wim

    Despite increasing recognition of the value of real-world data (RWD), consensus on the definition of RWD is lacking. To review definitions publicly available for RWD to shed light on similarities and differences between them. A literature review and stakeholder interviews were used to compile data from eight groups of stakeholders. Data from documents and interviews were subjected to coding analysis. Definitions identified were classified into four categories: 1) data collected in a non-randomized controlled trial setting, 2) data collected in a non-interventional/non-controlled setting, 3) data collected in a non-experimental setting, and 4) others (i.e., data that do not fit into the other three categories). The frequency of definitions identified per category was recorded. Fifty-three documents and 20 interviews were assessed. Thirty-eight definitions were identified: 20 out of 38 definitions (53%) were category 1 definitions, 9 (24%) were category 2 definitions, 5 (13%) were category 3 definitions, and 4 (11%) were category 4 definitions. Differences were identified between, and within, definition categories. For example, opinions differed on the aspects of intervention with which non-interventional/non-controlled settings should abide. No definitions were provided in two interviews or identified in 33 documents. Most of the definitions defined RWD as data collected in a non-randomized controlled trial setting. A considerable number of definitions, however, diverged from this concept. Moreover, a significant number of authors and stakeholders did not have an official, institutional definition for RWD. Persisting variability in stakeholder definitions of RWD may lead to disparities among different stakeholders when discussing RWD use in decision making. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrochemistry Experiments to Develop Novel Sensors for Real-World Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford


    Full Text Available These novel STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics Electrochemistry experiments have been designed to increase the integrated science content, pedagogical, and technological knowledge for real-world applications. This study has focused on (1 the fundamental understanding on the relationship of metal oxide films and polymers to electrochemical sensors, and (2 the development of new materials which have great application of electrode materials. Following the inquiry based learning strategy the research students learn to develop and study the electrode surfaces to meet the needs of stability and low detection limits. Recently, new advances in environmental health are revealing the anthropogenic or naturally occurring harmful organic chemicals in sources of water supply expose a great health threat to human and aquatic life. Due to their well-known carcinogenic and lethal properties, the presence of human produced toxic chemicals such as phenol and its derivatives poses a critical threat to human health and aquatic life in such water resources. In order to achieve effective assessment and monitoring of these toxic chemicals there is a need to develop in-situ (electrochemical sensors methods to detect rapidly. Electrochemical sensors have attracted more attention to analytical chemist and electrochemistry engineers due to its simplicity, rapidness and high sensitivity. However, there will be real challenges of achieving successful analysis of chemicals (phenol in the presence of common interferences in water resources, which will be discussed regarding the students challenging learning experiences in developing an electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensor developed (TiO2 , ZrO2 or sol-gel mixture TiO2/ZrO2 will be illustrated and the successes will be shown by cyclic voltammetry data in detection of 1,2-dihydroxybenzenes (catechol, dopamine and phenol.

  16. Yoga in the Real World: Perceptions, Motivators, Barriers, and patterns of Use. (United States)

    Quilty, Mary T; Saper, Robert B; Goldstein, Richard; Khalsa, Sat Bir S


    Yoga is a mind-body exercise practiced by nearly 16 million US adults. Clinical yoga research has yielded promising findings in physical and mental health outcomes. However, research in non-patient populations is limited. The purpose of this study is to survey a non-clinical population to better understand yoga use in a real-world setting. This study used a pre-post test design in a convenience sample of adults registered for a 4-week beginner yoga program within a network of five yoga studios in Austin, Texas. Students were linked via e-mail to baseline and endpoint surveys. Analyses were descriptive. Six hundred four students completed the baseline survey, and 290 (48%) completed the 4-week endpoint survey. Baseline demographics were similar to those in national surveys, with respondents being primarily female (86%), white (88%), and college educated (78%). The primary barrier to practice was time (55%). Respondents perceived yoga primarily as an exercise activity (92%), spiritual activity (73%), or a way to manage or treat a health condition (50%). Main reasons for taking yoga were general wellness (81%), physical exercise (80%), and stress management (73%). Ninety-eight percent believed yoga would improve their health, with 28% taking yoga to alleviate a health condition. On average, respondents practiced 3 to 4 hours/ week in and out of class. Respondent demographics were consistent with national survey data. Data show that yoga is perceived several ways. Information on practice patterns provides new information, which may improve understanding of how non-clinical populations incorporate yoga into daily life for health management.

  17. Comparative analysis of methods for identifying multimorbidity patterns: a study of 'real-world' data. (United States)

    Roso-Llorach, Albert; Violán, Concepción; Foguet-Boreu, Quintí; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Valderas, Jose Maria


    The aim was to compare multimorbidity patterns identified with the two most commonly used methods: hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in a large primary care database. Specific objectives were: (1) to determine whether choice of method affects the composition of these patterns and (2) to consider the potential application of each method in the clinical setting. Cross-sectional study. Diagnoses were based on the 263 corresponding blocks of the International Classification of Diseases version 10. Multimorbidity patterns were identified using HCA and EFA. Analysis was stratified by sex, and results compared for each method. Electronic health records for 408 994 patients with multimorbidity aged 45-64 years in 274 primary health care teams from 2010 in Catalonia, Spain. HCA identified 53 clusters for women, with just 12 clusters including at least 2 diagnoses, and 15 clusters for men, all of them including at least two diagnoses. EFA showed 9 factors for women and 10 factors for men. We observed differences by sex and method of analysis, although some patterns were consistent. Three combinations of diseases were observed consistently across sex groups and across both methods: hypertension and obesity, spondylopathies and deforming dorsopathies, and dermatitis eczema and mycosis. This study showed that multimorbidity patterns vary depending on the method of analysis used (HCA vs EFA) and provided new evidence about the known limitations of attempts to compare multimorbidity patterns in real-world data studies. We found that EFA was useful in describing comorbidity relationships and HCA could be useful for in-depth study of multimorbidity. Our results suggest possible applications for each of these methods in clinical and research settings, and add information about some aspects that must be considered in standardisation of future studies: spectrum of diseases, data usage and methods of analysis. © Article author(s) (or their

  18. Evaluating climate field reconstruction techniques using improved emulations of real-world conditions (United States)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.; Smerdon, J. E.; Rajaratnam, B.


    Pseudoproxy experiments (PPEs) have become an important framework for evaluating paleoclimate reconstruction methods. Most existing PPE studies assume constant proxy availability through time and uniform proxy quality across the pseudoproxy network. Real multiproxy networks are, however, marked by pronounced disparities in proxy quality, and a steep decline in proxy availability back in time, either of which may have large effects on reconstruction skill. A suite of PPEs constructed from a millennium-length general circulation model (GCM) simulation is thus designed to mimic these various real-world characteristics. The new pseudoproxy network is used to evaluate four climate field reconstruction (CFR) techniques: truncated total least squares embedded within the regularized EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm (RegEM-TTLS), the Mann et al. (2009) implementation of RegEM-TTLS (M09), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and Gaussian graphical models embedded within RegEM (GraphEM). Each method's risk properties are also assessed via a 100-member noise ensemble. Contrary to expectation, it is found that reconstruction skill does not vary monotonically with proxy availability, but also is a function of the type and amplitude of climate variability (forced events vs. internal variability). The use of realistic spatiotemporal pseudoproxy characteristics also exposes large inter-method differences. Despite the comparable fidelity in reconstructing the global mean temperature, spatial skill varies considerably between CFR techniques. Both GraphEM and CCA efficiently exploit teleconnections, and produce consistent reconstructions across the ensemble. RegEM-TTLS and M09 appear advantageous for reconstructions on highly noisy data, but are subject to larger stochastic variations across different realizations of pseudoproxy noise. Results collectively highlight the importance of designing realistic pseudoproxy networks and implementing multiple noise realizations of PPEs

  19. Recognition of "real-world" musical excerpts by cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults. (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Olszewski, Carol; Rychener, Marly; Sena, Kimberly; Knutson, John F; Witt, Shelley; Macpherson, Beth


    The purposes of this study were (a) to compare recognition of "real-world" music excerpts by postlingually deafened adults using cochlear implants and normal-hearing adults; (b) to compare the performance of cochlear implant recipients using different devices and processing strategies; and (c) to examine the variability among implant recipients in recognition of musical selections in relation to performance on speech perception tests, performance on cognitive tests, and demographic variables. Seventy-nine cochlear implant users and 30 normal-hearing adults were tested on open-set recognition of systematically selected excerpts from musical recordings heard in real life. The recognition accuracy of the two groups was compared for three musical genre: classical, country, and pop. Recognition accuracy was correlated with speech recognition scores, cognitive measures, and demographic measures, including musical background. Cochlear implant recipients were significantly less accurate in recognition of previously familiar (known before hearing loss) musical excerpts than normal-hearing adults (p genre. Implant recipients were most accurate in the recognition of country items and least accurate in the recognition of classical items. There were no significant differences among implant recipients due to implant type (Nucleus, Clarion, or Ineraid), or programming strategy (SPEAK, CIS, or ACE). For cochlear implant recipients, correlations between melody recognition and other measures were moderate to weak in strength; those with statistically significant correlations included age at time of testing (negatively correlated), performance on selected speech perception tests, and the amount of focused music listening following implantation. Current-day cochlear implants are not effective in transmitting several key structural features (i.e., pitch, harmony, timbral blends) of music essential to open-set recognition of well-known musical selections. Consequently, implant

  20. The real world cost and health resource utilization associated to manic episodes: The MANACOR study. (United States)

    Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Undurraga, Juan; Reinares, María; Bonnín, Caterina del Mar; Sáez, Cristina; Mur, María; Nieto, Evaristo; Vieta, Eduard


    Bipolar disorder is a relapsing-remitting condition affecting approximately 1-2% of the population. Even when the treatments available are effective, relapses are still very frequent. Therefore, the burden and cost associated to every new episode of the disorder have relevant implications in public health. The main objective of this study was to estimate the associated health resource consumption and direct costs of manic episodes in a real world clinical setting, taking into consideration clinical variables. Bipolar I disorder patients who recently presented an acute manic episode based on DSM-IV criteria were consecutively included. Sociodemographic variables were retrospectively collected and during the 6 following months clinical variables were prospectively assessed (YMRS,HDRS-17,FAST and CGI-BP-M). The health resource consumption and associate cost were estimated based on hospitalization days, pharmacological treatment, emergency department and outpatient consultations. One hundred sixty-nine patients patients from 4 different university hospitals in Catalonia (Spain) were included. The mean direct cost of the manic episodes was €4,771. The 77% (€3,651) was attributable to hospitalization costs while 14% (€684) was related to pharmacological treatment, 8% (€386) to outpatient visits and only 1% (€50) to emergency room visits. The hospitalization days were the main cost driver. An initial FAST score>41 significantly predicted a higher direct cost. Our results show the high cost and burden associated with BD and the need to design more cost-efficient strategies in the prevention and management of manic relapses in order to avoid hospital admissions. Poor baseline functioning predicted high costs, indicating the importance of functional assessment in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival of melanoma patients treated with novel drugs: retrospective analysis of real-world data. (United States)

    Polkowska, Marta; Ekk-Cierniakowski, Paweł; Czepielewska, Edyta; Wysoczański, Wojciech; Matusewicz, Wojciech; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata


    Recently, several new drugs have been licensed for advanced melanoma therapy, significantly changing the therapeutic landscape. Ipilimumab and vemurafenib were the first drugs that demonstrated a survival benefit over the long-standing standard therapy with dacarbazine. However, the comparative efficacy of these novel drugs has not been properly assessed yet. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the Polish population treated between January 2012 and October 2016 with one of the following agents: ipilimumab (IPI), vemurafenib (VEM), dabrafenib (DAB), and classic chemotherapy (CTH). The main objective was to assess the overall survival of melanoma patients treated in real-world conditions, taking into account sequences of treatment. We identified 3397 patients with malignant melanoma treated for the first line and the second line. Patients receiving CTH were significantly older than those treated with the novel drugs. At the same time, the population treated with immunotherapy and targeted therapy was well balanced. Overall survival was significantly better for the novel drugs compared to classic chemotherapy in both lines (for the first line, VEM vs CTH HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.65-0.81; p melanoma provide a significant advantage in survival over classic chemotherapy. Comparative assessment of IPI and VEM indicated no difference, but only immunotherapy-treated patients achieved long-lasting results. Our data on sequential treatment indicate that immunotherapy might be a better option for the first line rather than targeted therapy, but that conclusion requires further studies of the best way to manage the treatment of melanoma patients.

  2. Measures of outcome in metastatic breast cancer: insights from a real-world scenario. (United States)

    Bonotto, Marta; Gerratana, Lorenzo; Poletto, Elena; Driol, Pamela; Giangreco, Manuela; Russo, Stefania; Minisini, Alessandro M; Andreetta, Claudia; Mansutti, Mauro; Pisa, Federica E; Fasola, Gianpiero; Puglisi, Fabio


    No gold standard treatment exists for metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Clinical decision making is based on knowledge of prognostic and predictive factors that are extrapolated from clinical trials and, sometimes, are not reliably transferable to a real-world scenario. Moreover, misalignment between endpoints used in drug development and measures of outcome in clinical practice has been noted. The roles of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) as primary endpoints in the context of clinical trials are the subjects of lively debate. Information about these parameters in routine clinical practice is potentially useful to design new studies and/or to interpret the results of clinical research. This study analyzed the impact of patient and tumor characteristics on the major measures of outcome across different lines of treatment in a cohort of 472 patients treated for MBC. OS, PFS, and postprogression survival (PPS) were analyzed. The study showed how biological and clinical characteristics may have different prognostic value across different lines of therapy for MBC. After first-line treatment, the median PPS of luminal A, luminal B, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive groups was longer than 12 months. The choice of OS as a primary endpoint for clinical trials could not be appropriate with these subtypes. In contrast, OS could be an appropriate endpoint when PPS is expected to be low (e.g., triple-negative subtype after the first line; other subtypes after the third line). The potential implications of these findings are clinical and methodological. ©AlphaMed Press.

  3. Hemoglobin transfusion trigger in an internal medicine department - A "real world" six year experience. (United States)

    Rahimi-Levene, Naomi; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Peer, Victoria; Golik, Ahuva; Kornberg, Abraham; Zeidenstein, Ronit; Koren-Michowitz, Maya


    Transfusion guidelines advocate restrictive rather than liberal use of red blood cells (RBC) and are based mostly on randomized trials in intensive care and surgical departments. We aimed to study RBC transfusion practice in the medical patients' population. The data in this study were collected from patients over the age of 18 years admitted to an Internal Medicine department between 2009 and 2014 who received at least one unit of packed red blood cells (RBC). In addition, data on demographics, patients' diagnoses, laboratory tests and number of transfused RBC units were extracted from the electronic health records. One thousand three hundred and twenty eight patients were included, having mean age of 75 ± 14 years. The median hemoglobin (Hb) trigger for RBC transfusion was 8.0 g/dl (IQR 7.3-8.7g/dl), and most patients received either one (43.4%) or two (33.4%) RBC units. There was no significant difference in Hb trigger between males and females (Hb 8.0 g/dl and 7.9 g/dl, respectively, p = 0.098), and a weak correlation with age (r = 0.108 p = 0.001). Patients with cardiovascular and lung diseases had a statistically significant higher Hb trigger compared to patients without those diagnoses, however the median difference between them was 0.5 g/dl or less. These "real world" data we collected show a Hb trigger compliant with the upper limit of published guidelines and influenced by medical patients' common diagnoses. Prospective trials addressing patients hospitalized in internal medicine departments could further contribute to transfusion decision algorithms.

  4. Abstract Concepts and Pictures of Real-World Situations Activate One Another. (United States)

    McRae, Ken; Nedjadrasul, Daniel; Pau, Raymond; Lo, Bethany Pui-Hei; King, Lisa


    concepts typically are defined in terms of lacking physical or perceptual referents. We argue instead that they are not devoid of perceptual information because knowledge of real-world situations is an important component of learning and using many abstract concepts. Although the relationship between perceptual information and abstract concepts is less straightforward than for concrete concepts, situation-based perceptual knowledge is part of many abstract concepts. In Experiment 1, participants made lexical decisions to abstract words that were preceded by related and unrelated pictures of situations. For example, share was preceded by a picture of two girls sharing a cob of corn. When pictures were presented for 500 ms, latencies did not differ. However, when pictures were presented for 1,000 ms, decision latencies were significantly shorter for abstract words preceded by related versus unrelated pictures. Because the abstract concepts corresponded to the pictured situation as a whole, rather than a single concrete object or entity, the necessary relational processing takes time. In Experiment 2, on each trial, an abstract word was presented for 250 ms, immediately followed by a picture. Participants indicated whether or not the picture showed a normal situation. Decision latencies were significantly shorter for pictures preceded by related versus unrelated abstract words. Our experiments provide evidence that knowledge of events and situations is important for learning and using at least some types of abstract concepts. That is, abstract concepts are grounded in situations, but in a more complex manner than for concrete concepts. Although people's understanding of abstract concepts certainly includes knowledge gained from language describing situations and events for which those concepts are relevant, sensory and motor information experienced during real-life events is important as well. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Real-world evidence of safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in an Indian scenario. (United States)

    Jain, Prashant; Sheth, Jay; Anantharaman, Giridhar; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) as an off-label pharmacotherapeutic agent for various ocular conditions. Retrospective analysis was carried out on 3806 injections of 1761 patients that were administered with intravitreal bevacizumab injection at a tertiary eye care center in India. The injections were administered on a pro re nata basis for various indications such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). The mean age of the patients was 61.8 ± 11.59 years. A total of 59.2% of the patients were men and 40.8% women. The most common indications for which the injection was administered were DME (27.5%), AMD (26%), and branch RVO (12.3%). Among the ocular side effects, endophthalmitis was seen in three eyes (0.08%), retinal breaks in none of the eyes whereas 35 eyes had a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg (0.9%). Preexisting glaucoma was present in four eyes while remaining 31 eyes did not have any history of glaucoma. IOP rise was significantly more in eyes with preexisting glaucoma as compared to nonglaucomatous eyes (P = 0.04). No systemic adverse events were noted in our study population. Our study provides real-world evidence regarding the safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin). These data suggest that bevacizumab is a safe and economical pharmacotherapeutic agent that can be administered for a variety of ocular disorders. Analyzing the safety of bevacizumab is necessary for a developing country like India as the majority of the population cannot afford the costly ranibizumab as compared to bevacizumab for ocular healthcare.

  6. Hard and Soft Selection Revisited: How Evolution by Natural Selection Works in the Real World. (United States)

    Reznick, David


    The modern synthesis of evolutionary biology unified Darwin's natural selection with Mendelian genetics, but at the same time it created the dilemma of genetic load. Lewontin and Hubby's (1966) and Harris's (1966) characterization of genetic variation in natural populations increased the apparent burden of this load. Neutrality or near neutrality of genetic variation was one mechanism proposed for the revealed excessive genetic variation. Bruce Wallace coined the term "soft selection" to describe an alternative way for natural selection to operate that was consistent with observed variation. He envisioned nature as presenting ecological vacancies that could be filled by diverse genotypes. Survival and successful reproduction was a combined function of population density, genotype, and genotype frequencies, rather than a fixed value of the relative fitness of each genotype. My goal in this review is to explore the importance of soft selection in the real world. My motive and that of my colleagues as described here is not to explain what maintains genetic variation in natural populations, but rather to understand the factors that shape how organisms adapt to natural environments. We characterize how feedbacks between ecology and evolution shape both evolution and ecology. These feedbacks are mediated by density- and frequency-dependent selection, the mechanisms that underlie soft selection. Here, I report on our progress in characterizing these types of selection with a combination of a consideration of the published literature and the results from my collaborators' and my research on natural populations of guppies. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  7. Treatment of allergic rhinitis using mobile technology with real world data: The MASK observational pilot study. (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Arnavielhe, S; Bedbrook, A; Alexis-Alexandre, G; van Eerd, M; Murray, R; Canonica, G W; Illario, M; Menditto, E; Passalacqua, G; Stellato, C; Triggiani, M; Carreiro-Martins, P; Fonseca, J; Morais Almeida, M; Nogueira-Silva, L; Pereira, A M; Todo Bom, A; Bosse, I; Caimmi, D; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Fontaine, J F; Just, J; Onorato, G L; Kowalski, M L; Kuna, P; Samolinski, B; Anto, J M; Mullol, J; Valero, A; Tomazic, P V; Bergmann, K C; Keil, T; Klimek, L; Mösgues, R; Shamai, S; Zuberbier, T; Murphy, E; McDowall, Peter; Price, D; Ryan, D; Sheikh, A; Chavannes, N H; Fokkens, W J; Kvedariene, V; Valiulis, A; Bachert, C; Hellings, P W; Kull, I; Melén, E; Wickman, M; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Eller, E; Haahtela, T; Valovirta, E; Papadopoulos, N G; Annesi-Maesano, I; Bewick, M; Bosnic-Anticevich, S; Cruz, A A; De Vries, G; Gemicioglu, B; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Mathieu-Dupas, E; O'Hehir, R E; Portejoie, F; Siroux, V; Spranger, O; VandenPlas, O; Yorgancioglu, A


    Large observational implementation studies are needed to triangulate the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs) as they reflect "real world" everyday practice. In a pilot study, we attempted to provide additional and complementary insights on the real life treatment of allergic rhinitis using mobile technology. A mobile phone app (Allergy Diary, freely available Google Play and Apple App stores) collects the data of daily visual analogue scales (VAS) for (i) overall allergic symptoms, (ii) nasal, ocular and asthma symptoms, (iii) work, as well as (iv) medication use using a treatment scroll list including all medications (prescribed and over the counter (OTC)) for rhinitis customized for 15 countries. A total of 2,871 users filled in 17,091 days of VAS in 2015 and 2016. Medications were reported for 9,634 days. The assessment of days appeared to be more informative than the course of the treatment as, in real life, patients do not necessarily use treatment on a daily basis; rather, they appear to increase treatment use with the loss of symptom control. The Allergy Diary allowed differentiation between treatments within or between classes (intranasal corticosteroid use containing medications and oral H1-antihistamines). The control of days differed between no [best control], single or multiple treatments (worst control). The present study confirms the usefulness of the Allergy Diary in accessing and assessing everyday use and practice in allergic rhinitis. This pilot observational study uses a very simple assessment (VAS) on a mobile phone, shows novel findings and generates new hypotheses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving HCV cure rates in HIV-coinfected patients - a real-world perspective. (United States)

    Lakshmi, Seetha; Alcaide, Maria; Palacio, Ana M; Shaikhomer, Mohammed; Alexander, Abigail L; Gill-Wiehl, Genevieve; Pandey, Aman; Patel, Kunal; Jayaweera, Dushyantha; Del Pilar Hernandez, Maria


    To study rates and predictors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, and then to evaluate the effect of attendance at clinic visits on HCV cure. Retrospective cohort study of adult HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who initiated and completed treatment for HCV with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) between January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2015. Eighty-four participants reported completing treatment. The median age was 58 years (interquartile ratio, 50-66); 88% were male and 50% were black. One-third were cirrhotic and half were HCV-treatment-experienced. The most commonly used regimen was sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (40%) followed by simeprevir/sofosbuvir (30%). Cure was achieved in 83.3%, 11.9% relapsed, and 2.3% experienced virological breakthrough. Two patients (2.3%) did not complete treatment based on pill counts and follow-up visit documentation. In multivariable analysis, cure was associated with attendance at follow-up clinic visits (odds ratio [OR], 9.0; 95% CI, 2.91-163) and with use of an integrase-based HIV regimen versus other non-integrase regimens, such as non-nucleoside analogues or protease inhibitors (OR, 6.22; 95% CI 1.81-141). Age, race, genotype, presence of cirrhosis, prior HCV treatment, HCV regimen, and pre-treatment CD4 counts were not associated with cure. Real-world HCV cure rates with DAAs in HCV/HIV coinfection are lower than those seen in clinical trials. Cure is associated with attendance at follow-up clinic visits and with use of an integrase-based HIV regimen. Future studies should evaluate best antiretroviral regimens, predictors of attendance at follow-up visits, impact of different monitoring protocols on medication adherence, and interventions to ensure adequate models of HIV/HCV care.

  9. Real-world particulate explosives test coupons for optical detection applications (United States)

    Nguyen, Viet; Papantonakis, Michael; Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, Christopher; McGill, R. Andrew


    Trace or residue explosives detection typically involves examining explosives found as solid particles on a solid substrate. Different optical spectroscopy techniques are being developed to detect these explosives in situ by probing how light interacts with the surface bound particles of explosives. In order to evaluate these technologies it is important to have available suitable test coupons coated with particles of explosives. When fabricating test coupons to evaluate detection performance or help train a detection algorithm, it is important to use realistic test coupons and consider how the physicochemical properties of the explosives particles, related chemicals, and substrate may affect the spectra produced or signal intensities observed. Specific features of interest include surface fill factor, particle sizes, areal density, degree of particle contact with a substrate and any other chemicals in addition to the explosives and substrate. This level of complexity highlights the need to fabricate test coupons which mimic "real world" particle coated surfaces. With respect to metrics derived from fingerprints, we compare the properties of test coupons fabricated by sieving and inkjetting for ammonium nitrate, TNT, RDX, and sucrose on stainless steel, automotive painted steel, glass and polyethylene substrates. Sieving provides a random distribution of particles, allows fractionation of relevant particle sizes and allows relevant surface fill factors to be achieved. Inkjetting provides precise control of aerial density but because of complications related to solvent-substrate interactions, relevant fill factors and particle sizes are difficult to achieve. In addition, we introduce a custom image analysis technique, NRL ParticleMath, developed to characterize and quantify particle loadings on test coupons.

  10. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL


    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  11. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL


    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  12. Method and apparatus for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina


    An apparatus and method are disclosed for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control in order to monitor the behavior of a memory coherence mechanism. Single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system is made possible by adding one or more step registers. By accessing these step registers, one or more coherence requests are processed by the multiprocessor system. The step registers determine if the snoop unit will operate by proceeding in a normal execution mode, or operate in a single-step mode.

  13. A Comparison of Change Blindness in Real-World and On-Screen Viewing of Museum Artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Attwood


    Full Text Available Change blindness is a phenomenon of visual perception that occurs when a stimulus undergoes a change without this being noticed by its observer. To date, the effect has been produced by changing images displayed on screen as well as changing people and objects in an individual’s environment. In this experiment, we combine these two approaches to directly compare the levels of change blindness produced in real-world vs. on-screen viewing of museum artefacts. In the real-world viewing condition, one group of participants viewed a series of pairs of similar but slightly different artefacts across eye saccades, while in the on-screen viewing condition, a second group of participants viewed the same artefacts across camera pans on video captured from a head-mounted camera worn by the first set of participants. We present three main findings. First, that change blindness does occur in a museum setting when similar ancient artefacts are viewed briefly one after another in both real-world and on-screen viewing conditions. We discuss this finding in relation to the notion that visual perceptual performance may be enhanced within museums. Second, we found that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean levels of change blindness produced in real-world and on-screen viewing conditions (real-world 42.62%, on-screen 47.35%, X2 = 1.626, p > 0.05 1 d.f.. We discuss possible implications of these results for understanding change blindness, such as the role of binocular vs. monocular vision and that of head and eye movements, as well as reflecting on the evolution of change detection systems, and the impact of the experimental design itself on our results. Third, we combined the data from both viewing conditions to identify groups of artefacts that were independently associated with high and low levels of change blindness, and show that change detection rates were influenced mainly by bottom-up factors, including the visible area and

  14. A Comparison of Change Blindness in Real-World and On-Screen Viewing of Museum Artefacts. (United States)

    Attwood, Jonathan E; Kennard, Christopher; Harris, Jim; Humphreys, Glyn; Antoniades, Chrystalina A


    Change blindness is a phenomenon of visual perception that occurs when a stimulus undergoes a change without this being noticed by its observer. To date, the effect has been produced by changing images displayed on screen as well as changing people and objects in an individual's environment. In this experiment, we combine these two approaches to directly compare the levels of change blindness produced in real-world vs. on-screen viewing of museum artefacts. In the real-world viewing condition, one group of participants viewed a series of pairs of similar but slightly different artefacts across eye saccades, while in the on-screen viewing condition, a second group of participants viewed the same artefacts across camera pans on video captured from a head-mounted camera worn by the first set of participants. We present three main findings. First, that change blindness does occur in a museum setting when similar ancient artefacts are viewed briefly one after another in both real-world and on-screen viewing conditions. We discuss this finding in relation to the notion that visual perceptual performance may be enhanced within museums. Second, we found that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean levels of change blindness produced in real-world and on-screen viewing conditions (real-world 42.62%, on-screen 47.35%, X 2 = 1.626, p > 0.05 1 d.f.). We discuss possible implications of these results for understanding change blindness, such as the role of binocular vs. monocular vision and that of head and eye movements, as well as reflecting on the evolution of change detection systems, and the impact of the experimental design itself on our results. Third, we combined the data from both viewing conditions to identify groups of artefacts that were independently associated with high and low levels of change blindness, and show that change detection rates were influenced mainly by bottom-up factors, including the visible area and contrast of changes

  15. CaRMeN: a tool for analysing and deriving kinetics in the real world. (United States)

    Gossler, H; Maier, L; Angeli, S; Tischer, S; Deutschmann, O


    This paper presents the concepts of an open software tool (CaRMeN) that can be used to rapidly analyse and derive models, in particular chemical kinetics. The software automates the workflow of comparing model vs. experiment, which must currently be done manually and is thus a time-consuming and error-prone task. The capabilities of the software are illustrated through a case study. Experimental data for the conversion of methane over rhodium catalysts in a wide range of conditions and experimental setups are numerically simulated using five different mechanisms from the literature. The applicability of the mechanisms as well as differences between flow and diffusion models are evaluated. The results show that no single mechanism reliably predicts the chemical conversions of all of the experiments. Although the software was initially developed for chemical kinetics applications, it can also be extended to run any simulation code, and can therefore be applied in other scenarios.

  16. IIHS side crash test ratings and occupant death risk in real-world crashes. (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Lund, Adrian K


    To evaluate how well the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side crash test ratings predict real-world occupant death risk in side-impact crashes. The IIHS has been evaluating passenger vehicle side crashworthiness since 2003. In the IIHS side crash test, a vehicle is impacted perpendicularly on the driver's side by a moving deformable barrier simulating a typical sport utility vehicle (SUV) or pickup. Injury ratings are computed for the head/neck, torso, and pelvis/leg, and vehicles are rated based on their ability to protect occupants' heads and resist occupant compartment intrusion. Component ratings are combined into an overall rating of good, acceptable, marginal, or poor. A driver-only rating was recalculated by omitting rear passenger dummy data. Data were extracted from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and National Automotive Sampling System/General Estimates System (NASS/GES) for the years 2000-2009. Analyses were restricted to vehicles with driver side air bags with head and torso protection as standard features. The risk of driver death was computed as the number of drivers killed (FARS) divided by the number involved (NASS/GES) in left-side impacts and was modeled using logistic regression to control for the effects of driver age and gender and vehicle type and curb weight. Death rates per million registered vehicle years were computed for all outboard occupants and compared by overall rating. Based on the driver-only rating, drivers of vehicles rated good were 70 percent less likely to die when involved in left-side crashes than drivers of vehicles rated poor, after controlling for driver and vehicle factors. Compared with vehicles rated poor, driver death risk was 64 percent lower for vehicles rated acceptable and 49 percent lower for vehicles rated marginal. All 3 results were statistically significant. Among components, vehicle structure rating exhibited the strongest relationship with driver death risk. The vehicle

  17. Real-world comparison of health care utilization between duloxetine and pregabalin initiators with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng X


    Full Text Available X Peng,1 P Sun,2 D Novick,1 J Andrews,1 S Sun2 1Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Kailo Research Group, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objectives: To compare health care utilization of duloxetine initiators and pregabalin initiators among fibromyalgia patients in a real-world setting. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a US national commercial health claims database (2006–2009. Fibromyalgia patients who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008, aged 18–64 years, and who maintained continuous health insurance coverage 1 year before and 1 year after initiation were assigned to duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts on the basis of their initiated agent. Patients who had pill coverage of the agents over the course of 90 days preceding the initiation were excluded. The two comparative cohorts were constructed using propensity score greedy match methods. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were performed to compare health care utilization rates in the postinitiation year and the changes of these rates from the preinitiation year to the postinitiation year. Results: Both matched cohorts (n=1,265 pairs had a similar mean initiation age (49–50 years, percentage of women (87%–88%, and prevalence of baseline comorbid conditions (neuropathic pain other than diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headache or migraine, and osteoarthritis. In the preinitiation year, both cohorts had similar inpatient, outpatient, and medication utilization rates (inpatient, 15.7%–16.1%; outpatient, 100.0%; medication, 97.9%–98.7%. The utilization rates diverged in the postinitiation year, with the pregabalin cohort using more fibromyalgia-related inpatient care (3.2% versus 2.2%; P<0.05, any inpatient care (19.3% versus 16.8%; P<0.05, and fibromyalgia-related outpatient care (62.1% versus 51.8%; P<0.05. From the preinitiation period to the postinitiation period, the duloxetine cohort

  18. An Unobtrusive System to Measure, Assess, and Predict Cognitive Workload in Real-World Environments (United States)

    Bracken, Bethany K.; Palmon, Noa; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Irvin, Scott; Jenkins, Michael; Farry, Mike


    , designed to operate in real-world environments to be worn comfortably (e.g., positioned into a baseball cap or a surgeons cap) to measure changes in brain blood oxygenation without adding burden to the individual being assessed.

  19. Real-world injury patterns associated with Hybrid III sternal deflections in frontal crash tests. (United States)

    Brumbelow, Matthew L; Farmer, Charles M


    This study investigated the relationship between the peak sternal deflection measurements recorded by the Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropometric test device (ATD) in frontal crash tests and injury and fatality outcomes for drivers in field crashes. ATD sternal deflection data were obtained from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's 64 km/h, 40 percent overlap crashworthiness evaluation tests for vehicles with seat belt crash tensioners, load limiters, and good-rated structure. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) was queried for frontal crashes of these vehicles in which the driver was restrained by a seat belt and air bag. Injury probability curves were calculated by frontal crash type using the injuries coded in NASS-CDS and peak ATD sternal deflection data. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) front-to-front crashes with exactly one driver death were also studied to determine whether the difference in measured sternal deflections for the 2 vehicles was related to the odds of fatality. For center impacts, moderate overlaps, and large overlaps in NASS-CDS, the probability of the driver sustaining an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥ 3 thoracic injury, or any nonextremity AIS ≥ 3 injury, increased with increasing ATD sternal deflection measured in crash tests. For small overlaps, however, these probabilities decreased with increasing deflection. For FARS crashes, the fatally injured driver more often was in the vehicle with the lower measured deflection in crash tests (55 vs. 45%). After controlling for other factors, a 5-mm difference in measured sternal deflections between the 2 vehicles was associated with a fatality odds ratio of 0.762 for the driver in the vehicle with the greater deflection (95% confidence interval = 0.373, 1.449). Restraint systems that reduce peak Hybrid III sternal deflection in a moderate overlap crash test are beneficial in real-world crashes with similar or greater

  20. Preparing laboratory and real-world EEG data for large-scale analysis: A containerized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdely-Shamlo


    Full Text Available Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface (BCI models.. However, the absence of standard-ized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the diffi-culty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a containerized approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of an-notating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS comprises three data Levels, each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1 data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2 suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are in-creasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at, and a central cata-log of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to ena-ble data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (

  1. Real-World Executive Functions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Profiles of Impairment and Associations with Adaptive Functioning and Co-Morbid Anxiety and Depression (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Pugliese, Cara E.; Popal, Haroon S.; White, Emily I.; Brodsky, Emily; Martin, Alex


    Although executive functioning (EF) difficulties are well documented among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about real-world measures of EF among adults with ASD. Therefore, this study examined parent-reported real-world EF problems among 35 adults with ASD without intellectual disability and their…

  2. A longitudinal examination of the moderating effects of symptoms on the relationship between functional competence and real world functional performance in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Best


    Conclusions: Residual negative and depressive symptoms are distinct constructs that impede the use of functional skills in the real world. Depressive symptoms are often overlooked in schizophrenia but appear to be an important factor that limits the use of functional ability in real world environments.

  3. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field. (United States)

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen


    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  4. Experience inheritance from famous specialists based on real-world clinical research paradigm of traditional Chinese medicine. (United States)

    Song, Guanli; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Runshun; Liu, Baoyan; Zhou, Xuezhong; Zhou, Xiaji; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Yufeng; Xue, Yanxing; Xu, Lili


    The current modes of experience inheritance from famous specialists in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) include master and disciple, literature review, clinical-epidemiology-based clinical research observation, and analysis and data mining via computer and database technologies. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages. However, a scientific and instructive experience inheritance mode has not been developed. The advent of the big data era as well as the formation and practice accumulation of the TCM clinical research paradigm in the real world have provided new perspectives, techniques, and methods for inheriting experience from famous TCM specialists. Through continuous exploration and practice, the research group proposes the innovation research mode based on the real-world TCM clinical research paradigm, which involves the inheritance and innovation of the existing modes. This mode is formulated in line with its own development regularity of TCM and is expected to become the main mode of experience inheritance in the clinical field.

  5. Multi-modeling and multi-scale modeling as tools for solving complex real-world problems


    Stojanović, Boban; Ivanović, Miloš; Kaplarević-Mališić, Ana; Simić, Višnja; Milivojević, Milovan; Nedić, Đorđe; Svičević, Marina; Milivojević, Nikola; Mijailović, Srboljub


    In previous decades a number of computational methods for calculation of very complex physical phenomena with a satisfactory accuracy have been developed. Most of these methods usually model only a single physical phenomenon, while their performance regarding accuracy and efficiency are limited within narrow spatial and temporal domains. However, solving real-world problems often requires simultaneous analysis of several coupled physical phenomena that extend over few spatial and temporal sca...

  6. An Empirical Overview of the No Free Lunch Theorem and Its Effect on Real-World Machine Learning Classification. (United States)

    Gómez, David; Rojas, Alfonso


    A sizable amount of research has been done to improve the mechanisms for knowledge extraction such as machine learning classification or regression. Quite unintuitively, the no free lunch (NFL) theorem states that all optimization problem strategies perform equally well when averaged over all possible problems. This fact seems to clash with the effort put forth toward better algorithms. This letter explores empirically the effect of the NFL theorem on some popular machine learning classification techniques over real-world data sets.

  7. Assessing stationary laboratory test methods for underground mining vehicles to determine their suitability in replicating real-world emissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC


    Full Text Available adequately and that equipment is operating within acceptable parameters. An investigation into the required equipment and in-field test methods was conducted as the basis of this study. Stationary in-field vehicle emission tests were reproduced in a... controlled engine test cell to establish the repeatability and suitability of these methods. These stationary tests were compared against real-world data recorded during a load-haul- dump (LHD) vehicle underground operational cycle in order to devise...

  8. Real-World Use of Apixaban for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Proietti, Marco; Romanazzi, Imma; Romiti, Giulio Francesco; Farcomeni, Alessio; Lip, Gregory Y H


    The use of oral anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has been transformed by the availability of the nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Real-world studies on the use of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants would help elucidate their effectiveness and safety in daily clinical practice. Apixaban was the third nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants introduced to clinical practice, and increasing real-world studies have been published. Our aim was to summarize current evidence about real-world studies on apixaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all observational real-world studies comparing apixaban with other available oral anticoagulant drugs. From the original 9680 results retrieved, 16 studies have been included in the final meta-analysis. Compared with warfarin, apixaban regular dose was more effective in reducing any thromboembolic event (odds ratio: 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.93), but no significant difference was found for stroke risk. Apixaban was as effective as dabigatran and rivaroxaban in reducing thromboembolic events and stroke. The risk of major bleeding was significantly lower for apixaban compared with warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban (relative risk reduction, 38%, 35%, and 46%, respectively). Similarly, the risk for intracranial hemorrhage was significantly lower for apixaban than warfarin and rivaroxaban (46% and 54%, respectively) but not dabigatran. The risk of gastrointestinal bleeding was lower with apixaban when compared with all oral anticoagulant agents ( P stroke and any thromboembolic events when compared with warfarin. A better safety profile was found with apixaban compared with warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data. (United States)

    Lane, Justin E


    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors.

  10. Real-world persistence with fingolimod for the treatment of multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Kantor, Daniel; Johnson, Kristen; Vieira, Maria Cecilia; Signorovitch, James; Li, Nanxin; Gao, Wei; Koo, Valerie; Duchesneau, Emilie; Herrera, Vivian


    To systematically review reports of fingolimod persistence in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) across data sources and practice settings, and to develop a consensus estimate of the 1-year real-world persistence rate. A systematic literature review was conducted (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and abstracts from selected conferences [2013-2015]) to identify observational studies reporting 1-year fingolimod persistence among adult patients with RRMS (sample size ≥50). A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to estimate a synthesized 1-year persistence rate and to assess heterogeneity across studies. Of 527 publications identified, 25 real-world studies reporting 1-year fingolimod persistence rates were included. The studies included patients from different data sources (e.g., administrative claims, electronic medical records, or registries), used different definitions of persistence (e.g., based on prescriptions refills, patient report, or prescription orders), and spanned multiple geographic regions. Reported 1-year persistence rates ranged from 72%-100%, and exhibited statistical evidence of heterogeneity (I 2  = 93% of the variability due to heterogeneity across studies). The consensus estimate of the 1-year persistence rate was 82% (95% confidence interval: 79%-85%). Across heterogeneous study designs and patient populations found in real-world studies, the consensus 1-year fingolimod persistence rate exceeded 80%, consistent with persistence rates identified in the recently-completed trial, PREFERMS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Antihypertensive effectiveness of combination therapy with losartan/hydrochlorothiazide for 'real world' management of isolated systolic hypertension. (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromichi; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Fujiwara, Kenji


    The guidelines for hypertension require the presence of compelling indications for pharmacological management of hypertension associated with various diseases. Data mainly obtained through randomized controlled trials have provided evidence supporting effectiveness of the combination of losartan (Lo) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) for management of hypertensive patients. However, there have been few reports discussing the effectiveness of Lo/HTCZ (losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothizide 12.5 mg) in the 'real world' in the management of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). This study was designed to investigate the 'real world' effectiveness of Lo/HTCZ-based treatment of ISH associated with various diseases. This was a retrospective, uncontrolled analysis of data derived from a large, cross-sectional web-based clinical database collected by physicians. Of 24,825 eligible patients, 20,726 were followed during a 6-month period. Among these, subjects for analysis included those with systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP) 30 mmHg SBP) were rare. Lo/HTCZ is safe and effective in reducing and improving BP control in a 'real world' setting. Treatment with Lo/HTCZ enabled a substantial proportion of hypertensive patients with associated diseases to achieve the recommended goal of <140 mm Hg. © The Author(s), 2014.

  12. Understanding Is Key: An Analysis of Factors Pertaining to Trust in a Real-World Automation System. (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R


    This paper aims to explore the role of factors pertaining to trust in real-world automation systems through the application of observational methods in a case study from the railway sector. Trust in automation is widely acknowledged as an important mediator of automation use, but the majority of the research on automation trust is based on laboratory work. In contrast, this work explored trust in a real-world setting. Experienced rail operators in four signaling centers were observed for 90 min, and their activities were coded into five mutually exclusive categories. Their observed activities were analyzed in relation to their reported trust levels, collected via a questionnaire. The results showed clear differences in activity, even when circumstances on the workstations were very similar, and significant differences in some trust dimensions were found between groups exhibiting different levels of intervention and time not involved with signaling. Although the empirical, lab-based studies in the literature have consistently found that reliability and competence of the automation are the most important aspects of trust development, understanding of the automation emerged as the strongest dimension in this study. The implications are that development and maintenance of trust in real-world, safety-critical automation systems may be distinct from artificial laboratory automation. The findings have important implications for emerging automation concepts in diverse industries including highly automated vehicles and Internet of things.

  13. Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus simeprevir therapy in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C: a real-world experience. (United States)

    El-Khayat, Hisham R; Fouad, Yasser M; Maher, Mohsen; El-Amin, Hussain; Muhammed, Hala


    Simeprevir plus sofosbuvir (SIM/SOF) regimen was recommended by professional guidelines for certain patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and there is lack of data about this regimen in patients with genotype 4 infection. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of this regimen in Egyptian patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infection in the real world. Multicentre observational study included 583 patients with HCV genotype 4 infection who began 12 weeks of treatment with SIM plus SOF. Demographic, clinical and virological data as well as adverse outcomes were collected. Treatment naïve patients were 342 (59%) of all included patients, 45% of patients had severe fibrosis (F3 and F4) while 55% had mild fibrosis (F1 and F2) and the primary outcome was sustained virological response (SVR). The overall SVR rate was 95.7% (558 out of 583 patients). In total, SVR12 in naïve patients with mild fibrosis score (F1 and F2) was achieved in 98.9% (94/95) for F1 and 98.1% (105/107) for F2, while naïve patients with severe fibrosis (F3 and F4) achieved SVR of 97.7% (86/88) for F3 and (42/52) 80.8% for F4. SVR in patients with previous interferon treatment achieved in 100% (45/45) for patients with F1 and 98.7% (74/75) for F2. While 94.7% (72/76) in experienced patients with F3; and 88.9% (40/45) for F4 achieved SVR12. Notable side effects included rash in 21 patients, photosensitivity in 18 patients, pruritus in 44 patients and hyperbilirubinemia in 42 patients. A 12-week regimen of simeprevir/sofosbuvir was efficacious and well tolerated by treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients with chronic HCV genotype 4. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  14. Statin prescribing for people with severe mental illnesses: a staggered cohort study of 'real-world' impacts. (United States)

    Blackburn, R; Osborn, D; Walters, K; Falcaro, M; Nazareth, I; Petersen, I


    To estimate the 'real-world effectiveness of statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for lipid modification in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI), including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Series of staggered cohorts. We estimated the effect of statin prescribing on CVD outcomes using a multivariable Poisson regression model or linear regression for cholesterol outcomes. 587 general practice (GP) surgeries across the UK reporting data to The Health Improvement Network. All permanently registered GP patients aged 40-84 years between 2002 and 2012 who had a diagnosis of SMI. Exclusion criteria were pre-existing CVD, statin-contraindicating conditions or a statin prescription within the 24 months prior to the study start. One or more statin prescriptions during a 24-month 'baseline' period (vs no statin prescription during the same period). The primary outcome was combined first myocardial infarction and stroke. All-cause mortality and total cholesterol concentration were secondary outcomes. We identified 2944 statin users and 42 886 statin non-users across the staggered cohorts. Statin prescribing was not associated with significant reduction in CVD events (incident rate ratio 0.89; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.15) or all-cause mortality (0.89; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.02). Statin prescribing was, however, associated with statistically significant reductions in total cholesterol of 1.2 mmol/L (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3) for up to 2 years after adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics. On average, total cholesterol decreased from 6.3 to 4.6 in statin users and 5.4 to 5.3 mmol/L in non-users. We found that statin prescribing to people with SMI in UK primary care was effective for lipid modification but not CVD events. The latter finding may reflect insufficient power to detect a smaller effect size than that observed in randomised controlled trials of statins in people without SMI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  15. Real-world cost-effectiveness of laparoscopy versus open colectomy for colon cancer: a nationwide population-based study. (United States)

    Liao, Chih-Hsien; Tan, Elise Chia-Hui; Chen, Chien-Chih; Yang, Ming-Chin


    Laparoscopic colectomy is increasingly being adopted for the treatment of colon cancer; however, the long-term effectiveness of this approach in a real-world clinical setting has yet to be verified. This study aims to compare the effectiveness and costs associated with laparoscopic and open colectomy from the perspective of the National Health Insurance (NHI) system in Taiwan. A nationwide population-based colon cancer cohort was observed by linking the Taiwan Cancer Registry, claims data from NHI system, and the National Death Registry. Adult patients with Stage I to Stage III colon cancer who underwent primary cancer resection using either laparoscopy or open colectomy between 2009 and 2011 were included. A propensity score-matched cohort (1745 pairs) was applied to examine three clinical endpoints: overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and disease-free survival within 2 years after the operation. To comply with the perspective as well as the analytic horizon of the study, we limited the research to NHI claims from the study population for the corresponding time period. The health outcomes and net monetary benefits were verified by multivariate mixed-effect models. This analysis revealed that laparoscopy resulted in longer overall survival (adjusted difference 16.8 days, 95 % CI 7.3-26.2), recurrence-free survival (16.8 days, 5.0-28.6) and disease-free survival (26.4 days, 7.4-45.4), compared to open colectomy at 2 years post-op. Laparoscopy also led to a significantly shorter length of stay (3.2 days, 2.4-3.9) and lower index hospitalization costs (US$ 455, 181-729) than open colectomy; however, no differences in costs were observed over the long term. Overall, laparoscopy was more cost-effective than open colectomy under various willingness-to-pay thresholds in the setting of the Taiwan NHI. The continued adoption of laparoscopy in primary curable colon cancer resection is expected to reduce health care costs over the short term while providing

  16. Reuse of the compact nuclear simulator software under PC with Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, K. H.; Park, J. C.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, G. Y.


    This study was approached to reuse source programs for a nuclear simulator under PC with Open Source Software(OSS) and to extend its applicability. Source programs in the Compact Nuclear Simulator(CNS), which has been operated for institutional research and training in KAERI, were reused and implemented for Linux-PC environment with the aim of supporting the study. PC with 500 MHz processor and Linux 2.2.5-22 kernel were utilized for the reuse implementation and it was investigated for some applications, through the functional testing for its main functions as interfaced with compact control panels in the current CNS. Development and upgrade of small-scale simulators, establishment of process simulation for PC, and development of prototype predictive simulation, can effectively be enabled with the experience though the reuse implementation was limited to port only CNS programs for PC with Linux

  17. Mimewrighting: Preparing Students for the Real World of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (United States)

    Shope, R. E.


    READING, WRITING, & ENACTING SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL LITERATURE: Mimewrighting applies the art of mime as an interpretive springboard to integrate conceptual understanding across all content areas. Mimewrighting guides students to read and express complex ideas in carefully crafted movement integrations, mediating experience, so that students obtain an intuitive grasp of difficult and abstract ideas. THE PROBLEM: Reading science writing presents obstacles for middle and high school students, to the point that many students are turned OFF to science altogether. A typical science abstract, written for colleagues, is as densely packed with concept-laden words as a black hole is densely packed with matter- and just as mysterious. What reads to a science colleague as a richly crafted paragraph, from which a myriad of elegantly interrelated concepts can unfold to point to the significance and context of the study at hand, reads as jabberwocky nonsense to the uninitiated student. So, how do we turn such kids (and teachers) back ON to the inquiry-driven desire to seek out challenging and educative experiences? How do we step up to the national challenge to prepare ALL students adequately for the REAL-WORLD demands of science, technology, engineering, math, (STEM) and communications? How do we help kids read, write, and understand scientific and technical literature? AN UNCONVENTIONAL ANSWER: Mimewrighting applies the classic art of mime to unpack the meaning of science writing. We help students view the text as sequences of action, scenarios that can be enacted theatrically for understanding. HOW DOES IT WORK? READ ALOUD, MIME ALONG: It's as simple as read aloud and mime along. And as complex, in that it requires taking the time to acknowledge each concept packed into the passage. Three opening sentences might involve twenty minutes of mimewrighting activity to ensure that students apprehend the patterns, perceive the relationships, and comprehend the dynamics of such a

  18. Using Digital Technologies in Clinical HIV Research: Real-World Applications and Considerations for Future Work. (United States)

    Andriesen, Jessica; Bull, Sheana; Dietrich, Janan; Haberer, Jessica E; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Voronin, Yegor; Wall, Kristin M; Whalen, Christopher; Priddy, Frances


    Digital technologies, especially if used in novel ways, provide a number of potential advantages to clinical research in trials related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and may greatly facilitate operations as well as data collection and analysis. These technologies may even allow answering questions that are not answerable with older technologies. However, they come with a variety of potential concerns for both the participants and the trial sponsors. The exact challenges and means for alleviation depend on the technology and on the population in which it is deployed, and the rapidly changing landscape of digital technologies presents a challenge for creating future-proof guidelines for technology application. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize some common themes that are frequently encountered by researchers in this context and highlight those that should be carefully considered before making a decision to include these technologies in their research. In April 2016, the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise surveyed the field for research groups with recent experience in novel applications of digital technologies in HIV clinical research and convened these groups for a 1-day meeting. Real-world uses of various technologies were presented and discussed by 46 attendees, most of whom were researchers involved in the design and conduct of clinical trials of biomedical HIV prevention and treatment approaches. After the meeting, a small group of organizers reviewed the presentations and feedback obtained during the meeting and categorized various lessons-learned to identify common themes. A group of 9 experts developed a draft summary of the findings that was circulated via email to all 46 attendees for review. Taking into account the feedback received, the group finalized the considerations that are presented here. Meeting presenters and attendees discussed the many successful applications of digital

  19. The real-world use of regorafenib for metastatic colorectal cancer: multicentre analysis of treatment pattern and outcomes in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Lam, Ka-On; Lee, Kin-Chung; Chiu, Joanne; Lee, Victor Ho-Fun; Leung, Roland; Choy, T S; Yau, Thomas


    To evaluate the benefits and tolerability of regorafenib in the real-world setting, we performed a multicentre analysis in Hong Kong. Individual patient data were retrieved from three leading oncology centres in Hong Kong for analyses. All patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with regorafenib after failure of all standard systemic options were included. From July 2013 to December 2015, 45 consecutive patients treated with regorafenib for mCRC were analysed. The median age was 63. Twenty patients were started at 160 mg, while the other 25 patients were started at a lower dose. The median progression-free survival was 15.6 weeks (95% CI 13.1 to 18.1 weeks) and the median overall survival was 30.4 weeks (95% CI 16.6 to 44.3 weeks). Among the 31 evaluable patients, only 1 patient (3.2%) achieved partial response and another 10 patients (32.3%) had stable disease. The commonest grade 3 non-haematological adverse event (AE) was hand-foot skin reaction (26.7%) and the commonest grade 3 or 4 haematological AE was anaemia (8.9%). Notably, patients who were started on a lower dose of regorafenib had significantly lower risk of grade 3 treatment-emergent AEs. Overall, 78.3% of the patients had dose reduction during the first and second cycles. Patients older than 65 years were more likely to experience cycle suspension and require dose reduction. Our study confirmed the efficacy and tolerability of regorafenib in the real-world setting. It also suggested that individualised dosing of regorafenib in patients with mCRC might result in better clinical outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Software Piracy among College Students: A Comprehensive Review of Contributing Factors, Underlying Processes, and Tackling Strategies (United States)

    Liang, Zhili; Yan, Zheng


    This article reviewed empirical studies published in the past 30 years that examined software piracy among college students. It focused on three areas of study: (a) major factors that affect college students' intentions, attitudes, and moral intensity regarding software piracy, (b) various decision-making processes that underlie software piracy…

  1. Premixed vs basal-bolus insulin regimen in Type 2 diabetes: comparison of clinical outcomes from randomized controlled trials and real-world data. (United States)

    Anyanwagu, U; Mamza, J; Gordon, J; Donnelly, R; Idris, I


    To evaluate the concordance between data derived from randomized controlled trial (RCT) and real-world estimates of HbA 1c and weight change after 24 weeks of initiation of a basal-bolus compared with a premixed insulin regimen in people with Type 2 diabetes. Data eight RCTs were pooled after a systematic review of studies examining basal-bolus (n = 1893) or premixed (n = 1517) regimens. Real-world data were extracted from the UK primary care dataset for people on basal-bolus (n = 7483) or premixed insulin regimens (n=10 744). The mean differences between HbA 1c and weight from baseline were calculated using t-tests, while analysis of variance was used to compare the two treatment regimens. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of this change. Both insulin regimens were associated with HbA 1c reductions (real-world data -0.28%; RCT data, -1.4%) and weight gain (real-world data, +0.27 kg; RCT data, +2.96 kg) but there were no significant differences between basal-bolus and premixed insulin. Discordances in the pattern of treatment response were observed, however, between real-world and RCT data for both insulin regimens. For any given baseline HbA 1c concentration, the change in HbA 1c in the RCTs was greater than in real-world conditions and for those with baseline weight above ~60 kg, RCT data showed overall weight gain in contrast to slight weight loss in the real-world population. Lastly, for both randomized controlled trial and real-world populations, while greater baseline weight was associated with reduced response to treatment, the association was much steeper in the RCT than in the real-world population. In addition, greater baseline weight was associated with greater weight reductions in both premixed insulin and basal-bolus insulin regimens, although to a lesser extent with the latter. These results highlight specific discrepancies in the HbA 1c reduction and weight change in insulin regimen between real world versus RCT

  2. Approaching the exa-scale: a real-world evaluation of rendering extremely large data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchett, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lo, Li - Ta [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browniee, Carson S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hansen, Chuck [UNIV OF UTAH


    Extremely large scale analysis is becoming increasingly important as supercomputers and their simulations move from petascale to exascale. The lack of dedicated hardware acceleration for rendering on today's supercomputing platforms motivates our detailed evaluation of the possibility of interactive rendering on the supercomputer. In order to facilitate our understanding of rendering on the supercomputing platform, we focus on scalability of rendering algorithms and architecture envisioned for exascale datasets. To understand tradeoffs for dealing with extremely large datasets, we compare three different rendering algorithms for large polygonal data: software based ray tracing, software based rasterization and hardware accelerated rasterization. We present a case study of strong and weak scaling of rendering extremely large data on both GPU and CPU based parallel supercomputers using Para View, a parallel visualization tool. Wc use three different data sets: two synthetic and one from a scientific application. At an extreme scale, algorithmic rendering choices make a difference and should be considered while approaching exascale computing, visualization, and analysis. We find software based ray-tracing offers a viable approach for scalable rendering of the projected future massive data sizes.

  3. A dependability modeling of software under hardware faults digitized system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Gyun


    An analytic approach to the dependability evaluation of software in the operational phase is suggested in this work with special attention to the physical fault effects on the software dependability : The physical faults considered are memory faults and the dependability measure in question is the reliability. The model is based on the simple reliability theory and the graph theory with the path decomposition micro model. The model represents an application software with a graph consisting of nodes and arcs that probabilistic ally determine the flow from node to node. Through proper transformation of nodes and arcs, the graph can be reduced to a simple two-node graph and the software failure probability is derived from this graph. This model can be extended to the software system which consists of several complete modules without modification. The derived model is validated by the computer simulation, where the software is transformed to a probabilistic control flow graph. Simulation also shows a different viewpoint of software failure behavior. Using this model, we predict the reliability of an application software and a software system in a digitized system(ILS system) in the nuclear power plant and show the sensitivity of the software reliability to the major physical parameters which affect the software failure in the normal operation phase. The derived model is validated by the computer simulation, where the software is transformed to a probabilistic control flow graph. Simulation also shows a different viewpoint of software failure behavior. Using this model, we predict the reliability of an application software and a software system in a digitized system (ILS system) is the nuclear power plant and show the sensitivity of the software reliability to the major physical parameters which affect the software failure in the normal operation phase. This modeling method is particularly attractive for medium size programs such as software used in digitized systems of

  4. Real world instrumentation with Python automated data acquisition and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John


    Learn how to develop your own applications to monitor or control instrumentation hardware. Whether you need to acquire data from a device or automate its functions, this practical book shows you how to use Python's rapid development capabilities to build interfaces that include everything from software to wiring. You get step-by-step instructions, clear examples, and hands-on tips for interfacing a PC to a variety of devices. Use the book's hardware survey to identify the interface type for your particular device, and then follow detailed examples to develop an interface with Python and C. O

  5. Real-world fuel economy and CO{sub 2} emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energiepolitik und Energiesysteme


    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO{sub 2} emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO{sub 2}/km and the annual CO{sub 2} savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  6. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora


    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (pengine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure, composition and toxicity are not straightforward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Prediction and Characterization of High-Activity Events in Social Media Triggered by Real-World News.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Kalyanam

    Full Text Available On-line social networks publish information on a high volume of real-world events almost instantly, becoming a primary source for breaking news. Some of these real-world events can end up having a very strong impact on on-line social networks. The effect of such events can be analyzed from several perspectives, one of them being the intensity and characteristics of the collective activity that it produces in the social platform. We research 5,234 real-world news events encompassing 43 million messages discussed on the Twitter microblogging service for approximately 1 year. We show empirically that exogenous news events naturally create collective patterns of bursty behavior in combination with long periods of inactivity in the network. This type of behavior agrees with other patterns previously observed in other types of natural collective phenomena, as well as in individual human communications. In addition, we propose a methodology to classify news events according to the different levels of intensity in activity that they produce. In particular, we analyze the most highly active events and observe a consistent and strikingly different collective reaction from users when they are exposed to such events. This reaction is independent of an event's reach and scope. We further observe that extremely high-activity events have characteristics that are quite distinguishable at the beginning stages of their outbreak. This allows us to predict with high precision, the top 8% of events that will have the most impact in the social network by just using the first 5% of the information of an event's lifetime evolution. This strongly implies that high-activity events are naturally prioritized collectively by the social network, engaging users early on, way before they are brought to the mainstream audience.

  8. Connecting Educators with Inter-Disciplinary Inquiry-Based Science and Students with STEM Careers with Real-World Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford


    Full Text Available Our professional development workshops have provided participating teachers (inservice and pre-service with interdisciplinary experiences in earth and environmental science that have built their content into real-world problem based research initiatives (STEM, Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. One of our real-world issues has been the detection of phenol since it has been a concern in the real-world coal mining industry. Coal tars are a complex of variable mixtures of phenols. Phenol and phenol derivative compounds are widely used in the production of polymers, drugs, dyes, explosives, pesticides, stabilizers and antioxidants. These phenolic compounds are discharged into the environment and can represent a serious hazard, mainly by the contamination of superficial and underground waters. The toxic effect of phenol can cause comas, convulsions, cyanosis, liver damage, kidney damage, lung damage and death. The mining industry for coal is an alternative source of energy and used in thermoelectric power plants. However, the pollutant phenol that can be found in coal has high need to be detected and is an important aspect to keep an eye on due to these harmful chemicals such as phenol discharging into the environment. Our inquiry-based labs have engaged our inservice and pre-service students by visiting a mine and learning the positive and negative aspects of mining and the importance of water quality. Thus, this inquiry-based module will illustrate the use of an electrochemistry modified carbon nanotube poly-3-hexylthiophene electrode to detect such harmful chemicals as phenol by unique electrochemistry techniques such as Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV.

  9. Real-world uptake of a tailored, text message pregnancy smoking cessation programme (MiQuit) when offered online


    Emery, Joanne; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix


    Background: Prenatal smoking is a major public health concern and uptake of NHS cessation support is low in this group. Text message-based self-help is a promising intervention for this population but little is known about its likely real-world uptake, an essential parameter for estimating public health impact. Aims were to explore uptake (including cost) of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers (‘MiQuit’) when offered online. Methods: Links to a website pr...

  10. Impact of Ambient Temperatures on Exhaust Thermal Characteristics during Cold Start for Real World SI Car Urban Driving Tests


    Li, H; Andrews, GE; Zhu, G; Daham, BK; Bell, MC; Tate, JE; Ropkins, K


    Thermal characteristics of SI engine exhaust during cold start and warm up period were investigated for different ambient temperatures (-2 to 32 °C). A Euro 1 emission compliance SI car was tested using a real world urban driving cycle to represent typical city driving patterns and simulate ECE15 urban driving cycle. The test car was equipped with 27 thermocouples along the engine and exhaust pipes so as to measure metal and exhaust gas temperatures along the engine, exhaust and catalyst. The...

  11. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving. (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M


    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  12. Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administration Real World Skills for MCITP Certification and Beyond (Exam 70-668)

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom


    Delivers the information that SharePoint 2010 administrators in the field need most This book shows you how to design, deploy, and implement a SharePoint 2010 environment, providing practical skills and real-world techniques and scenarios you'll be able to apply on the job. You'll not only thoroughly learn SharePoint 2010, but you'll also get up to speed on business continuity and solutions. In addition, those preparing for the MCITP: SharePoint 2010 Administration certification exam 70-668 will find thorough coverage of all exam objectives.Shows you how to design, deploy, administer, and main

  13. SQL Server 2008 Administration Real World Skills for MCITP Certification and Beyond (Exams 70-432 and 40-450)

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom


    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for SQL Server 2008 database administrators. If you manage and administer SQL Server 2008 in the real world, you need this detailed guide at your desk. From planning to disaster recovery, this practical book explores tasks and scenarios that a working SQL Server DBA faces regularly and shows you step by step how to handle them. Topics include installation and configuration, creating databases and tables, optimizing the database server, planning for high availability, and more. And, if you're preparing for MCTS or MCITP certification in SQL Server 2008 admin

  14. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.


    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  15. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.


    It is widely understood that cold-temperature engine operation negatively impacts vehicle fuel use due to a combination of increased friction (high-viscosity engine oil) and temporary enrichment (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large number of driving cycles and ambient conditions. This work leverages high-quality dynamometer data collected at various ambient conditions to develop a modeling framework for quantifying engine cold-start fuel penalties over a wide array of real-world usage profiles. Additionally, mitigation strategies including energy retention and exhaust heat recovery are explored with benefits quantified for each approach.

  16. Three-year data from the XIENCE V® INDIA study: Safety and efficacy of XIENCE V® in 1000 real world Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Seth


    Conclusion: Despite the high risk population of coronary artery disease, the use of XIENCE V® in 'real world' Indian patients was associated with very low clinical event rates upto three years of follow up.

  17. Cognitive tests predict real-world errors: the relationship between drug name confusion rates in laboratory-based memory and perception tests and corresponding error rates in large pharmacy chains. (United States)

    Schroeder, Scott R; Salomon, Meghan M; Galanter, William L; Schiff, Gordon D; Vaida, Allen J; Gaunt, Michael J; Bryson, Michelle L; Rash, Christine; Falck, Suzanne; Lambert, Bruce L


    Drug name confusion is a common type of medication error and a persistent threat to patient safety. In the USA, roughly one per thousand prescriptions results in the wrong drug being filled, and most of these errors involve drug names that look or sound alike. Prior to approval, drug names undergo a variety of tests to assess their potential for confusability, but none of these preapproval tests has been shown to predict real-world error rates. We conducted a study to assess the association between error rates in laboratory-based tests of drug name memory and perception and real-world drug name confusion error rates. Eighty participants, comprising doctors, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and lay people, completed a battery of laboratory tests assessing visual perception, auditory perception and short-term memory of look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs (eg, hydroxyzine/hydralazine). Laboratory test error rates (and other metrics) significantly predicted real-world error rates obtained from a large, outpatient pharmacy chain, with the best-fitting model accounting for 37% of the variance in real-world error rates. Cross-validation analyses confirmed these results, showing that the laboratory tests also predicted errors from a second pharmacy chain, with 45% of the variance being explained by the laboratory test data. Across two distinct pharmacy chains, there is a strong and significant association between drug name confusion error rates observed in the real world and those observed in laboratory-based tests of memory and perception. Regulators and drug companies seeking a validated preapproval method for identifying confusing drug names ought to consider using these simple tests. By using a standard battery of memory and perception tests, it should be possible to reduce the number of confusing look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs that reach the market, which will help protect patients from potentially harmful medication errors. Published by the BMJ

  18. Validation of an Inter-Cell Interference Coordination Solution in Real-World Deployment Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Berardinelli, Gilberto


    regular reference scenarios and stochastic channel models are employed. It is an important next step to verify that the trends observed in the reference scenarios compare equally well in more practical deployments. For such comparison, it is required to evaluate an extensive set of link conditions......, reflecting the many possible configurations that can be experienced in a practical scenario. In this paper we adopt an experimental procedure, using a software defined radio testbed, for acquiring almost 1000 different radio link conditions between the nodes of a relevant wireless indoor network scenario....... The acquired measurements, were used in a system level simulator in order to evaluate the performance of a local area decentralized ICIC scheme. The analysis of the algorithm performance results confirms the expected performance trends and allowed to obtain further insights with respect to prior simulation...

  19. Developmental Screening Using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Standardized versus Real-World Conditions (United States)

    San Antonio, Marianne C.; Fenick, Ada M.; Shabanova, Veronika; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol C.


    Developmental screens are often used in nonstandardized conditions, such as pediatric waiting rooms, despite validation under standardized conditions. We examined the reproducibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), a developmental screening instrument commonly used in pediatric practices, under standardized versus nonstandardized…

  20. How context information and target information guide the eyes from the first epoch of search in real-world scenes. (United States)

    Spotorno, Sara; Malcolm, George L; Tatler, Benjamin W


    This study investigated how the visual system utilizes context and task information during the different phases of a visual search task. The specificity of the target template (the picture or the name of the target) and the plausibility of target position in real-world scenes were manipulated orthogonally. Our findings showed that both target template information and guidance of spatial context are utilized to guide eye movements from the beginning of scene inspection. In both search initiation and subsequent scene scanning, the availability of a specific visual template was particularly useful when the spatial context of the scene was misleading and the availability of a reliable scene context facilitated search mainly when the template was abstract. Target verification was affected principally by the level of detail of target template, and was quicker in the case of a picture cue. The results indicate that the visual system can utilize target template guidance and context guidance flexibly from the beginning of scene inspection, depending upon the amount and the quality of the available information supplied by either of these high-level sources. This allows for optimization of oculomotor behavior throughout the different phases of search within a real-world scene.

  1. Mixtures in the real world: The importance of plant self-defense toxicants, mycotoxins, and the human diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perusal of research presented at the Annual Society of Toxicology Meetings, or in nearly any toxicology journal, will show that the overwhelming emphasis of toxicology research is on synthetic chemistries. Because of substantial potency and exposure to natural chemicals, the overwhelming focus on synthetic chemistries cannot lead to a realistic understanding of chemical risk to the general population. Natural chemicals, simply because of their abundance and potency, may be as likely to be a public health concern and to be involved in chemical interactions (natural:natural, natural:pharmaceutical; or natural:synthetic) as are environmental levels of synthetic chemicals. All plants have a mix of natural self-defense chemistries and mycotoxins that, when tested in a manner comparable to synthetic pesticides, cause the entire spectrum of toxic effects. As a further complication, plants also escalate much of their self-defense chemistry when attacked by insects and fungi, and damaged crops often have higher mycotoxins levels. Effective crop protection will typically reduce the plant's levels of self-defense toxicants and mycotoxins, but may add residues of synthetic pesticides or add some other risk variable. In addition, cooking may also alter the food chemistry (e.g., acrylamide). The mixtures toxicologist needs to address the real world mixture of natural and synthetic chemicals. Public policy on crop-food safety cannot be sensibly guided without these data and large voids in our understanding of risks from real-world mixtures cannot be in the public interest

  2. Real-World Assessment of Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Lower-Risk Myelofibrosis Receiving Treatment with Ruxolitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith L. Davis


    Full Text Available Few trial-based assessments of ruxolitinib in patients with lower-risk myelofibrosis (MF have been conducted, and no studies have made such assessments in a real-world population. We assessed changes in spleen size and constitutional symptoms during ruxolitinib treatment using a retrospective, observational review of anonymized US medical record data of patients diagnosed with IPSS low-risk (n=25 or intermediate-1-risk (n=83 MF. The majority of patients were male (low risk, 60%; intermediate-1 risk, 69%. Most patients (92% and 77% were still receiving ruxolitinib at the medical record abstraction date (median observation/exposure time, 8 months. The proportion of patients with moderate or severe palpable splenomegaly (≥10 cm decreased from diagnosis (56% to best response (12%. Fatigue was reported in 47% of patients and was the most common constitutional symptom. For most symptoms in both risk groups, shifts in the distribution of severity from more to less severe from diagnosis to best response were observed. Both patients with low-risk and intermediate-1-risk MF experienced a substantial decrease in spleen size with ruxolitinib treatment in real-world settings. For most symptoms examined, there were distinct improvements in the distribution of severity during ruxolitinib treatment. These findings suggest that patients with lower-risk MF may benefit clinically from ruxolitinib treatment.

  3. Top-down and bottom-up aspects of active search in a real-world environment. (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Chapman, Craig; Nasiopoulos, Eleni; Kingstone, Alan


    Visual search has been studied intensively in the labouratory, but lab search often differs from search in the real world in many respects. Here, we used a mobile eye tracker to record the gaze of participants engaged in a realistic, active search task. Participants were asked to walk into a mailroom and locate a target mailbox among many similar mailboxes. This procedure allowed control of bottom-up cues (by making the target mailbox more salient; Experiment 1) and top-down instructions (by informing participants about the cue; Experiment 2). The bottom-up salience of the target had no effect on the overall time taken to search for the target, although the salient target was more likely to be fixated and found once it was within the central visual field. Top-down knowledge of target appearance had a larger effect, reducing the need for multiple head and body movements, and meaning that the target was fixated earlier and from further away. Although there remains much to be discovered in complex real-world search, this study demonstrates that principles from visual search in the labouratory influence gaze in natural behaviour, and provides a bridge between these labouratory studies and research examining vision in natural tasks.

  4. Evaluating the real-world predictive validity of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory using Ecological Momentary Assessment. (United States)

    Heron, Kristin E; Mason, Tyler B; Sutton, Tiphanie G; Myers, Taryn A


    Perceptions of physical appearance, or body image, can affect psychosocial functioning and quality of life (QOL). The present study evaluated the real-world predictive validity of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). College women reporting subclinical disordered eating/body dissatisfaction (N=131) completed the BIQLI and related measures. For one week they then completed five daily EMA surveys of mood, social interactions, stress, and eating behaviors on palmtop computers. Results showed better body image QOL was associated with less negative affect, less overwhelming emotions, more positive affect, more pleasant social interactions, and higher self-efficacy for handling stress. Lower body image QOL was marginally related to less overeating and lower loss of control over eating in daily life. To our knowledge, this is the first study to support the real-world predictive validity of the BIQLI by identifying social, affective, and behavioral correlates in everyday life using EMA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin


    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO 2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO 2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO 2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO 2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO 2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO 2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO 2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  6. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons): Undergraduate Education Through Interdisciplinary, Team-Based, Real-World Problem Solving (United States)

    Tuominen, Mark


    Attitude, Skills, Knowledge (ASK) - In this order, these are fundamental characteristics of scientific innovators. Through first-hand practice in using science to unpack and solve complex real-world problems, students can become self-motivated scientific leaders. This presentation describes the pedagogy of a recently developed interdisciplinary undergraduate science education program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst focused on addressing global challenges with scientific solutions. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons) is an overarching concentration program that supplements the curricula provided within each student's chosen major. iCons is a platform for students to perform student-led research in interdisciplinary collaborative teams. With a schedule of one course per year over four years, the cohort of students move through case studies, analysis of real-world problems, development of potential solutions, integrative communication, laboratory practice, and capstone research projects. In this presentation, a track emphasizing renewable energy science is used to illustrate the iCons pedagogical methods. This includes discussion of a third-year laboratory course in renewable energy that is educationally scaffolded: beginning with a boot camp in laboratory techniques and culminating with student-designed research projects. Among other objectives, this course emphasizes the practice of using reflection and redesign, as a means of generating better solutions and embedding learning for the long term. This work is supported in part by NSF grant DUE-1140805.

  7. Good on paper: the gap between programme theory and real-world context in Pakistan's Community Midwife programme. (United States)

    Mumtaz, Z; Levay, A; Bhatti, A; Salway, S


    To understand why skilled birth attendance-an acknowledged strategy for reducing maternal deaths-has been effective in some settings but is failing in Pakistan and to demonstrate the value of a theory-driven approach to evaluating implementation of maternal healthcare interventions. Implementation research was conducted using an institutional ethnographic approach. National programme and local community levels in Pakistan. Observations, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 Community Midwives (CMWs), 20 policymakers, 45 healthcare providers and 136 community members. A critical policy document review was conducted. National and local level data were brought together. Alignment of programme theory with real-world practice. Data revealed gaps between programme theory, assumptions and reality on the ground. The design of the programme failed to take into account: (1) the incongruity between the role of a midwife and dominant class and gendered norms that devalue such a role; (2) market and consumer behaviour that prevented CMWs from establishing private practices; (3) the complexity of public-private sector cooperation. Uniform deployment policies failed to consider existing provider density and geography. Greater attention to programme theory and the 'real-world' setting during design of maternal health strategies is needed to achieve consistent results in different contexts. © 2014 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Hybrid Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio–Fractional Flow Reserve versus Fractional Flow Reserve in the Real World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Shuttleworth


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR is a novel method to assess the ischemic potential of coronary artery stenoses. Clinical trial data have shown that iFR has acceptable diagnostic agreement with fractional flow reserve (FFR, the reference standard for the functional assessment of coronary stenoses. This study compares iFR measurements with FFR measurements in a real world, single-center setting.Methods and resultsInstantaneous wave-free ratio and FFR were measured in 50 coronary artery lesions in 42 patients, with FFR ≤ 0.8 classified as functionally significant. An iFR-only technique, using a treatment cut-off value, iFR ≤ 0.89, provided a classification agreement of 84% with FFR ≤ 0.80. Use of a hybrid iFR–FFR technique, incorporating FFR measurement for lesions within the iFR gray zone of 0.86–0.93, would improve classification agreement with FFR to 94%, with diagnosis achieved without the need for hyperemia in 57% patients.ConclusionThis study in a real-world setting demonstrated good classification agreement between iFR and FFR. Use of a hybrid iFR–FFR technique would achieve high diagnostic accuracy while minimizing adenosine use, compared with routine FFR.

  9. The Real-World Routine Use of Caffeine Citrate in Preterm Infants: A European Postauthorization Safety Study. (United States)

    Lista, Gianluca; Fabbri, Laura; Polackova, Renáta; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Papagaroufalis, Konstantinos; Saenz, Pilar; Ferrari, Fania; Lasagna, Giovanna; Carnielli, Virgilio P


    Caffeine citrate is the treatment of choice for apnea of prematurity (AOP). Regulatory agencies have requested real-world data on drug utilization and safety, a postauthorization safety study, of a pharmaceutical-grade caffeine citrate, Peyona, to confirm its benefit for preterm infants. To investigate the clinical use, outcomes, and safety profile of this pharmaceutical-grade caffeine citrate in the routine treatment of preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) preterm infants were enrolled from 21 institutions. The pharmaceutical-grade caffeine citrate doses were administered intravenously, orally, or via both routes. The main indication of use was AOP treatment (58%) followed by AOP prophylaxis (37%). Median treatment duration was 21 days. The primary cause of study termination was AOP resolution (n = 407; 80%). Hundred and six patients (21%) required supplemental oxygen on day 28; 48 patients (9.5%) had bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Twenty-three adverse drug reactions were observed in 21 neonates (4.2%); the most frequent was tachycardia (2.3%) and only one (seizures) was considered serious. Thirty-one patients (8.1%) had hepatic or renal functional impairment; the side effects were manageable, and these patients also benefitted from treatment. The use of this caffeine citrate is safe for the management of AOP in a real-world setting. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Leveraging Real-World Evidence in Disease-Management Decision-Making with a Total Cost of Care Estimator. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Nghia; Trocio, Jeffrey; Kowal, Stacey; Ferrufino, Cheryl P; Munakata, Julie; South, Dell


    Health management is becoming increasingly complex, given a range of care options and the need to balance costs and quality. The ability to measure and understand drivers of costs is critical for healthcare organizations to effectively manage their patient populations. Healthcare decision makers can leverage real-world evidence to explore the value of disease-management interventions in shifting total cost trends. To develop a real-world, evidence-based estimator that examines the impact of disease-management interventions on the total cost of care (TCoC) for a patient population with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Data were collected from a patient-level real-world evidence data set that uses the IMS PharMetrics Health Plan Claims Database. Pharmacy and medical claims for patients meeting the inclusion or exclusion criteria were combined in longitudinal cohorts with a 180-day preindex and 360-day follow-up period. Descriptive statistics, such as mean and median patient costs and event rates, were derived from a real-world evidence analysis and were used to populate the base-case estimates within the TCoC estimator, an exploratory economic model that was designed to estimate the potential impact of several disease-management activities on the TCoC for a patient population with NVAF. Using Microsoft Excel, the estimator is designed to compare current direct costs of medical care to projected costs by varying assumptions on the impact of disease-management activities and applying the associated changes in cost trends to the affected populations. Disease-management levers are derived from literature-based concepts affecting costs along the NVAF disease continuum. The use of the estimator supports analyses across 4 US geographic regions, age, cost types, and care settings during 1 year. All patients included in the study were continuously enrolled in their health plan (within the IMS PharMetrics Health Plan Claims Database) between July 1, 2010, and June 30

  11. Trends in black carbon and size-resolved particle number concentrations and vehicle emission factors under real-world conditions (United States)

    Krecl, Patricia; Johansson, Christer; Targino, Admir Créso; Ström, Johan; Burman, Lars


    Kerbside concentrations of NOx, black carbon (BC), total number of particles (diameter > 4 nm) and number size distribution (28-410 nm) were measured at a busy street canyon in Stockholm in 2006 and 2013. Over this period, there was an important change in the vehicle fleet due to a strong dieselisation process of light-duty vehicles and technological improvement of vehicle engines. This study assesses the impact of these changes on ambient concentrations and particle emission factors (EF). EF were calculated by using a novel approach which combines the NOx tracer method with positive matrix factorisation (PMF) applied to particle number size distributions. NOx concentrations remained rather constant between these two years, whereas a large decrease in particle concentrations was observed, being on average 60% for BC, 50% for total particle number, and 53% for particles in the range 28-100 nm. The PMF analysis yielded three factors that were identified as contributions from gasoline vehicles, diesel fleet, and urban background. This separation allowed the calculation of the average vehicle EF for each particle metric per fuel type. In general, gasoline EF were lower than diesel EF, and EF for 2013 were lower than the ones derived for 2006. The EFBC decreased 77% for both gasoline and diesel fleets, whereas the particle number EF reduction was higher for the gasoline (79%) than for the diesel (37%) fleet. Our EF are consistent with results from other on-road studies, which reinforces that the proposed methodology is suitable for EF determination and to assess the effectiveness of policies implemented to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions. However, our EF are much higher than EF simulated with traffic emission models (HBEFA and COPERT) that are based on dynamometer measurements, except for EFBC for diesel vehicles. This finding suggests that the EF from the two leading models in Europe should be revised for BC (gasoline vehicles) and particle number (all vehicles), since they are used to compile national inventories for the road transportation sector and also to assess their associated health effects. Using the calculated kerbside EF, we estimated that the traffic emissions were lower in 2013 compared to 2006 with a 61% reduction for BC (due to decreases in both gasoline and diesel emissions), and 34-45% for particle number (reduction only in gasoline emissions). Limitations of the application of these EF to other studies are also discussed.

  12. How prevention curricula are taught under real-world conditions: Types of and reasons for teacher curriculum adaptations. (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Hecht, Michael L; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John; Krieger, Janice

    As interventions are disseminated widely, issues of fidelity and adaptation become increasingly critical to understand. This study aims to describe the types of adaptations made by teachers delivering a school-based substance use prevention curriculum and their reasons for adapting program content. To determine the degree to which implementers adhere to a prevention curriculum, naturally adapt the curriculum, and the reasons implementers give for making adaptations, the study examined lesson adaptations made by the 31 teachers who implemented the keepin' it REAL drug prevention curriculum in 7th grade classrooms ( n = 25 schools). Data were collected from teacher self-reports after each lesson and observer coding of videotaped lessons. From the total sample, 276 lesson videos were randomly selected for observational analysis. Teachers self-reported adapting more than 68 percent of prevention lessons, while independent observers reported more than 97 percent of the observed lessons were adapted in some way. Types of adaptations included: altering the delivery of the lesson by revising the delivery timetable or delivery context; changing content of the lesson by removing, partially covering, revising, or adding content; and altering the designated format of the lesson (such as assigning small group activities to students as individual work). Reasons for adaptation included responding to constraints (time, institutional, personal, and technical), and responding to student needs (students' abilities to process curriculum content, to enhance student engagement with material). The study sample was limited to rural schools in the US mid-Atlantic; however, the results suggest that if programs are to be effectively implemented, program developers need a better understanding of the types of adaptations and reasons implementers provide for adapting curricula. These descriptive data suggest that prevention curricula be developed in shorter teaching modules, developers reconsider the usefulness of homework, and implementer training and ongoing support might benefit from more attention to different implementation styles. With nearly half of US public schools implementing some form of evidence-based substance use prevention program, issues of implementation fidelity and adaptation have become paramount in the field of prevention. The findings from this study reveal the complexity of the types of adaptations teachers make naturally in the classroom to evidence-based curricula and provide reasons for these adaptations. This information should prove useful for prevention researchers, program developers, and health educators alike.

  13. Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) During Real World Driving Under Various Weather Conditions (United States)


    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) and pollutant gas (NOx) is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Mobile source emissions contribute to PM and NOx emissions significantly in urban areas. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)...

  14. Under-utilization of pacemaker therapy for sinus node dysfunction – Real world data from South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narasimhan


    Conclusions: In a care pathway assessment for the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic SND in South Asia only 1 in 6 patients received pacemaker indicated therapy, largely due to patient refusal and physician decision. Phase II of the study will be aimed to improve this treatment rate.

  15. Fracture Risk Assessment in Chronic Kidney Disease, Prospective Testing Under Real World Environments (FRACTURE: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Sarah L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with an increased risk of fracture. Decreased bone mass and disruption of microarchitecture occur early in the course of CKD and worsens with the progressive decline in renal function so that at the time of initiation of dialysis at least 50% of patients have had a fracture. Despite the excess fracture risk, and the associated increases in morbidity and mortality, little is known about the factors that are associated with an increase in fracture risk. Our study aims to identify prognostic factors for bone loss and fractures in patients with stages 3 to 5 CKD. Methods This prospective study aims to enroll two hundred and sixty men and women with stages 3 to 5 CKD. Subjects will be followed for 24 months and we will examine the ability of: 1 bone mineral density by dual x-ray absorptiometry at the spine, hip, and radius; 2 volumetric bone density by high resolution peripheral quantitated computed tomography at the radius and tibia; 3 serum markers of bone turnover; 4 bone formation rate by bone biopsy; and 5 muscle strength and balance to predict spine and non-spine fractures, identified by self-report and/or vertebral morphometry. All measurements will be obtained at baseline, at 12 and at 24 months with the exception of bone biopsy, which will be measured once at 12 months. Subjects will be contacted every 4 months to determine if there have been incident fractures or falls. Discussion This study is one of the first that aims to identify risk factors for fracture in early stage CKD patients. Ultimately, by identifying risk factors for fracture and targeting treatments in this group-before the initiation of renal replacement therapy - we will reduce the burden of disease due to fractures among patients with CKD.

  16. Deft Control Software (DCS) for Remote Robotic Operations with Underlying Structure, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BluHaptics proposes Deft Control Software (DCS), which utilizes machine learning to enable intuitive and efficient control of robotic arms in remote operations with...

  17. Values and limitations of applied science in the real world [book review (United States)

    Christel C. Kern


    How can the applied scientist provide timely, useful results to the land manager whose job is to save and sustain our complex ecosystems under the scrutiny of the profession, public, and policymakers? Author Robert J. Cabin tells his story in Intelligent Tinkering: Bridging the Gap between Science and Practice.

  18. Preferential inspection of recent real-world events over future events: evidence from eye tracking during spoken sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia eKnoeferle


    Full Text Available Eye-tracking findings suggest people prefer to ground their spoken language comprehension by focusing on recently-seen events more than anticipating future events: When the verb in NP1-VERB-ADV-NP2 sentences was referentially ambiguous between a recently depicted and an equally plausible future clipart action, listeners fixated the target of the recent action more often at the verb than the object that hadn't yet been acted upon. We examined whether this inspection preference generalizes to real-world events, and whether it is (vs. isn't modulated by how often people see recent and future events acted out. In a first eye-tracking study, the experimenter performed an action (e.g., sugaring pancakes, and then a spoken sentence either referred to that action or to an equally plausible future action (e.g., sugaring strawberries. At the verb, people more often inspected the pancakes (the recent target than the strawberries (the future target, thus replicating the recent-event preference with these real-world actions. Adverb tense, indicating a future versus past event, had no effect on participants' visual attention. In a second study we increased the frequency of future actions such that participants saw 50/50 future and recent actions. During the verb people mostly inspected the recent action target, but subsequently they began to rely on tense, and anticipated the future target more often for future than past tense adverbs. A corpus study showed that the verbs and adverbs indicating past versus future actions were equally frequent, suggesting long-term frequency biases did not cause the recent-event preference. Thus, (a recent real-world actions can rapidly influence comprehension (as indexed by eye gaze to objects, and (b people prefer to first inspect a recent action target (vs. an object that will soon be acted upon, even when past and future actions occur with equal frequency. A simple frequency-of-experience account cannot accommodate these

  19. Tocilizumab in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a real-world clinical setting: results from 1 year of postmarketing surveillance follow-up of 417 patients in Japan. (United States)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Morio, Tomohiro; Origasa, Hideki; Sumitomo, Naokata; Tomobe, Minako; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Minota, Seiji


    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of tocilizumab (TCZ) in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) in real-world clinical settings in Japan. Paediatric patients with sJIA initiating TCZ between April 2008 and February 2012 and those previously enrolled in clinical trials who initiated TCZ before April 2008 were enrolled in a Japanese registry surveillance programme. Safety and effectiveness parameters were collected for 52 weeks. Of 417 patients enrolled, mean age was 11.2 years and 48.0% were female. TCZ exposure was 407.0 patient-years (PYs). Baseline corticosteroid use was higher than in clinical trials. Rates of total adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were 224.3/100 PYs and 54.5/100 PYs, respectively, with SAEs higher than previously reported. The most frequent AEs and SAEs were infections and infestations (69.8/100 PYs and 18.2/100 PYs, respectively). 74 serious infections occurred in 55 patients (18.2/100 PYs); higher than previously reported. 26 macrophage activation syndrome events were reported in 24 patients (6.4/100 PYs). Fever and rash symptoms improved from baseline to week 52 (54.6% to 5.6% and 43.0% to 5.6%, respectively). At 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 52 weeks, 90.5%, 96.2% and 99.0% of patients achieved normal C reactive protein levels (<0.3 mg/dL), respectively. These first real-world data demonstrated that TCZ was well tolerated, with acceptable safety and effectiveness in patients with sJIA. Higher incidences of SAEs and serious infections may be due to differences, such as corticosteroid use and concomitant diseases, between patient populations enrolled in previously reported clinical trials and this study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders. (United States)

    Lie, Anders


    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  1. Real-world NOx emissions of Euro V and Euro VI heavy duty vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, R.; Dekker, H.; Vonk, W.


    TNO regularly performs measurements to determine the in-service performance and durability with respect to the pollutant emissions of heavy-duty vehicles under representative driving conditions. The 2011 measurement programme yields new insights regarding the emission performance of the upcoming Euro VI technology for heavy-duty vehicles, mandatory as of 31 December 2013 and, together with the results from earlier performed programmes, leads to conclusions on the emission performance of past and present generations of heavy-duty vehicles (Euro V, EEV)

  2. Expanding the Reach of Physics-Engaging Students in Interdisciplinary Research Involving complex, real-world situation (United States)

    Bililign, Solomon


    Physics plays a very important role in most interdisciplinary efforts and can provide a solid foundation for students. Retention of students in STEM areas can be facilitated by enhanced interdisciplinary education and research since students are strongly attracted to research with societal relevance and show increasing enthusiasm about problems that have practical consequences. One such area of research is a collaborative Earth System Science. The Earth System is dynamic and complex. It is comprised of diverse components that interact. By providing students the opportunities to work in interdisciplinary groups on a problem that reflects a complex, real-world situation they can see the linkages between components of the Earth system that encompass climate and all its components (weather precipitation, temperature, etc.) and technology development and deployment of sensors and sensor networks and social impacts. By involving students in the creation of their own personalized professional development plan, students are more focused and engaged and are more likely to remain in the program.

  3. Desorption Flame-Induced Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Real-World Sample Analysis (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Chen, Shih-His; Shiea, Jentaie


    Flame-induced atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) is a solvent and high voltage-free APCI technique. It uses a flame to produce charged species that reacts with analytes for ionization, and generates intact molecular ions from organic compounds with minimal fragmentation. In this study, desorption FAPCI/MS was developed to rapidly characterize thermally stable organic compounds in liquid, cream, and solid states. Liquid samples were introduced into the ion source through a heated nebulizer, and the analytes formed in the heated nebulizer reacted with charged species in the source. For cream and solid sample analysis, the samples were positioned near the flame of the FAPCI source for thermal desorption and ionization. This approach provided a useful method to directly characterize samples with minimal pretreatment. Standards and real-world samples, such as drug tablets, ointment, and toy were analyzed to demonstrate the capability of desorption FAPCI/MS for rapid organic compound analysis. PMID:28573084

  4. Real-World Efficacy of Azelaic Acid 15% Gel for the Reduction of Inflammatory Lesions of Rosacea. (United States)

    Wirth, P J; Henderson Berg, M H; Sadick, N


    Approximately 16 million Americans have rosacea, an inflammatory cutaneous disorder with central facial erythema, papules, pustules, telangiectasia, flushing, and swelling being among the more commonly recognized features. Overexpression of cathelicidin peptide LL-37 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of rosacea. Azelaic acid has been found to inhibit the pathologic expression of cathelicidin, as well as the hyperactive protease activity that cleaves cathelicidin into LL-37. Given these findings, a small prospective, open-label, interventional trial was undertaken to assess the effects of azelaic acid 15% gel on inflammatory lesions of papulopustular rosacea in a real-world setting. Use of azelaic acid was associated with a significant reduction in inflammatory lesions, which persisted beyond the active treatment phase. Overall, azelaic acid 15% gel is an appropriate initial topical therapy for the treatment of moderate facial rosacea.

  5. 15-month-olds' transfer of learning between touch screen and real-world displays: language cues and cognitive loads. (United States)

    Zack, Elizabeth; Gerhardstein, Peter; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Barr, Rachel


    Infants have difficulty transferring information between 2D and 3D sources. The current study extends Zack, Barr, Gerhardstein, Dickerson & Meltzoff's (2009) touch screen imitation task to examine whether the addition of specific language cues significantly facilitates 15-month-olds' transfer of learning between touch screens and real-world 3D objects. The addition of two kinds of linguistic cues (object label plus verb or nonsense name) did not elevate action imitation significantly above levels observed when such language cues were not used. Language cues hindered infants' performance in the 3D→2D direction of transfer, but only for the object label plus verb condition. The lack of a facilitative effect of language is discussed in terms of competing cognitive loads imposed by conjointly transferring information across dimensions and processing linguistic cues in an action imitation task at this age. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. 15-Month-Olds’ Transfer of Learning between Touch Screen and Real-World Displays: Language Cues and Cognitive Loads (United States)

    Zack, Elizabeth; Gerhardstein, Peter; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Barr, Rachel


    Infants have difficulty transferring information between 2D and 3D sources. The current study extends Zack et al.’s (2009) touch screen imitation task to examine whether the addition of specific language cues significantly facilitates 15-month-olds’ transfer of learning between touch screens and real-world 3D objects. The addition of two kinds of linguistic cues (object label plus verb or nonsense name) did not elevate action imitation significantly above levels observed when such language cues were not used. Language cues hindered infants’ performance in the 3D→2D direction of transfer, but only for the object label plus verb condition. The lack of a facilitative effect of language is discussed in terms of competing cognitive loads imposed by conjointly transferring information across dimensions and processing linguistic cues in an action imitation task at this age. PMID:23121508

  7. Practicing attachment in the real world: improving maternal insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability at an outpatient community mental health clinic. (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Kaplan, Betty Ann; Venza, Jimmy


    The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of an attachment-based intervention program practiced at an outpatient clinic. Changes in parental insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability were assessed in 32 mother-child dyads from pre- to post-intervention. At both data collection points, mothers were interviewed with the Insightfulness Assessment and the mother-child dyad was observed in play sessions coded with the Emotional Availability Scales. Findings revealed a strong association between maternal insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability, both before and after treatment. In terms of intervention efficacy, positive gains were observed in both insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability from pre- to post-intervention. Mothers who changed their classifications from non-insightful to insightful following the intervention showed the greatest gains in emotional availability. These findings have important implications for the type of interventions and service delivery model that could work in real world clinical settings.

  8. Net clinical benefit of new oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) versus no treatment in a 'real world' atrial fibrillation population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, A; Lane, D A; Torp-Pedersen, C


    on patients with non-valvular AF between 1997-2008, for dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban on the basis of recent clinical trial outcome data for these new OACs. In patients with CHADS2=0 but at high bleeding risk, apixaban and dabigatran 110 mg bid had a positive net clinical benefit. At CHA2DS2-VASc=1...... in AF. Using 'real world' data, our modelling analysis has shown that when the risk of bleeding and stroke are both high, all three new drugs appear to have a greater net clinical benefit compared to warfarin....... risk of stroke and thromboembolism gain the greatest benefit from OAC with warfarin. There are no data for the new OACs, that is, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, as yet. We calculated the net clinical benefit balancing IS against ICH using data from the Danish National Patient Registry...

  9. Benchmarking Close-range Structure from Motion 3D Reconstruction Software under Varying Capturing Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Ivan Adriyanov; Madsen, Claus B.


    . In this paper we analyse the state of the art of these software applications, by comparing the resultant 3D meshes qualitatively and quantitatively. We propose a number of testing scenarios using different lighting conditions, camera positions and image acquisition methods for the best in-depth analysis......Structure from Motion 3D reconstruction has become widely used in recent years in a number of fields such as industrial surface in- inspection, archeology, cultural heritage preservation and geomapping. A number of software solutions have been released using variations of this technique...... and discuss the results, the overall performance and the problems present in each software. We employ distance and roughness metrics for evaluating the final reconstruction results....

  10. Real-world treatment practice in patients with advanced melanoma in the era before ipilimumab: results from the IMAGE study. (United States)

    Middleton, Mark R; Dalle, Stéphane; Claveau, Joel; Mut, Pilar; Hallmeyer, Sigrun; Plantin, Patrice; Highley, Martin; Kotapati, Srividya; Le, Trong Kim; Brokaw, Jane; Abernethy, Amy P


    The therapeutic landscape for advanced melanoma has recently been transformed by several novel agents (immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecular-targeted agents). The prospective, multi-site, observational study IMAGE (ipilimumab: management of advanced melanoma in real practice) included a retrospective cohort to describe real-world treatment prior to approval of the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. This retrospective cohort of patients, who started second-line/subsequent treatment (index therapy) for advanced melanoma within 3 years before ipilimumab approval, was selected randomly by chart review. Collected data included treatment history, patient outcomes, and healthcare resource utilization. All patients had ≥1 year of follow-up data. This analysis included 177 patients from Europe (69%) and North America (31%). The most common index therapies (used alone or in combination) were fotemustine (23%), dacarbazine (21%), temozolomide (14%), and platinum-based chemotherapy (14%). Most patients (89%) discontinued index treatment during the study period; the most common reason was disease progression (59%). Among patients with tumor assessment (153/177; 86%), 2% had complete response, 5% had partial response, and 12% had stable disease on last tumor assessment. At 1-year study follow-up, median progression-free survival was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-2.9) and median overall survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 6.5-9.7). During follow-up, 95% of the patients had healthcare visits for advanced melanoma, 74% of whom were hospitalized or admitted to a hospice facility. These results provide insights into patient care with advanced melanoma in the era before ipilimumab and may serve as a benchmark for new agents in future real-world studies. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Real World Home Blood Pressure Variability in Over 56,000 Individuals With Nearly 17 Million Measurements. (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Il; Nikzad, Nima; Quer, Giorgio; Wineinger, Nathan E; Vegreville, Matthieu; Normand, Alexis; Schmidt, Nicolas; Topol, Eric J; Steinhubl, Steven


    Using the data from 56,365 individuals, from 185 countries, and a Nokia Health Wireless blood pressure (BP) monitor, we investigated real-world characteristics of BP variability (BPV). All included individuals self-measured and uploaded their BP using Bluetooth at least 20 times over a period of ≥1 month at a frequency and duration of their choosing. In total, 16,904,844 BP measurements were analyzed, with a median of 146 measurements per person (interquartile range [IQR] 73-321) over a median of 14 months (IQR 7-31). SD, coefficient of variation, maximum BP, and maximum minus minimum BP difference were all calculated as measures of BPV. BPV showed a distinct pattern, influenced by season of year, day of week, and time of day. BPV index was higher in females compared with males (P < 0.001) and increased with age (P < 0.001). Compared to the weekend, the weekday BPV index was significantly higher, and this finding was more prominent in females (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, BPV index were significantly associated with age, gender, geographic location, and mean BP values. Using the largest BP data set we are aware of, with the benefits and limitations of real-world measurement, we could show the pattern of BPV and provide reference values that may be helpful in understanding the nature of BPV as self-measurement at home becomes more common, and help guide individualized management. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Reduction of burden of hemolyzed specimens in a large urban emergency department: A real-world, five years’ experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cervellin


    Full Text Available In vitro hemolysis may jeopardize patient care because tests results generated using unsuitable specimens may lead to inappropriate patient management. The prevalence of hemolyzed specimens is high in the emergency department (ED. We previously showed that collecting blood by means of a closed system entailing manual aspiration of blood instead of using conventional evacuated systems was effective to cut-down by nearly half the rate of hemolysis. Aim of this real world study was to verify whether longterm replacement of standard evacuated blood collection systems may be really effective to reduce the burden of spurious hemolysis. Starting from May 2014 in the ED of our Hospital vacuum tubes were replaced with S-Monovette serum tubes. We compared data about hemolyzed specimens entered in the two years before the implementation of the new device (i.e., 2012 and 2013 and the two years after introducing SMonovette in manual aspiration mode (i.e. 2015 and 2016. The year 2014 was not considered due to mixed data. The rate of hemolyzed specimens decreased from 4.36% to 3.07% with the use of S-Monovette in manual aspiration mode (Chi squared, 183.8; P<0.001. The likelihood of obtaining hemolyzed specimens was hence reduced by approximately 30% (relative risk, 0.707, with an expected economic saving of approximately 510€/year. The results of this real-world study demonstrate that the use of an alternative closed device encompassing manual aspiration for drawing blood from intravenous catheters may reduce hemolyzed samples by approximately 30%, so representing a valuable perspective for safeguarding patient safety and improving ED efficiency.

  13. Treatment outcome in a population-based, 'real-world' cohort of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. (United States)

    Geelen, Inge G P; Thielen, Noortje; Janssen, Jeroen J W M; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Roosma, Tanja J A; Willemsen, Sten P; Visser, Otto; Cornelissen, Jan J; Westerweel, Peter E


    Evaluations of the 'real-world' efficacy and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are scarce. A nationwide, population-based, chronic myeloid leukemia registry was analyzed to evaluate (deep) response rates to first and subsequent treatment lines and eligibility for a treatment cessation attempt in adults diagnosed between January 2008 and April 2013 in the Netherlands. The registry covered 457 patients; 434 in chronic phase (95%) and 15 (3%) in advanced disease phase. Seventy-five percent of the patients in chronic phase were treated with imatinib and 25% with a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor. At 3 years 44% of patients had discontinued their first-line treatment, mainly due to intolerance (21%) or treatment failure (19%). At 18 months 73% of patients had achieved a complete cytogenetic response and 63% a major molecular response. Deep molecular responses (MR 4.0 and MR 4.5 ) were achieved in 69% and 56% of patients, respectively, at 48 months. All response milestones were achieved faster in patients treated upfront with a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but ultimately patients initially treated with imatinib also reached similar levels of responses. The 6-year cumulative incidence of eligibility for a tyrosine kinase cessation attempt, according to EURO-SKI criteria, was 31%. Our findings show that in a 'real-world' setting the long-term outcome of patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is excellent and the conditions for an attempt to stop tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are met by a third of the patients. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  14. vigiRank for statistical signal detection in pharmacovigilance: First results from prospective real-world use. (United States)

    Caster, Ola; Sandberg, Lovisa; Bergvall, Tomas; Watson, Sarah; Norén, G Niklas


    vigiRank is a data-driven predictive model for emerging safety signals. In addition to disproportionate reporting patterns, it also accounts for the completeness, recency, and geographic spread of individual case reporting, as well as the availability of case narratives. Previous retrospective analysis suggested that vigiRank performed better than disproportionality analysis alone. The purpose of the present analysis was to evaluate its prospective performance. The evaluation of vigiRank was based on real-world signal detection in VigiBase. In May 2014, vigiRank scores were computed for pairs of new drugs and WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology critical terms with at most 30 reports from at least 2 countries. Initial manual assessments were performed in order of descending score, selecting a subset of drug-adverse drug reaction pairs for in-depth expert assessment. The primary performance metric was the proportion of initial assessments that were decided signals during in-depth assessment. As comparator, the historical performance for disproportionality- guided signal detection in VigiBase was computed from a corresponding cohort of drug-adverse drug reaction pairs assessed between 2009 and 2013. During this period, the requirement for initial manual assessment was a positive lower endpoint of the 95% credibility interval of the Information Component measure of disproportionality, observed for the first time. 194 initial assessments suggested by vigiRank's ordering eventually resulted in 6 (3.1%) signals. Disproportionality analysis yielded 19 signals from 1592 initial assessments (1.2%; P < .05). Combining multiple strength-of-evidence aspects as in vigiRank significantly outperformed disproportionality analysis alone in real-world pharmacovigilance signal detection, for VigiBase. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Young adult non-smokers' exposure to real-world tobacco marketing: results of an ecological momentary assessment pilot study. (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Niaura, Ray


    The aims of this pilot study were to assess and characterize non-current smoking young adults' exposure to tobacco marketing through an ecological momentary assessment protocol. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) consists of repeated measurement of momentary phenomena and is well-suited to capture sporadic experiences in the real-world, such as exposure to tobacco marketing. EMA has the potential to capture detailed information about real-world marketing exposures in ways that reduce recall bias and increase ecological validity. In this study, young adults (n = 31; ages 18-25) responded to random prompts regarding their momentary exposure to tobacco marketing via text messages on their smartphones for 14 days (n = 1798 observations). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression to assess the odds of exposure accounting for correlation of multiple repeated measures within individuals while controlling for variability between individuals. Respondents reported, on average, two momentary exposures to tobacco advertising in the 14-day study period. In adjusted analyses, African-American (aOR 3.36; 95% CI 1.07, 10.54) and Hispanic respondents (aOR 5.08; 95% CI 1.28, 20.13) were more likely to report exposure to tobacco advertising. Respondents were also more likely to report exposure when also exposed to others using tobacco products and when they were at stores compared with at home (aOR 14.82; 95% CI 3.61, 60.88). Non-smoking young adults report exposure to tobacco marketing particularly at the point-of-sale, with the highest likelihood of exposure among African-American and Hispanic young people. EMA protocols can be effective in assessing the potential impact of point-of-sale tobacco marketing on young adults.

  16. Effects of Real-World Versus Virtual Environments on Joint Excursions in Full-Body Reaching Tasks (United States)

    France, Christopher R.; Leitkam, Samuel T.; Applegate, Megan E.; Pidcoe, Peter E.; Walkowski, Stevan


    Starting from an upright standing posture and reaching for a target that requires some forward bending of the trunk can involve many different configurations of the trunk and limb segments. We sought to determine if configurations of the limb and trunk segments during our standardized full-body reaching tasks were influenced by the visual environment. This paper examined movement patterns of healthy participants (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$n=17$ \\end{document}, eight female and nine male) performing full body reaching tasks to: 1) real-world targets; 2) virtual targets presented on a 3-D television; and 3) virtual targets presented using a head-mounted display. For reaches performed in the virtual world, the avatar was presented from a third-person perspective for the 3-D television and from a first-person perspective for the head-mounted display. Reaches to virtual targets resulted in significantly greater excursions of the ankle, knee, hip, spine, and shoulder compared with reaches made to real-world targets. This resulted in significant differences in the forward and downward displacements of the whole-body center of mass between the visual environments. Visual environment clearly influences how subjects perform full-body reaching tasks to static targets. Because a primary goal of virtual reality within rehabilitation is often to restore movement following orthopedic or neurologic injury, it is important to understand how visual environment will affect motor behavior. The present findings suggest that the existing game systems that track and present avatars from a third-person perspective elicit significantly different motor behavior when compared with the same tasks being presented from a first-person perspective. PMID:27957404

  17. When drugs in the same controlled substance schedule differ in real-world abuse, should they be differentiated in labeling? (United States)

    Dasgupta, Nabarun; Henningfield, Jack E; Ertischek, Michelle D; Schnoll, Sidney H


    The prescription drugs regulated in the most restrictive controlled substance schedule for those with an approved therapeutic use vary widely in their real world risk of abuse and harm. Opioid analgesics have the highest rates of abuse, overdose death, drug abuse treatment needs and societal costs in comparison to other Schedule II drugs. Stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) account for substantially lower rates of abuse, harm, and public health impact. The scheduling of drugs is determined by the World Health Organization, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and other regulatory agencies, through a quasi-public process that relies heavily on pre-marketing studies that are conducted in highly controlled clinical settings. We propose that it is increasingly in the interest of science-based regulation and public health to recognize and communicate differences among drugs based on their real-world abuse and public health harm using surveillance data. Appropriate differentiation through labeling of drugs that will likely remain in the same schedule could provide powerful incentives for drug development and research, would aid prescriber/patient decision making by informing them of real differences across drugs within a schedule, and may also contribute to public health efforts to reduce drug abuse. There are risks of course, that include inadvertent perceptions that drugs labeled to be lower in risk are not taken as seriously as others in the same category. Challenges such as these, however, can be overcome and should not serve as barriers to objective communications regarding a drug's actual risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A real-world analysis of glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes treated with canagliflozin versus dapagliflozin. (United States)

    Blonde, Lawrence; Patel, Charmi; Bookhart, Brahim; Pfeifer, Michael; Chen, Yen-Wen; Wu, Bingcao


    This US retrospective cohort study compared the real-world effectiveness of canagliflozin 300 mg versus dapagliflozin 10 mg on HbA1c reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients initiated on canagliflozin 300 mg or dapagliflozin 10 mg were identified from de-identified claims data in the Optum Clinformatics database (1 January 2014-30 September 2016). Propensity score matching was used to create balanced cohorts. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with HbA1c 9.0% (HEDIS poor control), absolute change in HbA1c, and treatment patterns. At 6 months post-index (intent-to-treat population), a significantly higher proportion of patients in the canagliflozin 300 mg versus dapagliflozin 10 mg cohort achieved HbA1c 9.0%. Mean HbA1c reduction was -1.17% with canagliflozin 300 mg and -0.91% with dapagliflozin 10 mg (difference of -0.26%; p = .0049). HbA1c results from a sensitivity analysis in the on-treatment population were consistent with the primary analysis. Patients in the canagliflozin 300 mg versus dapagliflozin 10 mg cohort were less likely to discontinue treatment (OR [95% CI]: 0.75 [0.57, 0.99]; p = .0400) or switch medication (OR [95% CI]: 0.72 [0.54, 0.96]; p = .0229). In this real-world study, patients with T2DM initiated on canagliflozin 300 mg had better HbA1c goal attainment and larger HbA1c reduction than patients initiated on dapagliflozin 10 mg.

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Drug-Eluting Stents in the Real World: 8-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Oliveira Pellegrini


    Full Text Available Background: Drug-eluting stents have been used in daily practice since 2002, with the clear advantages of reducing the risk of target vessel revascularization and an impressive reduction in restenosis rate by 50%-70%. However, the occurrence of a late thrombosis can compromise long-term results, particularly if the risks of this event were sustained. In this context, a registry of clinical cases gains special value. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents in the real world. Methods: We report on the clinical findings and 8-year follow-up parameters of all patients that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with a drug-eluting stent from January 2002 to April 2007. Drug-eluting stents were used in accordance with the clinical and interventional cardiologist decision and availability of the stent. Results: A total of 611 patients were included, and clinical follow-up of up to 8 years was obtained for 96.2% of the patients. Total mortality was 8.7% and nonfatal infarctions occurred in 4.3% of the cases. Target vessel revascularization occurred in 12.4% of the cases, and target lesion revascularization occurred in 8% of the cases. The rate of stent thrombosis was 2.1%. There were no new episodes of stent thrombosis after the fifth year of follow-up. Comparative subanalysis showed no outcome differences between the different types of stents used, including Cypher®, Taxus®, and Endeavor®. Conclusion: These findings indicate that drug-eluting stents remain safe and effective at very long-term follow-up. Patients in the "real world" may benefit from drug-eluting stenting with excellent, long-term results.

  20. Efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents in the real world: 8-year follow-up. (United States)

    Pellegrini, Denise Oliveira; Gomes, Vitor Osório; Lasevitch, Ricardo; Smidt, Luis; Azeredo, Marco Aurélio; Ledur, Priscila; Bodanese, Rodrigo; Sinnott, Leonardo; Moriguchi, Emílio; Caramori, Paulo


    Drug-eluting stents have been used in daily practice since 2002, with the clear advantages of reducing the risk of target vessel revascularization and an impressive reduction in restenosis rate by 50%-70%. However, the occurrence of a late thrombosis can compromise long-term results, particularly if the risks of this event were sustained. In this context, a registry of clinical cases gains special value. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents in the real world. We report on the clinical findings and 8-year follow-up parameters of all patients that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with a drug-eluting stent from January 2002 to April 2007. Drug-eluting stents were used in accordance with the clinical and interventional cardiologist decision and availability of the stent. A total of 611 patients were included, and clinical follow-up of up to 8 years was obtained for 96.2% of the patients. Total mortality was 8.7% and nonfatal infarctions occurred in 4.3% of the cases. Target vessel revascularization occurred in 12.4% of the cases, and target lesion revascularization occurred in 8% of the cases. The rate of stent thrombosis was 2.1%. There were no new episodes of stent thrombosis after the fifth year of follow-up. Comparative subanalysis showed no outcome differences between the different types of stents used, including Cypher®, Taxus®, and Endeavor®. These findings indicate that drug-eluting stents remain safe and effective at very long-term follow-up. Patients in the "real world" may benefit from drug-eluting stenting with excellent, long-term results.

  1. Platelet function analyser (PFA-100) results and von Willebrand factor deficiency: a 16-year 'real-world' experience. (United States)

    Ardillon, L; Ternisien, C; Fouassier, M; Sigaud, M; Lefrançois, A; Pacault, M; Ribeyrol, O; Fressinaud, E; Boisseau, P; Trossaërt, M


    The platelet function analyser (PFA-100) is a biological tool designed to explore primary haemostasis. This system has thus been widely demonstrated as reliable in detecting von Willebrand factor (VWF) deficiency. However, most studies were based on patients benefitting from regular medical care and accurate diagnosis, and it would seem probable that the results were somewhat optimistic, and do not reflect its performances in 'real-world' situations. We have chosen to study the reliability of PFA-100 for screening VWF ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) deficiency. We retrospectively analysed the results (n = 6431) of 4027 patients referred to our centre between October 1997 and June 2013 and in whom PFA-Epi, PFA-ADP, and VWF:RCo activity had been evaluated. We studied the influence of blood group on the results and the performances of each method in a subgroup of 213 patients with genetically confirmed von Willebrand disease. We have shown that the PFA-100 system, in our experience, constitutes an excellent screening test for detecting VWF:RCo deficiency, whatever the clinical situation, in 'real-world' conditions. The negative predictive value (NPV), the positive predictive value, the sensitivity and the specificity were respectively: 0.98, 0.51, 0.98 and 0.40. When values adjusted for blood group are used, NPV and sensitivity are inferior to those using normal values which have not been adjusted for blood group. We have shown the PFA-100 method to be more efficient in screening for VWF deficiency than the VWF:RCo technique. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of Real-World Versus Virtual Environments on Joint Excursions in Full-Body Reaching Tasks. (United States)

    Thomas, James S; France, Christopher R; Leitkam, Samuel T; Applegate, Megan E; Pidcoe, Peter E; Walkowski, Stevan


    Starting from an upright standing posture and reaching for a target that requires some forward bending of the trunk can involve many different configurations of the trunk and limb segments. We sought to determine if configurations of the limb and trunk segments during our standardized full-body reaching tasks were influenced by the visual environment. This paper examined movement patterns of healthy participants ([Formula: see text], eight female and nine male) performing full body reaching tasks to: 1) real-world targets; 2) virtual targets presented on a 3-D television; and 3) virtual targets presented using a head-mounted display. For reaches performed in the virtual world, the avatar was presented from a third-person perspective for the 3-D television and from a first-person perspective for the head-mounted display. Reaches to virtual targets resulted in significantly greater excursions of the ankle, knee, hip, spine, and shoulder compared with reaches made to real-world targets. This resulted in significant differences in the forward and downward displacements of the whole-body center of mass between the visual environments. Visual environment clearly influences how subjects perform full-body reaching tasks to static targets. Because a primary goal of virtual reality within rehabilitation is often to restore movement following orthopedic or neurologic injury, it is important to understand how visual environment will affect motor behavior. The present findings suggest that the existing game systems that track and present avatars from a third-person perspective elicit significantly different motor behavior when compared with the same tasks being presented from a first-person perspective.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Drug-Eluting Stents in the Real World: 8-Year Follow-Up

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    Pellegrini, Denise Oliveira, E-mail:; Gomes, Vitor Osório; Lasevitch, Ricardo; Smidt, Luis; Azeredo, Marco Aurélio; Ledur, Priscila; Bodanese, Rodrigo; Sinnott, Leonardo; Moriguchi, Emílio; Caramori, Paulo [Hospital São Lucas PUC, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    Drug-eluting stents have been used in daily practice since 2002, with the clear advantages of reducing the risk of target vessel revascularization and an impressive reduction in restenosis rate by 50%-70%. However, the occurrence of a late thrombosis can compromise long-term results, particularly if the risks of this event were sustained. In this context, a registry of clinical cases gains special value. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents in the real world. We report on the clinical findings and 8-year follow-up parameters of all patients that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with a drug-eluting stent from January 2002 to April 2007. Drug-eluting stents were used in accordance with the clinical and interventional cardiologist decision and availability of the stent. A total of 611 patients were included, and clinical follow-up of up to 8 years was obtained for 96.2% of the patients. Total mortality was 8.7% and nonfatal infarctions occurred in 4.3% of the cases. Target vessel revascularization occurred in 12.4% of the cases, and target lesion revascularization occurred in 8% of the cases. The rate of stent thrombosis was 2.1%. There were no new episodes of stent thrombosis after the fifth year of follow-up. Comparative subanalysis showed no outcome differences between the different types of stents used, including Cypher®, Taxus®, and Endeavor®. These findings indicate that drug-eluting stents remain safe and effective at very long-term follow-up. Patients in the 'real world' may benefit from drug-eluting stenting with excellent, long-term results.

  4. Real world evidence: a form of big data, transforming healthcare data into actionable real time insights and informed business decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar Barick


    Full Text Available Data has always played an important role in assisting business decisions and overall improvement of a company’s strategies. The introduction of what has come to be named ‘BIG data’ has changed the industry paradigm altogether for a few domains like media, mobility, retail and social. Data from the real world is also considered as BIG data based on its magnitude, sources and the industry’s capacity to handle the same. Although, the healthcare industry has been using real world data for decades, digitization of health records has demonstrated its value to all the stakeholders with a reaffirmation of interest in it. Over time, companies are looking to adopt new technologies in linking these fragmented data for meaningful and actionable insights to demonstrate their value over competition. It has also been noticed that the consequences of not demonstrating the value of data are sometimes leads regulators and payers to be severe. The real challenge though is not in identifying data sets but transforming these data sets into actionable real time insights and business decisions. Evidence and value development frameworks need to work side by side, harnessing meaningful insights in parallel to product development from early phase to life-cycle management. This should in-turn create evidence and value-based insights for multiple stakeholders across the industry; ultimately supporting the patient as the end user to take informed decisions that impact access to care. This article attempts to review the current state of affairs in the area of BIG data in pharma OR BIG DIP as it is increasingly being referred to.

  5. How does age-related macular degeneration affect real-world visual ability and quality of life? A systematic review (United States)

    Taylor, Deanna J; Hobby, Angharad E; Binns, Alison M; Crabb, David P


    Objectives To review systematically the evidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affecting real-world visual ability and quality of life (QoL). To explore trends in specific topics within this body of the literature. Design Systematic review. Methods A systematic literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES and Health and Psychosocial Instruments for articles published up to January 2015 for studies including people diagnosed with AMD, assessing real-world visual ability or QoL as an outcome. Two researchers screened studies for eligibility. Details of eligible studies including study design, characteristics of study population and outcomes measured were recorded in a data extraction table. All included studies underwent quality appraisal using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool 2011 Version (MMAT). Results From 5284 studies, 123 were eligible for inclusion. A range of approaches were identified, including performance-based methods, quantitative and qualitative patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). AMD negatively affects tasks including mobility, face recognition, perception of scenes, computer use, meal preparation, shopping, cleaning, watching TV, reading, driving and, in some cases, self-care. There is evidence for higher rates of depression among people with AMD than among community dwelling elderly. A number of adaptation strategies have been associated with AMD of varying duration. Much of the research fails to report the type of AMD studied (59% of included studies) or the duration of disease in participants (74%). Of those that do report type studied, the breakdown is as follows: wet AMD 20%, dry AMD 4% and both types 17%. Conclusions There are many publications highlighting the negative effects of AMD in various domains of life. Future research should focus on delivering some of this research knowledge into patient management and clinical trials and differentiating between the types of AMD. PMID

  6. Impact of Duration of Neoadjuvant Radiation on Rectal Cancer Survival: A Real World Multi-center Retrospective Cohort Study. (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar; Kumar, Aalok; Kennecke, Hagen F; Speers, Caroline H; Cheung, Winson Y


    The utility of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (nRT) for the treatment of stage II and III rectal cancer is well-established. However, the optimal duration of nRT in this setting remains controversial. Using a population-based cohort of patients with stage II and III rectal cancer (RC) treated with curative intent, our aims were to (1) examine the patterns of nRT use and (2) explore the relationship between different nRT schedules and survival in the real-world setting. This is a multi-center retrospective cohort study based on population-based data from 5 regional comprehensive cancer centers in British Columbia, Canada. We analyzed patients diagnosed with clinical stage II or III RC from 2006 to 2010 and treated with either short-course (SC) or long-course (LC) nRT prior to curative intent surgery. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine the factors associated with the course of nRT delivered to patients. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression that accounted for known prognostic factors were used to evaluate the relationship between nRT schedule and overall (OS), disease-free (DFS), local recurrence-free (LRFS), and distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS). We identified 427 patients: the median age was 65 years (range, 31 to 94 years), 67% were men, 87% had T3 or T4 tumors, and 74% had N1 or N2 disease. Among them, 241 (56%) received SC and 186 (44%) received LC. Adjusting for confounders, patients with N1 or N2 disease were more likely to undergo LC (odds ratio [OR], 5.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51-11.22; P  .05). Appropriate preoperative selection of SC versus LC nRT for locally advanced RC based on patient and tumor characteristics was not associated with differences in survival outcomes in the real-world setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Clinical application features of Fufang Kushen injection in treating malignant esophageal tumor: real world study based on hospital information system]. (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Fei; Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Cen; Zhuang, Yan


    To analyze the clinical application features of Fufang Kushen injection in treating malignant esophageal tumors in the real world by using hospital information system database, and provide reference for clinical application of Fufang Kushen injection. The electronic medical data from 2 550 patients with malignant esophageal tumors using Fufang Kushen injection from 22 large-scale hospitals nationwide were extracted based on the hospital information system (HIS) established by Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Then the descriptive analysis based on frequency and rate was conducted for general characteristics, diagnostic characteristics, characteristics of dosage and medication information, characteristics of drug combination, and discharge outcome characteristics. The results showed that the average age of patients treated with Fufang Kushen injection for malignant esophageal tumors was 62.3 years old; more males than females; admitted to hospital mainly in department of cardiology, oncology and digestology first. The total efficiency was 47.15% based on the discharge outcome characteristics; the most common dosage was 10-20 mL for single use; the course of treatment was mainly 4-7 d; and the common drugs in drug combinations included dexamethasone, tropisetron injection, thymosin injection, compound amino acid injection, pantoprazole sodium injection, fluorouracil, et al. The characteristics of the crowd using Fufang Kushen injection to treat the malignant esophageal tumors were clear and in line with the general rule of malignant esophageal tumors; its clinical dosage and scope of treatment for malignant esophageal tumors in the real world were basically consistent with the specification; and the types of clinical drug use combinations were more extensive. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Prevalence of Echocardiography Use in Patients Hospitalized with Confirmed Acute Pulmonary Embolism: A Real-World Observational Multicenter Study. (United States)

    Bing, Rong; Chow, Vincent; Lau, Jerrett K; Thomas, Liza; Kritharides, Leonard; Ng, Austin Chin Chwan


    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) carries an increased risk of death. Using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to assist diagnosis and risk stratification is recommended in current guidelines. However, its utilization in real-world clinical practice is unknown. We conducted a retrospective observational study to delineate the prevalence of inpatient TTE use following confirmed acute PE, identify predictors for its use and its impact on patient's outcome. Clinical details of consecutive patients (2000 to 2012) from two tertiary-referral hospitals were retrieved from dedicated PE databases. All-cause and cause-specific mortality was tracked from a state-wide death registry. In total, 2306 patients were admitted with confirmed PE, of whom 687 (29.8%) had inpatient TTE (39.3% vs 14.4% between sites, PTTE use, while malignancy was a negative predictor. Overall mortality was 41.4% (mean follow-up 66.5±49.5months). Though inpatient TTE use was not an independent predictor for all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in multivariable analysis, in the inpatient TTE subgroup, right ventricle-right atrial pressure gradient (hazard ratio [HR] 1.02 per-1mmHg increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.03) and moderate/severe aortic stenosis (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.20-4.27) independently predicted all-cause mortality. Inpatient TTE is used infrequently in real-world clinical settings following acute PE despite its usefulness in risk stratification, prognostication and assessing comorbid cardiac pathologies. Identifying patients that will benefit most from a TTE assessment following an acute PE episode and reducing barriers in accessing TTE should be explored.

  9. Nicotine levels, withdrawal symptoms, and smoking reduction success in real world use: A comparison of cigarette smokers and dual users of both cigarettes and E-cigarettes. (United States)

    Jorenby, Douglas E; Smith, Stevens S; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B


    To evaluate how experienced dual users used cigarettes and e-cigarettes in real-world use and under different levels of cigarette availability. Dual users (cigarettes+e-cigarettes; n=74) and a smoke-only group (just cigarettes; n=74) engaged in a 26-day study with two ad lib use intervals, a week of 75% cigarette reduction and three days of 100% cigarette reduction. After a week of ad lib use of products, all participants were asked to reduce smoking by 75% (dual users were free to use their e-cigarettes as they wished), followed by another week of ad lib use. All participants were then asked to reduce smoking by 100% (cessation) for three days. Primary outcomes were biological samples (carbon monoxide, urinary nicotine and cotinine). Participants also provided real-time reports of product use, craving, and withdrawal symptoms using a smartphone app. Dual users did not smoke fewer cigarettes than smoke-only participants during ad lib periods, but quadrupled their use of e-cigarettes during smoking reduction periods. Dual users were significantly more likely to maintain 100% reduction (97.1% vs. 81.2%). Amongst women, dual use was associated with higher nicotine levels and withdrawal suppression. Among a group of experienced dual users, e-cigarettes helped maintain smoking reduction and reduced some withdrawal symptoms, although both withdrawal symptoms and nicotine levels varied as a function of gender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a DPF and SCR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine. (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Carder, Daniel K; Oshinuga, Adewale; Gautam, Mridul


    The experiments aimed at investigating the effect of real-world engine load conditions on nanoparticle emissions from a Diesel Particulate Filter and Selective Catalytic Reduction after-treatment system (DPF-SCR) equipped heavy-duty diesel engine. The results showed the emission of nucleation mode particles in the size range of 6-15 nm at conditions with high exhaust temperatures. A direct result of higher exhaust temperatures (over 380 °C) contributing to higher concentration of nucleation mode nanoparticles is presented in this study. The action of an SCR catalyst with urea injection was found to increase the particle number count by over an order of magnitude in comparison to DPF out particle concentrations. Engine operations resulting in exhaust temperatures below 380 °C did not contribute to significant nucleation mode nanoparticle concentrations. The study further suggests the fact that SCR-equipped engines operating within the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) zone over a critical exhaust temperature and under favorable ambient dilution conditions could contribute to high nanoparticle concentrations to the environment. Also, some of the high temperature modes resulted in DPF out accumulation mode (between 50 and 200 nm) particle concentrations an order of magnitude greater than typical background PM concentrations. This leads to the conclusion that sustained NTE operation could trigger high temperature passive regeneration which in turn would result in lower filtration efficiencies of the DPF that further contributes to the increased solid fraction of the PM number count.

  11. Performance Comparison of A New Non-RSSI Based Wireless Transmission Power Control Protocol with RSSI Based Methods: Experimentation with Real World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debraj Basu


    Full Text Available In this paper, simulations with MATLAB are used to compare the performance of a RSSI-based output power control with non-RSSI based adaptive power in terms of saving energy and extending the lifetime of battery powered wireless sensor nodes. This non-RSSI (received signal strength indicator based adaptive power control algorithm does not use RSSI side information to estimate the link quality. The non-RSSI based approach has a unique methodology to choose the appropriate power level. It has drop-off algorithm that enables it to come back from a higher to a lower power level when deemed necessary. The performance parameters are compared with the RSSI-based adaptive power control algorithm and fixed power transmission. In order to evaluate the protocols in the real world scenarios, RSSI data from different indoor radio environments are collected. In simulation, these RSSI values are used as an input to the RSSI based power control algorithm to calculate the packet success rates and the energy expenditures. In this paper we present extensive analysis of the simulation results to find out the advantages and limitations of the non-RSSI based adaptive power control algorithm under different channel conditions.

  12. Gait Event Detection in Real-World Environment for Long-Term Applications: Incorporating Domain Knowledge Into Time-Frequency Analysis. (United States)

    Khandelwal, Siddhartha; Wickstrom, Nicholas


    Detecting gait events is the key to many gait analysis applications that would benefit from continuous monitoring or long-term analysis. Most gait event detection algorithms using wearable sensors that offer a potential for use in daily living have been developed from data collected in controlled indoor experiments. However, for real-word applications, it is essential that the analysis is carried out in humans' natural environment; that involves different gait speeds, changing walking terrains, varying surface inclinations and regular turns among other factors. Existing domain knowledge in the form of principles or underlying fundamental gait relationships can be utilized to drive and support the data analysis in order to develop robust algorithms that can tackle real-world challenges in gait analysis. This paper presents a novel approach that exhibits how domain knowledge about human gait can be incorporated into time-frequency analysis to detect gait events from long-term accelerometer signals. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithm are validated by experiments done in indoor and outdoor environments with approximately 93 600 gait events in total. The proposed algorithm exhibits consistently high performance scores across all datasets in both, indoor and outdoor environments.

  13. Characteristics of Real-World Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab During the Year Following Approval. (United States)

    Khozin, Sean; Abernethy, Amy P; Nussbaum, Nathan C; Zhi, Jizu; Curtis, Melissa D; Tucker, Melisa; Lee, Shannon E; Light, David E; Gossai, Anala; Sorg, Rachael A; Torres, Aracelis Z; Patel, Payal; Blumenthal, Gideon Michael; Pazdur, Richard


    Evidence from cancer clinical trials can be difficult to generalize to real-world patient populations, but can be complemented by real-world evidence to optimize personalization of care. Further, real-world usage patterns of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors following approval can inform future studies of subpopulations underrepresented in clinical trials. We performed a multicenter analysis using electronic health record data collected during routine care of patients treated in community cancer care clinics in the Flatiron Health network. Real-world metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who received nivolumab or pembrolizumab in the metastatic setting ( n  = 1,344) were selected from a starting random sample of 55,969 NSCLC patients with two or more documented visits from January 1, 2011, through March 31, 2016. The primary study outcome measurement was demographic and treatment characteristics of the cohort. Median age at PD-1 inhibitor initiation was 69 years (interquartile range 61-75). Patients were 56% male, 88% smokers, 65% nonsquamous histology, and 64% diagnosed at stage IV. Of 1,344 patients, 112 (8%) were tested for programmed death-ligand 1 expression. Overall, 50% received nivolumab or pembrolizumab in the second line, with a substantial proportion of third and later line use that began to decline in Q4 2015. During the year following U.S. regulatory approval of PD-1 inhibitors for treatment of NSCLC, real-world patients receiving nivolumab or pembrolizumab were older at treatment initiation and more had smoking history relative to clinical trial cohorts. Studies of outcomes in underrepresented subgroups are needed to inform real-world treatment decisions. Evidence gathered in conventional clinical trials used to assess safety and efficacy of new therapies is not necessarily generalizable to real-world patients receiving these drugs following regulatory approval. Real-world evidence derived from electronic health

  14. Patterns of information-seeking for cancer on the internet: an analysis of real world data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishai Ofran

    Full Text Available Although traditionally the primary information sources for cancer patients have been the treating medical team, patients and their relatives increasingly turn to the Internet, though this source may be misleading and confusing. We assess Internet searching patterns to understand the information needs of cancer patients and their acquaintances, as well as to discern their underlying psychological states. We screened 232,681 anonymous users who initiated cancer-specific queries on the Yahoo Web search engine over three months, and selected for study users with high levels of interest in this topic. Searches were partitioned by expected survival for the disease being searched. We compared the search patterns of anonymous users and their contacts. Users seeking information on aggressive malignancies exhibited shorter search periods, focusing on disease- and treatment-related information. Users seeking knowledge regarding more indolent tumors searched for longer periods, alternated between different subjects, and demonstrated a high interest in topics such as support groups. Acquaintances searched for longer periods than the proband user when seeking information on aggressive (compared to indolent cancers. Information needs can be modeled as transitioning between five discrete states, each with a unique signature representing the type of information of interest to the user. Thus, early phases of information-seeking for cancer follow a specific dynamic pattern. Areas of interest are disease dependent and vary between probands and their contacts. These patterns can be used by physicians and medical Web site authors to tailor information to the needs of patients and family members.

  15. Patterns of information-seeking for cancer on the internet: an analysis of real world data. (United States)

    Ofran, Yishai; Paltiel, Ora; Pelleg, Dan; Rowe, Jacob M; Yom-Tov, Elad


    Although traditionally the primary information sources for cancer patients have been the treating medical team, patients and their relatives increasingly turn to the Internet, though this source may be misleading and confusing. We assess Internet searching patterns to understand the information needs of cancer patients and their acquaintances, as well as to discern their underlying psychological states. We screened 232,681 anonymous users who initiated cancer-specific queries on the Yahoo Web search engine over three months, and selected for study users with high levels of interest in this topic. Searches were partitioned by expected survival for the disease being searched. We compared the search patterns of anonymous users and their contacts. Users seeking information on aggressive malignancies exhibited shorter search periods, focusing on disease- and treatment-related information. Users seeking knowledge regarding more indolent tumors searched for longer periods, alternated between different subjects, and demonstrated a high interest in topics such as support groups. Acquaintances searched for longer periods than the proband user when seeking information on aggressive (compared to indolent) cancers. Information needs can be modeled as transitioning between five discrete states, each with a unique signature representing the type of information of interest to the user. Thus, early phases of information-seeking for cancer follow a specific dynamic pattern. Areas of interest are disease dependent and vary between probands and their contacts. These patterns can be used by physicians and medical Web site authors to tailor information to the needs of patients and family members.

  16. Thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke in the elderly: a 'real world' experience. (United States)

    Alawieh, Ali; Chatterjee, Arindam; Feng, Wuwei; Porto, Guilherme; Vargas, Jan; Kellogg, Ryan; Turk, Aquilla S; Turner, Raymond D; Imran Chaudry, M; Spiotta, Alejandro M


    Completed randomized trials on endovascular thrombectomy (ET) did not independently assess the efficacy of ET in the elderly (≥80 years old) who were often excluded or under-represented in trials. There were also inconsistent criteria for patient selection in this population across the different trials. This work evaluates outcomes after ET for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the elderly at a high volume stroke center. We reviewed all cases of AIS that underwent a direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT) thrombectomy for large vessel occlusions between March 2013 and October 2017 while comparing outcomes in the elderly with younger counterparts. We also reviewed AIS cases in elderly patients undergoing medical management who were matched to the ET counterparts by demographics, comorbidities, baseline deficits, and stroke severity. Of 560 patients undergoing ET for AIS, 108 patients were in the elderly group (≥80 years of age), and had a significantly lower likelihood of functional independence (defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2) at 90 days compared with younger patients (20.5% vs 44.4%, P0.05), and had significantly higher rates of hemorrhage (40.7% vs 9.3%, P<0.001). We also identified baseline stroke severity and the incidence of hemorrhage as two independent predictors of outcome in the elderly patients. ET in the elderly did not show a similar benefit to younger patients when compared with medical management. These findings emphasize the need for more optimal selection criteria for the elderly population to improve the risk to benefit ratio of ET. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Aspergillosis in the CLEAR outcomes trial: working toward a real-world clinical perspective. (United States)

    Kleinberg, M


    Aspergillosis is a potentially lethal infection of immunocompromised patients. Until 10 years ago, antifungal therapy was largely limited to amphotericin B deoxycholate. Perceived poor response rates and inherent toxicities with amphotericin B deoxycholate were a major stimulus for the development of newer antifungals, including lipid-formulated amphotericin B, broad spectrum azoles, and echinocandins. Response rates to antifungals are highly dependent on the underlying diagnosis and degree of immune suppression of the patient. Patients at highest risk of death from aspergillosis also have very high mortality rates from other causes as well. Outcomes reported in historical literature reviews fail to distinguish between overall mortality and death attributable to aspergillosis. While this distinction can often be difficult to assess clinically, the net effect is to underestimate the therapeutic success rates of antifungals. The CLEAR (Collaborative Exchange of Antifungal Research) project started as a post approval survey to monitor clinical use of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC). The scope of the CLEAR project included collection of clinical data to assess outcomes in patients with invasive fungal infections treated with ABLC. Clinical data from more than 3500 patients were entered into the CLEAR database. Outcomes were assessed for 509 patients with documented aspergillosis and complete data records. Overall response rate was 63% (cured/improved/stable) with site-specific response rates of 61%, 59%, and 32% for lung, sinus, and central nervous system infections, respectively. Solid organ transplant recipients had higher response rates than patients with hematological malignancies. Bone marrow transplant recipients had the lowest response rates. Clinical response rates with ABLC reported in the CLEAR trial are higher than response rates reported for amphotericin B deoxycholate in other trials. Since it is unlikely we will see any new comparative Phase III

  18. Real-world outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C: primary results of the PROBE study. (United States)

    Craxì, Antonio; Piccinino, Felice; Ciancio, Alessia; Iannacone, Claudio; Deodato, Barbara; Golotta, Caterina; Ascione, Antonio


    This large prospective multicentre cohort study aimed to improve knowledge of therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in real clinical practice. A diverse population of adults with CHC including patients with comorbid conditions, laboratory abnormalities and demographic features [comorbidities or special populations (CSP)] who were under-represented or excluded from peginterferon registration studies was treated with peginterferon α-2a (40 kDa) or α-2b (12 kDa) plus ribavirin at the investigator's discretion. During the study, 5399 treatment-naive patients [2527 (46.8%) with CSP] received peginterferon α-2a (n=3513, 65.1%) or peginterferon α-2b (n=1886, 34.9%). The sustained virological response rate was 56.6% (3057/5399) overall, 59.7% (1716/2872) in patients without CSP and 53.1% (1341/2527) in patients with CSP. Significant predictors of sustained virological response included hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3 infection, absence of cirrhosis, hepatitis C virus RNA≤500 000 IU/ml, alanine transaminase quotient >3× the upper limit of normal, age ≤65 years, BMI<25 kg/m, at least 80% of the planned exposure to peginterferon and ribavirin and prescription of peginterferon α-2a. The results provide detailed information on the outcome of therapy for CHC in a diverse Italian population that included a large number of patients with CSP and provides an insight into the generalizability of the results obtained in the more restricted setting of randomized registration trials.

  19. Utility of basophil activation testing to assess perioperative anaphylactic reactions in real-world practice. (United States)

    Eberlein, Bernadette; Wigand, Sibylle; Lewald, Heidrun; Kochs, Eberhard; Ring, Johannes; Biedermann, Tilo; Darsow, Ulf


    Perioperative anaphylactic reactions due to drugs and substances associated with general anesthesia can potentially be life-threatening. The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of the basophil activation test (BAT) for allergy diagnosis work up. A total of 14 patients (5 men, 9 women; mean age: 57.8 years) with clinical records of anaphylactic reactions under general anesthesia were studied by means of anesthesia records, skin and serological tests. Eleven healthy subjects without any history of allergic sensitization to anaesthetic drugs served as controls. BATs based on stimulation of whole blood cells measuring CD63 activation of basophils and using CCR3 as basophil marker by flow cytometry (Flow CAST®, BÜHLMANN Laboratories AG, Schönenbuch, Switzerland) were performed with the following substances (in dependence on the history and the skin tests of the patient): analgesics (acetylsalicylic acid, celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, indometacin, metamizole, paracetamol, propyphenazone, tramadol), antibiotics (PPL (benzylpenicilloyl polylysine), MDM (minor determinant mixture), amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, roxithromycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim), local anesthetics (articaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, prilocaine, procaine, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate), narcotics and NMBA (atracurium, cisatracurium, etomidate, neostigmine, midazolam, mivacurium, pancuronium, propofol, pyridostigmine, succinylcholine, sufentanil, thiopental, vecuronium), and other individual substances. Three patients showed positive results in the BAT: One to metamizole, one to PPL, and one to pancuronium. BATs with these substances were negative in controls. The BAT should be used complementary to skin tests, especially if IgE-mediated mechanisms are presumed and skin tests are inconclusive. A positive reaction in BAT identifies the culprit agent with high probability. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published

  20. The complexity of the real world in the context of the field tradition in geomorphology (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen


    , the nonlinear behavior of rivers with numerous interdependent variables, multiple internal and external thresholds, and complex responses would be difficult to conceptualize and quantify in the absence of extensive field data. One of the management implications of complex, nonlinear behavior is that a one-size-fits-all approach to managing rivers is inadequate. Field research, initially focused on understanding specific examples of river process and form, revealed underlying patterns that give rise to conceptual models broadly applicable within fluvial geomorphology.

  1. Ecological carbon sequestration via wood harvest and storage: Practical constraints and real-world possibilities (United States)

    Zeng, N.; King, A. W.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Wullschleger, S. D.


    A carbon sequestration strategy was recently proposed in which a forest is sustainably managed, and a fraction of the wood is selectively harvested and stored to prevent decomposition under anaerobic, dry or cold conditions. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, partially cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. The live trees serve as a 'carbon scrubber' or 'carbon remover' that provides continuous sequestration. The stored wood is a semi-permanent carbon sink, but also serves as a 'biomass/bioenergy reserve' that could be utilized in the future if deemed more beneficial, for instance, by contributing to supply infrastructure for biomass power generation. Based on global forest coarse wood production rate, land availability, conservation, other wood use, and other practical constraints, we estimate a carbon sequestration potential for wood harvest and storage (WHS) 1-3 GtC y-1. The implementation of such a scheme at our estimated lower value of 1 GtC y-1 would imply a doubling of the current world wood harvest rate. This can be achieved by harvesting wood at a modest harvesting intensity of 1.2 tC ha-1 y-1, over a forest area of 8 Mkm2 (800 Mha). To achieve the higher value of 3 GtC y-1, forests need to be managed this way on half of the world's forested land, or on a smaller area but with higher harvest intensity. However, any successful implementation strategy will need to balance the needs of the local community and environment. It nonethelss provides a novel new addition to a portfolio of existing forest management strategies. We propose 'carbon sequestration and biomass farms' with mixed land use for carbon, energy, agriculture, as well as conservation, provided that governance issues are properly dealt with. In another example, the forests damaged by insects, fire, storms such as in the America West could be thinned to reduce fire danger and harvested for

  2. ESSD: Real World Issues and Challenges of High-Quality Data Publication (United States)

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans; Carlson, David


    such, represent 'new' and urgent challenges for data publication and data journals; we will describe real examples that drive each question. We urge an open and prompt discussion, perhaps under the auspices of a Research Data Alliance case study, among interested data centres, data managers, DataCite, and data and other journals. The expansion, and quality, of published data requires the effective resolution of these issues and the continued skilful, responsible and efficient use of DOIs or other identifiers.

  3. Using UML Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses (United States)

    Mitra, Sandeep


    This article presents the use of a model-centric approach to facilitate software development projects conforming to the three-tier architecture in undergraduate software engineering courses. Many instructors intend that such projects create software applications for use by real-world customers. While it is important that the first version of these…

  4. Monitoring single-cell gene regulation under dynamically controllable conditions with integrated microfluidics and software. (United States)

    Kaiser, Matthias; Jug, Florian; Julou, Thomas; Deshpande, Siddharth; Pfohl, Thomas; Silander, Olin K; Myers, Gene; van Nimwegen, Erik


    Much is still not understood about how gene regulatory interactions control cell fate decisions in single cells, in part due to the difficulty of directly observing gene regulatory processes in vivo. We introduce here a novel integrated setup consisting of a microfluidic chip and accompanying analysis software that enable long-term quantitative tracking of growth and gene expression in single cells. The dual-input Mother Machine (DIMM) chip enables controlled and continuous variation of external conditions, allowing direct observation of gene regulatory responses to changing conditions in single cells. The Mother Machine Analyzer (MoMA) software achieves unprecedented accuracy in segmenting and tracking cells, and streamlines high-throughput curation with a novel leveraged editing procedure. We demonstrate the power of the method by uncovering several novel features of an iconic gene regulatory program: the induction of Escherichia coli's lac operon in response to a switch from glucose to lactose.

  5. You do not talk about Fight Club if you do not notice Fight Club: Inattentional blindness for a simulated real-world assault. (United States)

    Chabris, Christopher F; Weinberger, Adam; Fontaine, Matthew; Simons, Daniel J


    Inattentional blindness-the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else-has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.

  6. You Do Not Talk about Fight Club if You Do Not Notice Fight Club: Inattentional Blindness for a Simulated Real-World Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Chabris


    Full Text Available Inattentional blindness—the failure to see visible and otherwise salient events when one is paying attention to something else—has been proposed as an explanation for various real-world events. In one such event, a Boston police officer chasing a suspect ran past a brutal assault and was prosecuted for perjury when he claimed not to have seen it. However, there have been no experimental studies of inattentional blindness in real-world conditions. We simulated the Boston incident by having subjects run after a confederate along a route near which three other confederates staged a fight. At night only 35% of subjects noticed the fight; during the day 56% noticed. We manipulated the attentional load on the subjects and found that increasing the load significantly decreased noticing. These results provide evidence that inattentional blindness can occur during real-world situations, including the Boston case.

  7. [Association rules analysis of Fufang Kushen injection in combination with traditional Chinese medicine or modern medications in treating malignant tumor: real-world retrospective study]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Chen, Cen; Zhang, Chang; Zhuang, Yan


    Fufang Kushen injection is used in real world clinical situations to treat different types of malignant tumors. The present study aimed to analyze the association rules of Fufang Kushen injection in combination with other traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) or modern medications in treating malignant tumors based on the electrical medical records extracted from real-world hospital information system. This real world retrospective analysis was based on the clinicians' prescriptions regarding to such treatment by combined TCM and modern medications. Hospital information system data from 22 hospitals, including electrical medical records of 44 588 patients with malignant tumors and Fufang Kushen injection were included in this study, providing useful reference for the development of clinical treatment ideas, and providing reference for clinical rational use of Fufang Kushen injection. High correlation and causal relations were not present in this study, so further exploration and analysis were still needed for the conclusion. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Selection of bioprocess simulation software for industrial applications. (United States)

    Shanklin, T; Roper, K; Yegneswaran, P K; Marten, M R


    Two commercially available, process-simulation software packages (Aspen Batch Plus v1.2, Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Intelligen SuperPro v3.0, INTELLIGEN, INC., Scotch Plains, Ner Jersey) are evaluated for use in modeling industrial, biotechnology processes. Software is quantitatively evaluated by Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis (Kepner and Tregoe, 1981). This evaluation shows that Aspen Batch Plus v1.2 (ABP) and Intelligen SuperPro v3.0 (ISP) can successfully perform specific simulation tasks but do not provide a complete model of all phenomena occurring within a biotechnology process. Software is best suited to provide a format for process management, using material and energy balances to answer scheduling questions, explore equipment change-outs, and calculate cost data. The ability of simulation software to accurately predict unit operation scale-up and optimize bioprocesses is limited. To realistically evaluate the software, a vaccine manufacturing process under development at Merck & Company is simulated. Case studies from the vaccine process are presented as examples of how ABP and ISP can be used to shed light on real-world processing issues. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. GMDR: Versatile Software for Detecting Gene-Gene and Gene-Environ- ment Interactions Underlying Complex Traits (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Ming; Xu, Li-Feng; Hou, Ting-Ting; Luo, Lin-Feng; Chen, Guo-Bo; Sun, Xi-Wei; Lou, Xiang-Yang


    Identification of multifactor gene-gene (G×G) and gene-environment (G×E) interactions underlying complex traits poses one of the great challenges to today’s genetic study. Development of the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) method provides a practicable solution to problems in detection of interactions. To exploit the opportunities brought by the availability of diverse data, it is in high demand to develop the corresponding GMDR software that can handle a breadth of phenotypes, such as continuous, count, dichotomous, polytomous nominal, ordinal, survival and multivariate, and various kinds of study designs, such as unrelated case-control, family-based and pooled unrelated and family samples, and also allows adjustment for covariates. We developed a versatile GMDR package to implement this serial of GMDR analyses for various scenarios (e.g., unified analysis of unrelated and family samples) and large-scale (e.g., genome-wide) data. This package includes other desirable features such as data management and preprocessing. Permutation testing strategies are also built in to evaluate the threshold or empirical p values. In addition, its performance is scalable to the computational resources. The software is available at or PMID:28479868

  10. A GUI Based Software for Sizing Stand Alone AC Coupled Hybrid PV-Diesel Power System under Malaysia Climate (United States)

    Syafiqah Syahirah Mohamed, Nor; Amalina Banu Mohamat Adek, Noor; Hamid, Nurul Farhana Abd


    This paper presents the development of Graphical User Interface (GUI) software for sizing main component in AC coupled photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power system based on Malaysia climate. This software provides guideline for PV system integrator to design effectively the size of components and system configuration to match the system and load requirement with geographical condition. The concept of the proposed software is balancing the annual average renewable energy generation and load demand. In this study, the PV to diesel generator (DG) ratio is introduced by considering the hybrid system energy contribution. The GUI software is able to size the main components in the PV hybrid system to meet with the set target of energy contribution ratio. The rated powers of the components to be defined are PV array, grid-tie inverter, bi-directional inverter, battery storage and DG. GUI is used to perform all the system sizing procedures to make it user friendly interface as a sizing tool for AC coupled PV hybrid system. The GUI will be done by using Visual Studio 2015 based on the real data under Malaysia Climate.

  11. Effectiveness of a Web 2.0 Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Real-World Settings: Randomized Ecological Trial. (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Caperchione, Cristina M; Savage, Trevor N; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Maeder, Anthony J; Van Itallie, Anetta; Tague, Rhys; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Mummery, W Kerry; Duncan, Mitch J


    The translation of Web-based physical activity intervention research into the real world is lacking and becoming increasingly important. To compare usage and effectiveness, in real-world settings, of a traditional Web 1.0 Web-based physical activity intervention, providing limited interactivity, to a Web 2.0 Web-based physical activity intervention that includes interactive features, such as social networking (ie, status updates, online "friends," and personalized profile pages), blogs, and Google Maps mash-ups. Adults spontaneously signing up for the freely available 10,000 Steps website were randomized to the 10,000 Steps website (Web 1.0) or the newly developed WALK 2.0 website (Web 2.0). Physical activity (Active Australia Survey), quality of life (RAND 36), and body mass index (BMI) were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months. Website usage was measured continuously. Analyses of covariance were used to assess change over time in continuous outcome measures. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data. A total of 1328 participants completed baseline assessments. Only 3-month outcomes (224 completers) were analyzed due to high attrition at 12 months (77 completers). Web 2.0 group participants increased physical activity by 92.8 minutes per week more than those in the Web 1.0 group (95% CI 28.8-156.8; P=.005); their BMI values also decreased more (-1.03 kg/m2, 95% CI -1.65 to -0.41; P=.001). For quality of life, only the physical functioning domain score significantly improved more in the Web 2.0 group (3.6, 95% CI 1.7-5.5; PWeb 2.0 group compared to the Web 1.0 group. The difference in time-to-nonusage attrition was not statistically significant between groups (Hazard Ratio=0.97, 95% CI 0.86-1.09; P=.59). Only 21.99% (292/1328) of participants (n=292 summed for both groups) were still using either website after 2 weeks and 6.55% (87/1328) were using either website after 10 weeks. The website that provided more interactive and social features

  12. Good Practices for Real-World Data Studies of Treatment and/or Comparative Effectiveness: Recommendations from the Joint ISPOR-ISPE Special Task Force on Real-World Evidence in Health Care Decision Making. (United States)

    Berger, Marc L; Sox, Harold; Willke, Richard J; Brixner, Diana L; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Goettsch, Wim; Madigan, David; Makady, Amr; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Tarricone, Rosanna; Wang, Shirley V; Watkins, John; Mullins, C Daniel


    Real-world evidence (RWE) includes data from retrospective or prospective observational studies and observational registries and provides insights beyond those addressed by randomized controlled trials. RWE studies aim to improve health care decision making. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE) created a task force to make recommendations regarding good procedural practices that would enhance decision makers' confidence in evidence derived from RWD studies. Peer review by ISPOR/ISPE members and task force participants provided a consensus-building iterative process for the topics and framing of recommendations. The ISPOR/ISPE Task Force recommendations cover seven topics such as study registration, replicability, and stakeholder involvement in RWE studies. These recommendations, in concert with earlier recommendations about study methodology, provide a trustworthy foundation for the expanded use of RWE in health care decision making. The focus of these recommendations is good procedural practices for studies that test a specific hypothesis in a specific population. We recognize that some of the recommendations in this report may not be widely adopted without appropriate incentives from decision makers, journal editors, and other key stakeholders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Process-based software project management

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, F Alan


    Not connecting software project management (SPM) to actual, real-world development processes can lead to a complete divorcing of SPM to software engineering that can undermine any successful software project. By explaining how a layered process architectural model improves operational efficiency, Process-Based Software Project Management outlines a new method that is more effective than the traditional method when dealing with SPM. With a clear and easy-to-read approach, the book discusses the benefits of an integrated project management-process management connection. The described tight coup

  14. Real-world Effectiveness of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for 8 weeks in Patients Coinfected with HCV and HIV-1


    Ruane, Peter; Buggisch, Peter; Moreno, ANA; Isakov, Vasily; Backus, Lisa; Ain, Dani; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Naik, Sarjita; Mehta, Swarup; Lee, Jina; Llewellyn, Joe; Mertens, Michael; Natha, Macky; Osinusi, Anu; Slim, Jihad


    Abstract Background Real world cohorts (RWC) have demonstrated excellent efficacy of LDV/SOF for 8 weeks in HCV monoinfected patients. Real world effectiveness data of LDV/SOF for 8 weeks in HIV/HCV coinfection is emerging from several multiple single-center and multicenter prospective and retrospective cohorts. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of the single tablet regimen of LDV/SOF for 8 weeks in HCV genotype (GT) 1 patients with HIV/HCV coinfection in RWC. Methods In...

  15. Patient-dermatologist agreement in psoriasis severity, symptoms and satisfaction: results from a real-world multinational survey. (United States)

    Griffiths, C E M; Augustin, M; Naldi, L; Romiti, R; Guevara-Sangines, E; Howe, T; Pietri, G; Gilloteau, I; Richardson, C; Tian, H; Jo, S J


    Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease, which often requires lifelong treatment. A strong partnership between the patient and healthcare practitioners should help to achieve effective treatment outcomes. To assess concordance of views between psoriasis patients and their treating dermatologists relative to psoriasis severity, presence of symptoms and satisfaction with disease control achieved. We used data from the Growth from Knowledge (GfK) Disease Atlas real-world evidence programme, a syndicated, retrospective, cross-sectional survey among dermatologists and their systemic therapy eligible psoriasis patients, conducted across 9 countries. Concordance was measured through patients and their dermatologist's identical answers to the same survey questions. Concordance was evaluated using percentage agreement between dermatologists and their patients, and Cohen's kappa (κ) statistic. The level of concordance was defined as "none" (κ≤0), "none to slight" (0.01-0.20), "fair" (0.21-0.40), "moderate" (0.41-0.60), "substantial" (0.61-0.80) and "almost perfect" (>0.8). The analysis was conducted for the overall population and for each participating country. Overall, 524 dermatologists and 3,821 psoriasis patients were included in the survey. Concordance of patient and dermatologist perceptions of psoriasis severity was fair both at diagnosis, and at the time of the survey (61% agreement, κ = 0.326 and 55% agreement, κ = 0.370, respectively). Higher levels of concordance were reported when patients assessed their psoriasis as moderate-to-severe (using Investigator's Global Assessment/Physician's Global Assessment [IGA/PGA] 5-point scale of 3 or 4). Concordance regarding symptoms ranged from fair to moderate (κ = 0.241-0.575). Satisfaction with psoriasis control was fair (39% agreement, κ = 0.213). Results showed different patterns of concordance across the participating countries although a low concordance was observed on the satisfaction with

  16. Motor and psychosocial impact of robot-assisted gait training in a real-world rehabilitation setting: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Fundarò

    Full Text Available In the last decade robotic devices have been applied in rehabilitation to overcome walking disability in neurologic diseases with promising results. Robot assisted gait training (RAGT using the Lokomat seems not only to improve gait parameters but also the perception of well-being. Data on the psychosocial patient-robot impact are limited, in particular in the real-world of RAGT, in the rehabilitation setting. During rehabilitation training, the Lokomat can be considered an "assistive device for movement". This allowed the use of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale- PIADS to describe patient interaction with the Lokomat. The primary aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of the Lokomat in an in-patient rehabilitation setting using the PIADS; secondary aims were to assess whether the psychosocial impact of RAGT is different between pathological sub-groups and if the Lokomat influenced functional variables (Functional Independence Measure scale-FIM and parameters provided by the Lokomat itself. Thirty-nine consecutive patients (69% males, 54.0±18.0 years eligible for Lokomat training, with etiologically heterogeneous walking disabilities (Parkinson's Disease, n = 10; Spinal Cord Injury, n = 21; Ictus Event, n = 8 were enrolled. Patients were assessed with the FIM before and after rehabilitation with Lokomat, and the PIADS was administered after the rehabilitative period with Lokomat. Overall the PIADS score was positive (35.8±21.6, as well as the three sub-scales, pertaining to "ability", "adaptability" and "self-esteem" (17.2±10.4, 8.9±5.5 and 10.1±6.6 respectively with no between-group differences. All patients significantly improved in gait measure and motor FIM scale (difference after-before treatment values: 11.7±9.8 and 11.2±10.3 respectively, increased treadmill speed (0.4 ± 0.2m/s, reduced body weight support (-14.0±9.5% and guidance force (-13.1 ± 10.7%. This pilot study indicates that

  17. Real-world use of omalizumab in patients with chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria in the United States. (United States)

    Eghrari-Sabet, Jacqueline; Sher, Ellen; Kavati, Abhishek; Pilon, Dominic; Zhdanava, Maryia; Balp, Maria-Magdalena; Lefebvre, Patrick; Ortiz, Benjamin; Bernstein, Jonathan A


    Omalizumab was approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU)/chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in the United States in March 2014. This study sought to describe real-world omalizumab use, in the United States, in a large cohort of patients with CIU/CSU. Patients with CIU/CSU (ages ≥12 years) initiated on omalizumab (index date) with ≥12 months of pre- and postindex data were identified in the an insurance claims data base (January 1, 2013, to July 31, 2016). Treatment patterns, including the dosing regimen and continuous use of omalizumab (no gaps for ≥60 days), were described during the 12-month postindex follow-up period. A total of 1546 patients (mean ± standard deviation [SD] ages, 44 ± 14.5 years; 73.1% women) were identified. Most of the patients (84.5%) were initiated on omalizumab 300-mg dose; 90% maintained the initial dose, 7.5% had a dose increase, and 4.6% had a dose decrease. The mean ± SD omalizumab treatment duration was 9.1 ± 3.8 months, the mean ± SD number of omalizumab administrations was 8.3 ± 4.8, and the mean ± SD administration frequency was 44 ± 29 days. A proportion of the patients continuously treated with omalizumab for 6, 9, and 12 months was 67.3, 54.8, and 47.4%, respectively. Among the patients who discontinued omalizumab for ≥3 months (39.8%), 21% restarted the treatment after a mean ± SD of 4.4 ± 1.3 months. The proportion of patients who used other CIU/CSU-related medications decreased pre- to postindex (94.8 to 81.1%), with the highest decrease observed in oral corticosteroids (75.7 to 49.9%). In this large real-world study, the majority of the patients with CIU/CSU were initiated on a 300-mg omalizumab dose and treated without titration up or down for 9 months on average. Most of the patients were continuously treated with omalizumab for ≥6 months, and one-fourth of the patients who discontinued treatment resumed it. Moreover, compared with baseline levels, the use of other CIU

  18. Motor and psychosocial impact of robot-assisted gait training in a real-world rehabilitation setting: A pilot study. (United States)

    Fundarò, Cira; Giardini, Anna; Maestri, Roberto; Traversoni, Silvia; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Casale, Roberto


    In the last decade robotic devices have been applied in rehabilitation to overcome walking disability in neurologic diseases with promising results. Robot assisted gait training (RAGT) using the Lokomat seems not only to improve gait parameters but also the perception of well-being. Data on the psychosocial patient-robot impact are limited, in particular in the real-world of RAGT, in the rehabilitation setting. During rehabilitation training, the Lokomat can be considered an "assistive device for movement". This allowed the use of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale- PIADS to describe patient interaction with the Lokomat. The primary aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of the Lokomat in an in-patient rehabilitation setting using the PIADS; secondary aims were to assess whether the psychosocial impact of RAGT is different between pathological sub-groups and if the Lokomat influenced functional variables (Functional Independence Measure scale-FIM and parameters provided by the Lokomat itself). Thirty-nine consecutive patients (69% males, 54.0±18.0 years) eligible for Lokomat training, with etiologically heterogeneous walking disabilities (Parkinson's Disease, n = 10; Spinal Cord Injury, n = 21; Ictus Event, n = 8) were enrolled. Patients were assessed with the FIM before and after rehabilitation with Lokomat, and the PIADS was administered after the rehabilitative period with Lokomat. Overall the PIADS score was positive (35.8±21.6), as well as the three sub-scales, pertaining to "ability", "adaptability" and "self-esteem" (17.2±10.4, 8.9±5.5 and 10.1±6.6 respectively) with no between-group differences. All patients significantly improved in gait measure and motor FIM scale (difference after-before treatment values: 11.7±9.8 and 11.2±10.3 respectively), increased treadmill speed (0.4 ± 0.2m/s), reduced body weight support (-14.0±9.5%) and guidance force (-13.1 ± 10.7%). This pilot study indicates that Lokomat, in a

  19. The real world mental health needs of heart failure patients are not reflected by the depression randomized controlled trial evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip J Tully

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International depression screening guidelines in heart failure (HF are partly based on depression treatment efficacy from randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Our aim was to test the external validity of depression RCT criteria in a sample of real-world HF patients. METHODS: HF patients admitted to 3 hospitals in South Australia were referred to a HF psychologist if not already receiving current psychiatric management by psychologist or psychiatrist elsewhere. Screening and referral protocol consisted of the following; (a. Patient Health Questionnaire ≥ 10; (b. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire ≥ 7; (c. positive response to 1 item panic attack screener; (d. evidence of suicidality. Patients were evaluated against the most common RCT exclusion criteria personality disorder, high suicide risk, cognitive impairment, psychosis, alcohol or substance abuse or dependency, bi-polar depression. RESULTS: Total 81 HF patients were referred from 404 HF admissions, and 73 were assessed (age 60.6 ± 13.4, 47.9% female. Nearly half (47% met at least 1 RCT exclusion criterion, most commonly personality disorder (28.5%, alcohol/substance abuse (17.8% and high suicide risk (11.0%. RCT ineligibility criteria was more frequent among patients with major depression (76.5% vs. 46.2%, p<.01 and dysthymia (26.5% vs. 7.7%, p = .03 but not significantly associated with anxiety disorders. RCT ineligible patients reported greater severity of depression (M = 16.6 ± 5.0 vs. M = 12.9 ± 7.2, p = .02 and were higher consumers of HF psychotherapy services (M = 11.5 ± 4.7 vs. M = 8.5 ± 4.8, p = .01. CONCLUSION: In this real-world sample comparable in size to recent RCT intervention arms, patients with depression disorders presented with complex psychiatric needs including comorbid personality disorders, alcohol/substance use and suicide risk. These findings suggest external validity of depression screening and RCTs could serve as a basis for

  20. Real-world outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When working with discourse-based research in professional settings, one question invariably arises: How do we, as researchers, ensure that our findings are taken up by the professionals with whom analyses are carried out, leading to reflections on or even change in their social practices...... meeting. References Erickson, Frederick and Jeffrey Schultz. 1982. The Counsellor as Gatekeeper: Social Interaction in Interviews. New York: Academic Press. Nørreklit, Lennart, Stig L. Pedersen, Bo Prangsgaard and Kristian Tuft. 1987. Aktørsmetoden: En Indføring i Erhvervsøkonomisk Projektarbejde. Aalborg...