WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying rdbms enables

  1. Similarity extraction mechanism concerning historical personalities based on SQL queries in an RDBMS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouchou, Alexandra; Dendrinos, Markos

    2015-02-01

    An interesting issue in the domain of history of science and ideas is the concept of similarity of historical personalities. Similar objects of research of philosophers and scientists indicate prospective influences, caused either from one another's reading or meetings, communication or even cooperation. Key methodological role in the surfacing of the sought similarities play the keywords extracted from their works as well as their placement in a philosophical and scientific term taxonomy. The case study examined in the framework of this paper concerns scientists and philosophers, who lived in ancient Greece or Renaissance periods and dealt, in at least one work, with the subject God. All the available data (scientists, studies, recorded relations between scientists, keywords, and thematic hierarchy) have been organized in an RDBMS environment, aiming at the emergence of similarities and influences between scientists through properly created SQL queries based on date and thematic hierarchy criteria.

  2. RDBMS Applications as Online Based Data Archive: A Case of Harbour Medical Center in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriadi, Bayu; Zamsuri, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Kantor Kesehatan Pelabuhan Kelas II Pekanbaru is a government office that concerns about healthy, especially about environment health. There is a problem in case of saving electronic data, also in analyzing daily data both for internal and external data. The office has some computers and other tools that are useful in saving electronic data. In fact, the data are still saved in available cupboards and it is not efficient for an important data that is analyzed for more than one time. In other words, it is not good for a data is needed to be analyzed continuously. Rational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) application is an online based saving data and it uses System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) method. Hopefully, the application will be very useful for employees Kantor Kesehatan Pelabuhan Pekanbaru in managing their work.

  3. RDBMS Based Lexical Resource for Indian Heritage: The Case of Mahābhārata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Diwakar

    The paper describes a lexical resource in the form of a relational database based indexing system for Sanskrit documents - Mahābhārata (MBh) as an example. The system is available online on http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/mb with input and output in Devanāgarī Unicode, using technologies such as RDBMS and Java Servlet. The system works as an interactive and multi-dimensional indexing system with search facility for MBh and has potentials for use as a generic system for all Sanskrit texts of similar structure. Currently, the system allows three types of searching facilities- 'Direct Search', 'Alphabetical Search' and 'Search by Classes'. The input triggers an indexing process by which a temporary index is created for the search string, and then clicking on any indexed word displays the details for that word and also a facility to search that word in some other online lexical resources.

  4. Evaluation of the performance of open-source RDBMS and triplestores for storing medical data over a web service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilintzis, Vassilis; Beredimas, Nikolaos; Chouvarda, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of a system that manages medical data is the persistent storage engine. For almost twenty five years Relational Database Management Systems(RDBMS) were considered the obvious decision, yet today new technologies have emerged that require our attention as possible alternatives. Triplestores store information in terms of RDF triples without necessarily binding to a specific predefined structural model. In this paper we present an attempt to compare the performance of Apache JENA-Fuseki and the Virtuoso Universal Server 6 triplestores with that of MySQL 5.6 RDBMS for storing and retrieving medical information that it is communicated as RDF/XML ontology instances over a RESTful web service. The results show that the performance, calculated as average time of storing and retrieving instances, is significantly better using Virtuoso Server while MySQL performed better than Fuseki.

  5. Dual Hypervalent Iodine(III) Reagents and Photoredox Catalysis Enable Decarboxylative Ynonylation under Mild Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hanchu; Zhang, Guojin; Chen, Yiyun

    2015-06-26

    A combination of hypervalent iodine(III) reagents (HIR) and photoredox catalysis with visible light has enabled chemoselective decarboxylative ynonylation to construct ynones, ynamides, and ynoates. This ynonylation occurs effectively under mild reaction conditions at room temperature and on substrates with various sensitive and reactive functional groups. The reaction represents the first HIR/photoredox dual catalysis to form acyl radicals from α-ketoacids, followed by an unprecedented acyl radical addition to HIR-bound alkynes. Its efficient construction of an mGlu5 receptor inhibitor under neutral aqueous conditions suggests future visible-light-induced biological applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. An easily reversible structural change underlies mechanisms enabling desert crust cyanobacteria to survive desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eyal, Leeat; Eisenberg, Ido; Faust, Adam; Raanan, Hagai; Nevo, Reinat; Rappaport, Fabrice; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Sétif, Pierre; Thurotte, Adrien; Reich, Ziv; Kaplan, Aaron; Ohad, Itzhak; Paltiel, Yossi; Keren, Nir

    2015-10-01

    Biological desert sand crusts are the foundation of desert ecosystems, stabilizing the sands and allowing colonization by higher order organisms. The first colonizers of the desert sands are cyanobacteria. Facing the harsh conditions of the desert, these organisms must withstand frequent desiccation-hydration cycles, combined with high light intensities. Here, we characterize structural and functional modifications to the photosynthetic apparatus that enable a cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp., to thrive under these conditions. Using multiple in vivo spectroscopic and imaging techniques, we identified two complementary mechanisms for dissipating absorbed energy in the desiccated state. The first mechanism involves the reorganization of the phycobilisome antenna system, increasing excitonic coupling between antenna components. This provides better energy dissipation in the antenna rather than directed exciton transfer to the reaction center. The second mechanism is driven by constriction of the thylakoid lumen which limits diffusion of plastocyanin to P700. The accumulation of P700(+) not only prevents light-induced charge separation but also efficiently quenches excitation energy. These protection mechanisms employ existing components of the photosynthetic apparatus, forming two distinct functional modes. Small changes in the structure of the thylakoid membranes are sufficient for quenching of all absorbed energy in the desiccated state, protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photoinhibitory damage. These changes can be easily reversed upon rehydration, returning the system to its high photosynthetic quantum efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 53026 - Regulations Enabling Elections for Certain Transaction Under Section 336(e); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... section 336(e) of the Code. Need for Correction As published May 15, 2013 TD 9619 contains errors that may... under the caption ``Background'', second paragraph, fifth line, the language, ``947 [73 FR 49965-02... Under Section 336(e); Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to...

  8. Controlled Environments Enable Adaptive Management in Aquatic Ecosystems Under Altered Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are impacted by altered environment conditions resulting from climate, drought, and land use changes. Gaps in the science knowledge base regarding plant community response to these novel and rapid changes limit both science understanding and management of ecosystems. We describe how CE Technologies have enabled the rapid supply of gap-filling science, development of ecosystem simulation models, and remote sensing assessment tools to provide science-informed, adaptive management methods in the impacted aquatic ecosystem of the California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The Delta is the hub for California's water, supplying Southern California agriculture and urban communities as well as the San Francisco Bay area. The changes in environmental conditions including temperature, light, and water quality and associated expansion of invasive aquatic plants negatively impact water distribution and ecology of the San Francisco Bay/Delta complex. CE technologies define changes in resource use efficiencies, photosynthetic productivity, evapotranspiration, phenology, reproductive strategies, and spectral reflectance modifications in native and invasive species in response to altered conditions. We will discuss how the CE technologies play an enabling role in filling knowledge gaps regarding plant response to altered environments, parameterization and validation of ecosystem models, development of satellite-based, remote sensing tools, and operational management strategies.

  9. The Transition from RDBMS to NoSQL. A Comparative Analysis of Three Popular Non-Relational Solutions: Cassandra, MongoDB and Couchbase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BAZAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available NoSQL databases were built in the need to deal with the increasing amount of complex data (Big Data, required in real-time web applications, and are mostly addressing some of these points: the focus on availability over consistency, horizontally scalable, distributed architecture, and open-source. The purpose of this paper is to present the reasons for a transition from RDBMS to NoSQL databases, to describe the main characteristics of non-relational databases and to compare and analyze three popular NoSQL solutions - Cassandra, MongoDB and CouchBase, outlining the results obtained during performance comparison tests. Each solution is optimized for different workloads and different use cases. Therefore, each has its own strong points and weaknesses.

  10. Phasic deactivation of the medial temporal lobe enables working memory processing under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Wingen, Guido A.; Fernández, Guillén

    2012-01-01

    Demanding cognitive tasks are sometimes carried out under stressful conditions. Several studies indicate that whereas severe stress impairs performance, moderate stress can enhance cognitive performance. In this study, we investigated how moderate stress influences the neural systems supporting

  11. Robust microscale superlubricity under high contact pressure enabled by graphene-coated microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Wei; Wang, Hua-Ping; Xu, Qiang; Ma, Tian-Bao; Yu, Gui; Zhang, Chenhui; Geng, Dechao; Yu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shengguang; Wang, Wenzhong; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Wang, Hui; Luo, Jianbin

    2017-02-01

    Superlubricity of graphite and graphene has aroused increasing interest in recent years. Yet how to obtain a long-lasting superlubricity between graphene layers, under high applied normal load in ambient atmosphere still remains a challenge but is highly desirable. Here, we report a direct measurement of sliding friction between graphene and graphene, and graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under high contact pressures by employing graphene-coated microsphere (GMS) probe prepared by metal-catalyst-free chemical vapour deposition. The exceptionally low and robust friction coefficient of 0.003 is accomplished under local asperity contact pressure up to 1 GPa, at arbitrary relative surface rotation angles, which is insensitive to relative humidity up to 51% RH. This ultralow friction is attributed to the sustainable overall incommensurability due to the multi-asperity contact covered with randomly oriented graphene nanograins. This realization of microscale superlubricity can be extended to the sliding between a variety of two-dimensional (2D) layers.

  12. An Amorphous Noble-Metal-Free Electrocatalyst that Enables Nitrogen Fixation under Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chade; Yan, Chunshuang; Chen, Gang; Ding, Yu; Sun, Jingxue; Zhou, Yansong; Yu, Guihua

    2018-02-23

    N 2 fixation by the electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) under ambient conditions is regarded as a potential approach to achieve NH 3 production, which still heavily relies on the Haber-Bosch process at the cost of huge energy and massive production of CO 2 . A noble-metal-free Bi 4 V 2 O 11 /CeO 2 hybrid with an amorphous phase (BVC-A) is used as the cathode for electrocatalytic NRR. The amorphous Bi 4 V 2 O 11 contains significant defects, which play a role as active sites. The CeO 2 not only serves as a trigger to induce the amorphous structure, but also establishes band alignment with Bi 4 V 2 O 11 for rapid interfacial charge transfer. Remarkably, BVC-A shows outstanding electrocatalytic NRR performance with high average yield (NH 3 : 23.21 μg h -1  mg -1 cat. , Faradaic efficiency: 10.16 %) under ambient conditions, which is superior to the Bi 4 V 2 O 11 /CeO 2 hybrid with crystalline phase (BVC-C) counterpart. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Steam generation under one sun enabled by a floating structure with thermal concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, George; Li, Gabriel; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Li, Hongxia; Yang, Weilin; Zhang, Tiejun; Chen, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Harvesting solar energy as heat has many applications, such as power generation, residential water heating, desalination, distillation and wastewater treatment. However, the solar flux is diffuse, and often requires optical concentration, a costly component, to generate the high temperatures needed for some of these applications. Here we demonstrate a floating solar receiver capable of generating 100 ∘C steam under ambient air conditions without optical concentration. The high temperatures are achieved by using thermal concentration and heat localization, which reduce the convective, conductive and radiative heat losses. This demonstration of a low-cost and scalable solar vapour generator holds the promise of significantly expanding the application domain and reducing the cost of solar thermal systems.

  14. Up-conversion nanoparticles sensitized inverse opal photonic crystals enable efficient water purification under NIR irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lili; Ma, Xiumei; Ren, Junfeng; Sun, Qinxing; Shi, Yongsheng; Li, Lin; Shi, Jinsheng

    2018-03-01

    A novel porous monolayer inverse opal (IO) structure was prepared by a simple sol-gel method combined with a self-assembly PS photonic crystal (PC) as template. By prolonging deposition time of PS spheres, three-dimensional multilayer TiO2 IOPC was also fabricated. Up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were selected to sensitize TiO2 IOPCs. Photocatalytic activity of as-prepared materials was investigated by disinfection of bacteria and organic pollutant degradation. Under NIR light irradiation, a large improvement in bacterial inactivation and photodegradation efficiency could be seen for NYF/TiO2 composites in comparison with other samples. As for monolayer NYF/TiO2, water disinfection of 100% inactivation of bacteria is realized within 11 h and kinetic constant of RhB degradation is 0.133 h-1, which is about 10 times higher than that of pure TiO2 IOPCs. Reasons of enhanced photocatalytic activity were systematically investigated and a possible mechanism for NIR-driven photocatalysis was reasonably proposed.

  15. Profiling, analisi delle prestazioni e proposte per l'ottimizzazione del RDBMS MySQL utilizzato dal progetto DIRAC/LHCbDIRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Mesin, Alberto

    Il lavoro presentato in questa tesi riguarda lo studio, l'analisi e la formula- zione di proposte per il miglioramento del database di back-end del progetto DIRAC/LHCbDIRAC. LHCbDIRAC, basato su DIRAC, e il sistema di sot- tomissione per l'accesso all'infrastruttura distribuita Grid per l'esperimento LHCb del CERN. Ad esso e adata la gestione dei job di Produzione, Mer- ge, Ricostruzione degli Eventi e Analisi per i dati sperimentali e simulati. Il sistema utilizza un RDBMS MySQL per la gestione di numerosi databa- se. La volonta di passare ad un motore relazionale e transazionale per la denizione schemi e la possibilita che, in un recente futuro, il DBMS possa rappresentare un serio limite alle prestazioni del sistema stesso hanno reso necessario questo studio. Il lavoro svolto si e concentrato sul proling di un singolo schema relazionale per il quale sono stati utilizzati metodi di analisi e fornite soluzioni ai problemi riscontrati il quanto piu possibile generali e per tanto validi per l'intero sistema. L...

  16. Sequence-Dependent Structure/Function Relationships of Catalytic Peptide-Enabled Gold Nanoparticles Generated under Ambient Synthetic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, Nicholas M.; Hughes, Zak E.; Tang, Zhenghua; Li, Yue; Briggs, Beverly D.; Ren, Yang; Swihart, Mark T.; Petkov, Valeri G.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Knecht, Mark R.; Walsh, Tiffany R.

    2016-01-20

    Peptide-enabled nanoparticle (NP) synthesis routes can create and/or assemble functional nanomaterials under environmentally friendly conditions, with properties dictated by complex interactions at the biotic/abiotic interface. Manipulation of this interface through sequence modification can provide the capability for material properties to be tailored to create enhanced materials for energy, catalysis, and sensing applications. Fully realizing the potential of these materials requires a comprehensive understanding of sequence-dependent structure/function relationships that is presently lacking. In this work, the atomic-scale structures of a series of peptide-capped Au NPs are determined using a combination of atomic pair distribution function analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data and advanced molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The Au NPs produced with different peptide sequences exhibit varying degrees of catalytic activity for the exemplar reaction 4-nitrophenol reduction. The experimentally derived atomic-scale NP configurations reveal sequence-dependent differences in structural order at the NP surface. Replica exchange with solute-tempering MD simulations are then used to predict the morphology of the peptide overlayer on these Au NPs and identify factors determining the structure/catalytic properties relationship. We show that the amount of exposed Au surface, the underlying surface structural disorder, and the interaction strength of the peptide with the Au surface all influence catalytic performance. A simplified computational prediction of catalytic performance is developed that can potentially serve as a screening tool for future studies. Our approach provides a platform for broadening the analysis of catalytic peptide-enabled metallic NP systems, potentially allowing for the development of rational design rules for property enhancement.

  17. FLUKA-LIVE-an embedded framework, for enabling a computer to execute FLUKA under the control of a Linux OS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.; Battistoni, G.; Mark, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a Linux-based OS framework for integrating the FLUKA Monte Carlo software (currently distributed only for Linux) into a CD-ROM, resulting in a complete environment for a scientist to edit, link and run FLUKA routines-without the need to install a UNIX/Linux operating system. The building process includes generating from scratch a complete operating system distribution which will, when operative, build all necessary components for successful operation of FLUKA software and libraries. Various source packages, as well as the latest kernel sources, are freely available from the Internet. These sources are used to create a functioning Linux system that integrates several core utilities in line with the main idea-enabling FLUKA to act as if it was running under a popular Linux distribution or even a proprietary UNIX workstation. On boot-up a file system will be created and the contents from the CD will be uncompressed and completely loaded into RAM-after which the presence of the CD is no longer necessary, and could be removed for use on a second computer. The system can operate on any i386 PC as long as it can boot from a CD

  18. Large-scale grid-enabled lattice Boltzmann simulations of complex fluid flow in porous media and under shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Jens; Venturoli, Maddalena; Coveney, Peter V

    2004-08-15

    Well-designed lattice Boltzmann codes exploit the essentially embarrassingly parallel features of the algorithm and so can be run with considerable efficiency on modern supercomputers. Such scalable codes permit us to simulate the behaviour of increasingly large quantities of complex condensed matter systems. In the present paper, we present some preliminary results on the large-scale three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulation of binary immiscible fluid flows through a porous medium, derived from digitized X-ray micro-tomographic data of Bentheimer sandstone, and from the study of the same fluids under shear. Simulations on such scales can benefit considerably from the use of computational steering, and we describe our implementation of steering within the lattice Boltzmann code, called LB3D, making use of the RealityGrid steering library. Our large-scale simulations benefit from the new concept of capability computing, designed to prioritize the execution of big jobs on major supercomputing resources. The advent of persistent computational grids promises to provide an optimal environment in which to deploy these mesoscale simulation methods, which can exploit the distributed nature of computer, visualization and storage resources to reach scientific results rapidly; we discuss our work on the grid-enablement of lattice Boltzmann methods in this context. Copyright 2004 The Royal Society

  19. The polyglutamine protein ataxin-3 enables normal growth under heat shock conditions in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, Marcella; Roffia, Valentina; De Palma, Antonella; Lombardi, Alessio; Aprile, Francesco Antonio; Visentin, Cristina; Tortora, Paolo; Mauri, Pierluigi; Regonesi, Maria Elena

    2017-10-17

    The protein ataxin-3 carries a polyglutamine stretch close to the C-terminus that triggers a neurodegenerative disease in humans when its length exceeds a critical threshold. A role as a transcriptional regulator but also as a ubiquitin hydrolase has been proposed for this protein. Here, we report that, when expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, full-length ataxin-3 enabled almost normal growth at 37 °C, well above the physiological optimum of 30 °C. The N-terminal Josephin domain (JD) was also effective but significantly less, whereas catalytically inactive JD was completely ineffective. Based on MudPIT proteomic analysis, we observed that the strain expressing full-length, functional ataxin-3 displayed persistent upregulation of enzymes involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism during growth at 37 °C compared with the strain transformed with the empty vector. Concurrently, in the transformed strain intracellular ATP levels at 37 °C were even higher than normal ones at 30 °C. Elevated ATP was also paralleled by upregulation of enzymes involved in both protein biosynthesis and biosynthetic pathways, as well as of several stress-induced proteins. A similar pattern was observed when comparing a strain expressing JD with another expressing its catalytically inactive counterpart. We suggest that such effects mostly result from mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.

  20. Life Cycle Payback Estimates of Nanosilver Enabled Textiles under Different Silver Loading, Release, And Laundering Scenarios Informed by Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Andrea L; Gilbertson, Leanne M; Yamani, Jamila S; Theis, Thomas L; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2015-07-07

    Silver was utilized throughout history to prevent the growth of bacteria in food and wounds. Recently, nanoscale silver has been applied to consumer textiles (nAg-textiles) to eliminate the prevalence of odor-causing bacteria. In turn, it is proposed that consumers will launder these items less frequently thus, reducing the life cycle impacts. While previous studies report that laundering processes are associated with the greatest environmental impacts of these textiles, there is no data available to support the proposed shift in consumer laundering behavior. Here, the results from a comprehensive literature review of nAg-textile life cycle studies are used to inform a cradle-to-grave life cycle impact assessment. Rather than assuming shifts in consumer behavior, the impact assessment is conducted in such a way that considers all laundering scenarios to elucidate the potential for reduced laundering to enable realization of a net life cycle benefit. In addition to identifying the most impactful stages of the life cycle across nine-midpoint categories, a payback period and uncertainty analysis quantifies the reduction in lifetime launderings required to recover the impacts associated with nanoenabling the textile. Reduction of nAg-textile life cycle impacts is not straightforward and depends on the impact category considered.

  1. Control Strategy for Three-Phase Grid-Connected PV Inverters Enabling Current Limitation Under Unbalanced Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Ehsan; Moradi, Gholam Reza; Rahimi, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    Power quality and voltage control are among the most important aspects of the grid-connected power converter operation under faults. Non-sinusoidal current is injected during unbalanced voltage sag and active or/and reactive power includes double frequency content. This paper introduces a novel...... control strategy to mitigate the double grid frequency oscillations in the active power and dc-link voltage of the two-stage three-phase grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters during unbalanced faults. With the proposed control method, PV inverter injects sinusoidal currents under unbalanced grid...... faults. In addition, an efficient and easy-to-implement current limitation method is introduced, which can effectively limit the injected currents to the rated value during faults. In this case, the fault-ride-through operation is ensured and it will not trigger the overcurrent protection. A non...

  2. The ADH7 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Vanillin-Inducible and Enables mRNA Translation Under Severe Vanillin Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T M; Iwaki, Aya; Izawa, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repress the bulk translation activity in yeast cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression patterns of the ADH6 and ADH7 genes in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. We found that although both genes were transcriptionally upregulated by vanillin stress, they showed different protein expression patterns in response to vanillin. Expression of Adh6 was constitutive and gradually decreased under vanillin stress, whereas expression of Adh7 was inducible, and, importantly, occurred under severe vanillin stress. The null mutants of ADH6 or ADH7 genes were hypersensitive to vanillin and reduced vanillin less efficiently than the wild type, confirming the importance of Adh6 and Adh7 in vanillin detoxification. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ADH7 promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables effective protein synthesis even under severe vanillin stress, and it may be useful for the improvement of vanillin-tolerance and biofuel production efficiency via modification of yeast gene expression in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin.

  3. The ADH7 promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is vanillin-inducible and enables mRNA translation under severe vanillin stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Thi My Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repress the bulk translation activity in yeast cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated expression patterns of the ADH6 and ADH7 genes in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. We found that although both genes were transcriptionally upregulated by vanillin stress, they showed different protein expression patterns in response to vanillin. Expression of Adh6 was constitutive and gradually decreased under vanillin stress, whereas expression of Adh7 was inducible, and, importantly, occurred under severe vanillin stress. The null mutants of ADH6 or ADH7 genes were hypersensitive to vanillin and reduced vanillin less efficiently than the wild type, confirming the importance of Adh6 and Adh7 in vanillin detoxification. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ADH7 promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables effective protein synthesis even under severe vanillin stress, and it may be useful for the improvement of vanillin-tolerance and biofuel production efficiency via modification of yeast gene expression in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin.

  4. Robust binding between carbon nitride nanosheets and a binuclear ruthenium(II) complex enabling durable, selective CO{sub 2} reduction under visible light in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriki, Ryo; Ishitani, Osamu; Maeda, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Yamamoto, Muneaki; Yoshida, Tomoko [Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology, Osaka City University (Japan); Higuchi, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Yuta; Akatsuka, Masato; Yagi, Shinya [Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University (Japan); Lu, Daling [Suzukakedai Materials Analysis Division, Technical Department, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2017-04-18

    Carbon nitride nanosheets (NS-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) were found to undergo robust binding with a binuclear ruthenium(II) complex (RuRu') even in basic aqueous solution. A hybrid material consisting of NS-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (further modified with nanoparticulate Ag) and RuRu' promoted the photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate in aqueous media, in conjunction with high selectivity (approximately 98 %) and a good turnover number (>2000 with respect to the loaded Ru complex). These represent the highest values yet reported for a powder-based photocatalytic system during CO{sub 2} reduction under visible light in an aqueous environment. We also assessed the desorption of RuRu' from the Ag/C{sub 3}N{sub 4} surface, a factor that can contribute to a loss of activity. It was determined that desorption is not induced by salt additives, pH changes, or photoirradiation, which partly explains the high photocatalytic performance of this material. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. The yeast ADH7 promoter enables gene expression under pronounced translation repression caused by the combined stress of vanillin, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yoko; Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-06-20

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion inhibitors such as vanillin, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) inhibit the growth of and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A high concentration of each fermentation inhibitor represses translation and increases non-translated mRNAs. We previously reported that the mRNAs of ADH7 and BDH2, which encode putative NADPH- and NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases, respectively, were efficiently translated even with translation repression in response to severe vanillin stress. However, the combined effects of these fermentation inhibitors on the expression of ADH7 and BDH2 remain unclear. We herein demonstrated that exposure to a combined stress of vanillin, furfural, and HMF repressed translation. The protein synthesis of Adh7, but not Bdh2 was significantly induced under combined stress conditions, even though the mRNA levels of ADH7 and BDH2 were up-regulated. Additionally, adh7Δ cells were more sensitive to the combined stress than wild-type and bdh2Δ cells. These results suggest that induction of the ADH7 expression plays a role in the tolerance to the combined stress of vanillin, furfural, and HMF. Furthermore, we succeeded in improving yeast tolerance to the combined stress by controlling the expression of ALD6 with the ADH7 promoter. Our results demonstrate that the ADH7 promoter can overcome the pronounced translation repression caused by the combined stress of vanillin, furfural, and HMF, and also suggest a new gene engineering strategy to breed robust and optimized yeasts for bioethanol production from a lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  7. Organising to Enable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    . The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance......The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation....

  8. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    . For reliability testing, the sample strategy and data collection procedures were the same in all countries. In total, twenty voluntary occupational therapists collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing Enabler. Inter-rater reliability was calculated by means of percentage agreement and kappa......Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  9. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    , resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... Enabler. Inter-rater reliability was calculated by means of percentage agreement and kappa statistics. Overall good percentage agreement for the personal and environmental components of the instrument was shown, indicating that the instrument was sufficiently reliable for application in practice...

  10. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...... pilot projects as enabler of transition. Aspects of how to create trust and deal with distrust during a transition are addressed. The transition in focus is the concept of New Public Management and how it is applied in the management of the Employment Service in Denmark. The transition regards...

  11. Enabling distributed collaborative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, K.

    2000-01-01

    To enable collaboration over distance, a collaborative environment that uses a specialized scientific instrument called a nanoManipulator is evaluated. The nanoManipulator incorporates visualization and force feedback technology to allow scientists to see, feel, and modify biological samples being...

  12. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow

    pilot projects as enabler of transition. Aspects of how to create trust and deal with distrust during a transition are addressed. The transition in focus is the concept of New Public Management and how it is applied in the management of the Employment Service in Denmark. The transition regards......This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...... the systemic change from a very control based and detailed regulated version of New Public Management towards a system allowing more flexibility and decentralized decision making empowering municipalities as well as employees own decision making...

  13. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    2009-01-01

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  14. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  15. EnableATIS strategy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Enabling Advanced Traveler Information Systems (EnableATIS) is the traveler information component of the Dynamic Mobility Application (DMA) program. The objective of : the EnableATIS effort is to foster transformative traveler information application...

  16. Enabling Digital Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Georgsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    There are some tensions between high-level policy definitions of “digital literacy” and actual teaching practice. We need to find workable definitions of digital literacy; obtain a better understanding of what digital literacy might look like in practice; and identify pedagogical approaches, which...... support teachers in designing digital literacy learning. We suggest that frameworks such as Problem Based Learning (PBL) are approaches that enable digital literacy learning because they provide good settings for engaging with digital literacy. We illustrate this through analysis of a case. Furthermore......, these operate on a meso-level mediating between high-level concepts of digital literacy and classroom practice....

  17. Electronic Health Record Application Support Service Enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neofytou, M S; Neokleous, K; Aristodemou, A; Constantinou, I; Antoniou, Z; Schiza, E C; Pattichis, C S; Schizas, C N

    2015-08-01

    There is a huge need for open source software solutions in the healthcare domain, given the flexibility, interoperability and resource savings characteristics they offer. In this context, this paper presents the development of three open source libraries - Specific Enablers (SEs) for eHealth applications that were developed under the European project titled "Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research" (FI-STAR) funded under the "Future Internet Public Private Partnership" (FI-PPP) program. The three SEs developed under the Electronic Health Record Application Support Service Enablers (EHR-EN) correspond to: a) an Electronic Health Record enabler (EHR SE), b) a patient summary enabler based on the EU project "European patient Summary Open Source services" (epSOS SE) supporting patient mobility and the offering of interoperable services, and c) a Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) enabler (PACS SE) based on the dcm4che open source system for the support of medical imaging functionality. The EHR SE follows the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) V2.0 and supports the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profiles (recently awarded in Connectathon 2015). These three FI-STAR platform enablers are designed to facilitate the deployment of innovative applications and value added services in the health care sector. They can be downloaded from the FI-STAR cataloque website. Work in progress focuses in the validation and evaluation scenarios for the proving and demonstration of the usability, applicability and adaptability of the proposed enablers.

  18. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  19. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...... in terms of developing relevant land information policies in the Latin American and Caribbean region. The focus is on establishing an awareness of the value of integrating the land administration/cadastre/land registration function with the topographic mapping function. In other words: the value...

  20. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  1. Enabling distributed petascale science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovski, Andrew; Bharathi, Shishir; Bresnahan, John

    2007-01-01

    Petascale science is an end-to-end endeavour, involving not only the creation of massive datasets at supercomputers or experimental facilities, but the subsequent analysis of that data by a user community that may be distributed across many laboratories and universities. The new SciDAC Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Science (CEDPS) is developing tools to support this end-to-end process. These tools include data placement services for the reliable, high-performance, secure, and policy-driven placement of data within a distributed science environment; tools and techniques for the construction, operation, and provisioning of scalable science services; and tools for the detection and diagnosis of failures in end-to-end data placement and distributed application hosting configurations. In each area, we build on a strong base of existing technology and have made useful progress in the first year of the project. For example, we have recently achieved order-of-magnitude improvements in transfer times (for lots of small files) and implemented asynchronous data staging capabilities; demonstrated dynamic deployment of complex application stacks for the STAR experiment; and designed and deployed end-to-end troubleshooting services. We look forward to working with SciDAC application and technology projects to realize the promise of petascale science

  2. Enabling immersive simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  3. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  4. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  5. Simulation enabled safeguards assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Robert; Bjornard, Trond; Larson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wire-frame construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed. (authors)

  6. SciQL: array data processing inside an RDBMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Kersten, M.; Manegold, S.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific discoveries increasingly rely on the ability to efficiently grind massive amounts of experimental data using database technologies. To bridge the gap between the needs of the Data-Intensive Research fields and the current DBMS technologies, we have introduced SciQL (pronounced as

  7. Evaluation of RDBMS packages for use in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, C. G.; Davenhall, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Tabular data sets arise in many areas of astronomical data analysis, from raw data (such as photon event lists) to final results (such as source catalogs). The Starlink catalog access and reporting package, SCAR, was originally developed to handle IRAS data and it has been the principal relational DBMS in the Starlink software collection for several years. But SCAR has many limitations and is VMS-specific, while Starlink is in transition from VMS to Unix. Rather than attempt a major re-write of SCAR for Unix, it seemed more sensible to see whether any existing database packages are suitable for general astronomical use. The authors first drew up a list of desirable properties for such a system and then used these criteria to evaluate a number of packages, both free ones and those commercially available. It is already clear that most commercial DBMS packages are not very well suited to the requirements; for example, most cannot carry out efficiently even fairly basic operations such as joining two catalogs on an approximate match of celestial positions. This paper reports the results of the evaluation exercise and notes the problems in using a standard DBMS package to process scientific data. In parallel with this the authors have started to develop a simple database engine that can handle tabular data in a range of common formats including simple direct-access files (such as SCAR and Exosat DBMS tables) and FITS tables (both ASCII and binary).

  8. SciQL: Array Data Processing Inside an RDBMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); M.L. Kersten (Martin); S. Manegold (Stefan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractScientific discoveries increasingly rely on the ability to efficiently grind massive amounts of experimental data using database technologies. To bridge the gap between the needs of the Data-Intensive Research fields and the current DBMS technologies, we have introduced SciQL (pronounced

  9. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  10. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr. (.,; .)

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological

  11. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characterized...... aware. Mobile users frequently follow the same route to a destination as they did during previous trips to the destination, and the route and destination constitute important aspects of the context for a range of services. This paper presents key concepts underlying a software component that identifies...

  12. Geo-Enabled, Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    We are witnessing the emergence of a global infrastructure that enables the widespread deployment of geo-enabled, mobile services in practice. At the same time, the research community has also paid increasing attention to data management aspects of mobile services. This paper offers me...

  13. Toward genome-enabled mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbett, David S; Stajich, Jason E; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    Genome-enabled mycology is a rapidly expanding field that is characterized by the pervasive use of genome-scale data and associated computational tools in all aspects of fungal biology. Genome-enabled mycology is integrative and often requires teams of researchers with diverse skills in organismal mycology, bioinformatics and molecular biology. This issue of Mycologia presents the first complete fungal genomes in the history of the journal, reflecting the ongoing transformation of mycology into a genome-enabled science. Here, we consider the prospects for genome-enabled mycology and the technical and social challenges that will need to be overcome to grow the database of complete fungal genomes and enable all fungal biologists to make use of the new data.

  14. How GNSS Enables Precision Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Precision farming: Feeding a Growing Population Enables Those Who Feed the World. Immediate and Ongoing Needs - population growth (more to feed) - urbanization (decrease in arable land) Double food production by 2050 to meet world demand. To meet thi...

  15. Tuning Cu dopant of Zn 0.5 Cd 0.5 S nanocrystals enables high-performance photocatalytic H 2 evolution from water splitting under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Zongwei; Zhang, Bingkai; Zheng, Jiaxin; Yuan, Sheng; Zhuo, Zengqing; Meng, Xianguang; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Yang, Wanli; Wang, Lin. -Wang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shufeng; Gong, Qihuang; Li, Jun; Liu, Fu. -Sheng; Pan, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Cu-doping into Zn1-xCdxS can greatly enhance the photocatalytic H2 evolution from water splitting under visible-light irradiation. However, it is still controversial for how the Cu-dopant improves this performance. Here, we report that appropriate Cu-doped Zn0.5Cd0.5S nanocrystals reach 21.4 mmol/h/g of H2 evolution rate without cocatalyst in the visible-light region, which is also 2.8 times as high as that of the undoped counterpart, and the corresponding apparent quantum efficiency is 18.8% at 428 nm. It is firstly confirmed that the Cu2+ changes into Cu+ after being doped by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). We theoretically propose that the transformation of 2Cu2+ to 2Cu+ results in one adjacent S2- vacancy (VS) in host during the doping process, while the Cu+-dopant and VS attract the photoexcited holes and electrons, respectively. Accordingly, the photocatalytic activity is improved due to the enhanced separation of photoexcited carriers accompanied with the enhanced light absorption resulting from the Cu+-dopant and 2Cu+/VS complex as possible active site for photocatalytic H2 evolution.

  16. OGC® Sensor Web Enablement Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Percivall

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a high-level overview of and architecture for the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standards activities that focus on sensors, sensor networks, and a concept called the “Sensor Web”. This OGC work area is known as Sensor Web Enablement (SWE. This article has been condensed from "OGC® Sensor Web Enablement: Overview And High Level Architecture," an OGC White Paper by Mike Botts, PhD, George Percivall, Carl Reed, PhD, and John Davidson which can be downloaded from http://www.opengeospatial.org/pt/15540. Readers interested in greater technical and architecture detail can download and read the OGC SWE Architecture Discussion Paper titled “The OGC Sensor Web Enablement Architecture” (OGC document 06-021r1, http://www.opengeospatial.org/pt/14140.

  17. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    2004-01-01

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characterized...... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. It is therefore particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context aware.......Mobile users frequently follow the same route to a destination as they did during previous trips to the destination, and the route and destination are important aspects of the context for a range of services. This paper presents key concepts underlying a software component that discovers the routes of a user...

  18. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  19. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  20. Venture Capitalist Enabled Entrepreneurial Mentoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrawal, Anirudh

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally the success of a venture capital model has been anchored around two dimensions‚ namely equity as a trade for investment and start-up valuation and profitable exits. Scholars have focused less on the inter-organizational interaction between the venture capital (VC) and start......, have entrepreneurs as investors, and that engage frequently with investees over managerial and market issues. Using these cases, this study proposes an antecedent‚ action and outcome model of venture capital enabled entrepreneurial mentoring in India. This model can be expanded in the global context....

  1. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  2. Education: A Joint Transformation Enabler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Renita

    2003-01-01

    ... in an organization not known for its adaptability. Underlying the pursuit of transformational concepts necessary to respond to 21st century challenges is an emphasis on joint operations and doctrine...

  3. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  4. Spatially enabling the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Stephen Weeramanthri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article we offer the view that greater utilisation of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike.In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high and low-resource settings.

  5. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  6. Cyber-Enabled Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Tony; Jameson, Leland

    2007-01-01

    It is often said that numerical simulation is third in the group of three ways to explore modern science: theory, experiment and simulation. Carefully executed modern numerical simulations can, however, be considered at least as relevant as experiment and theory. In comparison to physical experimentation, with numerical simulation one has the numerically simulated values of every field variable at every grid point in space and time. In comparison to theory, with numerical simulation one can explore sets of very complex non-linear equations such as the Einstein equations that are very difficult to investigate theoretically. Cyber-enabled scientific discovery is not just about numerical simulation but about every possible issue related to scientific discovery by utilizing cyberinfrastructure such as the analysis and storage of large data sets, the creation of tools that can be used by broad classes of researchers and, above all, the education and training of a cyber-literate workforce

  7. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Shao, Jingting; Pemsel, Sofia

    While corporate culture plays a significant role in the success of any corporation, governance and “governmentality” not only determine how business should be conducted, but also define the policies and procedures organizations follow to achieve business functions and goals. In their book......, Organizational Enablers for Project Governance, Ralf Müller, Jingting Shao, and Sofia Pemsel examine the interaction of governance and governmentality in various types of companies and demonstrate how these factors drive business success and influence project work, efficiency, and profitability. The data...... for the studies was collected through interviews with six companies in Sweden and China and a global web-based questionnaire that garnered 208 responses. Using this data the authors conducted four studies, employing various research methodologies, to investigate the different systems of governance...

  8. Rotational propulsion enabled by inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, François; Pak, On Shun; Zhu, LaiLai; Brandt, Luca; Lauga, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The fluid mechanics of small-scale locomotion has recently attracted considerable attention, due to its importance in cell motility and the design of artificial micro-swimmers for biomedical applications. Most studies on the topic consider the ideal limit of zero Reynolds number. In this paper, we investigate a simple propulsion mechanism --an up-down asymmetric dumbbell rotating about its axis of symmetry-- unable to propel in the absence of inertia in a Newtonian fluid. Inertial forces lead to continuous propulsion for all finite values of the Reynolds number. We study computationally its propulsive characteristics as well as analytically in the small-Reynolds-number limit. We also derive the optimal dumbbell geometry. The direction of propulsion enabled by inertia is opposite to that induced by viscoelasticity.

  9. Key Enabling Technologies for Virtual Private Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Jeffrey M.; Cohen, David; Kaliski, Burton S.

    The concept of a virtual private cloud (VPC) has emerged recently as a way of managing information technology resources so that they appear to be operated for a single organization from a logical point of view, but may be built from underlying physical resources that belong to the organization, an external service provider, or a combination of both. Several technologies are essential to the effective implementation of a VPC. Virtual data centers provide the insulation that sets one organization's virtual resources apart from those of other organizations and from the underlying physical infrastructure. Virtual applications collect those resources into separately manageable units. Policy-based deployment and policy compliance offer a means of control and verification of the operation of the virtual applications across the virtual data centers. Finally, service management integration bridges across the underlying resources to give an overall, logical and actionable view. These key technologies enable cloud providers to offer organizations the cost and efficiency benefits of cloud computing as well as the operational autonomy and flexibility to which they have been accustomed.

  10. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  11. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  12. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  13. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  14. Enabler for the agile virtual enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas; Wippel, Gerald

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, a new approach for a flexible low-cost Internet extended enterprise (project FLoCI-EE) will be presented. FLoCI-EE is a project in the fifth framework program of the European commission with 8 partners from 4 countries, which started in January 2001 and will be finished in December 2003. The main objective of FLoCI-EE is the development of a software prototype, which enables flexible enterprise cooperation with the aim to design, manufacture and sell products commonly, independent of enterprise borderlines. The needed IT-support includes functions of product data management (PDM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, existing solutions are too expensive and inflexible to be of use under current turbulent market conditions. The second part of this paper covers the item Web Services, because in the role-specific support approach of FLoCI-EE, there are user- interface-components, which are tailored for specific roles in an enterprise. These components integrate automatically the services of the so-called basic-components, and the externally offered Web Services like UDDI.

  15. Nanomaterial-enabled membranes for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogensues, Adam Roy

    Incorporating engineered nanomaterials as components of synthetic membranes can improve their separation performance and endow membranes with additional functions. This work explores two approaches to the design of membranes modified with nanomaterials. In the first chapter, exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP) decorated with gold nanoparticles were embedded in a polysulfone matrix to fabricate phase inversion nanocomposite membranes. The cast membranes were evaluated as flow-through membrane reactors in experiments on the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The nanocomposite membranes were not as catalytically efficient as those fabricated by modifying anodized alumina membranes polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) containing gold nanoparticles. However, because of the facility of membrane casting by phase inversion and new opportunities enabled by the demonstrated hierarchy-based approach to nanocomposite membrane design, such membrane may hold commercial promise. In the second part of the study, the practicability of PEM-based nanofiltration was evaluated under conditions of precipitative fouling (i.e. scaling) by calcium sulfate. Polyelectrolytes were deposited onto 50 kDa polyethersulfone membranes to create PEM-based nanofiltration membranes. The prepared membranes were compared with the commercial NF270 membrane in terms of flux and rejection performance, as well as the morphology of gypsum crystals formed on the membrane surface. None of the PEM coatings tested inhibited scale formation.

  16. Innovation Enablers for Innovation Teams - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    This review consolidates research on innovation enablers for innovation teams, defined within this research as factors that enable a crossfunctional team within an organization to conduct innovation work, to provide a deeper understanding of what factors enable innovation teams to conduct innovation work, which means that this research involves three areas to provide a holistic picture: the organizational context, the team itself, and the individuals within the innovation team. A systematic d...

  17. An internet enabled impact limiter material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an internet enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The techniques used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience. (authors)

  18. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience

  19. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  20. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Here, line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  1. Semantic Sensor Web Enablement for COAST Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that facilitates discovery and integration of...

  2. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamchand, S.S.; Sony, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  3. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  4. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    2004-01-01

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characterized...

  5. Competitive intelligence as an enabler for firm competitiveness: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview, from literature, about how competitive intelligence can be an enabler towards a firm’s competitiveness. This overview is done under the background of intense global competition that firms are currently experiencing. This paper used a qualitative content analysis as a data collection methodology on all identified journal articles on competitive intelligence and firm competitiveness. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability and trustworthiness, peer-reviewed journal articles and triangulation were used. The paper found that competitive intelligence is an important enabler of firm competitiveness. The findings from this paper will assist business managers to understand and improve their outlook of competitive intelligence as an enabler of firm competitiveness and will be of great academic value.

  6. The Grid-Enabled NMR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawenda, M.; Meyer, N.; Stroinski, M.; Popenda, L.; Gdaniec, Z.; Adamiak, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    The laboratory equipment used for experimental work is very expensive and unique as well. Only big regional or national centers could afford to purchase and use it, but on a very limited scale. That is a real problem that disqualifies all other research groups not having direct access to these instruments. Therefore the proposed framework plays a crucial role in equalizing the chances of all research groups. The Virtual Laboratory (VLab) project focuses its activity on embedding laboratory equipments in grid environments (handling HPC and visualization), touching some crucial issues not solved yet. In general the issues concern the standardization of the laboratory equipment definition to treat it as a simple grid resource, supporting the end user under the term of the workflow definition, introducing the accounting issues and prioritizing jobs which follow experiments on equipments. Nowadays, we have a lot of various equipments, which can be accessed remotely via network, but only on the way allowing the local management console/display to move through the network to make a simpler access. To manage an experimental and post-processing data as well as store them in a organized way, a special Digital Science Library was developed. The project delivers a framework to enable the usage of many different scientific facilities. The physical layer of the architecture includes the existing high-speed network like PIONIER in Poland, and the HPC and visualization infrastructure. The application, in fact the framework, can be used in all experimental disciplines, where access to physical equipments are crucial, e.g., chemistry (spectrometer), radio astronomy (radio telescope), and medicine (CAT scanner). The poster presentation will show how we deployed the concept in chemistry, supporting these disciplines with grid environment and embedding the Bruker Avance 600 MHz and Varian 300 MHz spectrometers. (author)

  7. Enabled Masses: Challenge and Trust within Modern Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    technologies, asserting that social networks act as a catalyst for change and that mobile technology presents a challenge to future operations in terms of...increased scrutiny. Senior military leaders need to understand and appreciate the human processes underlying social networks as well as why this...medium can empower the many to challenge the few. This paper explores three elements of the rise of technologically enabled social networks . It first

  8. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  9. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses of small...

  10. Intrusion Detection in Bluetooth Enabled Mobile Phones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nair, Kishor Krishnan

    2015-11-23

    Full Text Available Bluetooth plays a major role in expanding global spread of wireless technology. This predominantly happens through Bluetooth enabled mobile phones, which cover almost 60% of the Bluetooth market. Although Bluetooth mobile phones are equipped...

  11. Web Enabled DROLS Verity TopicSets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tong, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this effort has been the design and development of automatically generated TopicSets and HTML pages that provide the basis of the required search and browsing capability for DTIC's Web Enabled DROLS System...

  12. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  13. Taxonomy Enabled Discovery (TED), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal addresses the NASA's need to enable scientific discovery and the topic's requirements for: processing large volumes of data, commonly available on the...

  14. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  15. Paradoxical Leadership to Enable Strategic Agility

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. W.; Andriopoulos, C.; Smith, W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Strategic agility evokes contradictions, such as stability-flexibility, commitment-change, and established routines-novel approaches. These competing demands pose challenges that require paradoxical leadership—practices seeking creative, both/and solutions that can enable fast-paced, adaptable decision making. Why is managing paradox critical to strategic agility? And which practices enable leaders to effectively manage tensions? This article describes the paradoxical nature of strategic agil...

  16. Integrated Photonics Enabled by Slow Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Chen, Yuntian; Ek, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources.......In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources....

  17. Hydrologic Prediction Through Earthcube Enabled Hydrogeophysical Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, D.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate prediction of hydrologic processes is contingent on the successful interaction of multiple components, including (1) accurate conceptual and numerical models describing physical, chemical and biological processes (2) a numerical framework for integration of such processes and (3) multidisciplinary temporal data streams which feeds such models. Over the past ten years the main focus in the hydrogeophysical community has been the advancement and developments of conceptual and numerical models. While this advancement still poses numerous challenges (e.g. the in silico modeling of microbiological processes and the coupling of models across different interfaces) there is now a fairly good high level understanding of the types, scales of and interplay between processes. In parallel with this advancement there have been rapid developments in data acquisition capabilities (ranging from satellite based remote sensing to low cost sensor networks) and the associated cyberinfrastructure which allows for mash ups of data from heterogeneous and independent sensor networks. The tools for this in generally have come from outside the hydrogeophysical community - partly these are specific scientific tools developed through NSF, DOE and NASA funding, and partly these are general web2.0 tools or tools developed under commercial initiatives (e.g. the IBM Smarter Planet initiative). One challenge facing the hydrogeophysical community is how to effectively harness all these tools to develop hydrologic prediction tools. One of the primary opportunities for this is the NSF funded EarthCube effort (http://earthcube.ning.com/ ). The goal of EarthCube is to transform the conduct of research by supporting the development of community-guided cyberinfrastructure to integrate data and information for knowledge management across the Geosciences. Note that Earthcube is part of a larger NSF effort (Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century (CIF21), and that Earthcube is driven by the vision

  18. Sparsity enabled cluster reduced-order models for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Eurika; Morzyński, Marek; Daviller, Guillaume; Kutz, J. Nathan; Brunton, Bingni W.; Brunton, Steven L.

    2018-01-01

    Characterizing and controlling nonlinear, multi-scale phenomena are central goals in science and engineering. Cluster-based reduced-order modeling (CROM) was introduced to exploit the underlying low-dimensional dynamics of complex systems. CROM builds a data-driven discretization of the Perron-Frobenius operator, resulting in a probabilistic model for ensembles of trajectories. A key advantage of CROM is that it embeds nonlinear dynamics in a linear framework, which enables the application of standard linear techniques to the nonlinear system. CROM is typically computed on high-dimensional data; however, access to and computations on this full-state data limit the online implementation of CROM for prediction and control. Here, we address this key challenge by identifying a small subset of critical measurements to learn an efficient CROM, referred to as sparsity-enabled CROM. In particular, we leverage compressive measurements to faithfully embed the cluster geometry and preserve the probabilistic dynamics. Further, we show how to identify fewer optimized sensor locations tailored to a specific problem that outperform random measurements. Both of these sparsity-enabled sensing strategies significantly reduce the burden of data acquisition and processing for low-latency in-time estimation and control. We illustrate this unsupervised learning approach on three different high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems from fluids with increasing complexity, with one application in flow control. Sparsity-enabled CROM is a critical facilitator for real-time implementation on high-dimensional systems where full-state information may be inaccessible.

  19. Nanomaterial-Enabled Wearable Sensors for Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Swetha, Puchakayala; Zhu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Highly sensitive wearable sensors that can be conformably attached to human skin or integrated with textiles to monitor the physiological parameters of human body or the surrounding environment have garnered tremendous interest. Owing to the large surface area and outstanding material properties, nanomaterials are promising building blocks for wearable sensors. Recent advances in the nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors including temperature, electrophysiological, strain, tactile, electrochemical, and environmental sensors are presented in this review. Integration of multiple sensors for multimodal sensing and integration with other components into wearable systems are summarized. Representative applications of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors for healthcare, including continuous health monitoring, daily and sports activity tracking, and multifunctional electronic skin are highlighted. Finally, challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives in the field of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    2004-01-01

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characterized...... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. It is therefore particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context aware.Mobile...

  1. Enablers & Barriers for Realizing Modularity Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Thyssen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    far less attention compared to the theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems. Harvesting the full potential of modularization, particularly in relation to product development agility, depends on more than an optimal architecture. Key enablers in this context...... are the organizational and systems related aspects. Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers with regard to obtaining the full...

  2. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  3. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  4. Improving prospects for digitally enabled livelihoods among ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving prospects for digitally enabled livelihoods among marginalized communities in Egypt. Egypt's limited economic growth and high ... Specifically, the project will develop the first high quality, localized, and partially Arabized curriculum focused on creating digital and business skills. This curriculum could eventually ...

  5. Enabling DRM-preserving Digital content Redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan Nair, S.; Popescu, B.C.; Gamage, C.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of online digital content distribution has involved a limited number of centralised distributors selling protected contents and licenses authorising the use of the se contents, to consumers. In this paper, we extend this model by introducing a security scheme that enables

  6. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the ... Impact of implementing the Palestinian banking law on the performance of the private sector [Arabic language]. Documents. Impact of the commercial agents law ...

  7. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, and their extreme dependence on foreign assistance and Israeli-controlled customs revenues, had led to the conclusion that the Palestinian ...

  8. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  9. Extreme Networks' 10-Gigabit Ethernet enables

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    " Extreme Networks, Inc.'s 10-Gigabit switching platform enabled researchers to transfer one Terabyte of information from Vancouver to Geneva across a single network hop, the world's first large-scale, end-to-end transfer of its kind" (1/2 page).

  10. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 [WC Docket No. 04-36; FCC 09-40] IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date... Internet Protocol (VoIP) service the discontinuance obligations that apply to domestic non-dominant...

  11. Nanotechnologv Enabled Biological and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact almost all economic sectors: one of the most important and with great potential is the health/medical sector. - Nanomaterials for drug delivery - Early warning sensors - Implantable devices - Artificial parts with improved characteristics Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers show promise for use in sensor development, electrodes and other biomedical applications.

  12. Fusion-Enabled Pluto Orbiter and Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The Pluto orbiter mission proposed here is credible and exciting. The benefits to this and all outer-planet and interstellar-probe missions are difficult to overstate. The enabling technology, Direct Fusion Drive, is a unique fusion engine concept based on the Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) fusion reactor under development at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The truly game-changing levels of thrust and power in a modestly sized package could integrate with our current launch infrastructure while radically expanding the science capability of these missions. During this Phase I effort, we made great strides in modeling the engine efficiency, thrust, and specific impulse and analyzing feasible trajectories. Based on 2D fluid modeling of the fusion reactors outer stratum, its scrape-off-layer (SOL), we estimate achieving 2.5 to 5 N of thrust for each megawatt of fusion power, reaching a specific impulse, Isp, of about 10,000 s. Supporting this model are particle-in-cell calculations of energy transfer from the fusion products to the SOL electrons. Subsequently, this energy is transferred to the ions as they expand through the magnetic nozzle and beyond. Our point solution for the Pluto mission now delivers 1000 kg of payload to Pluto orbit in 3.75 years using 7.5 N constant thrust. This could potentially be achieved with a single 1 MW engine. The departure spiral from Earth orbit and insertion spiral to Pluto orbit require only a small portion of the total delta-V. Departing from low Earth orbit reduces mission cost while increasing available mission mass. The payload includes a lander, which utilizes a standard green propellant engine for the landing sequence. The lander has about 4 square meters of solar panels mounted on a gimbal that allows it to track the orbiter, which beams 30 to 50 kW of power using a 1080 nm laser. Optical communication provides dramatically high data rates back to Earth. Our mass modeling investigations revealed that if

  13. METODE RESET PASSWORD LEVEL ROOT PADA RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RDBMS MySQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taqwa Hariguna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Database merupakan sebuah hal yang penting untuk menyimpan data, dengan database organisasi akan mendapatkan keuntungan dalam beberapa hal, seperti kecepatan akases dan mengurangi penggunaan kertas, namun dengan implementasi database tidak jarang administrator database lupa akan password yang digunakan, hal ini akan mempersulit dalam proses penangganan database. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali cara mereset password level root pada relational database management system MySQL.

  14. Femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yathish Shivanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the efficacy and advantages of femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty (FLEK over conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in advanced keratoconus. Materials and Methods: Detailed review of literature of published randomized controlled trials of operative techniques in PKP and FLEK. Results: Fifteen studies were identified, analyzed, and compared with our outcome. FLEK was found to have better outcome in view of better and earlier stabilization uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and better refractive outcomes with low astigmatism as compared with conventional PKP. Wound healing also was noticed to be earlier, enabling early suture removal in FLEK. Conclusions: Studies relating to FLEK have shown better results than conventional PKP, however further studies are needed to assess the safety and intraoperative complications of the procedure.

  15. Enabling ICU patients to die at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Emma; Bates, Lucy; Liderth, Emma; Jones, Samantha; Sheen, Sheryl; Ginty, Andrew; Northmore, Melanie

    2014-10-07

    There is often an overlap between intensive care medicine and palliative medicine. When all curative treatment options have been explored, keeping the patient comfortable and free from pain is the main concern for healthcare practitioners. Patient autonomy in end of life decisions has not been encouraged in the intensive care unit (ICU), until now, because of its specialised and technical nature. Staff at the Royal Bolton Hospital have broken down the barriers to enabling ICU patients to die in their own homes, and have developed a system of collaborative working that can help to fulfil a patient's final wish to go home. This article describes how ICU staff developed a process that enabled two ventilated patients to be transferred home for end of life care.

  16. Enabling Sustainable Improvement in IT Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Renaud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Firms must embrace processes that enable the information technology (IT function to become a strategic partner to the business functions it serves. Process ambidexterity is a way for processes to be augmented to improve alignment and adaptability to new markets and technologies. By applying the principles of process ambidexterity, the key elements required for sustainable change within the capabilities that comprise the IT function of the firm are identified. Furthermore, the scope and depth of the dysfunction that is widespread across large firms that depend upon IT are outlined to provide a contextual basis for presenting a solution framework to address sustainable change. This framework for sustainable change is of primary benefit to IT executives seeking to systematically transform the IT function and enable IT entrepreneurship.

  17. Enabling technologies for petascale electromagnetic accelerator simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L-Q; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge Lixin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations

  18. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  20. Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Enabling the Business of Agriculture (EBA) 2017, the third report in the EBA series, offers insights into how laws and regulations affect private sector development for agribusinesses, including producer organizations and other agricultural entrepreneurs. Globally comparable data and scored indicators encourage regulations that ensure safety and quality of agricultural inputs, goods and services but are not too costly or burdensome. The goal is to facilitate the operation of agribusines...

  1. Enabling Research Tools for Sustained Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Allison K.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Jasinski, Michael F.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Waliser, Duane Edward; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program Sustained Assessment process benefits from long-term investments in Earth science research that enable the scientific community to conduct assessment-relevant science. To this end, NASA initiated several research programs over the past five years to support the Earth observation community in developing indicators, datasets, research products, and tools to support ongoing and future National Climate Assessments. These activities complement NASA's ongoing Earth science research programs. One aspect of the assessment portfolio funds four "enabling tools" projects at NASA research centers. Each tool leverages existing capacity within the center, but has developed tailored applications and products for National Climate Assessments. The four projects build on the capabilities of a global atmospheric reanalysis (MERRA-2), a continental U.S. land surface reanalysis (NCA-LDAS), the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), and a Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES). Here, we provide a brief overview of each enabling tool, highlighting the ways in which it has advanced assessment science to date. We also discuss how the assessment community can access and utilize these tools for National Climate Assessments and other sustained assessment activities.

  2. Liquid crystal-enabled electrophoresis and electro-osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    This work presents a comparative review of electrokinetic effects in isotropic and anisotropic (liquid crystalline) electrolytes. A special emphasis is placed on nonlinear electrokinetics with ow velocities growing as the square of the applied electric field. This phenomenon allows one to drive steady motion of particles and uids with an alternating-current electric field. In isotropic electrolytes, spatial separation of charges that leads to nonlinear electrokinetics is achieved through the properties of the solid component (typically a metal). If the electrolyte is a liquid crystal (LC), its anisotropic properties enable separation of charges in the presence of orientational distortions and under the action of an electric field. LC anisotropy leads to electrically-driven motion of colloidal particles (liquid crystal-enabled electrophoresis, LCEP) and of the LC itself (liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis, LCEO). The induced charge is proportional to the applied field, director gradients, anisotropy of conductivity, and anisotropy of permittivity. The electric field acts on the space separated charges to drive the electro-osmotic ows. If the director deformations lack mirror symmetry, the LC enables electrophoresis of free particles and electro-osmotic pumping. The advantage of LCenabled electrokinetics (LCEK) is that its mechanism lifts many restrictions imposed on the properties of the solid counterpart. For example, LCEP can transport particles even if these particles are deprived of any surface charges; the particles can even be a uid immiscible with a LC or a gas bubble. In a similar fashion, LCEO can drive ows even if there are no oating electrodes. Ionic currents in LCs which have been traditionally considered an undesirable feature in displays offer a broad platform for versatile applications in electrokinetics of particles and uids, micropumping and mixing, and lab-on-a-chip analysis...

  3. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  4. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  5. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  6. Identifying enabling management practices for employee engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Joubert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A currently emerging viewpoint is that today's management practices no longer add value to organisations. The focus of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the scholarly literature on management practices that could be related to employee engagement. Research purpose: This study searched for evidence in support of the notion of a management value chain, and enabling management practices within each value chain component that could relate to employee engagement. Motivation for the study: An alternative management value chain model could contribute towards a better understanding of which management practices may potentially impact employee engagement. Research design, approach, and method: This is a non-empirical (theoretical study, based on a systematic, in-depth literature review to identify the key management components and enabling practices within this proposed management value chain. Scholarly research databases were sourced for relevant peer reviewed research conducted since 1990, not excluding important contributions prior to 1990. The literature was systematically searched, selected, studied, and contextualized within this study. Main findings: Support was found for the notion of a management value chain, for enabling management practices within each proposed management value chain component, and it was also established these management practices indeed have an impact on employee engagement. Practical/managerial/implications: The possibility that management work can be presented as a generic management value chain allows managers to approach engaging management practices more systematically. Contribution/value-add: This study highlights the importance of some management practices that have never been seen as part of management work.

  7. Small-RPS Enabled Mars Rover Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2004-01-01

    Both the MER and the Mars Pathfinder rovers operated on Mars in an energy-limited mode, since the solar panels generated power during daylight hours only. At other times the rovers relied on power stored in batteries. In comparison, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) offer a power-enabled paradigm, where power can be generated for long mission durations (measured in years), independently from the Sun, and on a continuous basis. A study was performed at PL to assess the feasibility of a small-RPS enabled MER-class rover concept and any associated advantages of its mission on Mars. The rover concept relied on design heritage from MER with two significant changes. First, the solar panels were replaced with two single GPHS module based small-RPSs. Second, the Mossbauer spectroscope was substituted with a laser Raman spectroscope, in order to move towards MEPAG defined astrobiology driven science goals. The highest power requirements were contributed to mobility and telecommunication type operating modes, hence influencing power system sizing. The resulting hybrid power system included two small-RPSs and two batteries. Each small-RPS was assumed to generate 50We of power or 62OWh/sol of energy (BOL), comparable to that of MER. The two 8Ah batteries were considered available during peak power usage. Mission architecture, power trades, science instruments, data, communication, thermal and radiation environments, mobility, mass issues were also addressed. The study demonstrated that a new set of RPS-enabled rover missions could be envisioned for Mars exploration within the next decade, targeting astrobiology oriented science objectives, while powered by 2 to 4 GPHS modules.

  8. Astronomy Enabled by Ares V -- A Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Daniel F.; Langhoff, S.; Worden, S. P.; Thronson, H.; Correll, R.

    2009-01-01

    On April 26th and 27th, 2008, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a two-day weekend workshop entitled "Astronomy Enabled by Ares V.” The primary goal of the workshop was to begin the process of bringing the Ares V designers together with senior representatives of the astronomical community to discuss the feasibility of using the Ares V heavy-lift launch vehicle to enable both new astronomical telescope architectures and new science. When developed in the latter part of the upcoming decade Ares V will be by far the most capable launch vehicle, with mass and volume launch capability many times that now available. The vehicle is understood to be the main workhorse in carrying humans and cargo to the Moon and beyond and, as such, is a key lynchpin for NASA's new space transportation architecture. Participants included experts from academia, industry, and NASA, including representatives of the Constellation architecture. Participants considered, in the context of identified astronomy needs: (1) Are there telescope concepts or missions capable of breakthrough science that are either enabled or significantly enhanced by the capabilities of an Ares V? (2) What demands do large telescopes place on the payload environment of the Ares V, such as mass, volume, fairing shape, cleanliness, acoustics, etc.? (3) What technology and environmental issues need to be addressed to facilitate launching observatories on an Ares V? (4) Is there a trade-off between mass and complexity that could reduce launch risk and, thereby, the cost of building large telescopes? We report on the results of this workshop, which included discussion on the operations model for such large-investment astronomical facilities. Such an operations model might well involve human and or robotic maintenance and servicing, in order to fully capitalize on the science potential of such facilities.

  9. How Autoethnography Enables Sensemaking across Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Frederik; Said Mosleh, Wafa

    2016-01-01

    Building on participatory innovation, and taking a personal and analytical autoethnographic approach we set out to investigate how innovative initiatives emerge in the interaction of multiple stakeholders across different organizations. As researchers, we are interested in understanding the lived......-stakeholder innovation become enabling to recognize and act upon emerging opportunities; through active personal involvement and by the use of an autoethnographic research approach. The aim of the paper is to address the following research questions: How does the involvement of multiple stakeholders across different...

  10. QOS-Enabled Networks Tools and Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiros, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This book discusses the theory of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms in packet networks and shows how to apply them in practice. QOS-Enabled Networks: Tools and Foundations provides an understanding of the theory of QOS mechanisms in packet networks and how to apply them in practice. It explains QOS management features found in modern routers used by Internet Service Providers (ISP) and large companies.  The goal of this book is to provide the background and tools to help network managers and engineers configure production networks for providing services with quality of service (QOS) guarante

  11. Blended Learning: enabling Higher Education Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Matheos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning research and practice have been areas of growth for two decades in Canada, with over 95% of Canadian higher education institutions involved in some form of blended learning. Despite strong evidence based research and practice blended learning, for the most part, has remained at sidelined in Canadian universities. The article argues the need for blended learning to situate itself within the timely and crucial Higher Education Reform (HER agenda. By aligning the affordances of blended learning with the components of HER, blended learning can clearly serve as an enabler for HER.

  12. WSKE: Web Server Key Enabled Cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masone, Chris; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Smith, Sean

    In this paper, we present the design and prototype of a new approach to cookie management: if a server deposits a cookie only after authenticating itself via the SSL handshake, the browser will return the cookie only to a server that can authenticate itself, via SSL, to the same keypair. This approach can enable usable but secure client authentication. This approach can improve the usability of server authentication by clients. This approach is superior to the prior work on Active Cookies in that it defends against both DNS spoofing and IP spoofing—and does not require binding a user's interaction with a server to individual IP addresses.

  13. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V. Ley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future.

  14. Thermodynamic theory of dislocation-enabled plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, J. S.

    2017-11-01

    The thermodynamic theory of dislocation-enabled plasticity is based on two unconventional hypotheses. The first of these is that a system of dislocations, driven by external forces and irreversibly exchanging heat with its environment, must be characterized by a thermodynamically defined effective temperature that is not the same as the ordinary temperature. The second hypothesis is that the overwhelmingly dominant mechanism controlling plastic deformation is thermally activated depinning of entangled pairs of dislocations. This paper consists of a systematic reformulation of this theory followed by examples of its use in analyses of experimentally observed phenomena including strain hardening, grain-size (Hall-Petch) effects, yielding transitions, and adiabatic shear banding.

  15. The role of CORBA in enabling telemedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forslund, D.W.

    1997-07-01

    One of the most powerful tools available for telemedicine is a multimedia medical record accessible over a wide area and simultaneously editable by multiple physicians. The ability to do this through an intuitive interface linking multiple distributed data repositories while maintaining full data integrity is a fundamental enabling technology in healthcare. The author discusses the role of distributed object technology using CORBA in providing this capability including an example of such a system (TeleMed) which can be accessed through the World Wide Web. Issues of security, scalability, data integrity, and useability are emphasized.

  16. Enabling Indoor Location-Based Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura

    Indoor spaces have always attracted interest from different scientific disciplines. Relatively recent interest in indoor settings by computer scientists is driven in part by the increasing use of smartphones, which serve as a platform for service delivery and can generate extensive volumes...... of trajectory data that can be used to study how people actually use indoor spaces. In this dissertation, we contribute partial solutions that address challenges in indoor positioning and indoor trajectory management and analysis. The key enabler of indoor location-based services and indoor movement analysis...... contributions are performed on realworld datasets from Copenhagen Airport (Denmark) and Utrecht Central Station (Netherlands)....

  17. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  18. Principles for enabling deep secondary design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    2017-01-01

    design by analyzing two cases where secondary designers fundamentally change functionality, content and technology complexity level. The first case redesigns a decision model for agile development in an insurance company; the second creates a contingency model for choosing project management tools...... and techniques in a hospital. Our analysis of the two cases leads to the identification of four principles of design implementation that primary designers can apply to enable secondary design and four corresponding design implementation principles that secondary designers themselves need to apply....

  19. Product Line Enabled Intelligent Mobile Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2007-01-01

    Current mobile middleware is designed according to a 'one-size-fits-all' paradigm, which lacks the flexibility for customization and adaptation to different situations, and does not support user-centered application scenarios well. In this paper we describe an ongoing intelligent mobile middleware...... research project called PLIMM that focuses on user-centered application scenarios. PLIMM is designed based on software product line ideas which make it possible for specialized customization and optimization for different purposes and hardware/software platforms. To enable intelligence, the middleware...

  20. High-performance microlasers enable display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Hargis, David E.; Bergstedt, Robert; Dion, Al; Hurtado, Randy; Solone, Paul J.

    1999-08-01

    Recent advances in compact, air-cooled, diode-pumped solid- state visible microlasers have enabled the development of portable laser display systems. In addition to the added benefits of large color gamut, invariant color accuracy, image uniformity, high contrast, and large depth of focus inherent in the microlaser design, the reliability of these all-solid state red-green-blue (RGB) sources make them attractive for display applications. Compact, multi-watt laser modules have been demonstrated for use as a high brightness 'laser light engine' for replacing arc lamps in LCD/DMD type display configurations. Using this 'backlit' approach, a microlaser- based projector has been demonstrated, providing greater than 500 lumens at 1280 X 1024 resolution using reflective AMLCD light valves. Also being developed is an airborne tactical HMD system wherein the laser module is remotely coupled to a subtractive color LCD assembly through an optical fiber to provide a more than 24,000,000 (twenty-four million) cd/m2 luminance for illuminating the LCD assembly. This technology could be applied to a variety of cockpit displays providing sunlight readable illumination for both head-down and head-up backlit display configurations. The advantages of the microlaser technology will enable further applications in other military platforms such as command and control centers, simulators and HMDs. Longer term potential includes high end CAD workstations, entertainment systems, and electronic cinema.

  1. Ultra-precision: enabling our future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Paul; Morantz, Paul

    2012-08-28

    This paper provides a perspective on the development of ultra-precision technologies: What drove their evolution and what do they now promise for the future as we face the consequences of consumption of the Earth's finite resources? Improved application of measurement is introduced as a major enabler of mass production, and its resultant impact on wealth generation is considered. This paper identifies the ambitions of the defence, automotive and microelectronics sectors as important drivers of improved manufacturing accuracy capability and ever smaller feature creation. It then describes how science fields such as astronomy have presented significant precision engineering challenges, illustrating how these fields of science have achieved unprecedented levels of accuracy, sensitivity and sheer scale. Notwithstanding their importance to science understanding, many science-driven ultra-precision technologies became key enablers for wealth generation and other well-being issues. Specific ultra-precision machine tools important to major astronomy programmes are discussed, as well as the way in which subsequently evolved machine tools made at the beginning of the twenty-first century, now provide much wider benefits.

  2. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking

  3. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for enabling advanced traveler information services (EnableATIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report documents policy considerations for Enabling Advanced Traveler Information Services, or EnableATIS. : EnableATIS is the traveler information element of the Dynamic Mobility Applications program, and it provides a framework to : develop mu...

  4. Enabling Indoor Location-Based Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura

    Indoor spaces have always attracted interest from different scientific disciplines. Relatively recent interest in indoor settings by computer scientists is driven in part by the increasing use of smartphones, which serve as a platform for service delivery and can generate extensive volumes...... of trajectory data that can be used to study how people actually use indoor spaces. In this dissertation, we contribute partial solutions that address challenges in indoor positioning and indoor trajectory management and analysis. The key enabler of indoor location-based services and indoor movement analysis...... is a well-functioning positioning system that can be easily deployed in most public places. Different technologies are able to provide indoor positioning with different accuracy and coverage, but it is difficult to find a technology that by itself can provide good positioning in the many different layouts...

  5. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Herrera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments.

  6. Flexibility-enabling Contracts in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    As the share of intermittent renewable energy increases in the generation mix, power systems are exposed to greater levels of uncertainty and risk, which requires planners, policy and business decision makers to incentivise flexibility, that is: their adaptability to unforeseen variations....... Additionally, along with traditional sources, which already enable flexibility, a number of business models, such as thermostat-based demand response, aggregators and small storage providers, are emerging in electricity markets and expected to constitute important sources of flexibility in future decentralised...... power systems. However, due to presence of high transaction costs, relative to the size of resource, the emerging small resources cannot directly participate in an organised electricity market and/or compete. This paper asks the fundamental question of how should the provision of flexibility, as a multi...

  7. Enabling women to achieve their breastfeeding goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebe, Alison M

    2014-03-01

    In mammalian physiology, lactation follows pregnancy, and disruption of this physiology is associated with adverse health outcomes for mother and child. Although lactation is the physiologic norm, cultural norms for infant feeding have changed dramatically over the past century. Breastfeeding initiation fell from 70% in the early 1900s to 22% in 1972. In the past 40 years, rates have risen substantially, to 77% in 2010. Although more mothers are initiating breastfeeding, many report that they do not continue as long as they desire. As reproductive health care experts, obstetricians are uniquely positioned to assist women to make an informed feeding decision, offer anticipatory guidance, support normal lactation physiology, and evaluate and treat breastfeeding complications. Integration of care among the obstetrician, pediatric provider, and lactation consultant may enable more women to achieve their breastfeeding goals, thereby improving health outcomes across two generations.

  8. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  9. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufnagel, Dick [Fermilab

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  10. Enabling plant synthetic biology through genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology seeks to create new biological systems, including user-designed plants and plant cells. These systems can be employed for a variety of purposes, ranging from producing compounds of industrial or therapeutic value, to reducing crop losses by altering cellular responses to pathogens or climate change. To realize the full potential of plant synthetic biology, techniques are required that provide control over the genetic code - enabling targeted modifications to DNA sequences within living plant cells. Such control is now within reach owing to recent advances in the use of sequence-specific nucleases to precisely engineer genomes. We discuss here the enormous potential provided by genome engineering for plant synthetic biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Provision of enabling technology in professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, D K

    2000-06-01

    Multiple-round golf tournaments are designed intentionally to separate individuals' scores as play proceeds. Variance analyses and consideration of individual differences (vs group mean effects) for a sample of professional events confirm that 3-, 4-, and 5-round tournaments show significantly increased variability (though stable means) from first to last rounds. It is argued here that the dispersion of scores increases as play proceeds because the more physically or mentally fit players emerge and continue to perform best. Furthermore, a marginal income analysis indicates that the average gain in earnings from a one-shot improvement in score is approximately $8,000. An interpretation based on fatigue, competition, and stress supports the Professional Golf Association's claim that provision of enabling devices, like a golf cart for disabled players, is also an enhancement and is thus unfair.

  12. Technology enabled evolutions in liquids marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, S.

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation, mergers, changing economic conditions, and downsizing have captured the headlines in the energy industry in recent times. To say that companies have struggled to react to these changes would be an understatement. Huge trading organizations have grown from nothing in a few years, while entire industry segments have been forced to restructure themselves. Information technology has enabled much of this change. By bringing information management out of the back office and onto the trading floors, companies have radically redesigned their work processes. The future promises even faster change, with business focus turning to innovative packaging of services with products, expanding asset bases, and reducing costs. Information technology will fuel this transformation by providing enterprise-wide trading solutions and, ultimately, linking the entire industry into a virtual supply chain. To remain competitive, companies need a strategy to manage information technology as a core asset

  13. Bluetooth-enabled teleradiology: applications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Angela M

    2002-01-01

    Wireless personal area networks and local area networks are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the teleradiology and telemedicine industry. Although there has been much debate about the role that Bluetooth will play in the future of wireless technology, both promoters and doubters acknowledge that Bluetooth will have an impact on networking, even if only as a "niche" product. This article provides an overview of the Bluetooth standard and highlights current and future areas of inclusion for use in a teleradiology environment. The possibilities for Bluetooth in a teleradiology environment without wires are nearly boundless and an overview of current and proposed Bluetooth-enabled radiology equipment and vendors is provided. A comparison of Bluetooth and other wireless technologies is provided, including areas of similarity and potential conflict. Bluetooth and other wireless technologies can not only peacefully coexist but also complement each other and provide enhanced teleradiology services.

  14. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating the potential of an all-wireless aircraft as part of the ECON (Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations using Software Intensive, Networked and Wireless Enabled Architecture) seedling proposal, which is funded by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project, Transformative Aeronautics Concepts (TAC) program, and NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The project consists of a brief effort carried out by a small team in the Electromagnetic Environment Effects (E3) laboratory with the intention of exposing some of the challenges faced by a wireless communication system inside the reflective cavity of an aircraft and to explore potential solutions that take advantage of that environment for constructive gain. The research effort was named EWAIC for "Enabling Wireless Aircraft Intra-communications." The E3 laboratory is a research facility that includes three electromagnetic reverberation chambers and equipment that allow testing and generation of test data for the investigation of wireless systems in reflective environments. Using these chambers, the EWAIC team developed a set of tests and setups that allow the intentional variation of intensity of a multipath field to reproduce the environment of the various bays and cabins of large transport aircraft. This setup, in essence, simulates an aircraft environment that allows the investigation and testing of wireless communication protocols that can effectively be used as a tool to mitigate some of the risks inherent to an aircraft wireless system for critical functions. In addition, the EWAIC team initiated the development of a computational modeling tool to illustrate the propagation of EM waves inside the reflective cabins and bays of aircraft and to obtain quantifiable information regarding the degradation of signals in aircraft subassemblies. The nose landing gear of a UAV CAD model was used

  15. Semantically-Enabled Sensor Plug & Play for the Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, Arne; Maúe, Patrick; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Nüst, Daniel; Malewski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent over the past years. As consequence of these technological advancements, sensors are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. The large variety of available sensor types with often incompatible protocols complicates the integration of sensors into observing systems. The standardized Web service interfaces and data encodings defined within OGC’s Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework make sensors available over the Web and hide the heterogeneous sensor protocols from applications. So far, the SWE framework does not describe how to integrate sensors on-the-fly with minimal human intervention. The driver software which enables access to sensors has to be implemented and the measured sensor data has to be manually mapped to the SWE models. In this article we introduce a Sensor Plug & Play infrastructure for the Sensor Web by combining (1) semantic matchmaking functionality, (2) a publish/subscribe mechanism underlying the SensorWeb, as well as (3) a model for the declarative description of sensor interfaces which serves as a generic driver mechanism. We implement and evaluate our approach by applying it to an oil spill scenario. The matchmaking is realized using existing ontologies and reasoning engines and provides a strong case for the semantic integration capabilities provided by Semantic Web research. PMID:22164033

  16. Vision and operational concept for enabling advanced traveler information services : market readiness assessment (EnableATIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this market readiness assessment is to identify next steps for USDOT to research, demonstrate and advance the objectives of EnableATIS. This will include demonstrating those key concepts that will be within the USDOT and agency sphere ...

  17. Breakthrough Science Enabled by Smallsat Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjian, V.

    2017-12-01

    The recent NRC panel on "Achieving Science with Cubesats" found that "CubeSats have already proven themselves to be an important scientific tool. CubeSats can produce high-value science, as demonstrated by peer-reviewed publications that address decadal survey science goals." While some science is purely related to the size of the collecting aperture, there are plentiful examples of new and exciting experiments that can be achieved using the relatively inexpensive Cubesat platforms. We will present various potential science applications that can benefit from higher bandwidth communication. For example, on or near Earth orbit, Cubesats could provide hyperspectral imaging, gravity field mapping, atmospheric probing, and terrain mapping. These can be achieved either as large constellations of Cubesats or a few Cubesats that provide multi-point observations. Away from the Earth (up to 1AU) astrophysical variability studies, detections of solar particles between the Earth and Venus, mapping near earth objects, and high-speed videos of the Sun will also be enabled by high bandwidth communications.

  18. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  19. DNA Nanotechnology-Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Li, Hua; Wang, Lihua; Gu, Hongzhou; Fan, Chunhai

    2018-02-21

    Over the past decade, we have seen rapid advances in applying nanotechnology in biomedical areas including bioimaging, biodetection, and drug delivery. As an emerging field, DNA nanotechnology offers simple yet powerful design techniques for self-assembly of nanostructures with unique advantages and high potential in enhancing drug targeting and reducing drug toxicity. Various sequence programming and optimization approaches have been developed to design DNA nanostructures with precisely engineered, controllable size, shape, surface chemistry, and function. Potent anticancer drug molecules, including Doxorubicin and CpG oligonucleotides, have been successfully loaded on DNA nanostructures to increase their cell uptake efficiency. These advances have implicated the bright future of DNA nanotechnology-enabled nanomedicine. In this review, we begin with the origin of DNA nanotechnology, followed by summarizing state-of-the-art strategies for the construction of DNA nanostructures and drug payloads delivered by DNA nanovehicles. Further, we discuss the cellular fates of DNA nanostructures as well as challenges and opportunities for DNA nanostructure-based drug delivery.

  20. Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG, X.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with the spatial database so as to make up for the traditional database's disadvantages. In this way, on the one hand, users can take advantages of ORDBMS to store and manage spatial data; on the other hand, if the spatial database is released in the form of Semantic Web, the users could describe a query more concisely with the cognitive pattern which is similar to that of daily life. As a consequence, this methodology enables the benefits of both Semantic Web and the object-relational database (ORDB available. The paper discusses systematically the semantic enriched spatial database's architecture, key technologies and implementation. Subsequently, we demonstrate the function of spatial semantic queries via a practical prototype system. The query results indicate that the method used in this study is feasible.

  1. Enabling scientific workflows in virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  2. Enabling Process Alignment for IT Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D. Bot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available All firms use information technology (IT. Larger firms have IT organizations whose business function is to supply and manage IT infrastructure and applications to support the firm's business objectives. Regardless of whether the IT function has been outsourced or is resident within a firm, the objectives of the IT organization must be aligned to the strategic needs of the business. It is often a challenge to balance the demand for IT against the available supply within the firm. Most IT organizations have little capacity to carry out activities that go beyond the incremental ones that are needed to run the immediate needs of the business. A process-ambidexterity framework for IT improves the IT organization's entrepreneurial ability, which in turn, better aligns the IT function with the business functions in the firm. Process ambidexterity utilizes both process alignment and process adaptability. This article presents a framework for process alignment in IT. This is useful for understanding how the processes in Business Demand Management, a core component of the process-ambidexterity framework for IT, relate to those in IT Governance and IT Supply Chain Management. The framework is presented through three lenses (governance, business, and technology along with real-world examples from major firms in the USA. Enabling process alignment in the IT function, and process ambidexterity overall, benefits those who govern IT, the executives who lead IT, as well as their peers in the business functions that depend on IT.

  3. Enabling technologies for autonomous MAV operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanhawi, M.; Mohamed, A.; Clothier, R.; Palmer, J. L.; Simic, M.; Watkins, S.

    2017-05-01

    The utility of micro air vehicles (MAVs) has expanded significantly in the last decade, and there are now numerous commercial systems available at relatively low cost. This expansion has arisen mainly due to the miniaturisation of flight control systems and advances in energy storage and propulsion technologies. Several emerging applications involve routine operation of MAVs in complex urban environments such as parcel delivery, communications relay and environmental monitoring. However, MAVs currently rely on one or more operators-in-the-loop and, whilst desirable, full autonomous operation has not yet been achieved. In this review paper, autonomous MAV operation in complex environments is explored with conceptualisation for future MAV operation in urban environments. Limitations of current technologies are systematically examined through consideration of the state-of-the-art and future trends. The main limitations challenging the realisation of fully autonomous MAVs are mainly attributed to: computational power, communication and energy storage. These limitations lead to poor sensing and planning capabilities, which are essential components of autonomous MAVs. Possible solutions are explored with goal of enabling MAVs to reliably operate autonomously in urban environments.

  4. Enabling students to make investigations through spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol - KARAKIRIK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spreadsheets are widely used in education to save time and simulate many scenarios in many different disciplines. However, they are not usually employed to provide rich interactions in the class although they provide huge computational powers and relate data in different places. It is argued in this paper that spreadsheets could also be used as an empowering tool for making inferences in the class by enabling students to investigate an open-ended problem, to make discussions about the problem and to share their results by turning a spreadsheet into an empowering tool. Constructivist approach requires students make conjectures and test them through cognitive tools provided such as Dynamic geometry environments. User could be required to investigate an open-ended problem by the help of available macros or templates provided by the instructor in a spreadsheet. It not only motivates the user to participate in the class but also make them think about the problem at hand. Our approach is exemplified through macros prepared for a math class and divisibility features of binomial coefficients were investigated through spreadsheets in this paper.

  5. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  6. Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

  7. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  8. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  9. Integrated and Intelligent Manufacturing: Perspectives and Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubao Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing market competition and advances in technology, more and more countries are prioritizing advanced manufacturing technology as their top priority for economic growth. Germany announced the Industry 4.0 strategy in 2013. The US government launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP in 2011 and the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI in 2014. Most recently, the Manufacturing USA initiative was officially rolled out to further “leverage existing resources... to nurture manufacturing innovation and accelerate commercialization” by fostering close collaboration between industry, academia, and government partners. In 2015, the Chinese government officially published a 10-year plan and roadmap toward manufacturing: Made in China 2025. In all these national initiatives, the core technology development and implementation is in the area of advanced manufacturing systems. A new manufacturing paradigm is emerging, which can be characterized by two unique features: integrated manufacturing and intelligent manufacturing. This trend is in line with the progress of industrial revolutions, in which higher efficiency in production systems is being continuously pursued. To this end, 10 major technologies can be identified for the new manufacturing paradigm. This paper describes the rationales and needs for integrated and intelligent manufacturing (i2M systems. Related technologies from different fields are also described. In particular, key technological enablers, such as the Internet of Things and Services (IoTS, cyber-physical systems (CPSs, and cloud computing are discussed. Challenges are addressed with applications that are based on commercially available platforms such as General Electric (GE’s Predix and PTC’s ThingWorx.

  10. Enabling technology for MEMS and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K; Hierold, Christofer; Korvink, Jan G; Tabata, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    This softcover edition of the eponymous volume from the successful ""Advanced Micro & Nanosystems"" series covers all aspects of fabrication of MEMS under CMOS-compatible conditions from design to implementation.It examines the various routes and methods to combine electronics generated by the CMOS technology with novel micromechanical parts into one-chip solutions. Various approaches, fundamental and technological aspects as well as strategies leading to different types of functionalities and presented in detail.For the practicing engineer as well as MSc and PhD students on MEMS cours

  11. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  12. Enabling spaces in education research: an agenda for impactful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I use an egalitarian political philosophy position to posit the notion of schools as enabling spaces, so as to counter a dis-enabling disaster perspective and promote dialogue ... An enabling schools research agenda could intentionally guide inquiry into that which supports education, where chronic poverty renders society as ...

  13. Digital platforms as enablers for digital transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mokter; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    transformation is crucial. This study aims at exploring how organizations are driven towards transformation in various ways to embrace digital platforms for ideas, technologies, and knowledge. It shows the opportunities and challenges digital platforms bring in organizations. It also highlights underlying......Digital platforms offer new ways for organizations to collaborate with the external environment for ideas, technologies, and knowledge. They provide new possibilities and competence but they also bring new challenges for organizations. Understanding the role of these platforms in digital...... mechanisms and potential outcomes of various digital platforms. The contribution of the submission is valuable for scholars to understand and further explore this area. It provides insight for practitioners to capture value through digital platforms and accelerate the pace of organizations’ digital...

  14. Technology Advances Enabling a New Class of Hybrid Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, A.

    2016-02-01

    Both tethered (ROV) and untethered (AUV) systems have proven to be highly valuable tools for a range of application undersea. Certain enabling technologies coupled with recent advances in robotic systems make it possible to consider supplementing many of the functions performed by these platforms with appropriately designed semi-autonomous vehicles that may be less expensive operate than traditional deep-water ROVs. Such vehicles can be deployed from smaller ships and may lead to sea-floor resident systems able to perform a range of interventions under direct human control when required. These systems are effectively a hybrid cross between ROV and AUV vehicles and poised to enable an important new class of undersea vehicle. It is now possible to radically redefine the meaning of the words "tethered vehicle" to include virtual tethering via acoustic and optical means or through the use of small diameter re-useable tethers, providing not power but only high bandwidth communications. The recent developments at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), paves the way for a derivative vehicle type able to perform a range of interventions in deep water. Such battery-powered, hybrid-tethered vehicles will be able to perform tasks that might otherwise require a conventional ROV. These functions will be possible from less complex ships because of a greatly reduced dependence on large, heavy tethers and associated vehicle handling equipment. In certain applications, such vehicles can be resident within subsea facilities, able to provide operators with near instant access when required. Several key emerging technologies and capabilities make such a vehicle possible. Advances in both acoustic and optical "wireless" underwater communications and mico-tethers as pioneered by the HROV Nereus offer the potential to transform ROV type operations and thus offer planners and designers an important new dimension to subsea robotic intervention

  15. The MIMIC Code Repository: enabling reproducibility in critical care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alistair Ew; Stone, David J; Celi, Leo A; Pollard, Tom J

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility in medical studies is a barrier to the generation of a robust knowledge base to support clinical decision-making. In this paper we outline the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) Code Repository, a centralized code base for generating reproducible studies on an openly available critical care dataset. Code is provided to load the data into a relational structure, create extractions of the data, and reproduce entire analysis plans including research studies. Concepts extracted include severity of illness scores, comorbid status, administrative definitions of sepsis, physiologic criteria for sepsis, organ failure scores, treatment administration, and more. Executable documents are used for tutorials and reproduce published studies end-to-end, providing a template for future researchers to replicate. The repository's issue tracker enables community discussion about the data and concepts, allowing users to collaboratively improve the resource. The centralized repository provides a platform for users of the data to interact directly with the data generators, facilitating greater understanding of the data. It also provides a location for the community to collaborate on necessary concepts for research progress and share them with a larger audience. Consistent application of the same code for underlying concepts is a key step in ensuring that research studies on the MIMIC database are comparable and reproducible. By providing open source code alongside the freely accessible MIMIC-III database, we enable end-to-end reproducible analysis of electronic health records. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  16. Night vision by cuttlefish enables changeable camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Buresch, Kendra C; Fetchko, Thomas; Gardner, Meg; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-12-01

    Because visual predation occurs day and night, many predators must have good night vision. Prey therefore exhibit antipredator behaviours in very dim light. In the field, the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama) assumes camouflaged body patterns at night, each tailored to its immediate environment. However, the question of whether cuttlefish have the perceptual capability to change their camouflage at night (as they do in day) has not been addressed. In this study, we: (1) monitored the camouflage patterns of Sepia officinalis during the transition from daytime to night-time using a natural daylight cycle and (2) tested whether cuttlefish on a particular artificial substrate change their camouflage body patterns when the substrate is changed under dim light (down to starlight, 0.003 lux) in a controlled light field in a dark room setting. We found that cuttlefish camouflage patterns are indeed adaptable at night: animals responded to a change in their visual environment with the appropriate body pattern change. Whether to deceive their prey or predators, cuttlefish use their excellent night vision to perform adaptive camouflage in dim light.

  17. Perceptual categories enable pattern generalization in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, Jordan A; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2013-08-01

    Since Chomsky's pioneering work on syntactic structures, comparative psychologists interested in the study of language evolution have targeted pattern complexity, using formal mathematical grammars, as the key to organizing language-relevant cognitive processes across species. This focus on formal syntactic complexity, however, often disregards the close interaction in real-world signals between the structure of a pattern and its constituent elements. Whether such features of natural auditory signals shape pattern generalization is unknown. In the present paper, we train birds to recognize differently patterned strings of natural signals (song motifs). Instead of focusing on the complexity of the overtly reinforced patterns, we ask how the perceptual groupings of pattern elements influence the generalization pattern knowledge. We find that learning and perception of training patterns is agnostic to the perceptual features of underlying elements. Surprisingly, however, these same features constrain the generalization of pattern knowledge, and thus its broader use. Our results demonstrate that the restricted focus of comparative language research on formal models of syntactic complexity is, at best, insufficient to understand pattern use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Causation of Genuinely Social Costs: Pigou Enabling Coase Through the Causation Principles Underlying Environmental Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Heine (Dirk)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractWhen a producer manufactures a polluting product that is demanded by a consumer, who is causing that pollution? The producer, the consumer, or both? And if the state then imposes policies to mitigate the emissions but the producer passes the abatement costs onto its customers, does

  19. 78 FR 28467 - Regulations Enabling Elections for Certain Transactions Under Section 336(e)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ....336-4(c)(4). This information is required by the IRS to allow certain parties to make a section 336(e... concern that a unilateral election by seller could result in unwanted results or unfair surprise to target... the final regulations significantly reduce the potential for unwanted results or unfair surprise...

  20. Probabilistic Approach to Enable Extreme-Scale Simulations under Uncertainty and System Faults. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knio, Omar [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science

    2017-05-05

    The current project develops a novel approach that uses a probabilistic description to capture the current state of knowledge about the computational solution. To effectively spread the computational effort over multiple nodes, the global computational domain is split into many subdomains. Computational uncertainty in the solution translates into uncertain boundary conditions for the equation system to be solved on those subdomains, and many independent, concurrent subdomain simulations are used to account for this bound- ary condition uncertainty. By relying on the fact that solutions on neighboring subdomains must agree with each other, a more accurate estimate for the global solution can be achieved. Statistical approaches in this update process make it possible to account for the effect of system faults in the probabilistic description of the computational solution, and the associated uncertainty is reduced through successive iterations. By combining all of these elements, the probabilistic reformulation allows splitting the computational work over very many independent tasks for good scalability, while being robust to system faults.

  1. Scientific Data Management Center for Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vouk, Mladen A.

    2013-01-15

    Managing scientific data has been identified by the scientific community as one of the most important emerging needs because of the sheer volume and increasing complexity of data being collected. Effectively generating, managing, and analyzing this information requires a comprehensive, end-to-end approach to data management that encompasses all of the stages from the initial data acquisition to the final analysis of the data. Fortunately, the data management problems encountered by most scientific domains are common enough to be addressed through shared technology solutions. Based on community input, we have identified three significant requirements. First, more efficient access to storage systems is needed. In particular, parallel file system and I/O system improvements are needed to write and read large volumes of data without slowing a simulation, analysis, or visualization engine. These processes are complicated by the fact that scientific data are structured differently for specific application domains, and are stored in specialized file formats. Second, scientists require technologies to facilitate better understanding of their data, in particular the ability to effectively perform complex data analysis and searches over extremely large data sets. Specialized feature discovery and statistical analysis techniques are needed before the data can be understood or visualized. Furthermore, interactive analysis requires techniques for efficiently selecting subsets of the data. Finally, generating the data, collecting and storing the results, keeping track of data provenance, data post-processing, and analysis of results is a tedious, fragmented process. Tools for automation of this process in a robust, tractable, and recoverable fashion are required to enhance scientific exploration. The SDM center was established under the SciDAC program to address these issues. The SciDAC-1 Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center succeeded in bringing an initial set of advanced

  2. Enabling technologies for nanostructuring (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinger, Hermann

    2005-06-01

    Galileo Galilei once said in the 17th century that "anyone who understands geometry can understand everything in this world." But he had never heard of molecules, atoms or even smaller components. These days we would imitate Galileo by saying "anyone who understands the processes inside atoms and molecules understands the world." This nano world has its own unique appeal: something that is invisible to the naked eye, yet has dimensions that the mind still requires images/comparisons to understand, is a source of tremendous fascination. Even if we are a long way from understanding these processes, we now know one thing for certain: these days, decisive technological progress is made in the world of the minuscule. Specific examples of this come from the areas of gene technology, materials research and electronics on a daily basis. As a result, nanotechnologies have become the focal point of research and development - not only in industry but also in politics. For example, in March 2004, the German Federal Government launched the German innovation initiative for nanotechnology under the slogan "Nanotechnology Conquers Markets". According to a press release by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), euro 200 million in funding will be made available to four leading-edge innovations over the next four years. However, there is still some debate about how to define the term "nanotechnology". While some see the essence of nanotechnology as the creation of a large entity from the minutest components by means of partly self-organizing processes, such as car paint consisting of nanoparticles, others simply regard the scale of particles or structures as the area of crucial significance. Scientists set a value of 100 nanometers as the "limit". A BMBF brochure argues: "It [nanotechnology] does not, therefore, represent a basic technology in the classical sense-one with clearly defined parameters. Instead, it describes a new interdisciplinary approach that

  3. Phoenix: Service Oriented Architecture for Information Management the Fawkes Cursor-on-Target Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In order for PostGIS to function, a valid install of the PostgreSQL RDBMS must exist on the target system. The repository service interfaces with... PostgreSQL and PostGIS through a standard Java Database Connector (JDBC) API. Storing Information The underlying PostgreSQL RDBMS ensures that each...automatically by the PostgreSQL RDBMS • uid - The UID for a CoT message • cot_type - The type of CoT message (e.g., t-x-i) • start - A timestamp

  4. EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services (KES-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, J.; Busto, J.; Torguet, R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper recovers and describes a number of major statements with respect to the vision, mission and technological approaches of the Technological Research Project (TRP) "EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services" (project acronym KES-B), which is currently under development at the European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) under contract "16397/02/I- SB". Resulting from the on-going R&D activities, the KES-B project aims are to demonstrate with a prototype system the feasibility of the application of innovative knowledge-based technologies to provide services for easy, scheduled and controlled exploitation of EO resources (e.g.: data, algorithms, procedures, storage, processors, ...), to automate the generation of products, and to support users in easily identifying and accessing the required information or products by using their own vocabulary, domain knowledge and preferences. The ultimate goals of KES-B are summarized in the provision of the two main types of KES services: 1st the Search service (also referred to as Product Exploitation or Information Retrieval; and 2nd the Production service (also referred to as Information Extraction), with the strategic advantage that they are enabled by Knowledge consolidated (formalized) within the system. The KES-B system technical solution approach is driven by a strong commitment for the adoption of industry (XML-based) language standards, aiming to have an interoperable, scalable and flexible operational prototype. In that sense, the Search KES services builds on the basis of the adoption of consolidated and/or emergent W3C semantic-web standards. Remarkably the languages/models Dublin Core (DC), Universal Resource Identifier (URI), Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Ontology Web Language (OWL), and COTS like Protege [1] and JENA [2] are being integrated in the system as building bricks for the construction of the KES based Search services. On the other hand, the Production KES services builds on top of

  5. DNA Nanotechnology-Enabled Interfacial Engineering for Biosensor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dekai; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai

    2018-02-28

    Biosensors represent biomimetic analytical tools for addressing increasing needs in medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, security, and biodefense. Nevertheless, widespread real-world applications of biosensors remain challenging due to limitations of performance, including sensitivity, specificity, speed, and reproducibility. In this review, we present a DNA nanotechnology-enabled interfacial engineering approach for improving the performance of biosensors. We first introduce the main challenges of the biosensing interfaces, especially under the context of controlling the DNA interfacial assembly. We then summarize recent progress in DNA nanotechnology and efforts to harness DNA nanostructures to engineer various biological interfaces, with a particular focus on the use of framework nucleic acids. We also discuss the implementation of biosensors to detect physiologically relevant nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, ions, and other biomarkers. This review highlights promising applications of DNA nanotechnology in interfacial engineering for biosensors and related areas. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry Volume 11 is June 12, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  6. The Role of Markup for Enabling Interoperability in Health Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eMckeever

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability is the faculty of making information systems work together. In this paper we will distinguish a number of different forms that interoperability can take and show how they are realised on a variety of physiological and health care use cases. The last fifteen years has seen the rise of very cheap digital storage both on and off cite. With the advent of the 'Internet of Things' people's expectations are for greater interconnectivity and seamless interoperability. The potential impact these technologies have on healthcare are dramatic: from improved diagnoses through immediate access to a patient's electronic health record, to 'in silico' modeling of organs and early stage drug trials, to predictive medicine based on top-down modeling of disease progression and treatment. We will begin by looking at the underlying technology, classify the various kinds of interoperability that exist in the field, and discuss how they are realised. We conclude with a discussion on future possibilities that big data and further standardizations will enable.

  7. Changing Dielectrics into Multiferroics---Alchemy Enabled by Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlom, Darrell

    2011-03-01

    Ferroelectric ferromagnets are exceedingly rare, fundamentally interesting multiferroic materials. The properties of what few compounds simultaneously exhibit these phenomena pale in comparison to useful ferroelectrics or ferromagnets: their spontaneous polarizations (Ps) or magnetizations (Ms) are smaller by a factor of 1000 or more. The same holds for (magnetic or electric) field-induced multiferroics. Recently, however, Fennie and Rabe proposed a new route to ferroelectric ferromagnets---transforming magnetically ordered insulators that are neither ferroelectric nor ferromagnetic, of which there are many, into ferroelectric ferromagnets using a single control parameter: strain. The system targeted, EuTi O3 , was predicted to simultaneously exhibit strong ferromagnetism (Ms ~ ~ ~7~μB /Eu) and strong ferroelectricity (Ps ~ ~ ~10~ μ C/cm2) under large biaxial compressive strain. These values are orders of magnitude higher than any known ferroelectric ferromagnet and rival the best materials that are solely ferroelectric or ferromagnetic. Hindered by the absence of an appropriate substrate to provide the desired compression, we show 3 both experimentally and theoretically the emergence of a multiferroic state under biaxial tension with the unexpected benefit that even lower misfits are required, thereby enabling higher quality crystalline films. The resulting genesis of a strong ferromagnetic ferroelectric points the way to high temperature manifestations of this spin-phonon coupling mechanism. Our work demonstrates that a single experimental parameter, strain, simultaneously controls multiple order parameters and is a viable alternative tuning parameter to composition for creating multiferroics. C.J. Fennie and K.M. Rabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 267602.

  8. Extending green technology innovations to enable greener fabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahisa, Kenji; Yoo, Young Sun; Fukuda, Hitomi; Minegishi, Yuji; Enami, Tatsuo

    2015-03-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing industry has growing concerns over future environmental impacts as fabs expand and new generations of equipment become more powerful. Especially rare gases supply and price are one of prime concerns for operation of high volume manufacturing (HVM) fabs. Over the past year it has come to our attention that Helium and Neon gas supplies could be unstable and become a threat to HVM fabs. To address these concerns, Gigaphoton has implemented various green technologies under its EcoPhoton program. One of the initiatives is GigaTwin deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography laser design which enables highly efficient and stable operation. Under this design laser systems run with 50% less electric energy and gas consumption compared to conventional laser designs. In 2014 we have developed two technologies to further reduce electric energy and gas efficiency. The electric energy reduction technology is called eGRYCOS (enhanced Gigaphoton Recycled Chamber Operation System), and it reduces electric energy by 15% without compromising any of laser performances. eGRYCOS system has a sophisticated gas flow design so that we can reduce cross-flow-fan rotation speed. The gas reduction technology is called eTGM (enhanced Total gas Manager) and it improves gas management system optimizing the gas injection and exhaust amount based on laser performances, resulting in 50% gas savings. The next steps in our roadmap technologies are indicated and we call for potential partners to work with us based on OPEN INNOVATION concept to successfully develop faster and better solutions in all possible areas where green innovation may exist.

  9. CIDER: Enabling Robustness-Power Tradeoffs on a Computational Eyeglass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Addison; Tun, Yamin; Hu, Pan; Smith-Freedman, Duncan; Ganesan, Deepak; Marlin, Benjamin; Salthouse, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    The human eye offers a fascinating window into an individual's health, cognitive attention, and decision making, but we lack the ability to continually measure these parameters in the natural environment. The challenges lie in: a) handling the complexity of continuous high-rate sensing from a camera and processing the image stream to estimate eye parameters, and b) dealing with the wide variability in illumination conditions in the natural environment. This paper explores the power-robustness tradeoffs inherent in the design of a wearable eye tracker, and proposes a novel staged architecture that enables graceful adaptation across the spectrum of real-world illumination. We propose CIDER, a system that operates in a highly optimized low-power mode under indoor settings by using a fast Search-Refine controller to track the eye, but detects when the environment switches to more challenging outdoor sunlight and switches models to operate robustly under this condition. Our design is holistic and tackles a) power consumption in digitizing pixels, estimating pupillary parameters, and illuminating the eye via near-infrared, b) error in estimating pupil center and pupil dilation, and c) model training procedures that involve zero effort from a user. We demonstrate that CIDER can estimate pupil center with error less than two pixels (0.6°), and pupil diameter with error of one pixel (0.22mm). Our end-to-end results show that we can operate at power levels of roughly 7mW at a 4Hz eye tracking rate, or roughly 32mW at rates upwards of 250Hz.

  10. Semantic Sensor Web Enablement for COAST, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that facilitates discovery and integration of...

  11. Logistics Reduction: RFID Enabled Autonomous Logistics Management (REALM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Radio-frequency identification (RFID) Enabled Autonomous Logistics Management (REALM) task...

  12. Battlefield Renewable Energy: A Key Joint Force Enabler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Environment, Energy Security & Sustainability Symposium Jun 2010 Battlefield Renewable Energy A Key Joint Force Enabler Roy H. Adams III, LTC, USA...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Battlefield Renewable Energy : A Key Joint Force Enabler 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  13. 78 FR 69405 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... October 28, 2013, Enable Gas Transmission, LLC (Enable), 1111 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002... Commission staff will either complete its environmental assessment (EA) and place it into the Commission's... complete all federal authorizations within 90 days of the date of issuance of the Commission staff's FEIS...

  14. Challenge: Advancing Energy Informatics to Enable Assessable Improvements of Energy Performance in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    assumption, which states that the impact of energy informatics solutions should be assessable. This assumption applies to particular building contexts and when solutions act simultaneously. Research based on this assumption will enable new sound processes for the built environment facilitating informed......Within the emerging discipline of Energy Informatics people are researching, developing and applying information and communication technologies, energy engineering and computer science to address energy challenges. In this paper we discuss the challenge of advancing energy informatics to enable...... assessable improvements of energy performance in buildings. This challenge follows a long-standing goal within the built environment to develop processes that enable predictable outcomes. Implementing this goal in the research framework of energy informatics creates a need for establishing a new underlying...

  15. Implementation analysis of lean enablers for managing engineering programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arnim, Joachim; Oehmen, Josef; Rebentisch, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents research to improve the applicability of the Lean Enablers and consists of two parts. The first is a case study of a very successful project management maturity improvement initiative at Siemens Industry Sector’s Industry Automation division in the US. It views the initiative...... from the perspective of the Lean Enablers [Oehmen 2012] and is based on information from [Sopko 2012a], [Sopko 2012b], [Sopko 2010], [Sopko 2009], interviews, internal documentation, and the used MSP program management methodology [UK 2011]. The analysis of Lean Enablers incorporated in the MSP...... framework reveals the potential of Lean Enablers being applied in change programs. Incorporating the knowledge gained in the case study, the second part shows the development of a framework for the implementation of Lean Enablers....

  16. Demand Response Advanced Controls Framework and Assessment of Enabling Technology Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Jennifer; Cappers, Peter

    2017-08-28

    The Demand Response Advanced Controls Framework and Assessment of Enabling Technology Costs research describe a variety of DR opportunities and the various bulk power system services they can provide. The bulk power system services are mapped to a generalized taxonomy of DR “service types”, which allows us to discuss DR opportunities and bulk power system services in fewer yet broader categories that share similar technological requirements which mainly drive DR enablement costs. The research presents a framework for the costs to automate DR and provides descriptions of the various elements that drive enablement costs. The report introduces the various DR enabling technologies and end-uses, identifies the various services that each can provide to the grid and provides the cost assessment for each enabling technology. In addition to a report, this research includes a Demand Response Advanced Controls Database and User Manual. They are intended to provide users with the data that underlies this research and instructions for how to use that database more effectively and efficiently.

  17. Underlying Mechanisms Affecting Institutionalisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the underlying causal mechanisms that enabled or constrained institutionalisation of environmental education in 12 institutions in eight countries in southern Africa. The study was carried out in the context of the Southern Africa Development Community Regional Environmental Education Support ...

  18. Underlying Mechanisms Affecting Institutionalisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doctoral study and draws on critical realism as the ontological lens. Data analysis was done by means of a retroductive mode of inference, as articulated by Danermark, Ekström, Jakosben and Karlsson (2002). The paper demonstrates that there are a number of underlying causal mechanisms, which may enable or.

  19. Expanding the concept of Ba: managing enabling contexts in knowledge organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivadávia Correa Drummond de Alvarenga Neto

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and analyses the concept of ba - or enabling context - in the fields of information science, management/business and information systems literature in order to understand its conceptual evolution, discussions, applications and expansion since its introduction in 1998 by Nonaka et al. (Nonaka and Konno, 1998; Nonaka et al., 2000; Nonaka and Toyama, 2002; Nonaka et al., 2006. The qualitative methodology is bibliographic and comprises - among others - the methods of citation analysis and content analysis. A resulting selection of 135 papers, 4 dissertations/theses and 4 books constituted the research's final database. Data analysis consisted of three flows of activities: data reduction, data displays (conceptual maps and conclusion drawing/verification. The results point out to the identification of four major groups of enabling conditions - social/behavioral, cognitive/epistemic, informational and business/managerial - which can be singly or freely combined into different knowledge processes - creation, sharing/transfer and use - occurring in different levels of interactions - individual, group, organizational, inter-organizational. The conclusions suggest that the concept of ba and its underlying concepts are indeed sine qua non conditions for organizational knowledge creation and innovation processes, though ba is still both theoretically and empirically under-explored. Concerning the management of enabling contexts in knowledge organizations, the study revealed that the main arising challenges rely on the implementation and development of the issues comprised on the four groups of enabling conditions identified, most especially social/behavioral and business/managerial.

  20. Intercellular wiring enables electron transfer between methanotrophic archaea and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Gunter; Krukenberg, Viola; Riedel, Dietmar; Tegetmeyer, Halina E; Boetius, Antje

    2015-10-22

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate controls the emission of the greenhouse gas methane from the ocean floor. In marine sediments, AOM is performed by dual-species consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhabiting the methane-sulfate transition zone. The biochemical pathways and biological adaptations enabling this globally relevant process are not fully understood. Here we study the syntrophic interaction in thermophilic AOM (TAOM) between ANME-1 archaea and their consortium partner SRB HotSeep-1 (ref. 6) at 60 °C to test the hypothesis of a direct interspecies exchange of electrons. The activity of TAOM consortia was compared to the first ANME-free culture of an AOM partner bacterium that grows using hydrogen as the sole electron donor. The thermophilic ANME-1 do not produce sufficient hydrogen to sustain the observed growth of the HotSeep-1 partner. Enhancing the growth of the HotSeep-1 partner by hydrogen addition represses methane oxidation and the metabolic activity of ANME-1. Further supporting the hypothesis of direct electron transfer between the partners, we observe that under TAOM conditions, both ANME and the HotSeep-1 bacteria overexpress genes for extracellular cytochrome production and form cell-to-cell connections that resemble the nanowire structures responsible for interspecies electron transfer between syntrophic consortia of Geobacter. HotSeep-1 highly expresses genes for pili production only during consortial growth using methane, and the nanowire-like structures are absent in HotSeep-1 cells isolated with hydrogen. These observations suggest that direct electron transfer is a principal mechanism in TAOM, which may also explain the enigmatic functioning and specificity of other methanotrophic ANME-SRB consortia.

  1. Modeling Plume-Triggered, Melt-Enabled Lithospheric Delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Houts, J.; Humphreys, G.

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that arrival of the Yellowstone plume below North America triggered a lithospheric foundering event which aided the eruption of the Columbia River flood basalts. This hypothesis potentially accounts for some of the biggest mysteries related to the CRB's including their location as "off-track" plume volcanism; and the anomalous chemical signatures of the most voluminous units. The foundered lithosphere appears to be a remnant chunk of Farallon slab, which had been stranded beneath the Blue Mountains terrain since the accretion of Siletzia. If this is the case then the mechanisms by which this slab stayed metastable between Siletzia accretion and CRB time, and then so suddenly broke loose, is unclear. The addition of heat and mantle buoyancy supplied by the Yellowstone plume provides a clue, but the geodynamic process by which the slab was able to detach remains unclear.Efforts to model numerically the underlying processes behind delamination events have been gaining popularity. Typically, such models have relied on drastically weakened regions within the crust, or highly non-linear rheologies to enable initiation and propagation of lithosphere removal. Rather than impose such a weak region a priori, we investigated the role of mantle and crustal melt, generated by the addition of plume heat, as the source of such a rheologic boundary.We track melt generation and migration though geodynamic models using the Eulerian finite element code, ASPECT. Melt moves relative to the permeable, compacting, and viscously-deforming mantle using the approach of (Keller, et al. 2013) with the notable exception that ASPECT currently cannot model elasticity. Dike and sill emplacement is therefore still a work in progress. This work is still in the preliminary stages and results are yet inconclusive.

  2. Cores to the rescue: how old cores enable new science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Noren, A. J.; Brady, K.

    2016-12-01

    The value of archiving scientific specimens and collections for the purpose of enabling further research using new analytical techniques, resolving conflicting results, or repurposing them for entirely new research, is often discussed in abstract terms. We all agree that samples with adequate metadata ought to be archived systematically for easy access, for a long time and stored under optimal conditions. And yet, as storage space fills, there is a temptation to cull the collection, or when a researcher retires, to discard the collection unless the researcher manages to make his or her own arrangement for the collection to be accessioned elsewhere. Nobody has done anything with these samples in over 20 years! Who would want them? It turns out that plenty of us do want them, if we know how to find them and if they have sufficient metadata to assess past work and suitability for new analyses. The LacCore collection holds over 33 km of core from >6700 sites in diverse geographic locations worldwide with samples collected as early as 1950s. From these materials, there are many examples to illustrate the scientific value of archiving geologic samples. One example that benefitted Ito personally were cores from Lakes Mirabad and Zeribar, Iran, acquired in 1963 by Herb Wright and his associates. Several doctoral and postdoctoral students generated and published paleoecological reconstructions based on cladocerans, diatoms, pollen or plant macrofossils, mostly between 1963 and 1967. The cores were resampled in 1990s by a student being jointly advised by Wright and Ito for oxygen isotope analysis of endogenic calcite. The results were profitably compared with pollen and the results published in 2001 and 2006. From 1979 until very recently, visiting Iran for fieldwork was not pallowed for US scientists. Other examples will be given to further illustrate the power of archived samples to advance science.

  3. TEACH (Train to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulitz, Russell; Santarelli, Thomas; Barnieu, Joanne; Rosenzweig, Larry; Yi, Na Yi; Zachary, Wayne; OConnor, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Personnel from diverse ethnic and demographic backgrounds come together in both civilian and military healthcare systems, facing diagnoses that at one level are equalizers: coronary disease is coronary disease, breast cancer is breast cancer. Yet the expression of disease in individuals from different backgrounds, individual patient experience of disease as a particular illness, and interactions between patients and providers occurring in any given disease scenario, all vary enormously depending on the fortuity of the equation of "which patient happens to arrive in whose exam room." Previously, providers' absorption of lessons-learned depended on learning as an apprentice would when exposed over time to multiple populations. As a result, and because providers are often thrown into situations where communications falter through inadequate direct patient experience, diversity in medicine remains a training challenge. The questions then become: Can simulation and virtual training environments (VTEs) be deployed to short-track and standardize this sort of random-walk problem? Can we overcome the unevenness of training caused by some providers obtaining the valuable exposure to diverse populations, whereas others are left to "sink or swim"? This paper summarizes developing a computer-based VTE called TEACH (Training to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare). TEACH was developed to enhance healthcare providers' skills in delivering culturally sensitive care to African-American women with breast cancer. With an authoring system under development to ensure extensibility, TEACH allows users to role-play in clinical oncology settings with virtual characters who interact on the basis of different combinations of African American sub-cultural beliefs regarding breast cancer. The paper reports on the roll-out and evaluation of the degree to which these interactions allow providers to acquire, practice, and refine culturally appropriate communication skills and to

  4. Enabling Higher Data Rates for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, L. J.; Townes, S. A.; Lazio, J.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Kovalik, J. M.; Kuperman, I.; Sauder, J.; Liebrecht, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    The data rate from deep space spacecraft has increased by more than 10 orders of magnitude since the first lunar missions in the 1960s. The demand for increased data rates has stemmed from the increasing sophistication of the science questions being addressed and the concomitant increase in the complexity of the missions themselves (from fly-by to orbit to land and rove). Projections for the next few decades suggest the demand for data rates for deep space missions will continue to increase by approximately one order of magnitude every decade, driven by these same factors. Achieving higher data rates requires a partnership between the spacecraft and the ground system. We describe a series of technology developments for flight telecommunications systems, both at radio frequency (RF) and optical, to enable spacecraft to transmit and receive larger data volumes. These technology developments include deployable high gain antennas for small spacecraft, re-programmable software-defined radios, and optical communication packages designed for CubeSat form factors. The intent is that these developments would provide enhancements in capability for both spacecraft-Earth and spacecraft-spacecraft telecommunications. We also describe the future planning for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which remains the prime conduit for data from all planetary science missions. Through a combination of new antennas and backends being installed over the next five years and incorporation of optical communications, the DSN aims to ensure that the historical improvements in data rates and volumes will continue for many decades. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Organizational Enablers for Governance and Governmentality of Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Pemsel, Sofia; Shao, Jingting

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the organizational enablers for governance in the realm of projects. We first conceptualize organizational enablers as comprising of process facilitators and discursive abilities, each with its own factors and mechanisms. Then we apply this concept to the literature on project...... governance, governance of projects and governmentality. Outcomes indicate that governance is enabled through different forms of flexibility at different levels of governance, institutional setup and authority at the project level, flexible structures and mindsets of people at the organizational level......, and through development of self-responsible, self-organizing people for governmentality in project settings. Questions for future research are indicated....

  6. Internet-enabled collaborative agent-based supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weiming; Kremer, Rob; Norrie, Douglas H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents some results of our recent research work related to the development of a new Collaborative Agent System Architecture (CASA) and an Infrastructure for Collaborative Agent Systems (ICAS). Initially being proposed as a general architecture for Internet based collaborative agent systems (particularly complex industrial collaborative agent systems), the proposed architecture is very suitable for managing the Internet enabled complex supply chain for a large manufacturing enterprise. The general collaborative agent system architecture with the basic communication and cooperation services, domain independent components, prototypes and mechanisms are described. Benefits of implementing Internet enabled supply chains with the proposed infrastructure are discussed. A case study on Internet enabled supply chain management is presented.

  7. Enabling Routes of Road Network Constrained Movements as Mobile Service Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2007-01-01

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characterized...... aware. Mobile users frequently follow the same route to a destination as they did during previous trips to the destination, and the route and destination constitute important aspects of the context for a range of services. This paper presents key concepts underlying a software component that identifies...... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. Under such circumstances, it is particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context...

  8. Stem cell plasticity enables hair regeneration following Lgr5+cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeck, Joerg D; Biehs, Brian; Kurtova, Antonina V; Kljavin, Noelyn M; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Alicke, Bruno; Koeppen, Hartmut; Modrusan, Zora; Piskol, Robert; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2017-06-01

    Under injury conditions, dedicated stem cell populations govern tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce stem cell regeneration and enable plasticity are poorly understood. Here, we investigate stem cell recovery in the context of the hair follicle to understand how two molecularly distinct stem cell populations are integrated. Utilizing diphtheria-toxin-mediated cell ablation of Lgr5 + (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5) stem cells, we show that killing of Lgr5 + cells in mice abrogates hair regeneration but this is reversible. During recovery, CD34 + (CD34 antigen) stem cells activate inflammatory response programs and start dividing. Pharmacological attenuation of inflammation inhibits CD34 + cell proliferation. Subsequently, the Wnt pathway controls the recovery of Lgr5 + cells and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents Lgr5 + cell and hair germ recovery. Thus, our study uncovers a compensatory relationship between two stem cell populations and the underlying molecular mechanisms that enable hair follicle regeneration.

  9. Owning the Technical Baseline - a Key Enabler: Agility as the Counterweight to Uncertainty and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    upgrades to the system In some ways, our emphasis on owning the technical baseline seeks to overcome the residual undesirable effects of the ac...Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 18 Owning the Technical Baseline —a Key Enabler Agility as the Counterweight to Uncertainty and Change William A... effective for the warfighter over their life cycles. The underlying metric for such agility and adaptability is speed. When we can develop and field

  10. Enabling Wireless Power Transfer in Cellular Networks: Architecture, Modeling and Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Kaibin; Lau, Vincent K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave power transfer (MPT) delivers energy wirelessly from stations called power beacons (PBs) to mobile devices by microwave radiation. This provides mobiles practically infinite battery lives and eliminates the need of power cords and chargers. To enable MPT for mobile charging, this paper proposes a new network architecture that overlays an uplink cellular network with randomly deployed PBs for powering mobiles, called a hybrid network. The deployment of the hybrid network under an out...

  11. Enabling Technology for Small Satellite Launch, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses need to...

  12. Prognostics-Enabled Power Supply for ADAPT Testbed, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop's role is to develop electronic prognostics for sensing power systems in support of NASA/Ames ADAPT testbed. The prognostic enabled power systems from...

  13. Intercultural Knowledge Flows in Edge Organizations: Trust as an Enabler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gavrieli, Dana A; Scott, W. R

    2005-01-01

    ...., across military services and coalition partners) and knowledge flows. A major factor that emerges as an enabler of knowledge flows, especially in dynamic environments such as those in which Edge organizations operate, is trust...

  14. Starshade Assembly Enabled by the Deep Space Gateway Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunsfeld, J. M.; Siegler, N.; Mukherjee, R.

    2018-02-01

    A starshade is a large external coronagraph which will allow the direct imaging and analysis of planets around nearby stars. We present how the Deep Space Gateway would enable the robotic/astronaut construction of a starshade.

  15. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  16. Excavating obstacles and enablers to internationalization at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Jos; Woldegiyorgis, Ayenachew A.; Rumbley, Laura E.; de Wit, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Gives an overview of my research as a visiting scholar at The Boston College Center for International Higher Education. This research classifies these obstacles and enablers in four categories: disciplinary, external, internal and personal.

  17. Demonstration of a Nano-Enabled Space Power System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nano-Enabled Space Power System project will demonstrate power systems with nanomaterial-enhanced components as a replacement for CubeSat power generation,...

  18. Software to Enable Modeling & Simulation as a Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a Modeling and Simulation as a Service (M&SaaS) software service infrastructure to enable most modeling and simulation (M&S) activities to be...

  19. Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) - Fort Bliss Military Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Daylight Time ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS (continued) vi MEDES Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions MPPT maximum power point tracking...tracking ( MPPT ) grid-tied inverters will require replacement or modification to allow for substantial use in islanded microgrid configurations

  20. Enabling factors for antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Radzeviciene Jurgute, Ruta; Bjerrum, Lars

    2013-01-01

    focus groups were performed with 22 GPs from Lithuania and 29 GPs from the Kaliningrad Region of the Russian Federation; then, thematic analysis of data was performed. Results. Six thematic categories were identified that are related to external forces enabling antibiotic prescription: the necessity...... company activities. Conclusions. Comprehensive efforts to reduce the burden of non-clinically grounded antibiotic prescription should go beyond addressing factors at the physician-patient level and take into account important factors in the enabling environment as well....

  1. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  2. The ICT predicament of new ICT-enabled service

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Wen-Jan; Rua-HuanTsaih; Yen, David C.; Han, Tzu-Shian

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of information and communication technologies (ICT) has triggered many ICT-enabled services. Regarding this service, the complementary ICT system involves with customers' devices, industry-wide ICT development and nation-wide ICT infrastructure, which are difficult for any individual organization to control. The ICT predicament is the phenomenon that the complementary ICT system is inferior in delivering the promised service quality of new ICT-enabled service. With the ICT pre...

  3. Make or buy of IT-enabled innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Overby, Mikkel Lucas; Özcan, Serden

    2004-01-01

    , an analysis of three companies in the financial sector - Charles Schwab, Fidelity Investment, and Merrill Lynch - reveals that governance choices influence a company's ap-propriable learning curve advantage to slow down or speed up adoption and imitation of IT-enabled innovation. Moreover, we discuss...... the implications of governance choices in techno-logical environments characterised by either accumulation or disruption. Keywords: IT-enabled innovation, outsourcing, technological regime, strategic posture, first-mover advantages, financial services, online brokerage...

  4. Physician communication via Internet-enabled technology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Neil G; Randall, Glen E; Archer, Norman P; Musson, David M

    2017-10-01

    The use of Internet-enabled technology (information and communication technology such as smartphone applications) may enrich information exchange among providers and, consequently, improve health care delivery. The purpose of this systematic review was to gain a greater understanding of the role that Internet-enabled technology plays in enhancing communication among physicians. Studies were identified through a search in three electronic platforms: the Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search identified 5140 articles; of these, 21 met all inclusion criteria. In general, physicians were satisfied with Internet-enabled technology, but consensus was lacking regarding whether Internet-enabled technology improved efficiency or made a difference to clinical decision-making. Internet-enabled technology can play an important role in enhancing communication among physicians, but the extent of that benefit is influenced by (1) the impact of Internet-enabled technology on existing work practices, (2) the availability of adequate resources, and (3) the nature of institutional elements, such as privacy legislation.

  5. Microfield exposure tool enables advances in EUV lithography development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-09-07

    With demonstrated resist resolution of 20 nm half pitch, the SEMATECH Berkeley BUV microfield exposure tool continues to push crucial advances in the areas of BUY resists and masks. The ever progressing shrink in computer chip feature sizes has been fueled over the years by a continual reduction in the wavelength of light used to pattern the chips. Recently, this trend has been threatened by unavailability of lens materials suitable for wavelengths shorter than 193 nm. To circumvent this roadblock, a reflective technology utilizing a significantly shorter extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength (13.5 nm) has been under development for the past decade. The dramatic wavelength shrink was required to compensate for optical design limitations intrinsic in mirror-based systems compared to refractive lens systems. With this significant reduction in wavelength comes a variety of new challenges including developing sources of adequate power, photoresists with suitable resolution, sensitivity, and line-edge roughness characteristics, as well as the fabrication of reflection masks with zero defects. While source development can proceed in the absence of available exposure tools, in order for progress to be made in the areas of resists and masks it is crucial to have access to advanced exposure tools with resolutions equal to or better than that expected from initial production tools. These advanced development tools, however, need not be full field tools. Also, implementing such tools at synchrotron facilities allows them to be developed independent of the availability of reliable stand-alone BUY sources. One such tool is the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool (MET). The most unique attribute of the SEMA TECH Berkeley MET is its use of a custom-coherence illuminator made possible by its implementation on a synchrotron beamline. With only conventional illumination and conventional binary masks, the resolution limit of the 0.3-NA optic is approximately 25 nm, however

  6. Enabling autonomous control for space reactor power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    The application of nuclear reactors for space power and/or propulsion presents some unique challenges regarding the operations and control of the power system. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of a space reactor power system (SRPS) employed for deep space missions must be able to accommodate unattended operations due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion while adapting to evolving or degraded conditions with no opportunity for repair or refurbishment. Thus, a SRPS control system must provide for operational autonomy. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted an investigation of the state of the technology for autonomous control to determine the experience base in the nuclear power application domain, both for space and terrestrial use. It was found that control systems with varying levels of autonomy have been employed in robotic, transportation, spacecraft, and manufacturing applications. However, autonomous control has not been implemented for an operating terrestrial nuclear power plant nor has there been any experience beyond automating simple control loops for space reactors. Current automated control technologies for nuclear power plants are reasonably mature, and basic control for a SRPS is clearly feasible under optimum circumstances. However, autonomous control is primarily intended to account for the non optimum circumstances when degradation, failure, and other off-normal events challenge the performance of the reactor and near-term human intervention is not possible. Thus, the development and demonstration of autonomous control capabilities for the specific domain of space nuclear power operations is needed. This paper will discuss the findings of the ORNL study and provide a description of the concept of autonomy, its key characteristics, and a prospective

  7. A Semantically Enabled Metadata Repository for Solar Irradiance Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Cox, M.; Lindholm, D. M.; Nadiadi, I.; Traver, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, LASP, has been conducting research in Atmospheric and Space science for over 60 years, and providing the associated data products to the public. LASP has a long history, in particular, of making space-based measurements of the solar irradiance, which serves as crucial input to several areas of scientific research, including solar-terrestrial interactions, atmospheric, and climate. LISIRD, the LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Data Center, serves these datasets to the public, including solar spectral irradiance (SSI) and total solar irradiance (TSI) data. The LASP extended metadata repository, LEMR, is a database of information about the datasets served by LASP, such as parameters, uncertainties, temporal and spectral ranges, current version, alerts, etc. It serves as the definitive, single source of truth for that information. The database is populated with information garnered via web forms and automated processes. Dataset owners keep the information current and verified for datasets under their purview. This information can be pulled dynamically for many purposes. Web sites such as LISIRD can include this information in web page content as it is rendered, ensuring users get current, accurate information. It can also be pulled to create metadata records in various metadata formats, such as SPASE (for heliophysics) and ISO 19115. Once these records are be made available to the appropriate registries, our data will be discoverable by users coming in via those organizations. The database is implemented as a RDF triplestore, a collection of instances of subject-object-predicate data entities identifiable with a URI. This capability coupled with SPARQL over HTTP read access enables semantic queries over the repository contents. To create the repository we leveraged VIVO, an open source semantic web application, to manage and create new ontologies and populate repository content. A variety of ontologies were used in

  8. Emotional labour demands in enabling education: A qualitative exploration of the unique challenges and protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Crawford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Students in enabling programs bring richness, diversity, and complexity to the teaching and learning environment. They are often from under-represented backgrounds, have experienced educational disadvantage or disruption, belong to multiple equity groups, and face academic and non-academic challenges, including mental ill-health. This pilot study explored academic staff experiences in teaching and supporting students in enabling programs. Using a collaborative autoethnographical approach, four members of a multi-institutional research group wrote first-person reflections in response to guiding questions. From generative and reflective discussions, different themes arose. A major theme was the high ‘emotional labour demands’ of teaching a vulnerable cohort, with both positive and negative effects on staff. Other major themes included: the diversity of emotional responses and coping strategies; the complex, sometimes contradictory, role of the enabling educator; the importance of communities of care and support; and the impact of witnessing students’ transformations. Within these themes, the challenges, rewards, and protective factors, which mitigate stress among enabling educators, were identified.

  9. How language enables abstraction: a study in computational cultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair; Turney, Peter; Cohen, Yohai

    2012-06-01

    The idea that language mediates our thoughts and enables abstract cognition has been a key idea in socio-cultural psychology. However, it is not clear what mechanisms support this process of abstraction. Peirce argued that one mechanism by which language enables abstract thought is hypostatic abstraction, the process through which a predicate (e.g., dark) turns into an object (e.g., darkness). By using novel computational tools we tested Peirce's idea. Analysis of the data provides empirical support for Peirce's mechanism and evidence of the way the use of signs enables abstraction. These conclusions are supported by the in-depth analysis of two case studies concerning the abstraction of sweet and dark. The paper concludes by discussing the findings from a broad and integrative theoretical perspective and by pointing to computational cultural psychology as a promising perspective for addressing long-lasting questions of the field.

  10. Vulnerabilities in First-Generation RFID-enabled Credit Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt-Benjamin, Thomas S.; Bailey, Daniel V.; Fu, Kevin; Juels, Ari; O'Hare, Tom

    RFID-enabled credit cards are widely deployed in the United States and other countries, but no public study has thoroughly analyzed the mechanisms that provide both security and privacy. Using samples from a variety of RFID-enabled credit cards, our study observes that (1) the cardholder's name and often credit card number and expiration are leaked in plaintext to unauthenticated readers, (2) our homemade device costing around 150 effectively clones one type of skimmed cards thus providing a proof-of-concept implementation for the RF replay attack, (3) information revealed by the RFID transmission cross contaminates the security of RFID and non-RFID payment contexts, and (4) RFID-enabled credit cards are susceptible in various degrees to a range of other traditional RFID attacks such as skimming and relaying.

  11. Make or buy of IT-enabled innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Overby, Mikkel Lucas; Özcan, Serden

    2004-01-01

    , an analysis of three companies in the financial sector - Charles Schwab, Fidelity Investment, and Merrill Lynch - reveals that governance choices influence a company's ap-propriable learning curve advantage to slow down or speed up adoption and imitation of IT-enabled innovation. Moreover, we discuss......IT-enabled innovations are of increasing importance for competitive success in most sectors today. This paper offers a novel theoretical and empirically illustrated explanation of why IT-outsourcing strategies differ between innovative first-movers, fast followers and late entrants. In particular...... the implications of governance choices in techno-logical environments characterised by either accumulation or disruption. Keywords: IT-enabled innovation, outsourcing, technological regime, strategic posture, first-mover advantages, financial services, online brokerage...

  12. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sherjeel M; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Nassar, Joanna M; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2018-02-27

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Sherjeel M.

    2018-02-27

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen.

  14. Grid computing : enabling a vision for collaborative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Laszewski, G.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the authors provide a motivation for Grid computing based on a vision to enable a collaborative research environment. The authors vision goes beyond the connection of hardware resources. They argue that with an infrastructure such as the Grid, new modalities for collaborative research are enabled. They provide an overview showing why Grid research is difficult, and they present a number of management-related issues that must be addressed to make Grids a reality. They list projects that provide solutions to subsets of these issues

  15. Multi-omic data integration enables discovery of hidden biological regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Ali; Brunk, Elizabeth; Tan, Justin; O'Brien, Edward J; Kim, Donghyuk; Szubin, Richard; Lerman, Joshua A; Lechner, Anna; Sastry, Anand; Bordbar, Aarash; Feist, Adam M; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2016-10-26

    Rapid growth in size and complexity of biological data sets has led to the 'Big Data to Knowledge' challenge. We develop advanced data integration methods for multi-level analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, ribosomal profiling, proteomic and fluxomic data. First, we show that pairwise integration of primary omics data reveals regularities that tie cellular processes together in Escherichia coli: the number of protein molecules made per mRNA transcript and the number of ribosomes required per translated protein molecule. Second, we show that genome-scale models, based on genomic and bibliomic data, enable quantitative synchronization of disparate data types. Integrating omics data with models enabled the discovery of two novel regularities: condition invariant in vivo turnover rates of enzymes and the correlation of protein structural motifs and translational pausing. These regularities can be formally represented in a computable format allowing for coherent interpretation and prediction of fitness and selection that underlies cellular physiology.

  16. Enabling knowledge representation on the Web by extending RDF Schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, Jeen; Klein, Michel; Decker, Stefan; Fensel, Dieter; Van Harmelen, Frank; Horrocks, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a widespread interest has emerged in using ontologies on the Web. Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) is a basic tool that enables users to define vocabulary, structure and constraints for expressing meta data about Web resources. However, it includes no provisions for formal

  17. Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

  18. Designing Technology-Enabled Instruction to Utilize Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Randall; Nyland, Robert; Bodily, Robert; Chapman, John; Jones, Brian; Young, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A key notion conveyed by those who advocate for the use of data to enhance instruction is an awareness that learning analytics has the potential to improve instruction and learning but is not currently reaching that potential. Gibbons (2014) suggested that a lack of learning facilitated by current technology-enabled instructional systems may be…

  19. An electronic colonoscopy record system enables detailed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 64 cases were deemed to be incomplete because of obstructing lesions (n=26), extensive diverticulosis (n=4), technical difficulty (n=31) and patient discomfort (n=3). There were two complications recorded: perforation (n=1) and bleeding (n=1). Conclusions. The HEMR system enabled the audit of experiences with ...

  20. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  1. The Value of RFID Technology Enabled Information to Manage Perishables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Ketzenberg (Michael); J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe address the value of RFID technology enabled information to manage perishables in the context of a supplier that sells a random lifetime product subject to stochastic demand and lost sales. The product's lifetime is largely determined by the time and temperature history in the supply

  2. Mining Interesting XML-Enabled Association Rules with Templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Dillon, T.

    2004-01-01

    XML-enabled association rule framework [FDWC03] extends the notion of associated items to XML fragments to present associations among trees rather than simple-structured items of atomic values. They are more flexible and powerful in representing both simple and complex structured association

  3. Exploring data use practices around Europe: identifying enablers and barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Karbautzki, Louisa; Vanhoof, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore what data-based decision making use looks like in schools in five different countries (United Kingdom, Germany, Poland, Lithuania and the Netherlands). We explore for what purposes data are used in these countries and what the enablers and barriers to data use are. The

  4. Enable Cache Effect on Forwarding Table in Metro-Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaocui; Wang, Zhijun

    Broadcast based Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a major challenge for deploying Ethernet in Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). This paper proposes to enable Cache effect on Forwarding Table (CFT) in Metro Ethernet. CFT can reduce numerous broadcast messages by solving the address through cached entries. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can significantly decrease communication messages for address resolution in Metro Ethernet.

  5. Cooperativity Enables Non-neutralizing Antibodies to Neutralize Ebolavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie A. Howell

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug combinations are synergistic when their combined efficacy exceeds the sum of the individual actions, but they rarely include ineffective drugs that become effective only in combination. We identified several “enabling pairs” of neutralizing and non-neutralizing anti-ebolavirus monoclonal antibodies, whose combination exhibited new functional profiles, including transforming a non-neutralizing antibody to a neutralizer. Sub-neutralizing concentrations of antibodies 2G4 or m8C4 enabled non-neutralizing antibody FVM09 (IC50 >1 μM to exhibit potent neutralization (IC50 1–10 nM. While FVM09 or m8C4 alone failed to protect Ebola-virus-infected mice, a combination of the two antibodies provided 100% protection. Furthermore, non-neutralizers FVM09 and FVM02 exponentially enhanced the potency of two neutralizing antibodies against both Ebola and Sudan viruses. We identified a hotspot for the binding of these enabling antibody pairs near the interface of the glycan cap and GP2. Enabling cooperativity may be an underappreciated phenomenon for viruses, with implications for the design and development of immunotherapeutics and vaccines.

  6. Enabling the development of student teacher professional identity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the views of student teachers who were provided vicarious learning opportunities during an educational excursion, and how the learning enabled them to develop their teacher professional identity. This qualitative research study, using a social-constructivist lens highlights how vicarious learning ...

  7. Image Processing : An Enabler for Future EO System Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the art in electro-optics provides systems with high image quality for associated prices and less expensive systems with subsequent lower performance. This keynote will expound how image processing enables to obtain high quality imagery while utilizing affordable system

  8. Telepresence-enabled research and developing work practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmalek, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, a group of scientists and students conducted two weeks of telepresence-enabled research from the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with the Exploration Vessel Nautilus, which was at sea studying the Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano and Barbados Mud Volcanoes. The way that they conducted their work was not so different from other telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration. As a group, they spanned geographic distance, science expertise, exploration experience, and telepresence-enabled research experience. They were connected through technologies and work culture (e.g., shared habits, values, and practices particular to a community). Uniquely, their project included an NSF-sponsored cultural study on the workgroups' own use of technologies and social processes. The objective of the cultural study was, in part, to identify social and technical features of the work environment that present opportunities to better support science exploration via telepresence. Drawing from this case, and related research, I present some analysis on the developing work culture of telepresence-enabled research and highlight potential adjustments.

  9. "Design for Somebody" - Approach Enabling Mobile Technology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkka, Andrew; Merilampi, Sari; Koivisto, Antti; Tommiska, Janika; Saarinen, Tatu-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents case examples of Design for Somebody (DfS) philosophy used both in developing novel technologies and modifying existing main stream technologies applicable for users with special needs. DfS embodies variety of mobile technology approaches to generate personalised means to enable and motivate physical, cognitive and social skills development.

  10. Fraternity as "Enabling Environment:" Does Membership Lead to Gambling Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddix, J. Patrick; Hardy, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that fraternity membership is the most reliable predictor of gambling and gambling problems on campus. The purpose of this study was to determine if problematic gambling could be linked to specific aspects of fraternity membership. Though the null hypothesis (no enabling environment) failed to be rejected, descriptive…

  11. Exploring the fact ors that enable or obstruct collaboration among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the fact ors that enable or obstruct collaboration among female mathematics teachers in a South African primary school. ... the factors that facilitate or hinder teacher collaboration centre around a shared vision for good practice, strong professional relationships and opportunities for teachers to share their practices.

  12. ICT enabled education and ICT driven e-learning strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper centres on ICT enabled education and ICT driven e-learning strategies: benefits and setbacks in Nigeria education system. It is in fact among the academic struggle to bring to the lime-light, the knowledge of ICT to scholars especially in the domain of education. The paper captured interesting discussion on the ...

  13. Enabling software defined networking experiments in networked critical infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Genge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the fact that Networked Critical Infrastructures (NCI, e.g., power plants, water plants, oil and gas distribution infrastructures, and electricity grids, are targeted by significant cyber threats is well known. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that specific characteristics of NCI can be exploited in the enabling of more efficient mitigation techniques, while novel techniques from the field of IP networks can bring significant advantages. In this paper we explore the interconnection of NCI communication infrastructures with Software Defined Networking (SDN-enabled network topologies. SDN provides the means to create virtual networking services and to implement global networking decisions. It relies on OpenFlow to enable communication with remote devices and has been recently categorized as the “Next Big Technology”, which will revolutionize the way decisions are implemented in switches and routers. Therefore, the paper documents the first steps towards enabling an SDN-NCI and presents the impact of a Denial of Service experiment over traffic resulting from an XBee sensor network which is routed across an emulated SDN network.

  14. Enabling white, Afrikaans-speaking adolescents towards post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using rich qualitative data, we describe the ecosystemically-embedded protective antecedents that enabled 10 white, Afrikaans-speaking adolescents from divorced families towards resilience. The description both confirms and extends what was known about the roots of adolescent resilience, post-divorce. We use these ...

  15. Enabling South-Africa: development of an intelligent gateway

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Evans, ED

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The new South Africa needs information and the CSIR has enabled end-users to search international and local database using an intelligent gateway to provide easy, affordable access to all the well-known hosts. All terminals, Minitels and PCs...

  16. Interactive BIM-Enabled Safety Training Piloted in Construction Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Caroline; Lopez del Puerto, Carla; Glick, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents and assesses the development of a construction safety training module featuring interactive, BIM-enabled, 3D visualizations to test if such a tool can enhance safety training related to scaffolds. This research documents the technical challenges and the lessons learned through the development and administration of a prototype…

  17. Combinatorial algorithms enabling computational science: tales from the front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Boman, Erik G; Devine, Karen; Gebremedhin, Assefaw; Hendrickson, Bruce; Hovland, Paul; Munson, Todd; Pothen, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Combinatorial algorithms have long played a crucial enabling role in scientific and engineering computations. The importance of discrete algorithms continues to grow with the demands of new applications and advanced architectures. This paper surveys some recent developments in this rapidly changing and highly interdisciplinary field

  18. Concept relation discovery and innovation enabling technology (CORDIET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Neznanov, A.; Viaene, S.; Kuznetsov, S.O.; Ignatov, D.; Dedene, G.

    2011-01-01

    Concept Relation Discovery and Innovation Enabling Technology (CORDIET), is a toolbox for gaining new knowledge from unstructured text data. At the core of CORDIET is the C-K theory which captures the essential elements of innovation. The tool uses Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), Emergent Self

  19. Enabling spaces in education research: an agenda for impactful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    in order to be deliberate in building a collective body of knowledge on circumstances that enable positive education outcomes ... However, insights thus derived are fragmented, regional and mostly single case studies using multiple conceptualisations, measures ... research agenda, I draw on frameworks valid in contexts ...

  20. Biotechniques Laboratory: An Enabling Course in the Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trapani, Giovanna; Clarke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Practical skills and competencies are critical to student engagement and effective learning in laboratory courses. This article describes the design of a yearlong, stand-alone laboratory course--the Biotechniques Laboratory--a common core course in the second year of all our degree programs in the biological sciences. It is an enabling,…

  1. Anatomy Drawing Screencasts: Enabling Flexible Learning for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material…

  2. Factors influencing immunisation coverage among children under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background This article explores the hypothesis that predisposing and enabling factors of households influence the vaccination status of the children under the age of five in Khartoum State, Sudan. Method The study was a cross-sectional survey among a representative sample of 410 male and female children under five ...

  3. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  4. Modelling microstructural evolution under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikare, V.

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of materials under irradiation is characterised by some unique features that are not typically present in other application environments. While much understanding has been achieved by experimental studies, the ability to model this microstructural evolution for complex materials states and environmental conditions not only enhances understanding, it also enables prediction of materials behaviour under conditions that are difficult to duplicate experimentally. Furthermore, reliable models enable designing materials for improved engineering performance for their respective applications. Thus, development and application of mesoscale microstructural model are important for advancing nuclear materials technologies. In this chapter, the application of the Potts model to nuclear materials will be reviewed and demonstrated, as an example of microstructural evolution processes. (author)

  5. "The Moon Village and Journey to Mars enable each other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    NASA has proposed the Journey to Mars, a multi-decade collaborative international effort to establish permanent manned operations on the Martian surface as well as in orbit, most likely on the Martian moons. NASA's proposed the Journey to Mars has come under politically motivated attack as illusory, as beyond NASA's capabilities and anticipated NASA budgets in the foreseeable future. [1]. Other concerns come from various communities of researchers concerned about securing sustaining funding for their largely robotic research missions. ESA's Director General Dietrich Woerner's proposed Moon Village faces challenges ESA member states concerned about sustaining funding for projects already underway or in planning. Both the Journey to Mars and Moon Village raise the question - who will or who can pay for it? The 2013 US Research Council study suggested potential benefits to a mission to Mars from activities on the Moon [2]. The NASA funded Flexible Lunar Architecture study came to similar conclusions using a different methodology [3]. A logistics analysis by an MIT team suggested the possibility of cost savings through use of lunar water for propellant to reach Mars [4]. The highly promising private-public financing approach has been examined for potential application to funding the costs of reaching Mars [5]. Insofar as the feasibility of utilization of lunar water has not been determined these conclusions are speculative. This study will examine the following alternative scenarios for establishing sustainable, manned operations on Mars and permanent manned operations on the Moon: A. NASA-led Journey to Mars without an ESA-led Moon Village B. ESA-led Moon Village without NASA-led Journey to Mars C. NASA-led Journey to Mars with an ESA-led Moon Village D. Shared Infrastructure scenario - NASA-led Journey to Mars with ESA-led Moon Village and with a potential JAXA-led space-based-solar power initiative E. Space Industrialization scenario - Shared Infrastructure scenario

  6. Enhanced cycling stability of hybrid Li-air batteries enabled by ordered Pd3Fe intermetallic electrocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiming; Li, Longjun; Manthiram, Arumugam; Goodenough, John B

    2015-06-17

    We report an ordered Pd3Fe intermetallic catalyst that exhibits significantly enhanced activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction under alkaline conditions. Ordered Pd3Fe enables a hybrid Li-air battery to exhibit the best reported full-cell cycling performance (220 cycles, 880 h).

  7. Enabling the enabler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strong impetus on the state to actively facilitate peaceful protest.22 Government's regulation of protest and levels of assistance to potential protesters or conveners must therefore be judged in this light. The RGA sets out the requirements for lawful protest. These requirements include the submission of a notice of gathering in ...

  8. Encouraging engagement in enabling programs: The students’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Hellmundt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Student retention is a key concern in tertiary education enabling programs with research showing that early engagement leads to higher completion rates (Hodges et al., 2013. But how do students new to university education learn how to engage effectively? This article outlines an engagement framework that foregrounds Guidance, Encouragement, Modelling and Structure (GEMS as a holistic approach to facilitating effective student engagement. This framework was developed from qualitative data gleaned from students enrolled in the Preparing for Success Program at Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia. The findings from the students indicate that the GEMS framework activates student potential and enables them to use existing knowledge and experience to not only deepen and broaden their learning but also successfully prepare for further study.

  9. Middleware for Data Visualization in VO-enabled Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, I.; Chilingarian, I.

    2008-08-01

    We present middleware for visualization and exploration of complex datasets in a VO framework, that performs interaction between data archives and existing VO client applications using PLASTIC. It comprises: (1) PLASTIC-enabled Java control applet, integrated into archive web-pages and interacting with VO applications; (2) cross-browser compatible JavaScript part managing PLASTIC-aware VO Clients (launch, data manipulation) by means of Java LiveConnect. This (or similar) solution is an essential for the new generation VO-enabled data archives providing access to complex observational and theoretical datasets (3D-spectroscopy, N-body simulations, etc.) through web-interface. Thanks to PLASTIC capabilities it is possible to start all necessary client software with a single-click in the archive query result page in a web-browser. This simplifies the scientific usage of the VO resources and makes it easy even for users with no experience in the VO technologies.

  10. A Web-based Architecture Enabling Multichannel Telemedicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Lamberti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine scenarios include today in-hospital care management, remote teleconsulting, collaborative diagnosis and emergency situations handling. Different types of information need to be accessed by means of etherogeneous client devices in different communication environments in order to enable high quality continuous sanitary assistance delivery wherever and whenever needed. In this paper, a Web-based telemedicine architecture based on Java, XML and XSL technologies is presented. By providing dynamic content delivery services and Java based client applications for medical data consultation and modification, the system enables effective access to an Electronic Patient Record based standard database by means of any device equipped with a Web browser, such as traditional Personal Computers and workstation as well as modern Personal Digital Assistants. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture has been evaluated in different scenarios, experiencing fixed and mobile clinical data transmissions over Local Area Networks, wireless LANs and wide coverage telecommunication network including GSM and GPRS.

  11. Constructing Chains of Enablers for Alternative Economic Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer

    2016-01-01

    .). Being generally inclusive of social movements, welfare states has also helped identify new needs on the "demand side" such as child- and eldercare, environmental protection, alternative energy and energy-saving, health, and city planning. This is illustrated by a number of firms that supply products......Though capitalism may be structured in divergent ways that produce highly different outcomes, and though the capitalist process needs new demands and technologies to realize its expansionary potential, these lessons seem to have been ignored in recent discussions of how to revitalize mature...... economies. This article illustrates a way of researching alternative economic futures by identifying chains of enablers in Denmark and other Nordic countries by which society and business can co-develop and capture capabilities to take on new roles in globalization. Focus is on institutional enablers...

  12. The Role of Technology as an Enabler in Job Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Savino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an acknowledgement of the role of technology as an enabler that encourages the constant need to evaluate, update and employ changing job descriptions and business processes that truly acknowledge job requirements as they are versus notions of what they have been or should be. Advancements in technology have brought about a significant amount of change in terms of how we go about doing our daily work. The evolution from being a manufacturing economy to being information and service based brought to the workplace new realities and responsibilities. As a result, workers can no longer expect to be given a specific listing of assigned duties and tasks that remain fixed over a long period of time. The new paradigm in the workplace relies on continuous demands for improvement and acquired knowledge in a dynamic environment. The catalyst that enables continuous improvement is technology.

  13. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  14. Bluetooth enables in-door mobile location services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    be candidates for solving these problems. This paper shows that Bluetooth can act as a key enabler of mobile location services in an in-door environment. The advantage of Bluetooth technology is, that it can provide rather precise location data inside a building or hotspot area, while the Bluetooth terminal...... mobile location techniques can also provide the user's position, but the accuracy is rather low. In order to improve the accuracy and make location-based services really attractive, existing approaches must be supplemented by new technologies. Wireless short-range technologies like Bluetooth could......Several technologies can be applied to enable mobile location services, but most of them suffer from limited accuracy and availability. GPS can solve the problem of determining the location of users in most outdoor situations, but an end-user position inside a building cannot be pinpointed. Other...

  15. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, Kenneth I. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-14

    This project focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technology have resulted in an "information big bang," which in turn has created a significant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly to that challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary and deploying visualization and data understanding technologies for our science stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are well positioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientific stakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization, mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and data management technologies.

  16. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  17. Democratized electronics to enable smart living for all

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-12-25

    With the increased global population, smart living is an increasingly important criteria to ensure equal opportunities for all. Therefore, what is Smart Living? The first time when we tossed this terminology seven years back, we thought reducing complexities in human life. Today we believe it more. However, smart living for all complicates the technological need further. As by all, we mean any age group, any academic background and any financial condition. Although electronics are powerful today and have enabled our digital world, many as of today have not experienced that progress. Going forward while we realize more and more electronics in our daily life, the most important question would be how. Here we show, a heterogeneous integration approach to integrate low-cost high performance interactive electronic system which are physically compliant. We are redesigning electronics to redefine its purposes to reconfigure life for all to enable smart living.

  18. Green communication: The enabler to multiple business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Clemmensen, Suberia; Taran, Yariv

    2010-01-01

    Companies stand at the forefront of a new business model reality with new potentials - that will change their basic understanding and practice of running their business models radically. One of the drivers to this change is green communication, its strong relation to green business models and its...... possibility to enable lower energy consumption. This paper shows how green communication enables innovation of green business models and multiple business models running simultaneously in different markets to different customers.......Companies stand at the forefront of a new business model reality with new potentials - that will change their basic understanding and practice of running their business models radically. One of the drivers to this change is green communication, its strong relation to green business models and its...

  19. A standard-enabled workflow for synthetic biology

    KAUST Repository

    Myers, Chris J.

    2017-06-15

    A synthetic biology workflow is composed of data repositories that provide information about genetic parts, sequence-level design tools to compose these parts into circuits, visualization tools to depict these designs, genetic design tools to select parts to create systems, and modeling and simulation tools to evaluate alternative design choices. Data standards enable the ready exchange of information within such a workflow, allowing repositories and tools to be connected from a diversity of sources. The present paper describes one such workflow that utilizes, among others, the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) to describe genetic designs, the Systems Biology Markup Language to model these designs, and SBOL Visual to visualize these designs. We describe how a standard-enabled workflow can be used to produce types of design information, including multiple repositories and software tools exchanging information using a variety of data standards. Recently, the ACS Synthetic Biology journal has recommended the use of SBOL in their publications.

  20. Exploring the Enablers of Organizational and Marketing Innovations in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseyi Moses Ajayi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research studies on innovation tend to focus on process and product innovations. Recent theoretical opinions reveal that Organizational and Marketing Innovations (OMIs could be the necessary prerequisites to optimally utilize and deploy such process and product innovations. It is important to note that there is a dearth of information on the enablers of OMIs capabilities among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Despite their closeness to their customers, many SMEs are finding it difficult to achieve successful and effective innovations; these are innovations that have a positive impact on the business growth and returns. This study presents findings from exploratory qualitative research conducted in South-Western Nigeria. Drawing upon information-rich evidence from 13 in-depth interviews with the owners and the managers of SMEs, this study identifies some enablers that can promote SMEs’ OMIs capabilities, effective innovations, and organizational survival.

  1. Operator overloading as an enabling technology for automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corliss, G.F.; Griewank, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present an example of the science that is enabled by object-oriented programming techniques. Scientific computation often needs derivatives for solving nonlinear systems such as those arising in many PDE algorithms, optimization, parameter identification, stiff ordinary differential equations, or sensitivity analysis. Automatic differentiation computes derivatives accurately and efficiently by applying the chain rule to each arithmetic operation or elementary function. Operator overloading enables the techniques of either the forward or the reverse mode of automatic differentiation to be applied to real-world scientific problems. We illustrate automatic differentiation with an example drawn from a model of unsaturated flow in a porous medium. The problem arises from planning for the long-term storage of radioactive waste

  2. Traditional and IS-Enabled Customer Acquisition on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Jeonghye Choi; David R. Bell; Leonard M. Lodish

    2012-01-01

    Geographic variation in consumer use of Internet retailers is partly explained by variation in offline shopping costs. Explanations for geographic variation in the efficacy of different customer acquisition methods including traditional methods of offline word-of-mouth (WOM) and magazine advertising and information systems (IS)-enabled methods of online WOM and online search remain unexplored. We estimate a multivariate negative binomial distribution (NBD) model on zip code-level customer cou...

  3. Encouraging engagement in enabling programs: The students perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suzi Hellmundt; Dallas Baker

    2017-01-01

    Student retention is a key concern in tertiary education enabling programs with research showing that early engagement leads to higher completion rates (Hodges et al., 2013). But how do students new to university education learn how to engage effectively? This article outlines an engagement framework that foregrounds Guidance, Encouragement, Modelling and Structure (GEMS) as a holistic approach to facilitating effective student engagement. This framework was developed from qualitative data gl...

  4. Advanced Sea Base Enabler (ASE) Capstone Design Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-21

    previously designed hovercraft vehicles. o. Crew Size 35 A minimal crew size is desired based on stakeholder input. The crew size selected was based...of a design should be considered as one factor when faced with options on how to implement a solution. The federal government and DOD have extensive...Advanced Sea Base Enabler (ASE) Capstone Design Project by MSSE Cohort 311-081 – Group #1 Erik Bjorkner, Jerry Brennan, Robert Brooks

  5. Writeshops: An effective tool to enable African academics to publish

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vincent, K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available -1 Writeshops: An effective tool to enable African academics to publish Vincent*, K., T. Cull, (Kulima Integrated Development Solutions, South Africa) E. Archer van Garderen, (CSIR, South Africa) and A. Awiti, (Aga Khan University, Kenya) * Corresponding.... (Pifer and Demissie 2009). The shortage of academic staff, combined with the necessity for researchers to fund (or supplement funding available for) their studies, means that very few African academics have the privilege of dedicating themselves full...

  6. Quantum dot blueing and blinking enables fluorescence nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Patrick; Staudt, Thorsten; Engelhardt, Johann; Hell, Stefan W

    2011-01-12

    We demonstrate superresolution fluorescence imaging of cells using bioconjugated CdSe/ZnS quantum dot markers. Fluorescence blueing of quantum dot cores facilitates separation of blinking markers residing closer than the diffraction barrier. The high number of successively emitted photons enables ground state depletion microscopy followed by individual marker return with a resolving power of the size of a single dot (∼12 nm). Nanoscale imaging is feasible with a simple webcam.

  7. Enabling Novel Minimally-Actuated Robotic Capabilities Through Active Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    systems, where electromagnetic actuation is currently the primary technology. 2. Active fluids can act as adhesives, enabling climbing devices...can be used to form fast-acting valves and clutches without the use of moving mechanical components. Traditional hydraulic servovalves, which contain... electromagnetic coils and moving parts, are relatively heavy and cannot easily be miniaturized. As a consequence, increasing the number of valves in

  8. Ways of explaining sexual harassment: motivating, enabling and legitimizing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to contribute to a comprehensive explanation of sexual harassment by the investigation of three social-psychological processes, which seem to crucially contribute to the etiology of sexual harassment: motivation to sexually harass (e.g., power or sexuality), enabling processes (e.g., through diverse situational cues), and legitimization of sexually harassing behavior (e.g., by applying myths about sexual harassment). By consolidating these three processes into one multi...

  9. Informatics methods to enable sharing of quantitative imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mia A; Freymann, John B; Kirby, Justin S; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M; Eschrich, Steven A; Berglund, Anders E; Fenstermacher, David A; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L; Brown, Bartley J; Braun, Terry A; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    The National Cancer Institute Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. There are a variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bluetooth enables in-door mobile location services

    OpenAIRE

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    Several technologies can be applied to enable mobile location services, but most of them suffer from limited accuracy and availability. GPS can solve the problem of determining the location of users in most outdoor situations, but an end-user position inside a building cannot be pinpointed. Other mobile location techniques can also provide the user's position, but the accuracy is rather low. In order to improve the accuracy and make location-based services really attractive, existing approach...

  11. Why should SME adopt IT enabled CRM strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Miruna MAZURENCU MARINESCU; Constanta MIHAESCU; Ileana Gabriela NICULESCU-ARON

    2007-01-01

    Recent trends of fast adoption of CRM, whether as a philosophy, a strategy, an aid to the general marketing effort and mix, or merely as a fashion; as every body else is doing it; is driven by a clear acknowledgement and recognition that long-term relationships with customers are one of the most important assets of an organization and that information-enabled systems must be developed that will give the organization some form of ownership, that is: 'customer ownership'.

  12. Examining the information and communication technologies enabling servitized manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Lightfoot, H.W.; Baines, T.; Smart, P.

    2011-01-01

    Services-led competitive strategies are critically important to Western manufacturers. This paper contributes to our basic knowledge of such strategies by examining the enabling information and communication technologies that successfully servitized manufacturers appear to be adopting. Although these are preliminary findings from a longer-term research programme, through this paper we seek to offer immediate assistance to manufacturers who wish to understand how they might exploit the serviti...

  13. Enabling content distribution in vehicular ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Tom H; Bai, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents key enabling technologies and state-of-the-art research on delivering efficient content distribution services to fast moving vehicles. It describes recent research developments and proposals towards the efficient, resilient and scalable content distribution to vehicles through both infrastructure-based and infrastructure-less vehicular networks. The authors focus on the rich multimedia services provided by vehicular environment content distribution including vehicular communications and media playback, giving passengers many infotainment applications. Common problem

  14. Enabling collaboration on semiformal mathematical knowledge by semantic web integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, C

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics is becoming increasingly collaborative, but software does not sufficiently support that: Social Web applications do not currently make mathematical knowledge accessible to automated agents that have a deeper understanding of mathematical structures. Such agents exist but focus on individual research tasks, such as authoring, publishing, peer-review, or verification, instead of complex collaboration workflows. This work effectively enables their integration by bridging the document-oriented perspective of mathematical authoring and publishing, and the network perspective of threaded

  15. Radiation technology enabled market access to Indian mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    International trade in agricultural produce is subject to quarantine barriers imposed by importing countries to limit the entry of exotic pests and pathogens. Radiation technology provides an effective alternative to fumigants which are being gradually phased out. The technology has enabled market access to Indian mangoes in the US market after a gap of 18 years. The technology provides opportunity for export of other fruits and vegetables as well to countries like US, Australia and New Zealand. (author)

  16. Enabling Medical Device Interoperability for the Integrated Clinical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Integration ” at Society of Critical Care Medicine Annual Congress, San Francisco, CA  January 21-22 2014 – Chaired Meetings for US TAG ISO TC 121 on...Award Number: W81XWH-12-C-0154 TITLE: “Enabling Medical Device Interoperability for the Integrated Clinical Environment” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Julian M. Goldman, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA 02114 REPORT DATE: December 2016 TYPE OF REPORT : Final

  17. Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    also rare cases of stromal tumors in the breast that includes benign fibroadenomas , sarcomas, and phyllodes tumors. Fibroadenomas is the most common...Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rebekah Drezek, Ph.D...Imaging of Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Rebekah Drezek, Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER

  18. Enabling high performance computational science through combinatorial algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Erik G; Bozdag, Doruk; Catalyurek, Umit V; Devine, Karen D; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H; Hovland, Paul D; Pothen, Alex; Strout, Michelle Mills

    2007-01-01

    The Combinatorial Scientific Computing and Petascale Simulations (CSCAPES) Institute is developing algorithms and software for combinatorial problems that play an enabling role in scientific and engineering computations. Discrete algorithms will be increasingly critical for achieving high performance for irregular problems on petascale architectures. This paper describes recent contributions by researchers at the CSCAPES Institute in the areas of load balancing, parallel graph coloring, performance improvement, and parallel automatic differentiation

  19. Enabling Flexible Polymer Tandem Solar Cells by 3D Ptychographic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind

    2015-01-01

    The realization of a complete tandem polymer solar cell under ambient conditions using only printing and coating methods on a flexible substrate results in a fully scalable process but also requires accurate control during layer formation to succeed. The serial process where the layers are added...... one after the other by wet processing leaves plenty of room for error and the process development calls for an analytical technique that enables 3D reconstruction of the layer stack with the possibility to probe thickness, density, and chemistry of the individual layers in the stack. The use...

  20. Enabling Analytics on Sensitive Medical Data with Secure Multi-Party Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Meilof; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Horváth, Anna Zsófia; Spindler, Gerald; Boersma, Eric; van der Spek, Peter; van der Galiën, Onno; Gutteling, Job; Kraaij, Wessel; Veugen, Thijs

    2018-01-01

    While there is a clear need to apply data analytics in the healthcare sector, this is often difficult because it requires combining sensitive data from multiple data sources. In this paper, we show how the cryptographic technique of secure multi-party computation can enable such data analytics by performing analytics without the need to share the underlying data. We discuss the issue of compliance to European privacy legislation; report on three pilots bringing these techniques closer to practice; and discuss the main challenges ahead to make fully privacy-preserving data analytics in the medical sector commonplace.

  1. Enabling the First Ever Measurement of Coherent Neutrino Scattering Through Background Neutron Measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyna, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betty, Rita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation/Completion of Episodic Information - Sandia researchers developed novel methods and metrics for studying the computational function of neurogenesis,thus generating substantial impact to the neuroscience and neural computing communities. This work could benefit applications in machine learning and other analysis activities. The purpose of this project was to computationally model the impact of neural population dynamics within the neurobiological memory system in order to examine how subareas in the brain enable pattern separation and completion of information in memory across time as associated experiences.

  2. Males in Enabling: Painting a portrait through narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Armstrong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of males entering higher education via an enabling pathway is slowly increasing; yet, males still battle with the anti-intellectual attitude that is prevalent in regional areas of Australia. Previous research undertaken by the authors began exploring the factors that inhibited or enhanced the male experience within an enabling course. This paper expands upon this research with a deeper focus on the male experience through personalised accounts derived from individual interviews. Using qualitative methodology and narrative inquiry, the findings provide a deeper understanding of the issues that males of different ages face when creating a new identity as a university student. This paper shares insights into what motivated the male students to enter university via an enabling pathway; the actual personal experiences both positive and negative during this time; and the effect that this commitment to study had on them personally and the people around them. The lens of transformative theory underpins this research through exploring frames of reference that align with the students’ experiences. Portraiture prose shares the individual stories which are analysed and the key findings extrapolated.

  3. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  4. Enabling Disabled Persons to Gain Access to Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Glenn; OGrady, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the first phase in an effort to enhance the NaviGaze software to enable profoundly disabled persons to operate computers. (Running on a Windows-based computer equipped with a video camera aimed at the user s head, the original NaviGaze software processes the user's head movements and eye blinks into cursor movements and mouse clicks to enable hands-free control of the computer.) To accommodate large variations in movement capabilities among disabled individuals, one of the enhancements was the addition of a graphical user interface for selection of parameters that affect the way the software interacts with the computer and tracks the user s movements. Tracking algorithms were improved to reduce sensitivity to rotations and reduce the likelihood of tracking the wrong features. Visual feedback to the user was improved to provide an indication of the state of the computer system. It was found that users can quickly learn to use the enhanced software, performing single clicks, double clicks, and drags within minutes of first use. Available programs that could increase the usability of NaviGaze were identified. One of these enables entry of text by using NaviGaze as a mouse to select keys on a virtual keyboard.

  5. Enabling Generic Distributed Computing Infrastructure Compatibility For Workflow Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kozlowszky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solving workflow management system’s Distributed Computing Infrastructure (DCI incompatibility and their workflow interoperability issues are very challenging and complex tasks. Workflow management systems (and therefore their workflows, workflow developers and also their end-users are bounded tightly to some limited number of supported DCIs, and efforts required to allow additional DCI support. In this paper we are specifying a concept how to enable generic DCI compatibility for grid workflow management systems (such as ASKALON, MOTEUR, gUSE/WS-PGRADE, etc. on job and indirectly on workflow level. To enable DCI compatibility among the different workflow management systems we have developed the DCI Bridge software solution. In this paper we will describe its internal architecture, provide usage scenarios to show how the developed service resolve the DCI interoperability issues between various middleware types. The generic DCI Bridge service enables the execution of jobs onto the existing major DCI platforms (such as Service Grids (Globus Toolkit 2 and 4, gLite, ARC, UNICORE, Desktop Grids, Web services, or even cloud based DCIs.

  6. Unidirectional molecular assembly alignment on graphene enabled by nanomechanical symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liu; Nishihara, Taishi; Hijikata, Yuh; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Itami, Kenichiro

    2018-02-05

    Precise fabrication of molecular assemblies on a solid surface has long been of central interest in surface science. Their perfectly oriented growth only along a desired in-plane direction, however, remains a challenge, because of the thermodynamical equivalence of multiple axis directions on a solid-surface lattice. Here we demonstrate the successful fabrication of an in-plane, unidirectional molecular assembly on graphene. Our methodology relies on nanomechanical symmetry breaking effects under atomic force microscopy tip scanning, which has never been used in molecular alignment. Individual one-dimensional (1D) molecular assemblies were aligned along a selected symmetry axis of the graphene lattice under finely-tuned scanning conditions after removing initially-adsorbed molecules. Experimental statistics and computational simulations suggest that the anisotropic tip scanning locally breaks the directional equivalence of the graphene surface, which enables nucleation of the unidirectional 1D assemblies. Our findings will open new opportunities in the molecular alignment control on various atomically flat surfaces.

  7. Review of Enabling Technologies to Facilitate Secure Compute Customization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL; Hicks, Susan Elaine [ORNL; Koch, Scott M [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Pelfrey, Daniel S [ORNL; Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Sorrillo, Lawrence [ORNL

    2014-12-01

    High performance computing environments are often used for a wide variety of workloads ranging from simulation, data transformation and analysis, and complex workflows to name just a few. These systems may process data for a variety of users, often requiring strong separation between job allocations. There are many challenges to establishing these secure enclaves within the shared infrastructure of high-performance computing (HPC) environments. The isolation mechanisms in the system software are the basic building blocks for enabling secure compute enclaves. There are a variety of approaches and the focus of this report is to review the different virtualization technologies that facilitate the creation of secure compute enclaves. The report reviews current operating system (OS) protection mechanisms and modern virtualization technologies to better understand the performance/isolation properties. We also examine the feasibility of running ``virtualized'' computing resources as non-privileged users, and providing controlled administrative permissions for standard users running within a virtualized context. Our examination includes technologies such as Linux containers (LXC [32], Docker [15]) and full virtualization (KVM [26], Xen [5]). We categorize these different approaches to virtualization into two broad groups: OS-level virtualization and system-level virtualization. The OS-level virtualization uses containers to allow a single OS kernel to be partitioned to create Virtual Environments (VE), e.g., LXC. The resources within the host's kernel are only virtualized in the sense of separate namespaces. In contrast, system-level virtualization uses hypervisors to manage multiple OS kernels and virtualize the physical resources (hardware) to create Virtual Machines (VM), e.g., Xen, KVM. This terminology of VE and VM, detailed in Section 2, is used throughout the report to distinguish between the two different approaches to providing virtualized execution

  8. Creating an enabling environment for WR&R implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathatou, P-M; Kampragou, E; Grigoropoulou, H; Assimacopoulos, D; Karavitis, C; Gironás, J

    2017-09-01

    Reclaimed water is receiving growing attention worldwide as an effective solution for alleviating the growing water scarcity in many areas. Despite the various benefits associated with reclaimed water, water recycling and reuse (WR&R) practices are not widely applied around the world. This is mostly due to complex and inadequate local legal and institutional frameworks and socio-economic structures, which pose barriers to wider WR&R implementation. An integrated approach is therefore needed while planning the implementation of WR&R schemes, considering all the potential barriers, and aiming to develop favourable conditions for enhancing reclaimed water use. This paper proposes a comprehensive methodology supporting the development of an enabling environment for WR&R implementation. The political, economic, social, technical, legal and institutional factors that may influence positively (drivers) or negatively (barriers) WR&R implementation in the regional water systems are identified, through the mapping of local stakeholder perceptions. The identified barriers are further analysed, following a Cross-Impact/System analysis, to recognize the most significant barriers inhibiting system transition, and to prioritize the enabling instruments and arrangements that are needed to boost WR&R implementation. The proposed methodology was applied in the Copiapó River Basin in Chile, which faces severe water scarcity. Through the analysis, it was observed that barriers outweigh drivers for the implementation of WR&R schemes in the Copiapó River Basin, while the key barriers which could be useful for policy formulation towards an enabling environment in the area concern the unclear legal framework regarding the ownership of treated wastewater, the lack of environmental policies focusing on pollution control, the limited integration of reclaimed water use in current land use and development policies, the limited public awareness on WR&R, and the limited availability of

  9. Volumetric optical coherence microscopy enabled by aberrated optics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Siyang; Adie, Steven G.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is an interferometric imaging technique that enables high resolution, non-invasive imaging of 3D cell cultures and biological tissues. Volumetric imaging with OCM suffers a trade-off between high transverse resolution and poor depth-of-field resulting from defocus, optical aberrations, and reduced signal collection away from the focal plane. While defocus and aberrations can be compensated with computational methods such as interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) or computational adaptive optics (CAO), reduced signal collection must be physically addressed through optical hardware. Axial scanning of the focus is one approach, but comes at the cost of longer acquisition times, larger datasets, and greater image reconstruction times. Given the capabilities of CAO to compensate for general phase aberrations, we present an alternative method to address the signal collection problem without axial scanning by using intentionally aberrated optical hardware. We demonstrate the use of an astigmatic spectral domain (SD-)OCM imaging system to enable single-acquisition volumetric OCM in 3D cell culture over an extended depth range, compared to a non-aberrated SD-OCM system. The transverse resolution of the non-aberrated and astigmatic imaging systems after application of CAO were 2 um and 2.2 um, respectively. The depth-range of effective signal collection about the nominal focal plane was increased from 100 um in the non-aberrated system to over 300 um in the astigmatic system, extending the range over which useful data may be acquired in a single OCM dataset. We anticipate that this method will enable high-throughput cellular-resolution imaging of dynamic biological systems over extended volumes.

  10. Automatic Offloading C++ Expression Templates to CUDA Enabled GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie [JLAB; Joo, Balint [JLAB; Watson, William A. [JLAB; Edwards, Robert G. [JLAB

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, many scientific applications have been developed for powerful graphics processing units (GPUs) and have achieved remarkable speedups. This success can be partially attributed to high performance host callable GPU library routines that are offloaded to GPUs at runtime. These library routines are based on C/C++-like programming toolkits such as CUDA from NVIDIA and have the same calling signatures as their CPU counterparts. Recently, with the sufficient support of C++ templates from CUDA, the emergence of template libraries have enabled further advancement in code reusability and rapid software development for GPUs. However, Expression Templates (ET), which have been very popular for implementing data parallel scientific software for host CPUs because of their intuitive and mathematics-like syntax, have been underutilized by GPU development libraries. The lack of ET usage is caused by the difficulty of offloading expression templates from hosts to GPUs due to the inability to pass instantiated expressions to GPU kernels as well as the absence of the exact form of the expressions for the templates at the time of coding. This paper presents a general approach that enables automatic offloading of C++ expression templates to CUDA enabled GPUs by using the C++ metaprogramming technique and Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation methodology to generate and compile CUDA kernels for corresponding expression templates followed by executing the kernels with appropriate arguments. This approach allows developers to port applications to run on GPUs with virtually no code modifications. More specifically, this paper uses a large ET based data parallel physics library called QDP++ as an example to illustrate many aspects of the approach to offload expression templates automatically and to demonstrate very good speedups for typical QDP++ applications running on GPUs against running on CPUs using this method of offloading. In addition, this approach of automatic offlo

  11. Enabling a systems biology knowledgebase with gaggle and firegoose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliga, Nitin S. [Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-12

    The overall goal of this project was to extend the existing Gaggle and Firegoose systems to develop an open-source technology that runs over the web and links desktop applications with many databases and software applications. This technology would enable researchers to incorporate workflows for data analysis that can be executed from this interface to other online applications. The four specific aims were to (1) provide one-click mapping of genes, proteins, and complexes across databases and species; (2) enable multiple simultaneous workflows; (3) expand sophisticated data analysis for online resources; and enhance open-source development of the Gaggle-Firegoose infrastructure. Gaggle is an open-source Java software system that integrates existing bioinformatics programs and data sources into a user-friendly, extensible environment to allow interactive exploration, visualization, and analysis of systems biology data. Firegoose is an extension to the Mozilla Firefox web browser that enables data transfer between websites and desktop tools including Gaggle. In the last phase of this funding period, we have made substantial progress on development and application of the Gaggle integration framework. We implemented the workspace to the Network Portal. Users can capture data from Firegoose and save them to the workspace. Users can create workflows to start multiple software components programmatically and pass data between them. Results of analysis can be saved to the cloud so that they can be easily restored on any machine. We also developed the Gaggle Chrome Goose, a plugin for the Google Chrome browser in tandem with an opencpu server in the Amazon EC2 cloud. This allows users to interactively perform data analysis on a single web page using the R packages deployed on the opencpu server. The cloud-based framework facilitates collaboration between researchers from multiple organizations. We have made a number of enhancements to the cmonkey2 application to enable and

  12. The echo-enabled harmonic generation options for FLASH II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Haixiao; Decking, Winfried; Faatz, Bart

    2011-03-01

    FLASH II is an upgrade to the existing free electron laser (FEL) FLASH. The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme is proposed to be a potential seeding option of FLASH II. In this paper, the possibility of EEHG operation of FLASH II is investigated for the first time. With a combination of existing numerical codes, i.e. a laser-beam interaction code in an undulator (LBICU), a beam tracking code in a chicane (ELEGANT) and an universal FEL simulating code (GENESIS), the effects of beam energy chirp and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on EEHG operation are studied as well. In addition, several interesting issues concerning EEHG simulation are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  14. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable/validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  15. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable / validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  16. Enabling Large-Scale Biomedical Analysis in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in high-throughput instrumentations has led to an astonishing growth in both volume and complexity of biomedical data collected from various sources. The planet-size data brings serious challenges to the storage and computing technologies. Cloud computing is an alternative to crack the nut because it gives concurrent consideration to enable storage and high-performance computing on large-scale data. This work briefly introduces the data intensive computing system and summarizes existing cloud-based resources in bioinformatics. These developments and applications would facilitate biomedical research to make the vast amount of diversification data meaningful and usable.

  17. Why should SME adopt IT enabled CRM strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends of fast adoption of CRM, whether as a philosophy, a strategy, an aid to the general marketing effort and mix, or merely as a fashion; as every body else is doing it; is driven by a clear acknowledgement and recognition that long-term relationships with customers are one of the most important assets of an organization and that information-enabled systems must be developed that will give the organization some form of ownership, that is: 'customer ownership'.

  18. Technical innovation: Multidimensional computerized software enabled subtraction computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Mona; Rosset, Antoine; Platon, Alexandra; Didier, Dominique; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a frequent noninvasive alternative to digital subtraction angiography. We previously reported the development of a new subtraction software to overcome limitations of adjacent bone and calcification in CT angiographic subtraction. Our aim was to further develop and improve this fast and automated computerized software, universally available for free use and compatible with most CT scanners, thus enabling better delineation of vascular structures, artifact reduction, and shorter reading times with potential clinical benefits. This computer-based free software will be available as an open source in the next release of OsiriX at the Web site http://www.osirix-viewer.com.

  19. Side stepping poor infrastructure: enabling environments in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Access Audit: This used the Environmental Access Audit process to identify the main access problems in the square. • Use Observation: This involved a photographic survey of the area and was used to identify the different ways people used the urban... 5 1.3 USE OBSERVATION The Use Observation study carried out a photographic survey of the area in order to identify the activities in the area as well as ‘adaptations’ made to enable these activities to be accommodated. The survey indicated...

  20. Enabling New Operations Concepts for Lunar and Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Maxwell, Theresa

    2005-02-01

    The planning and scheduling of human space activities is an expensive and time-consuming task that seldom provides the crew with the control, flexibility, or insight that they need. During the past thirty years, scheduling software has seen only incremental improvements; however, software limitations continue to prevent even evolutionary improvements in the ``operations concept'' that is used for human space missions. Space missions are planned on the ground long before they are executed in space, and the crew has little input or influence on the schedule. In recent years the crew has been presented with a ``job jar'' of activities that they can do whenever they have time, but the contents of the jar is limited to tasks that do not use scarce shared resources and do not have external timing constraints. Consequently, the crew has no control over the schedule of the majority of their own tasks. As humans venture farther from earth for longer durations, it will become imperative that they have the ability to plan and schedule not only their own activities, but also the unattended activities of the systems, equipment, and robots on the journey with them. Significant software breakthroughs are required to enable the change in the operations concept. The crew does not have the time to build or modify the schedule by hand. They only need to issue a request to schedule a task and the system should automatically do the rest. Of course, the crew should not be required to build the complete schedule. Controllers on the ground should contribute the models and schedules where they have the better knowledge. The system must allow multiple simultaneous users, some on earth and some in space. The Mission Operations Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been researching and prototyping a modeling schema, scheduling engine, and system architecture that can enable the needed paradigm shift - it can make the crew autonomous. This schema and engine can be the core of a

  1. SixDOF position sensor: enabling manufacturing flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann, C.S.

    1998-03-24

    A small, non-contact optical sensor invented by the author attaches to a robot (or other machines), enabling the robot to detect objects, adjust its alignment in all six degrees of freedom (SixDOF), and read a task from a code on the part. Thus, the SixDOF sensor provides robots more intelligence to operate autonomously and adapt to changes without human intervention. A description of the sensor is provided. Also, an operating arrangement of a robot using the SixDOF sensor is presented with performance results described.

  2. DEFINE: A Service-Oriented Dynamically Enabling Function Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wei-Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an innovative Dynamically Enable Function In Network Equipment (DEFINE to allow tenant get the network service quickly. First, DEFINE decouples an application into different functional components, and connects these function components in a reconfigurable method. Second, DEFINE provides a programmable interface to the third party, who can develop their own processing modules according to their own needs. To verify the effectiveness of this model, we set up an evaluating network with a FPGA-based OpenFlow switch prototype, and deployed several applications on it. Our results show that DEFINE has excellent flexibility and performance.

  3. Enabling organisational learning and knowledge sharing through employee involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Eva; Dahl, Susanne

    In this paper we want to suggest that involving the employees in the development of the new workspaces is an important element in organisational learning and that it makes good sense to rethink space in order to support both tacit knowledge and collaboration. We want to argue that involving...... the employees in the design of their future workplace is key to giving the employee ownership for the change and may provide the organisation with invaluable ideas for the new work environment and the process of enabling organisational learning and knowledge sharing. We base our argument on a series of research...

  4. Working Towards New Transformative Geoscience Analytics Enabled by Petascale Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, R.; Wyborn, L.

    2012-04-01

    Currently the top 10 supercomputers in the world are petascale and already exascale computers are being planned. Cloud computing facilities are becoming mainstream either as private or commercial investments. These computational developments will provide abundant opportunities for the earth science community to tackle the data deluge which has resulted from new instrumentation enabling data to be gathered at a greater rate and at higher resolution. Combined, the new computational environments should enable the earth sciences to be transformed. However, experience in Australia and elsewhere has shown that it is not easy to scale existing earth science methods, software and analytics to take advantage of the increased computational capacity that is now available. It is not simply a matter of 'transferring' current work practices to the new facilities: they have to be extensively 'transformed'. In particular new Geoscientific methods will need to be developed using advanced data mining, assimilation, machine learning and integration algorithms. Software will have to be capable of operating in highly parallelised environments, and will also need to be able to scale as the compute systems grow. Data access will have to improve and the earth science community needs to move from the file discovery, display and then locally download paradigm to self describing data cubes and data arrays that are available as online resources from either major data repositories or in the cloud. In the new transformed world, rather than analysing satellite data scene by scene, sensor agnostic data cubes of calibrated earth observation data will enable researchers to move across data from multiple sensors at varying spatial data resolutions. In using geophysics to characterise basement and cover, rather than analysing individual gridded airborne geophysical data sets, and then combining the results, petascale computing will enable analysis of multiple data types, collected at varying

  5. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enables anaplerotic refilling of TCA cycle intermediates in stroke-affected brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Cameron; Gnyawali, Surya; Stewart, Richard; Teplitsky, Seth; Harris, Hallie; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K; Khanna, Savita

    2017-04-01

    Ischemic stroke results in excessive release of glutamate, which contributes to neuronal cell death. Here, we test the hypothesis that otherwise neurotoxic glutamate can be productively metabolized by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to maintain cellular energetics and protect the brain from ischemic stroke injury. The GOT-dependent metabolism of glutamate was studied in primary neural cells and in stroke-affected C57-BL6 mice using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC-MS. Extracellular Glu sustained cell viability under hypoglycemic conditions and increased GOT-mediated metabolism in vitro Correction of stroke-induced hypoxia using supplemental oxygen in vivo lowered Glu levels as measured by 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GOT knockdown abrogated this effect and caused ATP loss in the stroke-affected brain. GOT overexpression increased anaplerotic refilling of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in mouse brain during ischemic stroke. Furthermore, GOT overexpression not only reduced ischemic stroke lesion volume but also attenuated neurodegeneration and improved poststroke sensorimotor function. Taken together, our results support a new paradigm that GOT enables metabolism of otherwise neurotoxic extracellular Glu through a truncated tricarboxylic acid cycle under hypoglycemic conditions.-Rink, C., Gnyawali, S., Stewart, R., Teplitsky, S., Harris, H., Roy, S., Sen, C. K., Khanna, S. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enables anaplerotic refilling of TCA cycle intermediates in stroke-affected brain. © FASEB.

  6. Radio frequency identification enabled wireless sensing for intelligent food logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Qing; Uysal, Ismail; Zheng, Lirong

    2014-06-13

    Future technologies and applications for the Internet of Things (IoT) will evolve the process of the food supply chain and create added value of business. Radio frequency identifications (RFIDs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered as the key technological enablers. Intelligent tags, powered by autonomous energy, are attached on objects, networked by short-range wireless links, allowing the physical parameters such as temperatures and humidities as well as the location information to seamlessly integrate with the enterprise information system over the Internet. In this paper, challenges, considerations and design examples are reviewed from system, implementation and application perspectives, particularly with focus on intelligent packaging and logistics for the fresh food tracking and monitoring service. An IoT platform with a two-layer network architecture is introduced consisting of an asymmetric tag-reader link (RFID layer) and an ad-hoc link between readers (WSN layer), which are further connected to the Internet via cellular or Wi-Fi. Then, we provide insights into the enabling technology of RFID with sensing capabilities. Passive, semi-passive and active RFID solutions are discussed. In particular, we describe ultra-wideband radio RFID which has been considered as one of the most promising techniques for ultra-low-power and low-cost wireless sensing. Finally, an example is provided in the form of an application in fresh food tracking services and corresponding field testing results.

  7. Enabling SDN in VANETs: What is the Impact on Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Antonio; Palattella, Maria Rita; Soua, Ridha; Lamorte, Luca; Vilajosana, Xavier; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Engel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The demand for safe and secure journeys over roads and highways has been growing at a tremendous pace over recent decades. At the same time, the smart city paradigm has emerged to improve citizens’ quality of life by developing the smart mobility concept. Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) are widely recognized to be instrumental in realizing such concept, by enabling appealing safety and infotainment services. Such networks come with their own set of challenges, which range from managing high node mobility to securing data and user privacy. The Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm has been identified as a suitable solution for dealing with the dynamic network environment, the increased number of connected devices, and the heterogeneity of applications. While some preliminary investigations have been already conducted to check the applicability of the SDN paradigm to VANETs, and its presumed benefits for managing resources and mobility, it is still unclear what impact SDN will have on security and privacy. Security is a relevant issue in VANETs, because of the impact that threats can have on drivers’ behavior and quality of life. This paper opens a discussion on the security threats that future SDN-enabled VANETs will have to face, and investigates how SDN could be beneficial in building new countermeasures. The analysis is conducted in real use cases (smart parking, smart grid of electric vehicles, platooning, and emergency services), which are expected to be among the vehicular applications that will most benefit from introducing an SDN architecture. PMID:27929443

  8. Enabling Precision Cardiology Through Multiscale Biology and Systems Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipp W. Johnson, BS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The traditional paradigm of cardiovascular disease research derives insight from large-scale, broadly inclusive clinical studies of well-characterized pathologies. These insights are then put into practice according to standardized clinical guidelines. However, stagnation in the development of new cardiovascular therapies and variability in therapeutic response implies that this paradigm is insufficient for reducing the cardiovascular disease burden. In this state-of-the-art review, we examine 3 interconnected ideas we put forth as key concepts for enabling a transition to precision cardiology: 1 precision characterization of cardiovascular disease with machine learning methods; 2 the application of network models of disease to embrace disease complexity; and 3 using insights from the previous 2 ideas to enable pharmacology and polypharmacology systems for more precise drug-to-patient matching and patient-disease stratification. We conclude by exploring the challenges of applying a precision approach to cardiology, which arise from a deficit of the required resources and infrastructure, and emerging evidence for the clinical effectiveness of this nascent approach. Key Words: cardiology, clinical informatics, multi-omics, precision medicine, translational bioinformatics

  9. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds.

  10. Automated NFC enabled rural healthcare for reliable patient record maintainance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethia, Divyashikha; Jain, Shantanu; Kakkar, Himadri

    2012-01-01

    Body sensor networks can be used for health monitoring of patients by expert medical doctors, in remote locations like rural areas in developing countries, and can also be used to provide medical aid to areas affected by natural disasters in any part of the world. An important issue to be addressed, when the number of patients is large, is to reliably maintain the patient records and have simple automated mobile applications for healthcare helpers to use. We propose an automated healthcare architecture using NFC-enabled mobile phones and patients having their patient ID on RFID tags. It utilizes NFC-enabled mobile phones to read the patient ID, followed by automated gathering of healthcare vital parameters from body sensors using Bluetooth, analyses the information and transmits it to a medical server for expert feedback. With limited hospital resources and less training requirement for healthcare helpers through simpler applications, this automation of healthcare processing can provide time effective and reliable mass health consultation from medical experts in remote locations.

  11. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nicholas P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit paths by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabricated parts were hybridized using a flip-chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  12. Enabling SDN in VANETs: What is the Impact on Security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Maio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for safe and secure journeys over roads and highways has been growing at a tremendous pace over recent decades. At the same time, the smart city paradigm has emerged to improve citizens’ quality of life by developing the smart mobility concept. Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs are widely recognized to be instrumental in realizing such concept, by enabling appealing safety and infotainment services. Such networks come with their own set of challenges, which range from managing high node mobility to securing data and user privacy. The Software Defined Networking (SDN paradigm has been identified as a suitable solution for dealing with the dynamic network environment, the increased number of connected devices, and the heterogeneity of applications. While some preliminary investigations have been already conducted to check the applicability of the SDN paradigm to VANETs, and its presumed benefits for managing resources and mobility, it is still unclear what impact SDN will have on security and privacy. Security is a relevant issue in VANETs, because of the impact that threats can have on drivers’ behavior and quality of life. This paper opens a discussion on the security threats that future SDN-enabled VANETs will have to face, and investigates how SDN could be beneficial in building new countermeasures. The analysis is conducted in real use cases (smart parking, smart grid of electric vehicles, platooning, and emergency services, which are expected to be among the vehicular applications that will most benefit from introducing an SDN architecture.

  13. Enabling SDN in VANETs: What is the Impact on Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Antonio; Palattella, Maria Rita; Soua, Ridha; Lamorte, Luca; Vilajosana, Xavier; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Engel, Thomas

    2016-12-06

    The demand for safe and secure journeys over roads and highways has been growing at a tremendous pace over recent decades. At the same time, the smart city paradigm has emerged to improve citizens' quality of life by developing the smart mobility concept. Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) are widely recognized to be instrumental in realizing such concept, by enabling appealing safety and infotainment services. Such networks come with their own set of challenges, which range from managing high node mobility to securing data and user privacy. The Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm has been identified as a suitable solution for dealing with the dynamic network environment, the increased number of connected devices, and the heterogeneity of applications. While some preliminary investigations have been already conducted to check the applicability of the SDN paradigm to VANETs, and its presumed benefits for managing resources and mobility, it is still unclear what impact SDN will have on security and privacy. Security is a relevant issue in VANETs, because of the impact that threats can have on drivers' behavior and quality of life. This paper opens a discussion on the security threats that future SDN-enabled VANETs will have to face, and investigates how SDN could be beneficial in building new countermeasures. The analysis is conducted in real use cases (smart parking, smart grid of electric vehicles, platooning, and emergency services), which are expected to be among the vehicular applications that will most benefit from introducing an SDN architecture.

  14. Mesh Network Architecture for Enabling Inter-Spacecraft Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christopher; Merrill, Garrick

    2017-01-01

    To enable communication between spacecraft operating in a formation or small constellation, a mesh network architecture was developed and tested using a time division multiple access (TDMA) communication scheme. The network is designed to allow for the exchange of telemetry and other data between spacecraft to enable collaboration between small spacecraft. The system uses a peer-to-peer topology with no central router, so that it does not have a single point of failure. The mesh network is dynamically configurable to allow for addition and subtraction of new spacecraft into the communication network. Flight testing was performed using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) formation acting as a spacecraft analogue and providing a stressing environment to prove mesh network performance. The mesh network was primarily devised to provide low latency, high frequency communication but is flexible and can also be configured to provide higher bandwidth for applications desiring high data throughput. The network includes a relay functionality that extends the maximum range between spacecraft in the network by relaying data from node to node. The mesh network control is implemented completely in software making it hardware agnostic, thereby allowing it to function with a wide variety of existing radios and computing platforms..

  15. Processing Approaches for DAS-Enabled Continuous Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Wood, T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Robertson, M.; McDonald, S.; Pevzner, R.; Lindsey, N.; Gelvin, A.; Saari, S.; Morales, A.; Ekblaw, I.; Wagner, A. M.; Ulrich, C.; Daley, T. M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is creating a "field as laboratory" capability for seismic monitoring of subsurface changes. By providing unprecedented spatial and temporal sampling at a relatively low cost, DAS enables field-scale seismic monitoring to have durations and temporal resolutions that are comparable to those of laboratory experiments. Here we report on seismic processing approaches developed during data analyses of three case studies all using DAS-enabled seismic monitoring with applications ranging from shallow permafrost to deep reservoirs: (1) 10-hour downhole monitoring of cement curing at Otway, Australia; (2) 2-month surface monitoring of controlled permafrost thaw at Fairbanks, Alaska; (3) multi-month downhole and surface monitoring of carbon sequestration at Decatur, Illinois. We emphasize the data management and processing components relevant to DAS-based seismic monitoring, which include scalable approaches to data management, pre-processing, denoising, filtering, and wavefield decomposition. DAS has dramatically increased the data volume to the extent that terabyte-per-day data loads are now typical, straining conventional approaches to data storage and processing. To achieve more efficient use of disk space and network bandwidth, we explore improved file structures and data compression schemes. Because noise floor of DAS measurements is higher than that of conventional sensors, optimal processing workflow involving advanced denoising, deconvolution (of the source signatures), and stacking approaches are being established to maximize signal content of DAS data. The resulting workflow of data management and processing could accelerate the broader adaption of DAS for continuous monitoring of critical processes.

  16. ENABLING SEARCHES ON WAVELENGTHS IN A HYPERSPECTRAL INDICES DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Piñuela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectral indices derived from hyperspectral reflectance measurements are powerful tools to estimate physical parameters in a non-destructive and precise way for several fields of applications, among others vegetation health analysis, coastal and deep water constituents, geology, and atmosphere composition. In the last years, several micro-hyperspectral sensors have appeared, with both full-frame and push-broom acquisition technologies, while in the near future several hyperspectral spaceborne missions are planned to be launched. This is fostering the use of hyperspectral data in basic and applied research causing a large number of spectral indices to be defined and used in various applications. Ad hoc search engines are therefore needed to retrieve the most appropriate indices for a given application. In traditional systems, query input parameters are limited to alphanumeric strings, while characteristics such as spectral range/ bandwidth are not used in any existing search engine. Such information would be relevant, as it enables an inverse type of search: given the spectral capabilities of a given sensor or a specific spectral band, find all indices which can be derived from it. This paper describes a tool which enables a search as described above, by using the central wavelength or spectral range used by a given index as a search parameter. This offers the ability to manage numeric wavelength ranges in order to select indices which work at best in a given set of wavelengths or wavelength ranges.

  17. A standard-enabled workflow for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Chris J; Beal, Jacob; Gorochowski, Thomas E; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Madsen, Curtis; McLaughlin, James Alastair; Mısırlı, Göksel; Nguyen, Tramy; Oberortner, Ernst; Samineni, Meher; Wipat, Anil; Zhang, Michael; Zundel, Zach

    2017-06-15

    A synthetic biology workflow is composed of data repositories that provide information about genetic parts, sequence-level design tools to compose these parts into circuits, visualization tools to depict these designs, genetic design tools to select parts to create systems, and modeling and simulation tools to evaluate alternative design choices. Data standards enable the ready exchange of information within such a workflow, allowing repositories and tools to be connected from a diversity of sources. The present paper describes one such workflow that utilizes, among others, the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) to describe genetic designs, the Systems Biology Markup Language to model these designs, and SBOL Visual to visualize these designs. We describe how a standard-enabled workflow can be used to produce types of design information, including multiple repositories and software tools exchanging information using a variety of data standards. Recently, the ACS Synthetic Biology journal has recommended the use of SBOL in their publications. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Enabling Searches on Wavelengths in a Hyperspectral Indices Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñuela, F.; Cerra, D.; Müller, R.

    2017-10-01

    Spectral indices derived from hyperspectral reflectance measurements are powerful tools to estimate physical parameters in a non-destructive and precise way for several fields of applications, among others vegetation health analysis, coastal and deep water constituents, geology, and atmosphere composition. In the last years, several micro-hyperspectral sensors have appeared, with both full-frame and push-broom acquisition technologies, while in the near future several hyperspectral spaceborne missions are planned to be launched. This is fostering the use of hyperspectral data in basic and applied research causing a large number of spectral indices to be defined and used in various applications. Ad hoc search engines are therefore needed to retrieve the most appropriate indices for a given application. In traditional systems, query input parameters are limited to alphanumeric strings, while characteristics such as spectral range/ bandwidth are not used in any existing search engine. Such information would be relevant, as it enables an inverse type of search: given the spectral capabilities of a given sensor or a specific spectral band, find all indices which can be derived from it. This paper describes a tool which enables a search as described above, by using the central wavelength or spectral range used by a given index as a search parameter. This offers the ability to manage numeric wavelength ranges in order to select indices which work at best in a given set of wavelengths or wavelength ranges.

  19. Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, John [Eaton Corporation, Arden, NC (United States); Pugh, Jerry [Eaton Corporation, Arden, NC (United States)

    2015-03-31

    In 2011, the DOE issued Funding Opportunity DE-FOA-0000554 as a means of addressing two major task areas identified by the Grid Integration Tech Team (GITT) that would help transition Electric vehicles from a market driven by early adopters and environmental supporters to a market with mainstream volumes. Per DE-FOA-0000554, these tasks were: To reduce the cost of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), thereby increasing the likelihood of the build out of EV charging infrastructure. The goal of increasing the number of EVSE available was to ease concerns over range anxiety, and promote the adoption of electric vehicles: To allow EV loads to be managed via the smart grid, thereby maintaining power quality, reliability and affordability, while protecting installed distribution equipment. In December of that year, the DOE awarded one of the two contracts targeted toward commercial EVSE to Eaton, and in early 2012, we began in earnest the process of developing a Smart Grid Enable L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market (hereafter known as the DOE Charger). The design of the Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE was based primarily on the FOA requirements along with input from the Electric Transportation Infrastructure product line (hereafter ETI) marketing team who aided in development of the customer requirements.

  20. Automated Planning Enables Complex Protocols on Liquid-Handling Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ellis; Rudolf, Fabian; Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2018-03-16

    Robotic automation in synthetic biology is especially relevant for liquid handling to facilitate complex experiments. However, research tasks that are not highly standardized are still rarely automated in practice. Two main reasons for this are the substantial investments required to translate molecular biological protocols into robot programs, and the fact that the resulting programs are often too specific to be easily reused and shared. Recent developments of standardized protocols and dedicated programming languages for liquid-handling operations addressed some aspects of ease-of-use and portability of protocols. However, either they focus on simplicity, at the expense of enabling complex protocols, or they entail detailed programming, with corresponding skills and efforts required from the users. To reconcile these trade-offs, we developed Roboliq, a software system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) methods to integrate (i) generic formal, yet intuitive, protocol descriptions, (ii) complete, but usually hidden, programming capabilities, and (iii) user-system interactions to automatically generate executable, optimized robot programs. Roboliq also enables high-level specifications of complex tasks with conditional execution. To demonstrate the system's benefits for experiments that are difficult to perform manually because of their complexity, duration, or time-critical nature, we present three proof-of-principle applications for the reproducible, quantitative characterization of GFP variants.

  1. Gaze-enabled Egocentric Video Summarization via Constrained Submodular Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xut, Jia; Mukherjee, Lopamudra; Li, Yin; Warner, Jamieson; Rehg, James M; Singht, Vikas

    2015-06-01

    With the proliferation of wearable cameras, the number of videos of users documenting their personal lives using such devices is rapidly increasing. Since such videos may span hours, there is an important need for mechanisms that represent the information content in a compact form (i.e., shorter videos which are more easily browsable/sharable). Motivated by these applications, this paper focuses on the problem of egocentric video summarization. Such videos are usually continuous with significant camera shake and other quality issues. Because of these reasons, there is growing consensus that direct application of standard video summarization tools to such data yields unsatisfactory performance. In this paper, we demonstrate that using gaze tracking information (such as fixation and saccade) significantly helps the summarization task. It allows meaningful comparison of different image frames and enables deriving personalized summaries (gaze provides a sense of the camera wearer's intent). We formulate a summarization model which captures common-sense properties of a good summary, and show that it can be solved as a submodular function maximization with partition matroid constraints, opening the door to a rich body of work from combinatorial optimization. We evaluate our approach on a new gaze-enabled egocentric video dataset (over 15 hours), which will be a valuable standalone resource.

  2. BIM: enabling sustainability and asset management through knowledge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivits, Robbert Anton; Furneaux, Craig

    2013-11-10

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry.

  3. BIM: Enabling Sustainability and Asset Management through Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbert Anton Kivits

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry.

  4. Enabling complex queries to drug information sources through functional composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lee; Mortensen, Jonathan; Nguyen, Thang; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to enable an end-user to create complex queries to drug information sources through functional composition, by creating sequences of functions from application program interfaces (API) to drug terminologies. The development of a functional composition model seeks to link functions from two distinct APIs. An ontology was developed using Protégé to model the functions of the RxNorm and NDF-RT APIs by describing the semantics of their input and output. A set of rules were developed to define the interoperable conditions for functional composition. The operational definition of interoperability between function pairs is established by executing the rules on the ontology. We illustrate that the functional composition model supports common use cases, including checking interactions for RxNorm drugs and deploying allergy lists defined in reference to drug properties in NDF-RT. This model supports the RxMix application (http://mor.nlm.nih.gov/RxMix/), an application we developed for enabling complex queries to the RxNorm and NDF-RT APIs.

  5. An Integrated Conceptual Framework for RFID Enabled Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID technology is a wireless communication technology that facilitates automatic identification and data capture without human intervention. Since 2000s, RFID applications in the health care industry are increasing.  RFID has brought many improvements in areas like patient care, patient safety, equipment tracking, resource utilization, processing time reduction and so on. On the other hand, often deployment of RFID is questioned on the issues like high capital investment, technological complexity, and privacy concerns. Exploration of existing literature indicates the presence of works on the topics like asset management, patient management, staff management, institutional advantages, and organizational issues. However, most of the works are focused on a particular issue. Still now, scholarly attempts to integrate all the facades of RFID-enabled healthcare are limited. In this paper, we propose a conceptual framework that represents the scope for implementation of this technology and the various dimensions of RFID-enabled healthcare and demonstrate them in detail. Also, we have discussed the critical issues that can prove to be potential barriers to its successful implementation and current approaches to resolving these. We also discuss some of the regulatory initiatives encouraging its adoption in the healthcare industry. Also, we have highlighted the future research opportunities in this domain.

  6. Hippocampus-dependent place learning enables spatial flexibility in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl R. Kleinknecht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation is a fundamental capability necessary in everyday life to locate food, social partners and shelter. It results from two very different strategies: (i place learning which enables for flexible way finding and (ii response learning that leads to a more rigid ‘route following’. Despite the importance of knockout techniques that are only available in mice, little is known about mice’ flexibility in spatial navigation tasks.Here we demonstrate for C57BL6/N mice in a water-cross maze that only place learning enables spatial flexibility and relearning of a platform position, whereas response learning does not. This capability depends on an intact hippocampal formation, since hippocampus lesions by ibotenic acid disrupted relearning. In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed a volume loss of ≥ 60% of the hippocampus as a critical threshold for relearning impairments. In particular the changes in the left ventral hippocampus were indicative of relearning deficits.In summary, our findings establish the importance of hippocampus-dependent place learning for spatial flexibility and provide a first systematic analysis on spatial flexibility in mice.

  7. A novel colonoscopy reporting system enabling quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Sascha C; van Vliet, Joost; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2014-03-01

    The quality of colonoscopy can only be measured if colonoscopy reports include all key quality indicators. In daily practice, reporting is often incomplete and not standardized. This study describes a novel, structured colonoscopy reporting system, which aims to generate standardized and complete reports and to facilitate the automatic analysis of colonoscopy quality indicators. A new colonoscopy reporting system (EndoALPHA) was developed. The system reports all colonoscopy quality indicators, as well as pathological findings, in a systematic manner using structured terminology. All essential items carry specific codes, which enables statistical analysis and the automatic generation of reports of all quality indicators. The EndoALPHA reporting system was tested with regard to completeness of reporting and evaluation of quality indicators both for individual endoscopists and the endoscopy unit. In 2012, all 810 colonoscopies performed at one colonoscopy center were documented using EndoALPHA. Overall, 94 % of performed colonoscopies were reported completely using the encoded terminology. Individual unadjusted cecal intubation rates were above 90 % for all endoscopists (mean 96.7 %), and the adenoma detection rate was above 20 % for all endoscopists (35.4 % for the unit). The novel EndoALPHA reporting system enables automatic quality assessment on two levels: the completeness of reporting can be evaluated, and if this is adequate, the quality of the colonoscopies can also be assessed. Integrated with feedback, benchmarking and training, the reporting system may facilitate quality improvement for colonoscopy services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. BIM-Enabled Conceptual Modelling and Representation of Building Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kook Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a building information modelling (BIM-based approach for building circulation enables us to change the process of building design in terms of its computational representation and processes, focusing on the conceptual modelling and representation of circulation within buildings. BIM has been designed for use by several BIM authoring tools, in particular with the widely known interoperable industry foundation classes (IFCs, which follow an object-oriented data modelling methodology. Advances in BIM authoring tools, using space objects and their relations defined in an IFC's schema, have made it possible to model, visualize and analyse circulation within buildings prior to their construction. Agent-based circulation has long been an interdisciplinary topic of research across several areas, including design computing, computer science, architectural morphology, human behaviour and environmental psychology. Such conventional approaches to building circulation are centred on navigational knowledge about built environments, and represent specific circulation paths and regulations. This paper, however, places emphasis on the use of ‘space objects’ in BIM-enabled design processes rather than on circulation agents, the latter of which are not defined in the IFCs' schemas. By introducing and reviewing some associated research and projects, this paper also surveys how such a circulation representation is applicable to the analysis of building circulation-related rules.

  9. Enabling sustainable urban water management through governance experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, J J; Brown, R R; Farrelly, M A; de Haan, F J

    2013-01-01

    A shift towards sustainable urban water management is widely advocated but poorly understood. There is a growing body of literature claiming that social learning is of high importance in restructuring conventional systems. In particular, governance experimentation, which explicitly aims for social learning, has been suggested as an approach for enabling the translation of sustainability ideas into practice. This type of experimentation requires a very different dynamic within societal relations and necessitates a changed role for professionals engaged in such a process. This empirically focused paper investigates a contemporary governance experiment, the Cooks River Sustainability Initiative, and determines its outcome in terms of enabling social learning for attaining sustainable water practice in an urban catchment. Drawing on the qualitative insights of the actors directly involved in this novel process, this paper provides evidence of changes in individual and collective understanding generated through diverse forms of social interaction. Furthermore, the research reveals perceived key-factors that foster and/or hamper the execution of this new form of experimentation, including project complexity, resource intensity and leadership. Overall, this paper highlights that, while implementation of governance experimentation in a conventional setting can be highly challenging, it can also be highly rewarding in terms of learning.

  10. Plasma Modeling Enabled Technology Development Empowered by Fundamental Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Technology development increasingly relies on modeling to speed the innovation cycle. This is particularly true for systems using low temperature plasmas (LTPs) and their role in enabling energy efficient processes with minimal environmental impact. In the innovation cycle, LTP modeling supports investigation of fundamental processes that seed the cycle, optimization of newly developed technologies, and prediction of performance of unbuilt systems for new applications. Although proof-of-principle modeling may be performed for idealized systems in simple gases, technology development must address physically complex systems that use complex gas mixtures that now may be multi-phase (e.g., in contact with liquids). The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering, and radiation transport data (FSRD) required for this modeling increases as the innovation cycle progresses, while the accuracy required of that data depends on the intended outcome. In all cases, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSRD. Modeling and technology development are, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSRD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSRD in the innovation cycle enabled by plasma modeling will be discussed using results from multidimensional and global models. Examples of fundamental studies and technology optimization will focus on microelectronics fabrication and on optically pumped lasers. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  11. The anatomy of the grid : enabling scalable virtual organizations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.; Tuecke, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Southern California

    2001-10-01

    'Grid' computing has emerged as an important new field, distinguished from conventional distributed computing by its focus on large-scale resource sharing, innovative applications, and, in some cases, high performance orientation. In this article, the authors define this new field. First, they review the 'Grid problem,' which is defined as flexible, secure, coordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions, and resources -- what is referred to as virtual organizations. In such settings, unique authentication, authorization, resource access, resource discovery, and other challenges are encountered. It is this class of problem that is addressed by Grid technologies. Next, the authors present an extensible and open Grid architecture, in which protocols, services, application programming interfaces, and software development kits are categorized according to their roles in enabling resource sharing. The authors describe requirements that they believe any such mechanisms must satisfy and discuss the importance of defining a compact set of intergrid protocols to enable interoperability among different Grid systems. Finally, the authors discuss how Grid technologies relate to other contemporary technologies, including enterprise integration, application service provider, storage service provider, and peer-to-peer computing. They maintain that Grid concepts and technologies complement and have much to contribute to these other approaches.

  12. Integrin extension enables ultrasensitive regulation by cytoskeletal force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Springer, Timothy A

    2017-05-02

    Integrins undergo large-scale conformational changes upon activation. Signaling events driving integrin activation have previously been discussed conceptually, but not quantitatively. Here, recent measurements of the intrinsic ligand-binding affinity and free energy of each integrin conformational state on the cell surface, together with the length scales of conformational change, are used to quantitatively compare models of activation. We examine whether binding of cytoskeletal adaptors to integrin cytoplasmic domains is sufficient for activation or whether exertion of tensile force by the actin cytoskeleton across the integrin-ligand complex is also required. We find that only the combination of adaptor binding and cytoskeletal force provides ultrasensitive regulation. Moreover, switch-like activation by force depends on the large, >130 Å length-scale change in integrin extension, which is well tailored to match the free-energy difference between the inactive (bent-closed) and active (extended-open) conformations. The length scale and energy cost in integrin extension enable activation by force in the low pN range and appear to be the key specializations that enable cell adhesion through integrins to be coordinated with cytoskeletal dynamics.

  13. Magnetotaxis Enables Magnetotactic Bacteria to Navigate in Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismani Yazdi, Saeed; Nosrati, Reza; Stevens, Corey A; Vogel, David; Davies, Peter L; Escobedo, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) play an important role in Earth's biogeochemical cycles by transporting minerals in aquatic ecosystems, and have shown promise for controlled transport of microscale objects in flow conditions. However, how MTB traverse complex flow environments is not clear. Here, using microfluidics and high-speed imaging, it is revealed that magnetotaxis enables directed motion of Magnetospirillum magneticum over long distances in flow velocities ranging from 2 to 1260 µm s -1 , corresponding to shear rates ranging from 0.2 to 142 s -1 -a range relevant to both aquatic environments and biomedical applications. The ability of MTB to overcome a current is influenced by the flow, the magnetic field, and their relative orientation. MTB can overcome 2.3-fold higher flow velocities when directed to swim perpendicular to the flow as compared to upstream, as the latter orientation induces higher drag. The results indicate a threshold drag of 9.5 pN, corresponding to a flow velocity of 550 µm s -1 , where magnetotaxis enables MTB to overcome counterdirectional flow. These findings bring new insights into the interactions of MTB with complex flow environments relevant to aquatic ecosystems, while suggesting opportunities for in vivo applications of MTB in microbiorobotics and targeted drug delivery. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. BIM: Enabling Sustainability and Asset Management through Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry. PMID:24324392

  15. Resource optimization scheme for multimedia-enabled wireless mesh networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amjad; Ahmed, Muhammad Ejaz; Piran, Md Jalil; Suh, Doug Young

    2014-08-08

    Wireless mesh networking is a promising technology that can support numerous multimedia applications. Multimedia applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. Enabling such QoS-demanding applications over wireless mesh networks (WMNs) require QoS provisioning routing protocols that lead to the network resource underutilization problem. Moreover, random topology deployment leads to have some unused network resources. Therefore, resource optimization is one of the most critical design issues in multi-hop, multi-radio WMNs enabled with multimedia applications. Resource optimization has been studied extensively in the literature for wireless Ad Hoc and sensor networks, but existing studies have not considered resource underutilization issues caused by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. Finding a QoS-provisioned path in wireless mesh networks is an NP complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization model to reconstruct the optimal connected mesh backbone topology with a minimum number of links and relay nodes which satisfies the given end-to-end QoS demands for multimedia traffic and identification of extra resources, while maintaining redundancy. We further propose a polynomial time heuristic algorithm called Link and Node Removal Considering Residual Capacity and Traffic Demands (LNR-RCTD). Simulation studies prove that our heuristic algorithm provides near-optimal results and saves about 20% of resources from being wasted by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment.

  16. Insulated transcriptional elements enable precise design of genetic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yeqing; Zhang, Haoqian M; Lyu, Cheng; Ji, Xiangyu; Hou, Junran; Guo, Xian; Ouyang, Qi; Lou, Chunbo

    2017-07-03

    Rational engineering of biological systems is often complicated by the complex but unwanted interactions between cellular components at multiple levels. Here we address this issue at the level of prokaryotic transcription by insulating minimal promoters and operators to prevent their interaction and enable the biophysical modeling of synthetic transcription without free parameters. This approach allows genetic circuit design with extraordinary precision and diversity, and consequently simplifies the design-build-test-learn cycle of circuit engineering to a mix-and-match workflow. As a demonstration, combinatorial promoters encoding NOT-gate functions were designed from scratch with mean errors of 96% using our insulated transcription elements. Furthermore, four-node transcriptional networks with incoherent feed-forward loops that execute stripe-forming functions were obtained without any trial-and-error work. This insulation-based engineering strategy improves the resolution of genetic circuit technology and provides a simple approach for designing genetic circuits for systems and synthetic biology.Unwanted interactions between cellular components can complicate rational engineering of biological systems. Here the authors design insulated minimal promoters and operators that enable biophysical modeling of bacterial transcription without free parameters for precise circuit design.

  17. A Registry Framework Enabling Patient-Centred Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellgard, Matthew I; Napier, Kathryn; Render, Lee; Radochonski, Maciej; Lamont, Leanne; Graham, Caroline; Wilton, Steve D; Fletcher, Sue; Goldblatt, Jack; Hunter, Adam A; Weeramanthri, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions rely on expert knowledge that draws on quality patient phenotypic and physiological data. In this regard, systems that can support patient-centric care are essential. Patient registries are a key component of patient-centre care and can come in many forms such as disease-specific, recruitment, clinical, contact, post market and surveillance. There are, however, a number of significant challenges to overcome in order to maximise the utility of these information management systems to facilitate improved patient-centred care. Registries need to be harmonised regionally, nationally and internationally. However, the majority are implemented as standalone systems without consideration for data standards or system interoperability. Hence the task of harmonisation can become daunting. Fortunately, there are strategies to address this. In this paper, a disease registry framework is outlined that enables efficient deployment of national and international registries that can be modified dynamically as registry requirements evolve. This framework provides a basis for the development and implementation of data standards and enables patients to seamlessly belong to multiple registries. Other significant advances include the ability for registry curators to create and manage registries themselves without the need to contract software developers, and the concept of a registry description language for ease of registry template sharing.

  18. Oxytonergic circuitry sustains and enables creative cognition in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Matthijs; Roskes, Marieke; Sligte, Daniel J.; Ebstein, Richard P.; Chew, Soo Hong; Tong, Terry; Jiang, Yushi; Mayseless, Naama; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G.

    2014-01-01

    Creativity enables humans to adapt flexibly to changing circumstances, to manage complex social relations and to survive and prosper through social, technological and medical innovations. In humans, chronic, trait-based as well as temporary, state-based approach orientation has been linked to increased capacity for divergent rather than convergent thinking, to more global and holistic processing styles and to more original ideation and creative problem solving. Here, we link creative cognition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide known to up-regulate approach orientation in both animals and humans. Study 1 (N = 492) showed that plasma oxytocin predicts novelty-seeking temperament. Study 2 (N = 110) revealed that genotype differences in a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene rs1042778 predicted creative ideation, with GG/GT-carriers being more original than TT-carriers. Using double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects designs, Studies 3–6 (N = 191) finally showed that intranasal oxytocin (vs matching placebo) reduced analytical reasoning, and increased holistic processing, divergent thinking and creative performance. We conclude that the oxytonergic circuitry sustains and enables the day-to-day creativity humans need for survival and prosperity and discuss implications. PMID:23863476

  19. Synaptic plasticity enables adaptive self-tuning critical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Stepp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During rest, the mammalian cortex displays spontaneous neural activity. Spiking of single neurons during rest has been described as irregular and asynchronous. In contrast, recent in vivo and in vitro population measures of spontaneous activity, using the LFP, EEG, MEG or fMRI suggest that the default state of the cortex is critical, manifested by spontaneous, scale-invariant, cascades of activity known as neuronal avalanches. Criticality keeps a network poised for optimal information processing, but this view seems to be difficult to reconcile with apparently irregular single neuron spiking. Here, we simulate a 10,000 neuron, deterministic, plastic network of spiking neurons. We show that a combination of short- and long-term synaptic plasticity enables these networks to exhibit criticality in the face of intrinsic, i.e. self-sustained, asynchronous spiking. Brief external perturbations lead to adaptive, long-term modification of intrinsic network connectivity through long-term excitatory plasticity, whereas long-term inhibitory plasticity enables rapid self-tuning of the network back to a critical state. The critical state is characterized by a branching parameter oscillating around unity, a critical exponent close to -3/2 and a long tail distribution of a self-similarity parameter between 0.5 and 1.

  20. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Eric [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  1. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  2. IT enabled service delivery innovation from quality perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chin Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to understand how information and service quality to influence of IT enabled service (ITeS, then to enhance service delivery innovation (SDI. This study bases ITeS to elaborate two research questions by adopting Rodosek’s business reference model. Consequently, we conduct a case study approach, by deriving proposals concerning the relationships among two quality perspectives, ITeS, and SDI in a Taiwanese publishing company. In the end, we concluded three related findings. Firstly, the company based on service orientated to provide basic service functions to encourage more users to enjoy their services, as well as facilitating collaborative work via the online discussion area. Secondly, the company adopted advanced service functions to extend their service scopes to end-users, such as download the news into handheld devices. Finally, the company utilized the supporting service functions to assist customers integrating the ideas and plans.

  3. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  4. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davida, G.I.; Frankel, Y.; Matt, B.J.

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user's biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user's private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user's biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms

  5. The EGS Data Collaboration Platform: Enabling Scientific Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weers, Jonathan D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnston, Henry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huggins, Jay V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-14

    Collaboration in the digital age has been stifled in recent years. Reasonable responses to legitimate security concerns have created a virtual landscape of silos and fortified castles incapable of sharing information efficiently. This trend is unfortunately opposed to the geothermal scientific community's migration toward larger, more collaborative projects. To facilitate efficient sharing of information between team members from multiple national labs, universities, and private organizations, the 'EGS Collab' team has developed a universally accessible, secure data collaboration platform and has fully integrated it with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Data Repository (GDR) and the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper will explore some of the challenges of collaboration in the modern digital age, highlight strategies for active data management, and discuss the integration of the EGS Collab data management platform with the GDR to enable scientific discovery through the timely dissemination of information.

  6. Microfluidics-Enabled Enzyme Activity Measurement in Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Cinzia; Frøhlich, Rikke; Stougaard, Magnus; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R

    2015-01-01

    Cellular heterogeneity has presented a significant challenge in the studies of biology. While most of our understanding is based on the analysis of ensemble average, individual cells may process information and respond to perturbations very differently. Presented here is a highly sensitive platform capable of measuring enzymatic activity at the single-cell level. The strategy innovatively combines a rolling circle-enhanced enzyme activity detection (REEAD) assay with droplet microfluidics. The single-molecule sensitivity of REEAD allows highly sensitive detection of enzymatic activities, i.e. at the single catalytic event level, whereas the microfluidics enables isolation of single cells. Further, confined reactions in picoliter-sized droplets significantly improve enzyme extraction from human cells or microorganisms and result in faster reaction kinetics. Taken together, the described protocol is expected to open up new possibilities in the single-cell research, particularly for the elucidation of heterogeneity in a population of cells.

  7. Creating motivation, identifying incentives and enablers, and encouraging staff development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Roberts

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivating staff so that they perform at their best is an integral part of running a project. People usually need to work in order to make money. But, although this may be the strongest incentive, it is not the only one.People will enjoy their job and gain satisfaction from doing it well if they know that they are achieving results. If you are running a project you should be making sure that this is happening. The first step is to recruit the right people for the right job, the next step is to clearly define their roles and responsibilities and the third step is to enable them to do the job well. This article focuses on the third step.

  8. Cooperative cognitive radio networking system model, enabling techniques, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Bin; Mark, Jon W

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief examines the active cooperation between users of Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networking (CCRN), exploring the system model, enabling techniques, and performance. The brief provides a systematic study on active cooperation between primary users and secondary users, i.e., (CCRN), followed by the discussions on research issues and challenges in designing spectrum-energy efficient CCRN. As an effort to shed light on the design of spectrum-energy efficient CCRN, they model the CCRN based on orthogonal modulation and orthogonally dual-polarized antenna (ODPA). The resource allocation issues are detailed with respect to both models, in terms of problem formulation, solution approach, and numerical results. Finally, the optimal communication strategies for both primary and secondary users to achieve spectrum-energy efficient CCRN are analyzed.

  9. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  10. ESIM_DSN Web-Enabled Distributed Simulation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Novotny, John

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the eSim(sup DSN) approach to achieve distributed simulation capability using the Internet is presented. With this approach a complete simulation can be assembled from component subsystems that run on different computers. The subsystems interact with each other via the Internet The distributed simulation uses a hub-and-spoke type network topology. It provides the ability to dynamically link simulation subsystem models to different computers as well as the ability to assign a particular model to each computer. A proof-of-concept demonstrator is also presented. The eSim(sup DSN) demonstrator can be accessed at http://www.jsc.draper.com/esim which hosts various examples of Web enabled simulations.

  11. DEWEY: the DICOM-enabled workflow engine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Bradley J; Langer, Steve G; Blezek, Daniel J; Ryan, William J; French, Todd L

    2014-06-01

    Workflow is a widely used term to describe the sequence of steps to accomplish a task. The use of workflow technology in medicine and medical imaging in particular is limited. In this article, we describe the application of a workflow engine to improve workflow in a radiology department. We implemented a DICOM-enabled workflow engine system in our department. We designed it in a way to allow for scalability, reliability, and flexibility. We implemented several workflows, including one that replaced an existing manual workflow and measured the number of examinations prepared in time without and with the workflow system. The system significantly increased the number of examinations prepared in time for clinical review compared to human effort. It also met the design goals defined at its outset. Workflow engines appear to have value as ways to efficiently assure that complex workflows are completed in a timely fashion.

  12. Enabling technologies and green processes in cyclodextrin chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cravotto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient synthetic green strategies for the selective modification of cyclodextrins (CDs is still a challenging task. Outstanding results have been achieved in recent years by means of so-called enabling technologies, such as microwaves, ultrasound and ball mills, that have become irreplaceable tools in the synthesis of CD derivatives. Several examples of sonochemical selective modification of native α-, β- and γ-CDs have been reported including heterogeneous phase Pd- and Cu-catalysed hydrogenations and couplings. Microwave irradiation has emerged as the technique of choice for the production of highly substituted CD derivatives, CD grafted materials and polymers. Mechanochemical methods have successfully furnished greener, solvent-free syntheses and efficient complexation, while flow microreactors may well improve the repeatability and optimization of critical synthetic protocols.

  13. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  14. System and Method for RFID-Enabled Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  15. Systems and Methods for RFID-Enabled Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  16. Multi-dimensional technology-enabled social learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petreski, Hristijan; Tsekeridou, Sofia; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2013-01-01

    in learning while socializing within their learning communities. However, their “educational” usage is still limited to facilitation of online learning communities and to collaborative authoring of learning material complementary to existing formal (e-) learning services. If the educational system doesn......’t respond to this systemic and structural changes and/or challenges and retains its status quo than it is jeopardizing its own existence or the existence of the education, as we know it. This paper aims to precede one step further by proposing a multi-dimensional approach for technology-enabled social...... content on the Web, using social networks to keep in touch, express, distribute and publish their experiences, views and ideas. Although, since their birth, most of the social media tools were not intended for educational purposes, educational organizations have started to recognize their added value...

  17. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  18. ARIES: Enabling Visual Exploration and Organization of Art Image Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissaff, Lhaylla; Wood Ruby, Louisa; Deutch, Samantha; DuBois, R Luke; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; Freire, Juliana; Silva, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Art historians have traditionally used physical light boxes to prepare exhibits or curate collections. On a light box, they can place slides or printed images, move the images around at will, group them as desired, and visual-ly compare them. The transition to digital images has rendered this workflow obsolete. Now, art historians lack well-designed, unified interactive software tools that effectively support the operations they perform with physi-cal light boxes. To address this problem, we designed ARIES (ARt Image Exploration Space), an interactive image manipulation system that enables the exploration and organization of fine digital art. The system allows images to be compared in multiple ways, offering dynamic overlays analogous to a physical light box, and sup-porting advanced image comparisons and feature-matching functions, available through computational image processing. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system to support art historians tasks through real use cases.

  19. TCIA: An information resource to enable open science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Fred W; Clark, Ken; Commean, Paul; Freymann, John; Jaffe, Carl; Kirby, Justin; Moore, Stephen; Smith, Kirk; Tarbox, Lawrence; Vendt, Bruce; Marquez, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Reusable, publicly available data is a pillar of open science. The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) is an open image archive service supporting cancer research. TCIA collects, de-identifies, curates and manages rich collections of oncology image data. Image data sets have been contributed by 28 institutions and additional image collections are underway. Since June of 2011, more than 2,000 users have registered to search and access data from this freely available resource. TCIA encourages and supports cancer-related open science communities by hosting and managing the image archive, providing project wiki space and searchable metadata repositories. The success of TCIA is measured by the number of active research projects it enables (>40) and the number of scientific publications and presentations that are produced using data from TCIA collections (39).

  20. Enabling narrative pedagogy: inviting, waiting, and letting be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how teachers enable Narrative Pedagogy in their courses by explicating the Concernful Practice Inviting: Waiting and Letting Be. Narrative Pedagogy, a research-based, phenomenological approach to teaching and learning, extends conventional pedagogies and offers nursing faculty an alternative way of transforming their schools and courses. Using hermeneutic phenomenology, interview data collected over a 10-year period were analyzed by coding practical examples of teachers' efforts to enact Narrative Pedagogy. When Narrative Pedagogy is enacted, teachers and students focus on thinking and learning together about nursing phenomena and seek new understandings about how they may provide care in the myriad situations they encounter. Although the Concernful Practices co-occur, explicating inviting experiences can assist new teachers, and those seeking to extend their pedagogical literacy, by providing new understandings of how Narrative Pedagogy can be enacted.

  1. Reliable transmission of security-enabled multimedia over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David E.; Ahmed, Farid

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we address the reliable transmission of security-enabled multimedia data over the internet which is becoming increasingly vulnerable to a variety of cyber-attacks. Due to their real-timeliness aspect, multimedia data in Internet mostly uses User Datagram Protocol(UDP) as the transport media as opposed to the Transport Control Protocol (TCP). UDP is inherently an unreliable transport media that results in certain unacknowledged packet losses. Multimedia applications usually can tolerate some packet losses for its rendering at the receiver side. But, for the security-enhanced multimedia that we are talking about, reliability of reception of most of the packets within a certain tolerance time need to be guaranteed. This is where we come in with a new protocol that ensures packet-level reliability as well as stream-level authentication of multimedia.

  2. Towards reference architectures as an enabler for software ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knodel, Jens; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Software ecosystems - a topic with increasingly growing interest in academia and industry in the past decade - arguably revolutionized many aspects of industrial software engineering (business models, architectures, platforms, project executions, collaboration models, distribution of assets......, to name a few). Software ecosystems enable the contribution of external actors with distinct center a common technology and the potential distribution of the actor contributions to an existing user set. Reference architectures have been proven successful and beneficial for software product lines...... and traditional software development within distinct domains. They arguably come with a set of benefits that severely counterweights the additional effort of design and implementation. But what is the role of reference architectures in an ecosystem setting? In this position paper, we argue for the use...

  3. Preformulation designed to enable discovery and assess developability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Physicochemical properties of drug molecules impact many aspects of both in vivo and in vitro behavior. Poor physicochemical properties can often create a significant impediment to establishing reliable SAR, establishing proof of principle type studies using in vivo models, and eventually leading to added performance variability and costs throughout the development life cycle; in the worst case scenario, even preventing execution of the desired development plan. Understanding the fundamental physicochemical properties provides the basis to dissect and deconvolute experimental observations in such a way that modification or mitigation of poor molecular properties can be impacted at the design phase, insuring design and selection of a molecule which has a high probability of making it through the arduous development cycle. This review will discuss the key physicochemical properties and how they can be assessed and how they are implicated in both discovery enablement and in final product developability of the selected candidate.

  4. Assumptions of Customer Knowledge Enablement in the Open Innovation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskienė Raminta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, open innovation is one of the most effective means to innovate and gain a competitive advantage. In practice, there is a variety of open innovation activities, but, nevertheless, customers stand as the cornerstone in this area, since the customers’ knowledge is one of the most important sources of new knowledge and ideas. Evaluating the context where are the interactions of open innovation and customer knowledge enablement, it is necessary to take into account the importance of customer knowledge management. Increasingly it is highlighted that customers’ knowledge management facilitates the creation of innovations. However, it should be an examination of other factors that influence the open innovation, and, at the same time, customers’ knowledge management. This article presents a theoretical model, which reveals the assumptions of open innovation process and the impact on the firm’s performance.

  5. How Enterprise Architecture Maturity Enables Post-merger IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törmer, Robert Lorenz; Henningsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    While world-wide Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) activity continues to accelerate, a substantial proportion of deals fails to yield the expected value. The inability to plan and implement post-merger integration of information technology contributes substantially to these failure rates. This paper...... advances the argument that a company’s pre-existing Enterprise Architecture decisively shapes the capability to implement post-merger IT integration and subsequently realize benefits from M&A. Our multiple-case study investigates three acquisition cases and develops an explanatory theory of how Enterprise...... Architecture maturity enables the implementation of distinct integration strategies. The results do not only enrich the academic literature on M&A, but also show the strategic value of Enterprise Architecture maturity....

  6. Securing the Use of RFID-Enabled Banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Santi; Roig, Concepció; Valls, Magda

    The use of RFID tags (radio-frequency identification tags) in banknotes presents a main challenge that may discourage their usage: how to avoid a possible attacker to count the amount of tags. Such a drawback is faced in this paper by designing an appropriate Medium Access Control (MAC) for this scenario. A MAC is the set of mechanisms and protocols that allows devices to share the communication channel. In a RFID system, a MAC protocol makes it possible for several tags to communicate within a common environment with the RFID reader. In this paper, we present a new MAC protocol that is suitable for ensuring security in the use of RFID-enabled banknotes. It also guarantees privacy and fits scalability requirements when the number of tags is increasing.

  7. Polymeric Biomaterials: Diverse Functions Enabled by Advances in Macromolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingkai; Li, Linqing; Scott, Rebecca A; Kiick, Kristi L

    2017-01-24

    Biomaterials have been extensively used to leverage beneficial outcomes in various therapeutic applications, such as providing spatial and temporal control over the release of therapeutic agents in drug delivery as well as engineering functional tissues and promoting the healing process in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This perspective presents important milestones in the development of polymeric biomaterials with defined structures and properties. Contemporary studies of biomaterial design have been reviewed with focus on constructing materials with controlled structure, dynamic functionality, and biological complexity. Examples of these polymeric biomaterials enabled by advanced synthetic methodologies, dynamic chemistry/assembly strategies, and modulated cell-material interactions have been highlighted. As the field of polymeric biomaterials continues to evolve with increased sophistication, current challenges and future directions for the design and translation of these materials are also summarized.

  8. Can Mobile Technology Enable Knowledge Communication in a Learning Environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance; Islas Sedano, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    with technology in knowledge management systems.  So, is knowledge communication a process that can be technologically enabled?  In this presentation, we explore the possibilities of socio-technical interaction for knowledge communication through the use of a mobile phone game as a knowledge communication tool.......  Our research focuses in on use of this mobile phone game as a case study for a Project Management course given simultaneously at the Aarhus School of Business and the Helsinki School of Economics.  The students used knowledge communication and knowledge management theories as part of their project...... conception & project planning processes for situating the mobile game in a social knowledge communication context such as a museum exhibit.  We will discuss the HSE students' use of theories and the reception of their project ideas by clients, as well as the ASB students' response to the case of implementing...

  9. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha V. Panicker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC. Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements.

  10. Raexplore: Enabling Rapid, Automated Architecture Exploration for Full Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Balaprakash, Prasanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meng, Jiayuan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Morozov, Vitali [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Parker, Scott [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kumaran, Kalyan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present Raexplore, a performance modeling framework for architecture exploration. Raexplore enables rapid, automated, and systematic search of architecture design space by combining hardware counter-based performance characterization and analytical performance modeling. We demonstrate Raexplore for two recent manycore processors IBM Blue- Gene/Q compute chip and Intel Xeon Phi, targeting a set of scientific applications. Our framework is able to capture complex interactions between architectural components including instruction pipeline, cache, and memory, and to achieve a 3–22% error for same-architecture and cross-architecture performance predictions. Furthermore, we apply our framework to assess the two processors, and discover and evaluate a list of architectural scaling options for future processor designs.

  11. The Transforming Mobility Ecosystem: Enabling in Energy-Efficient Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-31

    Over the next decade, the transportation sector is poised for rapid change, propelled toward a new mobility future by strong technology currents and the confluence of prevailing megatrends. These major forces hold the promise of shaping a new mobility future – one that unlocks tremendous economic value, provides unprecedented gains in safety, offers affordable and equal accessibility, and enables the transition to energy-efficient transport of people and goods. They come, however, with cautionary viewpoints on energy consumption of the entire sector, necessitating the need to carefully guide the emergent future. This report examines four possible mobility futures that could exist in 2050 and the positive and negative impacts of these futures on energy consumption and the broader economy.

  12. Using EPICS enabled industrial hardware for upgrading control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorkland, Eric A.; Veeramani, Arun; Debelle, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with National Instruments (NI) and Cosy lab to implement EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) software that runs directly on NI CompactRIO Real Time Controller (RTC) and communicates with NI LabVIEW through a shared memory interface. In this presentation, we will discuss our current progress in upgrading the control system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centre (LANSCE) and what we have learned about integrating CompactRIO into large experimental physics facilities. We will also discuss the implications of using Channel Access Server for LabVIEW which will enable more commercial hardware platforms to be used in upgrading existing facilities or in commissioning new ones.

  13. Knowledge Management Enablers and Process in Hospital Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effects of knowledge management enablers, such as organizational structure, leadership, learning, information technology systems, trust, and collaboration, on the knowledge management process of creation, storage, sharing, and application. Using data from self-administered questionnaires in four Korean tertiary hospitals, this survey investigated the main organizational factors affecting the knowledge management process in these organizations. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. The results showed that organizational factors affect the knowledge management process differently in each hospital organization. From a managerial perspective, the implications of these factors for developing organizational strategies that encourage and foster the knowledge management process are discussed.

  14. Enabling campus grids with open science grid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Derek [Nebraska U.; Bockelman, Brian [Nebraska U.; Swanson, David [Nebraska U.; Fraser, Dan [Argonne; Pordes, Ruth [Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  15. Network Enabled - Unresolved Residual Analysis and Learning (NEURAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, D.; Poole, M.; Camp, M.

    Since the advent of modern computational capacity, machine learning algorithms and techniques have served as a method through which to solve numerous challenging problems. However, for machine learning methods to be effective and robust, sufficient data sets must be available; specifically, in the space domain, these are generally difficult to acquire. Rapidly evolving commercial space-situational awareness companies boast the capability to collect hundreds of thousands nightly observations of resident space objects (RSOs) using a ground-based optical sensor network. This provides the ability to maintain custody of and characterize thousands of objects persistently. With this information available, novel deep learning techniques can be implemented. The technique discussed in this paper utilizes deep learning to make distinctions between nightly data collects with and without maneuvers. Implementation of these techniques will allow the data collected from optical ground-based networks to enable well informed and timely the space domain decision making.

  16. Web-enabled Data Warehouse and Data Webhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerasela PIRVU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, our objectives are to understanding what data warehouse means examine the reasons for doing so, appreciate the implications of the convergence of Web technologies and those of the data warehouse and examine the steps for building a Web-enabled data warehouse. The web revolution has propelled the data warehouse out onto the main stage, because in many situations the data warehouse must be the engine that controls or analysis the web experience. In order to step up to this new responsibility, the data warehouse must adjust. The nature of the data warehouse needs to be somewhat different. As a result, our data warehouses are becoming data webhouses. The data warehouse is becoming the infrastructure that supports customer relationship management (CRM. And the data warehouse is being asked to make the customer clickstream available for analysis. This rebirth of data warehousing architecture is called the data webhouse.

  17. Enabling Mass Customization in Engineer-To-Order Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin

    general capabilities to facilitate mass customization in engineer-to-order firms. The established understanding is complemented with interviews of practitioners from 18 engineering companies to obtain further insight into essential aspects of the research field. Based on the gained experience, eleven......Choosing goods and services that satisfy individual needs has become possible in many consumer markets today. Technological advancement in sales and production enabled a variety of products, from automotive to apparel, to be mass customized in a profitable manner. Over time, these companies learned...... to handle the negative impact of a resulting increase in architecture complexity. In contrast, engineer-to-order firms, which core business is to create bespoke product variants engineered to specific needs, could not benefit to the same degree from the progress towards mass customization. Though...

  18. Demonstration of a Nano-Enabled Space Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelle, Ryne; Hunter, Roger C.; Baker, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The Nano-Enabled Space Power System will demonstrate power systems with nanomaterial-enhanced components as are placement for CubeSat power generation, transmission, and storage. Successful flights of these nano-power systems will accelerate the use of this revolutionary technology in the aerospace industry. The use of nano materials in solar cells, wire harnesses,and lithium ion batteries can increase the device performance without significantly altering the devices physical dimensions or the devices operating range (temperature,voltage, current). In many cases, the use of nanomaterials widens the viable range of operating conditions, such as increased depth of discharge of lithium ion batteries, tunable bandgaps in solar cells, and increased flexure tolerance of wire harnesses.

  19. Towards Enabling Overture as a Platform for Formal Notation IDEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Diogo Couto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal Methods tools will never have as many users as tools for popular programming languages and so the effort spent on constructing Integrated Development Environments (IDEs will be orders of magnitudes lower than that of programming languages such as Java. This means newcomers to formal methods do not get the same user experience as with their favourite programming IDE. In order to improve this situation it is essential that efforts are combined so it is possible to reuse common features and thus not start from scratch every time. This paper presents the Overture platform where such a reuse philosophy is present. We give an overview of the platform itself as well as the extensibility principles that enable much of the reuse. The paper also contains several examples platform extensions, both in the form of new features and a new IDE supporting a new language.

  20. Electrolyte-Sensing Transistor Decals Enabled by Ultrathin Microbial Nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Jonathan D.; Walper, Scott A.; Melde, Brian J.; Daniele, Michael A.; Stenger, David A.

    2017-01-01

    We report an ultra-thin electronic decal that can simultaneously collect, transmit and interrogate a bio-fluid. The described technology effectively integrates a thin-film organic electrochemical transistor (sensing component) with an ultrathin microbial nanocellulose wicking membrane (sample handling component). As far as we are aware, OECTs have not been integrated in thin, permeable membrane substrates for epidermal electronics. The design of the biocompatible decal allows for the physical isolation of the electronics from the human body while enabling efficient bio-fluid delivery to the transistor via vertical wicking. High currents and ON-OFF ratios were achieved, with sensitivity as low as 1 mg·L-1.

  1. Enabling Sustainable Exploration through the Commercial Development of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The commercial development of space offers enabling benefits to space exploration. This paper examines how those benefits can be realized, and how the Space Product Development Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is taking the first steps towards opening the space frontier through vital and sustainable industrial development. The Space Product Development Office manages 15 Commercial Space Centers that partner with US industry to develop opportunities for commerce in space. This partnership directly benefits NASA exploration in four primary ways. First, by actively involving traditional and non-traditional companies in commercial space activities, it seeks and encourages to the maximum extent possible the fullest commercial use of space, as directed by NASA's charter. Second, the commercial research and technologies pursued and developed in the program often have direct applicability to NASA priority mission areas. This dual use strategy for research and technology has the potential to greatly expand what the NASA scientific community can do. Third, the commercial experiment hardware developed by the Commercial Space Centers and their industrial partners is available for use by NASA researchers in support of priority NASA research. By utilizing low cost and existing commercial hardware, essential NASA research can be more readily accomplished. Fourth, by assisting industry in understanding the use of the environment of space and in helping industry enhance the tools and technologies for NASA and commercial space systems, the market for commercial space utilization and the capability for meeting the future growing market needs is being developed. These two activities taken together form the beginning of a new space economy that will enable sustainable NASA exploration of the universe.

  2. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  3. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

  4. Beam shaping as an enabler for new applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Yvonne; Kahmann, Max; Havrilla, David

    2017-02-01

    For many years, laser beam shaping has enabled users to achieve optimized process results as well as manage challenging applications. The latest advancements in industrial lasers and processing optics have taken this a step further as users are able to adapt the beam shape to meet specific application requirements in a very flexible way. TRUMPF has developed a wide range of experience in creating beam profiles at the work piece for optimized material processing. This technology is based on the physical model of wave optics and can be used with ultra short pulse lasers as well as multi-kW cw lasers. Basically, the beam shape can be adapted in all three dimensions in space, which allows maximum flexibility. Besides adaption of intensity profile, even multi-spot geometries can be produced. This approach is very cost efficient, because a standard laser source and (in the case of cw lasers) a standard fiber can be used without any special modifications. Based on this innovative beam shaping technology, TRUMPF has developed new and optimized processes. Two of the most recent application developments using these techniques are cutting glass and synthetic sapphire with ultra-short pulse lasers and enhanced brazing of hot dip zinc coated steel for automotive applications. Both developments lead to more efficient and flexible production processes, enabled by laser technology and open the door to new opportunities. They also indicate the potential of beam shaping techniques since they can be applied to both single-mode laser sources (TOP Cleave) and multi-mode laser sources (brazing).

  5. Magnetizable stent-grafts enable endothelial cell capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tefft, Brandon J. [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Uthamaraj, Susheil [Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Harburn, J. Jonathan [School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Durham University, Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom); Hlinomaz, Ota [Department of Cardioangiology, St. Anne' s University Hospital, Brno (Czech Republic); Lerman, Amir [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Dragomir-Daescu, Dan [Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Sandhu, Gurpreet S., E-mail: sandhu.gurpreet@mayo.edu [Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies have enabled the use of magnetic forces to guide the movement of magnetically-labeled cells, drugs, and other therapeutic agents. Endothelial cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have previously been captured on the surface of magnetizable 2205 duplex stainless steel stents in a porcine coronary implantation model. Recently, we have coated these stents with electrospun polyurethane nanofibers to fabricate prototype stent-grafts. Facilitated endothelialization may help improve the healing of arteries treated with stent-grafts, reduce the risk of thrombosis and restenosis, and enable small-caliber applications. When placed in a SPION-labeled endothelial cell suspension in the presence of an external magnetic field, magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured cells to the surface regions adjacent to the stent struts. Implantation within the coronary circulation of pigs (n=13) followed immediately by SPION-labeled autologous endothelial cell delivery resulted in widely patent devices with a thin, uniform neointima and no signs of thrombosis or inflammation at 7 days. Furthermore, the magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured and retained SPION-labeled endothelial cells to select regions adjacent to stent struts and between stent struts, whereas the non-magnetized control stent-grafts did not. Early results with these prototype devices are encouraging and further refinements will be necessary in order to achieve more uniform cell capture and complete endothelialization. Once optimized, this approach may lead to more rapid and complete healing of vascular stent-grafts with a concomitant improvement in long-term device performance. - Highlights: • Magnetic stent-grafts were made from 2205 steel stents and polyurethane nanofibers. • Stent-grafts remained patent and formed a thin and uniform neointima when implanted. • Stent-grafts captured endothelial cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles.

  6. Enabling Airspace Integration for High Density Urban Air Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric Richard

    2017-01-01

    Aviation technologies and concepts have reached a level of maturity that may soon enable an era of on-demand mobility (ODM) fueled by quiet, efficient, and largely automated air taxis. However, successfully bringing such a system to fruition will require introducing orders of magnitude more aircraft to a given airspace volume than can be accommodated by the traditional air traffic control system, among other important technical challenges. The airspace integration problem is further compounded by requirements to set aside appropriate ground infrastructure for take-off and landing areas and ensuring these new aircraft types and their operations do not burden traditional airspace users and air traffic control. These challenge for ODM may be significantly reduced by extending the concepts and technologies developed to manage small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) at low altitude the UAS traffic management (UTM) system to higher altitudes and aircraft with humans onboard in controlled airspace, or by equipping ODM aircraft with advanced sensors, algorithms, and interfaces. The precedent of operational freedom inherent in visual flight rules and the technologies developed for large UAS and commercial aircraft automation will contribute to the evolution of an ODM system enabled by UTM. This paper describes the set of air traffic services, normally provided by the traditional air traffic system, that an ODM system would implement to achieve the high densities needed for ODMs economic viability. Finally, the paper proposes a framework for integrating, evaluating, and deploying low-, medium-, and high-density ODM concepts that build on each other to ensure operational and economic feasibility at every step.

  7. BioenergyKDF: Enabling Spatiotemporal Data Synthesis and Research Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; Movva, Sunil [ORNL; Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Chase, Adrian S Z [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.

  8. Structured Light-Matter Interactions Enabled By Novel Photonic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litchinitser, Natalia [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States); Feng, Liang [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2017-05-02

    The synergy of complex materials and complex light is expected to add a new dimension to the science of light and its applications [1]. The goal of this program is to investigate novel phenomena emerging at the interface of these two branches of modern optics. While metamaterials research was largely focused on relatively “simple” linearly or circularly polarized light propagation in “complex” nanostructured, carefully designed materials with properties not found in nature, many singular optics studies addressed “complex” structured light transmission in “simple” homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive transparent media, where both spin and orbital angular momentum are independently conserved. However, if both light and medium are complex so that structured light interacts with a metamaterial whose optical materials properties can be designed at will, the spin or angular momentum can change, which leads to spin-orbit interaction and many novel optical phenomena that will be studied in the proposed project. Indeed, metamaterials enable unprecedented control over light propagation, opening new avenues for using spin and quantum optical phenomena, and design flexibility facilitating new linear and nonlinear optical properties and functionalities, including negative index of refraction, magnetism at optical frequencies, giant optical activity, subwavelength imaging, cloaking, dispersion engineering, and unique phase-matching conditions for nonlinear optical interactions. In this research program we focused on structured light-matter interactions in complex media with three particularly remarkable properties that were enabled only with the emergence of metamaterials: extreme anisotropy, extreme material parameters, and magneto-electric coupling–bi-anisotropy and chirality.

  9. Fluorescent biosensors enabled by graphene and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Honglu; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai; Mi, Xianqiang

    2017-03-15

    During the past few years, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have attracted numerous attentions for the potential applications in various fields from energy technology, biosensing to biomedical diagnosis and therapy due to their various functionalization, high volume surface ratio, unique physical and electrical properties. Among which, graphene and graphene oxide based fluorescent biosensors enabled by their fluorescence-quenching properties have attracted great interests. The fluorescence of fluorophore or dye labeled on probes (such as molecular beacon, aptamer, DNAzymes and so on) was quenched after adsorbed on to the surface of graphene. While in the present of the targets, due to the strong interactions between probes and targets, the probes were detached from the surface of graphene, generating dramatic fluorescence, which could be used as signals for detection of the targets. This strategy was simple and economy, together with great programmable abilities of probes; we could realize detection of different kinds of species. In this review, we first briefly introduced the history of graphene and graphene oxide, and then summarized the fluorescent biosensors enabled by graphene and GO, with a detailed account of the design mechanism and comparison with other nanomaterials (e.g. carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles). Following that, different sensing platforms for detection of DNAs, ions, biomolecules and pathogens or cells as well as the cytotoxicity issue of graphene and GO based in vivo biosensing were further discussed. We hope that this review would do some help to researchers who are interested in graphene related biosening research work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ASTERIA: Arcsecond Space Telescope Enabling Research in Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, M.; Seager, S.; Smith, M. W.; Pong, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    ASTERIA (Arcsecond Space Telescope Enabling Research in Astrophysics) is a technology demonstration and opportunistic science mission to advance the state of the art in CubeSat capabilities for astrophysical measurements. The goal of ASTERIA is to achieve arcsecond-level line of sight pointing error and highly stable focal plane temperature control. These technologies will enable precision photometry, i.e. the careful measurement of stellar brightness over time. This in turn provides a way to study stellar activity, transiting exoplanets, and other astrophysical phenomena, both during the ASTERIA mission and in future CubeSat constellations. ASTERIA is a 6U CubeSat (roughly 10 x 20 x 30 cm, 12 kg) that will operate in low-Earth orbit. The payload consists of a lens and baffle assembly, a CMOS imager, and a two-axis piezoelectric positioning stage on which the focal plane is mounted. A set of commercial reaction wheels provides coarse attitude control. Fine pointing control is achieved by tracking a set of guide stars on the CMOS sensor and moving the piezoelectric stage to compensate for residual pointing errors. Precision thermal control is achieved by isolating the payload from the spacecraft bus, passively cooling the detector, and using trim heaters to perform small temperature corrections over the course of an observation. The ASTERIA project is a collaboration with MIT and is funded at JPL through the Phaeton Program for training early career employees. Flight hardware was delivered in June 2017, with launch expected in August 2017 and deployment targeted for October 2017.

  11. Laser printing of nanoparticle toner enables digital control of micropatterned carbon nanotube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsen, Erik S; Stevens, Adam G; Hart, A John

    2013-05-01

    Commercialization of materials utilizing patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, such as hierarchical composite structures, dry adhesives, and contact probe arrays, will require catalyst patterning techniques that do not rely on cleanroom photolithography. We demonstrate the large scale patterning of CNT growth catalyst via adaptation of a laser-based electrostatic printing process that uses magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) toner. The MICR toner contains iron oxide nanoparticles that serve as the catalyst for CNT growth, which are printed onto a flexible polymer (polyimide) and then transferred to a rigid substrate (silicon or alumina) under heat and mechanical pressure. Then, the substrate is processed for CNT growth under an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) recipe. This process enables digital control of patterned CNT growth via the laser intensity, which controls the CNT density; and via the grayscale level, which controls the pixelation of the image into arrays of micropillars. Moreover, virtually any pattern can be designed using standard software (e.g., MS Word, AutoCAD, etc.) and printed on demand. Using a standard office printer, we realize isolated CNT microstructures as small as 140 μm and isolated catalyst ″pixels″ as small as 70 μm (one grayscale dot) and determine that individual toner microparticles result in features of approximately 5-10 μm . We demonstrate that grayscale CNT patterns can function as dry adhesives and that large-area catalyst patterns can be printed directly onto metal foils or transferred to ceramic plates. Laser printing therefore shows promise to enable high-speed micropatterning of nanoparticle-containing thin films under ambient conditions, possibly for a wide variety of nanostructures by engineering of toners containing nanoparticles of desired composition, size, and shape.

  12. Synthetic levers enabling independent control of phase, size, and morphology in nickel phosphide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Savithra, Galbokka H Layan; Brock, Stephanie L

    2011-03-22

    Simultaneous control of phase, size, and morphology in nanoscale nickel phosphides is reported. Phase-pure samples of discrete nanoparticles of Ni12P5 and Ni2P in hollow and solid morphologies can be prepared in a range of sizes (10-32 nm) by tuning key interdependent synthetic levers (P:Ni precursor ratio, temperature, time, oleylamine quantity). Size and morphology are controlled by the P:Ni ratio in the synthesis of the precursor particles, with large, hollow particles formed at low P:Ni and small, solid particles formed at high P:Ni. The P:Ni ratio also impacts the phase at the crystallization temperature (300-350 °C), with metal-rich Ni12P5 generated at low P:Ni and Ni2P at high P:Ni. Moreover, the product phase formed can be decoupled from the initial precursor ratio by the addition of more "P" at the crystallization temperature. This enables formation of hollow particles (favored by low P:Ni) of Ni2P (favored by high P:Ni). Increasing temperature and time also favor formation of Ni2P, by generating more reactive P and providing sufficient time for conversion to the thermodynamic product. Finally, increasing oleylamine concentration allows Ni12P5 to be obtained under high P:Ni precursor ratios that favor solid particle formation. Oleylamine concentration also acts to "tune" the size of the voids in particles formed at low P:Ni ratios, enabling access to Ni12P5 particles with different void sizes. This approach enables an unprecedented level of control over phase and morphology of nickel phosphide nanoparticles, paving the way for systematic investigation of the impact of these parameters on hydrodesulfurization activities of nickel phosphides.

  13. Micro-fabricated channel with ultra-thin yet ultra-strong windows enables electron microscopy under 4-bar pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alan, T.; Yokosawa, T.; Gaspar, J.; Pandraud, G.; Paul, O.; Creemer, F.; Sarro, P.M.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of (de-)hydrogenation reactions is crucial to characterize efficiency of hydrogen storage materials. The nanoreactor, a micromachined channel with 15-nm-thick windows, effectively confines the gas flow to an electron-transparent chamber during TEM of reactions.

  14. Pyruvate relieves the necessity of high induction levels of catalase and enables Campylobacter jejuni to grow under fully aerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Arends, A.P.; Snoep, J.L.; Zwietering, M.H.; Jonge, de R.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Several cases of campylobacteriosis reported worldwide seemingly conflict with the strict growth requirements and sensitivity to environmental stress of Campylobacter jejuni. In this study, the need for a micro-aerobic environment [dissolved oxygen tension (DOT): 0·1¿90%; 100% air saturation)

  15. EthoHand: A dexterous robotic hand with ball-joint thumb enables complex in-hand object manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Konnaris, C; Gavriel, C; Thomik, AAC; Aldo Faisal, A

    2016-01-01

    Our dexterous hand is a fundmanetal human feature that distinguishes us from other animals by enabling us to go beyond grasping to support sophisticated in-hand object manipulation. Our aim was the design of a dexterous anthropomorphic robotic hand that matches the human hand's 24 degrees of freedom, under-actuated by seven motors. With the ability to replicate human hand movements in a naturalistic manner including in-hand object manipulation. Therefore, we focused on the development of a no...

  16. Marine Profiles for OGC Sensor Web Enablement Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirka, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The use of OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards in oceanology is increasing. Several projects are developing SWE-based infrastructures to ease the sharing of marine sensor data. This work ranges from developments on sensor level to efforts addressing interoperability of data flows between observatories and organisations. The broad range of activities using SWE standards leads to a risk of diverging approaches how the SWE specifications are applied. Because the SWE standards are designed in a domain independent manner, they intentionally offer a high degree of flexibility enabling implementation across different domains and usage scenarios. At the same time this flexibility allows one to achieve similar goals in different ways. To avoid interoperability issues, an agreement is needed on how to apply SWE concepts and how to use vocabularies in a common way that will be shared by different projects, implementations, and users. To address this need, partners from several projects and initiatives (AODN, BRIDGES, envri+, EUROFLEETS/EUROFLEETS2, FixO3, FRAM, IOOS, Jerico/Jerico-Next, NeXOS, ODIP/ODIP II, RITMARE, SeaDataNet, SenseOcean, X-DOMES) have teamed up to develop marine profiles of OGC SWE standards that can serve as a common basis for developments in multiple projects and organisations. The following aspects will be especially considered: 1.) Provision of metadata: For discovering sensors/instruments as well as observation data, to facilitate the interpretation of observations, and to integrate instruments in sensor platforms, the provision of metadata is crucial. Thus, a marine profile of the OGC Sensor Model Language 2.0 (SensorML 2.0) will be developed allowing to provide metadata for different levels (e.g. observatory, instrument, and detector) and sensor types. The latter will enable metadata of a specific type to be automatically inherited by all devices/sensors of the same type. The application of further standards such as OGC PUCK will benefit from

  17. A data management system to enable urgent natural disaster computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Siew Hoon; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Frank, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Civil protection, in particular natural disaster management, is very important to most nations and civilians in the world. When disasters like flash floods, earthquakes and tsunamis are expected or have taken place, it is of utmost importance to make timely decisions for managing the affected areas and reduce casualties. Computer simulations can generate information and provide predictions to facilitate this decision making process. Getting the data to the required resources is a critical requirement to enable the timely computation of the predictions. An urgent data management system to support natural disaster computing is thus necessary to effectively carry out data activities within a stipulated deadline. Since the trigger of a natural disaster is usually unpredictable, it is not always possible to prepare required resources well in advance. As such, an urgent data management system for natural disaster computing has to be able to work with any type of resources. Additional requirements include the need to manage deadlines and huge volume of data, fault tolerance, reliable, flexibility to changes, ease of usage, etc. The proposed data management platform includes a service manager to provide a uniform and extensible interface for the supported data protocols, a configuration manager to check and retrieve configurations of available resources, a scheduler manager to ensure that the deadlines can be met, a fault tolerance manager to increase the reliability of the platform and a data manager to initiate and perform the data activities. These managers will enable the selection of the most appropriate resource, transfer protocol, etc. such that the hard deadline of an urgent computation can be met for a particular urgent activity, e.g. data staging or computation. We associated 2 types of deadlines [2] with an urgent computing system. Soft-hard deadline: Missing a soft-firm deadline will render the computation less useful resulting in a cost that can have severe

  18. NASA's Space Launch System: Enabling Exploration and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Schorr, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    As NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle continues to mature toward its first flight and beyond, so too do the agency's plans for utilization of the rocket. Substantial progress has been made toward the production of the vehicle for the first flight of SLS - an initial "Block 1" configuration capable of delivering more than 70 metric tons (t) to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). That vehicle will be used for an uncrewed integrated test flight, propelling NASA's Orion spacecraft into lunar orbit before it returns safely to Earth. Flight hardware for that launch is being manufactured at facilities around the United States, and, in the case of Orion's service module, beyond. At the same time, production has already begun on the vehicle for the second SLS flight, a more powerful Block 1B configuration capable of delivering more than 105 metric tons to LEO. This configuration will be used for crewed launches of Orion, sending astronauts farther into space than anyone has previously ventured. The 1B configuration will introduce an Exploration Upper Stage, capable of both ascent and in-space propulsion, as well as a Universal Stage Adapter - a payload bay allowing the flight of exploration hardware with Orion - and unprecedentedly large payload fairings that will enable currently impossible spacecraft and mission profiles on uncrewed launches. The Block 1B vehicle will also expand on the initial configuration's ability to deploy CubeSat secondary payloads, creating new opportunities for low-cost access to deep space. Development work is also underway on future upgrades to SLS, which will culminate in about a decade in the Block 2 configuration, capable of delivering 130 metric tons to LEO via the addition of advanced boosters. As the first SLS draws closer to launch, NASA continues to refine plans for the human deep-space exploration it will enable. Planning currently focuses on use of the vehicle to assemble a Deep Space Gateway, which would comprise a habitat in the

  19. Online Monitoring to Enable Improved Diagnostics, Prognostics and Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-01-01

    For both existing and new plant designs there are increasing opportunities and needs for the application of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic and prognostic techniques. These methods can continuously monitor and assess the health of nuclear power plant systems and components. The added effectiveness of such programs has the potential to enable holistic plant management, and minimize exposure to future and unknown risks. The 'NDE and On-line Monitoring' activities within the Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems (II and CS) Pathway are developing R and D to establish advanced condition monitoring and prognostics technologies to understand and predict future phenomena, derived from plant aging in systems, structures, and components (SSC). This research includes utilization of the enhanced functionality and system condition awareness that becomes available through the application of digital technologies at existing nuclear power plants for online monitoring and prognostics. The current state-of-the-art for on-line monitoring applied to active components (eg pumps, valves, motors) and passive structure (eg core internals, primary piping, pressure vessel, concrete, cables, buried pipes) is being reviewed. This includes looking at the current deployment of systems that monitor reactor noise, acoustic signals and vibration in various forms, leak monitoring, and now increasingly condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components. The NDE and on-line monitoring projects are designed to look beyond locally monitored CBM. Current trends include centralized plant monitoring of SSC, potential fleet-based CBM and technology that will enable operation and maintenance to be performed with limited on-site staff. Attention is also moving to systems that use online monitoring to permit longer term operation (LTO), including a prognostic or predictive element that estimates a remaining useful life (RUL). Many, if not all, active components (pumps

  20. Advanced ultrafast fiber laser sources enabled by fiber nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei

    2017-05-15

    Development of high power/energy ultrafast fiber lasers for scientific research and industrial applications is one of the most exciting fields in ultrafast optics. This thesis demonstrated new means to improve two essential properties - which are indispensable for novel applications such as high-harmonic generation (HHG) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) - of an ultrafast fiber laser system: energy scaling capability and wavelength tunability. High photon-flux extreme ultraviolet sources enabled by HHG desire high power (>100 W), high repetition-rate (>1 MHz) ultrafast driving laser sources. We have constructed from scratch a high-power Yb-fiber laser system using the well-known chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique. Such a CPA system capable of producing ∝200-W average power consists of a monolithic Yb-fiber oscillator, an all-fiber stretcher, a pre-amplifier chain, a main amplifier constructed from rode-type large pitch fiber, and a diffraction-grating based compressor. To increase the HHG efficiency, ultrafast pulses with duration <60 fs are highly desired. We proposed and demonstrated a novel amplification technique, named as pre-chirp managed amplification (PCMA). We successfully constructed an Yb-fiber based PCMA system that outputs 75-MHz spectrally broadened pulses with >130-W average power. The amplified pulses are compressed to 60-fs pulses with 100-W average power, constituting a suitable HHG driving source. MPM is a powerful biomedical imaging tool, featuring larger penetration depth while providing the capability of optical sectioning. Although femtosecond solid-state lasers have been widely accepted as the standard option as MPM driving sources, fiber-based sources have received growing research efforts due to their superior performance. In the second part of this thesis, we both theoretically and experimentally demonstrated a new method of producing wavelength widely tunable femtosecond pulses for driving MPM. We employed self-phase modulation

  1. Environmental and policy analysis of renewable energy enabling technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Paul L.

    For intermittent electricity generation sources such as wind and solar energy to meet a large fraction (>20%) of the nation's electricity supply, two enabling technologies, energy storage and long distance transmission, will need to be deployed on a large scale. A life-cycle study was performed to evaluate the environmental performance of energy storage and transmission technologies in terms of compatibility with the goals of deploying renewable energy systems. Metrics were developed to evaluate net efficiency, fossil fuel use, and greenhouse gas emissions that result from the use of enabling technologies with conventional and renewable energy sources. Storage technologies evaluated in this study include pumped hydro storage, compressed air energy storage, and battery energy storage. Three combinations of renewable energy generation and storage were evaluated. Wind/CAES is a likely candidate for large scale deployment, and delivers more than 5 times the amount of electrical energy from a unit of fossil fuel than the most efficient combustion system available, with about 20% of GHG emissions. Both wind/PHS and Solar PVBES also demonstrate superior performance to fossil energy systems in terms of energy sustainability and GHG emissions. Near term deployment of energy storage will likely take advantage of low cost off-peak energy from existing coal plants, which can result in increases in harmful air emissions. The "grandfathering" provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act allow for increased output from these older plants that produce high levels of emissions. Energy storage provides a loophole that could be used to increase output from these plants, instead of building cleaner alternatives. The unique hybrid-CAES system has lower life-cycle emissions than any other storage technologies when coupled to coal, but effectively produces emissions that far exceed standards for any new source. A new CAES plant in the Midwestern U.S. will effectively produce SO2 at a rate more

  2. Advanced ultrafast fiber laser sources enabled by fiber nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Development of high power/energy ultrafast fiber lasers for scientific research and industrial applications is one of the most exciting fields in ultrafast optics. This thesis demonstrated new means to improve two essential properties - which are indispensable for novel applications such as high-harmonic generation (HHG) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) - of an ultrafast fiber laser system: energy scaling capability and wavelength tunability. High photon-flux extreme ultraviolet sources enabled by HHG desire high power (>100 W), high repetition-rate (>1 MHz) ultrafast driving laser sources. We have constructed from scratch a high-power Yb-fiber laser system using the well-known chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique. Such a CPA system capable of producing ∝200-W average power consists of a monolithic Yb-fiber oscillator, an all-fiber stretcher, a pre-amplifier chain, a main amplifier constructed from rode-type large pitch fiber, and a diffraction-grating based compressor. To increase the HHG efficiency, ultrafast pulses with duration <60 fs are highly desired. We proposed and demonstrated a novel amplification technique, named as pre-chirp managed amplification (PCMA). We successfully constructed an Yb-fiber based PCMA system that outputs 75-MHz spectrally broadened pulses with >130-W average power. The amplified pulses are compressed to 60-fs pulses with 100-W average power, constituting a suitable HHG driving source. MPM is a powerful biomedical imaging tool, featuring larger penetration depth while providing the capability of optical sectioning. Although femtosecond solid-state lasers have been widely accepted as the standard option as MPM driving sources, fiber-based sources have received growing research efforts due to their superior performance. In the second part of this thesis, we both theoretically and experimentally demonstrated a new method of producing wavelength widely tunable femtosecond pulses for driving MPM. We employed self-phase modulation

  3. Self-induced nanofluidic transport enables crustal-scale metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plümper, Oliver; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Liu, Yang; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    The reaction of fluids with rocks is fundamental for Earth's dynamics as they facilitate heat/mass transfer and induce volume changes, weaknesses and instabilities in rock masses that localize deformation enabling tectonic responses to plate motion. During these fluid-rock interactions it is the ability of a rock to transmit fluid, its permeability, that controls the rates of metamorphic reactions. However, although some geological environments (e.g., sediments) are open to fluids, the majority of solid rocks (e.g., granites, elcogites, peridotites, etc.) are nearly impermeable. Surprisingly though, even in rocks that are nominally impermeable widespread fluid-rock interactions are observed leading to the question: How can fluids migrate through vast amounts of nominally impermeable rocks? Here we investigate one of the most wide-spread fluid-mediated metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust, the albitization of feldspatic rocks. We show that fluid flow and element mobilization during albitization is controlled by an interaction between grain boundary diffusion and reaction front migration through an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation process. Using a combination of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)-assisted nanotomography combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) we show that the porosity is dictated by pore channels with a pore diameter ranging between 10 to 100 nm. Three-dimensional visualization of the feldspar pore network reveals that the pore channels must have been connected during the replacement reaction. Analysis of the pore aspect ratios suggests that a Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability associated to surface energy minimization caused the disconnection of the pore channels. Fluid transport in nanometer-sized objects with at least one characteristic dimension below 100 nm enables the occurrence of physical phenomena that are impossible at bigger length scales. Thus, on the basis of our microstructural

  4. The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC): Enabling Co-Innovation Across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Gandara, A.; Del Rio, N.

    2014-12-01

    A key challenge for scientists addressing grand-challenge problems is identifying, understanding, and integrating potentially relevant methods, models and tools that that are rapidly evolving in the informatics community. Such tools are essential for effectively integrating data and models in complex research projects, yet it is often difficult to know what tools are available and it is not easy to understand or evaluate how they might be used in a given research context. The goal of the National Science Foundation-funded Virtual Learning Commons (VLC) is to improve awareness and understanding of emerging methodologies and technologies, facilitate individual and group evaluation of these, and trace the impact of innovations within and across teams, disciplines, and communities. The VLC is a Web-based social bookmarking site designed specifically to support knowledge exchange in research communities. It is founded on well-developed models of technology adoption, diffusion of innovation, and experiential learning. The VLC makes use of Web 2.0 (Social Web) and Web 3.0 (Semantic Web) approaches. Semantic Web approaches enable discovery of potentially relevant methods, models, and tools, while Social Web approaches enable collaborative learning about their function. The VLC is under development and the first release is expected Fall 2014.

  5. Pd-catalysed ligand-enabled carboxylate-directed highly regioselective arylation of aliphatic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiaolan; Yuan, Chunchen; Li, Guobao; Zhang, Jingyu; Zhao, Yingsheng

    2017-04-01

    α-amino acids bearing aromatic side chains are important synthetic units in the synthesis of peptides and natural products. Although various β-C-H arylation methodologies for amino acid derivatives involving the assistance of directing groups have been extensively developed, syntheses that directly employ N-protected amino acids as starting materials remain rare. Herein, we report an N-acetylglycine-enabled Pd-catalysed carboxylate-directed β-C(sp3)-H arylation of aliphatic acids. In this way, various non-natural amino acids can be directly prepared from phthaloylalanine in one step in good to excellent yields. Furthermore, a series of aliphatic acids have been shown to be amenable to this transformation, affording β-arylated propionic acid derivatives in moderate to good yields. More importantly, this ligand-enabled direct β-C(sp3)-H arylation could be easily scaled-up to 10 g under reflux conditions, highlighting the potential utility of this synthetic method.

  6. Kinetic Modeling of Accelerated Stability Testing Enabled by Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhengtian; Sarkar, Sreya; Vogt, Andrew D; Danzer, Gerald D; Smith, Casey J; Gualtieri, Ellen J; Simpson, Garth J

    2018-04-03

    The low limits of detection afforded by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy coupled with image analysis algorithms enabled quantitative modeling of the temperature-dependent crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) within amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). ASDs, in which an API is maintained in an amorphous state within a polymer matrix, are finding increasing use to address solubility limitations of small-molecule APIs. Extensive stability testing is typically performed for ASD characterization, the time frame for which is often dictated by the earliest detectable onset of crystal formation. Here a study of accelerated stability testing on ritonavir, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, has been conducted. Under the condition for accelerated stability testing at 50 °C/75%RH and 40 °C/75%RH, ritonavir crystallization kinetics from amorphous solid dispersions were monitored by SHG microscopy. SHG microscopy coupled by image analysis yielded limits of detection for ritonavir crystals as low as 10 ppm, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than other methods currently available for crystallinity detection in ASDs. The four decade dynamic range of SHG microscopy enabled quantitative modeling with an established (JMAK) kinetic model. From the SHG images, nucleation and crystal growth rates were independently determined.

  7. International Cooperation to Enable the Diagnosis of All Rare Genetic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycott, Kym M; Rath, Ana; Chong, Jessica X; Hartley, Taila; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Baynam, Gareth; Brookes, Anthony J; Brudno, Michael; Carracedo, Angel; den Dunnen, Johan T; Dyke, Stephanie O M; Estivill, Xavier; Goldblatt, Jack; Gonthier, Catherine; Groft, Stephen C; Gut, Ivo; Hamosh, Ada; Hieter, Philip; Höhn, Sophie; Hurles, Matthew E; Kaufmann, Petra; Knoppers, Bartha M; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Macek, Milan; Matthijs, Gert; Olry, Annie; Parker, Samantha; Paschall, Justin; Philippakis, Anthony A; Rehm, Heidi L; Robinson, Peter N; Sham, Pak-Chung; Stefanov, Rumen; Taruscio, Domenica; Unni, Divya; Vanstone, Megan R; Zhang, Feng; Brunner, Han; Bamshad, Michael J; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2017-05-04

    Provision of a molecularly confirmed diagnosis in a timely manner for children and adults with rare genetic diseases shortens their "diagnostic odyssey," improves disease management, and fosters genetic counseling with respect to recurrence risks while assuring reproductive choices. In a general clinical genetics setting, the current diagnostic rate is approximately 50%, but for those who do not receive a molecular diagnosis after the initial genetics evaluation, that rate is much lower. Diagnostic success for these more challenging affected individuals depends to a large extent on progress in the discovery of genes associated with, and mechanisms underlying, rare diseases. Thus, continued research is required for moving toward a more complete catalog of disease-related genes and variants. The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) was established in 2011 to bring together researchers and organizations invested in rare disease research to develop a means of achieving molecular diagnosis for all rare diseases. Here, we review the current and future bottlenecks to gene discovery and suggest strategies for enabling progress in this regard. Each successful discovery will define potential diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic opportunities for the corresponding rare disease, enabling precision medicine for this patient population. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomass enables the transition to a carbon-negative power system across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel L.; Nelson, James H.; Johnston, Josiah; Mileva, Ana; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable biomass can play a transformative role in the transition to a decarbonized economy, with potential applications in electricity, heat, chemicals and transportation fuels. Deploying bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) results in a net reduction in atmospheric carbon. BECCS may be one of the few cost-effective carbon-negative opportunities available should anthropogenic climate change be worse than anticipated or emissions reductions in other sectors prove particularly difficult. Previous work, primarily using integrated assessment models, has identified the critical role of BECCS in long-term (pre- or post-2100 time frames) climate change mitigation, but has not investigated the role of BECCS in power systems in detail, or in aggressive time frames, even though commercial-scale facilities are starting to be deployed in the transportation sector. Here, we explore the economic and deployment implications for BECCS in the electricity system of western North America under aggressive (pre-2050) time frames and carbon emissions limitations, with rich technology representation and physical constraints. We show that BECCS, combined with aggressive renewable deployment and fossil-fuel emission reductions, can enable a carbon-negative power system in western North America by 2050 with up to 145% emissions reduction from 1990 levels. In most scenarios, the offsets produced by BECCS are found to be more valuable to the power system than the electricity it provides. Advanced biomass power generation employs similar system design to advanced coal technology, enabling a transition strategy to low-carbon energy.

  9. IT-Enabled Integration of Renewables: A Concept for the Smart Power Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide utilisation of information and communication technologies is hoped to enable a more efficient and sustainable operation of electric power grids. This paper analyses the benefits of smart power grids for the integration of renewable energy resources into the existing grid infrastructure. Therefore, the concept of a smart power grid is analysed, and it is shown that it covers more than for example, time-of-use energy tariffs. Further, the communication technologies used for smart grids are discussed, and the challenge of interoperability between the smart grid itself and its active contributors such as functional buildings is shown. A significant share of electrical energy demand is and will be constituted by large functional buildings that are mostly equipped with automation systems and therefore enable a relatively simple IT integration into smart grids. This large potential of thermal storages and flexible consumption processes might be a future key to match demand and supply under the presence of a high share of fluctuating generation from renewables.

  10. Eco-Evolutionary dynamics enable coexistence via neighbor-dependent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, David A; Amarasekare, Priyanga; Rudolf, Volker H W; Levine, Jonathan M

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that selection can allow coexistence in situations where ecological dynamics lead to competitive exclusion, provided that there is a trade-off between traits optimal for interacting with conspecifics and traits optimal for interacting with heterospecifics. Despite compelling empirical evidence, there is no general framework for elucidating how and when selection will allow coexistence in natural communities. Here we develop such a framework for a mechanism that we term "neighbor-dependent selection." We show that this mechanism can both augment coexistence when ecological conditions allow for niche partitioning and enable coexistence when ecological conditions lead to competitive exclusion. The novel insight is that when ecological conditions lead to exclusion, neighbor-dependent selection can allow coexistence via cycles driven by an intransitive loop; selection causes one species to be a superior interspecific competitor when it is rare and an inferior interspecific competitor when it is abundant. Our framework predicts the conditions under which selection can enable coexistence, as opposed to merely augmenting it, and elucidates the effects of heritability on the eco-evolutionary feedbacks that drive coexistence. Given increasing evidence that evolution operates on ecological timescales, our approach provides one means for evaluating the role of selection and trait evolution in species coexistence.

  11. Statistical analysis of road-vehicle-driver interaction as an enabler to designing behavioural models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, T; Chowdhury, A; Ghose, A; Bhaumik, C; Balamuralidhar, P

    2014-01-01

    Telematics form an important technology enabler for intelligent transportation systems. By deploying on-board diagnostic devices, the signatures of vehicle vibration along with its location and time are recorded. Detailed analyses of the collected signatures offer deep insights into the state of the objects under study. Towards that objective, we carried out experiments by deploying telematics device in one of the office bus that ferries employees to office and back. Data is being collected from 3-axis accelerometer, GPS, speed and the time for all the journeys. In this paper, we present initial results of the above exercise by applying statistical methods to derive information through systematic analysis of the data collected over four months. It is demonstrated that the higher order derivative of the measured Z axis acceleration samples display the properties Weibull distribution when the time axis is replaced by the amplitude of such processed acceleration data. Such an observation offers us a method to predict future behaviour where deviations from prediction are classified as context-based aberrations or progressive degradation of the system. In addition we capture the relationship between speed of the vehicle and median of the jerk energy samples using regression analysis. Such results offer an opportunity to develop a robust method to model road-vehicle interaction thereby enabling us to predict such like driving behaviour and condition based maintenance etc

  12. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda

    The Arctic is undergoing rapid change as the coverage and thickness of sea ice is diminishing, glaciers and icecaps retreating and ecosystems are under stress. Scientists are scrambling to understand the many Arctic processes and mechanisms as a result of the rapid change. Research stations, sate...

  13. Reaching for the Horizon: Enabling 21st Century Antarctic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan-Finnemore, M.; Kennicutt, M. C., II; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs' (COMNAP) Antarctic Roadmap Challenges(ARC) project translated the 80 highest priority Antarctic and Southern Ocean scientific questionsidentified by the community via the SCAR Antarctic Science Horizon Scan into the highest prioritytechnological, access, infrastructure and logistics needs to enable the necessary research to answer thequestions. A workshop assembled expert and experienced Antarctic scientists and National AntarcticProgram operators from around the globe to discern the highest priority technological needs includingthe current status of development and availability, where the technologies will be utilized in the Antarctic area, at what temporal scales and frequencies the technologies will be employed,and how broadly applicable the technologies are for answering the highest priority scientific questions.Secondly the logistics, access, and infrastructure requirements were defined that are necessary todeliver the science in terms of feasibility including cost and benefit as determined by expected scientific return on investment. Finally, based on consideration of the science objectives and the mix oftechnologies implications for configuring National Antarctic Program logistics capabilities andinfrastructure architecture over the next 20 years were determined. In particular those elements thatwere either of a complexity, requiring long term investments to achieve and/or having an associated cost that realistically can only (or best) be achieved by international coordination, planning and partnerships were identified. Major trends (changes) in logistics, access, and infrastructure requirements were identified that allow for long-term strategic alignment of international capabilities, resources and capacity. The outcomes of this project will be reported.

  14. Molecular-targeted nanotherapies in cancer: enabling treatment specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Elvin; Hsiao, Angela; Ruiz-Esparza, Guillermo U; Landry, Matthew G; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Ferrari, Mauro

    2011-12-01

    Chemotherapy represents a mainstay and powerful adjuvant therapy in the treatment of cancer. The field has evolved from drugs possessing all-encompassing cell-killing effects to those with highly targeted, specific mechanisms of action; a direct byproduct of enhanced understanding of tumorigenic processes. However, advances regarding development of agents that target key molecules and dysregulated pathways have had only modest impacts on patient survival. Several biological barriers preclude adequate delivery of drugs to tumors, and remain a formidable challenge to overcome in chemotherapy. Currently, the field of nanomedicine is enabling the delivery of chemotherapeutics, including repositioned drugs and siRNAs, by giving rise to carriers that provide for protection from degradation, prolonged circulation times, and increased tumor accumulation, all the while resulting in reduced patient morbidity. This review aims to highlight several innovative, nanoparticle-based platforms with the potential of providing clinical translation of several novel chemotherapeutic agents. We will also summarize work regarding the development of a multistage drug delivery strategy, a robust carrier platform designed to overcome several biological barriers while en route to tumors. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enabling European Archaeological Research: The ARIADNE E-Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Aloia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research e-infrastructures, digital archives and data services have become important pillars of scientific enterprise that in recent decades has become ever more collaborative, distributed and data-intensive. The archaeological research community has been an early adopter of digital tools for data acquisition, organisation, analysis and presentation of research results of individual projects. However, the provision of e-infrastructure and services for data sharing, discovery, access and re-use has lagged behind. This situation is being addressed by ARIADNE: the Advanced Research Infrastructure for Archaeological Dataset Networking in Europe. This EU-funded network has developed an e-infrastructure that enables data providers to register and provide access to their resources (datasets, collections through the ARIADNE data portal, facilitating discovery, access and other services across the integrated resources. This article describes the current landscape of data repositories and services for archaeologists in Europe, and the issues that make interoperability between them difficult to realise. The results of the ARIADNE surveys on users' expectations and requirements are also presented. The main section of the article describes the architecture of the e-infrastructure, core services (data registration, discovery and access and various other extant or experimental services. The on-going evaluation of the data integration and services is also discussed. Finally, the article summarises lessons learned, and outlines the prospects for the wider engagement of the archaeological research community in sharing data through ARIADNE.

  16. Augmented reality enabling intelligence exploitation at the edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Roy, Heather; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Patton, Debra

    2015-05-01

    Today's Warfighters need to make quick decisions while interacting in densely populated environments comprised of friendly, hostile, and neutral host nation locals. However, there is a gap in the real-time processing of big data streams for edge intelligence. We introduce a big data processing pipeline called ARTEA that ingests, monitors, and performs a variety of analytics including noise reduction, pattern identification, and trend and event detection in the context of an area of operations (AOR). Results of the analytics are presented to the Soldier via an augmented reality (AR) device Google Glass (Glass). Non-intrusive AR devices such as Glass can visually communicate contextually relevant alerts to the Soldier based on the current mission objectives, time, location, and observed or sensed activities. This real-time processing and AR presentation approach to knowledge discovery flattens the intelligence hierarchy enabling the edge Soldier to act as a vital and active participant in the analysis process. We report preliminary observations testing ARTEA and Glass in a document exploitation and person of interest scenario simulating edge Soldier participation in the intelligence process in disconnected deployment conditions.

  17. Design and Control of a Haptic Enabled Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yaqoob

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robotic surgery offers various advantages over conventional surgery that includes less bleeding, less trauma, and more precise tissue cutting. However, even surgeons who use the best commercially available surgical robotic systems complain about the absence of haptic feedback in such systems. In this paper, we present the findings of our project to overcome this shortcoming of surgical robotic systems, in which a haptic-enabled robotic system based on master and slave topology is designed and developed. To detect real-time intrusion at the slave end, haptic feedback is implemented along with a programmable system on chip, functioning as an embedded system for processing information. In order to obtain real-time haptic feedback, force and motion sensors are mounted on each joint of the master and slave units. At the master end, results are displayed through a graphical user interface, along with the physical feeling of intrusion at the slave part. Apart from the obvious applications of the current system in robotic surgery, it could also be used in designing more intuitive video games with further precise haptic feedback mechanisms. Moreover, the results presented in our work should pave the way for further scientific investigation, to provide even better haptic mechanisms.

  18. Synthetic Biology as an Enabling Technology for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth.

  19. Enabling Stakeholder Involvement in Coastal Disaster Resilience Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Thomas P; Holzer, Thomas H; Sarkani, Shahryar

    2017-06-01

    Coastal hazards including storm surge, sea-level rise, and cyclone winds continue to have devastating effects on infrastructure systems and communities despite costly investments in risk management. Risk management has generally not been sufficiently focused on coastal resilience, with community stakeholders involved in the process of making their coastline, as a system, more resilient to coastal storms. Thus, without stakeholder earlier involvement in coastal resilience planning for their community, they are frustrated after disasters occur. The U.S. National Academies has defined resilience as "the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events"(National Research Council). This article introduces a methodology for enabling stakeholder-involved resilience discussions across physical, information, cognitive, and social domains. The methodology addresses the stages of resilience-prepare, absorb, recover, and adapt-and integrates performance assessment with scenario analysis to characterize disruptions of risk-management priorities. The methodology is illustrated through a case study at Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. THE VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT: SUPPORT FOR GRID-ENABLED MCELL SIMULATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Henri; Berman, Francine; Bartol, Thomas; Gokcay, Erhan; Sejnowski, Terry; Birnbaum, Adam; Dongarra, Jack; Miller, Michelle; Ellisman, Mark; Faerman, Marcio; Obertelli, Graziano; Wolski, Rich; Pomerantz, Stuart; Stiles, Joel

    2004-02-01

    Ensembles of widely distributed, heterogeneous resources, or Grids, have emerged as popular platforms for large-scale scientific applications. In this paper we present the Virtual Instrument project, which provides an integrated application execution environment that enables end-users to run and interact with running scientific simulations on Grids. This work is performed in the specific context of MCell, a computational biology application. While MCell provides the basis for running simulations, its capabilities are currently limited in terms of scale, ease-of-use, and interactivity. These limitations preclude usage scenarios that are critical for scientific advances. Our goal is to create a scientific "Virtual Instrument" from MCell by allowing its users to transparently access Grid resources while being able to steer running simulations. In this paper, we motivate the Virtual Instrument project and discuss a number of relevant issues and accomplishments in the area of Grid software development and application scheduling. We then describe our software design and report on the current implementation. We verify and evaluate our design via experiments with MCell on a real-world Grid testbed.

  1. Holokinetic centromeres and efficient telomere healing enable rapid karyotype evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Maja; Fuchs, Jörg; Klocke, Evelyn; Fojtová, Miloslava; Polanská, Pavla; Fajkus, Jiří; Schubert, Veit; Houben, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Species with holocentric chromosomes are often characterized by a rapid karyotype evolution. In contrast to species with monocentric chromosomes where acentric fragments are lost during cell division, breakage of holocentric chromosomes creates fragments with normal centromere activity. To decipher the mechanism that allows holocentric species an accelerated karyotype evolution via chromosome breakage, we analyzed the chromosome complements of irradiated Luzula elegans plants. The resulting chromosomal fragments and rearranged chromosomes revealed holocentromere-typical CENH3 and histone H2AThr120ph signals as well as the same mitotic mobility like unfragmented chromosomes. Newly synthesized telomeres at break points become detectable 3 weeks after irradiation. The presence of active telomerase suggests a telomerase-based mechanism of chromosome healing. A successful transmission of holocentric chromosome fragments across different generations was found for most offspring of irradiated plants. Hence, a combination of holokinetic centromere activity and the fast formation of new telomeres at break points enables holocentric species a rapid karyotype evolution involving chromosome fissions and rearrangements.

  2. Standardizing Physiologic Assessment Data to Enable Big Data Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Susan A; Settergren, Theresa Tess; Carrington, Jane M; Richesson, Rachel L; Sheide, Amy; Westra, Bonnie L

    2016-07-18

    Disparate data must be represented in a common format to enable comparison across multiple institutions and facilitate big data science. Nursing assessments represent a rich source of information. However, a lack of agreement regarding essential concepts and standardized terminology prevent their use for big data science in the current state. The purpose of this study was to align a minimum set of physiological nursing assessment data elements with national standardized coding systems. Six institutions shared their 100 most common electronic health record nursing assessment data elements. From these, a set of distinct elements was mapped to nationally recognized Logical Observations Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC®) and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT®) standards. We identified 137 observation names (55% new to LOINC), and 348 observation values (20% new to SNOMED CT) organized into 16 panels (72% new LOINC). This reference set can support the exchange of nursing information, facilitate multi-site research, and provide a framework for nursing data analysis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Enabling Ultra Deep Hydrodesulfurization by Nanoscale Engineering of New Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Ann-Louise Nygård

    connected to a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) was modified and optimized for this specific reaction. The µ-reactor has a reaction volume of only 240 nL and can be operated between 0.1-5 bar and temperatures up to 400 ◦C. Only 0.01 % of the mixed gas flows from the two inlets, O1...... the process of introducing them in their gaseous form into the µ-reactor at ambient pressure, and a specially designed flange with an incorporated ion source and internal heat tracing was implemented.  HDS of DBT and 4,6-DMDBT at 800 mbar on six mass-selected Pt samples were conducted. Two Pt samples of ∼3 nm...... by an order of magnitude, indicating that more active edge sites are exposed in the latter and thereby enabling better HDS activity. ...

  4. Flexible, Penetrating Brain Probes Enabled by Advances in Polymer Microfabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuva Weltman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of high-fidelity, long-term neural recordings in vivo is critically important to advance neuroscience and brain–machine interfaces. For decades, rigid materials such as metal microwires and micromachined silicon shanks were used as invasive electrophysiological interfaces to neurons, providing either single or multiple electrode recording sites. Extensive research has revealed that such rigid interfaces suffer from gradual recording quality degradation, in part stemming from tissue damage and the ensuing immune response arising from mechanical mismatch between the probe and brain. The development of “soft” neural probes constructed from polymer shanks has been enabled by advancements in microfabrication; this alternative has the potential to mitigate mismatch-related side effects and thus improve the quality of recordings. This review examines soft neural probe materials and their associated microfabrication techniques, the resulting soft neural probes, and their implementation including custom implantation and electrical packaging strategies. The use of soft materials necessitates careful consideration of surgical placement, often requiring the use of additional surgical shuttles or biodegradable coatings that impart temporary stiffness. Investigation of surgical implantation mechanics and histological evidence to support the use of soft probes will be presented. The review concludes with a critical discussion of the remaining technical challenges and future outlook.

  5. SimPhospho: a software tool enabling confident phosphosite assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suni, Veronika; Suomi, Tomi; Tsubosaka, Tomoya; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Elo, Laura L; Corthals, Garry L

    2018-03-27

    Mass spectrometry combined with enrichment strategies for phosphorylated peptides has been successfully employed for two decades to identify sites of phosphorylation. However, unambiguous phosphosite assignment is considered challenging. Given that site-specific phosphorylation events function as different molecular switches, validation of phosphorylation sites is of utmost importance. In our earlier study we developed a method based on simulated phosphopeptide spectral libraries, which enables highly sensitive and accurate phosphosite assignments. To promote more widespread use of this method, we here introduce a software implementation with improved usability and performance. We present SimPhospho, a fast and user-friendly tool for accurate simulation of phosphopeptide tandem mass spectra. Simulated phosphopeptide spectral libraries are used to validate and supplement database search results, with a goal to improve reliable phosphoproteome identification and reporting. The presented program can be easily used together with the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline and integrated in a phosphoproteomics data analysis workflow. SimPhospho is available for Windows, Linux and Mac operating systems at https://sourceforge.net/projects/simphospho/. It is open source and implemented in C ++. A user's manual with detailed description of data analysis using SimPhospho as well as test data can be found as supplementary material of this article. Supplementary data are available at https://www.btk.fi/research/ computational-biomedicine/software/.

  6. How youth-serving organizations enable acquaintance molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, some of the country's most prominent institutions have been ensnared in child sex abuse scandals. While each abuse incident features its own particular circumstances, institutions that have been the subject of these scandals have displayed similar patterns of organizational behavior that allowed molesting to occur and molesters to escape accountability. We can learn from those patterns to better understand and combat acquaintance molestation in youth-serving organizations. Although sex abuse is an inherent risk in youth work, American youth-serving organizations have responded to this risk largely on a case-by-case basis after abuse incidents have been revealed, rather than through proactive strategies to reduce the risk of abuse and to respond effectively to allegations. An examination of abuse scandals reveals common patterns of behavior among paid and volunteer staff in organizations that did not enact comprehensive, proactive strategies: Faith in the organiation blinded staff to the liklihood of abuse; organizations kept workers ignorant about the extent of the abuse problem; when abuse accusations arose, staff gave the benefit of the doubt to the adult; when abuse accusations were confirmed, staffers did not know how to respond; and not knowing how to resopnd, staff prioritized the protection of the organization. As a result, child molesters have been falsely exonerated or not held accountable, abused children have been disbelieved, and abuse has continued. These organizations inadvertently achieved the opposite of their missions: They enabled child molesters at the expense of children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Web-Enabled Optoelectronic Particle-Fallout Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineberger, Lewis P.

    2008-01-01

    A Web-enabled optoelectronic particle- fallout monitor has been developed as a prototype of future such instruments that (l) would be installed in multiple locations for which assurance of cleanliness is required and (2) could be interrogated and controlled in nearly real time by multiple remote users. Like prior particle-fallout monitors, this instrument provides a measure of particles that accumulate on a surface as an indication of the quantity of airborne particulate contaminants. The design of this instrument reflects requirements to: Reduce the cost and complexity of its optoelectronic sensory subsystem relative to those of prior optoelectronic particle fallout monitors while maintaining or improving capabilities; Use existing network and office computers for distributed display and control; Derive electric power for the instrument from a computer network, a wall outlet, or a battery; Provide for Web-based retrieval and analysis of measurement data and of a file containing such ancillary data as a log of command attempts at remote units; and Use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for maximum performance and minimal network overhead.

  8. Finger-stylus for non touch-enable systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since computer was invented, people are using many devices to interact with computer. Initially there were keyboard, mouse etc. but with advancement of technology, new ways are being discovered that are quite common and natural to the humans like stylus for touch-enabled systems. In the current age of technology, the user is expected to touch the machine interface to give input. Hand gesture is used in such a way to interact with machines where natural bare hand is used to communicate without touching machine interface. It gives a feeling to the user that he is interacting in a natural way with some human, not with traditional machines. This paper presents a technique where the user need not touch the machine interface to draw on the screen. Here hand finger draws shapes on monitor like stylus, without touching the monitor. This method can be used in many applications including games. The finger is used as an input device that acts like a paint-brush or finger-stylus and is used to make shapes in front of the camera. Fingertip extraction and motion tracking were done in Matlab with real time constraints. This work is an early attempt to replace stylus with the natural finger without touching the screen.

  9. Selective learning enabled by intention to learn in sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Kaori

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether a target sequence that people intend to learn is learned selectively when it is interleaved with another (non-target) sequence. Three experiments used a serial reaction time task in which different spatial and color stimuli occurred alternately. Each of the two interleaved sequences had structural regularity. Participants in an intentional learning group were instructed to learn the target (spatial) sequence whereas those in an incidental learning group were not. In Experiments 1 and 2 spatial and color sequences were correlated. Results showed that the intentional group learned the spatial sequence better than the incidental group and learned it independently of the color sequence, whereas the incidental group learned the two sequences as a combined sequence. In Experiment 3 the sequences were uncorrelated. Results showed that the intentional group was no longer superior in learning the spatial sequence. Findings indicate that the intention to learn a target sequence enables selective learning of it only when it is correlated with a non-target sequence.

  10. Enabling High Efficiency Nanoplasmonics with Novel Nanoantenna Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Moshik; Shavit, Reuven; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-12-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are propagating excitations that arise from coupling of light with collective electron oscillations. Characterized by high field intensity and nanometric dimensions, SPPs fashion rapid expansion of interest from fundamental and applicative perspectives. However, high metallic losses at optical frequencies still make nanoplasmonics impractical when high absolute efficiency is paramount, with major challenge is efficient plasmon generation in deep nanoscale. Here we introduce the Plantenna, the first reported nanodevice with the potential of addressing these limitations utilizing novel plasmonic architecture. The Plantenna has simple 2D structure, ultracompact dimensions and is fabricated on Silicon chip for future CMOS integration. We design the Plantenna to feed channel (20 nm × 20 nm) nanoplasmonic waveguides, achieving 52% coupling efficiency with Plantenna dimensions of λ3/17,000. We theoretically and experimentally show that the Plantenna enormously outperforms dipole couplers, achieving 28 dB higher efficiency with broad polarization diversity and huge local field enhancement. Our findings confirm the Plantenna as enabling device for high efficiency plasmonic technologies such as quantum nanoplasmonics, molecular strong coupling and plasmon nanolasers.

  11. Home Automation System Based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; González-López, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel home automation system named HASITE (Home Automation System based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers), which has been specifically designed to identify and configure transducers easily and quickly. These features are especially useful in situations where many transducers are deployed, since their setup becomes a cumbersome task that consumes a significant amount of time and human resources. HASITE simplifies the deployment of a home automation system by using wireless networks and both self-configuration and self-registration protocols. Thanks to the application of these three elements, HASITE is able to add new transducers by just powering them up. According to the tests performed in different realistic scenarios, a transducer is ready to be used in less than 13 s. Moreover, all HASITE functionalities can be accessed through an API, which also allows for the integration of third-party systems. As an example, an Android application based on the API is presented. Remote users can use it to interact with transducers by just using a regular smartphone or a tablet. PMID:27690031

  12. An artificial interphase enables reversible magnesium chemistry in carbonate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seoung-Bum; Gao, Tao; Harvey, Steve P.; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Stokes, Adam; Norman, Andrew; Wang, Chunsheng; Cresce, Arthur; Xu, Kang; Ban, Chunmei

    2018-04-02

    Magnesium-based batteries possess potential advantages over their lithium counterparts. However, reversible Mg chemistry requires a thermodynamically stable electrolyte at low potential, which is usually achieved with corrosive components and at the expense of stability against oxidation. In lithium-ion batteries the conflict between the cathodic and anodic stabilities of the electrolytes is resolved by forming an anode interphase that shields the electrolyte from being reduced. This strategy cannot be applied to Mg batteries because divalent Mg2+ cannot penetrate such interphases. Here, we engineer an artificial Mg2+-conductive interphase on the Mg anode surface, which successfully decouples the anodic and cathodic requirements for electrolytes and demonstrate highly reversible Mg chemistry in oxidation-resistant electrolytes. The artificial interphase enables the reversible cycling of a Mg/V2O5 full-cell in the water-containing, carbonate-based electrolyte. This approach provides a new avenue not only for Mg but also for other multivalent-cation batteries facing the same problems, taking a step towards their use in energy-storage applications.

  13. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

  14. Genotypic sex determination enabled adaptive radiations of extinct marine reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Janes, Daniel E; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark

    2009-09-17

    Adaptive radiations often follow the evolution of key traits, such as the origin of the amniotic egg and the subsequent radiation of terrestrial vertebrates. The mechanism by which a species determines the sex of its offspring has been linked to critical ecological and life-history traits but not to major adaptive radiations, in part because sex-determining mechanisms do not fossilize. Here we establish a previously unknown coevolutionary relationship in 94 amniote species between sex-determining mechanism and whether a species bears live young or lays eggs. We use that relationship to predict the sex-determining mechanism in three independent lineages of extinct Mesozoic marine reptiles (mosasaurs, sauropterygians and ichthyosaurs), each of which is known from fossils to have evolved live birth. Our results indicate that each lineage evolved genotypic sex determination before acquiring live birth. This enabled their pelagic radiations, where the relatively stable temperatures of the open ocean constrain temperature-dependent sex determination in amniote species. Freed from the need to move and nest on land, extreme physical adaptations to a pelagic lifestyle evolved in each group, such as the fluked tails, dorsal fins and wing-shaped limbs of ichthyosaurs. With the inclusion of ichthyosaurs, mosasaurs and sauropterygians, genotypic sex determination is present in all known fully pelagic amniote groups (sea snakes, sirenians and cetaceans), suggesting that this mode of sex determination and the subsequent evolution of live birth are key traits required for marine adaptive radiations in amniote lineages.

  15. UAV field demonstration of social media enabled tactical data link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christopher C.; Xu, Da; Martin, Sean R.; Castelli, Jonathan C.; Newman, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of enabling Command and Control (C2) and data exfiltration functions for missions using small, unmanned, airborne surveillance and reconnaissance platforms. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of using existing commercial wireless networks as the data transmission infrastructure to support Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomy functions such as transmission of commands, imagery, metadata, and multi-vehicle coordination messages. The authors developed and integrated a C2 Android application for ground users with a common smart phone, a C2 and data exfiltration Android application deployed on-board the UAVs, and a web server with database to disseminate the collected data to distributed users using standard web browsers. The authors performed a mission-relevant field test and demonstration in which operators commanded a UAV from an Android device to search and loiter; and remote users viewed imagery, video, and metadata via web server to identify and track a vehicle on the ground. Social media served as the tactical data link for all command messages, images, videos, and metadata during the field demonstration. Imagery, video, and metadata were transmitted from the UAV to the web server via multiple Twitter, Flickr, Facebook, YouTube, and similar media accounts. The web server reassembled images and video with corresponding metadata for distributed users. The UAV autopilot communicated with the on-board Android device via on-board Bluetooth network.

  16. DATS, the data tag suite to enable discoverability of datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Alter, George; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Xu, Hua; Fore, Ian M; Lyle, Jared; Gururaj, Anupama E; Chen, Xiaoling; Kim, Hyeon-Eui; Zong, Nansu; Li, Yueling; Liu, Ruiling; Ozyurt, I Burak; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2017-06-06

    Today's science increasingly requires effective ways to find and access existing datasets that are distributed across a range of repositories. For researchers in the life sciences, discoverability of datasets may soon become as essential as identifying the latest publications via PubMed. Through an international collaborative effort funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) initiative, we have designed and implemented the DAta Tag Suite (DATS) model to support the DataMed data discovery index. DataMed's goal is to be for data what PubMed has been for the scientific literature. Akin to the Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS) used in PubMed, the DATS model enables submission of metadata on datasets to DataMed. DATS has a core set of elements, which are generic and applicable to any type of dataset, and an extended set that can accommodate more specialized data types. DATS is a platform-independent model also available as an annotated serialization in schema.org, which in turn is widely used by major search engines like Google, Microsoft, Yahoo and Yandex.

  17. Enabling web users and developers to script accessibility with Accessmonkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jeffrey P; Brudvik, Jeremy T; Leung, Jessica O; Ladner, Richard E

    2009-07-01

    Efficient web access remains elusive for blind computer users. Previous efforts to improve web accessibility have focused on developer awareness, automated improvement, and legislation, but these approaches have left remaining concerns. First, while many tools can help produce accessible content, most are difficult to integrate into existing developer workflows and rarely offer specific suggestions that developers can implement. Second, tools that automatically improve web content for users generally solve specific problems and are difficult to combine and use on a diversity of existing assistive technology. Finally, although blind web users have proven adept at overcoming the shortcomings of the web and existing tools, they have been only marginally involved in improving the accessibility of their own web experience. In a step toward addressing these concerns, we have developed Accessmonkey, a common scripting framework that web users, web developers and web researchers can use to collaboratively improve accessibility. This framework advances the idea that Javascript and dynamic web content can be used to improve inaccessible content instead of being a cause of it. Using Accessmonkey, web users and developers on different platforms and with potentially different goals can collaboratively make the web more accessible. In this article, we first present the design of the Accessmonkey framework and offer several example scripts that demonstrate the utility of our approach. We conclude by discussing possible future extensions that will provide easy access to scripts as users browse the web and enable non-technical blind users to independently create and share improvements.

  18. Enabling environmental metagenomics and extremophile discovery through SCODA DNA purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, T.; Maydan, J.

    2016-12-01

    A major challenge in nucleic acid preparation from environmental samples is in the ability to separate DNA and RNA from contaminants that often co-purify with methods commonly used. This becomes even more challenging when nucleic acids are in low abundance or when enriching for high molecular weight fragments. Many column- and bead-based methods rely upon selective chemical affinity which is insufficient in dealing with similarly charged contaminants, and also often result in over fragmentation nucleic acids and substantial sample loss. Here we present a unique and alternative parameter for the separation nucleic acids based on the nonlinear response of long, charged polymers to electrophoretic fields. The synchronous coefficient of drag alteration (SCODA) technology is capable of purifying nucleic acids from highly contaminated sample matrices, with molecular weight ranges from 300 bp to over 1 Mbp, and from very low biomass origins. Using a combination of rotating dipole and quadrupole electric fields, SCODA technology concentrates ultrapure nucleic acids that enable PCR, NGS, and optical mapping applications on sample types that are otherwise difficult or impossible to analyze.

  19. Precision production: enabling deterministic throughput for precision aspheres with MRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Chris; Entezarian, Navid; Dumas, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Aspherical lenses offer advantages over spherical optics by improving image quality or reducing the number of elements necessary in an optical system. Aspheres are no longer being used exclusively by high-end optical systems but are now replacing spherical optics in many applications. The need for a method of production-manufacturing of precision aspheres has emerged and is part of the reason that the optics industry is shifting away from artisan-based techniques towards more deterministic methods. Not only does Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) empower deterministic figure correction for the most demanding aspheres but it also enables deterministic and efficient throughput for series production of aspheres. The Q-flex MRF platform is designed to support batch production in a simple and user friendly manner. Thorlabs routinely utilizes the advancements of this platform and has provided results from using MRF to finish a batch of aspheres as a case study. We have developed an analysis notebook to evaluate necessary specifications for implementing quality control metrics. MRF brings confidence to optical manufacturing by ensuring high throughput for batch processing of aspheres.

  20. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  1. ARPS Enabled Titan Rover Concept with Inflatable Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Schriener, Timothy M.; Shirley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    The Decadal Survey identified Titan as one of the top priority science destinations in the large moons category, while NASA's proposed Design Reference Mission Set ranked a Titan in-situ explorer second, after a recommended Europa Geophysical Observer mission. This paper discusses a Titan rover concept, enabled by a single advanced Radioisotope Power System that could provide about 110We (BOL). The concept targets the smaller Flagship or potentially the New Frontiers mission class. This MSL class rover would traverse on four 1.5 m diameter inflatable wheels during its 3 years mission duration and would use as much design and flight heritage as possible to reduce mission cost. Direct to Earth communication would remove the need for a relay orbiter. Details on the strawman instrument payload, and rover subsystems are given for this science driven mission concept. In addition, power system trades between Advanced RTG, TPV, and Advanced Stirling and Brayton Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are outlined. While many possible approaches exist for Titan in-situ exploration, the Titan rover concept presented here could provide a scientifically interesting and programmatically affordable solution.

  2. Architectures of soft robotic locomotion enabled by simple mechanical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangliang; Cao, Yunteng; Liu, Yilun; Yang, Zhe; Chen, Xi

    2017-06-28

    In nature, a variety of limbless locomotion patterns flourish, from the small or basic life forms (Escherichia coli, amoebae, etc.) to the large or intelligent creatures (e.g., slugs, starfishes, earthworms, octopuses, jellyfishes, and snakes). Many bioinspired soft robots based on locomotion have been developed in the past few decades. In this work, based on the kinematics and dynamics of two representative locomotion modes (i.e., worm-like crawling and snake-like slithering), we propose a broad set of innovative designs for soft mobile robots through simple mechanical principles. Inspired by and going beyond the existing biological systems, these designs include 1-D (dimensional), 2-D, and 3-D robotic locomotion patterns enabled by the simple actuation of continuous beams. We report herein over 20 locomotion modes achieving various locomotion functions, including crawling, rising, running, creeping, squirming, slithering, swimming, jumping, turning, turning over, helix rolling, wheeling, etc. Some are able to reach high speed, high efficiency, and overcome obstacles. All these locomotion strategies and functions can be integrated into a simple beam model. The proposed simple and robust models are adaptive for severe and complex environments. These elegant designs for diverse robotic locomotion patterns are expected to underpin future deployments of soft robots and to inspire a series of advanced designs.

  3. Optimization of nanofountain probe microfabrication enables large-scale nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Asmahan; Kang, Wonmo; Czapleski, David; Divan, Ralu; Moldovan, Nicolae; Espinosa, Horacio D.

    2013-12-01

    A technological gap in nanomanufacturing has prevented the translation of many nanomaterial discoveries into real-world commercialized products. Bridging this gap requires a paradigm shift in methods for fabricating nanoscale devices in a reliable and repeatable fashion. Here we present the optimized fabrication of a robust and scalable nanoscale delivery platform, the nanofountain probe (NFP), for parallel direct-write of functional materials. Microfabrication of a new generation of NFP was realized with the aim of increasing the uniformity of the device structure. Optimized probe geometry was integrated into the design and fabrication process by modifying the precursor mask dimensions and by using an isotropic selective dry etching of the outer shell that defines the protrusion area. Probes with well-conserved sharp tips and controlled protrusion lengths were obtained. Sealing effectiveness of the channels was optimized. A conformal tetraethyl orthosilicate based oxide layer increased the sealing efficacy while minimizing the required thickness. A compensation scheme based on the residual stresses in each layer was implemented to minimize bending of the cantilever after releasing the device. The device was tested by patterning ferritin catalyst arrays on silicon dioxide with sub-100 nm resolution. The optimized probes increased the control over the parallel patterning resolution which enables manufacturing of ordered arrays of nanomaterials.

  4. Recruiting Diverse Students and Enabling Them to Succeed in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, Michael J.; Pre-Major in Astronomy Program

    2015-01-01

    Improving the diversity within the rapidly growing fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has become a forefront issue facing collegiate departments today. It is well known that there are large gaps in the participation and performance of minorities, women, and low-income students within these fields and that special attention must be paid in order to close this gap. Since 2005, the Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) at the University of Washington (UW) Department of Astronomy has made a concentrated effort to recruit and retain underrepresented undergraduates in STEM, at which it has been very successful. Of course, recruiting these students can be a challenge, as is creating a curriculum and atmosphere that enables undergraduates to successfully participate in real astronomy research during their first or second year at a four-year college. Pre-MAP recruits a significant population of minorities and women into the program. The structure of the seminar is intended to not only provide necessary skills and experience, but also create a collaborative and supportive atmosphere among each cohort. I will discuss the recruitment practices of Pre-MAP as well as the structure of the seminar and how it addresses the goal of early participation and success in STEM research and course work.The intent of this talk is to share our methods so that more programs like Pre-MAP can be adopted successfully in other institutions.

  5. A review of the Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacturing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, W.H.; Neal, R.E.; Cobb, C.K.

    1996-10-01

    Addressing a technical plan developed in consideration with major US manufacturers, software and hardware providers, and government representatives, the Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacturing (TEAM) program is leveraging the expertise and resources of industry, universities, and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy leap-ahead manufacturing technologies. One of the TEAM program`s goals is to transition products from design to production faster, more efficiently, and at less cost. TEAM`s technology development strategy also provides all participants with early experience in establishing and working within an electronic enterprise that includes access to high-speed networks and high-performance computing and storage systems. The TEAM program uses the cross-cutting tools it collects, develops, and integrates to demonstrate and deploy agile manufacturing capabilities for three high-priority processes identified by industry: material removal, sheet metal forming, electro-mechanical assembly. This paper reviews the current status of the TEAM program with emphasis upon TEAM`s information infrastructure.

  6. The key to enabling biosurveillance is cooperative technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Peter; Jones, Franca; Smith, Michael; Huff, William; Jaffe, Richard; Roos, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The world population will continue to face biological threats, whether they are naturally occurring or intentional events. The speed with which diseases can emerge and spread presents serious challenges, because the impact on public health, the economy, and development can be huge. The U.S. government recognizes that global public health can also have an impact on national security. This global perspective manifests itself in U.S. policy documents that clearly articulate the importance of biosurveillance in providing early warning, detection, and situational awareness of infectious disease threats in order to mount a rapid response and save lives. In this commentary, we suggest that early recognition of infectious disease threats, whether naturally occurring or man-made, requires a globally distributed array of interoperable hardware and software fielded in sufficient numbers to create a network of linked collection nodes. We argue that achievement of this end state will require a degree of cooperation that does not exist at this time-either across the U.S. federal government or among our global partners. Successful fielding of a family of interoperable technologies will require interagency research, development, and purchase ("acquisition") of biosurveillance systems through cooperative ventures that likely will involve our strategic allies and public-private partnerships. To this end, we propose leveraging an existing federal interagency group to integrate the acquisition of technologies to enable global biosurveillance. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  7. Expanding Access with Satellite-Enabled Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Education and training became increasingly critical for citizens of every nation during the last century, and that paradigm will be no less true, throughout the 21st Century. As the world progresses fully into an information society, access to information and to a knowledge-based work force is a precondition for any country to remain competitive. Education, and increasingly distant education (DE, plays a vital role in turning human resources into knowledge workers. Information and communications technologies (ICT have provided new ways to educate and to disseminate information that is crucial for creating these competitive, knowledge-based work forces. Modern DE, enabled by ICT-based networks and the Internet tools, offers great advantages that are leveling the global playing field, in terms of providing access and opportunities for specialized training and education. Using satellite technology in DE may be imperative to developing countries, where the majority of their populations are scattered in rural and remote areas. Where the traditional brick and mortar classrooms cannot easily reach, satellite-powered DE systems can. Through literature review and rational analysis, this paper examines how satellite-assisted DE systems expand education access.

  8. Enabling search services on outsourced private spatial data

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung

    2009-10-30

    Cloud computing services enable organizations and individuals to outsource the management of their data to a service provider in order to save on hardware investments and reduce maintenance costs. Only authorized users are allowed to access the data. Nobody else, including the service provider, should be able to view the data. For instance, a real-estate company that owns a large database of properties wants to allow its paying customers to query for houses according to location. On the other hand, the untrusted service provider should not be able to learn the property locations and, e. g., selling the information to a competitor. To tackle the problem, we propose to transform the location datasets before uploading them to the service provider. The paper develops a spatial transformation that re-distributes the locations in space, and it also proposes a cryptographic-based transformation. The data owner selects the transformation key and shares it with authorized users. Without the key, it is infeasible to reconstruct the original data points from the transformed points. The proposed transformations present distinct trade-offs between query efficiency and data confidentiality. In addition, we describe attack models for studying the security properties of the transformations. Empirical studies demonstrate that the proposed methods are efficient and applicable in practice. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Home Automation System Based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Suárez-Albela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel home automation system named HASITE (Home Automation System based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers, which has been specifically designed to identify and configure transducers easily and quickly. These features are especially useful in situations where many transducers are deployed, since their setup becomes a cumbersome task that consumes a significant amount of time and human resources. HASITE simplifies the deployment of a home automation system by using wireless networks and both self-configuration and self-registration protocols. Thanks to the application of these three elements, HASITE is able to add new transducers by just powering them up. According to the tests performed in different realistic scenarios, a transducer is ready to be used in less than 13 s. Moreover, all HASITE functionalities can be accessed through an API, which also allows for the integration of third-party systems. As an example, an Android application based on the API is presented. Remote users can use it to interact with transducers by just using a regular smartphone or a tablet.

  10. Home Automation System Based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Dapena, Adriana; González-López, Miguel

    2016-09-28

    This paper presents a novel home automation system named HASITE (Home Automation System based on Intelligent Transducer Enablers), which has been specifically designed to identify and configure transducers easily and quickly. These features are especially useful in situations where many transducers are deployed, since their setup becomes a cumbersome task that consumes a significant amount of time and human resources. HASITE simplifies the deployment of a home automation system by using wireless networks and both self-configuration and self-registration protocols. Thanks to the application of these three elements, HASITE is able to add new transducers by just powering them up. According to the tests performed in different realistic scenarios, a transducer is ready to be used in less than 13 s. Moreover, all HASITE functionalities can be accessed through an API, which also allows for the integration of third-party systems. As an example, an Android application based on the API is presented. Remote users can use it to interact with transducers by just using a regular smartphone or a tablet.

  11. Tunable Cu Enrichment Enables Designer Syngas Electrosynthesis from CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael B; Dinh, Cao Thang; Li, Yifan; Kim, Dohyung; De Luna, Phil; Sargent, Edward H; Yang, Peidong

    2017-07-12

    Using renewable energy to recycle CO 2 provides an opportunity to both reduce net CO 2 emissions and synthesize fuels and chemical feedstocks. It is of central importance to design electrocatalysts that both are efficient and can access a tunable spectrum of products. Syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H 2 ), is an important chemical precursor that can be converted downstream into small molecules or larger hydrocarbons by fermentation or thermochemistry. Many processes that utilize syngas require different syngas compositions: we therefore pursued the rational design of a family of electrocatalysts that can be programmed to synthesize different designer syngas ratios. We utilize in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and first-principles density functional theory calculations to develop a systematic picture of CO* binding on Cu-enriched Au surface model systems. Insights from these model systems are then translated to nanostructured electrocatalysts, whereby controlled Cu enrichment enables tunable syngas production while maintaining current densities greater than 20 mA/cm 2 .

  12. Synthetic cascades are enabled by combining biocatalysts with artificial metalloenzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, V.; Wilson, Y. M.; Dürrenberger, M.; Ghislieri, D.; Churakova, E.; Quinto, T.; Knörr, L.; Häussinger, D.; Hollmann, F.; Turner, N. J.; Ward, T. R.

    2013-02-01

    Enzymatic catalysis and homogeneous catalysis offer complementary means to address synthetic challenges, both in chemistry and in biology. Despite its attractiveness, the implementation of concurrent cascade reactions that combine an organometallic catalyst with an enzyme has proven challenging because of the mutual inactivation of both catalysts. To address this, we show that incorporation of a d6-piano stool complex within a host protein affords an artificial transfer hydrogenase (ATHase) that is fully compatible with and complementary to natural enzymes, thus enabling efficient concurrent tandem catalysis. To illustrate the generality of the approach, the ATHase was combined with various NADH-, FAD- and haem-dependent enzymes, resulting in orthogonal redox cascades. Up to three enzymes were integrated in the cascade and combined with the ATHase with a view to achieving (i) a double stereoselective amine deracemization, (ii) a horseradish peroxidase-coupled readout of the transfer hydrogenase activity towards its genetic optimization, (iii) the formation of L-pipecolic acid from L-lysine and (iv) regeneration of NADH to promote a monooxygenase-catalysed oxyfunctionalization reaction.

  13. Enabling joined-up decision making with geotemporal information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Ahmed, S. E.; Purves, D. W.; Emmott, S.; Joppa, L. N.; Caldararu, S.; Visconti, P.; Newbold, T.; Formica, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    While the use of geospatial data to assist in decision making is becoming increasingly common, the use of geotemporal information: information that can be indexed by geographical space AND time, is much rarer. I will describe our scientific research and software development efforts intended to advance the availability and use of geotemporal information in general. I will show two recent examples of "stacking" geotemporal information to support land use decision making in the Brazilian Amazon and Kenya, involving data-constrained predictive models and empirically derived datasets of road development, deforestation, carbon, agricultural yields, water purification and poverty alleviation services and will show how we use trade-off analyses and constraint reasoning algorithms to explore the costs and benefits of different decisions. For the Brazilian Amazon we explore tradeoffs involved in different deforestation scenarios, while for Kenya we explore the impacts of conserving forest to support international carbon conservation initiatives (REDD+). I will also illustrate the cloud-based software tools we have developed to enable anyone to access geotemporal information, gridded (e.g. climate) or non-gridded (e.g. protected areas), for the past, present or future and incorporate such information into their analyses (e.g. www.fetchclimate.org), including how we train new predictive models to such data using Bayesian techniques: on this latter point I will show how we combine satellite and ground measured data with predictive models to forecast how crops might respond to climate change.

  14. Functionalized Graphene Enables Highly Efficient Solar Thermal Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junlong; Pang, Yunsong; Huang, Weixin; Shaw, Scott K; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Pillers, Michelle Anne; Mu, Xin; Luo, Shirui; Zhang, Teng; Huang, Yajiang; Li, Guangxian; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Lieberman, Marya; Luo, Tengfei

    2017-06-27

    The ability to efficiently utilize solar thermal energy to enable liquid-to-vapor phase transition has great technological implications for a wide variety of applications, such as water treatment and chemical fractionation. Here, we demonstrate that functionalizing graphene using hydrophilic groups can greatly enhance the solar thermal steam generation efficiency. Our results show that specially functionalized graphene can improve the overall solar-to-vapor efficiency from 38% to 48% at one sun conditions compared to chemically reduced graphene oxide. Our experiments show that such an improvement is a surface effect mainly attributed to the more hydrophilic feature of functionalized graphene, which influences the water meniscus profile at the vapor-liquid interface due to capillary effect. This will lead to thinner water films close to the three-phase contact line, where the water surface temperature is higher since the resistance of thinner water film is smaller, leading to more efficient evaporation. This strategy of functionalizing graphene to make it more hydrophilic can be potentially integrated with the existing macroscopic heat isolation strategies to further improve the overall solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency.

  15. Catalysis as an Enabling Science for Sustainable Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyi; Fevre, Mareva; Jones, Gavin O; Waymouth, Robert M

    2018-01-24

    The replacement of current petroleum-based plastics with sustainable alternatives is a crucial but formidable challenge for the modern society. Catalysis presents an enabling tool to facilitate the development of sustainable polymers. This review provides a system-level analysis of sustainable polymers and outlines key criteria with respect to the feedstocks the polymers are derived from, the manner in which the polymers are generated, and the end-of-use options. Specifically, we define sustainable polymers as a class of materials that are derived from renewable feedstocks and exhibit closed-loop life cycles. Among potential candidates, aliphatic polyesters and polycarbonates are promising materials due to their renewable resources and excellent biodegradability. The development of renewable monomers, the versatile synthetic routes to convert these monomers to polyesters and polycarbonate, and the different end-of-use options for these polymers are critically reviewed, with a focus on recent advances in catalytic transformations that lower the technological barriers for developing more sustainable replacements for petroleum-based plastics.

  16. Enabling Radiative Transfer on AMR grids in CRASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, N.; Graziani, L.; Ciardi, B.; Miniati, F.; Bungartz, H.-J.

    2017-05-01

    We introduce crash-amr, a new version of the cosmological radiative transfer (RT) code crash, enabled to use refined grids. This new feature allows us to attain higher resolution in our RT simulations and thus to describe more accurately ionization and temperature patterns in high-density regions. We have tested crash-amr by simulating the evolution of an ionized region produced by a single source embedded in gas at constant density, as well as by a more realistic configuration of multiple sources in an inhomogeneous density field. While we find an excellent agreement with the previous version of crash when the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) feature is disabled, showing that no numerical artefact has been introduced in crash-amr, when additional refinement levels are used the code can simulate more accurately the physics of ionized gas in high-density regions. This result has been attained at no computational loss, as RT simulations on AMR grids with maximum resolution equivalent to that of a uniform Cartesian grid can be run with a gain of up to 60 per cent in computational time.

  17. Electrical bioimpedance enabling prompt intervention in traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Fernando; Atefi, S. Reza

    2017-05-01

    Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) is a well spread technology used in clinical practice across the world. Advancements in Textile material technology with conductive textile fabrics and textile-electronics integration have allowed exploring potential applications for Wearable Measurement Sensors and Systems exploiting. The sensing principle of electrical bioimpedance is based on the intrinsic passive dielectric properties of biological tissue. Using a pair of electrodes, tissue is electrically stimulated and the electrical response can be sensed with another pair of surface electrodes. EBI spectroscopy application for cerebral monitoring of neurological conditions such as stroke and perinatal asphyxia in newborns have been justified using animal studies and computational simulations. Such studies have shown proof of principle that neurological pathologies indeed modify the dielectric composition of the brain that is detectable via EBI. Similar to stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) also affects the dielectric properties of brain tissue that can be detected via EBI measurements. Considering the portable and noninvasive characteristics of EBI it is potentially useful for prehospital triage of TBI patients where. In the battlefield blast induced Traumatic Brain Injuries are very common. Brain damage must be assessed promptly to have a chance to prevent severe damage or eventually death. The relatively low-complexity of the sensing hardware required for EBI sensing and the already proven compatibility with textile electrodes suggest the EBI technology is indeed a candidate for developing a handheld device equipped with a sensorized textile cap to produce an examination in minutes for enabling medically-guided prompt intervention.

  18. Ecological assessment of nano-enabled supercapacitors for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, M; Dura, H; Shimon, B; Baumann, M; Zimmermann, B; Ziemann, S; Decker, M; Lei, C; Markoulidis, F; Lekakou, T

    2012-01-01

    New materials on nano scale have the potential to overcome existing technical barriers and are one of the most promising key technologies to enable the decoupling of economic growth and resource consumption. Developing these innovative materials for industrial applications means facing a complex quality profile, which includes among others technical, economic, and ecological aspects. So far the two latter aspects are not sufficiently included in technology development, especially from a life cycle point of view. Supercapacitors are considered a promising option for electric energy storage in hybrid and full electric cars. In comparison with presently used lithium based electro chemical storage systems supercapacitors possess a high specific power, but a relatively low specific energy. Therefore, the goal of ongoing research is to develop a new generation of supercapacitors with high specific power and high specific energy. To reach this goal particularly nano materials are developed and tested on cell level. In the presented study the ecological implications (regarding known environmental effects) of carbon based nano materials are analysed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Major attention is paid to efficiency gains of nano particle production due to scaling up of such processes from laboratory to industrial production scales. Furthermore, a developed approach will be displayed, how to assess the environmental impact of nano materials on an automotive system level over the whole life cycle.

  19. A Sensor Web-Enabled Infrastructure for Precision Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Geipel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of sensor technologies is standard practice in the domain of precision farming. The variety of vendor-specific sensor systems, control units and processing software has led to increasing efforts in establishing interoperable sensor networks and standardized sensor data infrastructures. This study utilizes open source software and adapts the standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium to introduce a method for the realization of a sensor data infrastructure for precision farming applications. The infrastructure covers the control of sensor systems, the access to sensor data, the transmission of sensor data to web services and the standardized storage of sensor data in a sensor web-enabled server. It permits end users and computer systems to access the sensor data in a well-defined way and to build applications on top of the sensor web services. The infrastructure is scalable to large scenarios, where a multitude of sensor systems and sensor web services are involved. A real-world field trial was set-up to prove the applicability of the infrastructure.

  20. Anatomy drawing screencasts: enabling flexible learning for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material at a time and place that suits their specific learning style. This study has examined the effect of five anatomy drawing screencasts that replicate the popular anatomy drawing element of a lecture. These resources were uploaded to the University's Virtual Learning Environment for student access. Usage data and an end of module questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the screencasts on student education. The data revealed a high level of usage that varied in both the time of day and day of the week, with the number of downloads dramatically increasing towards the end of the module when the assessment was approaching. The student group found the additional resources extremely useful in consolidating information and revision, with many commenting on their preference to the screencasts compared to the more traditional approaches to learning. Scrutinizing the screencasts in relation to cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning indicates a high correlation with an evidence-based approach to designing learning resources. Overall the screencasts have been a well-received enhancement that supports the student learning and has been shown to promote flexible learning. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Semantic-enabled Spatiotemporal Web Portal for Polar Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.

    2014-12-01

    It is essential for Intergovernmental and scientists to study, monitor and analyze the geographic data in polar regions. Polarregions are likely to respond rapidly and more severely to the climate changesthan any other area on the Earth.They also have significant importance for Global warming research. The ocean water around the Antarctic and Arctic is a crucial part of the ocean's thermohaline circulation. The Polar Cyberinfrastructure Program was built to acquire, share, access, analyze the polar data for Arctic and Antarctic communities. The polar data are becoming big and bring challenges for Polar Cyberinfrastructure Program including: 1) it is difficultfor polar data users to discover most relevant data based on the understanding the behavior; 2) the quality of polar data service is essential to use the polar data, however, it varies for users in different locations and different time. The semantic enabled discovery and volunteer computing are used in the Polar Cyberinfrastructurefor tackling these challenges: 1) semantic search and knowledge reasoning to improve the discovery recall and precision of polar data; 2) volunteer computing is used to gather volunteers computing resources around the world to improve the quality evaluationaccuracy of polar data service. Keywords: Polar Science, Cyberinfrastructure, Semantic, Volunteer Computing

  2. Translational medicine meets new technologies for enabling personalized care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blobel, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    For improving quality, safety and efficiency of care processes, health care systems perform two paradigm changes: the organizational transformation of the health care system from organization-centric to person-centric structures and the methodological transformation from the traditional phenomenological approach to individualized health care based on translational medicine. Both paradigm changes are interrelated and require advanced interoperability between different organizations and multiple disciplines. The paper presents a system-theoretical, architecture-centric approach to analyze, design and develop the systems of health care and medicine for enabling personalized health services. According to the translational medicine paradigm, the considered model must be able to describe the subject of care at all levels of granularity from elements to population including the technologies applied at those levels to perform diagnosis and therapy. The system components reflected through different domains, their concepts and interrelations must be consistently described based on the domain ontologies representing those system perspectives. The medical and technological instances of the personalized health system are exemplified, thereby especially focusing on nano and micro levels and discussing biological and technical sensors and actuators, but also addressing profiling, bridging between genotyping and phenotyping and thereby combining molecular and epidemiological studies.

  3. Ceramic Membrane Enabling Technology for Improved IGCC Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Sirman; Bart vanHassel

    2005-06-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the program from October 1, 1999 through December 31,2004. While many of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved, after a thorough economic and OTM (Oxygen Transport Membrane) reliability analysis were completed, a decision was made to terminate the project prior to construction of a second pilot reactor. In the program, oxygen with purity greater than 99% was produced in both single tube tests and multi-tube pilot plant tests for over 1000 hours. This demonstrated the technical viability of using ceramic OTM devices for producing oxygen from a high pressure air stream. The oxygen fluxes that were achieved in single tube tests exceeded the original target flux for commercial operation. However, extended testing showed that the mean time to failure of the ceramics was insufficient to enable a commercially viable system. In addition, manufacturing and material strength constraints led to size limitations of the OTM tubes that could be tested. This has a severe impact on the cost of both the ceramic devices, but also the cost of assembling the OTM tubes in a large reactor. As such and combined with significant progress in cost reduction of large cryogenic oxygen separation devices, an economic gain that justifies continued development could not be derived.

  4. GPU-enabled projectile guidance for impact area constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Guided projectile engagement scenarios often involve impact area constraints, in which it may be less desirable to incur miss distance on one side of a target or within a specified boundary near the target area. Current projectile guidance schemes such as impact point predictors cannot handle these constraints within the guidance loop, and may produce dispersion patterns that are insensitive to these constraints. In this paper, a new projectile guidance law is proposed that leverages real-time Monte Carlo impact point prediction to continually evaluate the probability of violating impact area constraints. The desired aim point is then adjusted accordingly. Real-time Monte Carlo simulation is enabled within the feedback loop through use of graphics processing units (GPU's), which provide parallel pipelines through which a dispersion pattern can routinely be predicted. The result is a guidance law that can achieve minimum miss distance while avoiding impact area constraints. The new guidance law is described and formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem which is solved in real-time through massively-parallel Monte Carlo simulation. An example simulation is shown in which impact area constraints are enforced and the methodology of stochastic guidance is demonstrated. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are shown which demonstrate the ability of the stochastic guidance scheme to avoid an arbitrary set of impact area constraints, generating an impact probability density function that optimally trades miss distance within the restricted impact area. The proposed guidance scheme has applications beyond smart weapons to include missiles, UAV's, and other autonomous systems.

  5. Enabling healthy choices: is ICT the highway to health improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Bellaby, Paul; Smith, Simon; Baker, Rose

    2008-07-01

    The White Paper Choosing health acknowledges that there is no lack of information in the system about healthy lifestyles, but the manner of communication of risk and the level of support for lifestyle change need improvement. Action also has to be taken to address inequalities in health and to focus on securing better access to healthier choices for people in disadvantaged groups or areas. Accordingly, this randomized controlled trial examined whether access to a purpose-built health portal for heart disease could enable patients to manage better their heart conditions. We recruited 108 men and women aged 50-74 from coronary heart disease registries from a deprived area of Greater Manchester. Every participant received a new computer and one-year broadband subscription; however, only the experimental group received access to the Hearts of Salford health portal. Our results indicate that the experimental group changed their diet significantly. Specifically, they reported eating ;bad foods' (such as chips, sweets, crisps, fried foods, ready meals and cakes/biscuits) significantly less often compared to the controls.

  6. Glass-based confined structures enabling light control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappini, Andrea; Normani, Simone; Chiasera, Alessandro [IFN–CNR CSMFO Lab., and FBK Photonics Unit via alla Cascata 56/C Povo, 38123 Trento (Italy); Lukowiak, Anna [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAS, Okolna St. 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Vasilchenko, Iustyna [IFN–CNR CSMFO Lab., and FBK Photonics Unit via alla Cascata 56/C Povo, 38123 Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, via Sommarive 14 Povo, 38123Trento (Italy); Ristic, Davor [Institut Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Boulard, Brigitte [IMMM, CNRS Equipe Fluorures, Université du Maine, Av. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Dorosz, Dominik [Department of Power Engineering, Photonics and Lighting Technology, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska Street 45D, 15-351 Bialystok (Poland); Scotognella, Francesco [Center for Nano Science and Technology@PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133, Milan (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Vaccari, Alessandro [FBK -CMM, ARES Unit, 38123 Trento (Italy); Taccheo, Stefano [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, SA2 8PP, Swansea (United Kingdom); Pelli, Stefano; Righini, Giancarlo C. [IFAC - CNR, MiPLab., 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro di Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, Piazza del Viminale 1, 00184 Roma (Italy); Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi [IFAC - CNR, MiPLab., 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Ramponi, Roberta [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2015-04-24

    When a luminescent ion is confined in a system characterized by one or more specific properties such as spatial size, geometrical dimension and shape, refractive index, local crystal field, cut-off vibrational energy and so on, it's possible to control its emission. The control of branching ratios as a function of the composition, the luminescence enhancement induced by a photonic crystal, or the laser action in a microresonator, are well known examples of light control. Photonic glass-based structures are extremely viable systems to exploit the above mentioned properties and in our research team we have successfully fabricated luminescent photonic structures by different techniques, including sol-gel, rf sputtering, drawing, melting, and physical vapour deposition. Here we will discuss some of them with the aim to make the reader aware of the chemical-physical properties related to each specific system. We will demonstrate that glass ceramic waveguides in some cases present superior spectroscopic properties in respect to the parent glass, that compositional properties can play a positive role in reducing luminescence quenching and in developing novel planar waveguides and fibers, that colloids allow to obtain high internal quantum efficiency and that photonic crystals, microcavities and microresonators can enable the handling of the rare earth luminescence. Finally, the pros and cons of the systems and of the different techniques employed for their fabrication will be discussed and some perspectives concerning the glass photonics will be proposed looking at both possible applications and investigation of physical properties.

  7. ICT-ENABLED BOTTOM-UP ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Pak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the potentials of bottom-up design practices in relation to the latest developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT by making an in-depth review of inaugural cases. The first part of the study involves a literature study and the elaboration of basic strategies from the case study. The second part reframes the existing ICT tools and strategies and elaborates on their potentials to support the modes of participation performed in these cases. As a result, by distilling the created knowledge, the study reveals the potentials of novel modes of ICT-enabled design participation which exploit a set of collective action tools to support sustainable ways of self-organization and bottom-up design. The final part explains the relevance of these with solid examples and presents a hypothetical case for future implementation. The paper concludes with a brief reflection on the implications of the findings for the future of architectural design education.

  8. Hybrid Resonators and Highly Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials Enabled by Vanadium Dioxide (VO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengxiang; Kang, Lei; Werner, Douglas H

    2017-06-28

    Hybrid metamaterials that exhibit reconfigurable responses under external stimulus, such as electric fields and light radiation, have only recently been demonstrated by combining active media with patterned metallic structures. Nevertheless, hybrid terahertz (THz) metamaterials whose spectral performance can be dynamically tuned over a large scale remain rare. Compared with most active media (for instance, silicon) that provide limited activity, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ), which exhibits an insulator-to-metal transition, has been recently explored to facilitate dynamically tunable metamaterials. More importantly, the phase transition yields a three orders of magnitude increase in THz electrical conductivity, which suggests the potential for creating VO 2 based hybrid resonators that operate at THz frequencies. Here, we show that an integration of VO 2 structures and conventional metallic resonating components can enable a class of highly tunable THz metamaterials. Considering the widely studied phase-transition dynamics in VO 2 , the proposed hybrid metamaterials are capable of offering ultrafast modulation of THz radiation.

  9. Enabling Reuse of Documentation in New Medical Device Development: A Systematic Architecting Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Troels Victor; Parslov, Jakob Filippson; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    and V&V test view. This will allow for V&V-related documentation to follow the product platform, and thereby enable carry-over of test documentation packages from one product family to another. Hence, this approach can provide significant competitive advantages to companies as it increases R......Medical device companies are continuously challenged with the ability to prove compliance with increasingly complex regulatory frameworks. Operating under heavy regulatory requirements may therefore cause significant delays to the lead time of new medical devices and thus contribute significantly...... to time-to-market for even simple medical device development projects. In this paper we illustrate how medical device companies can reduce their research and development (R&D) efforts needed to prove compliance when developing new product families by means of platforming and modularization. The results...

  10. Wear resistant PTFE thin film enabled by a polydopamine adhesive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckford, Samuel; Zou, Min

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a polydopamine (PDA) adhesive layer on the friction and wear resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films coated on stainless steel was investigated. The friction and wear tests were carried out using a ball on flat configuration under a normal load of 50 g, sliding speed of 2.5 mm/s, and stroke length of 15 mm. It is found that the PDA/PTFE film is able to withstand approximately 500 times more rubbing cycles than the PTFE film alone. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that a tenacious layer of PTFE remains adhered to the PDA layer, which enables the durability of the PDA/PTFE film. Because of the relatively low thickness of the film, PDA/PTFE shows great potential for use in applications where durable, thin films are desirable

  11. Fiber optics frequency comb enabled linear optical sampling with operation wavelength range extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruolin; Wu, Zhichao; Fu, Songnian; Zhu, Shengnan; Yu, Zhe; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming

    2018-02-01

    Although the linear optical sampling (LOS) technique is powerful enough to characterize various advanced modulation formats with high symbol rates, the central wavelength of a pulsed local oscillator (LO) needs to be carefully set according to that of the signal under test, due to the coherent mixing operation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate wideband LOS enabled by a fiber optics frequency comb (FOFC). Meanwhile, when the broadband FOFC acts as the pulsed LO, we propose a scheme to mitigate the enhanced sampling error arising in the non-ideal response of a balanced photodetector. Finally, precise characterizations of arbitrary 128 Gbps PDM-QPSK wavelength channels from 1550 to 1570 nm are successfully achieved, when a 101.3 MHz frequency spaced comb with a 3 dB spectral power ripple of 20 nm is used.

  12. Bacterial viruses enable their host to acquire antibiotic resistance genes from neighbouring cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Krause; Leisner, Jørgen; Cohn, Marianne Thorup

    2016-01-01

    Prophages are quiescent viruses located in the chromosomes of bacteria. In the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, prophages are omnipresent and are believed to be responsible for the spread of some antibiotic resistance genes. Here we demonstrate that release of phages from a subpopulation of S...... of such particles to the prophage-containing population can drive the transfer of genes encoding potentially useful traits such as antibiotic resistance. This process, which can be viewed as ‘auto-transduction’, allows S. aureus to efficiently acquire antibiotic resistance both in vitro and in an in vivo virulence...... model (wax moth larvae) and enables it to proliferate under strong antibiotic selection pressure. Our results may help to explain the rapid exchange of antibiotic resistance genes observed in S. aureus....

  13. Dual Ligand-Enabled Nondirected C-H Olefination of Arenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wedi, Philipp; Meyer, Tim; Tavakoli, Ghazal; van Gemmeren, Manuel

    2018-02-23

    The application of the Pd-catalyzed oxidative C-H olefination of arenes, also known as the Fujiwara-Moritani reaction, has traditionally been limited by the requirement for directing groups on the substrate or the need to use the arene in large excess, typically as a (co)solvent. Herein the development of a catalytic system is described that, through the combined action of two complementary ligands, makes it possible to use directing-group-free arenes as limiting reagents for the first time. The reactions proceed under a combination of both steric and electronic control and enable the application of this powerful reaction to valuable arenes, which cannot be utilized in excess. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  15. Neuromorphic computing enabled by physics of electron spins: Prospects and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2018-03-01

    “Spintronics” refers to the understanding of the physics of electron spin-related phenomena. While most of the significant advancements in this field has been driven primarily by memory, recent research has demonstrated that various facets of the underlying physics of spin transport and manipulation can directly mimic the functionalities of the computational primitives in neuromorphic computation, i.e., the neurons and synapses. Given the potential of these spintronic devices to implement bio-mimetic computations at very low terminal voltages, several spin-device structures have been proposed as the core building blocks of neuromorphic circuits and systems to implement brain-inspired computing. Such an approach is expected to play a key role in circumventing the problems of ever-increasing power dissipation and hardware requirements for implementing neuro-inspired algorithms in conventional digital CMOS technology. Perspectives on spin-enabled neuromorphic computing, its status, and challenges and future prospects are outlined in this review article.

  16. The shared circuits model (SCM): how control, mirroring, and simulation can enable imitation, deliberation, and mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Susan

    2008-02-01

    Imitation, deliberation, and mindreading are characteristically human sociocognitive skills. Research on imitation and its role in social cognition is flourishing across various disciplines. Imitation is surveyed in this target article under headings of behavior, subpersonal mechanisms, and functions of imitation. A model is then advanced within which many of the developments surveyed can be located and explained. The shared circuits model (SCM) explains how imitation, deliberation, and mindreading can be enabled by subpersonal mechanisms of control, mirroring, and simulation. It is cast at a middle, functional level of description, that is, between the level of neural implementation and the level of conscious perceptions and intentional actions. The SCM connects shared informational dynamics for perception and action with shared informational dynamics for self and other, while also showing how the action/perception, self/other, and actual/possible distinctions can be overlaid on these shared informational dynamics. It avoids the common conception of perception and action as separate and peripheral to central cognition. Rather, it contributes to the situated cognition movement by showing how mechanisms for perceiving action can be built on those for active perception.;>;>The SCM is developed heuristically, in five layers that can be combined in various ways to frame specific ontogenetic or phylogenetic hypotheses. The starting point is dynamic online motor control, whereby an organism is closely attuned to its embedding environment through sensorimotor feedback. Onto this are layered functions of prediction and simulation of feedback, mirroring, simulation of mirroring, monitored inhibition of motor output, and monitored simulation of input. Finally, monitored simulation of input specifying possible actions plus inhibited mirroring of such possible actions can generate information about the possible as opposed to actual instrumental actions of others, and the

  17. Cellular Plasticity Enables Adaptation to Unforeseen Cell-Cycle Rewiring Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Yair; Stolovicki, Elad; Stern, Shay; Braun, Erez

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental dynamics of the cell cycle, underlying cell growth and reproduction, were previously found to be robust under a wide range of environmental and internal perturbations. This property was commonly attributed to its network structure, which enables the coordinated interactions among hundreds of proteins. Despite significant advances in deciphering the components and autonomous interactions of this network, understanding the interfaces of the cell cycle with other major cellular processes is still lacking. To gain insight into these interfaces, we used the process of genome-rewiring in yeast by placing an essential metabolic gene HIS3 from the histidine biosynthesis pathway, under the exclusive regulation of different cell-cycle promoters. In a medium lacking histidine and under partial inhibition of the HIS3p, the rewired cells encountered an unforeseen multitasking challenge; the cell-cycle regulatory genes were required to regulate the essential histidine-pathway gene in concert with the other metabolic demands, while simultaneously driving the cell cycle through its proper temporal phases. We show here that chemostat cell populations with rewired cell-cycle promoters adapted within a short time to accommodate the inhibition of HIS3p and stabilized a new phenotypic state. Furthermore, a significant fraction of the population was able to adapt and grow into mature colonies on plates under such inhibiting conditions. The adapted state was shown to be stably inherited across generations. These adaptation dynamics were accompanied by a non-specific and irreproducible genome-wide transcriptional response. Adaptation of the cell-cycle attests to its multitasking capabilities and flexible interface with cellular metabolic processes and requirements. Similar adaptation features were found in our previous work when rewiring HIS3 to the GAL system and switching cells from galactose to glucose. Thus, at the basis of cellular plasticity is the emergence of a yet

  18. High-efficiency near-infrared enabled planar perovskite solar cells by embedding upconversion nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Li; Wu, Jiao-Jiao; Zhao, Er-Fei; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Huang, Mei-Lan; Dai, Li-Ming; Tao, Xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2017-11-30

    Integration of the upconversion effect in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is a facile approach towards extending the spectral absorption from the visible to the near infrared (NIR) range and reducing the non-absorption loss of solar photons. However, the big challenge for practical application of UCNCs in planar PSCs is the poor compatibility between UCNCs and the perovskite precursor. Herein, we have subtly overcome the tough compatibility issue using a ligand-exchange strategy. For the first time, β-NaYF 4 :Yb,Er UCNCs have been embedded in situ into a CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 layer to fabricate NIR-enabled planar PSCs. The CH 3 NH 3 I-capped UCNCs generated from the ligand-exchange were mixed with the perovskite precursor and served as nucleation sites for the UCNC-mediated heteroepitaxial growth of perovskite; moreover, the in situ embedding of UCNCs into the perovskite layer was realized during a spin-coating process. The resulting UCNC-embedded perovskite layer attained a uniform pinhole-free morphology with enlarged crystal grains and enabled NIR absorption. It also contributed to the energy transfer from the UCNCs to the perovskite and electron transport to the collecting electrode surface. The device fabricated using the UCNC-embedded perovskite film achieved an average power-conversion efficiency of 18.60% (19.70% for the best) under AM 1.5G and 0.37% under 980 nm laser, corresponding to 54% and 740-fold increase as compared to that of its counterpart without UCNCs.

  19. Business Penetration through Print Media: A Review of Select Enablers

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek Maheshwari; Nitin Seth

    2014-01-01

    It’s an era of high competition, dynamism and complexities which have forced organizations to change dramatically due to rising customer expectations. Marketers are under constant pressure to deliver finest to their customers. With the advent of technology, marketers have identified latest advertising media options to reach out to target audience. But the conventional ways of print advertisements still holds a deeper penetration and coverage. Various researchers and pract...

  20. Phase Change of Gallium Enables Highly Reversible and Switchable Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhou; Lum, Guo Zhan; Song, Sukho; Rich, Steven; Sitti, Metin

    2016-07-01

    Gallium exhibits highly reversible and switchable adhesion when it undergoes a solid-liquid phase transition. The robustness of gallium is notable as it exhibits strong performance on a wide range of smooth and rough surfaces, under both dry and wet conditions. Gallium may therefore find numerous applications in transfer printing, robotics, electronic packaging, and biomedicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.